Sample records for videonasendoscopy lateral videofluoroscopy

  1. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

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    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)


    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  2. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Wetzel, S.G.; Radue, E.W. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kappos, L.; Hoshi, M.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Witte, U. [Section of Logopedia, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms indicating an impaired deglutition correlate with videofluoroscopic findings in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Videofluoroscopic examinations of 18 MS patients were analyzed by a radiologist and a logopedist and compared with the symptoms of these patients. Four patients complained about permanent dysphagia. Six patients reported mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing, but were asymptomatic at the time of videofluoroscopy. Eight patients had no symptoms regarding their deglutition. All patients (n=4) who complained of permanent dysphagia showed aspiration. All patients (n=6) with mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing showed undercoating of the epiglottis and/or laryngeal penetration. Of those 8 patients without any swallowing symptoms, only 2 had a normal videofluoroscopy. Swallowing abnormalities seem to be much more frequent in patients with MS than generally believed and they may easily be missed clinically as long as the patients do not aspirate. (orig.)

  3. Temporal measurements of deglutition in dynamic magnetic resonance imaging versus videofluoroscopy. (United States)

    Lafer, Marissa; Achlatis, Stratos; Lazarus, Cathy; Fang, Yixin; Branski, Ryan C; Amin, Milan R


    We undertook to provide data regarding temporal measurements of swallow function obtained by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in a midsagittal plane and to compare these values to normative fluoroscopy data. Seventeen healthy female volunteers with no swallowing complaints underwent turbo-fast low-angle-shot magnetic resonance imaging with a 3-T scanner while swallowing liquid and pudding boluses delivered via syringe. Ninety sequential images were acquired with a temporal resolution of 113 ms per frame for each swallow. The imaging was performed in the midsagittal plane. The analyses focused on oral and pharyngeal transit times. All subjects tolerated the protocol without complaints or adverse events. The mean (+/- SD) oral transit times for liquids and pudding were measured as 0.25 +/- 0.09 second and 0.25 +/- 0.13 second, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.74). The mean pharyngeal transit times for liquids and pudding were measured as 0.84 +/- 0.16 second and 1.11 +/- 0.21 seconds, respectively. This difference achieved statistical significance (p deglutition in the midsagittal plane. Furthermore, the temporal measurements acquired with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging were reliable and were relatively consistent with those of previous studies done with videofluoroscopy.

  4. Velopharyngeal videofluoroscopy: Providing useful clinical information in the era of reduced dose radiation and safety. (United States)

    Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Bloom, David; Chaiyasate, Kongkrit; Rontal, Matthew; VanHulle, Rachel; Shaheen, Kenneth; Gibson, Donald


    The state of the art for correcting velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a surgical procedure which is customized according to findings on imaging procedures: multiplanar videofluoroscopy (MPVF) and flexible videonasopharyngoscopy (FVNP). Recently, the use of MPVF has been challenged because of the potential risk of using ionizing radiation, especially in children. To study whether using a protocol for performing MPVF can effectively decrease radiation dose in patients with VPI while providing useful information for planning surgical correction of VPI in combination with FVNP. The methodology used for performing the imaging procedures is described as well as the effectiveness of the surgical procedure. Eighty - nine patients (Age range = 3-17 years; median = 5.5 years) with VPI resulting from multiple etiologies were studied. All patients underwent MPVF and FVNP for planning surgical correction of VPI. Radiation dosage data in each case was recorded. Forty of the 89 patients also completed a postoperative evaluation. Eleven out of the remaining 49 patients have not completed a postoperative evaluation and 38 patients are still pending surgical correction. Radiation dosage ranged from 1.00 to 8.75 miliSieverts (mSv); Mean = 2.88 mSv; SD = 1.575 mSv. Preoperative nasometry demonstrated mean nasalance ranging from 41%-95%; Mean = 72.30; SD = 4.54. Postoperatively mean nasalance was within normal limits in 36 (90%) out of 40 cases, ranging from 21% to 35%; Mean = 28.10; SD = 5.40. Nasal emission was eliminated postoperatively in all cases. MPVF provides useful information for planning the surgical procedure aimed at correcting VPI. The combination of MPVF and FVNP is a reliable procedure for assessing velopharyngeal closure and to surgically correcting VPI with a highly successful outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The evaluation of deglutition with videofluoroscopy after repair of esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula. (United States)

    Yalcin, Sule; Demir, Numan; Serel, Selen; Soyer, Tutku; Tanyel, F Cahit


    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the functional disorders of deglutition with videofluoroscopy (VFS), in children operated for esophageal atresia (EA) and/or tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Patients with the repair of EA-TEF were evaluated in respect to the type of malformation, operative procedure, postoperative complications, deglutitive and respiratory symptoms, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The dysphagia score, VFS findings of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases, and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) score were recorded in the evaluation of the deglutitive functions. Thirty-two cases with a median age of 48months (2-120months), and male to female ratio of 14:18 were included in the study. Most of the cases had Gross type C anomaly (n=26, 81.3%), and the others were type A (n=3), D (n=2) and E (n=1). The incidence of associated anomalies was 71.8%. The patients underwent primary (n=26, 81.3%) or delayed (n=6, 18.7%) anastomosis. Postoperative complications including anastomotic stricture (n=12), leak (n=2) and recurrent fistula (n=2) were managed by dilatation, conservative approach and repair of the fistula, respectively. Recurrent pneumonia (n=13), cough with liquid intake (n=10) and food impaction (n=7) were recorded in the history. Management of GERD included medical (n=11) and surgical (n=7) treatment. The median dysphagia score was 3.5 (min: 0-max: 27). The oral phase of VFS was normal in most of the cases (n=29, 90.6%). Only three had mild or moderate impairment, and none had severe. The pharyngeal phase showed no impairment in 23 of the cases (71.8%), and severe impairment was observed only in 3 of all, for the parameters of hyolaryngeal elevation and airway closure. Opposite to the first two phases of the deglutition, the esophageal phase was normal in only 2 of the cases (6.3%). Among the other 30 cases with impairment, only two had mild, and the rest had moderate to severe problems. Esophageal backflow, motility and

  6. Videofluoroscopy of the oral phase of swallowing in eight to twelve years old children with dental malocclusion. (United States)

    Junqueira, Patricia; Costa, Milton Melciades


    The objective of this study was to describe the oral phase of swallowing in individuals with dental malocclusion and to generate data that would contribute to the rehabilitation of those patients. The study was based on the evaluation of the swallowing system through videofluoroscopy on thirty-four children of both genders, aged eight to twelve years old who present with Angle Class II and III dental malocclusions. Thirteen children of similar age and gender presenting normal dental occlusion formed the control group. The results indicated that the oral phase of swallowing is different between individuals with normal occlusion and malocclusion. Dental occlusion types Angle Class II and III did not present a swallowing pattern, independently of the amount of liquid ingested. The swallowing appeared effective in the oral phase of individuals with dental malocclusion, even though adaptations were identified. The outcome, in the absence of a single pattern and the efficiency of the adapted swallowing demonstrates, first a need for additional research investigating orofacial myofunctional treatment for patients with malocclusion and second how such analyses should focus on contributing positively to the rehabilitation of these patients.

  7. Videofluoroscopy Instrument to Identify the Tibiofemoral Contact Point Migration for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Follow-up: CINARTRO (United States)

    Simini, F.; Santos, D.; Francescoli, L.


    We measure the Tibiofemoral contact point migration to offer clinicians a tool to evaluate Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction. The design of the tool includes a C arm with fluoroscopy, image acquisition and processing system, interactive software and report generation for the clinical record. The procedure samples 30 images from the videofluoroscopy describing 2 seconds movements of hanging-to-full-extension of the knee articulation. A geometrical routine implemented in the original equipment (CINARTRO) helps capture tibial plateau and femoral condile profile by interaction with the user. The tightness or looseness of the knee is expressed by the migration given in terms of movement of the femur along the tibial plateau, as a percentage. We automatically create clinical reports in standard Clinical Document Architecture or CDA format. A special phantom was developed to correct the “pin cushion effect” in Rx images. Five cases of broken ACL patients were measured giving meaningful results for clinical follow up. Tibiofemoral contact point migration was measured as 60% of the tibial plateau, with standard deviation of 6% for healthy knees, 4% when injured and 1% after reconstruction.

  8. Temporal and Physiologic Measurements of Deglutition in the Upright and Supine Position with Videofluoroscopy (VFS) in Healthy Subjects. (United States)

    Su, H K; Khorsandi, A; Silberzweig, J; Kobren, A J; Urken, M L; Amin, M R; Branski, R C; Lazarus, C L


    Cross-sectional imaging has long been employed to examine swallowing in both the sagittal and axial planes. However, data regarding temporal swallow measures in the upright and supine positions are sparse, and none have employed the MBS impairment profile (MBSImP). We report temporal swallow measures, physiologic variables, and swallow safety of upright and supine swallowing in healthy subjects using videofluoroscopy (VFS). Twenty healthy subjects ages 21-40 underwent VFS study upright and supine. Subjects were viewed in the sagittal plane and swallowed 5 mL liquid and pudding barium. Oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, pharyngeal response time, pharyngeal transit time, and total swallow duration were measured. Penetration/aspiration scores and 14 MBSImP variables were analyzed in both positions. All subjects completed swallows supine, although one aspirated on one liquid bolus. Temporal measures of swallowing were similar for pudding upright and supine. Pharyngeal phase swallow measures were longer for liquids in supine. MBSImP physiologic measures revealed a pharyngeal delay in both positions. Although Pen/Asp range was higher supine, more subjects penetrated upright. Temporal measures were increased for liquids in supine. Although Pen/Asp range was higher in supine, more subjects penetrated upright. These results provide support for cross-sectional supine imaging of swallowing for pudding, but perhaps not thin liquids for dysphagic patients. Slightly thicker liquids might prove reliable in supine without compromising swallow safety. Future research should examine swallow physiology in both positions in dysphagic and older healthy subjects.

  9. Pharyngeal Residue and Aspiration and the Relationship with Clinical/Nutritional Status of Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Submitted to Videofluoroscopy. (United States)

    Oliveira, D L; Moreira, E A M; de Freitas, M B; Gonçalves, J de A; Furkim, A M; Clavé, P


    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the videofluoroscopic (VFS) signs of impaired efficacy (pharyngeal residue) and safety (aspiration) swallowing and the clinical/nutritional status of patients with suspect of dysphagia. A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients submitted to videofluoroscopy. Data of 76 patients were analyzed between March 2011 and December 2014. The clinical history and VFS exams of patients ≥ 38 years were retrospectively analyzed. 88% patients presented Oropharyngeal Dysphagia (OD), 44.7% presented laryngeal penetration and 32% presented aspiration. 78% patients presented pharyngeal residue. Aspiration was associated with Head Neck Cancer (HNC) [Prevalence Ratio (PR): 2.27, p = 0.028] and cardiovascular disease (PR 1.96, p = 0.027). Underweight [Body Mass Index Underweight patients with OD had a higher prevalence rate of pharyngeal residue than those normally nourished (100% vs. 78%) (PR 1.34, p = 0.011). Pharyngeal residue was associated with male sex (PR 1.32, p = 0.040), neurodegenerative disease (PR 1.57, p = 0.021), stroke (PR 1.62, p = 0.009), cerebral palsy (PR 1.76, p = 0.006) and HNC (PR 1.73, p = 0.002). In the present study, neurologic diseases, HNC, male sex and underweight were associated to impaired swallowing efficacy. Underweight, independently of the other variables, was not associated with impaired swallowing safety.

  10. The Lateral Port Control Pharyngeal Flap: A Thirty-Year Evolution and Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Boutros


    Full Text Available In 1971, Micheal Hogan introduced the Lateral Port Control Pharyngeal Flap (LPCPF which obtained good results with elimination of VPI. However, there was a high incidence of hyponasality and OSA. We hypothesized that preoperative assessment with videofluoroscopy and nasal endoscopy would enable modification and customization of the LPCPF and result in improvement in the result in both hyponasality and obstructive apnea while still maintaining results in VPI. Thirty consecutive patients underwent customized LPCPF. All patients had preoperative diagnosis of VPI resulting from cleft palate. Patient underwent either videofluoroscopy or nasal endoscopy prior to the planning of surgery. Based on preoperative velar and pharyngeal movement, patients were assigned to wide, medium, or narrow port designs. Patients with significant lateral motion were given wide ports while patients with minimal movement were given narrow ports. There was a 96.66% success rate in the treatment of VPI with one patient with persistent VPI (3.33%. Six patients had mild hyponasality (20 %. Two patients had initial OSA (6.67%, one of which had OSA which lasted longer than six months (3.33%. The modifications of the original flap description have allowed for success in treatment of VPI along with an acceptably low rate of hyponasality and OSA.

  11. Later loont

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.


    Uit een inventarisatie van de Animal Sciences Group van het hanenmanagement blijkt dat er geen verschillen zijn in technische resultaten tussen koppels vleeskuikenouderdieren die voor of na 20 weken leeftijd zijn overgeplaatst. Wel is later overplaatsen financieel aantrekkelijk voor de vermeerderaar

  12. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) (United States)

    ... Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? ... I get more information? What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of ...

  13. Estudo comparativo da deglutição com nasofibrolaringoscopia e videodeglutograma em pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral Comparison of functional endoscopic swallow study (FESS vs. videofluoroscopy (VF in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Doria


    Full Text Available Os distúrbios da deglutição são bastante freqüentes nos pacientes neurológicos e naqueles com doenças ou seqüelas de cirurgia de cabeça e pescoço, sendo causa de importante morbidade e mortalidade. Apesar do videodeglutograma (VD ser considerado o exame de escolha para a avaliação dos distúrbios da deglutição, este exame apresenta limitações em algumas situações clínicas, além de expor o doente à radiação e ao risco de aspiração do contraste. Em anos recentes, têm sido também utilizadas fibras ópticas flexíveis para avaliar os pacientes com disfagia e outras queixas relacionadas à deglutição. OBJETIVO: Análise comparativa entre os dados obtidos pela NFL e VD em relação a parâmetros estudados por ambos métodos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados prospectivamente 12 pacientes com seqüela de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico, no período de janeiro a maio de 2002, por meio do estudo dinâmico da deglutição com nasofibrolaringoscopia (NFL e VD, sendo os resultados comparados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Enquanto o VD permite a análise da fase preparatória oral e oral da deglutição e o início da fase faríngea, a NFL permite estudo da sensibilidade e mobilidade faringo-laríngea, além da visualização direta do alimento. Através do teste estatístico McNemar, nenhum dos parâmetros analisados apresentou divergência estatisticamente significante (pPatients with dysphagia present great morbidity and mortality, especially those with neurological disorders and/or head and neck surgery, thus warranting a detailed evaluation of swallowing. Videofluoroscopy has been considered the gold standard for evaluating swallowing disorders for many years; however, this test presents limitations in some clinical settings exposing patients to radiation and to the risk of contrast aspiration. In recent years, functional swallow studies using flexible endoscopy (FESS have been

  14. Primary Lateral Sclerosis (United States)

    ... When symptoms begin, PLS may be mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spastic paraplegia. Most neurologists follow an ... When symptoms begin, PLS may be mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spastic paraplegia. Most neurologists follow an ...

  15. Lateral collateral ligament (image) (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress is ...

  16. Evaluation of dysphagia at the initial diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Murono, Shigeyuki; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Tsuji, Akira; Endo, Kazuhira; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Yamada, Masahito; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu


    Dysphagia eventually occurs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Swallowing in patients with ALS at their initial diagnosis was evaluated using videofluoroscopy (VF). Nineteen consecutive patients with ALS, 14 with bulbar symptoms, and 5 without them, underwent VF. Fourteen physiologic components, 6 oral and 8 pharyngeal components, were assessed during the examination. Significantly poorer scores were observed in three of the 6 oral components and 3 of the 8 pharyngeal components in patients with bulbar symptoms. Furthermore, bolus transport from the oral cavity to pharynx, pharyngeal constriction, oral residue and pharyngeal residue were impaired in patients even without bulbar symptoms. On the other hand, pharyngoesophageal segment opening was preserved in patients even with bulbar symptoms. Bolus transport and initiation of pharyngeal swallow were correlated with the swallowing category of the ALS severity scale. Defining types of impairment in patients with or without bulbar symptoms is useful for evaluating dysphagia in this disease. Although VF showed impairment of oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing, the oral phase affected the eating habit in ALS at the initial diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lateral flow strip assay (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA


    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  18. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) (United States)

    ... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ...

  19. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.


    This article presents the results of a validation study of a previously published method of sex determination from the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle method for the internal acoustic canal for accurately determining the sex of human skeletal remains using...... measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability....... The mean lateral angle of the internal acoustic canal was found to be larger in females (46.5°) than in males (43.4°). However, the difference was not statistically significant and the sex differences reported in previous studies were not substantiated. In light of the observed results, the lateral angle...

  20. Pathways of lateral spreading. (United States)

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J


    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Laterality in living beings, hand dominance, and cerebral lateralization


    Milenković Sanja; Paunović Katarina; Kocijančić Dušica


    To date, lateralization in living beings is a phenomenon almost mythologically unexplored. Scientists have proved that lateralization is not exclusively a human feature. Investigations in molecular biology, protein structure, mobility of bacteria, and intracellular lateralization in ciliates, shows important and universal nature of lateralization in living systems. Dominant lateralization implies the appearance of a dominant extremity, or a dominant sense d...

  2. Laterally bendable belt conveyor (United States)

    Peterson, William J.


    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  3. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  4. Onset dominance in lateralization. (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C


    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  5. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges. (United States)

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E


    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  6. Lateral flow assays. (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea


    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Lateral flow assays (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.


    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  8. Lateral cervical meningocele. (United States)

    Sharma, V.; Newton, G.


    Lateral cervical meningocele is an extremely rare developmental anomaly. We could find only one such case protruding from an enlarged C2-3 intervertebral foramen. It may be confused with an extradural cyst or cystic hygroma. Direct needling may introduce infection and thereby pyogenic meningitis and so should be avoided. Similarly, incision and drainage may transform it into cerebrospinal fluid fistula. A computed tomography scan is the most fruitful form of investigation for confirmation and localization of the disease. A lumboperitoneal shunt or water tight closure of the dural sac at the neck is the recommended procedure of choice. PMID:1524732

  9. Septal-lateral annnular cinching perturbs basal left ventricular transmural strains. (United States)

    Nguyen, Tom C; Cheng, Allen; Tibayan, Frederick A; Liang, David; Daughters, George T; Ingels, Neil B; Miller, David Craig


    Septal-lateral annular cinching ('SLAC') corrects both acute and chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation in animal experiments, which has led to the development of therapeutic surgical and interventional strategies incorporating this concept (e.g., Edwards GeoForm ring, Myocor Coapsys, Ample Medical PS3). Changes in left ventricular (LV) transmural cardiac and fiber-sheet strains after SLAC, however, remain unknown. Eight normal sheep hearts had two triads of transmural radiopaque bead columns inserted adjacent to (anterobasal) and remote from (midlateral equatorial) the mitral annulus. Under acute, open chest conditions, 4D bead coordinates were obtained using videofluoroscopy before and after SLAC. Transmural systolic strains were calculated from bead displacements relative to local circumferential, longitudinal, and radial cardiac axes. Transmural cardiac strains were transformed into fiber-sheet coordinates (X(f), X(s), X(n)) oriented along the fiber (f), sheet (s), and sheet-normal (n) axes using fiber (alpha) and sheet (beta) angle measurements. SLAC markedly reduced (approximately 60%) septal-lateral annular diameter at both end-diastole (ED) (2.5+/-0.3 to 1.0+/-0.3 cm, p=0.001) and end-systole (ES) (2.4+/-0.4 to 1.0+/-0.3 cm, p=0.001). In the LV wall remote from the mitral annulus, transmural systolic strains did not change. In the anterobasal region adjacent to the mitral annulus, ED wall thickness increased (p=0.01) and systolic wall thickening was less in the epicardial (0.28+/-0.12 vs 0.20+/-0.06, p=0.05) and midwall (0.36+/-0.24 vs 0.19+/-0.11, p=0.04) LV layers. This impaired wall thickening was due to decreased systolic sheet thickening (0.20+/-0.8 to 0.12+/-0.07, p=0.01) and sheet shear (-0.15+/-0.07 to -0.11+/-0.04, p=0.02) in the epicardium and sheet extension (0.21+/-0.11 to 0.10+/-0.04, p=0.03) in the midwall. Transmural systolic and remodeling strains in the lateral midwall (remote from the annulus) were unaffected. Although SLAC is an alluring

  10. Lateral Flow Immunoassay. (United States)

    Ching, Kathryn H


    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described.

  11. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector (United States)

    Kim, Jin K [Albuquerque, NM; Carroll, Malcolm S [Albuquerque, NM


    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  12. Aspirin, 110 years later. (United States)

    Patrono, C; Rocca, B


    Although conceived at the end of the 19th century as a synthetic analgesic agent with improved gastric tolerability vs. naturally occurring salicylates, acetylsalicylic acid (marketed as aspirin in 1899) turned out to be an ideal antiplatelet agent about 90 years later, following the understanding of its mechanism of action, the development of a mechanism-based biomarker for dose-finding studies, and the initiation of a series of appropriately sized, randomized clinical trials to test its efficacy and safety at low doses given once daily. At the turn of its 110th anniversary, aspirin continues to attract heated debates on a number of issues including (i) the optimal dose to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity; (ii) the possibility that some patients may be 'resistant' to its antiplatelet effects; and (iii) the balance of benefits and risks in primary vs. secondary prevention.

  13. Creativity in later life. (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M


    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Lateral Rail Restraint. (United States)


    This report deals with the analysis of lateral rail strength using the results of experimental investigations and a nonlinear rail response model. Part of the analysis involves the parametric study of the influence of track parameters on lateral rail...

  15. Laterality in living beings, hand dominance, and cerebral lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja


    Full Text Available To date, lateralization in living beings is a phenomenon almost mythologically unexplored. Scientists have proved that lateralization is not exclusively a human feature. Investigations in molecular biology, protein structure, mobility of bacteria, and intracellular lateralization in ciliates, shows important and universal nature of lateralization in living systems. Dominant lateralization implies the appearance of a dominant extremity, or a dominant sense during the performance of complex psychomotor activities. Hand dominance is usually defined as a tendency to use one hand rather than another to perform most activities and this is considered to be the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and exclusive characteristic of humans. However, there are some exceptions in other species. The dominant hand is able to perform more complex and subtle manual tasks than the non-dominant hand, and this behavioral superiority is the absolute result of additional cerebral support. The asymmetry of brain organization was confirmed in rats, chimpanzees, dogs and birds, some fishes and lizards. The relationships between hand dominance with brain structure and function remain far from clear. For a long time, lateralization was considered unique to humans, but recently it has become clear that lateralization is a fundamental characteristic of the organization of brain and behavior in all vertebrates. It has been questioned to what extent lateralization in humans and other vertebrates may be comparable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41020 i br. 175078

  16. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim


    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip


    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel


    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  19. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail:


    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  20. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor (United States)

    Jansen, H.


    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  1. Lateral Transorbital Neuroendoscopic Approach to the Lateral Cavernous Sinus (United States)

    Bly, Randall A.; Ramakrishna, Rohan; Ferreira, Manuel; Moe, Kris S.


    Objective To design and assess the quality of a novel lateral retrocanthal endoscopic approach to the lateral cavernous sinus. Design Computer modeling software was used to optimize the geometry of the surgical pathway, which was confirmed on cadaver specimens. We calculated trajectories and surgically accessible areas to the middle fossa while applying a constraint on the amount of soft tissue retraction. Setting Virtual computer model to simulate the surgical approach and cadaver laboratory. Participants The authors. Main Outcome Measures Adequate surgical access to the lateral cavernous sinus and adjacent regions as determined by operations on the cadaver specimens. Additionally, geometric limitations were imposed as determined by the model so that retraction on soft tissue structures was maintained at a clinically safe distance. Results Our calculations revealed adequate access to the lateral cavernous sinus, Meckel cave, orbital apex, and middle fossa floor. Cadaveric testing revealed sufficient access to these areas using cavernous sinus. PMID:24498584

  2. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality. (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M


    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p motor and speech laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? (United States)

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:28408982

  4. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)


    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Torn lateral collateral ligament (image) (United States)

    ... LCL), is an injury to the lateral collateral ligament, a ligament extending from the top-outside surface of the ... the bottom-outside surface of the femur. The ligament prevents the knee joint from side-to-side ( ...

  6. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs]. (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József


    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  7. Optineurin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating disease, and thus it is important to identify the causative gene and resolve the mechanism of the disease. We identified optineurin as a causative gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found three types of mutations: a homozygous deletion of exon 5, a homozygous Q398X nonsense mutation and a heterozygous E478G missense mutation within its ubiquitin-binding domain. Optineurin negatively regulates the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nonsense and missense mutations abolished this function. Mutations related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also negated the inhibition of interferon regulatory factor-3. The missense mutation showed a cyotoplasmic distribution different from that of the wild type. There are no specific clinical symptoms related to optineurin. However, severe brain atrophy was detected in patients with homozygous deletion. Neuropathologically, an E478G patient showed transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa-positive neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and medullary motor neurons. Furthermore, Golgi fragmentation was identified in 73% of this patient's anterior horn cells. In addition, optineurin is colocalized with fused in sarcoma in the basophilic inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with fused in sarcoma mutations, and in basophilic inclusion body disease. These findings strongly suggest that optineurin is involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir


    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  9. Bilateral Multiple Level Lateral Meningocoele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B E Panil Kumar


    Full Text Available Lateral meningocoele is a very rare disorder characterized by extensions of the dura and arachnoid through an enlarged neural foramen. We report a case of a 23-year-old female with deformity of spine who presented with low back pain and no neurological deficits. A whole spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple well-defined cystic masses involving dorsal, lumbar, and sacral spinal levels bilaterally, with dural ectasia and neural foraminal widening suggestive of bilateral multiple level lateral meningocoele. The patient is being managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up.

  10. Bilateral multiple level lateral meningocoele. (United States)

    Kumar, B E Panil; Hegde, Kishor V; Kumari, G Lalitha; Agrawal, Amit


    Lateral meningocoele is a very rare disorder characterized by extensions of the dura and arachnoid through an enlarged neural foramen. We report a case of a 23-year-old female with deformity of spine who presented with low back pain and no neurological deficits. A whole spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple well-defined cystic masses involving dorsal, lumbar, and sacral spinal levels bilaterally, with dural ectasia and neural foraminal widening suggestive of bilateral multiple level lateral meningocoele. The patient is being managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up.

  11. 49 CFR 230.105 - Lateral motion. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 230.105 Section 230.105... Tenders Running Gear § 230.105 Lateral motion. (a) Condemning limits. The total lateral motion or play... require additional lateral motion. (c) Non-interference with other parts. The lateral motion shall in all...

  12. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte


    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests in the labor...

  13. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing (United States)


    the Gulf Stream warm core, Ro and Rig O(1) at the Gulf Stream north wall) allowed for efficient investigation of submesoscale mixing resulting from...Float and dye revealed energetic mixing in the negative PV region, with dye spreading indicating lateral mixing rates of ~100 m2/s. Please see

  14. Genetics Home Reference: lateral meningocele syndrome (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Lateral meningocele syndrome Lateral meningocele syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lateral meningocele syndrome is a disorder that affects the nervous ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (United States)

    ... Conditions Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis is a rare disorder characterized by progressive weakness ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease that affects motor ...

  17. Sexual behavior in later life. (United States)

    DeLamater, John; Moorman, Sara M


    This research tests the influences of age, biological, and psychosocial factors on sexual expression in later life. The American Association of Retired Persons Modern Maturity Sexuality Survey collected data on diagnosed illnesses, treated illnesses, sexual desire, sexual attitudes, partner circumstances, and sexual behavior from 1,384 persons ages 45 and older. Ordered logistic regression models estimate the associations of age, biological, and psychosocial factors with the frequency of five sexual behaviors. Diagnosed illnesses and treatments are generally unrelated to frequency of sexual activity. Sexual attitudes are related to frequency of partnered behavior and sexual desire is related to frequency of masturbation among both women and men. Satisfaction with the physical relationship with a partner is strongly related to behavior. Age remains significant after all other factors are controlled. The authors conclude that the nature of sexual expression in later life reflects the interplay of body, mind, and social context.

  18. Preserving Dignity in Later Life. (United States)

    São José, José Manuel


    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  19. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine


    ’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active ageing. Dominant...... but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....

  20. Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of Semiconductors (United States)

    Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R.

    The state of the art and recent developments of lateral overgrowth of compound semiconductors are reviewed. First we focus on the mechanism of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) from the liquid phase, highlighting the phenomena that are crucial for growing high-quality layers with large aspect ratio. Epitaxy from the liquid phase has been chosen since the equilibrium growth techniques such as liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) are the most suitable for lateral overgrowth. We then present numerous examples for which the defect filtration in the ELO procedure is very efficient and leads to significant progress in the development of high-performance semiconductor devices made of lattice-mismatched structures. Structural perfection of seams that appear when layers grown from neighboring seeds merge is also discussed. Next, we concentrate on strain commonly found in various ELO structures and arising due to the interaction of ELO layers with the mask. Its origin, and possible ways of its control, are presented. Then we show that the thermal strain in lattice-mismatched ELO structures can be relaxed by additional tilting of ELO wings while still preserving their high quality. Finally, recent progresses in the lateral overgrowth of semiconductors, including new mask materials and liquid-phase electroepitaxial growth on substrates coated by electrically conductive masks, are presented. New versions of the ELO technique from solution and from the vapor (growth from ridges and pendeo-epitaxy) are described and compared with standard ELO. A wide range of semiconductors, including III-V compounds grown from solution and vapor-grown GaN, are used to illustrate phenomena discussed. Very often, the similar behavior of various ELO structures reveals that the phenomena presented are not related to a specific group of compounds or their growth techniques, but have a much more general nature.

  1. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology


    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.


    In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently e...

  2. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings (United States)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.


    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  3. School readiness and later achievement. (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Dowsett, Chantelle J; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista


    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for cognitive, attention, and socioemotional skills measured prior to school entry, as well as a host of family background measures. Across all 6 studies, the strongest predictors of later achievement are school-entry math, reading, and attention skills. A meta-analysis of the results shows that early math skills have the greatest predictive power, followed by reading and then attention skills. By contrast, measures of socioemotional behaviors, including internalizing and externalizing problems and social skills, were generally insignificant predictors of later academic performance, even among children with relatively high levels of problem behavior. Patterns of association were similar for boys and girls and for children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. (c) 2007 APA.

  4. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 229.63 Section 229.63....63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion... powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may not exceed 11/4 inches on the center axle of...

  5. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths (United States)

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.


    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  6. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...... of nail row, edge distance, fixed nail-plate, bending direction, unloading, and grain direction, plate and load direction on the load-displacement curves are analysed. Mean load-displacement curves from all the tests are given....

  7. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.

  8. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  9. Current Perspectives in Cardiac Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Campione


    Full Text Available The heart is the first organ to break symmetry in the developing embryo and onset of dextral looping is the first indication of this event. Looping is a complex process that progresses concomitantly to cardiac chamber differentiation and ultimately leads to the alignment of the cardiac regions in their final topology. Generation of cardiac asymmetry is crucial to ensuring proper form and consequent functionality of the heart, and therefore it is a highly regulated process. It has long been known that molecular left/right signals originate far before morphological asymmetry and therefore can direct it. The use of several animal models has led to the characterization of a complex regulatory network, which invariably converges on the Tgf-β signaling molecule Nodal and its downstream target, the homeobox transcription factor Pitx2. Here, we review current data on the cellular and molecular bases of cardiac looping and laterality, and discuss the contribution of Nodal and Pitx2 to these processes. A special emphasis will be given to the morphogenetic role of Pitx2 and to its modulation of transcriptional and functional properties, which have also linked laterality to atrial fibrillation.

  10. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen


    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  11. Primary Lateral Sclerosis : diagnostic boundaries and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, F.


    Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a diagnosis of exclusion in sporadic patients with an adult-onset gradually progressive upper motor neuron (UMN) syndrome. Differentiation between PLS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic presentation of hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is

  12. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay


    Lin, R; Skandarajah, A; Gerver, RE; Neira, HD; Fletcher, DA; Herr, AE


    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to ...

  13. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe


    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...

  14. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe


    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...

  15. Lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole


    The structure and kinematics of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint were investigated in 10 cadaveric specimens. The lateral collateral ligament was observed to be a distinct part of the lateral collateral ligament complex. It contains posterior fibers that pass through the annular...

  16. [Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]. (United States)

    Corcia, Philippe; Blasco, Hélène; Camu, William


    Although the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains currently unknown, involvement of genetic factors is worldwide accepted as a key clue in the motor neuron death. Since 1993 and the discovery of mutation in the SOD1 gene, number of genes linked to or promoting ALS had always growing. Among them, only four (SOD1, TARDBP, FUS and C9ORF72 genes) are unanimously recognized as convincing causative genetic factors for more than 60% of familial and probably 10% of sporadic ALS cases. Geographic origin of the studied populations tends to become one of the major items in the gene-ALS relationship: this was extremely stressed for C9ORF72. Concerning susceptibility genes factors, an increase of the risk of ALS is clearly shown for SMN1 and ATXN2 genes and accepted for some VEGF haplotypes. Finally, some modulating effects might also exist as underline for the relationships between ApoE and ALS that differ between European and North American studies. In inherited ALS, The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) edited rules that gave a legal frame to situations for which research of mutations were justified. Progress in the field of genetic raises major questions concerning the relevance of genetic studies from asymptomatic relatives. This first implies that the mutation identified in the proband case is perfectly characterized as a pathogenic mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The Later Wittgenstein and the Later Husserl on Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ricoeur


    Full Text Available This article presents an edited version of lectures given by Paul Ricœur at Johns Hopkins University in April 1966. Ricœur offers a comparative analysis of Wittgenstein’s and Husserl’s late works, taking the problem of language as the common ground of investigation for these two central figures of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Ricœur develops his study in two parts. The first part considers Husserl’s approach to language after the Logical Investigations and concentrates on Formal and Transcendental Logic; leaving a transcendental reflection on language behind it re-examines a phenomenological conception, according to which the sphere of logic is not separable from that of experience. The main focus of the second part is Wittgenstein’s later philosophy as it moved on from the conception of an isomorphic relation between language and the world, as set out in the picture theory in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, to the more pragmatic notion of a language-game in the Philosophical Investigations. In order to get beyond the irrevocable differences between the two philosophies and the unresolved theoretical issues on both sides, Ricœur suggests turning to a semiological paradigm based on the Saussurean distinction between “language” and “speaking.” Keywords: Analytic Philosophy, Husserl, Phenomenology, Semiology, Wittgenstein.Résumé Cet article est une version éditée de conférences données par Paul Ricœur à la Johns Hopkins University en avril 1966. Ricœur propose une analyse comparée des dernières œuvres de Wittgenstein et Husserl, avec le problème du langage comme sol commun d’investigations pour ces deux figures centrales de la phénoménologie et la philosophie analytique. Cette analyse de Ricœur se joue à travers deux parties. La première partie revient sur l'approche du langage chez Husserl depuis Recherches logiques avec une attention particulière aux développements de Logique formelle et

  18. Arabidopsis lateral root development : an emerging story


    Péret, B.; De Rybel, B.; Casimiro, I; Benkova, E.; Swarup, R; Laplaze, Laurent; Beeckman, T.; Bennett, M.J.


    Lateral root formation is a major determinant of root systems architecture. The degree of root branching impacts the efficiency of water uptake, acquisition of nutrients and anchorage by plants. Understanding the regulation of lateral root development is therefore of vital agronomic importance. The molecular and cellular basis of lateral root formation has been most extensively studied in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Significant progress has recently been made in identi...

  19. [Idiopathic loss of lateral tarsal suspension]. (United States)

    Troyano, J; Martín, E; Genol-Saavedra, I; García-Sánchez, J


    A 53-year-old man who showed a loss of tarsal suspension in the lateral third of both lower eyelids underwent lateral canthoplasty with a good post-operative result. Disinsertion of the union of the inferior tarsus with the lateral canthus, of unknown cause, is a very uncommon finding that has almost never been reported in the world literature. There are two cases described of eyelid elastolysis with loss of lateral tarsal suspension, as in our case, but both showed eyelid skin atrophy and had histopathologic confirmation. Our case did not have skin atrophy.

  20. The enigma of the lateral canal. (United States)

    Weine, F S


    It is difficult to summarize an article of this type, in which the author is certain that his case has been presented fairly, but is aware that other views that are contrary could be stated and endorsed by pertinent clinical cases. Bearing this fact in mind, I wish to reiterate the following: Lateral canals are demonstrated in endodontic cases with much less frequency than they exist. This variance rarely, if ever, causes an endodontic failure. Some demonstrated lateral canals may really be other conditions. Preoperative evaluation should include examination of radiographs for lateral, as well as periapical, lesions. Lateral canals may be demonstrated by a variety of filling techniques. Careful canal preparation may enhance the frequency of such demonstration. Cases with necrotic pulps probably yield more frequent demonstration than do cases with vital pulps. Lateral canals harboring inflamed and/or infected material may cause pain during endodontic treatment. They may simulate periodontal disease and may cause problems with treatment if present when a tooth is left open for drainage. Periodontal disease may cause pulp exposure via lateral canals located coronally. Improper use of post room may lead to lateral failure from breakdown of tissue in a lateral canal. The enigma of the lateral canal has been the object of description and discussion in many articles, but no one is truly certain of their exact significance in endodontic therapy for the long haul.

  1. Acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Canale, Andrea; Albera, Roberto; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Canosa, Antonio; Albera, Andrea; Sacco, Francesca; Chiò, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea


    The aim of the study is to investigate acoustic reflex testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Amplitude, latency, and rise time of stapedial reflex were recorded for 500 and 1000 Hz contralateral stimulus. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test and the level of significance was set at 5 %. Fifty-one amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched control subjects were studied. Patients were further divided in two groups: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar (38 cases, with bulbar signs at evaluation) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal (13 cases, without bulbar signs at evaluation). Stapedial reflex was present in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean amplitude, latency, and rise time between the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients as compared with the controls. Amplitude was lower in both the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients than in the controls (p amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases with bulbar signs and, moreover, suggesting a possible subclinical involvement of the stapedial motor neuron even in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients. Amplitude and rise time seem to be good sensitive parameters for investigating subclinical bulbar involvement.

  2. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.


    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  3. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality. (United States)

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    functional to investigate the lateral buckling behaviour of a class of beams comprising bi- symmetric sections. While retaining the coupled modes of displacements at ... programmed either in basic or FORTRAN and with efficient programming, a saving in computer time can be made. 1.0 INTRODUCTION. Lateral buckling of ...

  5. Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life (United States)

    Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi


    In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

  6. Naphthyl azomesogens with lateral chloro groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Oct 11, 2003 ... Schiff's base esters containing the naphthalene moi- ety and studied the effect of lateral thiol and methoxy substituent on mesomorphism. We have also repor- ted the synthesis of mesogenic homologous series of azomesogens without lateral substituent,26 with lat- eral methyl27 and chloro28 groups and ...

  7. Lateral Pharyngeal Diverticulum presenting with Dysphagia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral pharyngeal diverticulum (Pharyngocele) is the protrusion of pharyngeal mucosa through the pharyngeal wall, usually through either of two weak areas in the pharyngeal wall as an acquired or congenital case. Lateral diverticula are very rare and not to be mistaken for the rather more frequent and abundantly ...

  8. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do.

  9. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    and the frequency of the lateral movement. These forces are self-excited in the sense that they are generated by the movement of the body’s centre of mass, which in turn is caused by the lateral acceleration of the underlying pavement. Due to the random nature of the human-induced loadings and a large scatter...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In this study of 2,148 international adoptees aged 10 to 15 years, the influence of early adverse experiences on later adjustment was examined. It was found that early neglect, abuse, and the number of changes of caretaking environment increased the risk for later maladjustment. The older the age of

  11. Anatomy of the Lateral Ankle Ligaments


    SİNDEL, Muzaffer


    The lateral ligaments of talocrural articulation, namely anterior talofibular ligament, posterior talofibular ligament and cal-caneofibular ligament, are important in an-atomic reconstruction. If reconstructed improperly, they are known to limit the movements of talocrural articulation and subtalar articulation (talocalcaneal articulation) Studies on anatomy of anterior talofibular ligament, posterior talofibular ligament and calcaneofibular ligament known as the lateral ligaments ...

  12. Self-caring in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara


    . The phenomenon of gerontopedagogicalisation is a process of becoming a juvenile and entrepreneurial self in later life, conceptualised as performAGE (Fristrup, 2012a). PerformAGE is an approach to understanding the different ways of performing age in later life which favours the performing of this juvenile...

  13. Lateral interception II : Predicting hand movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaels, CF; Jacobs, DM; Bongers, RM

    D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2006) concluded that aspects of hand movements in lateral catching were predicted by the ratio of lateral optical velocity to expansion velocity. Their conclusions were based partly on a modified version of the required velocity model of catching (C. E. Peper, R. J.

  14. Lateral interception II: Predicting hand movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaels, C.F.; Jacobs, D.M.; Bongers, R.M.


    D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2006) concluded that aspects of hand movements in lateral catching were predicted by the ratio of lateral optical velocity to expansion velocity. Their conclusions were based partly on a modified version of the required velocity model of catching (C. E. Peper, R. J.

  15. Plasticity and function of cerebral lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lust, J.M.


    Lateralization refers to the division of labour between the hemispheres. The studies presented in this thesis addressed the developmental plasticity and function of cerebral lateralization. The access to an unique dataset of prenatal testosterone (pT) levels and the use of fTCD to measure individual

  16. Lateral human-structure interaction on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco


    In recent years, several high-profile footbridges have suffered from unexpected excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations. There is a commonly accepted view that the synchronisation of pedestrians to the lateral movement of a structure is necessary for the onset of a form of instability whi...

  17. Conservative treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains. (United States)

    Weber, Jason M; Maleski, Richard M


    Lateral ankle sprains are among the most common sports injuries. Although ankle sprains are treated conservatively at the present time, for years the treatment was based on acute repair of the ruptured ligaments. Several differing opinions currently exist as to the treatment of lateral ankle sprains. A review of the literature and explanation of the benefits and risks of each treatment protocol is undertaken.

  18. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos


    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  19. Lateral Meningomyelocele in a Neonate: A Case Report (United States)

    Prasad, G Raghavendra; Rashmi, TM


    Lateral presentation of meningocele and meningomyelocele is extremely rare. Most of the lateral meningocele described are associated with other syndromes. Isolated lateral meningomyelocele cases are rarer still. We herein report a neonate with isolated lateral gluteal meningomyelocele. PMID:26793596

  20. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay. (United States)

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E; Neira, Hector D; Fletcher, Daniel A; Herr, Amy E


    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings.

  1. Function of lateral line canal morphology. (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst


    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Posterior root tears of the lateral meniscus. (United States)

    Feucht, Matthias J; Salzmann, Gian M; Bode, Gerrit; Pestka, Jan M; Kühle, Jan; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp


    To summarize and discuss the current knowledge on posterior lateral meniscus root tears. A comprehensive review of the MEDLINE database was carried out to identify relevant articles using different keywords (e.g. "meniscus root", "root tear", "meniscus avulsion", "radial tear" and "lateral meniscus"). The reference lists of the reviewed articles were searched for additional relevant articles. Posterior lateral meniscus root tears are found in 7-12% of patients with a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Biomechanical studies have found an increase in lateral compartment contact pressure of approximately 50% after creation of a posterior lateral meniscus root tear. There is some evidence that the biomechanical consequences of these injuries are significantly influenced by the presence and integrity of the meniscofemoral ligaments. Clinical studies have found encouraging results after repair of posterior lateral meniscus root tears. Whether root repair can prevent the development of osteoarthritis is currently unknown. A posterior lateral meniscus root tear is a clinical relevant but most likely underrecognized concomitant injury in patients with a tear of the ACL. This article may support clinicians in diagnosing and treating this unique type of meniscus tear. V.

  3. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Wook Chae


    Full Text Available There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression.

  4. Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis. (United States)

    Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok


    Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.

  5. Lateral power transistors in integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Erlbacher, Tobias


    This book details and compares recent advancements in the development of novel lateral power transistors (LDMOS devices) for integrated circuits in power electronic applications. It includes the state-of-the-art concept of double-acting RESURF topologies.

  6. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1.......2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  7. Lateral meningocele and defect of abdominal wall.


    Placzek, M M; MacKinnon, A E


    A case of lateral meningocele associated with deficiency of the thoraco-abdominal wall is reported. It is suggested that both of these defects are due to interference with the development of the paraxial mesoderm by a single injury.

  8. Management of missing maxillary lateral incisors. (United States)

    Sabri, R


    Missing maxillary lateral incisors create an esthetic problem with specific orthodontic and prosthetic considerations. The purpose of this article is to describe treatment protocols and problems encountered in the management of this disorder. The two common treatment options are orthodontic space opening for future restorations or orthodontic space closure using canines to replace the missing maxillary lateral incisors. The required amount of space opening and the various prosthetic options are discussed. The methods for reshaping canines in orthodontic space closure and building them up to simulate lateral incisors also are described. The indications, advantages and disadvantages of both treatment modalities are outlined to help clinicians make decisions in borderline situations. Teamwork between the orthodontist, general practitioner and restorative dentist is important when analyzing factors related to individual patients and establishing overall treatment plans. This also will allow treatment modalities and the various options for replacing missing maxillary lateral incisors in space opening to be discussed between team members and the patient.

  9. Laterally Coupled Distributed-Feedback Lasers (United States)

    Lang, Robert J.; Forouhar, Siamak; Tiberio, Richard C.; Porkolab, George


    Distributed-feedback semiconductor lasers of proposed design called "laterally coupled" features Bragg gratings located on top surfaces next to sides of ridge waveguides overlying gain regions of laser resonators.

  10. Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later (United States)

    ... showed that treated babies had a lower risk of death and disability nearly 2 years later. The therapy is now used in many neonatal intensive care units. In the new study, scientists looked to see ...

  11. Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament: An Anatomic Study. (United States)

    Shah, Kalpit N; DeFroda, Steven F; Ware, James Kristopher; Koruprolu, Sarath C; Owens, Brett D


    Medial instability of the patellofemoral joint is a rare but known phenomenon that may result from an incompetent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL). Surgical reconstruction of the LPFL has been described. However, anatomic details of the ligament have not been the subject of scrutiny. To describe the anatomic origin and insertion of the LPFL. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen, unpaired human cadaveric knees (mean age, 57 years) were dissected to identify the LPFL. The dissection was carried out by elevating the iliotibial band to expose the deep capsular layer of the knee joint, followed by a medial parapatellar approach to the knee. Then the quadriceps and patellar tendons were sectioned, and the LPFL was isolated by visualization and palpation. The LPFL was dissected to reveal its origin and insertion; these were measured with respect to the lateral epicondyle and the superior-inferior axis of the lateral patella, respectively. On average, the LPFL had a variable point of origin in location as well as width about the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL originated, on average, 2.6 mm distal (range, 13.1 mm proximal to 11.4 mm distal) and 10.8 mm anterior (range, 7.3 mm posterior to 14.9 mm anterior) to the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL insertion on the patella was more reliably found to be about 45% (range, 23.7%-58.4%) of its lateral articular surface. The insertion on the patella was found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. The LPFL has an origin that is variable but, on average, was found to be distal and anterior to the lateral epicondyle. The patella insertion was more reliably found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. These anatomic relationships can help the surgeon reconstruct the LPFL in a more anatomic fashion. Surgeons who are tasked with reconstruction of the LPFL of a patient with idiopathic medial instability or a previous aggressive lateral release of the knee may reference this article to perform an anatomic

  12. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices


    Valentina De Cosmi; Silvia Scaglioni; Carlo Agostoni


    Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. R...

  13. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli


    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  14. C-reactive protein and later preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Schlüssel, Michael M; Vaz, Juliana S


    This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia.......This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia....

  15. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots (United States)

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum


    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis. PMID:19726480

  16. Microscopic features of the lateral periodontal cyst. (United States)

    Shear, M; Pindborg, J J


    The lateral periodontal cyst is of developmental odontogenic origin and must be differentiated from the gingival cyst of adults, a primordial cyst in a lateral periodontal position, and a cyst of inflammatory origin. This paper is based on a histologic study of five cases. Four were in the mandibular premolar region and one in the lateral incisor-canine region of the maxilla. The cysts are lined by a thin non-keratinized epithelium which resembles the reduced enamel epithelium. Many of them arecharacterized by the presence of localized plaque-like thickenings of their epithelial linings, consisting of fusiform or large swollen, edematous cells. These epithelial thickenings appear to result from a localized proiferation of basal cells. The lateral periodontal cyst may arise initially as a dentigerous cyst which develops by expansion of the follicle along the lateral surface of the crown and comes to lie on the lateral aspect of the root if tooth eruption is normal. Alternatively, it may arise from the cell rests of Malassez.

  17. Displacing lateral meniscus masquerading as patella dislocation. (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Fontboté, Cristián A; Rohr, Sara R


    To alert the treating clinician to an uncommon knee meniscal condition that often masquerades as a more common patella condition. Retrospective chart review of a series of cases was undertaken. A series of 12 knees in 11 patients were referred to an orthopaedic surgeon with a diagnosis of recurrent lateral patella dislocation. Three knees had undergone patella realignment surgery with continuance of symptoms. Eight patients had prior magnetic resonance images read as no meniscal pathology and no acute patella/patella retinacular injury. All patients presented for a consult with a similar history. Under anaesthesia, all knees had a stable patella as judged by physical examination. At the time of surgery, six patients had a frank tear in the lateral meniscus, all of which were readily displaceable. Six knees showed a displaceable lateral meniscus with attenuation but not a visible frank tear. Ten menisci were treated with repair, and two knees underwent partial lateral meniscectomies. Patient follow-up of minimally 18 months revealed no further episodes of "knee-cap dislocation" or symptoms of catching and locking. The clinician treating a patient with a history of a knee locking in flexion should have a high index of suspicion for a lateral meniscus tear or an unstable hypermobile lateral meniscus, despite patient report of perceived patella movement. History of symptoms occurring in knee flexion and attention to patella physical examination should be key factors in this diagnostic conundrum. Retrospective chart review, Level IV.

  18. Association of Lateral Crural Overlay Technique With Strength of the Lower Lateral Cartilages. (United States)

    Insalaco, Louis; Rashes, Emma R; Rubin, Samuel J; Spiegel, Jeffrey H


    The lateral crural overlay technique is a powerful technique for altering nasal tip projection and rotation. By overlapping and thus shortening the lateral crura, the nasal tip is shortened and rotated upward, thus decreasing projection and increasing rotation. There is no data to show the association of this technique with the strength of the lower lateral cartilage. Strengthening of the lower lateral cartilages would presumably lead to resistance to external nasal valve collapse and improved airway. In this cadaver study, we set out to determine the differences in the strength and resilience of the lateral crura after performing lateral crural overlay using 2 different techniques. Seven individual lower lateral cartilages were harvested from 6 cadavers for analysis. Each of the 7 cartilages was included sequentially in 3 test groups in the following order: a preprocedure group (preP), a postprocedure group (postP) in which the lateral crural overlay technique was performed, and a postprocedure with glue group (postPG) in which cyanoacrylate glue was added to the postP cartilages to simulate cartilage healing. A force gauge was used to measure the force required to deflect the lower lateral cartilages distances from 1 to 6 mm. Differences measured in newtons (N) for strength and resilience of lateral crura between the preP, postP, and postPG groups. A statistically significant increase in lower lateral cartilage resilience was noted between the preP and postPG groups at all distances of tip deflection (1 mm, 0.20 vs 0.70 N; P strength and resilience to the lateral crura of the lower lateral cartilages, which should in turn decrease the likelihood of external nasal valve collapse postoperatively. NA.

  19. Nonseptic and Septic Lateral Sinus Thrombosis: A Review


    Viswanatha, B.; Thriveni, C. N.; Naseeruddin, Khaja


    Thrombosis of the lateral sinus can be classified into nonseptic lateral sinus thrombosis and septic lateral sinus thrombosis. Nonseptic lateral sinus thrombosis differs from septic lateral sinus thrombosis in that it is not associated with ear or sinus infection. Etiologies of these conditions are different and hence the management of these conditions is different. Nonseptic lateral sinus thrombosis requires medical line of management and anticoagulant therapy, where as septic lateral sinus ...

  20. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults. (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E


    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  1. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.


    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  2. Recalcitrant Lateral Premalleolar Bursitis of the Ankle Associated with Lateral Ankle Instability


    Masashi Naito; Takumi Matsumoto; Song Ho Chang; Masachika Ikegami; Jun Hirose; Sakae Tanaka


    Lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle is a rarely reported disorder in the English literature although it is not uncommon in Asian countries where people commonly sit on their feet. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis associated with lateral ankle instability which was successfully treated with surgical resection of the bursa and repair of the anterior talofibular ligament. Operative findings revealed a communication between th...

  3. Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire. (United States)

    Prieur, Jacques; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine


    Despite significant scientific advances, the nature of the left-hemispheric systems involved in language (speech and gesture) and manual actions is still unclear. To date, investigations of human laterality focused mainly on non-communication functions. Although gestural laterality data have been published for infants and children, relatively little is known about laterality of human gestural communication. This study investigated human laterality in depth considering non-communication manipulation actions and various gesture types involving hands, feet, face and ears. We constructed an online laterality questionnaire including 60 items related to daily activities. We collected 317 594 item responses by 5904 randomly selected participants. The highest percentages of strong left-lateralized (6.76%) and strong right-lateralized participants (75.19%) were for manipulation actions. The highest percentages of mixed left-lateralized (12.30%) and ambidextrous (50.23%) participants were found for head-related gestures. The highest percentage of mixed right-lateralized participants (55.33%) was found for auditory gestures. Every behavioural category showed a significant population-level right-side bias. More precisely, participants were predominantly right-lateralized for non-communication manual actions, for visual iconic, visual symbolic, visual deictic (with and without speech), tactile and auditory manual gestures as well as for podial and head-related gestures. Our findings support previous studies reporting that humans have left-brain predominance for gestures and complex motor activities such as tool-use. Our study shows that the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire is a useful research instrument to assess and analyse human laterality for both manipulation and communication functions.

  4. Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis


    Qiuli Zhang; Cuiping Mao; Jiaoting Jin; Chen Niu; Lijun Bai; Jingxia Dang; Ming Zhang


    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to asse...

  5. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David


    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  6. Does antero-lateral ankle impingement exist? (United States)

    Molinier, F; Benoist, J; Colin, F; Padiolleau, J; Guillo, S; Stone, J; Bauer, T


    Antero-lateral ankle impingement syndrome (ALAIS) is a well-established clinical entity that is a common consequence of ankle sprains. Injury to the anterior talo-fibular ligament plays a key role in the genesis of ALAIS. Arthroscopic antero-lateral synovectomy is the standard of care. However, this treatment approach may deserve to be challenged, as it does not include any procedure on the ligaments, despite the presence in some patients of lateral rotational micro-instability of the ankle, without objective laxity. Consequently, we reviewed current data on ALAIS and its links to ankle instability, from the dual perspective of diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Lateral jet injection into swirling combustor flowfields (United States)

    Lilley, David G.


    An experimental program has been conducted to ascertain the effects of the number of lateral jets, the jet velocity ratio, and the crossflow swirl strength, on the isothermal flowfield patterns in jets injected normally to a round-section crossflow. Attention has been given to the trajectory, penetration, and mixing efficiency of the lateral injection, using flow visualization, pitot-probe and hot-wire methods. In addition, such predictive techniques as a simple, explicit, fully three-dimensional turbulent computer code have been employed.

  8. Clinical seizure lateralization in frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia Beatrice; Lurger, Stefanie; Zimprich, Fritz; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Assem-Hilger, Eva; Baumgartner, Christoph


    We systematically analyzed the lateralizing value of clinical seizure semiology in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). We studied the incidence, positive predictive value (PPV), and the lateralizing significance of various clinical symptoms in 228 seizures (s) of 31 patients (p) with medically refractory FLE (17 with left-sided and 14 with right-sided seizure onset). Seizures recorded during prolonged video-EEG monitoring were assessed by two independent reviewers blinded for the patient's clinical data. Analysis was performed both for patients and seizures. Version [16 p (52%); PPV, 94%; p=0.001; 47 s (21%); PPV, 75%; p=0.001], unilateral clonic movements [16 p (52%); PPV, 81%; p=0.021; 32 s (14%); PPV, 81%; p=0.001], unilateral dystonic posturing [eight p (26%); PPV, 75%; p=0.289; 46 s (20%); PPV, 80%; p=0.001], unilateral tonic posturing [10 p (32%); PPV, 80%; p=0.109; 19 s (7.4%); PPV, 79%; p=0.019], and unilateral grimacing [10 p (32%); PPV, 100%; p=0.002; 19 s (8%); PPV, 100%; p=0.001] were of lateralizing significance, indicating a contralateral seizure onset. Asymmetric ending [five p (16%); PPV, 80%; p=0.375; nine s (4%); PPV, 89%; p=0.039] after secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures was significantly associated with an ipsilateral seizure onset. Pure ictal vocalizations occurred significantly more frequently in seizures of right hemispheric onset [13 p (42%); PPV, 62%; p=0.581; 63 s (28%); PPV, 73%; p=0. 001], whereas in individual patients, this symptom showed no lateralizing significance. The remaining clinical symptoms (figure 4 sign, unilateral hand automatisms, early head turning, postictal nose wiping, and unilateral eye blinking) were not of lateralizing significance in our patients. The results of clinical seizure lateralization corresponded with the final lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in 81% of our patients. Clinical seizure semiology can provide correct information on the lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in >80

  9. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective. (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J


    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai


    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis.

  11. Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) arising from longstanding primary lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, R. P.; Koelman, J. H.; Troost, D.; de Jong, J. M.


    Three men were initially diagnosed as having primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), but eventually developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after 7.5, 9, and at least 27 years. Non-familial ALS and PLS might be different manifestations of a single disease or constitute completely distinct entities.

  12. Genomewide analysis of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The investigation of transcription factor (TF) families is a major focus of postgenomic research. The plant-specific ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE (ASL) / LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain (LBD) proteins constitute a major zincfinger-like-domain transcription factor family, and regulate diverse biological processes in ...

  13. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals]. (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H


    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  14. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails. (United States)

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B


    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  15. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerhuis, A.P.; Jansen, S.T.H.


    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the

  16. Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia. (United States)

    Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F


    A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits.

  17. CASE REPORT Spontaneous lateral sphenoid cerebrospinal fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report. We present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented with a primary complaint of a lateral tongue tumour. During admission for surgery, a large lesion was noticed on his occiput. An MRI revealed a large occipital meningioma for which he had a subtotal resection. Postoperatively he presented with an ...

  18. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later (United States)

    Hammond, Jane


    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  19. Religion and depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, A.W.; Beekman, A.T.F.; van Tilburg, W.


    The recent increase in number of psychiatric epidemiological studies on the role of religion in late life depression suggests that its scientifical and clinical relevance is being re-evaluated. Most studies show that following religion is negatively associated with depression in later life, and

  20. Lateral meningocele and defect of abdominal wall. (United States)

    Placzek, M. M.; MacKinnon, A. E.


    A case of lateral meningocele associated with deficiency of the thoraco-abdominal wall is reported. It is suggested that both of these defects are due to interference with the development of the paraxial mesoderm by a single injury. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6446707

  1. Simulation of lateral flow with SWAT (United States)

    Calibration of the SWAT model for the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) showed that percolation through the restrictive claypan layer, lateral flow above that layer, and redistribution of excess moisture up to the ground surface were not correctly simulated. In addition, surface runoff a...

  2. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life (United States)

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.


    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  3. Medial ankle pain after lateral ligament rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Marti, R. K.


    After a severe ankle sprain the incidence of residual complaints, particularly on the medial side of the joint, is high. We studied a consecutive series of 30 patients who had operative repair of acute ruptures of lateral ligaments. During operation, arthroscopy revealed a fresh injury to the

  4. Rates of Lateral Gene Transfer in Prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Michiel; Hesselman, M.C.; Beek, te T.A.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Eyre-Walker, Adam


    Lateral gene transfer is of fundamental importance to the evolution of prokaryote genomes and has important practical consequences, as evidenced by the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants. Relatively little effort has so far been devoted to explicitly

  5. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eWelniarz


    Full Text Available Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital mirror movements and model rodents with a hopping gait. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the hopping gait. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: i lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and ii unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output.

  6. Traces of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, E.


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease of the motor system involving both upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. Patients suffer from progressive wasting and weakness of limb, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Onset and disease course in ALS

  7. Clinical psychology and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pagnini


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians.

  8. Towards gene therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, Liselijn Agatha Barendina


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a paralytic neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by a specific loss of motoneurons. Although the exact pathogenesis is largely enigmatic, it is known that glutamate excitotoxicity plays an important role in motoneuron cell death. Glutamate is one of the

  9. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks. (United States)


    ... buoys. (b) Sidemarks are lateral marks which advise the mariner to stay to one side of the mark. Their.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks.... Preferred channel marks have red and green horizontal bands with the color of the topmost band indicating...

  10. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.


    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with

  11. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...

  12. Sleep and Fasciculations in Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonka, K.; Fiksa, J.; Horváth, E.; Kemlink, D.; Süssová, J.; Böhm, J.; Šebesta, Václav; Volná, J.; Nevšímalová, S.


    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2004), s. 25-30 ISSN 1432-9123 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5999 Keywords : amyothropic lateral sclerosis ALS * fasciculation * fragmentary myoclonus * periodic leg movements in sleep PLMS * polysomnography PSG * electromyography EMG * REM sleep Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  13. variability of the lateral ligamentous complex of the knee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ligaments on the lateral aspect of the knee namely lateral collateral ligament, anterolateral and triradiate collateral ... lateral knee stability and prevention of excessive internal ... anterior cruciate ligaments were repaired. It therefore becomes ...

  14. Freed Lower Lateral Cartilages with Intact Lateral Attachments: A Versatile Approach in Tip Plasty. (United States)

    Akbaş, Hayati; Yagmur, Caglayan


    Tip plasty is an important procedure that contributes much to obtaining an aesthetically pleasant nose. To increase precision during the tip plasty procedure, control over the lower lateral cartilages should be maximized. This can be accomplished by extending the exposure of the cartilage framework. We present our "Freed Lower Lateral Cartilages With Intact Lateral Attachments" approach through which inferior lateral cartilages are being dissected free from their attachments, while only their lateral bases (lateral crural parts) are left intact. A total of 1752 consecutive patients operated on with this approach were included. All patients were cosmetic rhinoplasty patients operated on between the years 1999 and 2014. During tip plasty, the lower lateral cartilages of all patients were totally dissected from all their attachments, while the lateral bases were left intact. The suture and graft techniques for the tip plasty procedure were then applied to reconfigure the tip region. The approach was used successfully in 1752 patients in a 15-year period. The mean age of patients was 33.5 years. The complication rate was 6.4 % and the revision rate was 4.7 % for the patients. Only 1.2 % of patients needed a revision surgery for tip and/or alar region. None of these patients needed further revision. The aesthetic and functional outcomes revealed high satisfaction rates. The "Freed Lower Lateral Cartilages With Intact Lateral Attachments" approach in tip plasty facilitates manipulation of the tip region while maintaining precise control to provide definition in terms of symmetry and three-dimensional configuration. Furthermore, it constitutes an autologous and practical platform on which nondestructive techniques can be performed in a combined and synergistic fashion. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online

  15. Lateral border zone: quantitation of lateral extension of subendocardial infarction in the dog. (United States)

    Forman, R; Cho, S; Factor, S M; Kirk, E S


    This study was undertaken to quantitate the lateral extension that occurs concomitantly with the transmural extension of a subendocardial infarction. A subendocardial infarct was produced in 12 dogs by a 40 minute temporary coronary artery occlusion. Infarct extension was induced 7 days later by permanent occlusion of the same vessel. Regional myocardial blood flows confirmed that ischemia had been produced with both coronary artery occlusions. The vascular boundaries between the normally perfused and ischemic beds were defined by perfusion with different-colored Microfil solutions. The extent of subendocardial infarction and subsequent transmural and lateral extensions were assessed by point counting of histologic specimens. The initial temporary occlusion produced a 30.0 +/- 4.2% transmural infarct and the subsequent permanent occlusion a 29.2 +/- 3.5% transmural extension in a risk region of 39 +/- 4 g. Lateral extension was not measured in four dogs because the initial subendocardial infarct was patchy with markedly irregular lateral borders. In eight dogs the size of the measured lateral infarct extension from each lateral margin from two histologic sections was 0.63 +/- 0.013 cm2. The area of both lateral extensions was 1.7 +/- 0.1% of the cross-sectional area of its risk region as determined by planimetry. Using a model of the risk region, the mass of the lateral extension was estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.3 g or 3.5 +/- 0.6% of the region at risk. Thus, at the lateral margin of a subendocardial infarct there is a border zone that is small relative to the size of the region at risk and infarcted myocardium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales


    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  17. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients. (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M


    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  18. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Cristina da Costa Pereira


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05. RESULTS: Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space.

  19. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Teimournezhad


    Full Text Available

    The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critical concepts such as handedness and its main features, the theoretical bases for this phenomenon, the nature and functions of lateralization, and the relationship between these two concepts have been shed light on for a better understanding. Finally, the general differences between the left-handers vs. right-handers have been drawn into consideration.

  20. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi


    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  1. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices. (United States)

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo


    Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children's willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  2. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus


    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicles...... was transversally cut while the other fascicle and the fascicular membrane were kept intact. Cycle 3: both fascicles were cut in opposite ends while the fascicular membrane was left intact. A decline in peak force of 45% and 55% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and 93% and 92% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed...... in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. A decline in stiffness of 39% and 60% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and of 93% and 100% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. The present data demonstrate that lateral force transmission between...

  3. Nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensors. (United States)

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben


    Lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) are paper-based devices which permit the performance of low-cost and fast diagnostics with good robustness, specificity, sensitivity and low limits of detection. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) as labels play an important role in the design and fabrication of a lateral flow strip (LFS). The choice of NPs and the corresponding detection method directly affect the performance of these devices. This review discusses aspects related to the application of different nanomaterials (e.g. gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, up-converting phosphor technologies, and latex beads, between others) in LFBs. Moreover, different detection methods (colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, magnetic, etc.) and signal enhancement strategies (affording secondary reactions or modifying the architecture of the LFS) as well as the use of devices such as smartphones to mediate the response of LFSs will be analyzed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Iglesias-Freire


    Full Text Available Magnetic force microscopy (MFM is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm topographic (magnetic lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  5. Induced axial and lateral color surface contributions. (United States)

    Berner, Andrea; Nobis, Thomas; Gross, Herbert


    Induced aberrations in general are higher-order aberrations caused by ray perturbations of lower order, picked up in the preceding optical system. Therefore, in the case of color aberrations, induced influences can already be observed at the second order. They are generated by the preexisting first-order axial and lateral color. The analysis of relevant designs surface by surface to identify performance dominating lenses is a key method for understanding and optimizing those systems. Hence, in this paper a formula for the surface contribution of axial and lateral color including second-order terms is derived and discussed differentiating between intrinsic and induced parts. It is also shown how this can be used to deduce a thick-lens contribution of the second order. All of the approaches are based on the Seidel concept, which characterizes any arbitrary optical system only by the paraxial marginal and chief ray of the primary wavelength.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Visavanatha


    Full Text Available Lateral sinus thrombosis (LST is usually occurs as a complication of middle ear infection .The involvement of lateral sinus during the course of ear infection was a well known complication in preantibiotic days .The decrease in the incidence of LST is due to the introduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics, early diagnosis and surgical treatment. Now, it is a rare complication of otitis media and poses a serious threat that warrants immediate medical and surgical treatment. The classical clinical picture is often changed by previous antibiotic therapy. An awareness of this rare potentially devastating condition and its varied presentations is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment. LST can also occur after head injury.

  7. Unilateral intracarotid amobarbital procedure for language lateralization. (United States)

    Wellmer, Jörg; Fernández, Guillen; Linke, Detlef B; Urbach, Horst; Elger, Christian E; Kurthen, Martin


    The determination of language dominance as part of the presurgical workup of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsies has experienced fundamental changes. With the introduction of noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the number of patients receiving intracarotid amobarbital procedures (IAPs) for assessment of language dominance has decreased considerably. However, recent studies show that because of methodologic limitations of fMRI, IAP remains an important tool for language lateralization. The current study examines whether unilateral instead of bilateral IAP is an adequate way to apply IAP with reduced invasiveness. We retrospectively examine the predictive value of unilateral IAP for the results of bilateral IAP based on a sample of 75 patients with various types of language dominance. Target parameters are the prediction of the language-dominant hemisphere and the identification of patients with atypical language dominance. For language assessment based on unilateral IAP, we introduce the measure hemispheric language capacity (HLC). Unilateral IAP performed on the side of intended surgery quantifies language capacity contralateral to the intended surgery. It detects atypical (bilateral or right) language dominance in the majority of patients. Experience with a separate series of 107 patients requiring presurgical language lateralization shows that in >80%, bilateral IAPs are redundant. Unilateral IAP is principally sufficient for language lateralization in the presurgical evaluation of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Necessity of bilateral IAP is restricted to few indications (e.g., callosotomy). In times of noninvasive language lateralization, we propose unilateral IAP as the method of choice for the verification of doubtful (bilateral) fMRI activation patterns.

  8. Lateral elbow tendinopathy: Evidence of physiotherapy management


    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos


    Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common musculoskeletal/sports injury. A plethora of physiotherapy techniques has been proposed in the management of LET. The exercise programme is the most common treatment in the management of LET. The optimal protocol of exercise programme is still unknown. The effectiveness of the exercise programme is low when it is applied as monotherapy. Therefore, exercise programme is combined with other physiotherapy modalities such as soft tissue techniques, ext...

  9. Treatment of Distal Lateral Ingrown Toenails


    Semih Tatlıcan


    Ingrown toenail is a public health problem widely seen in all age groups. If ingrown toenails are not treated properly, permanent nail and toe deformities may occur. Staging of ingrown toenails is made according to presence of erythema, edema, pain, drainage, infection, granulation tissue and lateral nail wall hypertrophy. Treatment selection is made according to clinical stage. Expectations from therapeutic procedures can be listed as complete relief of symptoms, absence of recurrence, decre...

  10. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips (United States)


    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  11. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth Varghese Thomas


    Full Text Available Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  12. Possession Divestment by Sales in Later Life


    Ekerdt, David J.; Addington, Aislinn


    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers’ capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential r...

  13. Evaluation and management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Valadi, Nojan


    Motor neuron diseases can cause progressive impairment of voluntary muscles of movement, respiration, speech, and swallowing. This review discusses the most common motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of ALS, and its epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. A coordinated approach by the primary care physician and neurologist is necessary with a focus on treatment options, durable medical equipment needs, and end-of-life discussions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychiatric disorders prior to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


    Turner, M.; Goldacre, R; Talbot, K; Goldacre, MJ


    It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with fr...

  15. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting. (United States)

    Thomas, Vineeth Varghese; George, Tina; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mannam, Pavithra; Ramya, I


    Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  16. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barcellos Terra


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. METHODS: Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100. The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used ( p 0.05. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure.

  17. Lateral Dynamics in Polymer-Supported Membranes


    Kazuhiko Seki; Sanoop Ramachandran; Shigeyuki Komura


    We investigate the lateral dynamics in a purely viscous lipid membrane which is supported by a thin polymer sheet (polymer-supported membrane). The generalized frequency-dependent mobility tensor of the polymer-supported membrane is obtained by taking into account the viscoelasticity of the polymer sheet. Due to its viscoelasticity, the cross-correlation functions of two particles embedded in the membrane exhibit an anomalous diffusion. A useful relation for two-point microrheology connecting...

  18. The management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phukan, Julie


    The terms amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease (MND) refer to a condition characterized by motor system degeneration with relative preservation of other pathways. Although there have been advances in symptomatic treatment, ALS remains an incurable condition. Advances in ALS management prolong survival but simultaneously raise challenging ethical dilemmas for physicians, patients and their families. Here, we review current practice in the management of ALS including pharmacological treatment, nutritional management, respiratory care, and evolving strategies in the management of cognitive impairment.

  19. Transnational connections of later-life migrants. (United States)

    Heikkinen, Sari Johanna; Lumme-Sandt, Kirsi


    In this paper a transnational perspective is used to explain whether and how older migrants construct and sustain their social networks. The paper uses a transnational viewpoint on older migrants' lives by analysing their engagement with their former homeland, and the intensity and habitualness of those engagements in old age. The aim of this article is to study the transnational connections of later-life migrants'. Attention is especially paid to the features of old age while maintaining these connections. These considerations are based on analyses of transnational networks in the everyday lives of later-life migrants from the former Soviet Union residing in Finland. The data were collected from 11 later-life migrants. It is found that transnational relationships are a vital part of the everyday lives of older migrants, and that they are sustained in varied ways. These connections mean a concrete source of help, family affiliations, the sharing of emotions, and a larger social network. Economic limitations affect the frequency and type of communication, and various physical limitations may also cause inability to maintain contacts across borders. In these circumstances, family members or other close relatives or friends are needed to deliver messages on the older person's behalf. Old age and immigration status affect the amount and direction of communication across borders, thereby shaping these networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lateral minimal parathyroidectomy: safety and cosmetic benefits. (United States)

    Koren, Ilan; Shpitzer, Thomas; Morgenshtern, Sara; Shvero, Jacob


    Surgery has been the cornerstone of treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism for almost three decades. The recent application of state-of-the art imaging technologies to localize hyperfunctioning adenomas preoperatively has enabled surgeons to minimize the surgical procedure, reduce total operation time and improve cosmetic results without compromising the cure rate. Twenty-one patients with a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were selected for treatment with the lateral minimal parathyroidectomy approach following preoperative imaging with ultrasonography, Tc-sestamibi scan, or both. All patients were followed during hospitalization and for three months after for calcium levels and cosmetic results. The procedure was performed by the same surgical team for all 21 patients; under general anesthesia in 20 patients and under deep sedation in 1 patient at high surgical risk. In all cases, parathyroid adenoma was accurately localized by at least one of the imaging modalities before surgery: ultrasonography in 16 patients (76%), Tc-sestamibi scan in 15 (71%), and both in 10 (48%). Average total operative time for the lateral minimal invasive approach was 46 minutes (range 30-65 minutes). Blood calcium levels returned to normal in all patients, and cosmetic results were graded good to excellent. With accurate preoperative localization of unilateral parathyroid adenoma by any imaging modality and careful patient selection, lateral minimal parathyroidectomy performed by a skilled surgeon may serve as a safe, effective procedure with good clinical and aesthetic outcomes.

  1. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    To enable a prosperous development of offshore wind energy, economically feasible technologies must be developed. The monopod bucket foundation is likely to become a cost-effective sub-structure for offshore wind turbines and has the potential to make offshore wind more cost-competitive in the en......To enable a prosperous development of offshore wind energy, economically feasible technologies must be developed. The monopod bucket foundation is likely to become a cost-effective sub-structure for offshore wind turbines and has the potential to make offshore wind more cost......-competitive in the energy market. This thesis addresses issues concerning monopod bucket foundations in the hope of providing tools and ideas that could be used to optimize the design of this sub-structure. The work is focussed on the behaviour of bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. Other related...... and propaedeutic topics, such as bucket foundations under transient lateral loading and under monotonic lateral loading, are also investigated. All the scientific work is fundamentally based on small-scale experimental tests of bucket foundations in dense water-saturated sand. The most important scientific...

  2. Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors (United States)

    Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark


    Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 μm×150 μm×150 μm. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-γ, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

  3. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels


    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied...... the direct measurements. The mean angle was greater in females (48.2° ± 7.2°) than in males (45.38° ±8.06°) but the difference was not significant (t-test, p = 0.063). A statistically significant difference in cranial base shape existed between the two sexes, but the results also demonstrated a major overlap...

  4. Non-contact lateral force microscopy (United States)

    Weymouth, A. J.


    The goal of atomic force microscopy (AFM) is to measure the short-range forces that act between the tip and the surface. The signal recorded, however, includes long-range forces that are often an unwanted background. Lateral force microscopy (LFM) is a branch of AFM in which a component of force perpendicular to the surface normal is measured. If we consider the interaction between tip and sample in terms of forces, which have both direction and magnitude, then we can make a very simple yet profound observation: over a flat surface, long-range forces that do not yield topographic contrast have no lateral component. Short-range interactions, on the other hand, do. Although contact-mode is the most common LFM technique, true non-contact AFM techniques can be applied to perform LFM without the tip depressing upon the sample. Non-contact lateral force microscopy (nc-LFM) is therefore ideal to study short-range forces of interest. One of the first applications of nc-LFM was the study of non-contact friction. A similar setup is used in magnetic resonance force microscopy to detect spin flipping. More recently, nc-LFM has been used as a true microscopy technique to systems unsuitable for normal force microscopy.

  5. Lateral Atlantoaxial Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Literature Review. (United States)

    Buraimoh, Morenikeji A; Massie, Lara W; Montgomery, David M


    Lateral atlantoaxial osteoarthritis (AAOA), or C1-C2 lateral mass arthritis (LMA), is an unfamiliar degenerative cervical disease with a clinical presentation that markedly differs from subaxial spondylosis. The prevalence of LMA in the nonsurgical outpatient setting is 4%. Risk factors include age and occupation. The typical patient is between 50 and 90 years old, presents with upper cervical or occipital pain, has limited rotation, and has pain provocation during passive rotation to the affected side. Pain stems from degeneration of the lateral C1-C2 articulation and may be referred or radicular, through the greater occipital nerve. Although there is no consensus on diagnostic work-up, the disease is classically seen on the open-mouth odontoid radiograph. Computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan, and diagnostic injections are also useful. Initial treatment is conservative, and upwards of two-thirds of LMA patients obtain lasting relief with noninvasive measures and injections. In patients with severe, recalcitrant pain, limited C1-C2 fusion offers satisfactory and reliable relief. The goals of this review article are to provide a synthesis of the literature on LMA, to offer a treatment approach to LMA, and to identify problems with the current state of knowledge on LMA.

  6. Misleading EEG Lateralization Associated With Midline Shift. (United States)

    Ghearing, Gena R; Abramovici, Sergiu; Popescu, Alexandra; Baldwin, Maria E


    Midline discharges, lateralized periodic discharges, and seizures have been described with ipsilateral lesions that result in midline shift (MLS). Periodic discharges and seizures arising contralateral to a known lesion have not previously been described as a sign of MLS. We present four patients with focal brain lesions, resulting in MLS and epileptiform discharges arising from the contralateral hemisphere. Patient 1 underwent a right anterior temporal lobectomy. On postoperative day 2, computed tomography demonstrated a right to left MLS of 12 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 2 experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was more prominent on the left. Computed tomography after craniotomy demonstrated left to right MLS of 6 mm, and EEG was remarkable for right lateralized periodic discharges. Patient 3 had a right subdural hematoma and underwent craniotomy for evacuation. On postoperative day 3, computed tomography demonstrated a right MLS of 7 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 4 had traumatic brain hemorrhages with maximal left frontotemporal involvement. Six days after the trauma, computed tomography was significant for left to right MLS of 9 mm, and EEG showed right lateralized periodic discharges. Epileptiform discharges and seizures occurring contralateral to a known lesion may be an indicator of MLS.

  7. Morphological variation of the maxillary lateral incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Kondo


    Full Text Available The maxillary lateral incisor is a variable tooth morphologically. This tooth frequently shows reduction in size, and also various alterations in shape, for example, peg-shaped, cone-shaped, barrel-shaped and canine-shaped. The lateral incisor variant can be analyzed by family studies and using twin models, and these approaches have shown that genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors can all contribute to variation in the trait. Discordance of the phenotype in monozygotic twin pairs could be explained by the following two hypotheses: (1 the embryological environment of monochorionic twin pairs who share the same placenta and chorionic membrane during the prenatal period may differ, (2 phenotypic variation may be caused by epigenetic influences. Possible developmental factors are discussed in this review. Recent studies suggest that Msx1, Pax9 and Axin2 genes predispose to lateral incisor agenesis. Tooth reduction and agenesis seem to represent inter-related complex multifactorial traits, influenced by a combination of gene expression and function, environmental interaction and developing timing. Thus, accumulation of large data banks of morphological data is needed to support and clarify ongoing molecular genetic studies of dental development.

  8. Regulation of AMPA receptor lateral movements (United States)

    Borgdorff, Aren J.; Choquet, Daniel


    An essential feature in the modulation of the efficacy of synaptic transmission is rapid changes in the number of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors at post-synaptic sites on neurons. Regulation of receptor endo- and exocytosis has been shown to be involved in this process. Whether regulated lateral diffusion of receptors in the plasma membrane also participates in receptor exchange to and from post-synaptic sites remains unknown. We analysed the lateral mobility of native AMPA receptors containing the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 in rat cultured hippocampal neurons, using single-particle tracking and video microscopy. Here we show that AMPA receptors alternate within seconds between rapid diffusive and stationary behaviour. During maturation of neurons, stationary periods increase in frequency and length, often in spatial correlation with synaptic sites. Raising intracellular calcium, a central element in synaptic plasticity, triggers rapid receptor immobilization and local accumulation on the neuronal surface. We suggest that calcium influx prevents AMPA receptors from diffusing, and that lateral receptor diffusion to and from synaptic sites acts in the rapid and controlled regulation of receptor numbers at synapses.

  9. Childhood and later life stressors and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Roper


    Full Text Available The etiology of psychosis consists of a complex integration of several risk factors including genetic vulnerability, adverse life events and trauma, and substance use. This review discusses the current theories of the genesis of psychosis, with an emphasis on the importance of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs and later life events. ACEs in particular have a profound impact on an individual’s health later in life; and specifically, those who have experienced ACEs are at an increased risk for psychosis. In addition, stressful life events later in life may be relevant for onset and relapse of psychotic episodes. Associations between types of life adversity and specific symptomatology of a psychotic episode have also been suggested. A multi-factorial approach is suggested for linking genetic and environmental contributors to the onset of psychosis. This approach may have an advantage over a purely bio-medical model by focusing less on disability and more on underlying contributors that may be responsive to intervention.

  10. Recalcitrant Lateral Premalleolar Bursitis of the Ankle Associated with Lateral Ankle Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Naito


    Full Text Available Lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle is a rarely reported disorder in the English literature although it is not uncommon in Asian countries where people commonly sit on their feet. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis associated with lateral ankle instability which was successfully treated with surgical resection of the bursa and repair of the anterior talofibular ligament. Operative findings revealed a communication between the bursa and articular cavity of the ankle joint via the sheath of the extensor digitorum longus tendon, which was considered to act as a check valve leading to a large and recalcitrant bursitis. This report provides a novel concept about the etiology of recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle.

  11. Biomechanics of lateral lumbar interbody fusion constructs with lateral and posterior plate fixation: laboratory investigation. (United States)

    Fogel, Guy R; Parikh, Rachit D; Ryu, Stephen I; Turner, Alexander W L


    Lumbar interbody fusion is indicated in the treatment of degenerative conditions. Laterally inserted interbody cages significantly decrease range of motion (ROM) compared with other cages. Supplemental fixation options such as lateral plates or spinous process plates have been shown to provide stability and to reduce morbidity. The authors of the current study investigate the in vitro stability of the interbody cage with a combination of lateral and spinous process plate fixation and compare this method to the established bilateral pedicle screw fixation technique. Ten L1-5 specimens were evaluated using multidirectional nondestructive moments (± 7.5 N · m), with a custom 6 degrees-of-freedom spine simulator. Intervertebral motions (ROM) were measured optoelectronically. Each spine was evaluated under the following conditions at the L3-4 level: intact; interbody cage alone (stand-alone); cage supplemented with lateral plate; cage supplemented with ipsilateral pedicle screws; cage supplemented with bilateral pedicle screws; cage supplemented with spinous process plate; and cage supplemented with a combination of lateral plate and spinous process plate. Intervertebral rotations were calculated, and ROM data were normalized to the intact ROM data. The stand-alone laterally inserted interbody cage significantly reduced ROM with respect to the intact state in flexion-extension (31.6% intact ROM, p plate to the interbody cage did not significantly alter the ROM in flexion-extension (p = 0.904); however, it was significantly decreased in lateral bending and axial rotation (p plate was not statistically different from bilateral pedicle screws in lateral bending (p = 0.579). Supplemental fixation using a spinous process plate was not significantly different from bilateral pedicle screws in flexion-extension (p = 0.476). The combination of lateral plate and spinous process plate was not statistically different from the cage supplemented with bilateral pedicle screws in all

  12. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH


    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. Methods: In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9% patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1% with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0% with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3% patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0% had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7% had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18% compared with unilateral (28% and metachronous primaries (90%. There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%, opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%, and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163. This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1% or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689. There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5

  13. [Acute injuries of lateral ankle joint ligaments]. (United States)

    Lacko, M; Sidor, Z; Stolfa, S; Cellár, R; Vasko, G


    Acute injuries of the lateral ankle ligaments are one of the most common form of injury involving the musculoskeletal apparatus. Treatment usually range from cast immobilisation or acute surgical repair to functional rehabilitation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of different grades of acute injuries of lateral ligaments of the ankle joint in our patients group and to compare the results of non surgical versus surgical treatment of third grade injuries. 3148 patients were treated for acute lateral ankle sprain in a period of 5 years at our department. Each patient had stress X-ray of the ankle for evaluation of instability at the first visit. From the 234 patients with third grade injury, 39 were enrolled in our study with non surgical treatment and 18 with surgical treatment. Each group was divided regarding to the age in two subgroups. Functional outcome was evaluated 12 and 24 months after injury with AOFAS clinical rating scale and Sports Ankle Rating System--Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation. Statistical analysis was done with Pearson's Chi quadrate test with P < 0.05. First grade injury was present in 62%, second grade in 31% and only 7% of the patients had third grade injury of the lateral ankle ligaments. Further only third grade injuries were studied. Statistically significant better results were seen in patients under the age of 25, in the patient group with surgical treatment compared to patients over 25 years of age. Also statistically significant better results were seen in patient with surgical treatment to non surgical treatment in each age group. No significant difference was observed in the non surgical treatment group regarding to age. Although the injuries of the ankle ligaments belong to the most common injuries of the musculoskeletal system, there is no consensus in the treatment of such disorders. Our experiences and the results of our study show, that surgical treatment in indicated cases provides better results in

  14. Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) arising from longstanding primary lateral sclerosis.


    Bruyn, R P; Koelman, J H; Troost, D.; de Jong, J M


    Three men were initially diagnosed as having primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), but eventually developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after 7.5, 9, and at least 27 years. Non-familial ALS and PLS might be different manifestations of a single disease or constitute completely distinct entities. The clinical diagnosis of PLS predicts a median survival that is four to five times longer than in ALS.

  15. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed


    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  16. Lateral Mode Control of Semiconductor Lasers (United States)

    Sun, Yan

    This thesis deals with several topics related to the lateral modes of edge-emitting semiconductor lasers. The first topic is the improvement of lateral beam quality for high power operation. A thermally controlled antiguiding unstable-resonator semiconductor laser with cleaved facets is proposed. With temperature controlled by monolithically integrated micro-heaters, the beam propagation factor is improved by 8 times at 300 mW and by 6 time at 600 mW. The second issue is monolithic semiconductor laser beam steering. Two new mechanisms, thermally controlled offset gain and index guiding lasers and fan laser arrays, have been proposed and demonstrated. They both have single-lobed Gaussian intensity distributions. The fan laser array has shown a total steering angle of 80^circ with eleven resolvable spots, which surpasses the previous results by a factor of three. The third issue is the nonlinear interaction between the semiconductor gain medium and optical waves. The filamentation effect is studied with perturbation theory. Analytical spatial solitary waves have been obtained. The fourth issue is the complex Hermite-Gaussian functions and their applications. An analytical integral expression has been obtained. The generalized complex Gaussian duct is discussed. It is found that the biorthogonal mode expansion and adjoint mode coupling theory in unstable resonators need to be improved. The fifth issue is the lateral modes of stable resonator and stadium resonator semiconductor lasers which have been designed, fabricated and tested. For the stable cavity semiconductor lasers, three distinct operation regions are identified as the stable cavity region, the transition region, and the geometrically unstable region. Preliminary results on stadium resonator semiconductor lasers have also been obtained.

  17. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes. (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed


    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. Actividades para ilustrar el pensamiento lateral


    Torres, German


    La actividad matemática tiene por objeto ayudar a mejorar la forma de pensar, de pensar matemáticamente. El pensamiento tradicional permite refinar los modelos y comprobar su validez, pero para conseguir un uso óptimo de la nueva información hemos de crear nuevos modelos, escapando a la influencia monopolizadora de los ya existentes. La función del pensamiento lateral, complementario del pensamiento lógico (vertical), es la reestructuración de esos modelos y la creación de otros nuevos. La pr...

  19. Lateral elbow tendinopathy: Evidence of physiotherapy management. (United States)

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos


    Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common musculoskeletal/sports injury. A plethora of physiotherapy techniques has been proposed in the management of LET. The exercise programme is the most common treatment in the management of LET. The optimal protocol of exercise programme is still unknown. The effectiveness of the exercise programme is low when it is applied as monotherapy. Therefore, exercise programme is combined with other physiotherapy modalities such as soft tissue techniques, external support, acupuncture, manual therapy and electrotherapy, in the treatment of LET. Future research is needed to determine which treatment strategy combined with exercise programme will provide the best results in LET rehabilitation.

  20. Stem cell therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijuan Mao


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of motor neurons. Currently, no effective therapy is available to treat ALS, except for Riluzole, which has only limited clinical benefits. Stem-cell-based therapy has been intensively and extensively studied as a potential novel treatment strategy for ALS and has been shown to be effective, at least to some extent. In this article, we will review the current state of research on the use of stem cell therapy in the treatment of ALS and discuss the most promising stem cells for the treatment of ALS.

  1. Predicting masking release of lateralized speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten


    Locsei et al. (2015) [Speech in Noise Workshop, Copenhagen, 46] measured ˝ speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in anechoic conditions where the target speech and the maskers were lateralized using interaural time delays. The maskers were speech-shaped noise (SSN) and reversed babble with 2, 4, or 8....... The largest masking release (MR) was observed when all maskers were on the opposite side of the target. The data in the conditions containing only energetic masking and modulation masking could be accounted for using a binaural extension of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model [sEPSM; Jørgensen et...

  2. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later. (United States)

    Spiegelman, J M


    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined.

  3. Quantifying Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (United States)

    Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic. PMID:25223628

  4. Primary lateral sclerosis mimicking atypical parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlinah, Ibrahim M; Bhatia, Kailash P; Østergaard, Karen


    Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), the upper motor neurone variant of motor neurone disease, is characterized by progressive spinal or bulbar spasticity with minimal motor weakness. Rarely, PLS may present with clinical features resembling parkinsonism resulting in occasional misdiagnosis as one...... of the atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here we describe five patients initially referred with a diagnosis of levodopa-unresponsive atypical parkinsonism (n = 4) or primary progressive multiple sclerosis (n = 1), but subsequently found to have features consistent with PLS instead. Onset age varied from 49 to 67...

  5. Bodily alignment of the lateral incisor spring: Blocked-out laterals unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Dixit


    Full Text Available Introduction: Bodily alignment of teeth that are blocked out of the arch specially in cases of a palatally placed lateral incisor, is often time consuming and difficult. Though several treatment methods are available for accomplishing this, these approaches have some drawbacks. To overcome these shortcomings, the BALI (Bodily Alignment of Lateral Incisor spring was designed to achieve bodily movement of palatally blocked-out lateral incisors in preadjusted edgewise appliance therapy. Methods: This spring in the form of figure of eight (8 is made with 0.017” X 0.025” TMA wire. It is engaged into the lateral incisor bracket and tied to the base archwire after sufficient space has been created for the blocked-out tooth. Conclusion: The BALI spring is an efficient and versatile auxiliary which can be effectively used for the bodily alignment of palatally placed lateral incisors. It is easy to fabricate and engage, prevents distortion of the archwire and applies light forces to the tooth.

  6. Craniofacial repercussions in maxillary lateral incisors agenesis. (United States)

    Pinho, Teresa; Pollmann, Cristina; Calheiros-Lobo, Maria João; Sousa, Alda; Lemos, Carolina


    Assessment of the influence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA) on the facial morphogenesis. Evaluation of the skeletal dimensions of the upper maxilla and its incisor region. Analysis was performed among three groups: individuals with MLIA, its relatives and the normal population. Among these a comparison between adults and growing individuals was performed. MLIA may interfere with the maxillary length and the anterosuperior facial height, negatively conditioning on its potential growth. MLIA was not correlated with changes of the palatine plane inclination, maxillary height nor with adjustment of the anterior nasal spine dimensions related to the Frankfurt plan or to the posterior nasal spine-Frankfurt plan during the observed development stage; the backward angle of the incisors in children with bilateral agenesis of lateral incisors appear to have been corrected in adulthood. MLIA is associated with an upper maxilla shortening, and appear to interfere significantly with the anterior facial height, reducing its potential size. Copyright © 2011 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The Paradox of Leisure in Later Life (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit; Shrira, Amit


    Objective. Numerous studies have shown that involvement in leisure activity has a significant impact on older adults’ physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being. This study explores whether the association between leisure involvement and well-being in later life changes over time. Method. Data were drawn from the first 4 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Growth curve models were applied to examine whether leisure moderated change in quality of life (QoL) over time among 7,875 retirees aged 60 and older. Results. Findings indicated that the association between leisure and QoL increased with time, as nonactive respondents displayed a decline in QoL over time, whereas those with high levels of leisure involvement showed an increase. Findings remained significant after controlling for sociodemographics, health, and cognitive functioning. Discussion. Results indicated that the significance of leisure to well-being increases throughout the later life course, and that leisure may act as a resource for resilience in old age. They also pointed out a paradoxical situation in which the older seniors, who may benefit from leisure involvement more than their younger peers, are precisely the ones who face the greater number of constraints to beneficial use of leisure. PMID:25315158

  8. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy. (United States)

    Reitsma, Mark G; Gates, Richard S; Friedman, Lawrence H; Cook, Robert F


    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The "hammerhead" cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever "torque sensitivity" to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Lateral Distribution Functions of Extensive Air Showers (United States)

    Geranios, A.; Fokitis, E.; Maltezos, S.; Koutsokosta, D.; Antoniadou, I.; Malandraki, O.; Mastichiadis, A.; Antonopoulou, E.; Gika, V.; Dimitrakoudis, S.

    The energy is among the characteristics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>5 x 1019 eV) which could be estimated experimentally. The following paper attempts to estimate the energy of an UHECR proton by applying a Monte Carlo simulation code. A number of extensive air showers, vertical and inclined, is simulated to derive the Lateral Distribution Functions of the shower muons. The scenario of simulations is adopted to the Cerenkov surface detector of the P. AUGER Observatory. Due to the fact that the Lateral Distribution Functions show minimal fluctuations of the muon density at a distance larger than 800 m from the core of the showers, and due to the fact that at a distance of 900 m the distribution functions for inclined showers coincide (which means that it does not change with the zenith angle of the showers), we select the muon density at 900 m to derive the energy of the primary protons. (The project is co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources (EPEAEK II) PYTHAGORAS II.)

  10. Treatment of sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Tysnes, O-B


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive disease of all voluntary muscles. Bulbar symptoms with reduced ability to swallow occur frequently and may also be an early symptom. For some patients drooling may represent a severe social problem. To review the literature on treatment of sialorrhea in ALS and describe possible treatments. PubMed was searched combining the words amyotrophic or ALS with sialorrhea or drooling. Publications more recent than 2000 were selected. A total of 31 publications were found. Of these, 22 are from 2000 or later. Thirteen of the 22 most recent publications are original papers whereas 9 are review articles. Of the original articles, four describe treatment of sialorrhea with radiotherapy, five describe effects of botolinum toxin injections into the salivary grands and two describe serious side-effects of botolinum toxin injections for sialorrhea in ALS. The remaining original articles are case descriptions or practice surveys. The treatment of sialorrhea in ALS is discussed in the view of current knowledge.

  11. Radiotherapy reduces sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Neppelberg, E; Haugen, D F; Thorsen, L; Tysnes, O-B


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Sialorrhea is a frequent problem in ALS patients with bulbar symptoms, because of progressive weakness of oral, lingual and pharyngeal muscles. This prospective study aimed to investigate the putative effect of palliative single-dose radiotherapy on problematic sialorrhea in patients with ALS. Twenty patients with ALS and problematic drooling were included; 14 were given radiotherapy with a single fraction of 7.5 Grey (Gy). Five patients were treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections (20 U) into the parotid glands; two of these were later given radiotherapy. Symptom assessment, clinical examination and measurements of salivary flow (ml/min) were performed before and after treatment (1-2 weeks, 3 months). Salivary secretion was significantly reduced after radiation treatment, with a mean reduction of 60% (1 week) and 51% (2 weeks). Three months post-treatment, 21% reduction of the salivary secretion was observed compared with salivation before treatment. Mean salivary flow was not reduced after BTX-A treatment in five patients. No serious side-effects were observed with either of the two treatment modalities. Single-dose radiotherapy (7.5 Gy) significantly reduces sialorrhea and is an effective and safe palliative treatment in patients with ALS.

  12. Treatment of Distal Lateral Ingrown Toenails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Tatlıcan


    Full Text Available Ingrown toenail is a public health problem widely seen in all age groups. If ingrown toenails are not treated properly, permanent nail and toe deformities may occur. Staging of ingrown toenails is made according to presence of erythema, edema, pain, drainage, infection, granulation tissue and lateral nail wall hypertrophy. Treatment selection is made according to clinical stage. Expectations from therapeutic procedures can be listed as complete relief of symptoms, absence of recurrence, decreased post-operational pain, drainage and infection risk, minimization of healing time, cosmetically proper outcomes and patient satisfaction. General precautions are wider shoe wearing, proper nail trimming, and warm foot baths. Widely performed non-invasive treatments can be specified as taping, insertion of cotton wisps and plastic tubes, and application of nail braces. Surgical treatments are partial and total nail avulsion, procedures for the lateral nail fold, surgical and chemical matricectomies and combinations of them. Generally surgical methods are more effective than non-invasive ones. Most effective and safe procedures are the surgical and chemical matricectomies targeting nail matrix. Ingrown toenails can be successfully treated by dermatologists.

  13. Balance problems after unilateral lateral ankle sprains. (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad; Karimi, Hossein; Farahini, Hossein; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat


    Abstract-Ankle ligament injury is the most common injury in athletic activities. This study examined balance problems in athletes with acute lateral ankle sprains. Thirty male athletes aged 20 to 35 years with right dominant side and traumatic ankle sprain were recruited through simple nonprobability sampling. We measured the sway index and limits of stability with the Biodex Balance System under different conditions. Functional balance was evaluated with two clinical tests: the Functional Reach Test and the Star-Excursion Balance Test. The results showed that balance ability in patients with acute lateral ankle sprain was significantly weaker under closed- versus open-eye conditions. Symmetry of weight-bearing on involved and sound limb in bilateral standing was not significantly different, but weight-bearing on the nondominant limb was significantly higher than on the dominant limb. We can conclude that balance problems occur after acute ankle sprains because of proprioception deficits and that the unconscious (reflexive) aspect of proprioception is more severely affected than the conscious (voluntary) aspect.

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Furtado Bastos


    Full Text Available The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1, certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients.

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes? (United States)

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo


    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  16. Laterality of Oral Clefts and Academic Achievement. (United States)

    Gallagher, Emily R; Collett, Brent R; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul; Ansley, Timothy; Wehby, George L


    Children with isolated oral clefts have lower academic performance when compared with unaffected peers, yet few studies have examined specific attributes of clefts that may modify this risk. Oral clefts have nonrandom laterality, with left-sided clefts being more common than right-sided clefts, a pattern that may be genetically or environmentally influenced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between cleft laterality and academic achievement in a population-based sample of children with and without isolated oral clefts. The study included 292 children with isolated unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate identified by using the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders matched with 908 unaffected classmates. This group provided 1953 child-grade observations for cases and 6829 for classmates. Academic achievement was evaluated by using high-quality standardized test data on multiple academic domains as well as use of special education. We found that children with right-sided clefts had similar achievement scores and usage of special education services compared with their unaffected classmates. Children with left-sided clefts had lower reading scores than children with right-sided clefts by nearly 7 percentiles (P academic performance than their classmates or children with right-sided clefts, who showed similar academic achievement compared with their unaffected classmates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. the Analysis of Coupled Lateral Torsional Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Szolc


    Full Text Available In the paper, dynamic investigations of the rotor shaft systems are performed by means of the discrete-continuous mechanical models. In these models the rotor shaft segments are represented by the rotating cylindrical flexurally and torsionally deformable continuous viscoelastic elements. These elements are mutually connected according to the structure of the real system in the form of a stepped shaft which is suspended on concentrated inertial viscoelastic supports of linear or non-linear characteristics. At appropriate shaft crosssections, by means of massless membranes, there are attached rigid rings representing rotors, disks, gears, flywheels and others. The proposed model enables us to investigate coupled linear or non-linear lateral torsional Vibrations of the rotating systems in steady-state and transient operating conditions. As demonstrative examples, for the steam turbo-compressor under coupled lateral torsional vibrations, the transient response due to a blade falling out from the turbine rotor as well as the steady-state response in the form of parametric resonance caused by residual unbalances are presented.

  18. Physiological recordings from the zebrafish lateral line. (United States)

    Olt, J; Ordoobadi, A J; Marcotti, W; Trapani, J G


    During sensory transduction, external physical stimuli are translated into an internal biological signal. In vertebrates, hair cells are specialized mechanosensory receptors that transduce sound, gravitational forces, and head movements into electrical signals that are transmitted with remarkable precision and efficiency to afferent neurons. Hair cells have a conserved structure between species and are also found in the lateral line system of fish, including zebrafish, which serve as an ideal animal model to study sensory transmission in vivo. In this chapter, we describe the methods required to investigate the biophysical properties underlying mechanosensation in the lateral line of the zebrafish in vivo from microphonic potentials and single hair cell patch-clamp recordings to single afferent neuron recordings. These techniques provide real-time measurements of hair-cell transduction and transmission following delivery of controlled and defined stimuli and their combined use on the intact zebrafish provides a powerful platform to investigate sensory encoding in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions. (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth


    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding.

  20. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  1. [Evaluation of dysphagia. Results after one year of incorporating videofluoroscopy into its study introduction]. (United States)

    García Romero, Ruth; Ros Arnal, Ignacio; Romea Montañés, María José; López Calahorra, José Antonio; Gutiérrez Alonso, Cristina; Izquierdo Hernández, Beatriz; Martín de Vicente, Carlos


    Dysphagia is very common in children with neurological disabilities. These patients usually suffer from respiratory and nutritional problems. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is the most recommended test to evaluate dysphagia, as it shows the real situation during swallowing. To analyse the results obtained in our centre after one year of the implementation of VFSS, the clinical improvement after confirmation, and the prescription of an individualised treatment for the patients affected. VFSS performed in the previous were collected. The following variables were analysed: age, pathology, degree of neurological damage, oral and pharyngeal and/or oesophageal dysphagia and its severity, aspirations, prescribed treatment, and nutritional and respiratory improvement after diagnosis. A statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v21. A total of 61 VFSS were performed. Dysphagia was detected in more than 70%, being moderate-severe in 58%. Aspirations and/or penetrations were recorded in 59%, of which 50% were silent. Adapted diet was prescribed to 56%, and gastrostomy was performed on 13 (21%) patients. A statistical association was found between neurological disease and severity of dysphagia. The degree of motor impairment is related to the presence of aspirations. After VFSS evaluation and treatment adjustment, nutritional improvement was found in Z-score of weight (+0.3SD) and BMI (+0.4SD). There was respiratory improvement in 71% of patients with dysphagia being controlled in the Chest Diseases Department. After implementation of VFSS, a high percentage of patients were diagnosed and benefited from a correct diagnosis and treatment. VFSS is a fundamental diagnostic test that should be included in paediatric centres as a diagnostic method for children with suspected dysphagia. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. A Dynamic Image Quality Evaluation of Videofluoroscopy Images: Considerations for Telepractice Applications. (United States)

    Burns, Clare L; Keir, Benjamin; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hill, Anne J; Farrell, Anna; Phillips, Nick; Porter, Linda


    High-quality fluoroscopy images are required for accurate interpretation of videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) by speech pathologists and radiologists. Consequently, integral to developing any system to conduct VFSS remotely via telepractice is ensuring that the quality of the VFSS images transferred via the telepractice system is optimized. This study evaluates the extent of change observed in image quality when videofluoroscopic images are transmitted from a digital fluoroscopy system to (a) current clinical equipment (KayPentax Digital Swallowing Workstation, and b) four different telepractice system configurations. The telepractice system configurations consisted of either a local C20 or C60 Cisco TelePresence System (codec unit) connected to the digital fluoroscopy system and linked to a second remote C20 or C60 Cisco TelePresence System via a network running at speeds of either 2, 4 or 6 megabits per second (Mbit/s). Image quality was tested using the NEMA XR 21 Phantom, and results demonstrated some loss in spatial resolution, low contrast detectability and temporal resolution for all transferred images when compared to the fluoroscopy source. When using higher capacity codec units and/or the highest bandwidths to support data transmission, image quality transmitted through the telepractice system was found to be comparable if not better than the current clinical system. This study confirms that telepractice systems can be designed to support fluoroscopy image transfer and highlights important considerations when developing telepractice systems for VFSS analysis to ensure high-quality radiological image reproduction.

  3. Improving patient access to videofluoroscopy services: Role of the practitioner-led clinic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Roger D., E-mail: [Dept. of Speech and Language Therapy, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals, Sharoe Green lane, Fulwood, Preston PR2 9HT (United Kingdom); University of Salford (United Kingdom); Nightingale, Julie [University of Salford (United Kingdom)


    Quality Issue: Although costly and time consuming, videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) examinations are the gold standard for imaging of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia, and demand is likely to increase with an ageing population. Traditional radiologist-led VFS services in the UK are gradually being replaced by practitioner-led clinics undertaken jointly by speech and language therapists and radiographers. This article explores the impact on patient access of a practitioner-led VFS clinic at a large teaching hospital. Initial Assessment: Specific information pertaining to VFS patient waiting times and service quality was collected for a twelve month period both pre- and post-clinic formation. Choice of Solution: Additional capacity was achieved with the introduction of the practitioner-led clinic, with overall patient access improving by 111%. Mean waiting times for in-patients reduced by 75%, many of whom had the procedure on the same day as referral, with out-patients waiting times reducing by 62.5%. Evaluation: The data demonstrates that patient access and report turnaround times are significantly improved, with no adverse effects as measured by inadequate studies, incorrect reports, complaints and documented radiation dose levels. Lessons Learnt: Practitioner-led VFS services can be recommended as a safe and efficient method of improving service provision.

  4. Measurement of lumbar spine intervertebral motion in the sagittal plane using videofluoroscopy. (United States)

    Harvey, Steven; Hukins, David; Smith, Francis; Wardlaw, Douglas; Kader, Deiary


    Static radiographic techniques are unable to capture the wealth of kinematic information available from lumbar spine sagittal plane motion. Demonstration of a viable non-invasive technique for acquiring and quantifying intervertebral motion of the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane. Videofluoroscopic footage of sagittal plane lumbar spine flexion-extension in seven symptomatic volunteers (mean age = 48 yrs) and one asymptomatic volunteer (age = 54 yrs) was recorded. Vertebral bodies were digitised using customised software employing a novel vertebral digitisation scheme that was minimally affected by out-of-plane motion. Measurement errors in intervertebral rotation (± 1°) and intervertebral displacement (± 0.5 mm) compare favourably with the work of others. Some subjects presenting with an identical condition (disc prolapse) exhibited a similar column vertebral flexion-extension relative to S1 (L3: max. 5.9°, min. 5.6°), while in others (degenerative disc disease) there was paradoxically a significant variation in this measurement (L3: max. 28.1°, min. 0.7°). By means of a novel vertebral digitisation scheme and customised digitisation/analysis software, sagittal plane intervertebral motion data of the lumbar spine data has been successfully extracted from videofluoroscopic image sequences. Whilst the intervertebral motion signatures of subjects in this study differed significantly, the available sample size precluded the inference of any clinical trends.

  5. Psychological Vulnerability and Gambling in Later Life. (United States)

    Dennis, Cory B; Davis, Thomas D; Chang, Janet; McAllister, Carolyn


    Because behavioral problems often emerge from maladaptive coping methods, we investigated whether unmet basic psychological needs evolve toward a level of psychological vulnerability that puts older adults who gamble at risk for becoming problem gamblers. Data from a community sample of 379 adults ages 60 and above were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Participants responded to items regarding their demographics, gambling frequency, engagement in at-risk gambling behaviors, and the extent to which their basic psychological needs were met. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs among older adults who gamble was negatively associated with their being at risk for developing a gambling problem. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs also mediated the negative effect of socioeconomic status on at-risk gambling behavior. Social workers should become mindful of how older adults, who are confronting psychological vulnerabilities in later life, might well turn to gambling as a maladaptive coping mechanism.As per journal style, abstract must not exceed100 words. Please amend accordingly.

  6. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyagi, A


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common, progressive motor neurone disease but is rare in the obstetric population. Only 4 cases have been described in the English literature since 1975. We describe a 29 year old woman who presented with ataxia, lower limb weakness and dysarthria 4 weeks after the birth of her first child. The symptoms had onset during the pregnancy but had not been considered remarkable. There were clinical features of upper and lower motor neurone involvement without any sensory loss. MRI of brain and spine was normal. CSF analysis was negative. EMG studies confirmed the presence of widespread anterior horn cell dysfunction compatible with ALS. The patient was commenced on Riluzole and has progressed clinically, at 12 months post diagnosis.

  7. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and respiratory insufficiency]. (United States)

    Siirala, Waltteri; Korpela, Jaana; Vuori, Arno; Saaresranta, Tarja; Olkkola, Klaus T; Aantaa, Riku


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease causing degeneration of motor neurons, without any curative treatment. The most common cause of death is respiratory arrest due to atrophy of the respiratory musculature. ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency differs in mechanism from the more common causes of dyspnea, such as diseases of pulmonary or cardiac origin. Recognizing the respiratory insufficiency can be challenging for a clinician. It should be possible to predict the development of respiratory insufficiency in order to avoid leaving the treatment decisions concerning respiratory insufficiency to emergency services. Noninvasive ventilatory support can be used to alleviate the patient's dyspnea. It is actually recommended as the first-line treatment of ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency.

  8. Myofascial pain in lateral epicondylalgia: a review. (United States)

    Shmushkevich, Yaniv; Kalichman, Leonid


    There is an ongoing debate about the myofascial component, characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in lateral epicondylalgia (LE). To review current evidence of the association between myofascial pain and LE, including efficacy of treatment, focusing on myofascial pain. PubMed, Google Scholar and PEDro databases were searched without search limitations from inception until October 2012 for terms relating to LE and MTrPs. Two observational studies showed a high prevalence of MTrPs in LE patients compared to healthy controls. Three randomized controlled trials demonstrated significant improvement in pain and functional outcomes after application of soft tissue techniques, focusing on the myofascial component. Myofascial pain and MTrPs may be part of the LE etiology. Treatment focusing on the myofascial component seems to be effective in reducing pain and improving function in patients with LE. Additional trials are essential to attain a solid conclusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a hormonal condition? (United States)

    Blasco, Helene; Guennoc, Anne-Marie; Veyrat-Durebex, Charlotte; Gordon, Paul H; Andres, Christian R; Camu, William; Corcia, Philippe


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disorder in adults. This fatal condition, due to degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in spinal and bulbar myotomes, leads to death from respiratory failure after median disease duration of 36 months. ALS is sporadic in more than 90% of cases and familial in the remaining cases. Most studies show male predominance with a gender ratio of 3:2, but gender differences are age related. The phenotype of ALS is also different in males and females with a predominance of limb onset in males and bulbar onset in females. While age and site of onset impact survival rate, and are both related to gender, gender by itself has not clearly been shown to have an effect on survival. Given this complex relationship between gender and ALS, we developed a hypothesis about hormone involvement in ALS aetiology by suggesting protective effect of oestrogens and adverse effect of androgens.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Kollewe


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disorder which is incurable to date. As there are many ongoing studies with therapeutic candidates, it is of major interest to develop biomarkers not only to facilitate early diagnosis but also as a monitoring tool to predict disease progression and to enable correct randomization of patients in clinical trials. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has made substantial progress over the last three decades and is a practical, noninvasive method to gain insights into the pathology of the disease. Disease-specific MRI changes therefore represent potential biomarkers for ALS. In this paper we give an overview of structural and functional MRI alterations in ALS with the focus on task-free resting-state investigations to detect cortical network failures.

  11. Neuroimaging Endpoints in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. (United States)

    Menke, Ricarda A L; Agosta, Federica; Grosskreutz, Julian; Filippi, Massimo; Turner, Martin R


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo. Abnormalities are detectable before clinical symptoms develop, offering the potential for neuroprotective intervention in familial cases. Although promising neuroimaging biomarker candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and disease progression have emerged, these have been from the study of necessarily select patient cohorts identified in specialized referral centers. Further multicenter research is now needed to establish their validity as therapeutic outcome measures.

  12. Neuromuscular Junction Dismantling in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cappello


    Full Text Available Neuromuscular junction assembly and plasticity during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life are tightly regulated by the continuous cross-talk among motor nerve endings, muscle fibers, and glial cells. Altered communications among these components is thought to be responsible for the physiological age-related changes at this synapse and possibly for its destruction in pathological states. Neuromuscular junction dismantling plays a crucial role in the onset of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. ALS is characterized by the degeneration and death of motor neurons leading to skeletal muscle denervation, atrophy and, most often, death of the patient within five years from diagnosis. ALS is a non-cell autonomous disease as, besides motor neuron degeneration, glial cells, and possibly muscle fibers, play a role in its onset and progression. Here, we will review the recent literature regarding the mechanisms leading to neuromuscular junction disassembly and muscle denervation focusing on the role of the three players of this peripheral tripartite synapse.

  13. Respiratory apraxia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; Pinto, Anabela; Atalaia, António; Peralta, Rita; de Carvalho, Mamede


    Respiratory dysfunction is a critical problem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report a patient with ALS who had respiratory apraxia. A 74-year-old female presented with progressive dysarthria and dysphagia. Clinical signs and evidence of widespread denervation on electromyography (EMG) confirmed the diagnosis of ALS. She had no signs of dementia. Irregular volitional inspiratory movements on verbal command were noticed, in contrast with rhythmic automatic inspiration - respiratory apraxia. Limb and buco-facial movements showed no signs of apraxia. EMG of respiratory muscles was normal, apart from irregular phasic activity of the diaphragm on volitional inspiration; this was confirmed by recording respiratory movements with a percutaneous sensor transducer. Sleep study was normal. She deteriorated rapidly; nonetheless, no clinical sign of dementia or other apraxic findings were observed. ALS, particularly when of bulbar onset, can cause respiratory apraxia and EMG of the respiratory muscles can be useful to detect this condition.

  14. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui


    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...

  15. Liquefaction Mitigation Using Lateral Confinement Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Azzam


    Full Text Available The exploration of a series of shaking tests on circular model footing with and without cellular confinement constructed around the footing with variable depths and diameters under the effect of variable net bearing stress is studied. The effect of the confinement on the liquefaction time, final settlement, excess pore water pressure, and induced building acceleration were studied. The consequences showed that installing the cell with minimum diameter closer to footing and sufficient penetration depth significantly delayed the liquefaction time. It can be considered as an alternative technique to decrease both the lateral spreading and the final settlement below the foundation during the shaking. The results demonstrated that the cell reduced the excess pore water pressure within the confined zone and the pore water pressure migration outside the confined block where the liquefaction is induced. Moreover, the peak foundation acceleration of the confined footing soil system is reduced compared with the case of without cell confinement.

  16. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (United States)

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  17. Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (United States)

    Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: update and new developments (United States)

    Pratt, Ashley J; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Perry, J Jefferson P


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease. It is typically characterized by adult-onset degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons, and is usually fatal within a few years of onset. A subset of ALS patients has an inherited form of the disease, and a few of the known mutant genes identified in familial cases have also been found in sporadic forms of ALS. Precisely how the diverse ALS-linked gene products dictate the course of the disease, resulting in compromised voluntary muscular ability, is not entirely known. This review addresses the major advances that are being made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms giving rise to the disease, which may eventually translate into new treatment options. PMID:23019386

  19. EAS-BUAP: Lateral Distribution and Performance (United States)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Aguilar, S.; Villaseñor, L.


    We describe the operation and performance of the first stage of the EAS-UAP extensive air shower array, as a detector of very high energy cosmic rays (Eo > 1014eV) after one year of operation. The array is located at the Campus of Puebla University, 2200 m above sea level. It consists of 10 liquid scintillator detectors, each with an active surface of 1 m2 and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. One Auger Water Cherenkov detector is also included as part of the array. In this report we discuss the stability, the calibration and lateral distribution function reconstruction capabilities of the detector array. We also present the analysis of the shower size spectrum. In addition, the main characteristics of this array allow us to use it as an educational and training facility.

  20. Motoneuron firing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamede eDe Carvalho


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the classical motor system and the frontal effector brain, causing muscular weakness and atrophy, with variable upper motor neuron signs and often an associated fronto-temporal dementia. The physiological disturbance consequent on the motor system degeneration is beginning to be well understood. In this review we describe aspects of the motor cortical, neuronal and lower motor neuron dysfunction. We show how studies of the changes in the pattern of motor unit firing help delineate the underlying pathophysiological disturbance as the disease progresses. Such studies are beginning to illuminate the underlying disordered pathophysiological processes in the disease, and are important in designing new approaches to therapy and especially for clinical trials.

  1. Errors in digitized lateral cephalometric radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seon Doo; Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kunng Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cephalometric reproducibility in digitized cephalometric radiography by comparing the measurement errors between the remeasured and retaken conventional and digitized lateral cephalometric radiography. The mean of the differences and error percentage of each cephalometric measurement were obtained using 96 lateral cephalometric radiography from 48 patients between the age of 11 and 13. The results were as follows; 1. The repeated measurement group of conventional radiography showed least amount of mean differences while those of the retaken measurement group of digitized image showed largest amount of mean differences in every measurement. 2. The measurements which showed statistically significant difference between the conventional radiography and digitized image were S-Go, Ar-Go, S-Ar-Go and S-sN-sNT in repeated measurement group. 3. The measurements which showed statistically significant difference between the repeated and retaken measurement groups were N-S-Ar, MP-L1 and S-sN-sPog in conventional radiography and S-N, Go-Me and N-A in digitized image. 4. Large amount of error percentage was shown at A-N-B and N-A in retaken measurement group of conventional radiography and N-S-Ba and A-N-B in retaken measurement group of digitized image. 5. The amount of error percentage at Ar-Go and N-S-Ar in retaken measurement group of conventional radiography and S-N, N-A, S-N-B and N-S-Ba in retaken measurement group of digitized image was more than double than those from remeasured groups.

  2. Lateral pupil alignment tolerance in peripheral refractometry. (United States)

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Ho, Arthur; Holden, Brien A


    To investigate the tolerance to lateral pupil misalignment in peripheral refraction compared with central refraction. A Shin-Nippon NVision-K5001 open-view auto-refractor was used to measure central and peripheral refraction (30° temporal and 30° nasal visual field) of the right eyes of 10 emmetropic and 10 myopic participants. At each of the three fixation angles, five readings were recorded for each of the following alignment positions relative to pupil center: centrally aligned, 1 and 2 mm temporally aligned, and 1 and 2 mm nasally aligned. For central fixation, increasing dealignment from pupil center produced a quadratic decrease (r ≥ 0.98, p < 0.04) in the refractive power vectors M and J180 which, when interpolated, reached clinical significance (i.e., ≥ 0.25 diopter for M and ≥ 0.125 diopter for J180 and J45) for an alignment error of 0.79 mm or greater. M and J180 as measured in the 30° temporal and 30° nasal visual field led to a significant linear correlation (r ≥ 0.94, p < 0.02) as pupil dealignment gradually changed from temporal to nasal. As determined from regression analysis, a pupil alignment error of 0.20 mm or greater would introduce errors in M and J180 that are clinically significant. Tolerance to lateral pupil alignment error decreases strongly in the periphery compared with the greater tolerance in central refraction. Thus, precise alignment of the entrance pupil with the instrument axis is critical for accurate and reliable peripheral refraction.

  3. Fractal analysis of lateral movement in biomembranes. (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech


    Lateral movement of a molecule in a biomembrane containing small compartments (0.23-μm diameter) and large ones (0.75 μm) is analyzed using a fractal description of its walk. The early time dependence of the mean square displacement varies from linear due to the contribution of ballistic motion. In small compartments, walking molecules do not have sufficient time or space to develop an asymptotic relation and the diffusion coefficient deduced from the experimental records is lower than that measured without restrictions. The model makes it possible to deduce the molecule step parameters, namely the step length and time, from data concerning confined and unrestricted diffusion coefficients. This is also possible using experimental results for sub-diffusive transport. The transition from normal to anomalous diffusion does not affect the molecule step parameters. The experimental literature data on molecular trajectories recorded at a high time resolution appear to confirm the modeled value of the mean free path length of DOPE for Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Although the step length and time give the proper values of diffusion coefficient, the DOPE speed calculated as their quotient is several orders of magnitude lower than the thermal speed. This is interpreted as a result of intermolecular interactions, as confirmed by lateral diffusion of other molecules in different membranes. The molecule step parameters are then utilized to analyze the problem of multiple visits in small compartments. The modeling of the diffusion exponent results in a smooth transition to normal diffusion on entering a large compartment, as observed in experiments.


    Coughlin, Michael J.; Nery, Caio; Baumfeld, Daniel; Jastifer, James


    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term clinical and radiographic results from a TTC fusion procedure using a lateral locking plate specifically designed for this purpose. Methods: All the fourteen patients were evaluated using a variety of methods, including a visual analogue scale (VAS), the AOFAS hindfoot score and a subjective satisfaction scale. The average follow-up was 10 months. Results: The average AOFAS score improved from 41 points preoperatively to 63 points postoperatively. The VAS pain score decreased from 7 to 3 points. Four patients reported excellent results, eight good, one fair and one poor. Conclusion: Our study provides support for using a specially designed plate for TTC fusion in hindfoot salvage surgery. RESUMO Objetivo: O propósito deste estudo é avaliar os resultados clínicos e radiológicos a curto prazo do procedimento de fusão tíbio-talo-calcaneana (TTC) com o uso de uma placa lateral bloqueada específicamente concebida para este fim. Métodos: Todos os 14 pacientes foram avaliados usando uma variedade de métodos, incluindo a escala analógico visual da dor (EAV), escore da AOFAS para o retropé e escala subjetiva de satisfação. O acompanhamento médio foi de 10 meses. Resultados: O escore AOFAS médio melhorou de 41 pontos no período pré-operatório para 63 pontos no período pós-operatório. O escore da dor (EAV) caiu de 7 para 3 pontos. Quatro pacientesforam classificados como excelentes resultados, oito bons, um moderado e um ruim. Conclusão: Nosso estudo dá suporte ao uso da placa especialmente desenhada para a fusão tibio-talo-calcaneana (TTC) nas cirurgias de salvamento do retropé. PMID:27047852

  5. Lateral interactions in the outer retina (United States)

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.


    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  6. Side of limb-onset predicts laterality of gray matter loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuli; Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Bai, Lijun; Dang, Jingxia; Zhang, Ming


    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality.

  7. Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuli Zhang


    Full Text Available Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX and voxel-based morphometry (VBM were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality.

  8. The Use of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients at a Later Stage. (United States)

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Alphandéry, Sébastien; Camu, William


    To describe the use of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at a later stage. Twenty-five ALS patients in the later stages of the disease underwent PICC insertion followed by parenteral nutrition (PN). For all of them, gastrostomy was non-feasible. Patients were followed until death and monitored for complications. PICC insertion was successful in all patients. Three months after insertion, the mean body weight increased by 4.5% (p = 0.0057). PICC could be maintained until death in all but 1 patient. The mean delay between insertion and death was 4.5 months, but PN was administered for more than 1 year in 2 patients. Complications were noted in 6 patients: sepsis (n = 4), venous thrombosis (n = 1), and upper limb oedema (n = 1), none of them resulting in death. PICC insertion for PN at a later stage of ALS, in patients for whom gastrostomy is non-feasible, appears to be a useful option compared to the central venous catheter. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women (United States)

    ... Geriatrics Osteoporosis Prevention Related Documents PDF Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women Tools and ...

  10. Stability Matrices for Lateral Buckling Analysis of Beams | Jiki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -symmetric sections has been proposed. The formulation employs a coupled lateral buckling functional to investigate the lateral buckling behaviour of a class of beams comprising bi-symmetric sections. While retaining the coupled modes of ...

  11. Muscle ultrasonography to predict survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Overeem, S.; Pillen, S.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.


    The authors assessed the prognostic value of muscle ultrasonography in 31 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and compared it with accepted prognostic variables like functional capacity (measured with the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS)) and muscle

  12. Collaboration enhances later individual memory for emotional material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bärthel, Gwennis A; Wessel, Ineke; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Verwoerd, Johan


    Research on collaborative remembering suggests that collaboration hampers group memory (i.e., collaborative inhibition), yet enhances later individual memory. Studies examining collaborative effects on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce, especially concerning later individual memory. In the

  13. Lateral control strategy for a hypersonic cruise missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Fan


    Full Text Available Hypersonic cruise missile always adopts the configuration of waverider body with the restraint of scramjet. As a result, the lateral motion exhibits serious coupling, and the controller design of the lateral lateral system cannot be conducted separately for yaw channel and roll channel. A multiple input and multiple output optimal control method with integrators is presented to design the lateral combined control system for hypersonic cruise missile. A hypersonic cruise missile lateral model is linearized as a multiple input and multiple output plant, which is coupled by kinematics and fin deflection between yaw and roll. In lateral combined controller, the integrators are augmented, respectively, into the loop of roll angle and lateral overload to ensure that the commands are tracked with zero steady-state error. Through simulation, the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking the command of roll angle and lateral overload.

  14. A new mechanism for spatial pattern formation via lateral and protrusion-mediated lateral signalling. (United States)

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Hunter, Ginger L; Baum, Buzz


    Tissue organization and patterning are critical during development when genetically identical cells take on different fates. Lateral signalling plays an important role in this process by helping to generate self-organized spatial patterns in an otherwise uniform collection of cells. Recent data suggest that lateral signalling can be mediated both by junctional contacts between neighbouring cells and via cellular protrusions that allow non-neighbouring cells to interact with one another at a distance. However, it remains unclear precisely how signalling mediated by these distinct types of cell-cell contact can physically contribute to the generation of complex patterns without the assistance of diffusible morphogens or pre-patterns. To explore this question, in this work we develop a model of lateral signalling based on a single receptor/ligand pair as exemplified by Notch and Delta. We show that allowing the signalling kinetics to differ at junctional versus protrusion-mediated contacts, an assumption inspired by recent data which show that the cleavage of Notch in several systems requires both Delta binding and the application of mechanical force, permits individual cells to act to promote both lateral activation and lateral inhibition. Strikingly, under this model, in which Delta can sequester Notch, a variety of patterns resembling those typical of reaction-diffusion systems is observed, together with more unusual patterns that arise when we consider changes in signalling kinetics, and in the length and distribution of protrusions. Importantly, these patterns are self-organizing-so that local interactions drive tissue-scale patterning. Together, these data show that protrusions can, in principle, generate different types of patterns in addition to contributing to long-range signalling and to pattern refinement. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Review of common and unusual causes of lateral ankle pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Surabhi [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre NHS Trust, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McNally, Eugene [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre NHS Trust, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre and University of Oxford, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)


    Lateral ankle pain is a common clinical presentation having several important causes, including lateral ligament injury, peroneal tendon injury, sinus tarsi syndrome, and nerve entrapments. However, other causes should be kept in mind in patients with unusual patterns of pain or intractable symptoms. We present a review of common and some unusual causes of lateral ankle pain including a review of post-operative imaging findings following surgery for lateral ankle ligament and peroneal tendon injuries. (orig.)

  16. Adsorption kinetics of laterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio.


    Belas, M R; Colwell, R R


    The adsorption of laterally and polarly flagellated bacteria to chitin was measured, and from the data obtained, a modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was derived. Results indicated that the adsorption of laterally flagellated Vibrio parahaemolyticus follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, a type of adsorption referred to as surface saturation kinetics, when conditions are favorable for the production of lateral flagella. When conditions were not favorable for the production of lateral fl...

  17. In situ hydrodynamic lateral force calibration of AFM colloidal probes. (United States)

    Ryu, Sangjin; Franck, Christian


    Lateral force microscopy (LFM) is an application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to sense lateral forces applied to the AFM probe tip. Recent advances in tissue engineering and functional biomaterials have shown a need for the surface characterization of their material and biochemical properties under the application of lateral forces. LFM equipped with colloidal probes of well-defined tip geometries has been a natural fit to address these needs but has remained limited to provide primarily qualitative results. For quantitative measurements, LFM requires the successful determination of the lateral force or torque conversion factor of the probe. Usually, force calibration results obtained in air are used for force measurements in liquids, but refractive index differences between air and liquids induce changes in the conversion factor. Furthermore, in the case of biochemically functionalized tips, damage can occur during calibration because tip-surface contact is inevitable in most calibration methods. Therefore, a nondestructive in situ lateral force calibration is desirable for LFM applications in liquids. Here we present an in situ hydrodynamic lateral force calibration method for AFM colloidal probes. In this method, the laterally scanned substrate surface generated a creeping Couette flow, which deformed the probe under torsion. The spherical geometry of the tip enabled the calculation of tip drag forces, and the lateral torque conversion factor was calibrated from the lateral voltage change and estimated torque. Comparisons with lateral force calibrations performed in air show that the hydrodynamic lateral force calibration method enables quantitative lateral force measurements in liquid using colloidal probes.

  18. Is performance better when brain functions are typically lateralized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Reint; Zickert, Nele; Beking, Tess; Groothuis, Antonius


    Lateralization refers to the dominant involvement of one homologous region of the brain over the other in functional task performance. Direction and strength of lateralization depend on the functional task. It is well known that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere, even in most

  19. The Correction of Involutional Entropion of Eyelid by Lateral Strip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    done for involutional entropion of upper lid. Basic steps. Lateral canthotomy was done till the lateral orbital rim was exposed with scissors. Lateral cantholysis was also done. Then, the eyelid was separated along the grey line with help of BP knife (no.15). An inferior cut was made horizontal to the above incision with knife.

  20. Variability of the lateral ligamentous complex of the knee | Ashaolu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study examined the prevalence and morphometric values of three extracapsular ligaments on the lateral aspect of the knee namely lateral collateral ligament, anterolateral and triradiate collateral ligaments in human cadavers. Twenty knees were used. The lateral collateral ligament, anterolateral and triradiate ...

  1. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures (United States)

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  2. Gene expression profiling of laterally spreading tumors. (United States)

    Minemura, Shoko; Tanaka, Takeshi; Arai, Makoto; Okimoto, Kenichiro; Oyamada, Arata; Saito, Keiko; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Kishimoto, Takashi; Yokosuka, Osamu


    Laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are generally defined as lesions >10 mm in diameter, are characterized by lateral expansion along the luminal wall with a low vertical axis. In contrast to other forms of tumor, LSTs are generally considered to have a superficial growth pattern and the potential for malignancy. We focused on this morphological character of LSTs, and analyzed the gene expression profile of LSTs. The expression of 168 genes in 41 colorectal tumor samples (17 LST-adenoma, 12 LST-carcinoma, 12 Ip [pedunculated type of the Paris classification)-adenoma, all of which were 10 mm or more in diameter] was analyzed by PCR array. Based on the results, we investigated the expression levels of genes up-regulated in LST-adenoma, compared to Ip-adenoma, by hierarchical and K-means clustering. To confirm the results of the array analysis, using an additional 60 samples (38 LST-adenoma, 22 Ip-adenoma), we determined the localization of the gene product by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of 129 genes differed in colorectal tumors from normal mucosa by PCR array analysis. As a result of K-means clustering, the expression levels of five genes, AKT1, BCL2L1, ERBB2, MTA2 and TNFRSF25, were found to be significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) in LST-adenoma, compared to Ip-adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the BCL2L1 protein was significantly and meaningfully up-regulated in LST-adenoma compared to Ip-adenoma (p = 0.010). With respect to apoptosis status in LST-Adenoma, it assumes that BCL2L1 is anti-apoptotic protein, the samples such as BCL2L1 positive and TUNEL negative, or BCL2L1 negative and TUNEL positive are consistent with the assumption. 63.2 % LST-adenoma samples were consistent with the assumption. LSTs have an unusual profile of gene expression compared to other tumors and BCL2L1 might be concerned in the organization of LSTs.

  3. Living donor liver transplantation with hyperreduced left lateral segments. (United States)

    Kasahara, Mureo; Fukuda, Akinari; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Sato, Shuichi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Honna, Toshiro


    Liver transplantation is now an established technique to treat children with end-stage liver disease. Implantation of left lateral segment grafts (Couidaud's segments II and III) can be a problem in small infants because of a large-for-size graft. Reduced left lateral segmental liver transplantation has been recently introduced for small infants to mitigate the problem of large-for-size graft. Further reduction of the left lateral segment graft increases the possibility of supplying an adequate hyperreduced left lateral segment graft as an alternative surgical technique. We report 3 cases of our experience of transplantation using hyperreduced left lateral segment grafts from living donors.

  4. Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, Jian, E-mail: [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Mo, Qi, E-mail: [School of Software, Yunnan University, Cuihu Bai Road, Kunming City, Yunnan Province 650091 (China); Cheng, Yaokun [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Liu, Taixiang [Taishan Vocational College of Nursing, Shandong Province 271000 (China)


    We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

  5. Nutrition management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Greenwood, Daniel I


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease with high risk of malnutrition. Symptoms of dysphagia, depression, cognitive impairment, difficulty with self-feeding and meal preparation, hypermetabolism, anxiety, respiratory insufficiency, and fatigue with meals increase the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition negatively affects prognosis and quality of life, making early and frequent nutrition assessment and intervention essential. Implementation of an adequate calorie diet, dietary texture modification, use of adaptive eating utensils, and placement of a feeding tube aid in preventing malnutrition. When nutrition status is compromised by dysphagia and weight loss (5%-10% of usual body weight) or body mass index 50%, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement is indicated. When forced vital capacity is respiratory risk. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated only when enteral nutrition (EN) is contraindicated or impossible. This article reviews the background of ALS, nutrition implications and risk of malnutrition, treatment strategies to prevent malnutrition, the role of EN and PN, and feeding tube placement methods according to disease stage.

  6. Laterality of acquired cholesteatoma and handedness. (United States)

    Migirov, Lela


    To investigate a possible contribution of handedness to the development of unilateral acquired cholesteatoma. All patients with unilateral acquired cholesteatoma attending otorhinolaryngology clinic between August 2009 and February 2012 were asked about their handedness. The study group consisted of 237 right-handed and 31 left-handed (11.8%) patients who included 158 male (59%) and 79 female subjects with an age range of 6 to 81 years (mean, 38.6 yr). There were no ambidexters in the present cohort. Overall, unilateral cholesteatoma involved 146 right (54.5%) and 122 left ears (45.5%). Ten of 31 patients (32.3%) with left hand predominance were female subjects. In the unilateral disease, the right ears were affected more frequently in patients with right-hand dominance (59.5%), and the left ears were more frequently affected in the left-handed patients (83.9%); this difference was statistically significant (p handedness were not statistically significant (p = 0.098). The strong relationship has been observed between the patient's handedness, and laterality of the unilateral acquired cholesteatoma may have contribution in the multifactorial process of cholesteatoma formation.

  7. Selective attention impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Volpato, Chiara; Prats Sedano, Maria Angeles; Silvoni, Stefano; Segato, Nicoletta; Cavinato, Marianna; Merico, Antonio; Piccione, Francesco; Palmieri, Arianna; Birbaumer, Niels


    Objective of this study was to evaluate attentional control mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using an auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) paradigm. Fifteen mild to moderate ALS patients and 15 healthy controls were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery and an ERPs paradigm assessing selective attention. Four types of auditory stimuli were presented in random order: short standard (200 Hz, 200 ms), long standard (200 Hz, 500 ms), short deviant (1000 Hz, 200 ms) and long deviant (1000 Hz, 500 ms). Participants had to respond to the long deviant stimuli only. During the task the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. The N200, P300 and re-orienting negativity (RON) ERP components were analysed. Compared to controls ALS patients showed reduced amplitudes and delayed latencies of N200, P300 and RON. These results could be attributable to both an alteration in change detection resulting in a reduction of the allocation and re-orientation of attentional resources or a general slowing or reduction of neural processing efficiency in the same system. The ERPs results support the hypothesis that ALS involves extramotor cognitive functions including auditory attentional processing at all processing stages, early (200 ms) and late (300-600 ms). These data prove the usefulness and sensitivity of the auditory ERPs in detection of cognitive functions in ALS patients.

  8. Stem cell treatment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. (United States)

    Mazzini, Letizia; Mareschi, Katia; Ferrero, Ivana; Vassallo, Elena; Oliveri, Giuseppe; Nasuelli, Nicola; Oggioni, Gaia Donata; Testa, Lucia; Fagioli, Franca


    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease that targets motor neurons. Its origin is unknown but a main role of reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation in the pathogenesis has been recently demonstrated. Surrounding neurons with healthy adjoining cells completely stops motor neuron death in some cases. Hence stem cell transplantation might represent a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of 9 patients with definite ALS. Growth kinetics, immunophenotype, telomere length and karyotype were evaluated during in vitro expansion. No significant differences between donors or patients were observed. The patients received intraspinal injections of autologous MSCs at the thoracic level and monitored for 4 years. No significant acute or late side effects were evidenced. No modification of the spinal cord volume or other signs of abnormal cell proliferation were observed. Four patients show a significant slowing down of the linear decline of the forced vital capacity and of the ALS-FRS score. Our results seem to demonstrate that MSCs represent a good chance for stem cell cell-based therapy in ALS and that intraspinal injection of MSCs is safe also in the long term. A new phase 1 study is carried out to verify these data in a larger number of patients.

  9. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana M. Vargas


    Full Text Available In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  10. Redox Regulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Parakh


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Due to a lack of effective treatment, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms and processes involved in disease progression. Regulations in cellular reduction/oxidation (redox processes are being increasingly implicated in disease. Here we discuss the possible involvement of redox dysregulation in the pathophysiology of ALS, either as a cause of cellular abnormalities or a consequence. We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. We also speculate that an ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase (PDI could play a key role in this dysregulation. PDI is essential for normal protein folding by oxidation and reduction of disulphide bonds, and hence any disruption to this process may have consequences for motor neurons. Addressing the mechanism underlying redox regulation and dysregulation may therefore help to unravel the molecular mechanism involved in ALS.

  11. Possession divestment by sales in later life. (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn


    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: progress and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Van Damme


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects the motor system and presents with progressive muscle weakness. Most patients survive for only 2-5 years after disease onset, often due to failure of the respiratory muscles. ALS is a familial disease in ∼10% of patients, with the remaining 90% developing sporadic ALS. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of the genetics and neuropathology of ALS. To date, around 20 genes are associated with ALS, with the most common causes of typical ALS associated with mutations in SOD1, TARDBP, FUS and C9orf72. Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of ALS have led to the creation of different models of this disease. The molecular pathways that have emerged from these systems are more heterogeneous than previously anticipated, ranging from protein aggregation and defects in multiple key cellular processes in neurons, to dysfunction of surrounding non-neuronal cells. Here, we review the different model systems used to study ALS and discuss how they have contributed to our current knowledge of ALS disease mechanisms. A better understanding of emerging disease pathways, the detrimental effects of the various gene mutations and the causes underlying motor neuron denegation in sporadic ALS will accelerate progress in the development of novel treatments.

  13. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update (United States)

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot’s disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades – or even one decade – ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion. PMID:26487927

  14. Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Junge


    Full Text Available Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds’ target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3 reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants’ ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect.

  15. Electron refraction at lateral atomic interfaces (United States)

    Abd El-Fattah, Z. M.; Kher-Elden, M. A.; Yassin, O.; El-Okr, M. M.; Ortega, J. E.; García de Abajo, F. J.


    We present theoretical simulations of electron refraction at the lateral atomic interface between a "homogeneous" Cu(111) surface and the "nanostructured" one-monolayer (ML) Ag/Cu(111) dislocation lattice. Calculations are performed for electron binding energies barely below the 1 ML Ag/Cu(111) M ¯ -point gap (binding energy EB = 53 meV, below the Fermi level) and slightly above its Γ ¯ -point energy (EB = 160 meV), both characterized by isotropic/circular constant energy surfaces. Using plane-wave-expansion and boundary-element methods, we show that electron refraction occurs at the interface, the Snell law is obeyed, and a total internal reflection occurs beyond the critical angle. Additionally, a weak negative refraction is observed for EB = 53 meV electron energy at beam incidence higher than the critical angle. Such an interesting observation stems from the interface phase-matching and momentum conservation with the umklapp bands at the second Brillouin zone of the dislocation lattice. The present analysis is not restricted to our Cu-Ag/Cu model system but can be readily extended to technologically relevant interfaces with spin-polarized, highly featured, and anisotropic constant energy contours, such as those characteristic for Rashba systems and topological insulators.

  16. Growth and later health: a general perspective. (United States)

    Lucas, Alan


    Whilst growth and its derangement in disease have been a long-standing focus in pediatrics, increasing evidence points to a further, fundamental role of early growth in the programming of later health. In studies on animals and humans, rapid early growth is associated with higher risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease, and in animals, senescence and life span - a concept encapsulated in the postnatal growth acceleration hypothesis. This hypothesis explains the benefits of breastfeeding to infants for reduced cardiovascular disease risk in terms of their slower early growth and the fetal origins hypothesis in terms of the adverse postnatal catch-up growth in infants born small. Early growth, notably prior to full term, also influences brain development and cognition - and emerging evidence suggests diverse, broader effects, for instance cancer and the onset of puberty. Understanding the mechanisms, triggers and windows for such effects is important, given the major public health implications, including potential new opportunities for primary prevention of adult disease. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Alcoholic marriage: later start, sooner end. (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C; Lynskey, Michael T; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G


    Although associations between drinking behavior and marital status are well documented, timing of marital transitions as a function of alcohol use or disorder has received limited empirical attention. We examine the relationship between lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) and timing and survival of first marriages in a sample of 3,575 female and 1,845 male adult Australian twins born mostly between 1940 and 1964. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results indicate moderate delays in marriage associated with AD for both women and men. Among ever-married respondents, AD was strongly predictive of early separation, with similar effects observed for women and men. Heritable sources of covariation were also documented. For women, genetic influences shared between early-onset AD and marital timing were found. Genetic influences shared between AD and marital survival were observed for women without regard to onset and for men with later-onset AD. Results confirm the importance of AD as a predictor of both timing and survival of first marriages, with genetic influences contributing to observed associations. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Redox Regulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (United States)

    Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Halloran, Mark A.; Soo, Kai Y.; Atkin, Julie D.


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Due to a lack of effective treatment, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms and processes involved in disease progression. Regulations in cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) processes are being increasingly implicated in disease. Here we discuss the possible involvement of redox dysregulation in the pathophysiology of ALS, either as a cause of cellular abnormalities or a consequence. We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also speculate that an ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) could play a key role in this dysregulation. PDI is essential for normal protein folding by oxidation and reduction of disulphide bonds, and hence any disruption to this process may have consequences for motor neurons. Addressing the mechanism underlying redox regulation and dysregulation may therefore help to unravel the molecular mechanism involved in ALS. PMID:23533690

  19. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (United States)

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  20. Controversies and priorities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (United States)

    Turner, Martin R; Hardiman, Orla; Benatar, Michael; Brooks, Benjamin R; Chio, Adriano; de Carvalho, Mamede; Ince, Paul G; Lin, Cindy; Miller, Robert G; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Nicholson, Garth; Ravits, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Swash, Michael; Talbot, Kevin; Traynor, Bryan J; den Berg, Leonard H Van; Veldink, Jan H; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C


    Summary Two decades after the discovery that 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases were linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene, a substantial proportion of the remainder of cases of familial ALS have now been traced to an expansion of the intronic hexanucleotide repeat sequence in C9orf72. This breakthrough provides an opportunity to re-evaluate longstanding concepts regarding the cause and natural history of ALS, coming soon after the pathological unification of ALS with frontotemporal dementia through a shared pathological signature of cytoplasmic inclusions of the ubiquitinated protein TDP-43. However, with profound clinical, prognostic, neuropathological, and now genetic heterogeneity, the concept of ALS as one disease appears increasingly untenable. This background calls for the development of a more sophisticated taxonomy, and an appreciation of ALS as the breakdown of a wider network rather than a discrete vulnerable population of specialised motor neurons. Identification of C9orf72 repeat expansions in patients without a family history of ALS challenges the traditional division between familial and sporadic disease. By contrast, the 90% of apparently sporadic cases and incomplete penetrance of several genes linked to familial cases suggest that at least some forms of ALS arise from the interplay of multiple genes, poorly understood developmental, environmental, and age-related factors, as well as stochastic events. PMID:23415570

  1. Early saccades in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Burrell, James R; Carpenter, Roger H S; Hodges, John R; Kiernan, Matthew C


    Our objective was to correlate saccadic abnormalities, including early saccades, in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with measures of motor and functional impairment. A portable saccadometer was used to record saccades in ALS patients and control subjects. The linear approach to threshold with ergodic rate model was used to characterize saccades, including sub-populations of early saccades. Patients with established cognitive impairment or frontotemporal dementia were excluded. Limb-onset (Limb ALS) and bulbar-onset (Bulbar ALS) patient groups were compared and saccadic abnormalities were correlated with measures of motor and functional impairment. In total, 48 participants were included in the study; 24 patients with ALS (15 males, 9 females; mean age 57.0 +/- 13.9 years; mean symptom duration 22.4 +/- 16.3 months, of whom 62.5% had Limb ALS) and 24 age-matched controls. Early saccades were increased in both Limb ALS and Bulbar ALS patients, but other saccadic parameters were normal in ALS. Saccadic abnormalities did not correlate with motor or functional impairment. In conclusion, ALS patients show increased early saccades, but exhibit no significant differences across ALS phenotypes.

  2. Implicit recognition based on lateralized perceptual fluency. (United States)

    Vargas, Iliana M; Voss, Joel L; Paller, Ken A


    In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this "implicit recognition" results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  3. Fertility History and Cognition in Later Life. (United States)

    Read, Sanna L; Grundy, Emily M D


    To investigate the association between fertility history and cognition in older men and women. We analyzed associations between number of children (parity) and timing of births with level and change in cognition among 11,233 men and women aged 50+ in England using latent growth curve models. Models were adjusted for age, socioeconomic position, health, depressive symptoms, control, social contacts, activities, and isolation. Low (0-1 child) and high parity (3+ children) compared to medium parity (2 children) were associated with poorer cognitive functioning, as was an early age at entry to parenthood (cognition. Late motherhood (>35) was associated with better cognitive function. Associations between fertility history and cognition were to large extent accounted for socioeconomic position, partly because this influenced health and social engagement. Poorer cognition in childless people and better cognition among mothers experiencing child birth at higher ages suggest factors related to childbearing/rearing that are beneficial for later cognitive functioning, although further research into possible earlier selection factors is needed.

  4. Composite lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator. (United States)

    Zaitsev, B D; Shikhabudinov, A M; Borodina, I A; Teplykh, A A; Kuznetsova, I E


    The novel method of suppression of parasitic oscillations in lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator is suggested. Traditionally such resonator represents the piezoelectric plate with two electrodes on one side of the plate. The crystallographic orientation of the plate is selected so that the tangential components of electric field excite bulk acoustic wave with given polarization travelling along the normal to the plate sides. However at that the normal components of field excite the parasitic Lamb waves and bulk waves of other polarization which deteriorate the resonant properties of the resonator. In this work we suggest to separate the source of the HF electric field and resounded piezoelectric plate by air gap. In this case the tangential components of the field in piezoelectric plate do not practically weaken but normal components significantly decrease. This method is realized on the composite resonator having the structure "glass plate with rectangular electrodes - air gap - plate of 128 Y-X lithium niobate." It has been shown that there exist the optimal value of the width gap which ensure the good quality of series and parallel resonances in frequency range 3-4MHz with record values of Q-factor of ∼15,000 in both cases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors. (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk


    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

  6. Differential lateralization for words and faces: category or psychophysics? (United States)

    Mercure, Evelyne; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Kaufman, Jordy; Johnson, Mark H


    This set of three experiments assessed the influence of different psychophysical factors on the lateralization of the N170 event-related potential (ERP) component to words and faces. In all experiments, words elicited a left-lateralized N170, whereas faces elicited a right-lateralized or nonlateralized N170 depending on presentation conditions. Experiment 1 showed that lateralization for words (but not for faces) was influenced by spatial frequency. Experiment 2 showed that stimulus presentation time influenced N170 lateralization independently of spatial frequency composition. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that stimulus size and resolution did not influence N170 lateralization, but did influence N170 amplitude, albeit differentially for words and faces. These findings suggest that differential lateralization for words and faces, at least as measured by the N170, is influenced by spatial frequency (words), stimulus presentation time, and category.

  7. High content analysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Rinaldi, Federica; Motti, Dario; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Kaspar, Brian K


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglial cells all undergo pathological modifications in the onset and progression of ALS. A number of genes involved in the etiopathology of the disease have been identified, but a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ALS has yet to be determined. Currently, people affected by ALS have a life expectancy of only two to five years from diagnosis. The search for a treatment has been slow and mostly unsuccessful, leaving patients in desperate need of better therapies. Until recently, most pre-clinical studies utilized the available ALS animal models. In the past years, the development of new protocols for isolation of patient cells and differentiation into relevant cell types has provided new tools to model ALS, potentially more relevant to the disease itself as they directly come from patients. The use of stem cells is showing promise to facilitate ALS research by expanding our understanding of the disease and help to identify potential new therapeutic targets and therapies to help patients. Advancements in high content analysis (HCA) have the power to contribute to move ALS research forward by combining automated image acquisition along with digital image analysis. With modern HCA machines it is possible, in a period of just a few hours, to observe changes in morphology and survival of cells, under the stimulation of hundreds, if not thousands of drugs and compounds. In this article, we will summarize the major molecular and cellular hallmarks of ALS, describe the advancements provided by the in vitro models developed in the last few years, and review the studies that have applied HCA to the ALS field to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cortical influences drive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Eisen, Andrew; Braak, Heiko; Del Tredici, Kelly; Lemon, Roger; Ludolph, Albert C; Kiernan, Matthew C


    The early motor manifestations of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), while rarely documented, reflect failure of adaptive complex motor skills. The development of these skills correlates with progressive evolution of a direct corticomotoneuronal system that is unique to primates and markedly enhanced in humans. The failure of this system in ALS may translate into the split hand presentation, gait disturbance, split leg syndrome and bulbar symptomatology related to vocalisation and breathing, and possibly diffuse fasciculation, characteristic of ALS. Clinical neurophysiology of the brain employing transcranial magnetic stimulation has convincingly demonstrated a presymptomatic reduction or absence of short interval intracortical inhibition, accompanied by increased intracortical facilitation, indicating cortical hyperexcitability. The hallmark of the TDP-43 pathological signature of sporadic ALS is restricted to cortical areas as well as to subcortical nuclei that are under the direct control of corticofugal projections. This provides anatomical support that the origins of the TDP-43 pathology reside in the cerebral cortex itself, secondarily in corticofugal fibres and the subcortical targets with which they make monosynaptic connections. The latter feature explains the multisystem degeneration that characterises ALS. Consideration of ALS as a primary neurodegenerative disorder of the human brain may incorporate concepts of prion-like spread at synaptic terminals of corticofugal axons. Further, such a concept could explain the recognised widespread imaging abnormalities of the ALS neocortex and the accepted relationship between ALS and frontotemporal dementia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, B.; Vennegues, P.; Gibart, P. [CNRS, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne (France). CRHEA


    Since there is no GaN bulk single crystal available, the whole technological development of GaN based devices relies on heteroepitaxy. Numerous defects are generated in the heteroepitaxy of GaN on sapphire or 6H-SiC, mainly threading dislocations (TDs). Three types of TDs are currently observed, a type (with Burgers vector 1/3 left angle 11 anti 20 right angle); c type (with left angle 0001 right angle) and mixed a + c (1/3 left angle 11 anti 23 right angle). The epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technology produces high quality GaN with TD densities in the mid 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}, linewidth of the low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) near-bandgap recombination peaks <1 meV and deep electron traps reduced below 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} (compared to mid 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} in standard GaN). Numerous modifications of the ELO process have been proposed in order either to avoid technological steps (mask-less ELO) or to improve it (pendeo-epitaxy). Basically developed on either sapphire or 6H-SiC, the ELO technology is also achievable on (111)Si or (111)3C-SiC/Si provided that an appropriate buffer layer is grown to avoid cracks. More sophisticated technologies have been implemented to further increase the useable part of the ELO GaN surface (two technological steps, three-step ELO). Unfortunately, in-depth understanding of the basic ELO process is still missing, i.e. of the growth anisotropy and bending of dislocations. (orig.)

  10. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive (United States)


    In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD), which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO) in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones (‘shot-noise’ models) to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type). These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1) that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2) that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub-neuronal nonlinear

  11. Rodent Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. (United States)

    Philips, Thomas; Rothstein, Jeffrey D


    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the central nervous system. Patients with ALS develop extensive muscle wasting and atrophy leading to paralysis and death 3 to 5 years after disease onset. The condition may be familial (fALS 10%) or sporadic ALS (sALS, 90%). The large majority of fALS cases are due to genetic mutations in the Superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1, 15% of fALS) and repeat nucleotide expansions in the gene encoding C9ORF72 (∼ 40% to 50% of fALS and ∼ 10% of sALS). Studies suggest that ALS is mediated through aberrant protein homeostasis (i.e., ER stress and autophagy) and/or changes in RNA processing (as in all non-SOD1-mediated ALS). In all of these cases, animal models suggest that the disorder is mediated non-cell autonomously, i.e., not only motor neurons are involved, but glial cells including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and other neuronal subpopulations are also implicated in the pathogenesis. Provided in this unit is a review of ALS rodent models, including discussion of their relative advantages and disadvantages. Emphasis is placed on correlating the model phenotype with the human condition and the utility of the model for defining the disease process. Information is also presented on RNA processing studies in ALS research, with particular emphasis on the newest ALS rodent models. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida


    Full Text Available In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD, which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type. These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1 that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2 that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub

  13. Association between the Brain Laterality, Gender and Birth Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Baghdasarians


    Full Text Available Objective: in recent years different hypotheses with respect to the formation of cerebral laterality were proposed. Some of the researchers claim that cerebral dominance and laterality are determined by genetic factors, just as the case with eye color and blood type. However, another group states that in addition to genetic factors, environmental factors, too, have a remarkable role in hemispheric dominance and lateral dominance. Hence, the present research was designed to study the relationship between 1- lateral dominance and birth season 2- lateral dominance and gender. "n "nMethod:1355(girls and boys fifth graders from the 19 educational regions of Tehran were selected using multi stage cluster sampling in the 2003-2004 school year. Coren lateral preference and personal information questionnaire were applied. "nResults:The following results were obtained at the level of ل=0.05 and probability of 95%. There were significant association between lateral dominance and birth season, between lateral dominance and gender, between ambidexterity and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and birth season, between dexterality and gender, between ambidexterity and gender, between genetic sinistrality and gender. There were no significant associations between dexterality and birth season, genetic sinistrality and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and gender. "nConclusion: The gestational environmental factors can have significant effect on the formation of lateral dominance and cerebral laterality.

  14. Preeclampsia and cognitive impairment later in life. (United States)

    Fields, Julie A; Garovic, Vesna D; Mielke, Michelle M; Kantarci, Kejal; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; White, Wendy M; Butts, Alissa M; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Miller, Virginia M


     = 1.96) and verbal list learning impairment (d = 1.93). These findings suggest a trend for women with a history of preeclampsia to exhibit more cognitive impairment later in life than those with a history of normotensive pregnancy. Furthermore, the pattern of cognitive changes is consistent with that observed with vascular disease/white matter pathology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maximizing aesthetics in lateral-tension abdominoplasty and body lifts. (United States)

    Lockwood, Ted E


    The high-lateral-tension abdominoplasty addresses the practical and theoretic faults of standard abdominoplasty design. Key features include limited direct undermining, increased lateral skin resection with highest-tension wound closure along lateral limbs, two-layer superficial fascial system repair, and significant truncal liposuction when needed. The high-lateral-tension design limits the unfavorable features of standard abdominoplasty and produces balanced natural aesthetic contours. The high-lateral-tension abdominoplasty is the foundation for treatment of more generalized relaxation problems in the circumferential trunk and thighs. For more significant thigh laxity and buttock ptosis, the lateral-tension abdominoplasty is combined with the transverse thigh/buttock lift to produce the lower body lift #2.

  16. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara


    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  17. Unilateral autoscopic phenomena as a lateralizing sign in focal epilepsy. (United States)

    Hoepner, Robert; Labudda, Kirsten; Hoppe, Matthias; Schoendienst, Martin; Schulz, Reinhard; Tomka-Hoffmeister, Maria; Woermann, Friedrich G; Ebner, Alois; Bien, Christian G; Brandt, Christian


    Positive autoscopic phenomena - autoscopy, heautoscopy and out-of-body experience - may occur in a variety of diseases and also in physiological conditions. They are a rare but probably underreported phenomenon in focal epilepsies. Here, we investigate whether ictal lateralized autoscopic phenomena give lateralizing information about the underlying epileptic focus. We present the cases of seven patients from our center who experienced ictal lateralized autoscopic phenomena and analyzed their focus lateralization and localization of the underlying brain lesion. In addition, we reviewed seven cases published in German and English language literature. In the total group of 14 patients with ictal lateralized autoscopic phenomena, 12 (85.7%) of them had a well-defined epileptic focus contralateral to the side of the autoscopic appearance. Therefore, the data point to an association between ictal lateralized autoscopy and contralateral epileptic focus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of Laterally Induced Optical Forces at the Nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Fei; Wickramasinghe, Hemanta Kumar


    We demonstrate the measurement of laterally induced optical forces using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The lateral electric field distribution between a gold coated AFM probe and a nano-aperture in a gold film is mapped by measuring the lateral optical force between the apex of the AFM probe and the nano-aperture. Torsional eigenmodes of an AFM cantilever probe were used to detect the laterally induced optical forces. We engineered the cantilever shape using a focused ion beam to enhance the torsional eigenmode resonance. The measured lateral optical force agrees well with simulations. This technique can be extended to simultaneously detect both lateral and longitudinal optical forces at the nanoscale by using an AFM cantilever as a multichannel detector. This will enable simultaneous Photon Induced Force Microscopy (PIFM) detection of molecular responses with different incident field polarizations. The technique can be implemented on both cantilever and tuning fork based AFMs.

  19. Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales. (United States)

    Evans, Judith; Workman, Lance; Mayer, Peter; Crowley, Kevin


    Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not-and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English-Welsh bilinguals which differ in their age of acquisition and in their environment of acquisition. Using a split visual field paradigm we present evidence which, supports the notion of greater right hemisphere processing in a later learned language. Our findings also suggest the pattern of lateralization in bilinguals is strongly affected by the specific language environment during development such that the shift toward greater right hemisphere involvement for the later learned language will be more pronounced in individuals which are brought up in areas where that language is not regularly heard.

  20. Laterality enhances numerical skills in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda


    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that cerebral lateralization can significantly enhance cognition and that this was one of the primary selective forces shaping its wide-spread evolution amongst vertebrate taxa. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the link between cerebral lateralization and numerical discrimination. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were sorted into left, right and non-lateralized groups using a standard mirror test and their numerical discrimination abilities tested in both natural shoal choice and abstract contexts. Our results show that strongly lateralized guppies have enhanced numerical abilities compared to non-lateralized guppies irrespective of context. These data provide further credence to the notion that cerebral lateralization can enhance cognitive efficiency

  1. Artificial lateral line with biomimetic neuromasts to emulate fish sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yingchen; Chen Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Hu Huan; Liu Chang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Nguyen, Nam; Lockwood, Michael; Jones, Douglas L [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bleckmann, Horst, E-mail: changliu@northwestern.ed, E-mail: dl-jones@uiuc.ed [Institut fuer Zoologie, Universitaet Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)


    Hydrodynamic imaging using the lateral line plays a critical role in fish behavior. To engineer such a biologically inspired sensing system, we developed an artificial lateral line using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and explored its localization capability. Arrays of biomimetic neuromasts constituted an artificial lateral line wrapped around a cylinder. A beamforming algorithm further enabled the artificial lateral line to image real-world hydrodynamic events in a 3D domain. We demonstrate that the artificial lateral line system can accurately localize an artificial dipole source and a natural tail-flicking crayfish under various conditions. The artificial lateral line provides a new sense to man-made underwater vehicles and marine robots so that they can sense like fish.

  2. Experimental study on lateral strength of wall-slab joint subjected to lateral cyclic load (United States)

    Masrom, Mohd Asha'ari; Mohamad, Mohd Elfie; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul; Yusuff, Amer


    Tunnel form building has been utilised in building construction since 1960 in Malaysia. This method of construction has been applied extensively in the construction of high rise residential house (multistory building) such as condominium and apartment. Most of the tunnel form buildings have been designed according to British standard (BS) whereby there is no provision for seismic loading. The high-rise tunnel form buildings are vulnerable to seismic loading. The connections between slab and shear walls in the tunnel-form building constitute an essential link in the lateral load resisting mechanism. Malaysia is undergoing a shifting process from BS code to Eurocode (EC) for building construction since the country has realised the safety threats of earthquake. Hence, this study is intended to compare the performance of the interior wall slab joint for a tunnel form structure designed based on Euro and British codes. The experiment included a full scale test of the wall slab joint sub-assemblages under reversible lateral cyclic loading. Two sub-assemblage specimens of the wall slab joint were designed and constructed based on both codes. Each specimen was tested using lateral displacement control (drift control). The specimen designed by using Eurocode was found could survive up to 3.0% drift while BS specimen could last to 1.5% drift. The analysis results indicated that the BS specimen was governed by brittle failure modes with Ductility Class Low (DCL) while the EC specimen behaved in a ductile manner with Ductility Class Medium (DCM). The low ductility recorded in BS specimen was resulted from insufficient reinforcement provided in the BS code specimen. Consequently, the BS specimen could not absorb energy efficiently (low energy dissipation) and further sustain under inelastic deformation.

  3. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader. (United States)

    Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Snawder, John E


    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton-tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0-10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0-25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point.

  4. Quantitative morphology of the lateral ligaments of the spine. Assessment of their importance in maintaining lateral stability. (United States)

    Jiang, H; Raso, J V; Moreau, M J; Russell, G; Hill, D L; Bagnall, K M


    This study used human cadaveric material to examine the three-dimensional morphology and biomechanics of the superior and lateral costotransverse ligaments and the intertransverse ligament of the spine. To provide descriptive and quantitative data on the morphology of the lateral ligaments of the spine and to assess their importance in maintaining lateral stability, especially regarding the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis. Ligaments have been reported as being able to stabilize the spine by mechanical constraint and by neurologic feed-back. Midline spinal ligaments have been well studied but do not appear to be effective in maintaining lateral stability because of their sites of attachment. Lateral ligaments of the spine have not been adequately documented in the literature. The morphology, sites of attachment, and dimensions of the superior costotransverse ligament, lateral costotransverse ligament, and intertransverse ligament from thoracic level 7 to thoracic level 10 were determined on 32 human cadavers. The intertransverse ligament was found not to be a true ligament. The lateral costotransverse ligament was a true ligament but did not have the characteristics appropriate for involvement in lateral stability. The superior costotransverse ligament also was a true ligament and had all of the characteristics appropriate for involvement in the active lateral balancing of the spine. In contrast to the midline ligaments of the spine, the superior costotransverse ligament perhaps is the most important ligament for active lateral balancing of the spine and warrants further study, particularly regarding the development of idiopathic scoliosis.

  5. Medio-lateral entry pin versus lateral entry pin for displaced pediatric supracondylar fractures: A comparative, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kandel


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Supracondylar fracture is one of the commonest fractures in children. Although the technique of pinning is controversial, percutaneous medio-lateral entry pinning is theoretically considered more stable biomechanical construct. The drawback of this method is injury to ulnar nerve which is not encountered in only lateral entry pinning.Materials & Methods: This was a prospective, comparative and observational study done in 60 patients which was alternately divided into two groups. The first group (A underwent medio-lateral entry pinning and the second group (B underwent lateral entry pinning. They were followed for 24 weeks and the outcome was assessed using Flynn’s criteria.Results: At twenty-four weeks, the mean loss of range of motion of elbow in medio-lateral pinning group was 3.70 degrees (SD±1.93 and that in lateral pinning group was 4.23 degrees (SD ±1.38. The mean loss in carrying angle at twenty-four weeks in medio-lateral group was 2.93 degrees (SD±2.19 and that in lateral group was 4.17 (SD±2.24. There were 2 (6.67% cases of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury in medio-lateral pinning group. Out of thirty patients, in medio-lateral pinning group, 25 had excellent results, 5 had good results and none had fair or poor results. While out of 30 patients in lateral pinning group, 23 had excellent results, 7 had good results and none had fair or poor results.Conclusion: There is no significant difference in outcome in terms of loss of carrying angle and range of motion between the medio-lateral pinning group and the lateral pinning group at the end of 6 months.Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, Vol.11(4 2015: 28-31

  6. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts


    Hendrik Herzog; Siegfried Steltenkamp; Adrian Klein; Simon Tätzner; Elisabeth Schulze; Horst Bleckmann


    Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificia...

  7. Building the posterior lateral line system in zebrafish


    Chitnis, Ajay B; Nogare, Damian Dalle; Matsuda, Miho


    The posterior lateral line in zebrafish has emerged as an excellent system to study how a sensory organ system develops. Here we review recent studies that illustrate how interactions between multiple signaling pathways coordinate cell fate, morphogenesis and collective migration of cells in the posterior lateral line primordium. These studies also illustrate how the posterior lateral line system is contributing much more broadly to our understanding of mechanisms operating during the growth,...

  8. Relationship between creativity and laterality in Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In primary education is essential to know and develop methodologies using the development of creativity and laterality in the process of teaching and learning in our student. It is an ideal place to study the relationship between these variables period. As we understand creativity as an integral part of all the languages in which student in early childhood education (verbal and written language, plastic body… are expressed, for all languages represent a creative process, a way to communicate with others, either verbal or written form, plastic. All these forms of communication is also related to another concept as laterality. It is essential to identify and examine the importance of laterality and dominations in kindergarten because all these processes are required before accessing other languages such as literacy. The objective of this study is to describe the relationship between creativity and laterality in Early Childhood Education. This has been evaluated 60 children in the second cycle of Infant Education and creativity variables defined and undefined laterality. In the development of this research test Torrance Creative Thinking (1974 of figurative expression and the test of laterality of the neuropsychological test (2011 it was applied. The results show that most of the student have defined laterality with 75%. These student earn higher average scores on each component of creativity, the group with undefined laterality and more creativity than the group with undefined laterality.

  9. Adolescent Exposure to Methylphenidate Increases Impulsive Choice Later in Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sweet, Arwen; Hernandez, Giovanni; Arvanitogiannis, Andreas; Abbas, Zarish


    ...: Using an animal model for impulsive choice, we examined first whether giving MPH through early adolescence alters delay discounting, an operational measure of impulsive choice, later in adulthood...

  10. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers (United States)

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti


    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  11. What We Can Learn from Artificial Lateral Line Sensor Arrays. (United States)

    Klein, A T; Kaldenbach, F; Rüter, A; Bleckmann, H


    The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, intraspecific communication, and entraining. With aid of the lateral line, fish perceive minute water motions. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast, which occurs freestanding on the skin and in fluid-filled canals. We have built artificial lateral line canal systems that can be used to measure spatiotemporal flow patterns. Those patterns can, for instance, be used to distinguish between different environments and upstream objects.

  12. Effect of Acupotomy Therapy on Lateral Epicondylitis Diagnosed by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Nara


    Full Text Available Purpose: This observation was to report the clinical effects of acupotomy in treating lateral epicondylitis. Methods: Three patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis were treated with acupotomy. Two were male and one was female. The improvement of symptom were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS and self-consciousness symptoms of Cozen test. Results: After one treatments, patient's chief complaint and the pain near the lateral epicondyle while cozen test were notably improved. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that oriental medical treatment with acuputomy therapy has significant effect in improving symptoms of lateral epicondylitis. As though we had not wide experienced in this treatment, more research is needed.

  13. Anatomic changes in lateral spondylolisthesis associated with adult lumbar scoliosis. (United States)

    Toyone, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Tadashi; Kato, Daisuke; Kaneyama, Ryutaku; Otsuka, Makoto


    Prospective consecutive series. To analyze the anatomic changes in lateral spondylolisthesis. Previous studies have focused on the correlation between lateral spondylolisthesis, and curve progression and pain. To our knowledge, there has not been any detailed report concerning anatomic changes in lateral spondylolisthesis. We examined 24 consecutive patients (mean age 66 years), with lateral spondylolisthesis associated with lumbar scoliosis who had computerized tomography (CT) after myelography. Coronal reconstruction CT was used to measure the vertebral translation. Vertebral rotation was measured by the Aaro method using transaxial CT. The Cobb angle averaged 26 degrees (range 13 degrees-75 degrees). Lateral spondylolisthesis was found most commonly at the lower-end vertebra. The cephalad-slipped vertebra rotated toward the convex side of the main curve, whereas the caudal vertebra rotated toward the convex side of the lumbosacral hemi (or fractional) curve below. Mean lateral translation and vertebral rotation were 7 mm and 8 degrees, respectively. There was a significant correlation between lateral translation and vertebral rotation (r = 0.49; P = 0.018). The convex superior articular process of the caudal vertebra had compressed the nerve root laterally in 21 patients, of whom 10 had radicular pain. The concave, inferior articular process of the cephalad vertebra had compressed the dural sac posteriorly, and 2 patients had radicular pain. To our knowledge, this study has been the first attempt to analyze anatomic changes in lateral spondylolisthesis using CT. It may offer further insight into the pathogenesis of adult lumbar scoliosis.

  14. Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in lateral epicondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger Persson; Bartels, Else Marie; Ellingsen, Torkell Juulsgaad


    Injection therapy with glucocorticoids has been used since the 1950s as a treatment strategy for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Lately, several novel injection therapies have become available....

  15. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva


    phenomena and brain lateralization. More precisely, on the basis of substantial neurolinguistic research it is argued that novel speech is represented in the left hemisphere, whereas formulaic speech is modulated by a subcortical right hemisphere circuit. Within the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013 it is argued that there is a similar correlation between two domains of grammar, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar: Aphasic patients and other persons with left hemisphere damage appear to draw mainly on linguistic expressions within the domain of Thetical Grammar; persons with right hemisphere damage, by contrast, use primarily Sentence Grammar as their main domain of structuring speech (Heine et al. 2014. While arriving at similar conclusions, there are a few differences between these two frameworks. In particular, the dual process model relies on the distinction between novel and formulaic speech as its main parameter, while in the framework of Discourse Grammar it is distinctions in the functions and the syntactic and prosodic independence of linguistic units that are most central. The present paper argues that such differences can be accounted for with reference to the differential role played by the situation of discourse in linguistic communication.

  16. Orbitotomía lateral mediante abordaje temporal Lateral orbitotomy using a temporal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herencia Nieto


    Full Text Available La orbitotomía lateral sigue siendo en el momento actual la técnica quirúrgica de elección para la biopsia o extirpación de lesiones intraorbitarias laterales al nervio óptico, la biopsia del propio nervio óptico y la extirpación de la glándula lacrimal. Se han descrito múltiples incisiones cutáneas para llevar a cabo esta intervención; la más frecuentemente empleada por el momento es la incisión palpebral, que discurre a nivel de alguna arruga del párpado superior. Aunque los resultados obtenidos con esta incisión suelen ser aceptables, no está exenta de complicaciones, ni estéticas ni funcionales. Por esto, en los últimos años han ido apareciendo nuevas incisiones que intentan evitar estas complicaciones. Entre estas nuevas vías de abordaje a la pared lateral de la órbita se encuentra la incisión temporal. En los últimos 3 años, se ha intervenido en nuestro servicio a cuatro pacientes para llevar a cabo biopsia o extirpación de masas intraorbitarias mediante orbitotomía lateral, siempre a través de una incisión temporal. En todos los casos esta incisión permitió una amplia exposición del campo quirúrgico y la cómoda realización de la intervención, obteniéndose resultados estéticos y funcionales excelentes, y sin ninguna secuela ni complicación permanente. La complicación específica más frecuente de esta incisión es la paresia de la rama frontal del nervio facial. Una técnica de disección cuidadosa suele ser suficiente para evitarla. Todo esto hace que esta incisión, tal y como la describimos aquí, sea de elección para llevar a cabo la orbitotomía lateral, constituyendo en nuestro criterio una alternativa perfectamente válida y a tener en cuenta frente a las incisiones «clásicas», a las que llega a superar en muchos aspectos.The lateral orbitotomy it still the surgical technique of choice for biopsies or the removal of intraorbital lesions that are lateral to the optic nerve, for biopsies of

  17. Lateral Preoptic Control of the Lateral Habenula through Convergent Glutamate and GABA Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Barker


    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb is a brain structure that participates in cognitive and emotional processing and has been implicated in several mental disorders. Although one of the largest inputs to the LHb originates in the lateral preoptic area (LPO, little is known about how the LPO participates in the regulation of LHb function. Here, we provide evidence that the LPO exerts bivalent control over the LHb through the convergent transmission of LPO glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA onto single LHb neurons. In vivo, both LPO-glutamatergic and LPO-GABAergic inputs to the LHb are activated by aversive stimuli, and their predictive cues yet produce opposing behaviors when stimulated independently. These results support a model wherein the balanced response of converging LPO-glutamate and LPO-GABA are necessary for a normal response to noxious stimuli, and an imbalance in LPO→LHb glutamate or GABA results in the type of aberrant processing that may underlie mental disorders.

  18. Radiographic identification of the primary lateral ankle structures. (United States)

    Haytmanek, C Thomas; Williams, Brady T; James, Evan W; Campbell, Kevin J; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F; Clanton, Thomas O


    Lateral ankle ligament injuries rank among the most frequently observed athletic injuries, requiring repair or reconstruction when indicated. However, there is a lack of quantitative data detailing the ligament attachment sites on standard radiographic views. To quantitatively describe the anatomic attachment sites of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) on standard radiographic views with respect to reproducible osseous landmarks to assist with intraoperative and postoperative assessment of lateral ankle ligament repairs and reconstructions. Descriptive laboratory study. Twelve nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric foot and ankle specimens were dissected to identify the origins and insertions of the 3 primary lateral ankle ligaments. Ligament footprint centers were marked with 2-mm stainless steel spheres shallowly embedded at the level of the cortical bone prior to obtaining standard lateral and mortise radiographs. Measurements were performed twice by 2 blinded raters independently to calculate mean distances and assess reliability via intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Radiographic measurements demonstrated excellent reproducibility between raters (all interobserver ICCs>0.97) and across trials (all intraobserver ICCs>0.99). On the lateral view, the ATFL fibular attachment (mean±SD) was 8.4±1.8 mm proximal and anterior to the inferior tip of the lateral malleolus and attached on the talus 13.8±2.0 mm proximal and anterior to the apex of the lateral talar process. The CFL originated 5.0±1.4 mm superior and anterior to the inferior tip of the lateral malleolus and inserted on the calcaneus 18.5±4.6 mm posterior and superior to the posterior point of the peroneal tubercle. On the mortise view, the ATFL origin was 4.9±1.4 mm proximal to the inferior tip of the lateral malleolus and inserted on the talus 9.0±2.1 mm medial and superior of the apex of the lateral talar process

  19. The influence of sex hormones on brain lateralization : Research Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, Tess; Geuze, Reint; Groothuis, Antonius


    Between and within sexes individuals differ in lateralization of brain and behaviour that might affect cognitive performance. There is long standing debate to what extent variation in lateralization is due to variation in early or late exposure to sex hormones. We will use two unique data sets to

  20. Insight into the lateral response of offshore shallow foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Highlights •Suction caissons are often subjected to cyclic lateral loads caused by the action of wind or waves. •Excessive lateral deformations may be induced during a caisson’s service life. •Results of performance measure parameters for caissons harmonically oscillating on homogeneous soil are ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje Karmiati Purwanegara


    Full Text Available The influenced of respiration to dentocraniofacial growth and development is still controversial. The accurate radiologic examination is important factor for proper diagnosis. Deviation of upper airway (i.e. nasopharynx, oropharymx and nasal cavity could be evaluated by lateral and anteroposterior cephalometric projection technique. This paper explains several methods to evaluate upper respiratory tract by lateral radiograph.

  2. Dysphagia caused by a lateral medullary infarction syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... had shown an acute ischemic stroke in the left lateral medullar region and the diagnosis of Wallenberg syndrome (WS) was established. WS remains an unknown cause of dysphagia in the clinical practice of the gastroenterologist. Key words: Dysphagia, lateral medullary infarction, Wallenberg's syndrome, deglutition ...

  3. GaAs MESFET with lateral non-uniform doping (United States)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.


    An analytical model of the GaAs MESFET with arbitrary non-uniform doping is presented. Numerical results for linear lateral doping profile are given as a special case. Theoretical considerations predict that better device linearity and improved F(T) can be obtained by using linear lateral doping when doping density increases from source to drain.

  4. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization (United States)

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.


    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

  5. Biomechanic effect of posterior cruciate ligament rupture on lateral meniscus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lei, Pengfei; Sun, Rongxin; Hu, Yihe; Li, Kanghua; Liao, Zhan


    ...) rupture on lateral meniscus. The stresses of anterior horn, caudomedial part and posterior horn of lateral meniscus in cadaveric knees were recorded when the knee joints were loaded 200 to 1000 N at 0, 30, 60 and 90° of flexion...

  6. Does the lateral intercondylar ridge disappear in ACL deficient patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, C.F.; Martins, C.A.Q.; Vyas, S.M.; Celentano, U.; van Dijk, C.N.; Fu, F.H.


    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the presence of the lateral intercondylar ridge and the lateral bifurcate ridge between patients with sub-acute and chronic ACL injuries. We hypothesized that the ridges would be present less often with chronic ACL deficiency.

  7. Lateral subtalar dislocation: Case report and review of the literature (United States)

    Veltman, Ewout S; Steller, Ernst JA; Wittich, Philippe; Keizer, Jort


    A case of complicated lateral subtalar dislocation is presented and the literature concerning this injury is reviewed. Subtalar joint dislocations are rare and often the result of a high-energy trauma. Complications include avascular necrosis of the talus, infection, posttraumatic osteoarthritis requiring arthrodesis and chronic subtalar instability. Negative prognostic factors include lateral and complicated dislocations, total talar extrusions, and associated fractures. A literature search was performed to identify studies describing outcome after lateral subtalar joint dislocation. Eight studies including fifty patients could be included, thirty out of 50 patients suffered a complicated injury. Mean follow-up was fifty-five months. Ankle function was reported as good in all patients with closed lateral subtalar dislocation. Thirteen out of thirty patients with complicated lateral subtalar joint dislocation developed a complication. Avascular necrosis was present in nine patients with complicated injury. Four patients with complicated lateral subtalar dislocation suffered deep infection requiring treatment with antibiotics. In case of uncomplicated lateral subtalar joint dislocation, excellent functional outcome after closed reduction and immobilization can be expected. In case of complicated lateral subtalar joint dislocation immediate reduction, wound debridement and if necessary (external) stabilisation are critical. Up to fifty percent of patients suffering complicated injury are at risk of developing complications such as avascular talar necrosis and infection. PMID:27672576

  8. Context-dependent lateralized feeding strategies in blue whales. (United States)

    Friedlaender, Ari S; Herbert-Read, James E; Hazen, Elliott L; Cade, David E; Calambokidis, John; Southall, Brandon L; Stimpert, Alison K; Goldbogen, Jeremy A


    Lateralized behaviors benefit individuals by increasing task efficiency in foraging and anti-predator behaviors [1-4]. The conventional lateralization paradigm suggests individuals are left or right lateralized, although the direction of this laterality can vary for different tasks (e.g. foraging or predator inspection/avoidance). By fitting tri-axial movement sensors to blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), and by recording the direction and size of their rolls during lunge feeding events, we show how these animals differ from such a paradigm. The strength and direction of individuals' lateralization were related to where and how the whales were feeding in the water column. Smaller rolls (≤180°) predominantly occurred at depth (>70 m), with whales being more likely to rotate clockwise around their longest axis (right lateralized). Larger rolls (>180°), conversely, occurred more often at shallower depths (<70 m) and were more likely to be performed anti-clockwise (left lateralized). More acrobatic rolls are typically used to target small, less dense krill patches near the water's surface [5,6], and we posit that the specialization of lateralized feeding strategies may enhance foraging efficiency in environments with heterogeneous prey distributions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurosurgical management in lateral meningocele syndrome: case report. (United States)

    Brown, Erik C; Gupta, Kunal; Sayama, Christina


    Lateral meningocele syndrome (LMS) is a rare genetic connective tissue disorder. It is associated with morphological changes similar to those of other connective tissue disorders, with the unique distinction of multiple, often bilateral and large, lateral meningoceles herniating through the spinal foramina. In some cases, these lateral meningoceles can cause pain and discomfort due to their presence within retroperitoneal tissues or cause direct compression of the spinal nerve root exiting the foramen; in some cases compression may also involve motor weakness. The presence of lateral meningoceles imposes unique challenges related to CSF flow dynamics, especially with concurrent Chiari malformation, which also occurs with increased frequency in individuals with LMS. The authors present the case of a 6-month-old female with LMS with multiple lateral meningoceles throughout the thoracic and lumbar spine. The infant experienced a focal neurological abnormality due to enlargement of her lateral meningoceles following decompression of a symptomatic Chiari malformation and endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The finding was reversed through implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, which reduced the burden of CSF upon the lateral meningoceles. Such a case compels consideration that CSF flow dynamics in addition to altered connective tissue play a role in the presence of lateral meningoceles in patients within this and similar patient populations.

  10. Source location encoding in the fish lateral line canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, B; van Netten, SM


    The position of a hydrodynamic dipole source, as encoded in a linear array of mechano-detecting neuromasts in the fish lateral line canal, was electrophysiologically investigated. Measured excitation patterns along the lateral line were compared to theoretical predictions and were found to be in

  11. Sensory systems in sawfishes. 2. The lateral line. (United States)

    Wueringer, B E; Peverell, S C; Seymour, J; Squire, L; Collin, S P


    The lateral line system allows elasmobranchs to detect hydrodynamic movements in their close surroundings. We examined the distribution of pit organs and lateral line canals in 4 species of sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata, Pristis microdon, P. clavata and P. zijsron). Pit organs could only be located in A. cuspidata, which possesses elongated pits that are lined by dermal denticles. In all 4 pristid species, the lateral line canals are well developed and were separated into regions of pored and non-pored canals. In all species the tubules that extend from pored canals form extensive networks. In A. cuspidata, P. microdon and P. clavata, the lateral line canals on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostrum possess extensively branched and pored tubules. Based on this morphological observation, we hypothesized that these 3 species do not use their rostrum to search in the substrate for prey as previously assumed. Other batoids that possess lateral line canals adapted to perceive stimuli produced by infaunal prey possess non-pored lateral line canals, which also prevent the intrusion of substrate particles. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested behaviourally in pristids. Lateral line canals located between the mouth and the nostrils are non-pored in all 4 species of sawfish. Thus this region is hypothesized to perceive stimuli caused by direct contact with prey before ingestion. Lateral line canals that contain neuromasts are longest in P. microdon, but canals containing neuromasts along the rostrum are longest in A. cuspidata. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Fascial deformation in the lateral elbow region: A conceptual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Stoeckart (Rob); A. Vleeming (Andry); J.L. Simons; R.P. van Helvoirt (R.); C.J. Snijders (Chris)


    markdownabstractAbstract In embalmed preparations, the antebrachial fascia in the lateral elbow region is shown to be deformed by load application to the triceps muscle. From this fascia, muscles arise which are primarily concerned with the extension of wrist and fingers. In the case of lateral

  13. First-trimester vaginal bleeding and complications later in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Dideriksen, Katrine Lehrmann; Lidegaard, Øjvind


    To evaluate the association of first-trimester bleeding without miscarriage and complications later in the first pregnancy as well as in the next pregnancy.......To evaluate the association of first-trimester bleeding without miscarriage and complications later in the first pregnancy as well as in the next pregnancy....

  14. A Comparison of Laterality Between Normal and Dyslexic Readers. (United States)

    Keefe, Barbara

    Examined with 38 right-handed boys who were either dyslexic or normal readers and matched for age and IQ (mean age both groups=10.6, mean IQ normal readers=106, mean IQ dyslexic readers=105) were the weak, strong, and equal lateralization theories of dyslexia. Cerebral lateralization was measured for linguistic material (digits) using the dichotic…

  15. Pregnancy loss and later risk of atherosclerotic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Wohlfahrt, Jan


    Pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic disease may be etiologically linked through underlying pathology. We examined whether miscarriage and stillbirth increase later risk of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and renovascular hypertension.......Pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic disease may be etiologically linked through underlying pathology. We examined whether miscarriage and stillbirth increase later risk of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and renovascular hypertension....

  16. Space availability influence laterality in donkeys (Equus asinus). (United States)

    Zucca, Paolo; Cerri, Francesco; Carluccio, Augusto; Baciadonna, Luigi


    Cerebral lateralization is the portioning of the cognitive functions between the two cerebral hemispheres. Several factors, like embryological manipulations, light exposure, health conditions, sex and age can influence the left-right brain asymmetries and contribute to increasing the variability in the strength and direction of laterality within most species. We investigated the influence of an environmental constraint, namely space availability, as a new source of variation on laterality in an adult vertebrate model, the donkey. In a baseline condition we tested whether donkeys show a motor lateralization bias at population level, while in an experimental condition we manipulated space availability to verify if a reduction in this parameter could represent a new source of variation in laterality. Results show that donkeys are lateralized at population level with a strong bias to standing with the right forelimb advanced over the left and that a reduction of space availability is an important source of variation in the laterality strength and direction within this species. The comparative analysis of the environmental and developmental factors that give origin to neural and behavioural laterality in animal models will be very important for a better understanding of the evolutionary origin of such multifaceted phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lateral resistance of piles near vertical MSE abutment walls. (United States)


    Full scale lateral load tests were performed on eight piles located at various distances behind MSE walls. The objective of the testing was to determine the effect of spacing from the wall on the lateral resistance of the piles and on the force induc...

  18. Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results...

  19. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina


    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three...

  20. Lateral convection and diffusion of sediment in straight rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bo; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    secondary flow cells in the Reynolds stress model. The flow cells make zones with alternately high and low sediment concentration, and thereby much higher local gradients in the lateral direction. Both models found a net inward lateral transport. The transport by convection was found more dominant than......The lateral transport of suspended sediment in a straight river cross section with a parabolic shaped bed is studied be use of a k-e and a full Reynolds stress turbulence model. Due to depth variations a lateral transport of suspended sediment is generated. This is mainly caused by the slopping bed...... and a higher level of turbulence at the channel centre, than in the near bank zones, which means that the ability to support suspended sediment will decrease from the channel centre. The two turbulence models give different estimates for the lateral transport, which mainly are caused by turbulence generated...

  1. Patterns of prokaryotic lateral gene transfers affecting parasitic microbial eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmark, Cecilia; Foster, Peter G; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas


    BACKGROUND: The influence of lateral gene transfer on gene origins and biology in eukaryotes is poorly understood compared with those of prokaryotes. A number of independent investigations focusing on specific genes, individual genomes, or specific functional categories from various eukaryotes have...... indicated that lateral gene transfer does indeed affect eukaryotic genomes. However, the lack of common methodology and criteria in these studies makes it difficult to assess the general importance and influence of lateral gene transfer on eukaryotic genome evolution. RESULTS: We used a phylogenomic...... approach to systematically investigate lateral gene transfer affecting the proteomes of thirteen, mainly parasitic, microbial eukaryotes, representing four of the six eukaryotic super-groups. All of the genomes investigated have been significantly affected by prokaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers...

  2. Phaseolus vulgaris RbohB functions in lateral root development. (United States)

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Quinto, Carmen


    Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) catalyze the reduction of oxygen to generate superoxide anion, a kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS produced by RBOHs play essential roles in diverse processes, such as root hair development, stomata closure and signaling mechanisms in response to abiotic stimuli and during plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, we found that PvRbohB silencing in transgenic Phaseolus vulgaris roots had a negative impact on lateral root density. In this work, we show that the downregulation of PvRbohB affects both the growth and ROS levels in recently emerged lateral roots. In addition, we found that the PvRbohB promoter was activated during lateral root primordium initiation in the pericycle, and remained active throughout lateral root development. This study identifies RBOHs as potentially important players in lateral root development in P. vulgaris.

  3. High-fat and ketogenic diets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Wills, Anne-Marie


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Epidemiologic data suggest that malnutrition is a common feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and being overweight or obese confers a survival advantage in this patient population. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse models, a high-fat diet has been shown to lead to weight gain and prolonged survival. However, little research has been conducted to test whether nutritional interventions might ameliorate the disease course in humans. Here we review the currently available evidence supporting the potential role of dietary interventions as a therapeutic tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ultimately, determining whether a high-fat or ketogenic diet could be beneficial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will require large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

  4. Imaging Findings Associated with Cognitive Performance in Primary Lateral Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Meoded


    Full Text Available Introduction: Executive dysfunction occurs in many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but it has not been well studied in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS. The aims of this study were to (1 compare cognitive function in PLS to that in ALS patients, (2 explore the relationship between performance on specific cognitive tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI metrics of white matter tracts and gray matter volumes, and (3 compare DTI metrics in patients with and without cognitive and behavioral changes. Methods: The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS-2, and other behavior and mood scales were administered to 25 ALS patients and 25 PLS patients. Seventeen of the PLS patients, 13 of the ALS patients, and 17 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and DTI. Atlas-based analysis using MRI Studio software was used to measure fractional anisotropy, and axial and radial diffusivity of selected white matter tracts. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess gray matter volumes. The relationship between diffusion properties of selected association and commissural white matter and performance on executive function and memory tests was explored using a linear regression model. Results: More ALS than PLS patients had abnormal scores on the DRS-2. DRS-2 and D-KEFS scores were related to DTI metrics in several long association tracts and the callosum. Reduced gray matter volumes in motor and perirolandic areas were not associated with cognitive scores. Conclusion: The changes in diffusion metrics of white matter long association tracts suggest that the loss of integrity of the networks connecting fronto-temporal areas to parietal and occipital areas contributes to cognitive impairment.

  5. Contributions to lateral balance control in ambulatory older adults. (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Newman, A B; Simonsick, E M; Caserotti, P; Strotmeyer, E S; Kritchevsky, S B; Yaffe, K; Rosano, C


    In older adults, impaired control of standing balance in the lateral direction is associated with the increased risk of falling. Assessing the factors that contribute to impaired standing balance control may identify areas to address to reduce falls risk. To investigate the contributions of physiological factors to standing lateral balance control. Two hundred twenty-two participants from the Pittsburgh site of the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study had lateral balance control assessed using a clinical sensory integration balance test (standing on level and foam surface with eyes open and closed) and a lateral center of pressure tracking test using visual feedback. The center of pressure was recorded from a force platform. Multiple linear regression models examined contributors of lateral control of balance performance, including concurrently measured tests of lower extremity sensation, knee extensor strength, executive function, and clinical balance tests. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, and sex. Larger lateral sway during the sensory integration test performed on foam was associated with longer repeated chair stands time. During the lateral center of pressure tracking task, the error in tracking increased at higher frequencies; greater error was associated with worse executive function. The relationship between sway performance and physical and cognitive function differed between women and men. Contributors to control of lateral balance were task-dependent. Lateral standing performance on an unstable surface may be more dependent upon general lower extremity strength, whereas visual tracking performance may be more dependent upon cognitive factors. Lateral balance control in ambulatory older adults is associated with deficits in strength and executive function.

  6. Age-Dependent Mesial Temporal Lobe Lateralization in Language FMRI (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N.; Berl, Madison M.; Wilke, Marko; You, Xiaozhen; Mehta, Meera; Xu, Benjamin; Inati, Sara; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Austermuehle, Alison; Theodore, William H.; Gaillard, William D.


    Objective FMRI activation of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) may be important for epilepsy surgical planning. We examined MTL activation and lateralization during language fMRI in children and adults with focal epilepsy. Methods 142 controls and patients with left hemisphere focal epilepsy (Pediatric: epilepsy, n = 17, mean age = 9.9 ± 2.0; controls, n = 48; mean age = 9.1 ± 2.6; Adult: epilepsy, n = 20, mean age = 26.7 ± 5.8; controls, n = 57, mean age = 26.2 ± 7.5) underwent 3T fMRI using a language task (auditory description decision task). Image processing and analyses were conducted in SPM8; ROIs included MTL, Broca’s area, and Wernicke’s area. We assessed group and individual MTL activation, and examined degree of lateralization. Results Patients and controls (pediatric and adult) demonstrated group and individual MTL activation during language fMRI. MTL activation was left lateralized for adults but less so in children (p’s < 0.005). Patients did not differ from controls in either age group. Stronger left-lateralized MTL activation was related to older age (p = 0.02). Language lateralization (Broca’s and Wernicke’s) predicted 19% of the variance in MTL lateralization for adults (p = 0.001), but not children. Significance Language fMRI may be used to elicit group and individual MTL activation. The developmental difference in MTL lateralization and its association with language lateralization suggests a developmental shift in lateralization of MTL function, with increased left lateralization across the age span. This shift may help explain why children have better memory outcomes following resection compared to adults. PMID:26696589

  7. Lateralizing value of semiology in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Dupont, S; Samson, Y; Nguyen-Michel, V-H; Zavanone, C; Navarro, V; Baulac, M; Adam, C


    Analysing the clinical characteristics of seizures constitutes a fundamental aspect of the presurgical evaluation of patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), the most frequent form of focal epilepsy accessible to surgery. We sought to retrospectively determine whether objective manifestations could have a reliable lateralizing value in a large population of MTLE-HS patients and if their presence could help to identify those patients who would be seizure free after surgery. We analysed the frequency and predictive lateralizing value of objective ictal and postictal signs in 391 patients with MTLE-HS (183 left/208 right). Data were derived from chart review and not from blinded videoEEG analysis. Correlation between the presence of reliable lateralizing signs and postoperative outcome was performed in a subgroup of 302 patients who underwent surgery. Contralateral dystonic posturing was the most frequent and reliable lateralizing sign that correctly lateralized the focus in 96% of patients. Unilateral head/eye deviation was noted in 42% of the patients and predicted unilateral focus in 67%. Ipsilateral postictal nose wiping, contralateral clonus and hypokinesia correctly lateralized the focus in 75%, 81%, respectively, and 100 of patients but were less frequently depicted. Postictal aphasia was a strong lateralizing sign for left MLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs was not a predictor of seizure freedom. Seizure semiology is a simple tool that may permit reliable lateralization of the seizure focus in MTLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs is not associated with a better postoperative outcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search. (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I


    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  9. The role of CT discography in far lateral disk herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hyun Shim; Yun, Seung Soo; Park, Jun Kyun; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Young Sook; Oh, Jae Hee [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the value and the radiologic findings of CT discography in the diagnosis of the far lateral disk herniation. We retrospectively reviewed 7 cases of surgically proven far lateral lumbar disc herniation. CT discography was performed for all cases. Four cases underwent conventional CT and three cases MRI as a primary diagnostic imaging method. Far lateral diac herniation was divided into 3 groups by location; Intraforaminal herniation, extraforaminal herniation, and mixed type. We analyzed the findings of CT discography including location and extent of far lateral disc herniation. In all 7 cases, CT discography clearly demonstrated the filling of contrast media in laterally-protruded disc material. Intraforaminal and extraforminal types were seen in 2 cases each, and mixed type in 3 cases. Subligamentous herniated nucleus pulposus was present in 6 cases and extruded disc in 1 cases. Far lateral disc herniation was located at L4-5 in 5 cases and L5-S1 in 2 cases. CT discography can help establishing accurate preoperative diagnosis for far lateral disc herniation.

  10. Lateral periodontal cyst: a case report and literature review. (United States)

    de Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas E Silva; Lima, Celina Faig; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Almeida, Janete Dias


    The lateral periodontal cyst is considered a developmental odontogenic cyst with unusual occurrence. In most cases it is preliminary diagnosed as a radiographic finding, presenting as well circumscribed or as a round or teardrop-shaped radiolucent area. Due to its location it can easily be misdiagnosed as a lesion of endodontic origin. Final diagnosis should be based on histopatological examination. The purpose of this paper is to report a classic case of lateral periodontal cyst located in the anterior region of mandible and to review the relevant literature which describes the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of lateral periodontal cysts. A 50 years female patient complained of an asymptomatic gingival swelling in the region between the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. Radiographic examination revealed a well circumscribed radiolucency with approximately 0.5 cm diameter with a radiopaque margin between the roots of the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. The adjacent teeth had vital pulp. A total enucleation of the lesion was performed, and intraoperative examination showed a single lesion with no communication between the cyst's cavity and the oral environment. Histological examination revealed that the lesion was "lateral periodontal cyst of developmental origin". There was no recurrence or complications for 24 months follow-up. The lateral periodontal cyst can be considered in the differential diagnosis when a radioloucent lesion appears adjacent to the roots of vital teeth. The treatment of choice is surgical removal and subsequent histological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis. Relapses are infrequent.

  11. Muscle sparing lateral thoracotomy: the standard incision for thoracic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Dumitrescu


    Full Text Available Lateral thoracotomy is a versatile approach with many variations and is currently the most widely used incision in thoracic surgery. In the current article we are presenting the muscle-sparing lateral thoracotomy in the lateral decubitus position which we consider to be the “standard” for lateral thoracotomies. Indications, surgical technique and pitfalls are described alongside our experience with thoracic drainage. Although there is no consensus regarding the name of this incision, some authors call it “axillary thoracotomy” while others call it a “modified lateral thoracotomy”, they all agree on one aspect – the importance of muscle sparing – which makes it the go-to thoracotomy for both small and large procedures involving the lung. Lateral muscle sparing thoracotomy allows for good exposure of the pulmonary hilum, fissures, apex and diaphragm. The approach is easy and quick to perform while at the same time ensuring faster postoperative recovery by sparing the latissimus dorsi muscle, better cosmetics and lower postoperative pain score when compared to the posterolateral or classical lateral thoracotomies.

  12. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north". (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek


    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and "pull of the north" are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts.

  13. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  14. Coronal patellar osteotomy of the external facet combined with the release of the lateral retinaculum improves the clinical outcomes of isolated lateral release in lateral knee compartment syndrome. (United States)

    Rosales-Varo, A P; Roda-Murillo, O; Prados-Olleta, N; García-Espona, M A


    To describe a novel coronal osteotomy of the external facet of the patella, and to evaluate if the outcomes of the treatment of lateral knee compartment syndrome (LKCS) with this osteotomy, combined with the release of the external lateral retinaculum, are better than the isolated lateral retinacular release. A prospective study with a 2 year follow up that included 70 patients diagnosed with LKCS, distributed into 2 groups. The first group included 50 patients on whom the lateral retinacular release combined with osteotomy was performed, and a second group on whom an isolated retinacular release was performed. Measurements were made using the Werner functional scale before the surgery and at 3, 12, and 24 months follow-up. There were significant differences in the overall functional state between the two groups after the surgery (better in the osteotomy group at all the intervals, P<.05). The improvement, which was progressive up to 12 months, was slightly less at 24 months, although the values were still better than the pre-surgical ones in both groups. Pain was the variable that showed most improvement. The patients with LKCS with degenerative signs showed a benefit in all cases. The results demonstrate that the described patellar osteotomy technique, combined with lateral retinacular release, significantly improves the pain and the functional scale score of patients with LKCS after 2 years of follow-up, to a greater extent than isolated lateral retinacular release, including those in which there was evidence of degenerative signs. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanoparticle embedded enzymes for improved lateral flow sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özalp, Veli Cengiz; Zeydanlı, Uğur S.; Lunding, Anita


    In this study, combining the nanoparticle embedded sensors with lateral flow assays, a novel strategy for ensuring the quality of signalling in lateral flow assays (LFAs) was developed. A LFA for reactive oxygen species (ROS) is reported that is based on horse radish peroxidase (HRP) which is co...... of hydrogen peroxides was quantified with this novel LFA-ROS sensor to obtain a linear range between 1 and 25 μM. Nanoparticle embedding of enzymes is proposed here as a general strategy for developing enzyme-based lateral flow assays, eliminating adverse effects associated with biological samples....

  16. Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis: emergency management of orbital compartment syndrome. (United States)

    Rowh, Adam D; Ufberg, Jacob W; Chan, Theodore C; Vilke, Gary M; Harrigan, Richard A


    Orbital compartment syndrome is a sight-threatening emergency. Vision may be preserved when timely intervention is performed. To present a case of orbital compartment syndrome caused by traumatic retrobulbar hemorrhage and the procedure of lateral canthotomy and cantholysis, reviewed with photographic illustration. Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis are readily performed at the bedside with simple instruments. The procedure may prevent irreversible blindness in cases of acute orbital compartment syndrome. Emergency physicians should be familiar with lateral canthotomy and cantholysis in the management of orbital compartment syndrome to minimize the chance of irreversible visual loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Martin


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  18. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette


    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  19. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  20. Lateral thinkers are not so laterally minded: hemispheric asymmetry, interaction, and creativity. (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K


    The biological basis of creativity remains a topic of contention. A long-held view suggests that whereas the left hemisphere is intelligent and analytic, the right hemisphere is the source of all creativity. Consequently, activating the right hemisphere should enhance creative thinking, prompting a plethora of popular books hawking a right hemisphere solution to topics ranging from drawing, to money management, to sex. More recently, an alternate proposal has suggested that creativity is not a lateralised function; instead, creativity is argued to stem from the interaction and integration of information across both the left and right hemispheres. According to this view, individuals with greater interhemispheric communication and/or less-lateralised brains will evidence enhanced creative ability. This paper reviews the neural basis of creativity to determine whether creativity stems from activation of the right hemisphere, or from the interaction of both hemispheres. The relationship between creativity and psychopathology is also examined, evaluating the evidence for a causal link between disorders such as schizophrenia, hemispheric activation, and enhanced creativity. Although the research reviewed indicates greater right hemisphere activity during creative tasks, the interaction between many varied, often distant, cortical regions across both the left and right hemispheres is also a crucial component of creativity. This interaction facilitates the integration of a variety of separate cognitive abilities, fostering creative thinking. As such, creativity is better conceptualised as a distributed, rather than a purely lateralised, function; more lateral thinkers have less lateralised brains.

  1. DREADDing the lateral habenula: a review of methodological approaches for studying lateral habenula function. (United States)

    Nair, Sunila G; Strand, Nicholas S; Neumaier, John F


    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenular complex in the dorsal diencephalon. The LHb is an important regulator of several neurotransmitter systems in the midbrain; disturbances in this regulation may contribute to mood disorders, abnormalities in cognition, drive, and addiction. Owing to the critical role this nucleus plays in modulating activity of midbrain nuclei, there has been a rapid increase in studies targeting the LHb in the recent years. In this review, we describe studies using traditional approaches to elucidate the function of this brain region, such as lesion, electrical and chemical stimulation, electrophysiology and in vivo microdialysis. We have selected a variety of illustrative studies to discuss each of these methods. Next, we describe studies using methods that are based upon recent advances in molecular biology techniques including recent results from our laboratory using the Designer Receptor Exclusively Activated by Designer Drug (DREADD) technology. Using a Gi/o-coupled DREADD, we found that inhibition of the LHb reduces depression-like behavior in the forced swim test in a manner that suggests enhanced serotonergic activity. The emerging picture reveals that the LHb is likely to be a critical node in the network of subcortical nuclei that regulate aversive learning, motivation, stress responses, etc. We describe how recently developed methods have advanced the study of the LHb and are leading research of this brain region in promising new directions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Optogenetics (7th BRES). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Laterality and mental disorders in the postgenomic age--A closer look at schizophrenia and language lateralization. (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hirnstein, Marco


    Most people are right-handed and show left-hemispheric language lateralization, but a minority exhibits left-handedness and right-hemispheric language lateralization. This atypical laterality pattern is observed significantly more often in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, which led several authors to conclude that there is a genetic link between laterality and schizophrenia. It has even been suggested that a failure in the lateralization process, orchestrated by genes, could be the primary cause of schizophrenia. However, the molecular genetic evidence for a link between laterality and schizophrenia is weak. Recent genetic evidence indicates that schizophrenia is not a single disorder but a group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks leading to distinct clinical symptoms. To uncover the link between schizophrenia and laterality we therefore suggest a paradigm shift where genetics are not mapped on schizophrenia as a whole but on discrete schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, we provide a critical evaluation of current theories on the genetic link between schizophrenia and brain asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu [Government Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra, Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [SCTIMST, Department of Imaging Science and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)


    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm{sup 3}) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm{sup 3}) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  4. Management of palato radicular groove in a maxillary lateral incisor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kishan, K V; Hegde, Vani; Ponnappa, K C; Girish, T N; Ponappa, M C


    This study is to report the rare localization of a radicular groove on the palatal aspect of the maxillary lateral incisor and to discuss the pathology and management of the concomitant endo-periodontal defect...

  5. The inhibitory circuit architecture of the lateral hypothalamus orchestrates feeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennings, Joshua H; Rizzi, Giorgio; Stamatakis, Alice M; Ung, Randall L; Stuber, Garret D


    .... The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is a crucial neural substrate for motivated behavior, including feeding, but the precise functional neurocircuitry that controls LH neuronal activity to engage feeding has not been defined...

  6. The three-portal technique in arthroscopic lateral epicondylitis release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Gowda


    Full Text Available Lateral epicondylitis, commonly referred to as tennis elbow, is a syndrome characterized by pain over the origin of the common extensor muscles of the fingers, hand and wrist at the lateral epicondyle. Reports of 70-90% response to conservative treatment at one year have been documented in the literature though refractory cases often require surgical management. Arthroscopic treatment of lateral epicondylitis allows for intra-articular visualization for concomitant pathology and localization of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis tendon. Additionally, compared to the open technique, the arthroscopic technique has a lower morbidity and an earlier return to work and activity. Here we describe a three portal technique for improved visualization in arthroscopic lateral epicondylitis release.

  7. Lateral flow based immunobiosensors for detection of food contaminants. (United States)

    Raeisossadati, Mohammad Javad; Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Borna, Fazlollah; Gholamzad, Mehrdad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad


    Safety of food is of great concern these days due to various contaminations including toxins, infectious agents and chemical contaminants. Therefore, there is a need to develop promising and user's friendly method to monitor food safety. Lateral flow tests are new, simple and rapid alternative for detection of food-borne pathogens compared with traditional methods. In this review article, we surveyed application of lateral flow biosensors in detection of different food contaminants and labels used to enhance the efficiency of the system. Finally, the unique feature of multi-parametric analysis of analytes by lateral flow device has been reported, proving a lateral flow system is able to be designed in a way to detect multiple targets, simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomical Knee Variants in Discoid Lateral Meniscal Tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Xu Chen


    Conclusions: The condylar cutoff sign observed on the tunnel view of the radiograph is helpful in predicting meniscal tear in adult patients with discoid lateral meniscus. As for these patients, further MRI test is recommended.

  9. The Effects of Enriched Neonatal Experiences Upon Later Cognitive Functioning (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Cucinotta, Pattiann


    The data reported in this small study confirm previous research indicating that early stimulation, though initially affecting human behavior, has little permanent effect upon later functioning. (Author/WY)

  10. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  11. Surgical anatomy of the minimally invasive lateral lumbar approach. (United States)

    Bina, Robert W; Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Baaj, Ali A


    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion approach (LLIF), which encompasses the extreme lateral interbody fusion or direct lateral interbody fusion techniques, has gained popularity as an alternative to traditional posterior approaches. With rapidly expanding applications, this minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approach is now utilized in basic degenerative pathologies as well as complex lumbar degenerative deformities and tumors. Given the intimate relationship of the psoas muscle, and hence the lumbar plexus, to this MIS approach, several authors have examined the surgical anatomy of this approach. Understanding this regional neural anatomy is imperative given the potential for serious injuries to both the motor and sensory nerves of the lumbar plexus. In this review, we critically and comprehensively discuss all published studies detailing the surgical anatomy of the lateral lumbar approach with respect to the MIS LLIF techniques. This is a timely review given the rapidly growing number of surgeons utilizing this technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perspectives on the Etiology of Violence in Later Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Lindenberg, Jolanda


    and older persons themselves and in interviews with 35 experts in the field. Our findings show that dependency, vulnerability, power and control, social isolation, stress, and care burden play a central role in their explanations for the occurrence of violence in later life. The role of a history......This article focuses on the development of a conceptual framework for explaining the etiology of violence in later life by various groups involved in the field of elder abuse. In this study, we explore this through eight focus groups with different professionals involved in the field of elder abuse...... of violence in violence in later life is equivocal. The complexity and ambiguity of dependency and vulnerability, the notion of mutual dependency, and diverse attitudes and expectations toward them that arise with the aging process are distinct features of violence in later life that were found....

  13. Itch is required for lateral line development in zebrafish. (United States)

    Angers, Annie; Drapeau, Pierre


    The zebrafish posterior lateral line is formed during early development by the deposition of neuromasts from a migrating primordium. The molecular mechanisms regulating the regional organization and migration of the primordium involve interactions between Fgf and Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the establishment of specific cxcr4b and cxcr7b cytokine receptor expression domains. Itch has been identified as a regulator in several different signaling pathways, including Wnt and Cxcr4 signaling. We identified two homologous itch genes in zebrafish, itcha and itchb, with generalized expression patterns. By reducing itchb expression in particular upon morpholino knockdown, we demonstrated the importance of Itch in regulating lateral line development by perturbing the patterns of cxcr4b and cxcr7b expression. Itch knockdown results in a failure to down-regulate Wnt signaling and overexpression of cxcr4b in the primordium, slowing migration of the posterior lateral line primordium and resulting in abnormal development of the lateral line.

  14. Functional calcium imaging in zebrafish lateral-line hair cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Q X; He, X J; Wong, H C; Kindt, K S


    Sensory hair-cell development, function, and regeneration are fundamental processes that are challenging to study in mammalian systems. Zebrafish are an excellent alternative model to study hair cells because they have an external auxiliary organ called the lateral line. The hair cells of the lateral line are easily accessible, which makes them suitable for live, function-based fluorescence imaging. In this chapter, we describe methods to perform functional calcium imaging in zebrafish lateral-line hair cells. We compare genetically encoded calcium indicators that have been used previously to measure calcium in lateral-line hair cells. We also outline equipment required for calcium imaging and compare different imaging systems. Lastly, we discuss how to set up optimal imaging parameters and how to process and visualize calcium signals. Overall, using these methods, in vivo calcium imaging is a powerful tool to examine sensory hair-cell function in an intact organism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of physiotherapy for lateral epicondylitis : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, Nynke; Assendelft, Willem J J; Arola, Heikki; Malmivaara, Antti; Greens, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle; van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; Bouter, Lex M


    AIM: To evaluate the available evidence of the effectiveness of physiotherapy for lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. METHOD: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified by a highly sensitive search strategy in six databases in combination with reference checking. Two independent reviewers

  16. The Evolution of Lateralization in Group Hunting Sailfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Stefan; Viblanc, Paul E


     individual-level specialization, while still allowing for group-level unpredictability. We investigated this mechanism in group hunting sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, attacking schooling sardines, Sardinella aurita. During these attacks, sailfish alternate in attacking the prey using their elongated bills to slash or tap......, predators might increase capture success because of specialization in a lateralized attack, but at the cost of increased predictability to their prey, constraining the evolution of lateralization. One unexplored mechanism for evading such costs is group hunting: this would allow...... the prey [22–24]. This rapid bill movement is either leftward or rightward. Using behavioral observations of identifiable individual sailfish hunting in groups, we provide evidence for individual-level attack lateralization in sailfish. More strongly lateralized individuals had a higher capture success...

  17. Kinematics of the lateral ligamentous constraints of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Dalstra, Michel


    Thirty osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC). The morphologic characteristics of the LCLC were examined, and then three-dimensional kinematic measurements were undertaken after selective ligament dissections were performe...

  18. [Lateral radiography of the knee with single-leg standing]. (United States)

    Ohmori, Kan; Sugawara, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Katsuyoshi; Kirinai, Mikio; Fujiwara, Junichi; Oikawa, Takumi; Matsumura, Yutaka; Sugawara, Tsukasa


    The purpose of this investigation was to accomplish reproducible radiography of single-leg standing lateral radiography of the knee by adjusting lateral rotation using a ruler to measure foot position. After preliminary assessment of three-dimensional CT of the knees of normal volunteers, the best adjustment of external rotation was estimated. A ruler was made for use in adjusting the angle of knee rotation by measuring foot rotation. Based on the foot rotation measured by this ruler, the positioning of radiography was adjusted to correct rotation. Rotation was estimated by the distance between the posterior edges of the lateral and medial femoral condyles. Fifteen-degree and 17.5-degree rotations were used for correction. Correction of rotation was 17 degrees on average. This helped not only to correct external rotation in the initial radiography but also to correct rotation for repeat radiography. Our method is quantitative and highly reproducible, and it increases the success rate of lateral knee radiography.

  19. Oahu Sewer Lateral Lines, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inventory of sewer laterals, used for tracking, monitoring, and flow analysis as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. The base sewer...

  20. A lateral approach to lower eyelid entropion repair. (United States)

    Then, Siew-Yin; Salam, Aysha; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Malhotra, Raman


    The authors describe a simple technique that highlights the use of the sagittal anatomy of the lower eyelid to aid identification of the retractors during involutional entropion repair. This anatomy is exposed following lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. The orbital septum is seen to enclose the fat pad and fuse with the retractors above it prior to insertion into the tarsus. The septum, orbicularis, and skin are incised from the lateral approach, allowing exposure of the retractors for tarsal reattachment, and the procedure is completed with a lateral tarsal strip. Forty-eight procedures in 42 patients with involutional entropion were performed using this technique and 90% and 89% of primary and recurrent entropion, respectively, were successfully repaired. Mean operating time was 30 minutes. The lateral approach to a standard procedure for entropion repair can reduce operating time and technical difficulty. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Meaning in Life in Earlier and Later Older-Adulthood. (United States)

    Hallford, D J; Mellor, D; Cummins, R A; McCabe, M P


    To validate the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) in earlier and later older-adulthood, and examine its correlates. Participants in earlier ( n = 341, M age = 68.5) and later older-adulthood ( n = 341, M age = 78.6) completed the MLQ and other measures. Confirmatory multigroup analysis, correlations, and regression models were conducted. A two-factor (presence and search), eight-item model of the MLQ had a good fit and was age-invariant. Presence and search for meaning were largely unrelated. Meaning was associated with life satisfaction, well-being across a range of domains, and psychological resources. Searching for meaning correlated negatively with these variables, but to a lesser degree in later older-adulthood. The MLQ is valid in older-adulthood. Meaning in life is psychologically adaptive in older-adulthood. Searching for meaning appears less important, especially in later older-adulthood. Findings are discussed in the context of aging and psychosocial development.

  2. Alterations in the hypothalamic melanocortin pathway in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Vercruysse, Pauline; Sinniger, Jérôme; El Oussini, Hajer; Scekic-Zahirovic, Jelena; Dieterlé, Stéphane; Dengler, Reinhard; Meyer, Thomas; Zierz, Stephan; Kassubek, Jan; Fischer, Wilhelm; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Grehl, Torsten; Hermann, Andreas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Witting, Anke; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Spreux-Varoquaux, Odile; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease, leads to death within 3 to 5 years after onset. Beyond progressive motor impairment, patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis suffer from major defects in energy metabolism, such as weight loss, which are well correlated with survival. Indeed, nutritional intervention targeting weight loss might improve survival of patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying metabolic impairment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remain elusive, in particular due to the lack of longitudinal studies. Here we took advantage of samples collected during the clinical trial of pioglitazone (GERP-ALS), and characterized longitudinally energy metabolism of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in response to pioglitazone, a drug with well-characterized metabolic effects. As expected, pioglitazone decreased glycaemia, decreased liver enzymes and increased circulating adiponectin in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, showing its efficacy in the periphery. However, pioglitazone did not increase body weight of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis independently of bulbar involvement. As pioglitazone increases body weight through a direct inhibition of the hypothalamic melanocortin system, we studied hypothalamic neurons producing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and the endogenous melanocortin inhibitor agouti-related peptide (AGRP), in mice expressing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1(G86R). We observed lower Pomc but higher Agrp mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of presymptomatic SOD1(G86R) mice. Consistently, numbers of POMC-positive neurons were decreased, whereas AGRP fibre density was elevated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of SOD1(G86R) mice. Consistent with a defect in the hypothalamic melanocortin system, food intake after short term fasting was increased in SOD1(G86R) mice. Importantly, these findings were replicated in two other amyotrophic

  3. [Nonsurgical retreatment of lateral radiopacity after surgical treatment]. (United States)

    Arias de Luxan, A


    A case report is presented of an upper central incisor with incomplete endodontic procedure evidencing a radiolucent image that was treated by apicoectomy and retroamalgam. A year later the periapical lesion had healed completely but a new lateral radiolucency is observed. A reentry of the canal is performed eliminating the old obturating material, biomechanical preparation and obturation with sealer and thermo gutta-percha. The lesion was cured in nine months.

  4. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode (United States)

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.


    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  5. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci


    Mathiak, Krystyna A.; Luba, Malgorzata; Mathiak, Klaus; Karzel, Katarzyna; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Ostaszewski, Pawel


    Abstract Background Measuring quality of life (QOL) helps to delineate mechanisms underlying the interaction of disease and psychosocial factors. In adults, epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe led to lower QOL and higher depression and anxiety as compared to the right-sided foci. No study addressed the development of QOL disturbances depending on the lateralization of epileptogenic focus. The objective of our study was to examine QOL in children with lateralized epileptiform discharges. ...

  6. Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity


    Propper, Ruth E.; Brunyé, Tad T.


    We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT), affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demand...

  7. Comparing motion induction in lateral motion and motion in depth


    Harris, Julie; German, KJ


    Induced motion, the apparent motion of an object when a nearby object moves, has been shown to occur in a variety of different conditions, including motion in depth. Here we explore whether similar patterns of induced motion result from induction in a lateral direction (frontoparallel motion) or induction in depth. We measured the magnitude of induced motion in a stationary target for: (a) binocularly viewed lateral motion of a pair of inducers, where the angular motion is in the same directi...

  8. The development of lateral line placodes: taking a broader view. (United States)

    Piotrowski, Tatjana; Baker, Clare V H


    The lateral line system of anamniote vertebrates enables the detection of local water movement and weak bioelectric fields. Ancestrally, it comprises neuromasts - small sense organs containing mechanosensory hair cells - distributed in characteristic lines over the head and trunk, flanked on the head by fields of electroreceptive ampullary organs, innervated by afferent neurons projecting respectively to the medial and dorsal octavolateral nuclei in the hindbrain. Given the independent loss of the electrosensory system in multiple lineages, the development and evolution of the mechanosensory and electrosensory components of the lateral line must be dissociable. Nevertheless, the entire system arises from a series of cranial lateral line placodes, which exhibit two modes of sensory organ formation: elongation to form sensory ridges that fragment (with neuromasts differentiating in the center of the ridge, and ampullary organs on the flanks), or migration as collectives of cells, depositing sense organs in their wake. Intensive study of the migrating posterior lateral line placode in zebrafish has yielded a wealth of information concerning the molecular control of migration and neuromast formation in this migrating placode, in this cypriniform teleost species. However, our mechanistic understanding of neuromast and ampullary organ formation by elongating lateral line placodes, and even of other zebrafish lateral line placodes, is sparse or non-existent. Here, we attempt to highlight the diversity of lateral line development and the limits of the current research focus on the zebrafish posterior lateral line placode. We hope this will stimulate a broader approach to this fascinating sensory system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis : fifty shades of auxin


    Lavenus, J; Goh, T.; Roberts, I.; Guyomarc'h, S.; Lucas, Mikael; Smet, I.; Fukaki, H.; Beeckman, T.; Bennett, M; Laplaze, Laurent


    The developmental plasticity of the root system represents a key adaptive trait enabling plants to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought and is therefore important in the current context of global changes. Root branching through lateral root formation is an important component of the adaptability of the root system to its environment. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling lateral root development has progressed tremendously in recent years through research in the model plant Ar...

  10. Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction


    Roth, R.; Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J.; Meyer, E; Gnecco, E.


    The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superim...

  11. Pile pinning and interaction of adjacent foundations during lateral spreading


    Turner, BJ; Brandenberg, SJ


    © 2015 Deep Foundations Institute. Studies recently conducted by the authors and others have demonstrated that relatively simple equivalent-static analysis (ESA) procedures can adequately predict the response of bridge foundations to lateral spreading for design purposes assuming that the lateral spreading displacement demand is known or can be estimated. However, an important aspect of the analysis that remains to be addressed is how to account for the restraining force provided by foundatio...

  12. Arthroscopic partial lateral meniscectomy in an otherwise normal knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, G; Sobau, C; Bülow, J U


    To determine the clinical, functional, and radiographic long-term results of patients who underwent arthroscopic partial lateral meniscectomy in an otherwise normal knee. Type of Study: This was a retrospective case-control study.......To determine the clinical, functional, and radiographic long-term results of patients who underwent arthroscopic partial lateral meniscectomy in an otherwise normal knee. Type of Study: This was a retrospective case-control study....

  13. Biophysical constraints on lateral inhibition in the olfactory bulb. (United States)

    McIntyre, Alexa B R; Cleland, Thomas A


    The mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) constitute one of two populations of principal neurons (along with middle/deep tufted cells) that integrate afferent olfactory information with top-down inputs and intrinsic learning and deliver output to downstream olfactory areas. MC activity is regulated in part by inhibition from granule cells, which form reciprocal synapses with MCs along the extents of their lateral dendrites. However, with MC lateral dendrites reaching over 1.5 mm in length in rats, the roles of distal inhibitory synapses pose a quandary. Here, we systematically vary the properties of a MC model to assess the capacity of inhibitory synaptic inputs on lateral dendrites to influence afferent information flow through MCs. Simulations using passivized models with varying dendritic morphologies and synaptic properties demonstrated that, even with unrealistically favorable parameters, passive propagation fails to convey effective inhibitory signals to the soma from distal sources. Additional simulations using an active model exhibiting action potentials, subthreshold oscillations, and a dendritic morphology closely matched to experimental values further confirmed that distal synaptic inputs along the lateral dendrite could not exert physiologically relevant effects on MC spike timing at the soma. Larger synaptic conductances representative of multiple simultaneous inputs were not sufficient to compensate for the decline in signal with distance. Reciprocal synapses on distal MC lateral dendrites may instead serve to maintain a common fast oscillatory clock across the OB by delaying spike propagation within the lateral dendrites themselves. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. MR findings of traumatic transient lateral dislocation of the patellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jean Hwa; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Hae Young [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joong Mo [College of Medicine, Sungkyungkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of traumatic transient lateral dislocation of the patellae. In eight patients (6 males, 2 females, mean age : 22.4 years) in whom transient lateral dislocation of the patella was diagnosed, the distinctive MR imaging findings reflecting known injury mechanism were retrospectively analyzed with regard to bone contusion, chondral defect, fracture, loose body, joint effusion, and the associated soft tissue abnormalities. All of eight patients had bone contusions in the lateral femoral condyle and medial facet of the patella, while in five, chondral defects were present in this latter region. In three patients, fractures of the on lateral femoral condyle (n=2) and medial facet of the patella (n=3) were noted, and in three others loose bodies were noted. Noted. Joint effusion [simple effusion (n=4), lipohemarthrosis (n=3)] was observed in seven patients, and associated soft tissue injuries [to the medial patellar retinaculum (n=8), patellar tendon (n=2), and anterior cruciate ligament (n=1)] in eight. Patellar subluxation was found in seven. MR imaging is a useful technique for the diagnosis of traumatic lateral dislocation of the patella. The significant MR findings are bone contusion in the lateral femoral condyle and medial facet of the patella, chondral defect, fracture, joint effusion, injury to the medial patellar retinaculum, and patellar subluxation.

  15. Lateral line canal morphology and signal to noise ratio (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Herzog, Hendrik; Bleckmann, Horst


    The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, shoaling, intra specific communication and entraining. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast that occurs free standing on the skin and in fluid filled canals. With aid of the lateral line fish perceive minute water motions. In their natural habitat fish are not only faced with biotic water motion but also with the abiotic fluctuations caused by various inanimate sources. The detection of meaningful signals is crucial for survival, and therefore animals should be able to separate meaningful signals from noise. Fishes live in various habitats (e.g. in still water or in running water). Therefore it is not surprising that the number and distribution of neuromasts as well as canal dimension, canal shape and canal branching patterns differ among fish species. We studied how lateral line canal parameters influence the filter properties of lateral line canals. To do so we exposed artificial lateral line canals, equipped with artificial neuromasts (sensors), to the vortex street shed by a submerged cylinder and to air bubble noise. We found that certain canal parameters significantly can enhance the signal to noise ratio.

  16. Measurement of laterally induced optical forces at the nanoscale (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Rajaei, Mohsen; Almajhadi, Mohammad; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H.


    We demonstrate the measurement of laterally induced optical forces using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The lateral electric field distribution between a gold coated AFM probe and a single nano-aperture in a gold film is mapped by measuring the lateral optical force between the apex of the AFM probe and the nano-aperture. The fundamental torsional eigen-mode of an AFM cantilever probe was used to detect the laterally induced optical forces. We engineered the cantilever shape using focused ion beam milling to improve the detected signal to noise ratio. The measured distributions of lateral optical force agree well with electromagnetic simulations of the metal coated AFM probe interacting with the nano-aperture. This technique can be extended to simultaneously detect both lateral and longitudinal optical forces at the nanoscale by using an AFM cantilever as a multi-channel detector. This will enable simultaneous Photon Induced Force Microscopy detection of molecular responses with different incident field polarizations. The technique can be implemented on both cantilever and tuning fork based AFMs.

  17. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.


    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  18. Lockhart Clarke's contribution to the description of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Turner, Martin R; Swash, Michael; Ebers, George C


    The definition of the clinicopathological entity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis evolved over half a century. Although the definitive term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that acknowledged both upper and lower motor neuron involvement was attributed to Jean-Martin Charcot in 1874, his initial case was published nearly a decade earlier; and it is accepted that, from at least the 1830s, several others (including Charles Bell, François-Amilcar Aran and Jean Cruveilhier) had already recognized a progressive lower motor neuron-only syndrome within a broader, clinically-defined group of disorders, termed progressive muscular atrophy. Although William Gowers first grouped the three phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy together as part of the same syndrome, the term motor neuron disease, as an over-arching label, was not suggested until nearly a century later by W. Russell Brain. Augustus Jacob Lockhart Clarke (1817-80) is best known for his descriptions of spinal cord anatomy. However, in two detailed case reports from the 1860s, he carried out rigorous post-mortem neuropathological studies of what appear to be classical cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, he recognized the additional involvement of the corticospinal tracts that distinguished this from progressive muscular atrophy. Several aspects of the exquisite clinical histories documented as part of both studies, one by Charles Bland Radcliffe, resonate with contemporary debates concerning the evolution of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These 'past masters' still have much to teach us.

  19. Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. (United States)

    Paquin, M-Ê; El Mendili, M M; Gros, C; Dupont, S M; Cohen-Adad, J; Pradat, P-F


    There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year. Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year. Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls (P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy (P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline (R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. Efferent connections from the lateral hypothalamic region and the lateral preoptic area to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, J D


    , iontophoretic injections of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin were delivered into distinct areas of the lateral hypothalamic region. Neurons of the intermediate hypothalamic area projected mainly to the PVN subnuclei, which contained parvicellular neuroendocrine cells. In contrast...

  1. Reconstruction of lateral attic wall in acquired cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoglija Milan


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Attic cholesteatoma is an epithelial cystic pseudotumor which arises in the top compartment of the middle ear. Surgery is the only therapeutic treatment for attic cholesteatoma. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical and audiological results in tympanoplasties that use a logical application of several techniques for the management of attic cholesteatoma. Our hypothesis was that the tympanoplasty technique with cartilage/bone reconstruction of the achieve better outcome than the tympanoplasty technique with only temporal fascia reconstruction of the lateral attic wall. Methods. This retrospective clinical study included 80 patients, aged 16–65 years, with attic cholesteatoma undergoing canal “wall up” tympanoplasty with lateral attic wall reconstruction, under general anesthesia in the Eear, Nose and Throat Clinic, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade between 2006 and 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the type of lateral attic wall reconstruction: the group I of 60 patients with cartilage/bone plus temporalis fascia lateral attic wall reconstruction and the group II of 20 patients with only temporal fascia lateral attic wall reconstruction. Postoperative follow-up examinations were done at least 5 years after the surgery. The χ2 test was used to compare postoperative sequelae for two groups of operated patients with lateral attic wall reconstruction. The independent and paired samples t-test of air conduction and air-bone gap were used to compare the results of preoperative and postoperative hearing tests. Results. The differences between hearing measurements of the two groups according to preoperative and postoperative auditory thresholds of the air conduction and the air-bone gap were considered no statistically significant. The difference between the two groups recarding to recurrent attic retraction pocket appearance and recurrence of cholesteatoma was considered statistically


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meenaa Saravanaperumaal


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anal fissure is an elongated ulcer in the long axis of lower anal canal. The most frequent site for anal fissure is midline posteriorly and followed by midline anteriorly. It causes severe pain during defecation and rectal bleeding that stain the tissue or streaks the stools. Chronic anal fissure has traditionally been treated by surgery, an effective and standard procedure that results in healing in 90-95% of cases. Lateral sphincterotomy heals chronic anal fissure in 90% of cases that is associated with incontinence to flatus and faeces. Anal advancement flaps was used to cover the chronic anal fissure. Using anal flaps to resurface chronic or recurrent anal fissure to promote wound healing and to assess the added advantage over lateral sphincterotomy in tissues of complete epithelialisation; time of relief of pain; persistent symptoms; patient satisfaction and quality of life. The aim of the study is to- 1. Compare the efficacy of lateral sphincterotomy against lateral sphincterotomy with V-Y advancement flap in treatment of chronic anal fissures. 2. Assess the added advantages of V-Y advancement flap in treatment of chronic anal fissure in terms of wound healing, time of relief of pain, persistent symptoms and patients’ satisfaction. 3. Compare the complications associated with procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study of 50 patients was done. It included 26 females and 24 males. In that, lateral sphincterotomy alone was done in 25 patients and lateral sphincterotomy along with anal advancement flap was done in 25 patients. RESULTS In group A patients only lateral sphincterotomy done. In group B lateral sphincterotomy with anal advancement flap done. Anal advancement flap done by ‘v’ shaped flap formed of skin and subcutaneous tissue was elevated incontinuity with excised tissue to allow to cover the tissue defect. Flap should be broad based with adequate blood supply and avoid tension while suturing with 3-0 vicryl. A study

  3. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Hs 224, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ridder, Dirk de [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium)


    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P{sub corrected} < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  4. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool vs. Public/Private School Students


    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon


    Homeschool students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschool students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n=245) and homeschool students (n=162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschool students waking later a...

  5. Do Lateral Flows Matter for the Hyperresolution Land Surface Modeling? (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Yuan, Xing; Liang, Xin-Zhong


    Hyperresolution land surface modeling provides an unprecedented opportunity to simulate locally relevant water and energy cycle, but lateral surface and/or subsurface flows that are essential at fine scale are often neglected by most one-dimensional land surface models (LSMs). To analyze effects of lateral flows across scales, a Conjunctive Surface-Subsurface Process model, which considers soil moisture-surface flow interaction and quasi-three-dimensional subsurface flow, is implemented over a mountainous HyperHydro test bed in southwestern USA at different resolutions. Validation over more than 70 International Soil Moisture Network stations shows that there are significant improvements in soil moisture simulations from 30 km to 4 km as finer soil property and precipitation data are used, with correlation increased by 5%-16% and error decreased by 5%. Lateral surface flow has a significant influence on surface soil moisture and ground evaporation even at coarse resolution. Effect of lateral subsurface flow on soil moisture is nontrivial at 1 km or finer resolution especially over wet areas. At 100 m resolution, topography-induced lateral subsurface flow causes drier peaks and wetter valleys, decreases latent heat by 8% at peaks, while increases it by 12% at valleys. Furthermore, influences of lateral subsurface flow on ground evaporation and vegetation transpiration are more significant during dry season due to a stronger coupling between soil moisture and evapotranspiration. Therefore, it is worthy to incorporate lateral flow processes in hyperresolution LSMs to better represent water and energy heterogeneity even with limited hyperresolution meteorological and surface data.

  6. Lateral Periodontal Cyst: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Background: The lateral periodontal cyst is considered a developmental odontogenic cyst with unusual occurrence. In most cases it is preliminary diagnosed as a radiographic finding, presenting as well circumscribed or as a round or teardrop-shaped radiolucent area. Due to its location it can easily be misdiagnosed as a lesion of endodontic origin. Final diagnosis should be based on histopatological examination. The purpose of this paper is to report a classic case of lateral periodontal cyst located in the anterior region of mandible and to review the relevant literature which describes the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of lateral periodontal cysts.Methods: A 50 years female patient complained of an asymptomatic gingival swelling in the region between the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. Radiographic examination revealed a well circumscribed radiolucency with approximately 0.5 cm diameter with a radiopaque margin between the roots of the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. The adjacent teeth had vital pulp.Results: A total enucleation of the lesion was performed, and intraoperative examination showed a single lesion with no communication between the cyst's cavity and the oral environment. Histological examination revealed that the lesion was “lateral periodontal cyst of developmental origin”. There was no recurrence or complications for 24 months follow-up.Conclusions: The lateral periodontal cyst can be considered in the differential diagnosis when a radioloucent lesion appears adjacent to the roots of vital teeth. The treatment of choice is surgical removal and subsequent histological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis. Relapses are infrequent.

  7. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems (United States)

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David; Hartman, Daniel A.


    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  8. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: Panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Pillai Devu; Varma, Nilambur Kovilakam Sapna; Ajith, Vallikat Velath [Dept. of Orthodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi (India)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging in measuring the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles with the angles determined using a lateral cephalogram of adult patients with class I malocclusion. The gonial angles of 50 class I malocclusion patients (25 males and 25 females; mean age: 23 years) were measured using both a lateral cephalogram and a panoramic radiograph. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane. In the panoramic radiographs, the gonial angle was measured by drawing a line tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle on both sides. The data obtained from both radiographs were statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was observed between the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms and that determined using the panoramic radiographs. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in the measured gonial angle with respect to gender. The results also showed a statistically insignificant difference in the mean of the right and the left gonial angles measured using the panoramic radiographs. As the gonial angle measurements using panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms showed no statistically significant difference, panoramic radiography can be considered in orthodontics for measuring the gonial angle without any interference due to superimposed images.

  9. Dogs show left facial lateralization upon reunion with their owners. (United States)

    Nagasawa, Miho; Kawai, Emi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi


    Domestic dogs demonstrate behavioral laterality in response to emotional stimuli; those responses include tail wagging and head turning. The dog is the species with the closest relationship to humans; dogs can express strong social emotions (e.g., attachment and separation anxiety) to specific persons, such as their owners. In this study, we examined whether dogs demonstrate more facial laterality when reunited with their owners than when they encounter an unfamiliar person in an unfamiliar situation. We also examined whether the observed laterality was specific to positive social stimuli (i.e., the owner) or a general response to nonsocial positive stimuli (i.e., toys). The dogs' facial expressions were recorded by a high-speed video camera during the presentation of emotional stimuli and the acceleration rates of parts of their faces were analyzed. The results showed that the left eyebrow moved more when the owner was present than at baseline. No bias in terms of eyebrow movement was observed when the dogs saw attractive toys. These results suggest that dogs show facial laterality in response to emotional stimuli. This laterality was specific to social stimuli, probably reflecting the dog's attachment to the owner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Opposite brain laterality in analogous auditory and visual tests. (United States)

    Oltedal, Leif; Hugdahl, Kenneth


    Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding. Brain Cogn, 53(2), 393-397] found opposite laterality for visual and auditory language tasks. We adapted an experimental paradigm based on a dichotic listening and VHF approach, and applied the combined language paradigm in two separate experiments, including fMRI in the second experiment to measure brain activation in addition to behavioural data. The first experiment showed a right-ear advantage for the auditory task, but a left half-field advantage for the visual task. The second experiment, confirmed the findings, with opposite laterality effects for the visual and auditory tasks. In conclusion, we replicate the finding by Voyer and Boudreau (2003) and support their interpretation that these visual and auditory language tasks measure different cognitive processes.

  11. The forgotten view: Chest X-ray - Lateral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M. Ittyachen


    Full Text Available With CT (computed tomography chest gaining more importance as a diagnostic tool, chest X-ray especially the lateral view is taken less commonly nowadays. Besides CT chest is also proven to be superior to chest X-ray in patients with major blunt trauma. We are presenting a 68-year old male who was partially treated from outside for a left sided pneumonia. He came to our hospital because of persisting chest pain. Chest X-ray, frontal view (postero-anterior was almost normal except for a mild opacity in the left lower zone. CT scan of the chest revealed a fluid collection posteriorly enclosed within enhancing pleura. Chest X-ray, left lateral view showed a corresponding posterior pleural based opacity. We are presenting this case to highlight the importance of the lateral view of the chest X-ray. In selected cases there is still a role for the lateral view. With the three dimensional visualization provided by the CT, the lateral view of the chest may be easier to understand. Consequent to the initial diagnosis by CT further follow up can be done with the chest X-ray. In a limited way this mitigates unnecessary expenditure and more importantly prevents the patient from exposure to harmful radiation in the form of repeated CT.

  12. Unusual Clinicoradiographic Presentation of a Lateral Periodontal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Kumuda Arvind Rao


    Full Text Available The lateral periodontal cyst is an uncommon, but well-recognized type of developmental odontogenic cyst. Lateral periodontal cysts are defined as non-keratinized and non-inflammatory developmental cysts located adjacent or lateral to the root of a vital tooth. It is a relatively uncommon lesion found mostly in adults (5th to 7th decades and it is rare in young people under 30 years of age. A common site of occurrence is the mandibular premolar region. It does not have a predilection for any race or sex. Histopathologically, the lateral periodontal cyst lining is characterized by a thin cuboidal to stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium, ranging from one to five cell layers and presence of one or more epithelial thickenings or plaques.The purpose of this article is to report a case of interradicular radiolucent cystic lesion in a thirteen-year-old girl, located in a rare site of the maxillary premolar area, mimicking clinical and radiographical features of a residual cyst, but histopathologically proven to be a lateral periodontal cyst.

  13. [Clinical application of lateral superior genicular composite tissue flap]. (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Zhang, Chengjin; Fu, Xingmao; Wang, Jianli; Sui, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xuetao; Wang, Lei


    To investigate the clinical effect of lateral superior genicular composite tissue flap for tissue defect. The axis line of flap is the lateral thigh vertical midline. The cutaneous branch is inserted 4 cm near the femoral lateral epicondylus. The anterior border is the elongation line along patellar lateral border. The posterior margin is the hinder margin of femoral biceps. The lower border is the horizontal line along the upper line of patella. The composite flaps were used in 18 cases with soft tissue defects in extremities, 11 cases with clacaneus tenden defects and 16 cases with bony nonunion. Results From Mar. 2002 to Sept. 2013, 45 cases were treated with the composite tissue flaps. The flaps size ranged from 6 cm x 3 cm to 17cm x 9 cm. All the flaps survived completely. Blood supply crisis happened in 2 cases, which was released by reanastomosis. The patients were followed up for 1 - 2. 5 years with satisfactory aesthetic and functional results. All the bone defect and nonunion were healed. Good healing was also achieved in donor sites. 8 months after operation, knee joint function is evaluated as good by hospital special surgery knee score (HSS). Lateral superior genicular compostie tissue flap can be used to reconstruct soft tissue defect, bone defect and tenden calcaneus defect in one stage.

  14. The lateral line receptor array of cyprinids from different habitats. (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Bleckmann, Horst; Mogdans, Joachim


    The lateral line system of teleost fishes consists of an array of superficial and canal neuromasts (CN). Number and distribution of neuromasts and the morphology of the lateral line canals vary across species. We investigated the morphology of the lateral line system in four diurnal European cyprinids, the limnophilic bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus), the indifferent gudgeon (Gobio gobio), and ide (Leuciscus idus), and the rheophilic minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). All fish had lateral line canals on head and trunk. The total number of both, CN and superficial neuromasts (SN), was comparable in minnow and ide but was greater than in gudgeon and bitterling. The ratio of SNs to CNs for the head was comparable in minnow and bitterling but was greater in gudgeon and ide. The SN-to-CN ratio for the trunk was greatest in bitterling. Polarization of hair cells in CNs was in the direction of the canal. Polarization of hair cells in SNs depended on body area. In cephalic SNs, hair cell polarization was dorso-ventral or rostro-caudal. In trunk SNs, it was rostro-caudal on lateral line scales and dorso-ventral on other trunk scales. On the caudal fin, hair cell polarization was rostro-caudal. The data show that, in the four species studied here, number, distribution, and orientation of CNs and SNs cannot be unequivocally related to habitat. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An assay for lateral line regeneration in adult zebrafish. (United States)

    Pisano, Gina C; Mason, Samantha M; Dhliwayo, Nyembezi; Intine, Robert V; Sarras, Michael P


    Due to the clinical importance of hearing and balance disorders in man, model organisms such as the zebrafish have been used to study lateral line development and regeneration. The zebrafish is particularly attractive for such studies because of its rapid development time and its high regenerative capacity. To date, zebrafish studies of lateral line regeneration have mainly utilized fish of the embryonic and larval stages because of the lower number of neuromasts at these stages. This has made quantitative analysis of lateral line regeneration/and or development easier in the earlier developmental stages. Because many zebrafish models of neurological and non-neurological diseases are studied in the adult fish and not in the embryo/larvae, we focused on developing a quantitative lateral line regenerative assay in adult zebrafish so that an assay was available that could be applied to current adult zebrafish disease models. Building on previous studies by Van Trump et al. that described procedures for ablation of hair cells in adult Mexican blind cave fish and zebrafish (Danio rerio), our assay was designed to allow quantitative comparison between control and experimental groups. This was accomplished by developing a regenerative neuromast standard curve based on the percent of neuromast reappearance over a 24 hr time period following gentamicin-induced necrosis of hair cells in a defined region of the lateral line. The assay was also designed to allow extension of the analysis to the individual hair cell level when a higher level of resolution is required.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. 3004, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz, E-mail: [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)


    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  17. Preschoolers’ Psychopathology and Temperament Predict Mothers’ Later Mood Disorders (United States)

    Allmann, Anna E.S.; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Klein, Daniel N.


    Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children’s temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were three and nine years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were three and six years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children’s early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263

  18. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold


    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  19. Lateral meningocele with asymmetric canal stenosis: A case study (United States)

    Mushtaq, Gohar; Hussain, Iqbal; Khan, Jalaluddin A.; Kamal, Mohammad A.


    Lateral meningocele is a very rare disorder of unknown aetiology typified by the presence of protrusions of the arachnoid and the dura matter extending laterally through inter- or intra-vertebral foramina. We report here the case of a 52-year old male with abnormality of spine when presented with low back pain. The patient did not appear to have any neurological disorder. A computerized tomography (CT) scan was acquired from T12 to mid sacrum with multiplanar reformations. The results showed the presence of a left sided paraspinal cystic lesion projecting from the left neural foramen and extending into the left psoas muscle suggesting a lateral meningocele. In addition, a broad based central and left paracentral disc protrusion was also observed resulting in asymmetric canal stenosis. The patient is on regular follow-up while undergoing palliative treatment. PMID:25561891

  20. Battery operated preconcentration-assisted lateral flow assay. (United States)

    Kim, Cheonjung; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Han, Sung Il; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Dohwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Chung, Seok; Lee, Jeong Hoon


    Paper-based analytical devices (e.g. lateral flow assays) are highly advantageous as portable diagnostic systems owing to their low costs and ease of use. Because of their low sensitivity and detection limits for biomolecules, these devices have several limitations in applications for real-field diagnosis. Here, we demonstrate a paper-based preconcentration enhanced lateral flow assay using a commercial β-hCG-based test. Utilizing a simple 9 V battery operation with a low power consumption of approximately 81 μW, we acquire a 25-fold preconcentration factor, demonstrating a clear sensitivity enhancement in the colorimetric lateral flow assay; consequently, clear colors are observed in a rapid kit test line, which cannot be monitored without preconcentration. This device can also facilitate a semi-quantitative platform using the saturation value and/or color intensity in both paper-based colorimetric assays and smartphone-based diagnostics.

  1. Snapping popliteal tendon as a source of lateral knee pain. (United States)

    Crites, B M; Lohnes, J; Garrett, W E


    A 25-year-old female patient underwent surgery for a history of pain and popping on the lateral aspect of her right knee. It was initially thought that the patient had iliotibial (IT) band syndrome which was refractory to conservative treatment. However, upon release of the IT band, the snapping which was audible and palpable pre-operatively was still present. Further exploration of the posterior-lateral aspect of the knee revealed that the popliteal tendon was snapping over the incisura poplitea extensoria on the lateral femoral condyle. Excision of the prominent portion of the articular ridge below the sulcus popliteus eliminated the snapping sensation. The patient has remained asymptomatic since surgery for the past 22 months.

  2. Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Propper


    Full Text Available We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT, affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demanding the processing and representation of emotional and/or motivational states, and for predicting trait-related affective/motivational orientations. The precise nature of the relationship between TMT and brain physiology, however, remains elusive. Indeed the limited extant research has sampled different participant populations and employed largely different procedures and measures, making for seemingly discrepant findings and implications. We propose, however, that many of these discrepancies can be resolved by considering how emotional states map onto motivational systems, and further examining how validated methods for inducing lateralized brain activity might affect TMT.

  3. Radiofrequency ablation of the lateral palatal space for snoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tucker Woodson


    Full Text Available Objective: Pilot study to examine the effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA of the lateral palatal fat pad in patients with socially-disruptive snoring. Method: Snoring outcomes and complications were compared between a group of patients with treated with RFA ablation of the lateral soft palate fat pad with or without inferior turbinate reduction (8 patients and another group undergoing inferior turbinate reduction alone (12 patients. Results: Snoring loudness and bothersomeness improved in the palate but not inferior turbinate group. Pain was mild and no major complications were observed. Conclusion: The study supports RFA ablation of the lateral palatal space as a potential low morbidity procedure for snoring. Keywords: Snoring, Radiofrequency, Somnoplasty, Radiofrequency ablation, Inferior turbinate reduction, Turbinoplasty

  4. Lateral meningocele with asymmetric canal stenosis: A case study. (United States)

    Mushtaq, Gohar; Hussain, Iqbal; Khan, Jalaluddin A; Kamal, Mohammad A


    Lateral meningocele is a very rare disorder of unknown aetiology typified by the presence of protrusions of the arachnoid and the dura matter extending laterally through inter- or intra-vertebral foramina. We report here the case of a 52-year old male with abnormality of spine when presented with low back pain. The patient did not appear to have any neurological disorder. A computerized tomography (CT) scan was acquired from T12 to mid sacrum with multiplanar reformations. The results showed the presence of a left sided paraspinal cystic lesion projecting from the left neural foramen and extending into the left psoas muscle suggesting a lateral meningocele. In addition, a broad based central and left paracentral disc protrusion was also observed resulting in asymmetric canal stenosis. The patient is on regular follow-up while undergoing palliative treatment.

  5. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird (United States)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Traudt, Joachim; Güntürkün, Onur; Prior, Helmut; Wiltschko, Roswitha


    Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of the magnetic field. We found that captive migrants tested in cages with the magnetic field as the only available orientation cue were well oriented in their appropriate migratory direction when using their right eye only, but failed to show a significant directional preference when using their left eye. This implies that magnetoreception for compass orientation, assumed to take place in the eyes alongside the visual processes, is strongly lateralized, with a marked dominance of the right eye/left brain hemisphere.

  6. Lateralization of splay posture in reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulate). (United States)

    Svoke, Joseph T


    Motor laterality is quite often studied in non-human primates, but rarely has been investigated within ungulates. The aim of the study was to use the naturally occurring splay behavior in giraffe as a method to look for the presence of laterality. Four male giraffes housed at Zoo Atlanta were watched for three months, recording their first leg moved to begin the splay posture and the total number of leg movements to achieve a secure stance. All four giraffe significantly moved their left leg first to begin the stance, which suggests at least individual level laterality. However, using the number of leg movements overall, the last leg moved was only significant in one individual. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Quality of life of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Christine Siqueira


    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the scientific evidence that evaluated the quality of life of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through ALSAQ-40/ALSAQ-5. Methods: this is an integrative review carried out with eight articles in the database, using controlled keywords. Results: the most impaired domains of quality of life were physical mobility and activities of daily living. Patients with bulbar Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, communication and feeding were more impaired. Problems with health care and lack of social support to the caregiver negatively impacted the patient´s quality of life. Emotional stress was correlated with communication, physical mobility and disease progression in patients with breathing and artificial feeding, but it is not directly related to the advances of physical deterioration, but rather how the patient processes the experiences. Conclusion: patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis have a poorer quality of life regarding the motor aspect, and lack of caregiver support worsens the patient´s quality of life.

  8. Analysis of the pharyngoesophageal pressure profile in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    MacDougall, G; Wilson, J A; Pryde, A; Grant, R


    Treatment of dysphagia resulting from bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has included cricopharyngeal myotomy for many years but is successful in only a minority of cases. The purpose of this study was to explore the rationale for this procedure with modern manometric techniques. The results of pharyngoesophageal manometry in 13 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were compared with 13 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers by Mann-Whitney analysis. There was no significant difference between patients and control subjects in distal esophageal or lower esophageal sphincter motility nor any pressure parameter of pharyngoesophageal motility. Separate analysis of the seven significantly dysphagic subjects showed a significantly reduced upper esophageal sphincter after-contraction amplitude during water and bread swallows in patients than in control subjects. These data suggest that the dysphagia of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to upper esophageal sphincter spasm and that treatment by cricopharyngeal myotomy may be inappropriate.

  9. Dynamic interplay between adhesive and lateral E-cadherin dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Laur, Oscar Y; Troyanovsky, Regina B


    E-cadherin, an adhesive transmembrane protein of epithelial adherens junctions, forms two types of detergent-resistant dimers: adhesive dimers consisting of cadherin molecules derived from two neighboring cells and lateral dimers incorporating cadherins of the same cell. Both dimers depend...... on the integrity of the same residue, Trp156. While the relative amounts of these complexes are not certain, we show here that in epithelial A-431 cells, adhesive dimers may be a prevalent form. Inactivation of the calcium-binding sites, located between successive cadherin ectodomains, drastically reduced...... the amount of adhesive dimers and concomitantly increased the amount of lateral dimers. A similar interdependence of adhesive and lateral dimers was observed in digitonin-permeabilized cells. In these cells, adhesive dimers immediately disassembled after lowering the Ca2+ concentration below 0.1 m...

  10. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill (United States)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.


    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  11. Alcohols reduce lateral membrane pressures: predictions from molecular theory. (United States)

    Frischknecht, Amalie L; Frink, Laura J Douglas


    We explore the effects of alcohols on fluid lipid bilayers using a molecular theory with a coarse-grained model. We show that the trends predicted from the theory in the changes in area per lipid, alcohol concentration in the bilayer, and area compressibility modulus, as a function of alcohol chain length and of the alcohol concentration in the solvent far from the bilayer, follow those found experimentally. We then use the theory to study the effect of added alcohol on the lateral pressure profile across the membrane, and find that added alcohol reduces the surface tensions at both the headgroup/solvent and headgroup/tailgroup interfaces, as well as the lateral pressures in the headgroup and tailgroup regions. These changes in lateral pressures could affect the conformations of membrane proteins, providing a nonspecific mechanism for the biological effects of alcohols on cells.

  12. “Neuropathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and its variants” (United States)

    Saberi, Shahram; Stauffer, Jennifer E.; Schulte, Derek J.; Ravits, John


    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinical syndrome named for its neuropathological hallmark: degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal anterior horn and motor cortex and loss of axons in the lateral columns of the spinal cord. The signature neuropathological molecular signature common to almost all sporadic ALS and most familial ALS is TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions. The neuropathological and molecular neuropathological features of ALS variants primarly lateral sclerosis and progressive muscular atrophy are less certain, but also appear to share the primary features of ALS. A number of genetic causes including mutations in SOD1, FUS, and C9orf72 comprise a disease spectrum and all demonstrate distinctive molecular and neuropathological signatures. Neuropathology will continue to play to a key role in solving the puzzle of ALS pathogenesis. PMID:26515626

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral nail fold. (United States)

    Figus, A; Kanitkar, S; Elliot, D


    The digital nail complex is occasionally involved by squamous cell carcinoma. The published literature has either been indiscriminating of the site of origin of this tumour within the nail complex or has concentrated attention on the nail bed as the site of pathology. Tumours originating in the lateral nail fold can be clearly differentiated from those of the nail bed itself. This study identifies six cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising in the lateral nail fold. While surgical convention remains to amputate the digital tip for squamous cell carcinoma of any part of the nail complex, the dermatological literature identifies that local surgery can be curative for these tumours, when presenting early and without bone involvement, although offering no discussion of reconstruction. Reconstruction is desirable and methods of achieving this following local excision of lateral nail fold tumours are illustrated in this series.

  14. Disrupted functional connectivity affects resting state based language lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Teghipco


    Full Text Available Pre-operative assessment of language localization and lateralization is critical to preserving brain function after lesion or epileptogenic tissue resection. Task fMRI (t-fMRI has been extensively and reliably used to this end, but resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI is emerging as an alternative pre-operative brain mapping method that is independent of a patient's ability to comply with a task. We sought to evaluate if language lateralization obtained from rs-fMRI can replace standard assessment using t-fMRI. In a group of 43 patients scheduled for pre-operative fMRI brain mapping and 17 healthy controls, we found that existing methods of determining rs-fMRI lateralization by considering interhemispheric and intrahemispheric functional connectivity are inadequate compared to t-fMRI when applied to the language network. We determined that this was attributable to widespread but nuanced disturbances in the functional connectivity of the language network in patients. We found changes in interhemispheric and intrahemispheric functional connectivity that were dependent on lesion location, and particularly impacted patients with lesions in the left temporal lobe. We then tested whether a simpler measure of functional connectivity to the language network has a better relation to t-fMRI based language lateralization. Remarkably, we found that functional connectivity between the language network and the frontal pole, and superior frontal gyrus, as well as the supramarginal gyrus, significantly correlated to task based language lateralization indices in both patients and healthy controls. These findings are consistent with prior work with epilepsy patients, and provide a framework for evaluating language lateralization at rest.

  15. Orienting asymmetries and lateralized processing of sounds in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rübsamen Rudolf


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateralized processing of speech is a well studied phenomenon in humans. Both anatomical and neurophysiological studies support the view that nonhuman primates and other animal species also reveal hemispheric differences in areas involved in sound processing. In recent years, an increasing number of studies on a range of taxa have employed an orienting paradigm to investigate lateralized acoustic processing. In this paradigm, sounds are played directly from behind and the direction of turn is recorded. This assay rests on the assumption that a hemispheric asymmetry in processing is coupled to an orienting bias towards the contralateral side. To examine this largely untested assumption, speech stimuli as well as artificial sounds were presented to 224 right-handed human subjects shopping in supermarkets in Germany and in the UK. To verify the lateralized processing of the speech stimuli, we additionally assessed the brain activation in response to presentation of the different stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Results In the naturalistic behavioural experiments, there was no difference in orienting behaviour in relation to the stimulus material (speech, artificial sounds. Contrary to our predictions, subjects revealed a significant left bias, irrespective of the sound category. This left bias was slightly but not significantly stronger in German subjects. The fMRI experiments confirmed that the speech stimuli evoked a significant left lateralized activation in BA44 compared to the artificial sounds. Conclusion These findings suggest that in adult humans, orienting biases are not necessarily coupled with lateralized processing of acoustic stimuli. Our results – as well as the inconsistent orienting biases found in different animal species – suggest that the orienting assay should be used with caution. Apparently, attention biases, experience, and experimental conditions may all affect head turning

  16. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.


    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  17. Lateral Energy Transport in Laser-Produced Plasmas. (United States)

    Vick, Douglas Wade

    A study of lateral energy transport in planar targets irradiated by 0.53 μm laser light was conducted over an intensity range of 3 times 10^{12} -3 times 10^{14 } W/cm^2 and for laser pulse widths varying from 170 to 860 picoseconds. Spatially - and spectrally-resolving x-ray diagnostics were used to obtain the profiles of target emission in the energy bands from 60-250 eV and above 1 keV. The beam focus configurations adopted were of two basic types, consisting of (a) spatially modulated intensity spots (diameter ~300 μm) and (b) a tight focus spots (diameter ~100 mu m). In both cases the aim was to assess the degree of lateral energy transport which occurs outside the nominal laser focus. To this end, special targets were constructed which consisted of plastic substrates with buried tracer layers, or tracer patterns deposited onto the substrate outside the laser focus. The x-ray signature emission recorded from the tracer material allowed the determination of plasma conditions existing in the lateral regions of the target. Observations indicated that only a small fraction of the incident laser energy was available for heating of the lateral substrate. Lateral x-ray signals were dominated by a hot expanding underdense plasma which coupled weakly to the lateral substrate. Under spatially-modulated irradiation conditions, this plasma formed a collisional structure between the laser hot spots at early stages in the interaction which persisted throughout the laser pulse. A two dimensional particle-in-a-cell code was used to aid in interpreting the experiments. The code incorporated models for classical flux-limited electron thermal transport, average ion atomic physics, diffusion -approximated radiation transport, and transport inhibition by magnetic fields. The predicted electron temperatures, density scale lengths and x-ray emission profiles were in good agreement with experimental measurements done with both focal spot configurations.

  18. Postburn Neck Lateral Contracture Anatomy and Treatment: A New Approach. (United States)

    Grishkevich, Viktor M; Grishkevich, Max


    Lateral contracture of the neck is a rare and insufficiently researched burn consequent. Contracture restricts head motion, can cause a secondary face deformity, presents severe cosmetic defects, and, therefore, requires surgical reconstruction. Literature does not sufficiently address the issue; therefore, anatomy not researched and treatment techniques not developed. The anatomy of postburn lateral cervical flexion contracture was studied in 21 operated patients. Using obtained data, new approaches were investigated, which were directed toward maximal efficacy of the local tissues use. Follow-up results were observed from 6 months to 9 years. Lateral cervical contractures were divided into two types based on their anatomy: edge and medial. Edge contractures were caused by burns and scars located on the posterior neck surface and were characterized by the presence of the fold in central lateral zone. In the fold, only one (posterior) sheet is scars that cause the contracture. Medial contractures were caused by scars located on the lateral cervical surface and were characterized by the presence of the fold in which both sheets were scars. In both types, contracture was caused by scar sheet surface deficiency in length, which has a trapezoid form (contracture cause). In all cases, there was surface surplus in the fold's sheets allowed contracture release with local tissue. The technique that allows the maximum local tissue use and ensures full contracture elimination is the trapeze-flap plasty. Two anatomic types of lateral cervical scar contractures were identified: edge and medial. An anatomically justified efficacy reconstructive technique for both types is trapeze-flap plasty.

  19. Comparative squamation of the lateral line canal pores in sharks. (United States)

    McKenzie, R W; Motta, P J; Rohr, J R


    The current study collected the first quantitative data on lateral line pore squamation patterns in sharks and assessed whether divergent squamation patterns are similar to experimental models that cause reduction in boundary layer turbulence. In addition, the hypothesis that divergent orientation angles are exclusively found in fast-swimming shark species was tested. The posterior lateral line and supraorbital lateral line pore squamation of the fast-swimming pelagic shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus and the slow-swimming epi-benthic spiny dogfish shark Squalus acanthias was examined. Pore scale morphology and pore coverage were qualitatively analysed and compared. In addition, pore squamation orientation patterns were quantified for four regions along the posterior lateral line and compared for both species. Isurus oxyrinchus possessed consistent pore scale coverage among sampled regions and had a divergent squamation pattern with multiple scale rows directed dorsally and ventrally away from the anterior margin of the pore with an average divergent angle of 13° for the first row of scales. Squalus acanthias possessed variable amounts of scale coverage among the sampled regions and had a divergent squamation pattern with multiple scale rows directed ventrally away from the anterior margin of the pore with an average angle of 19° for the first row of scales. Overall, the squamation pattern measured in I. oxyrinchus fell within the parameters used in the fluid flow analysis, which suggests that this pattern may reduce boundary layer turbulence and affect lateral line sensitivity. The exclusively ventral oriented scale pattern seen in S. acanthias possessed a high degree of divergence but the pattern did not match that of the fluid flow models. Given current knowledge, it is unclear how this would affect boundary layer flow. By studying the relationship between squamation patterns and the lateral line, new insights are provided into sensory biology that warrant

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction in blood cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. (United States)

    Ehinger, Johannes K; Morota, Saori; Hansson, Magnus J; Paul, Gesine; Elmér, Eskil


    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, where the progressive degeneration of motor neurons results in muscle atrophy, paralysis and death. Abnormalities in both central nervous system and muscle mitochondria have previously been demonstrated in patient samples, indicating systemic disease. In this case-control study, venous blood samples were acquired from 24 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and 21 age-matched controls. Platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and mitochondrial oxygen consumption measured in intact and permeabilized cells with additions of mitochondrial substrates, inhibitors and titration of an uncoupler. Respiratory values were normalized to cell count and for two markers of cellular mitochondrial content, citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. Mitochondrial function was correlated with clinical staging of disease severity. Complex IV (cytochrome c-oxidase)-activity normalized to mitochondrial content was decreased in platelets from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients both when normalized to citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA copy number. In mononuclear cells, complex IV-activity was decreased when normalized to citrate synthase activity. Mitochondrial content was increased in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient platelets. In mononuclear cells, complex I activity declined and mitochondrial content increased progressively with advancing disease stage. The findings are, however, based on small subsets of patients and need to be confirmed. We conclude that when normalized to mitochondria-specific content, complex IV-activity is reduced in blood cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and that there is an apparent compensatory increase in cellular mitochondrial content. This supports systemic involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and suggests further study of mitochondrial function in blood cells as a future biomarker for the

  1. Coping strategies among patients with newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Jakobsson Larsson, Birgitta; Nordin, Karin; Askmark, Håkan; Nygren, Ingela


    To prospectively identify different coping strategies among newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and whether they change over time and to determine whether physical function, psychological well-being, age and gender correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease with impact on both physical function and psychological well-being. Different coping strategies are used to manage symptoms and disease progression, but knowledge about coping in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is scarce. This was a prospective study with a longitudinal and descriptive design. A total of 33 patients were included and evaluation was made at two time points, one to three months and six months after diagnosis. Patients were asked to complete the Motor Neuron Disease Coping Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Physical function was estimated using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. The most commonly used strategies were support and independence. Avoidance/venting and information seeking were seldom used at both time points. The use of information seeking decreased between the two time points. Men did not differ from women, but patients ≤64 years used positive action more often than older patients. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale was positively correlated with positive action at time point 1, but not at time point 2. Patients' psychological well-being was correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Support and independence were the most used coping strategies, and the use of different strategies changed over time. Psychological well-being was correlated with different coping strategies in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The knowledge about coping strategies in early stage of the disease may help the nurses to improve and develop the care and support for these patients. © 2014 John Wiley

  2. Impact of Arthroscopic Lateral Acromioplasty on the Mechanical and Structural Integrity of the Lateral Deltoid Origin: A Cadaveric Study. (United States)

    Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Katthagen, J Christoph; Mikula, Jacob D; Montgomery, Scott R; Tahal, Dimitri S; Dahl, Kimi D; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Millett, Peter J


    To determine whether a 5-mm and/or 10-mm arthroscopic lateral acromioplasty (ALA) would weaken the structural and mechanical integrity of the lateral deltoid. The acromion and lateral deltoid origin were harvested from 15 pairs (n = 30) of fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulder specimens. One side of each specimen pair (left or right) was randomly assigned to either a 5-mm (n = 7) or 10-mm (n = 8) ALA group, and the contralateral sides (n = 15) were used as matched controls. Acromion thickness and width were measured pre- and postoperatively. After ALA, specimens were inspected for damage to the lateral deltoid origin. Each specimen was secured within a dynamic testing machine, and the deltoid muscle was pulled to failure. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether ALA reduced the lateral deltoid's failure load. There was no significant difference in failure load between the 5-mm ALA group (661 ± 207 N) and its matched control group (744 ± 212 N; mean difference = 83 N; 95% confidence interval [CI], -91 to 258; P = .285) nor between the 10-mm ALA group (544 ± 210 N) and its matched control group (598 ± 157 N; mean difference = 54 N; 95% CI, -141 to 250; P = .532). There was no correlation found between the amount of bone resected (measured by percent thickness and width of the acromion after ALA) and the failure load of the deltoid. Visual evaluation of the acromion after ALA revealed the lateral deltoid origin had no damage in any case. ALA did not weaken the structural or mechanical integrity of the lateral deltoid origin. Neither a 5-mm nor a 10-mm ALA significantly reduced the deltoid's failure load. The lateral deltoid origin was not macroscopically damaged in any case. ALA can be performed without the potential risk of macroscopically damaging the lateral deltoid origin or reducing its failure load. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi


    Small-scale tests have been conducted to investigate the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that it was possible...... to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...

  4. Translaminar approach to cranio-laterally herniated lumbar disc prolapse. (United States)

    Schulz, C; Abdeltawab, A; Mauer, U M


    For cranio-laterally extruded disc fragments, a far enlargement of the standard interlaminar fenestration is necessary. This strategy harbours a potential risk for relevant destruction of the facet joints and postsurgical instability could be the consequence. For preserving the facet joint, a limited approach through the hemilamina is possible. After the standard paramedian soft tissue approach and retraction of the paravertebral muscles laterally, the hemilamina is exposed and fenestrated, preserving the bony borders of the lamina. The disc herniation can be extracted via this lamina fenestration. This surgical strategy is safe and effective in approaching cranially herniated disc fragments.

  5. Successful Closed Reduction of a Lateral Elbow Dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya Watanabe


    Full Text Available In this report, we present a case of lateral elbow dislocation treated with closed reduction. Lateral elbow dislocation is rare, and a closed reduction is reported with even less frequency. The reduction can be hindered by swelling and soft tissue interposition, and we describe the use of a nonoperative reduction technique performed under mild sedation with early physiotherapy to avoid joint stiffness. No additional complication was observed, and the normal range of elbow movement and function was obtained by early physiotherapy.

  6. Lateral flow biosensors for the detection of nucleic acid. (United States)

    Zeng, Lingwen; Lie, Puchang; Fang, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Zhuo


    The detection of nucleic acid is of central importance for the diagnosis of genetic diseases, infectious agents, and biowarfare agents. Traditional strategies and technologies for nucleic acid detection are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, isothermal strand-displacement reaction-based lateral flow biosensors have attracted a great deal of research interest because they are sensitive, simple, fast, and easy to use. Here, we describe a lateral flow biosensor based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction and gold nanoparticles for the visual detection of nucleic acid.

  7. Sodium amytal testing and the laterality of emotion. (United States)

    Trimble, Michael


    In this paper, the results of studies that have used the intracarotid sodium amytal (amobarbital) test to examine hemispheric lateralization of emotional expression has been reviewed. The important findings are that the emotional states are dissociated from the neurological effects (aphasia, hemiplegia), and occur later, when the electroencephalogram (EEG) is showing evidence of activation. The effects of left hemisphere barbiturization are less clear than those of the right hemisphere, and there is good concordance that the latter lead to states of alteration in mood or euphoria.

  8. Lateral Coherence in Isotropic Turbulence and in the Natural Wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Kristensen, Leif


    A short review of experimental findings is given, followed by a theoretical derivation, based on Taylor's hypothesis, of formulas for lateral coherences. It is assumed that the flow is stationary and homogeneous. Explicit formulas are derived assuming an energy spectrum pertaining to the inertial...... velocity with respect to the direction of the horizontal mean wind velocity U. In the case of small displacements relative to the scale of turbulence, the coherences are shown to be universal functions of the non-dimensional frequency nD/¦U¦, where n is the frequency and D the lateral displacement...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Ochman


    The aims of this research were to elucidate the role and extent of lateral transfer in the differentiation of bacterial strains and species, and to assess the impact of gene transfer on the evolution of bacterial genomes. The ultimate goal of the project is to examine the dynamics of a core set of protein-coding genes (i.e., those that are distributed universally among Bacteria) by developing conserved primers that would allow their amplification and sequencing in any bacterial taxa. In addition, we adopted a bioinformatic approach to elucidate the extent of lateral gene transfer in sequenced genome.

  10. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    . Comparison of the different approaches shows some discrepancy and conflicting statements, but the main findings can be summarized as: • The standard p-y curves are inadequate to describe the behaviour of lateral loaded large diameter rigid piles. • Initial stiffness of the p-y curves is depended...... of up-to-date facilities has been: Equipment for controlling centrifuge tests, data acquisition, preparation of test samples and equipment for and making of lateral load tests. The present research has been narrowed to investigate the static and cyclic behaviour of stiff piles with a diameter of 1-3 m...

  11. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe (formerly with IPST, now at Cargill. Inc)


    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  12. Prematurity, smallness-for-gestational age and later hospital admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Á Rogvi, Rasmus; Forman, Julie Lyng; Greisen, Gorm


    & urological diseases, and occurred throughout childhood and early adulthood. Novel findings included increased risks for delayed puberty, neurofibromatosis type 1 and ileus and decreased risks of mononucleosis, peritonsillar abscesses, chronic hypothyroidism and several types of fractures and contusions later...... hospital admissions later in life. METHODS: Using Danish nation-wide registries we created a cohort of 1,348,106 persons born 1974-1996 and assessed all unique diagnoses registered in the Danish Patient Registry (DPR) for hospital admissions in the period 1994-2007 (n=27,910,558). We determined the odds...

  13. Lateral photocurrent spreading in single quantum well infrared photodetectors


    Ershov, Maxim


    Lateral physical effects in single quantum well infrared photodetectors (SQWIPs) under non-uniform illumination over detector area are considered. These effects are due mainly to the in-plane transport of the photoinduced charge in the QW. The length of the lateral photocurrent spreading is determined by the in-plane conductivity of the carriers in the QW and characteristic time of the QW recharging, and can be as large as 10-10000 mkm. Closed-form analytical expressions for SQWIP responsivit...

  14. Lateral electrochemical etching of III-nitride materials for microfabrication (United States)

    Han, Jung


    Conductivity-selective lateral etching of III-nitride materials is described. Methods and structures for making vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with distributed Bragg reflectors via electrochemical etching are described. Layer-selective, lateral electrochemical etching of multi-layer stacks is employed to form semiconductor/air DBR structures adjacent active multiple quantum well regions of the lasers. The electrochemical etching techniques are suitable for high-volume production of lasers and other III-nitride devices, such as lasers, HEMT transistors, power transistors, MEMs structures, and LEDs.

  15. Colgajo sensible basado en perforantes de la arteria sural lateral A sensate lateral sural artery muscle perforator flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Hallock


    Full Text Available La región de la pantorrilla es un potencial fuente de colgajos cutáneos relativamente finos, incluso en personas obesas. Este colgajo es una opción a tener en cuenta si el procedimiento reconstructivo requiere que el paciente permanezca en posición prona. Los colgajos musculocutáneos de gemelo han sido considerados desde hace tiempo fiables, y ahora, con los avances en colgajos de perforantes, es posible elegir elevar un colgajo de perforantes de la arteria sural medial (PSM o bien de la arteria sural lateral (PSL respetando la función del músculo que en estos casos queda excluido del colgajo. Aunque el colgajo PSM ha sido el más ampliamente usado, si se demuestra la existencia de una perforante musculocutánea del músculo gastrocnemio lateral, también puede usarse el colgajo PSL. Este último tiene la ventaja de ser un colgajo sensitivo si se incluye el nervio cutáneo sural lateral.The calf region is a potential source for relatively thin cutaneous flaps, even in obese individuals. This can be an especially valuable option if the defect requires that the patient remain in a prone position. Whereas gastrocnemius musculocutaneous flaps have long been recognized to be reliable, with the advent of the muscle perforator flap concept, now instead a medial sural artery perforator [MSAP] or lateral sural artery perforator [LSAP] flap can be selected with preservation of function of the excluded muscle. Although the MSAP flap has been most commonly used, if an appropriate major musculocutaneous per- forator of the lateral gastrocnemius muscle exists, a LSAP flap can be used. The latter has the advantage of being a sensate flap by inclusion of the lateral sural cutaneous nerve.

  16. The outcomes of midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsomchai Chompilas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Episiotomy is the surgical enlargement of the vaginal orifice by an incision of the perineum during the second stage of labor or just before delivery of the baby. During the 1970s, it was common to perform an episiotomy for almost all women having their first delivery, ostensibly for prevention of severe perineum tears and easier subsequent repair. However, there are no data available to indicate if an episiotomy should be midline or medio-lateral. We compared midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy for complication such as extended perineal tears, pain scores, wound infection rates and other complications. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort including 1,302 women, who gave birth vaginally between April 2005 and February 2006 at Srinagarind Hospital – a tertiary care center in Northeast Thailand. All women included had low risk pregnancies and delivered at term. The outcome measures included deep perineal tears (including perineal tears with anal sphincter and/or rectum tears, other complications, and women's satisfaction at 48 hours and 6-weeks postpartum. Results In women with midline episiotomy, deep perineal tears occurred in 14.8%, which is statistically significantly higher compared to 7% in women who underwent a medio-lateral episiotomy (p-value 3,500 g and forceps extraction. Conclusion Midline compared to medio-lateral episiotomy resulted in more deep perineal tears. It is more likely deep perineal tears would occur in cases with additional risk factors.

  17. Muscle changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a longitudinal ultrasonography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Overeem, S.; Pillen, S.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.


    OBJECTIVE: We performed a longitudinal study to assess structural muscle changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using ultrasonography. METHODS: During a follow-up of 6 months, ultrasonography parameters (muscle thickness, echo intensity and fasciculations) were obtained from 6 muscle groups

  18. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van


    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xaopus Levis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“HEDAF”) and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“TEDAF”) as probes. The

  19. Italic Typography and Wordsworth's Later Sonnets as Visual Poetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Peter


      The later Wordsworth understood the sonnet as a form of visual poetry. The essay investigates this in relation to Wordsworth's sense of layout in his 1838 book of sonnets, his conceptualization of the sonnet as "picture," "frame," and "monument," and his use of italic typeface in printings...

  20. Cerebral lesions can impair fMRI-based language lateralization. (United States)

    Wellmer, Jörg; Weber, Bernd; Urbach, Horst; Reul, Jürgen; Fernandez, Guillen; Elger, Christian E


    Several small patient studies and case reports raise concerns that the reliability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be impaired in the vicinity of cerebral lesions. This could affect the clinical validity of fMRI for presurgical language lateralization. The current study sets out to identify if a systematic effect of lesion type and localization on fMRI exists. We classify lesions typically occurring in epilepsy patients according to (1) their potential to disturb blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD)-effect generation or detection or to disturb spatial brain normalization, and (2) the proximity of lesions to protocol-specific volumes of interest (VOIs). The effect of lesions is evaluated through the examination of 238 epilepsy patients and a subgroup of 37 patients with suspected unilateral left-language dominance according to the Wada test. Patients with fMRI-critical lesions such as cavernomas, gliomas, and mass defects close to VOIs, or with severe atrophy, show lower lateralization indices (LIs) and more often discordant language lateralization with the Wada test than do patients without such lesions. This study points seriously toward fMRI-language lateralization being sensitive to cerebral lesions. Some lesion types and locations are more critical than others. Our results question the noncritical application of fMRI in patients with cerebral lesions.

  1. Cerebral lesions can impair fMRI-based language lateralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellmer, J.; Weber, B.; Urbach, H.; Reul, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Elger, C.E.


    PURPOSE: Several small patient studies and case reports raise concerns that the reliability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be impaired in the vicinity of cerebral lesions. This could affect the clinical validity of fMRI for presurgical language lateralization. The current study

  2. Acoustic Investigations into the Later Acquisition of Syllabic "-es" Plurals (United States)

    Mealings, Kiri T.; Cox. Felicity; Demuth, Katherine


    Purpose: Children acquire /-ez/ syllabic plurals (e.g., buses) later than /-s, -z/ segmental plurals (e.g., cats,dogs). In this study, the authors explored whether increased syllable number or segmental factors best explains poorer performance with syllabic plurals. Method: An elicited imitation experiment was conducted with 14 two-year-olds…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Valerievna Markova


    Full Text Available Background: The problem of anxiety - one of the most pressing problems in today's society. Especially important is the development of this problem in relation to teenage children, reared without parental care. Urgency of the problem stems from the fact that the number of disadvantaged children suffering from anxiety, catastrophic increases. Guidelines on child-rearing and training on management of anxiety, as a rule, do not take into account the child's psycho-physiological characteristics; intervention programs have low efficiency, which ultimately affects the mental health of the child.The purpose of the study was the development and testing of the original program of the lateral psychocorrection,  aimed at reducing anxiety in children, brought up in the deprivation conditions.Methods: The study included 27 teenage boys from children's community. The children were divided into two groups in accordance with their lateral phenotype. Psychocorrection on the original program that takes into account the lateral organization of the brain was provided. Before and after psychocorrection assessed the level of anxietyResults:  It was shown the effectiveness of the original lateral psychocorrection program of anxiety in teenagers, brought up in the deprivation conditions.  Because the program is aimed mainly at the right hemisphere of the brain, the most pronounced effect was registered in children – ambidextrous.Conclusion: Presented results suggest the need for a differentiated approach to the correction of anxiety depending on the functional asymmetry of the brain.

  4. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury? (United States)

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others


    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  5. Results of Lateral Condylar Blade Plate Fixation of Supracondylar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concerns about operative stabilization of supracondylar femoral fractures are complications, especially hardware infection and disturbance of normal knee function. We reviewed the results of operative fixation of supracondylar femoral fractures using the lateral condylar blade plate device in our centre.

  6. Premorbid body mass index and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Reilly, Eilis J.; Wang, Hao; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Thun, Michael; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ascherio, Alberto

    Our objective was to determine if amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk varies according to body mass index (BMI) captured up to three decades earlier. At baseline 537,968 females and 562,942 males in five ongoing cohorts reported height, current weight and weight at age 18/21 years. During 14-28

  7. Tele-treatment of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Wendy; Janssen, Emile P.F.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Spoelstra, Jos; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.


    Management of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mainly consists of (psycho) social support and advice on activities of daily living. We evaluated the effects of tele-treatment in addition to the conventional method of care in four patients with ALS. A Web application was built with

  8. Immunohistochemical characterization of the inflammatory infiltrate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, D.; van den Oord, J. J.; Vianney de Jong, J. M.


    In order to test the hypothesis that the immune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the cellular composition of the spinal cord inflammatory infiltrate was analysed in eight cases of sporadic ALS by a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The majority of the

  9. UBQLN2 in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doormaal, Perry T. C.; van Rheenen, Wouter; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Schellevis, Raymond D.; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; de Visser, Marianne; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.


    Recently it was discovered that mutations in the UBQLN2 gene were a cause of an X-linked dominant type of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated the frequency of mutations in this gene in a cohort of 92 families with ALS in the Netherlands. Eight families were excluded because

  10. NEK1 variants confer susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenna, Kevin P.; van Doormaal, Perry T. C.; Dekker, Annelot M.; Ticozzi, Nicola; Kenna, Brendan J.; Diekstra, Frank P.; van Rheenen, Wouter; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Jones, Ashley R.; Keagle, Pamela; Shatunov, Aleksey; Sproviero, William; Smith, Bradley N.; van Es, Michael A.; Topp, Simon D.; Kenna, Aoife; Miller, Jack W.; Fallini, Claudia; Tiloca, Cinzia; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Vance, Caroline; Troakes, Claire; Colombrita, Claudia; Mora, Gabriele; Calvo, Andrea; Verde, Federico; Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Calini, Daniela; de Belleroche, Jacqueline; Baas, Frank; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L. M. A.; Sapp, Peter C.; McKenna-Yasek, Diane; Polak, Meraida; Asress, Seneshaw; Muñoz-Blanco, José Luis; Strom, Tim M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Morrison, Karen E.; Lauria, Giuseppe; Williams, Kelly L.; Leigh, P. Nigel; Nicholson, Garth A.; Blair, Ian P.; Leblond, Claire S.; Dion, Patrick A.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Pall, Hardev; Shaw, Pamela J.; Turner, Martin R.; Talbot, Kevin; Taroni, Franco; Boylan, Kevin B.; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Rademakers, Rosa; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; van Damme, Phillip; Robberecht, Wim; Chio, Adriano; Gellera, Cinzia; Drepper, Carsten; Sendtner, Michael; Ratti, Antonia; Glass, Jonathan D.; Mora, Jesús S.; Basak, Nazli A.; Hardiman, Orla; Ludolph, Albert C.; Andersen, Peter M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Brown, Robert H.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Silani, Vincenzo; Shaw, Christopher E.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Veldink, Jan H.; Landers, John E.; D'alfonso, Sandra; Mazzini, Letizia; Comi, Giacomo P.; del Bo, Roberto; Ceroni, Mauro; Gagliardi, Stella; Querin, Giorgia; Bertolin, Cinzia; Pensato, Viviana; Castellotti, Barbara; Corti, Stefania; Cereda, Cristina; Corrado, Lucia; Sorarù, Gianni


    To identify genetic factors contributing to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we conducted whole-exome analyses of 1,022 index familial ALS (FALS) cases and 7,315 controls. In a new screening strategy, we performed gene-burden analyses trained with established ALS genes and identified a

  11. Lateral patellar luxation in nine small breed dogs | Dona | Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to describe the clinical features, the management and the outcome of nine small breed dogs affected with lateral patella luxation referred during the period between January 2010 and December 2014. Patellar luxations were classified according to: breed, age, sex, weight, and grade of ...

  12. On the relationship between language lateralization and handedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, M.


    In this thesis, several aspects of the relation between hand-preference and language lateralization were investigated by employing meta-analytic, neuroimaging and genetic techniques. To achieve this, we tested whether there is a difference between left- and right-handers with regard to spatial

  13. The lateralization of motor cortex activation to action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eHauk


    Full Text Available What determines the laterality of activation in motor cortex for words whose meaning is related to bodily actions? It has been suggested that the neuronal representation of the meaning of action-words is shaped by individual experience. However, core language functions are left-lateralized in the majority of both right- and left-handers. It is still an open question to what degree connections between left-hemispheric core language areas and right-hemispheric motor areas can play a role in semantics. We investigated laterality of brain activation using fMRI in right- and left-handed participants in response to visually presented hand-related action-words, namely uni- and bi-manual actions (such as "throw" and "clap". These stimulus groups were matched with respect to general (hand-action-relatedness, but differed with respect to whether they are usually performed with the dominant hand or both hands. We may expect generally more left-hemispheric motor-cortex activation for hand-related words in both handedness groups, with possibly more bilateral activation for bimanual words as well as left-handers. In our study, both participant groups activated motor cortex bilaterally for bi-manual words. Interestingly, both groups also showed a left-lateralized activation pattern to uni-manual words. We argue that this reflects the effect of left-hemispheric language dominance on the formation of semantic brain circuits on the basis of Hebbian correlation learning.

  14. Non-linear analytical solutions for laterally loaded sandwich plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen


    This work focuses on the response of orthotropic sandwich composite plates with large deflections due to high lateral loads. The results have special application to the design of ship structures. A geometrical nonlinear theory is outlined, on the basis of the classical sandwich plate theory...

  15. Medial and lateral antebrachial nerve conductions: Orthodromic or antidromic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunam Sanjeeva Reddy


    Full Text Available Introduction: Antidromic stimulation is usually used in the evaluation of lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LABCN and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MABCN. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between orthodromic and antidromic stimulations of these nerves. Materials and Methods: Medial and lateral antebrachial conduction studies by antidromic and orthodromic stimulation. Results: Sensory nerve action potential (SNAP amplitudes were larger with antidromic stimulation in the majority of subjects. The lateral antebrachial SNAP amplitude was 20.5 ± 9.29 μV with antidromic stimulation and 14.6 ± 6.13 μV with orthodromic stimulation (P < 0.001. Medial antebrachial SNAP amplitudes were 12.8 ± 4.93 μV using antidromic stimulation and 6.5 ± 3.84 μV with orthodromic stimulation (P < 0.001. Sensory conduction velocities were faster with orthodromic lateral antebrachial stimulation (P = 0.002 whereas velocities were similar in medial antebrachial nerve. Supramaximal stimulation of MABCN was not possible in half of the nerves sampled to avoid the muscle artifact. Conclusion: Orthodromic stimulation of LABCN and MABCN are easy to perform and can be supplanted for antidromic stimulation in which Supramaximal stimulation may not be possible in some individuals.

  16. Lateralization, connectivity and plasticity in the human central auditory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langers, DRM; van Dijk, P; Backes, WH


    Although it is known that responses in the auditory cortex are evoked predominantly contralateral to the side of stimulation, the lateralization of responses at lower levels in the human central auditory system has hardly been studied. Furthermore, little is known on the functional interactions

  17. Association between birthweight and later body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo


    Background: There is evidence that birthweight is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birthweight and BMI from infancy to adulthood ...

  18. Guesstimation of posterior malleolar fractures on lateral plain radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, D. T.; Doornberg, J. N.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Mallee, W. H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Stufkens, S. A.; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; van Sterkenburg, Maayke; Engvall, Andreas; Arroyo, Ernesto; Golovakha, Maksym; Pereira, Ernesto; Josep Torrent, Eugene Toh; Haverkamp, Daniel; Bojanic, Ivan; Sousa, Manuel; Aragon, Oscar Castro; Russo, Alessandro; Cortes, Carlos; Pánics, Gergely; Vide, João; Spanos, Loannis; Carvalho, Manuel Santos; Maggi, Pablo; Thomas, Zach; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Dinato, Mauro; Fay, Jakob; Kimtys, Vytautas; Correia Moreira, António José; Hatziemmanuil, Dimitrios; Low, Tze-Choong; van der Plaat, Laurens Wessel; Mora, Allan David; van Rensen, Inge; del Vecchio, Javier; Ramos, James; Azevedo, Jorge; Bustamante, Carlos; Oliveira, Alexandre; Zaw, Htwe; Kurup, Harish; Yli-Kyyny, Tero; Baca, Emre; Haapasalo, Heidi; Bakhtamyan, Gurgen; Zbikowski, Piotr; Kalb, Juan; Hemmingsson, Peter; Pinheiro, Miguel; Davenport, James; Guidi, Pier Luigi; Simoes da Silva, Ana Paula; Martinho, Goncalo; Spennacchio, Pietro; Postnov, Yury; Dreiangel, Niv; Junior, Nelson Gomes; Frangez, Igor; Bissell, Iain; Khan, Yasir; Toom, Alar; Bergen, Christiaan van; Liszka, Henryk; Moreno, Nestor; Patczai, Balázs; van den Bogaert, Max; Marquis, Christopher; Hussein, Amro Kamal; Andersen, Mette; Botezatu, Lozefina; Santos, Francisco Flores; Nery, Caio; Becirbegovc, Semin; Stoffel, Cristhopher Lucca; Ferrao, Paulo; Rakovac, Ivan; Darabos, Nikica; Sicchiero, Paolo; Tengiz, Kostava; Keiserman, Luciano; Yeap, Ewe Juan; Rocha de Souza, Andrè Luiz; Abdulsalam, Samir; Ramos, Acacio; Martinelli, Nicolú; Verfaillie, Stefaan; Silva, Carmen; Stufkens, Sjoerd; Chouliaras, Vasileios; da Costa, Daniel; Freihaut, Richard; Bulstra, Gythe; Burg, Alon; Rudge, Ben; Abdelwahab, Ali; Sirio, Adrian; Watson, Troy; Gaspar, Ana Rita; Sharp, Ian; Hossain, Munier; van Deurzen, Derek; van den Bekerom, Michel; Wiegerinck, Jan-Joost; van Eekeren, Inge; de Muinck Keizer, Robert-Jan


    Accurate assessment of articular involvement of the posterior malleolar fracture fragments in ankle fractures is essential, as this is the leading argument for internal fixation. The purpose of this study is to assess diagnostic accuracy of measurements on plain lateral radiographs. Quantification

  19. Lives of a Cell: 40 Years Later, A Third Interpretation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the article Lives of a Cell: 40 Years Later, A Third Interpretation.  Created: 6/16/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/18/2015.

  20. Clinical assessment of functional outcome in lateral epicondylitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral epicondylitis is a well known elbow disorder known to affect a variety of population. ... lot of sports personnel, the incidence is not uncommon in persons of ... Twenty five patients of Tennis elbow were included in this study who have attended the OPD of GSVM Medical College and associated LLR Hospital, Kanpur ...

  1. Lateral gene transfer in phylogeny of azoreductase enzyme. (United States)

    Bafana, Amit; Chakrabarti, Tapan


    This paper attempts to reconstruct the phylogeny of azoreductase enzyme from different organisms and compare it with the small subunit rRNA-based phylogeny of the organisms. The two phylogenies were found to be incongruent, indicating several events of lateral transfer of azoreductase gene between phylogenetically diverse organisms. However, the phylogenetic analysis methods have several limitations and a single method may not give the true pattern. Hence, it is necessary to corroborate the results with other complementary analysis tools. We used several tools to test our hypothesis of lateral transfer and found that it was supported not only by the analysis of the whole sequences, but also by the conserved motifs detected in these sequences. There were ample evidences for lateral transfer of azoreductase gene among enteric bacteria. There were also indications that azoreductase probably evolved in prokaryotes and then it was laterally transferred to eukaryotes in multiple events, resulting in some sequence variation among eukaryotic azoreductases. Finally, profile HMMs and conserved motifs extracted from these azoreductase sequences were found to provide sensitive tools for identifying potential azoreductases from the database. The analysis techniques used in this study can be extended to other gene trees to verify their evolutionary histories.

  2. Language Lateralization in Children Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography (United States)

    Haag, Anja; Moeller, Nicola; Knake, Susanne; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M.


    Aim: Language lateralization with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) and lexical word generation has been shown to have high concordance with the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults. We evaluated a nonlexical paradigm to determine language dominance in children. Method: In 23 right-handed children (12…

  3. Aptamers: Universal capture units for lateral flow applications. (United States)

    Fischer, Christin; Wessels, Hauke; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika; Fischer, Markus


    The present work demonstrates the implementation of aptamers as capture molecules for a wide range of target classes in lateral flow assay applications. The targets were chosen in order to cover a wide range of target classes (small sized - metabolite, medium sized - protein, and large sized - whole cell/spore). For each target class one target molecule was selected as representative and appropriate aptamers were used for lateral flow assay development. The work points out that the implementation of aptamers as capture molecules in a universal lateral flow test platform was successful independent form target size. Furthermore, the limit of detection for p-aminohippuric acid in urine (200 ppm), lysozyme in white wine (20 ppm), and Alicyclobacillus spores in buffered orange juice (>8 CFU/mL) were determined using aptamers as capture molecules. The whole approach is considered as a proof of concept, regarding the ability of aptamers as an alternative to antibodies (in conjunction with directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes) in lateral flow applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F


    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

  5. Multidirectional sorting modes in deterministic lateral displacement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, B.R.; Heller, Martin; Beech, J.P.


    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices separate micrometer-scale particles in solution based on their size using a laminar microfluidic flow in an array of obstacles. We investigate array geometries with rational row-shift fractions in DLD devices by use of a simple model including both...

  6. Design and fabrication process for artificial lateral line sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Barth, Friedrich G.; Humphrey, Joseph A.C.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.


    Biological sensory systems often display great performance, inspiring engineers to develop artificial counterparts. The lateral line system of fish has been widely studied by biologists for its crucial role in fish behaviour. Moreover, recently the robustness, sensitivity and consequently wide range

  7. Significant reductions in heart and lung doses using semi lateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Various treatment techniques as breath hold techniques have been developed to spare the heart and lung in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. Purpose: to compare the heart and lung dosimetric parameters of semi lateral decubitus technique with and without deep inspiration breath hold ...

  8. Pulp Rotation Flap for Lateral Oblique Fingertip Defects. (United States)

    Ozturk, Muhammed Besir; Barutca, Seda Asfuroglu; Aksan, Tolga; Atik, Bekir


    Fingertip amputations are among the most common injuries seen in the hand. According to the geometry of the amputation, it may be classified as transverse or oblique (dorsal, volar, or lateral type). Although numerous repair techniques have been described in the literature, there are few alternatives suitable for lateral oblique type fingertip amputations. Between 2012 and 2016, we operated on 16 patients with simple rotation flap from the remaining part of the pulpa in a rotation and advancement manner for the reconstruction of lateral oblique type fingertip amputations. All but two of the flaps healed completely with full flap survival. Superficial distal flap necrosis was observed in two patients. They healed by secondary intention. No obvious hooked nail occurred in patients. Cold intolerance was observed in one patient; joint stiffness or hypersensitivity was not observed in any of the patients. Stiffness of the proximal interphalangeal joint did not occur. Two point discrimination test results were found to be normal. This technique is simple, rapid, and free from relatively major complications. This flap allows for anatomical reconstruction of the fingertip by using a similar tissue in cases of lateral oblique fingertip amputations, where only a few flap options can be successful.

  9. 14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability. (United States)


    ... landing configurations. This must be shown with symmetrical power up to maximum continuous power, and at... first, and at speeds from 1.2 VS1 to VO, the rudder pedal force must not reverse. (b) The static lateral... gear and flap positions. This must be shown with symmetrical power up to 75 percent of maximum...

  10. Dowagers and Dreams: Coaching Women's Later Career Stages. (United States)

    Griggs, Sue; Wright, Susan


    A study of 32 women in their later career stages (ages 60-69) elicited their views on life purpose and fulfillment. Themes included the following: quality of life and quality of health, increased loss, coping with death, feelings of invisibility, the importance of relationships, the need to impart wisdom, and the importance of having a purpose and…

  11. A randomized sequential trial of creatine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, G. J.; Veldink, Jan H.; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Kalmijn, Sandra; Beijer, Cornelis; de Visser, Marianne; Wokke, John H. J.; Franssen, Hessel; van den Berg, Leonard H.


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease with no cure. In a transgenic mouse model of ALS, creatine monohydrate showed a promising increase in survival. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential clinical trial to assess the effect of creatine monohydrate on survival

  12. Characterizing Social Communication Changes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (United States)

    Fisher, Fiona; Philpott, April; Andrews, Sophie C.; Maule, Roxanne; Douglas, Jacinta


    Background: Speech and language impairments are well-established in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, knowledge about particular aspects of social communication and everyday conversational abilities is limited. Aims: To investigate self- and informant-report ratings of social communicative abilities in ALS participants…

  13. Comparative Lateralizing Ability of Multimodality MRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabekir Ercan


    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective is to compare lateralizing ability of three quantitative MR (qMRI modalities to depict changes of hippocampal architecture with clinical entities in temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods. We evaluated 14 patients with clinical and EEG proven diagnosis of unilateral TLE and 15 healthy volunteers. T1-weighted 3D dataset for volumetry, single-voxel 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI were performed for bilateral hippocampi of all subjects. Results. Individual volumetric measurements provided accurate lateralization in 85% of the patients, spectroscopy in 57%, and DTI in 57%. Higher lateralization ratios were acquired combining volumetry-spectroscopy (85%, spectroscopy-DTI (85%, and volumetry-DTI (100%. Significantly decreased NAA/(Cho+Cr ratios (p=0.002 and increased FA (p=0.001 values were obtained in ipsilateral to epileptogenic hippocampus. Duration of epilepsy and FA values showed a significant negative correlation (p=0.016, r=-0.847. The history of febrile convulsion associated with ipsilateral increased ADC values (p=0.015, r=0.851 and reduced NAA/(Cho+Cr ratios (p=0.047, r=-761. Conclusion. Volumetry, MRS, and DTI studies provide complementary information of hippocampal pathology. For lateralization of epileptogenic focus and preoperative examination, volumetry-DTI combination may be indicative of diagnostic accuracy.

  14. Normal aging selectively diminishes alpha lateralization in visual spatial attention. (United States)

    Hong, Xiangfei; Sun, Junfeng; Bengson, Jesse J; Mangun, George R; Tong, Shanbao


    EEG studies of cue-induced visual alpha power (8-13 Hz) lateralization have been conducted on young adults without examining differences that may develop as a consequence of normal aging. Here, we examined age-related differences in spatial attention by comparing healthy older and younger adults. Our key finding is that cue-induced alpha power lateralization was observed in younger, but not older adults, even though both groups exhibited classic event-related potential signatures of spatial orienting. Specifically, both younger and older adults showed significant early directing-attention negativity (EDAN), anterior directing-attention negativity (ADAN), late directing-attention positivity (LDAP) and contingent negative variation (CNV). Furthermore, target-evoked sensory components were enhanced for attended relative to unattended targets in both younger and older groups. This pattern of results suggests that although older adults can successfully allocate spatial attention, they do so without the lateralization of alpha power that is commonly observed in younger adults. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that younger and older adults might engage different neural mechanisms for attentional orienting, and that alpha power lateralization during visual spatial attention is a phenomenon that diminishes during normal aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical features and current treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Tulay Koca


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also known as Lou Gehring's disease, is the most common motor neuron disease characterized by motor neuron degeneration in the primary cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. This leads to widespread paralysis, respiratory insufficiency and death within an average of 3-5 years from disease onset. Majority of cases is sporadic and only 10% have a family story. One of the most interesting discovery in the field of neurodegeneration in recent years is genetic mutation in the C9orf72 (chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 gene, the most common mutation found to be causative of frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and concomitant of these two diseases. Currently curative therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is lacking. To date, one medication, Riluzole, has been proved to prolong survival, approximately 3-5 months, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Researches aim to slow disease progression by targeting known pathophysiological pathways or genetics defects. Only symptomatic care to improve quality of life and survival is suggested. These includes respiratory and nutrition support; dysphagia and gastrostomy management; communication and mobility programs; spasticity prevention; pain medication; management of cognitive dysfunction, depression, mood dysorders (especially apathy, fatigue, sleep disturbance and prevention of deep venous thrombosis. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(2.000: 182-194

  16. Lateral geniculate nucleus histopathology in the rat experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although trypanosomosis has a well knownaetiology, histopathological studies on brain regions involved in the control of circadian rhythms are scanty. Lateral geniculate nucleus works in conjunction with the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian rhythm pacemaker, in regulating circadian rhythms. The purpose of ...

  17. Task constraints modulate activation in right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex. (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod


    Lesion data suggest that right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in open-ended problem solving. To test this hypothesis, we scanned fifteen normal subjects with fMRI as they completed three types of anagram problems varying in the level of constraints placed on the search space. On unconstrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions (e.g., Can you make a "Word with ZJAZ?"). On semantically constrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions within particular semantic categories (e.g., Can you make a type of "Music with ZJAZ?"). On baseline trials, they rearranged letters to make specific words (e.g., Can you make the word "JAZZ with ZJAZ?"). As predicted, the critical comparison of unconstrained vs. semantically constrained trials revealed significant activation in right ventral lateral PFC, as well as left superior frontal gyrus, frontopolar cortex, right superior parietal lobe, right post central gyrus, and the occipital-parietal sulcus. Furthermore, activation in right ventral lateral PFC (BA 47) increased as the constraints placed on the anagram search space were reduced. We argue that the activation in right ventral lateral PFC is related to hypothesis generation in unconstrained settings, whereas activation in other structures is related to additional processes linked to anagram problems such as semantic retrieval, semantic categorization, and cognitive monitoring. These results extend the lesion data and imaging studies by demonstrating that a relative absence of constraints on the solution space is sufficient to engage right ventral lateral PFC in hypothesis generation tasks.

  18. Old and sad — Depression in later life | Wynchank | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Old and sad — Depression in later life. MasterD Wynchank. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  19. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation. (United States)

    Young, Jenny M.; And Others


    Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue…

  20. Management of acute lateral ankle ligament injury in the athlete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; McCollum, Graham A.; Calder, James D. F.; van Dijk, C. Niek


    Inversion injuries involve about 25 % of all injuries of the musculoskeletal system and about 50 % of these injuries are sport-related. This article reviews the acute lateral ankle injuries with special emphasis on a rationale for treatment of these injuries in athletes. A narrative review was