WorldWideScience

Sample records for videogrammetric model deformation

  1. Dynamic Deformation Measurements of an Aeroelastic Semispan Model. [conducted in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Sharon S.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Edwards, John W.; Schuster, David M.

    2001-01-01

    The techniques used to acquire, reduce, and analyze dynamic deformation measurements of an aeroelastic semispan wind tunnel model are presented. Single-camera, single-view video photogrammetry (also referred to as videogrammetric model deformation, or VMD) was used to determine dynamic aeroelastic deformation of the semispan 'Models for Aeroelastic Validation Research Involving Computation' (MAVRIC) model in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. Dynamic deformation was determined from optical retroreflective tape targets at five semispan locations located on the wing from the root to the tip. Digitized video images from a charge coupled device (CCD) camera were recorded and processed to automatically determine target image plane locations that were then corrected for sensor, lens, and frame grabber spatial errors. Videogrammetric dynamic data were acquired at a 60-Hz rate for time records of up to 6 seconds during portions of this flutter/Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) test at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.96. Spectral analysis of the deformation data is used to identify dominant frequencies in the wing motion. The dynamic data will be used to separate aerodynamic and structural effects and to provide time history deflection data for Computational Aeroelasticity code evaluation and validation.

  2. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...... manifold and that the distance between two deformations are given by the metric introduced by the L2-norm in the parameter space. The chosen L2-norm is shown to have a clear and intuitive interpretation on the usual nonlinear manifold. Our model is validated on a set of MR images of corpus callosum...

  3. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse...... the spherical deformation model in detail and describe how it may be used to summarize the shape of star-shaped three-dimensional objects with few parameters. It is of interest to make statistical inference about the three-dimensional shape parameters from continuous observations of the surface and from...

  4. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template...... models making a non-expert user able to use the model. A comparative study of a number of optimization algorithms is also reported. In addition a general polygon-based model, an ellipse model and a textile model are proposed and a number of applications have been solved. Finally the Grenander model...

  5. Deformation models for image recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, Daniel; Deselaers, Thomas; Gollan, Christian; Ney, Hermann

    2007-08-01

    We present the application of different nonlinear image deformation models to the task of image recognition. The deformation models are especially suited for local changes as they often occur in the presence of image object variability. We show that, among the discussed models, there is one approach that combines simplicity of implementation, low-computational complexity, and highly competitive performance across various real-world image recognition tasks. We show experimentally that the model performs very well for four different handwritten digit recognition tasks and for the classification of medical images, thus showing high generalization capacity. In particular, an error rate of 0.54 percent on the MNIST benchmark is achieved, as well as the lowest reported error rate, specifically 12.6 percent, in the 2005 international ImageCLEF evaluation of medical image categorization.

  6. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while

  7. Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-31

    We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS{sub 2} metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.

  8. Deformable human body model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  9. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  10. On parameter estimation in deformable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1998-01-01

    Deformable templates have been intensively studied in image analysis through the last decade, but despite its significance the estimation of model parameters has received little attention. We present a method for supervised and unsupervised model parameter estimation using a general Bayesian...... formulation of deformable templates. In the supervised estimation the parameters are estimated using a likelihood and a least squares criterion given a training set. For most deformable template models the supervised estimation provides the opportunity for simulation of the prior model. The unsupervised...

  11. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  12. Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John [Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Nestec York Ltd., Nestlé Product Technology Centre, Haxby Road, PO Box 204, York YO91 1XY (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.

  13. Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.

  14. An Efficient Virtual Trachea Deformation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a virtual tactile model with the physically based skeleton to simulate force and deformation between a rigid tool and the soft organ. When the virtual trachea is handled, a skeleton model suitable for interactive environments is established, which consists of ligament layers, cartilage rings and muscular bars. In this skeleton, the contact force goes through the ligament layer, and produces the load effects of the joints , which are connecting the ligament layer and cartilage rings. Due to the nonlinear shape deformation inside the local neighbourhood of a contact region, the RBF method is applied to modify the result of linear global shape deformation by adding the nonlinear effect inside. Users are able to handle the virtual trachea, and the results from the examples with the mechanical properties of the human trachea are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  15. Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Brimacombe, J.K. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Processing Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.

  16. Deformable bag model of hadrons, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ui, Haruo; Saito, Koich

    1983-05-01

    As a generalization of the MIT spherical bag model, we construct the spheroidal bag model of hadron with an arbitrary eccentricity. This generalization is made by slightly modifying the MIT linear boundary condition: The linear boundary condition is examined in detail. Our model always satisfies two necessary requirements of the MIT bag model - i.e., n.j = 0, no quark colour flux leaves the bag, and q-barq = 0, the scalar density of quark should vanish on the bag surface- and it reduces to the MIT spherical bag model in the limit of zero-eccentricity. Lagrangian formalism of our model is briefly described. The eigenfrequencies of a single massless quark confined in this spheroidal bag are numerically calculated. We obtain the level-splitting of the excited quark orbits, which is just analogous to the well-known Nilsson's splitting of single particle orbits in deformed nuclei. By using the numerical results of the lowest orbit, the effect of the bag-deformation on the mass of low-lying hadrons is estimated. It is found that, although the spherical bag is stable, the quark bag is extremely soft against the quadrupole deformation. Brief discussions are added on the mechanisms which make the spherical bag more stable.

  17. Constitutive model with time-dependent deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette

    1998-01-01

    In many geological and Engineering problems it is necessary to transform information from one scale to another. Data collected at laboratory scale are often used to evaluate field problems on a much larger scale. This is certainly true for geological problems where extreme scale differences...... are common in time as well as size. This problem is adressed by means of a new constitutive model for soils. It is able to describe the behavior of soils at different deformation rates. The model defines time-dependent and stress-related deformations separately. They are related to each other and they occur...... simultanelously. The model is based on concepts from elasticity and viscoplasticity theories. In addition to Hooke's law for the elastic behavior, the framework for the viscoplastic behavior consists, in the general case (two-dimensional or three-dimensional), of a yield surface, an associated flow rule...

  18. Object detection based on deformable part model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Xu, Zhiyong

    2016-09-01

    In complex scene, considering traditional object detection methods based on feature points have exposed many problems, such as undetected points, low detected ratio and cannot well process object occlusion and scaling situation, this paper proposes a detection method which based on a deformable part model. The method uses histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) feature as the object description, and the deformable part model includes a global template and several high-resolution templates. And the method uses the support vector machine (SVM) training the object model. In the learning process, after the HOG feature extracted, the method modifies the HOG feature, and then uses the principal component analysis (PCA) method reducing feature dimensions to avoid over-learning, and improve the detection rate in the detection process. The experiment results shows that the method proposed can better process object occlusion or scaled situation, and there's also an improvement in detection ratio.

  19. Modeling plasticity by non-continuous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shmuel, Yaron; Altus, Eli

    2017-10-01

    Plasticity and failure theories are still subjects of intense research. Engineering constitutive models on the macroscale which are based on micro characteristics are very much in need. This study is motivated by the observation that continuum assumptions in plasticity in which neighbour material elements are inseparable at all-time are physically impossible, since local detachments, slips and neighbour switching must operate, i.e. non-continuous deformation. Material microstructure is modelled herein by a set of point elements (particles) interacting with their neighbours. Each particle can detach from and/or attach with its neighbours during deformation. Simulations on two- dimensional configurations subjected to uniaxial compression cycle are conducted. Stochastic heterogeneity is controlled by a single "disorder" parameter. It was found that (a) macro response resembles typical elasto-plastic behaviour; (b) plastic energy is proportional to the number of detachments; (c) residual plastic strain is proportional to the number of attachments, and (d) volume is preserved, which is consistent with macro plastic deformation. Rigid body displacements of local groups of elements are also observed. Higher disorder decreases the macro elastic moduli and increases plastic energy. Evolution of anisotropic effects is obtained with no additional parameters.

  20. Symmetry in Image Registration and Deformation Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan; Jacobs, Henry O.

    We survey the role of symmetry in diffeomorphic registration of landmarks, curves, surfaces, images and higher-order data. The infinite dimensional problem of finding correspondences between objects can for a range of concrete data types be reduced resulting in compact representations of shape...... and spatial structure. This reduction is possible because the available data is incomplete in encoding the full deformation model. Using reduction by symmetry, we describe the reduced models in a common theoretical framework that draws on links between the registration problem and geometric mechanics...... problem. We outline these constructions and further cases where reduction by symmetry promises new approaches to registration of complex data types....

  1. Physical Analog Modeling of Martian Dike-Induced Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Watson-Morris, M. J.; Morris, A. P.

    2012-03-01

    Analog models of dike injection were performed to determine style and magnitude of structural deformation associated with the dike. Primary deformation style is contraction rather than extension, indicating that martian dikes may not create grabens.

  2. Breast image registration and deformation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Tobias; Zoehrer, Fabian; Harz, Markus; Hahn, Horst Karl

    2012-01-01

    Image-based examination of the breast facilitates the detection of breast diseases, particularly of present benign and malignant lesions. For computer-aided processing of serial and multimodal clinical data, both for visual correlation and quantitative analysis, automated image-registration methods are an indispensable tool. The wide range of modalities and the high variability of breast appearance have led to a large diversity of proposed approaches for tissue deformation modeling and image registration. In this article, we review current developments in breast image registration techniques, and comment on their clinical relevance, individual capabilities, and open challenges.

  3. Implicit modeling of folds and overprinting deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Gautier; Ailleres, Laurent; Grose, Lachlan; Caumon, Guillaume; Jessell, Mark; Armit, Robin

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional structural modeling is gaining importance for a broad range of quantitative geoscientific applications. However, existing approaches are still limited by the type of structural data they are able to use and by their lack of structural meaning. Most techniques heavily rely on spatial data for modeling folded layers, but are unable to completely use cleavage and lineation information for constraining the shape of modeled folds. This lack of structural control is generally compensated by expert knowledge introduced in the form of additional interpretive data such as cross-sections and maps. With this approach, folds are explicitly designed by the user instead of being derived from data. This makes the resulting structures subjective and deterministic. This paper introduces a numerical framework for modeling folds and associated foliations from typical field data. In this framework, a parametric description of fold geometry is incorporated into the interpolation algorithm. This way the folded geometry is implicitly derived from observed data, while being controlled through structural parameters such as fold wavelength, amplitude and tightness. A fold coordinate system is used to support the numerical description of fold geometry and to modify the behavior of classical structural interpolators. This fold frame is constructed from fold-related structural elements such as axial foliations, intersection lineations, and vergence. Poly-deformed terranes are progressively modeled by successively modeling each folding event going backward through time. The proposed framework introduces a new modeling paradigm, which enables the building of three-dimensional geological models of complex poly-deformed terranes. It follows a process based on the structural geologist approach and is able to produce geomodels that honor both structural data and geological knowledge.

  4. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  5. An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2009-11-01

    Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.

  6. Preliminary deformation model for National Seismic Hazard map of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Sarsito, Dina; Prijatna, Kosasih; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z. [Geodesy Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Susilo,; Efendi, Joni [Agency for Geospatial Information (BIG) (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Preliminary deformation model for the Indonesia’s National Seismic Hazard (NSH) map is constructed as the block rotation and strain accumulation function at the elastic half-space. Deformation due to rigid body motion is estimated by rotating six tectonic blocks in Indonesia. The interseismic deformation due to subduction is estimated by assuming coupling on subduction interface while deformation at active fault is calculated by assuming each of the fault‘s segment slips beneath a locking depth or in combination with creeping in a shallower part. This research shows that rigid body motion dominates the deformation pattern with magnitude more than 15 mm/year, except in the narrow area near subduction zones and active faults where significant deformation reach to 25 mm/year.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Subglacial Sediment Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    may cause mass loss in the near future to exceed current best estimates. Ice flow in larger ice sheets focuses in fast-moving streams due to mechanical non-linearity of ice. These ice streams often move at velocities several magnitudes larger than surrounding ice and consequentially constitute...... glaciers move by deforming their sedimentary beds. Several modern ice streams, in particular, move as plug flows due to basal sediment deformation. An intense and long-winded discussion about the appropriate description for subglacial sediment mechanics followed this discovery, with good reason...... velocities previously associated with elastic or viscous ice deformation. If a glacier dominated by subglacial creep experiences prolonged events of strong surface melt or increased driving stresses, the plastic strength limit can cause rapid acceleration downslope due to imbalance of stresses....

  8. Robust brain ROI segmentation by deformation regression and deformable shape model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengwang; Guo, Yanrong; Park, Sang Hyun; Gao, Yaozong; Dong, Pei; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2018-01-01

    We propose a robust and efficient learning-based deformable model for segmenting regions of interest (ROIs) from structural MR brain images. Different from the conventional deformable-model-based methods that deform a shape model locally around the initialization location, we learn an image-based regressor to guide the deformable model to fit for the target ROI. Specifically, given any voxel in a new image, the image-based regressor can predict the displacement vector from this voxel towards the boundary of target ROI, which can be used to guide the deformable segmentation. By predicting the displacement vector maps for the whole image, our deformable model is able to use multiple non-boundary predictions to jointly determine and iteratively converge the initial shape model to the target ROI boundary, which is more robust to the local prediction error and initialization. In addition, by introducing the prior shape model, our segmentation avoids the isolated segmentations as often occurred in the previous multi-atlas-based methods. In order to learn an image-based regressor for displacement vector prediction, we adopt the following novel strategies in the learning procedure: (1) a joint classification and regression random forest is proposed to learn an image-based regressor together with an ROI classifier in a multi-task manner; (2) high-level context features are extracted from intermediate (estimated) displacement vector and classification maps to enforce the relationship between predicted displacement vectors at neighboring voxels. To validate our method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art multi-atlas-based methods and other learning-based methods on three public brain MR datasets. The results consistently show that our method is better in terms of both segmentation accuracy and computational efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A General Polygon-based Deformable Model for Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1999-01-01

    for applying the model is proposed. The scheme includes general methods for initialization, optimization and validation. Experimental results for real data are shown. Compared to related work the proposed meodel and the methods for initialization and validation contains a number of intersting features......We propose a general scheme for object localization and recognition based on a deformable model. The model combines shape and image properties by warping a arbitrary prototype intensity template according to the deformation in shape. The shape deformations are constrained by a probabilistic...

  10. Complex structure-induced deformations of σ-models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Dmitri [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Steklov Mathematical Institute of Russ. Acad. Sci.,Gubkina str. 8, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-24

    We describe a deformation of the principal chiral model (with an even-dimensional target space G) by a B-field proportional to the Kähler form on the target space. The equations of motion of the deformed model admit a zero-curvature representation. As a simplest example, we consider the case of G=S{sup 1}×S{sup 3}. We also apply a variant of the construction to a deformation of the AdS{sub 3}×S{sup 3}×S{sup 1} (super-)σ-model.

  11. Mantle lateral variations and elastogravitational deformations – I. Numerical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Métivier, L; Greff-Lefftz, M; Diament, M.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Earth response (deformation and gravity) to tides or to surface loads is traditionally computed assuming radial symmetry in stratified earth models, at the hydrostatic equilibrium. The present study aims at providing a new earth elastogravitational deformation model which accounts for the whole complexity of a more realistic earth. The model is based on a dynamically consistent equilibrium state which includes lateral variations in density and elastic parameters, a...

  12. Experimental force modeling for deformation machining stretching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARSHPREET SINGH

    Deformation; thin section machining; single-point incremental forming (SPIF). 1. Introduction. Fabrication of complicated geometrical components and structures incurs large equipment and inventory costs. Reducing the manufacturing cost without compromising the quality of such components is a challenge. Smith et al.

  13. Experimental force modeling for deformation machining stretching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deformation machining is a hybrid process that combines two manufacturing processes—thin structure machining and single-point incremental forming. This process enables the creation of complex structures and geometries, which would be rather difficult or sometimes impossible to manufacture. A comprehensive ...

  14. Modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    and numerically calculated stretch ratios on the surface of the deformed nickel foil is found, and from the model it is also possible to predict the limits of the nanostructures on the curved surfaces, with decreasing radii. A combination of proper constitutive and frictional models for simulating the deformation...... and experimental results are found, both regarding force-displacement and principal strain measurements. The rheological representation of the constitutive model with a combination of a viscoelastic Zener-body and Johnson-Cook plasticity can be used to model the mechanical behavior of PTFE. Inclusion...... of the frictional behavior between the PTFE stamp and steel tool on micro-scale in the numerical model is shown to be of major importance in order to best simulate the strain field in the deformed PTFE sheet. Simulations in 3D of the deformation process of PTFE flexible stamps used for NIL on double-curved surfaces...

  15. dMODELS: A software package for modeling volcanic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    dMODELS is a software package that includes the most common source models used to interpret deformation measurements near active volcanic centers. The emphasis is on estimating the parameters of analytical models of deformation by inverting data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), tiltmeters and strainmeters. Source models include: (a) pressurized spherical, ellipsoidal and sill-like magma chambers in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space; (b) pressurized spherical magma chambers with topography corrections; and (c) the solutions for a dislocation (fracture) in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. All of the equations have been extended to include deformation and strain within the Earth's crust (as opposed to only at the Earth's surface) and verified against finite element models. Although actual volcanic sources are not embedded cavities of simple shape, we assume that these models may reproduce the stress field created by the actual magma intrusion or hydrothermal fluid injection. The dMODELS software employs a nonlinear inversion algorithm to determine the best-fit parameters for the deformation source by searching for the minimum of the cost function χv2 (chi square per degrees of freedom). The non-linear inversion algorithm is a combination of local optimization (interior-point method) and random search. This approach is more efficient for hyper-parameter optimization than trials on a grid. The software has been developed using MATLAB, but compiled versions that can be run using the free MATLAB Compiler Runtime (MCR) module are available for Windows 64-bit operating systems. The MATLAB scripts and compiled files are open source and intended for teaching and research. The software package includes both functions for forward modeling and scripts for data inversion. A software demonstration will be available during the meeting. You are welcome to contact the author at mbattaglia@usgs.gov for

  16. Discrete Element Modeling of Dike-induced Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Smart, K. J.

    2009-03-01

    Discrete element models of dike-induced deformation suggest the most distinctive topographic signature of an underlying dike are parallel ridges formed by contractional folding bounding a trough rather than an extensional fault-bounded graben.

  17. Deformation texture development in a model composite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, W.J.; MacEwen, S.; Kocks, U.F.; Embury, J.D.

    1995-05-01

    Model composites fabricated with a polycrystalline copper matrix and continuous tungsten fibres were deformed in plane strain compression with the fibres perpendicular to the loading axis and parallel to the direction of zero strain. The development of texture in the matrix due to deformation was measured using x-ray diffraction. It was observed that the macroscopic texture development in the composite was weaker than for unreinforced copper. The pattern of deformation in the matrix was quantified using experimental measurements and finite element method calculations. By carefully sectioning the composite after deformation, texture measurements were conducted for regions which exhibited characteristic types of deformation. These measurements showed that there is a variety of local textures (some weaker, some stronger than the texture in the unreinforced matrix) which when summed give the result of a weak global texture. This result is in agreement with the predictions from the computer simulations of Bolmaro et al.

  18. Droplet Deformation Prediction With the Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model (DDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model was used to predict deformation of droplets approaching the leading edge stagnation line of an airfoil. The quasi-steady model was solved for each position along the droplet path. A program was developed to solve the non-linear, second order, ordinary differential equation that governs the model. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equation. Experimental slip velocities from droplet breakup studies were used as input to the model which required slip velocity along the particle path. The center of mass displacement predictions were compared to the experimental measurements from the droplet breakup studies for droplets with radii in the range of 200 to 700 mm approaching the airfoil at 50 and 90 m/sec. The model predictions were good for the displacement of the center of mass for small and medium sized droplets. For larger droplets the model predictions did not agree with the experimental results.

  19. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian

    2009-01-01

    , lead-lag, pitch, trailing-edge flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman-type dynamic stall model. In this work, a deformable trailing-edge flap has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave...... for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model is compared qualitatively to wind tunnel measurements of a Riso/ B1-18 blade section equipped with deformable trailing-edge flap devices in the form of piezoelectric devices. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Dan Christian

    2007-01-01

    on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa [4], which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. [7]. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments...

  1. Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kononova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F-deformation (X spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications.

  2. A stochastic large deformation model for computational anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaudon, Alexis; Holm, Darryl D.; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    In the study of shapes of human organs using computational anatomy, variations are found to arise from inter-subject anatomical differences, disease-specific effects, and measurement noise. This paper introduces a stochastic model for incorporating random variations into the Large Deformation...... registering the landmarks, by applying bridge sampling using a stochastically perturbed version of the large deformation gradient flow algorithm. The method and the estimation algorithms are experimentally validated on synthetic examples and shape data of human corpora callosa....

  3. Modeling of inelastic deformation around vertical and horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Myasnikov, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical modeling results on plastic deformation development around vertical and horizontal wells in rocks for four lithologies typical of the Bazhenov formation. Estimates of irreversible deformation were obtained depending on wellbore pressure, in-situ stress distribution and rock dilation factor. Computational results showed that for the considered lithology borehole pressure management does not always provide wellbore stability if the contrast between principal stresses is large enough.

  4. Integrable double deformation of the principal chiral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delduc, F., E-mail: Francois.Delduc@ens-lyon.fr [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon and CNRS UMR 5672, Université de Lyon, 46, allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Magro, M., E-mail: Marc.Magro@ens-lyon.fr [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon and CNRS UMR 5672, Université de Lyon, 46, allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Vicedo, B., E-mail: Benoit.Vicedo@gmail.com [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    We define a two-parameter family of integrable deformations of the principal chiral model on an arbitrary compact group. The Yang–Baxter σ-model and the principal chiral model with a Wess–Zumino term both correspond to limits in which one of the two parameters vanishes.

  5. Modeling for Deformable Body and Motion Analysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the modeling methods for deformable human body and motion analysis in the recent 30 years. First, elementary knowledge of human expression and modeling is introduced. Then, typical human modeling technologies, including 2D model, 3D surface model, and geometry-based, physics-based, and anatomy-based approaches, and model-based motion analysis are summarized. Characteristics of these technologies are analyzed. The technology accumulation in the field is outlined for an overview.

  6. Modeling steel deformation in the semi-solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Hojny, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses selected aspects of steel-deformation modelling, both at very high temperatures and under the conditions in which the liquid and the solid phases coexist. Steel-deformation modelling with its simultaneous solidification is particularly difficult due to its specificity and complexity. With regard to industrial applications and the development of new, integrated continuous casting and rolling processes, the issues related to modelling are becoming increasingly important. Since the numerous industrial tests that are necessary when traditional methods are used to design the process of continuous casting immediately followed by rolling are expensive, new modelling concepts have been sought. Comprehensive tests were applied to solve problems related to the deformation of steel with a semi-solid core. Physical tests using specialist laboratory instruments (Gleeble 3800thermo-mechanical simulator, NANOTOM 180 N computer tomography, Zwick Z250 testing equipment, 3D blue-light scanning systems), and...

  7. Symmetry Based No Core Shell Model in a Deformed Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekejian, David; Draayer, Jerry; Launey, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    To address current limitations of shell-model descriptions of large spatial deformation and cluster structures, we adopt a no-core shell model with a deformed harmonic oscillator basis and implement an angular momentum projection in a symmetry-adapted scheme. This approach allows us to reach larger model spaces as a result of computational memory savings for calculations of highly deformed states, such as the Hoyle state in C-12. The method is first tested with schematic interactions, but the ultimate goal is to carry forward calculations with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions in future work. Supported by the U.S. NSF (OCI-0904874, ACI-1516338) and the U.S. DOE (DE-SC0005248), and benefitted from computing resources provided by Blue Waters and LSU's Center for Computation & Technology.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Grasping of Deformable Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Andreas Rune

    . The purpose of this thesis is to address the modeling and simulation of deformable objects, as applied to robotic grasping and manipulation. The main contributions of this work are: An evaluation of 3D linear elasticity used for robot grasping as implemented by a Finite Difference Method supporting regular...... and adaptively refined grids, a stable and accurate non-linear 2D beam model supporting large deformations and difficult boundary effects, a method for the estimation of material properties and pose from depth and colour images, a method for the learning of Peg-in-Hole actions, an outline for Laying-Down actions...... as well a throughout evaluation of the accuracy of models under large deformations....

  9. A Deformable Template Model, with Special Reference to Elliptical Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jan; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests a high-level continuous image model for planar star-shaped objects. Under this model, a planar object is a stochastic deformation of a star-shaped template. The residual process, describing the difference between the radius-vector function of the template and the object...

  10. Personalized heterogeneous deformable model for fast volumetric registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weixin; Liao, Xiangyun; Wang, Qiong; Heng, Pheng Ann

    2017-02-20

    Biomechanical deformable volumetric registration can help improve safety of surgical interventions by ensuring the operations are extremely precise. However, this technique has been limited by the accuracy and the computational efficiency of patient-specific modeling. This study presents a tissue-tissue coupling strategy based on penalty method to model the heterogeneous behavior of deformable body, and estimate the personalized tissue-tissue coupling parameters in a data-driven way. Moreover, considering that the computational efficiency of biomechanical model is highly dependent on the mechanical resolution, a practical coarse-to-fine scheme is proposed to increase runtime efficiency. Particularly, a detail enrichment database is established in an offline fashion to represent the mapping relationship between the deformation results of high-resolution hexahedral mesh extracted from the raw medical data and a newly constructed low-resolution hexahedral mesh. At runtime, the mechanical behavior of human organ under interactions is simulated with this low-resolution hexahedral mesh, then the microstructures are synthesized in virtue of the detail enrichment database. The proposed method is validated by volumetric registration in an abdominal phantom compression experiments. Our personalized heterogeneous deformable model can well describe the coupling effects between different tissues of the phantom. Compared with high-resolution heterogeneous deformable model, the low-resolution deformable model with our detail enrichment database can achieve 9.4× faster, and the average target registration error is 3.42 mm, which demonstrates that the proposed method shows better volumetric registration performance than state-of-the-art. Our framework can well balance the precision and efficiency, and has great potential to be adopted in the practical augmented reality image-guided robotic systems.

  11. Semantic modeling of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Hassan A.; Davarpanah, Armita

    2018-02-01

    We have developed the first iteration of the Plastic Rock Deformation (PRD) ontology by modeling the semantics of a selected set of deformational processes and mechanisms that produce, reconfigure, displace, and/or consume the material components of inhomogeneous polycrystalline rocks. The PRD knowledge model also classifies and formalizes the properties (relations) that hold between instances of the dynamic physical and chemical processes and the rock components, the complex physio-chemical, mathematical, and informational concepts of the plastic rock deformation system, the measured or calculated laboratory testing conditions, experimental procedures and protocols, the state and system variables, and the empirical flow laws that define the inter-relationships among the variables. The ontology reuses classes and properties from several existing ontologies that are built for physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics. With its flexible design, the PRD ontology is well positioned to incrementally develop into a model that more fully represents the knowledge of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rocks in the future. The domain ontology will be used to consistently annotate varied data and information related to the microstructures and the physical and chemical processes that produce them at different spatial and temporal scales in the laboratory and in the solid Earth. The PRDKB knowledge base, when built based on the ontology, will help the community of experimental structural geologists and metamorphic petrologists to coherently and uniformly distribute, discover, access, share, and use their data through automated reasoning and integration and query of heterogeneous experimental deformation data that originate from autonomous rock testing laboratories.

  12. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia CUDA C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a linear-elastic soft-body contact model. We have coupled the DEM model to a model for porewater flow, and we present early results of particle...

  13. Matrix model description of baryonic deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu

    2003-03-13

    We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.

  14. MULTISCALE SPARSE APPEARANCE MODELING AND SIMULATION OF PATHOLOGICAL DEFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Zewail

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning and statistical modeling techniques has drawn much interest within the medical imaging research community. However, clinically-relevant modeling of anatomical structures continues to be a challenging task. This paper presents a novel method for multiscale sparse appearance modeling in medical images with application to simulation of pathological deformations in X-ray images of human spine. The proposed appearance model benefits from the non-linear approximation power of Contourlets and its ability to capture higher order singularities to achieve a sparse representation while preserving the accuracy of the statistical model. Independent Component Analysis is used to extract statistical independent modes of variations from the sparse Contourlet-based domain. The new model is then used to simulate clinically-relevant pathological deformations in radiographic images.

  15. Deformed shell model studies of spectroscopic properties of Zn and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-05

    Apr 5, 2014 ... pp. 757–767. Deformed shell model studies of spectroscopic properties of. 64. Zn and. 64. Ni and the positron double beta decay of. 64. Zn. R SAHU1,∗ and V K B KOTA2,3. 1Physics Department, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India. 2Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India.

  16. A stochastic large deformation model for computational anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaudon, Alexis; Holm, Darryl D.; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    In the study of shapes of human organs using computational anatomy, variations are found to arise from inter-subject anatomical differences, disease-specific effects, and measurement noise. This paper introduces a stochastic model for incorporating random variations into the Large Deformation...

  17. A hybrid deformable model for simulating prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David; Fenster, Aaron; Ladak, Hanif M.

    2006-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) guided prostate brachytherapy is a minimally invasive form of cancer treatment during which a needle is used to insert radioactive seeds into the prostate at pre-planned positions. Interaction with the needle can cause the prostate to deform and this can lead to inaccuracy in seed placement. Virtual reality (VR) simulation could provide a way for surgical residents to practice compensating for these deformations. To facilitate such a tool, we have developed a hybrid deformable model that combines ChainMail distance constraints with mass-spring physics to provide realistic, yet customizable deformations. Displacements generated by the model were used to warp a baseline US image to simulate an acquired US sequence. The algorithm was evaluated using a gelatin phantom with a Young's modulus approximately equal to that of the prostate (60 kPa). A 2D US movie was acquired while the phantom underwent needle insertion and inter-frame displacements were calculated using normalized cross correlation. The hybrid model was used to simulate the same needle insertion and the two sets of displacements were compared on a frame-by-frame basis. The average perpixel displacement error was 0.210 mm. A simulation rate of 100 frames per second was achieved using a 1000 element triangular mesh while warping a 300x400 pixel US image on an AMD Athlon 1.1 Ghz computer with 1 GB of RAM and an ATI Radeon 9800 Pro graphics card. These results show that this new deformable model can provide an accurate solution to the problem of simulating real-time prostate brachytherapy.

  18. Volumetric Intraoperative Brain Deformation Compensation: Model Development and Phantom Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Christine; Papademetris, Xenophon; Staib, Lawrence H.; Vives, Kenneth P.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Duncan, James S.

    2012-01-01

    During neurosurgery, nonrigid brain deformation may affect the reliability of tissue localization based on preoperative images. To provide accurate surgical guidance in these cases, preoperative images must be updated to reflect the intraoperative brain. This can be accomplished by warping these preoperative images using a biomechanical model. Due to the possible complexity of this deformation, intraoperative information is often required to guide the model solution. In this paper, a linear elastic model of the brain is developed to infer volumetric brain deformation associated with measured intraoperative cortical surface displacement. The developed model relies on known material properties of brain tissue, and does not require further knowledge about intraoperative conditions. To provide an initial estimation of volumetric model accuracy, as well as determine the model’s sensitivity to the specified material parameters and surface displacements, a realistic brain phantom was developed. Phantom results indicate that the linear elastic model significantly reduced localization error due to brain shift, from >16 mm to under 5 mm, on average. In addition, though in vivo quantitative validation is necessary, preliminary application of this approach to images acquired during neocortical epilepsy cases confirms the feasibility of applying the developed model to in vivo data. PMID:22562728

  19. Numerical modelling of 3D woven preform deformations

    OpenAIRE

    Green, S D; Long, A.C.; El Said, B. S. F.; Hallett, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to accurately predict the performance of 3D woven composites, it is necessary that realistic textile geometry is considered, since failure typically initiates at regions of high deformation or resin pockets. This paper presents the development of a finite element model based on the multi-chain digital element technique, as applied to simulate weaving and compaction of an orthogonal 3D woven composite. The model was reduced to the scale of the unit cell facilitating high fidelity resu...

  20. Phenomenological model for transient deformation based on state variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M S; Cho, C W; Alexopoulos, P; Mughrabi, H; Li, C Y

    1980-01-01

    The state variable theory of Hart, while providing a unified description of plasticity-dominated deformation, exhibits deficiencies when it is applied to transient deformation phenomena at stresses below yield. It appears that the description of stored anelastic strain is oversimplified. Consideration of a simple physical picture based on continuum dislocation pileups suggests that the neglect of weak barriers to dislocation motion is the source of these inadequacies. An appropriately modified description incorporating such barriers then allows the construction of a macroscopic model including transient effects. Although the flow relations for the microplastic element required in the new theory are not known, tentative assignments may be made for such functions. The model then exhibits qualitatively correct behavior when tensile, loading-unloading, reverse loading, and load relaxation tests are simulated. Experimental procedures are described for determining the unknown parameters and functions in the new model.

  1. Microstructure based hygromechanical modelling of deformation of fruit tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, M. K.; Wang, Z.; Verboven, P.; Nicolai, B.

    2017-10-01

    Quality parameters such as firmness and susceptibility to mechanical damage are affected by the mechanical properties of fruit tissue. Fruit tissue is composed of turgid cells that keep cell walls under tension, and intercellular gas spaces where cell walls of neighboring cells have separated. How the structure and properties of these complex microstructures are affecting tissue mechanics is difficult to unravel experimentally. In this contribution, a modelling methodology is presented to calculate the deformation of apple fruit tissue affected by differences in structure and properties of cells and cell walls. The model can be used to perform compression experiments in silico using a hygromechanical model that computes the stress development and water loss during tissue deformation, much like in an actual compression test. The advantage of the model is that properties and structure can be changed to test the influence on the mechanical deformation process. The effect of microstructure, turgor pressure, cell membrane permeability, wall thickness and damping) on the compressibility of the tissue was simulated. Increasing the turgor pressure and thickness of the cell walls results in increased compression resistance of apple tissue increases, as do decreasing cell size and porosity. Geometric variability of the microstructure of tissues plays a major role, affecting results more than other model parameters. Different fruit cultivars were compared, and it was demonstrated, that microstructure variations within a cultivar are so large that interpretation of cultivar-specific effects is difficult.

  2. Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J. (University of Minnesota); Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)

    2006-12-01

    Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the

  3. Resurgence in η-deformed Principal Chiral Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demulder, Saskia [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels (Belgium); Dorigoni, Daniele [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Thompson, Daniel C. [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-07-18

    We study the SU(2) Principal Chiral Model (PCM) in the presence of an integrable η-deformation. We put the theory on ℝ×S{sup 1} with twisted boundary conditions and then reduce the circle to obtain an effective quantum mechanics associated with the Whittaker-Hill equation. Using resurgent analysis we study the large order behaviour of perturbation theory and recover the fracton events responsible for IR renormalons. The fractons are modified from the standard PCM due to the presence of this η-deformation but they are still the constituents of uniton-like solutions in the deformed quantum field theory. We also find novel SL(2,ℂ) saddles, thus strengthening the conjecture that the semi-classical expansion of the path integral gives rise to a resurgent transseries once written as a sum over Lefschetz thimbles living in a complexification of the field space. We conclude by connecting our quantum mechanics to a massive deformation of the N=2 4-d gauge theory with gauge group SU(2) and N{sub f}=2.

  4. Chewing simulation with a physically accurate deformable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Andra Maria; Ruge, Sebastian; Hauth, Steffen; Kordaß, Bernd; Linsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, CAD/CAM software is being used to compute the optimal shape and position of a new tooth model meant for a patient. With this possible future application in mind, we present in this article an independent and stand-alone interactive application that simulates the human chewing process and the deformation it produces in the food substrate. Chewing motion sensors are used to produce an accurate representation of the jaw movement. The substrate is represented by a deformable elastic model based on the finite linear elements method, which preserves physical accuracy. Collision detection based on spatial partitioning is used to calculate the forces that are acting on the deformable model. Based on the calculated information, geometry elements are added to the scene to enhance the information available for the user. The goal of the simulation is to present a complete scene to the dentist, highlighting the points where the teeth came into contact with the substrate and giving information about how much force acted at these points, which therefore makes it possible to indicate whether the tooth is being used incorrectly in the mastication process. Real-time interactivity is desired and achieved within limits, depending on the complexity of the employed geometric models. The presented simulation is a first step towards the overall project goal of interactively optimizing tooth position and shape under the investigation of a virtual chewing process using real patient data (Fig 1).

  5. Dislocation models of interseismic deformation in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; McCrory, P.; Svarc, J.; Murray, J.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS-derived crustal velocity field of the western United States is used to construct dislocation models in a viscoelastic medium of interseismic crustal deformation. The interseismic velocity field is constrained by 1052 GPS velocity vectors spanning the ???2500-km-long plate boundary zone adjacent to the San Andreas fault and Cascadia subduction zone and extending ???1000 km into the plate interior. The GPS data set is compiled from U.S. Geological Survey campaign data, Plate Boundary Observatory data, and the Western U.S. Cordillera velocity field of Bennett et al. (1999). In the context of viscoelastic cycle models of postearthquake deformation, the interseismic velocity field is modeled with a combination of earthquake sources on ???100 known faults plus broadly distributed sources. Models that best explain the observed interseismic velocity field include the contributions of viscoelastic relaxation from faulting near the major plate margins, viscoelastic relaxation from distributed faulting in the plate interior, as well as lateral variations in depth-averaged rigidity in the elastic lithosphere. Resulting rigidity variations are consistent with reduced effective elastic plate thickness in a zone a few tens of kilometers wide surrounding the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. Primary deformation characteristics are captured along the entire SAF system, Eastern California Shear Zone, Walker Lane, the Mendocino triple junction, the Cascadia margin, and the plate interior up to ???1000 km from the major plate boundaries.

  6. Modeling of Microstructure Development during Hot Deformation and Subsequent Annealing of Precipitates Containing AA6016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, F.; Mohles, V.; Miroux, A.G.; Bollmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructure and microchemistry evolution during hot deformation and subsequent annealing of a commercial Al-Mg-Si alloy were experimentally investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and SEM. Meanwhile, a through-process model framework consisting of the deformation model

  7. Dystrophic Spinal Deformities in a Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Murine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Steven D.; Wei Zhang; Dalong Yang; Hao Yang; Shi Chen; Xiaohua Wu; Xiaohong Li; Xianlin Yang; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Guise, Theresa A.; Bergner, Amanda L.; Stevenson, David A.; Feng-Chun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and significant morbidity of spinal anomalies in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the pathogenesis of these defects remains largely unknown. Here, we present two murine models: Nf1flox/-;PeriCre and Nf1flox/-;Col.2.3Cre mice, which recapitulate spinal deformities seen in the human disease. Dynamic histomorphometry and microtomographic studies show recalcitrant bone remodeling and distorted bone microarchitecture within the vertebral spine of Nf1flox/-;PeriCre and Nf...

  8. Model deformation measurements at a cryogenic wind tunnel using photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. Data reduction procedures and the results of tunnel tests at the NTF are presented.

  9. Numerical modelling of stresses and deformations in casting processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1997-01-01

    Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method......Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method...

  10. Frame junction vibration transmission with a modified frame deformation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J A

    1990-12-01

    A previous paper dealt with vibration transmission through junctions of connected frame members where the allowed frame deformations included bending, torsion, and longitudinal motions [J.A. Moore, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2766-2776 (1990)]. In helicopter and aircraft structures the skin panels can constitute a high impedance connection along the length of the frames that effectively prohibits in-plane motion at the elevation of the skin panels. This has the effect of coupling in-plane bending and torsional motions within the frame. This paper discusses the transmission behavior through frame junctions that accounts for the in-plane constraint in idealized form by assuming that the attached skin panels completely prohibit inplane motion in the frames. Also, transverse shear deformation is accounted for in describing the relatively deep web frame constructions common in aircraft structures. Longitudinal motion in the frames is not included in the model. Transmission coefficient predictions again show the importance of out-of-plane bending deformation to the transmission of vibratory energy in an aircraft structure. Comparisons are shown with measured vibration transmission data along the framing in the overhead of a helicopter airframe, with good agreement. The frame junction description has been implemented within a general purpose statistical energy analysis (SEA) computer code in modeling the entire airframe structure including skin panels.

  11. Static response of deformable microchannels: a comparative modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Christov, Ivan C.

    2018-02-01

    We present a comparative modelling study of fluid–structure interactions in microchannels. Through a mathematical analysis based on plate theory and the lubrication approximation for low-Reynolds-number flow, we derive models for the flow rate-pressure drop relation for long shallow microchannels with both thin and thick deformable top walls. These relations are tested against full three-dimensional two-way-coupled fluid–structure interaction simulations. Three types of microchannels, representing different elasticity regimes and having been experimentally characterized previously, are chosen as benchmarks for our theory and simulations. Good agreement is found in most cases for the predicted, simulated and measured flow rate-pressure drop relationships. The numerical simulations performed allow us to also carefully examine the deformation profile of the top wall of the microchannel in any cross section, showing good agreement with the theory. Specifically, the prediction that span-wise displacement in a long shallow microchannel decouples from the flow-wise deformation is confirmed, and the predicted scaling of the maximum displacement with the hydrodynamic pressure and the various material and geometric parameters is validated.

  12. Biomedical image segmentation using geometric deformable models and metaheuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesejo, Pablo; Valsecchi, Andrea; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Cagnoni, Stefano; Damas, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a hybrid level set approach for medical image segmentation. This new geometric deformable model combines region- and edge-based information with the prior shape knowledge introduced using deformable registration. Our proposal consists of two phases: training and test. The former implies the learning of the level set parameters by means of a Genetic Algorithm, while the latter is the proper segmentation, where another metaheuristic, in this case Scatter Search, derives the shape prior. In an experimental comparison, this approach has shown a better performance than a number of state-of-the-art methods when segmenting anatomical structures from different biomedical image modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of deformation phenomena in volume label during its operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Sheludko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BIt was considered in the article the research of physical and mechanical properties of materials based on PVC film ORACAL and RITRAMA that used in the production of volume labels. In particular, it was shown the changes of dependences between linear deformation of printed and unprinted films and the value of stress with regard to their minimum and maximum values. It was also established that deformation properties of the films are different in the transverse and longitudinal directions, which should be considered when producing labels. It was conducted the modeling of stress-strain state of volume label when gluing it to the surfaces of various shapes. We considered the boundary conditions for displacement and stress of labels layer components with regard to the chemical structure of epoxy resins and their physical and mechanical characteristics.

  14. A nonaffine network model for elastomers undergoing finite deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacob D.; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we construct a new physics-based model of rubber elasticity to capture the strain softening, strain hardening, and deformation-state dependent response of rubber materials undergoing finite deformations. This model is unique in its ability to capture large-stretch mechanical behavior with parameters that are connected to the polymer chemistry and can also be easily identified with the important characteristics of the macroscopic stress-stretch response. The microscopic picture consists of two components: a crosslinked network of Langevin chains and an entangled network with chains confined to a nonaffine tube. These represent, respectively, changes in entropy due to thermally averaged chain conformations and changes in entropy due to the magnitude of these conformational fluctuations. A simple analytical form for the strain energy density is obtained using Rubinstein and Panyukov's single-chain description of network behavior. The model only depends on three parameters that together define the initial modulus, extent of strain softening, and the onset of strain hardening. Fits to large stretch data for natural rubber, silicone rubber, VHB 4905 (polyacrylate rubber), and b186 rubber (a carbon black-filled rubber) are presented, and a comparison is made with other similar constitutive models of large-stretch rubber elasticity. We demonstrate that the proposed model provides a complete description of elastomers undergoing large deformations for different applied loading configurations. Moreover, since the strain energy is obtained using a clear set of physical assumptions, this model may be tested and used to interpret the results of computer simulation and experiments on polymers of known microscopic structure.

  15. ACCUMULATED DEFORMATION MODELING OF PERMANENT WAY BASED ON ENTROPY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kurhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work provides a theoretical research about the possibility of using methods that determine the lifetime of a railway track not only in terms of total stresses, and accounting its structure and dynamic characteristics. The aim of these studies is creation the model of deformations accumulation for assessment of service life of a railway track taking into account these features. Methodology. To simulate a gradual change state during the operation (accumulation of deformations the railway track is presented as a system that consists of many particles of different materials collected in a coherent design. It is appropriate to speak not about the appearance of deformations of a certain size in a certain section of the track, and the probability of such event on the site. If to operate the probability of occurrence of deviations, comfortable state of the system is characterized by the number of breaks of the conditional internal connections. The same state of the system may correspond to different combinations of breaks. The more breaks, the more the number of options changes in the structure of the system appropriate to its current state. Such a process can be represented as a gradual transition from an ordered state to a chaotic one. To describe the characteristics of the system used the numerical value of the entropy. Findings. Its entropy is constantly increasing at system aging. The growth of entropy is expressed by changes in the internal energy of the system, which can be determined using mechanical work forces, which leads to deformation. This gives the opportunity to show quantitative indication of breaking the bonds in the system as a consequence of performing mechanical work. According to the results of theoretical research methods for estimation of the timing of life cycles of railway operation considering such factors as the structure of the flow of trains, construction of the permanent way, the movement of trains at high

  16. Software for Mathematical Modeling of Plastic Deformation in FCC Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelin, A. E.; Eliseev, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    The question on the necessity of software implementation in the study of plastic deformation in FCC metals with the use of mathematical modeling methods is investigated. This article describes the implementation features and the possibility of using the software Dislocation Dynamics of Crystallographic Slip (DDCS). The software has an advanced user interface and is designed for users without an extensive experience in IT-technologies. Parameter values of the mathematical model, obtained from field experiments and accumulated in a special database, are used in DDCS to carry out computational experiments. Moreover, the software is capable of accumulating bibliographic information used in research.

  17. Micromechanical modeling of the deformation of HCP metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, S. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2008-12-04

    Nowadays, intense research is conducted to understand the relation between microstructural features and mechanical properties of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals. Due to their hexagonal structure, hcp metals exhibit mechanical properties such as strong anisotropy, which is more pronounced than for construction metals with cubic crystal structure, and tension/compression asymmetry. Deformation mechanisms in hcp metals, dislocation motion on specific slip systems and activation of twinning, are not yet completely understood. The purpose of this work is to link the physical mechanisms developing during deformation of magnesium (Mg) on the microscale with the macroscopic yielding properties of texture Mg samples. It will be shown that the mechanical behavior of hcp metals may be understood and reproduced with the help of a visco-plastic model for crystal plasticity and a phenomenological yield criterion with appropriate hardening behavior. The study of single crystal specimens subjected to channel die compression tests reveals the active slip systems and twinning systems of the material considered. The material anisotropy at mesoscale is reproduced by using adequate critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) for the considered deformation mechanisms. In order to describe the macroscopic behavior, texture is incorporated into polycrystalline Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) and various mechanical properties of extruded bars and rolled plates can be predicted. For RVEs exhibiting the texture of rolled plates the numerical results reveal the plate's anisotropic yielding and hardening behavior on a mesoscale. In order to extend the modeling possibilities to process simulations and to allow for time-saving simulations of structural behavior, a phenomenological yield surface accounting for anisotropy and tension/compression asymmetry has been established and implemented in a finite element code. Its numerous model parameters are calibrated by an optimization

  18. A coupled model for intragranular deformation and chemical diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Vrijmoed, Johannes; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajčmanová, Lucie

    2017-09-01

    A coupled model for chemical diffusion and mechanical deformation is developed in analogy to the studies of poroelasticity and thermoelasticity. Nondimensionalization of the governing equations yields a controlling dimensionless parameter, the Deborah number, given by the ratio of the characteristic time for pressure relaxation and concentration homogenization. Using the Deborah number two types of plausible chemical zonation are distinguished, i.e. diffusion controlled, and mechanically controlled. The transition between these two types of chemical zonation is determined at the conditions where the Deborah number equals one. We apply our model to a chemically zoned plagioclase rim in a spherical coordinate frame assuming homogeneous initial pressure. Using thermodynamic data, an experimentally derived diffusion coefficient and a viscous flow law for plagioclase, our numerical simulations show that up to ∼0.6 GPa grain-scale pressure variation is generated during the diffusion-deformation process. Due to the mechanical-chemical coupling, the pressure variations maintain the chemical zonation longer than predicted by the classical diffusion model. The fully coupled mechanical-chemical model provides an alternative explanation for the preservation of chemically zoned minerals, and may contribute to a better understanding of metamorphic processes in the deep Earth interior.

  19. Predicting tumor location by modeling the deformation of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, Pras; Gavaghan, David J; Whiteley, Jonathan P; Chapman, S Jonathan; Brady, J Michael

    2008-10-01

    Breast cancer is one of the biggest killers in the western world, and early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis. The shape of the breast varies hugely between the scenarios of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (patient lies prone, breast hanging down under gravity), X-ray mammography (breast strongly compressed) and ultrasound or biopsy/surgery (patient lies supine), rendering image fusion an extremely difficult task. This paper is concerned with the use of the finite-element method and nonlinear elasticity to build a 3-D, patient-specific, anatomically accurate model of the breast. The model is constructed from MR images and can be deformed to simulate breast shape and predict tumor location during mammography or biopsy/surgery. Two extensions of the standard elasticity problem need to be solved: an inverse elasticity problem (arising from the fact that only a deformed, stressed, state is known initially), and the contact problem of modeling compression. The model is used for craniocaudal mediolateral oblique mammographic image matching, and a number of numerical experiments are performed.

  20. A Mathematical Model for Voigt Poro-Visco-Plastic Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model for poro-visco-plastic compaction and pressure solution in porous sediments has been formulated using the Voigt-type rheological constitutive relation as derived from experimental data. The governing equations reduce to a nonlinear hyperbolic heat conduction equation in the case of slow deformation where permeability is relatively high and the pore fluid pressure is nearly hydrostatic, while travelling wave exists in the opposite limit where over-pressuring occurs and the pore fluid pressure is almost quasi-lithostatic. Full numerical simulation using a finite element method agree well with the approximate analytical solutions.

  1. A Deformable Model for Bringing Particles in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    the particle size. This can be handled by only including the particles in focus, but most of the depicted particles will be left out of the analysis, which weakens the statistical estimate of the monitored process. We propose a new method for particle analysis. The model in- corporates particle shape, size......We provide a deformable model for particle analysis. We in- vestigate particle images from a backlit microscope system where parti- cles suer from out-of-focus blur. The blur is a result of particles being in front or behind the focus plane, and the out-of-focus gives a bias towards overestimating...... and intensity, which enables an estimation of the out-of-focus blur of the particle. Using the particle model param- eters in a regression model we are able to infer 3D information about individual particles. Based on the defocus information we are able to infer the true size and shape of the particles. We...

  2. Dislocation model for aseismic crustal deformation at Hollister, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mitsuhiro; Jackson, David D.; Cheng, Abe

    1986-01-01

    A model of crustal deformation during the interseismic phase is developed and applied (using the improved Bayesian inversion algorithm described by Jackson and Matsu'ura, 1985) to trilateration data for the USGS Hollister (CA) network. In the model, rigid blocks in motion relative to each other experience friction only in a brittle upper zone, while their ductile lower zones slide freely; the Hollister model comprises five blocks and nine rectangular fault patches. The data and results are presented in tables, graphs, and maps and characterized in detail. The model predicts steady block motion on time scales between 10 yr and 1 Myr, with net motion across the San Andreas/Calaveras fault system 38 + or - 3 mm/yr and brittle/ductile transition depths ranging from 0.4 to 11 km. Two San Andreas segments with higher probabilities of moderate-to-large earthquakes are identified.

  3. Finite Element Model and Validation of Nasal Tip Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Cyrus T; Harb, Rani; Badran, Alan; Ho, David; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-03-01

    Nasal tip mechanical stability is important for functional and cosmetic nasal airway surgery. Palpation of the nasal tip provides information on tip strength to the surgeon, though it is a purely subjective assessment. Providing a means to simulate nasal tip deformation with a validated model can offer a more objective approach in understanding the mechanics and nuances of the nasal tip support and eventual nasal mechanics as a whole. Herein we present validation of a finite element (FE) model of the nose using physical measurements recorded using an ABS plastic-silicone nasal phantom. Three-dimensional photogrammetry was used to capture the geometry of the phantom at rest and while under steady state load. The silicone used to make the phantom was mechanically tested and characterized using a linear elastic constitutive model. Surface point clouds of the silicone and FE model were compared for both the loaded and unloaded state. The average Hausdorff distance between actual measurements and FE simulations across the nose were 0.39 ± 1.04 mm and deviated up to 2 mm at the outermost boundaries of the model. FE simulation and measurements were in near complete agreement in the immediate vicinity of the nasal tip with millimeter accuracy. We have demonstrated validation of a two-component nasal FE model, which could be used to model more complex modes of deformation where direct measurement may be challenging. This is the first step in developing a nasal model to simulate nasal mechanics and ultimately the interaction between geometry and airflow.

  4. Multi Scale Models for Flexure Deformation in Sheet Metal Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pasquale Edmondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of multi scale techniques to the simulation of sheet metal forming using the one-step method. When a blank flows over the die radius, it undergoes a complex cycle of bending and unbending. First, we describe an original model for the prediction of residual plastic deformation and stresses in the blank section. This model, working on a scale about one hundred times smaller than the element size, has been implemented in SIMEX, one-step sheet metal forming simulation code. The utilisation of this multi-scale modeling technique improves greatly the accuracy of the solution. Finally, we discuss the implications of this analysis on the prediction of springback in metal forming.

  5. Phase field modeling of partially saturated deformable porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    A poromechanical model of partially saturated deformable porous media is proposed based on a phase field approach at modeling the behavior of the mixture of liquid water and wet air, which saturates the pore space, the phase field being the saturation (ratio). While the standard retention curve is expected still^ to provide the intrinsic retention properties of the porous skeleton, depending on the porous texture, an enhanced description of surface tension between the wetting (liquid water) and the non-wetting (wet air) fluid, occupying the pore space, is stated considering a regularization of the phase field model based on an additional contribution to the overall free energy depending on the saturation gradient. The aim is to provide a more refined description of surface tension interactions. An enhanced constitutive relation for the capillary pressure is established together with a suitable generalization of Darcy's law, in which the gradient of the capillary pressure is replaced by the gradient of the so-called generalized chemical potential, which also accounts for the "force", associated to the local free energy of the phase field model. A micro-scale heuristic interpretation of the novel constitutive law of capillary pressure is proposed, in order to compare the envisaged model with that one endowed with the concept of average interfacial area. The considered poromechanical model is formulated within the framework of strain gradient theory in order to account for possible effects, at laboratory scale, of the micro-scale hydro-mechanical couplings between highly localized flows (fingering) and localized deformations of the skeleton (fracturing).

  6. Tracheal stent prediction using statistical deformable models of tubular shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, R.; Huysmans, T.; Vos, W.; Sijbers, J.

    2008-03-01

    Tracheal stenosis is a narrowing of the trachea that impedes normal breathing. Tracheotomy is one solution, but subjects patients to intubation. An alternative technique employs tracheal stents, which are tubular structures that push the walls of the stenotic areas to their original location. They are implanted with endoscopes, therefore reducing the surgical risk to the patient. Stents can also be used in tracheal reconstruction to aid the recovery of reconstructed areas. Correct preoperative stent length and diameter specification is crucial to successful treatment, otherwise stents might not cover the stenotic area nor push the walls as required. The level of stenosis is usually measured from inside the trachea, either with endoscopes or with image processing techniques that, eg compute the distance from the centre line to the walls of the trachea. These methods are not suited for the prediction of stent sizes because they can not trivially estimate the healthy calibre of the trachea at the stenotic region. We propose an automatic method that enables the estimation of stent dimensions with statistical shape models of the trachea. An average trachea obtained from a training set of CT scans of healthy tracheas is placed in a CT image of a diseased person. The shape deforms according to the statistical model to match the walls of the trachea, except at stenotic areas. Since the deformed shape gives an estimation of the healthy trachea, it is possible to predict the size and diameter of the stent to be implanted in that specific subject.

  7. Finite Element Modeling of Strengthening Process by Means of Surface Plastic Deformation Using a Multiradius Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Valeriy Yu; Mahalov, Maksim S.; Shirokolobova, Anastasia G.

    2017-10-01

    New designs of deforming tools with a complex working profile, based on the mechanics of technological inheritance, have been developed. The finite element method modeling of the surface plastic deformation process by a multiradius roller was performed and possibility to accumulate large values of deformation without destroying the metal of the surface layer was shown.

  8. DISCRETE DEFORMATION WAVE DYNAMICS IN SHEAR ZONES: PHYSICAL MODELLING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of earthquake migration along active fault zones [Richter, 1958; Mogi, 1968] and related theoretical concepts [Elsasser, 1969] have laid the foundation for studying the problem of slow deformation waves in the lithosphere. Despite the fact that this problem has been under study for several decades and discussed in numerous publications, convincing evidence for the existence of deformation waves is still lacking. One of the causes is that comprehensive field studies to register such waves by special tools and equipment, which require sufficient organizational and technical resources, have not been conducted yet.The authors attempted at finding a solution to this problem by physical simulation of a major shear zone in an elastic-viscous-plastic model of the lithosphere. The experiment setup is shown in Figure 1 (A. The model material and boundary conditions were specified in accordance with the similarity criteria (described in detail in [Sherman, 1984; Sherman et al., 1991; Bornyakov et al., 2014]. The montmorillonite clay-and-water paste was placed evenly on two stamps of the installation and subject to deformation as the active stamp (1 moved relative to the passive stamp (2 at a constant speed. The upper model surface was covered with fine sand in order to get high-contrast photos. Photos of an emerging shear zone were taken every second by a Basler acA2000-50gm digital camera. Figure 1 (B shows an optical image of a fragment of the shear zone. The photos were processed by the digital image correlation method described in [Sutton et al., 2009]. This method estimates the distribution of components of displacement vectors and strain tensors on the model surface and their evolution over time [Panteleev et al., 2014, 2015].Strain fields and displacements recorded in the optical images of the model surface were estimated in a rectangular box (220.00×72.17 mm shown by a dot-and-dash line in Fig. 1, A. To ensure a sufficient level of

  9. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. A Computational Model of Deformable Cell Rolling in Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Charles; Jadhav, Sameer

    2005-03-01

    Selectin-mediated rolling of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) on activated endothelium is critical to their recruitment to sites of inflammation. The cell rolling velocity is influenced by bond interactions on the molecular scale that oppose hydrodynamic forces at the mesoscale. Recent studies have shown that PMN rolling velocity on selectin-coated surfaces in shear flow is significantly slower compared to that of microspheres bearing a similar density of selectin ligands. To investigate whether cell deformability is responsible for these differences, we developed a 3-D computational model which simulates rolling of a deformable cell on a selectin-coated surface under shear flow with a stochastic description of receptor-ligand bond interaction. We observed that rolling velocity increases with increasing membrane stiffness and this effect is larger at high shear rates. The average bond lifetime, number of receptor-ligand bonds and the cell-substrate contact area decreased with increasing membrane stiffness. This study shows that cellular properties along with the kinetics of selectin-ligand interactions affect leukocyte rolling on selectin-coated surfaces.

  11. An Efficient Data-driven Tissue Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    . The parameterisation is based on compactly supported radial basis functions, expressing the displacements by parameter sets comparable between subjects. For modelling the tissue deformation, principal component analysis is applied, treating each of the parameter sets as an observation. Using leave-one-out cross......-validation, marker displacements are estimated in all subjects from the mean parameters. This yields an absolute error with mean 1.41 mm. The observed lateral movement of the loin muscle is analysed in relation to the principal modes, and the results are compared to manual measurements of carcass composition. We...... find an association between the first principal mode and the lateral movement. Furthermore, there is a link between this and the ratio of meat-fat quantity - a potentially very useful finding since existing tools for carcass grading and sorting measure equivalent quantities....

  12. Modelling of fuel bundle deformation at high temperatures: requirements, models and steps for consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Xu, Z.; Fan, H.; Nitheanandan, T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, MIssissauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    To model thermal mechanical bundle deformation behaviour under high temperature conditions, several factors need to be considered. These are the sources of loads, deformation mechanisms, interactions within bundle components, bundle and pressure tube (PT) interaction, and boundary constraints on the fuel bundles under in-reactor conditions. This paper describes the modelling of the following three processes: Bundle slumping due to high temperature creep-sag of individual elements and endplates; Differential element expansion and fuel element bowing; and, Bundle distortion under axial loads. To model these processes, a number of key mechanisms for bundle deformation must be considered, which include: 1) Interaction of fuel elements in a bundle with their neighbours, 2) Endplate deformation, 3) Fuel elements lateral deformation under various loads and mechanisms, 4) Interaction within a fuel element, 5) Material property change at high temperatures, 6) Transient response of a bundle, and 7) Bundle configuration change. This paper summarises the new models needed for the mechanistic modelling of the key mechanisms mentioned above and provides an example to show how an endplate plasticity model is developed with results. (author)

  13. Abdominal wall extraction using constrained deformable model and abdominal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weimin; Quan, Lijie; Lin, Zhiping; Duan, Yuping; Zhou, Jiayin; Yang, Yongzhong; Xiong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Information about abdominal wall can be used for many applications from organ segmentation, registration, and surgical simulation. The challenges exist in abdominal wall extraction due to its varieties in shapes, connection to the internal organs and anterior layer edge formed between the muscle and fascia/fatty layer, which may distract the shape model. In this paper we present an approach to the posterior abdominal wall extraction using the shape model and other abdominal context, particularly with the rib-spine bone information and the wall image features. The shape model is constructed based on the training abdominal walls that are delineated manually. After bone information being extracted, the wall shape deforms from the prior shape model using the snake, which is constrained by the bone context and guided by the processed image energy map with the aim of removing distracted image features of anterior abdominal wall and the outer region from the original map. Meanwhile, an overall convex shape is maintained by limiting the angles of the contour points. The proposed approach is tested on abdominal CT data which provides encouraging results.

  14. STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anter El-Azab

    2013-04-08

    The research under this project focused on a theoretical and computational modeling of dislocation dynamics of mesoscale deformation of metal single crystals. Specifically, the work aimed to implement a continuum statistical theory of dislocations to understand strain hardening and cell structure formation under monotonic loading. These aspects of crystal deformation are manifestations of the evolution of the underlying dislocation system under mechanical loading. The project had three research tasks: 1) Investigating the statistical characteristics of dislocation systems in deformed crystals. 2) Formulating kinetic equations of dislocations and coupling these kinetics equations and crystal mechanics. 3) Computational solution of coupled crystal mechanics and dislocation kinetics. Comparison of dislocation dynamics predictions with experimental results in the area of statistical properties of dislocations and their field was also a part of the proposed effort. In the first research task, the dislocation dynamics simulation method was used to investigate the spatial, orientation, velocity, and temporal statistics of dynamical dislocation systems, and on the use of the results from this investigation to complete the kinetic description of dislocations. The second task focused on completing the formulation of a kinetic theory of dislocations that respects the discrete nature of crystallographic slip and the physics of dislocation motion and dislocation interaction in the crystal. Part of this effort also targeted the theoretical basis for establishing the connection between discrete and continuum representation of dislocations and the analysis of discrete dislocation simulation results within the continuum framework. This part of the research enables the enrichment of the kinetic description with information representing the discrete dislocation systems behavior. The third task focused on the development of physics-inspired numerical methods of solution of the coupled

  15. A simulation model for analysing brain structure deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bona, Sergio; Lutzemberger, Ludovico; Salvetti, Ovidio

    2003-12-01

    Recent developments of medical software applications—from the simulation to the planning of surgical operations—have revealed the need for modelling human tissues and organs, not only from a geometric point of view but also from a physical one, i.e. soft tissues, rigid body, viscoelasticity, etc. This has given rise to the term 'deformable objects', which refers to objects with a morphology, a physical and a mechanical behaviour of their own and that reflects their natural properties. In this paper, we propose a model, based upon physical laws, suitable for the realistic manipulation of geometric reconstructions of volumetric data taken from MR and CT scans. In particular, a physically based model of the brain is presented that is able to simulate the evolution of different nature pathological intra-cranial phenomena such as haemorrhages, neoplasm, haematoma, etc and to describe the consequences that are caused by their volume expansions and the influences they have on the anatomical and neuro-functional structures of the brain.

  16. A simulation model for analysing brain structure deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Sergio Di [Institute for Information Science and Technologies, Italian National Research Council (ISTI-8211-CNR), Via G Moruzzi, 1-56124 Pisa (Italy); Lutzemberger, Ludovico [Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Neurosurgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma, 67-56100 Pisa (Italy); Salvetti, Ovidio [Institute for Information Science and Technologies, Italian National Research Council (ISTI-8211-CNR), Via G Moruzzi, 1-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2003-12-21

    Recent developments of medical software applications from the simulation to the planning of surgical operations have revealed the need for modelling human tissues and organs, not only from a geometric point of view but also from a physical one, i.e. soft tissues, rigid body, viscoelasticity, etc. This has given rise to the term 'deformable objects', which refers to objects with a morphology, a physical and a mechanical behaviour of their own and that reflects their natural properties. In this paper, we propose a model, based upon physical laws, suitable for the realistic manipulation of geometric reconstructions of volumetric data taken from MR and CT scans. In particular, a physically based model of the brain is presented that is able to simulate the evolution of different nature pathological intra-cranial phenomena such as haemorrhages, neoplasm, haematoma, etc and to describe the consequences that are caused by their volume expansions and the influences they have on the anatomical and neuro-functional structures of the brain.

  17. A thermoelastic deformation model of tissue contraction during thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Sub; Liu, Cong; Hall, Sheldon K; Payne, Stephen J

    2017-06-14

    Thermal ablation is an energy-based ablation technique widely used during minimally invasive cancer treatment. Simulations are used to predict the dead tissue post therapy. However, one difficulty with the simulations is accurately predicting the ablation zone in post-procedural images due to the contraction of tissue as a result of exposure to elevated temperatures. A mathematical model of the thermoelastic deformation for an elastic isotropic material was coupled with a three state thermal denaturation model to determine the contraction of tissue during thermal ablation. A finite difference method was considered to quantify the tissue contraction for a typical temperature distribution during thermal ablation. The simulations show that tissue displacement during thermal ablation was not bound to the tissue heated regions only. Both tissue expansion and contraction were observed at the different stages of the heating process. Tissue contraction of up to 42% was obtained with an applicator temperature of 90 °C. A recovery of around 2% was observed with heating removed as a result of unfolded state proteins returning back to its native state. Poisson's ratio and the applicator temperature have both been shown to affect the tissue displacement significantly. The maximum tissue contraction was found to increase with both increasing Poisson's ratio and temperature. The model presented here will allow predictions of thermal ablation to be corrected for tissue contraction, which is an important effect, during comparison with post-procedural images, thus improving the accuracy of mathematical simulations for treatment planning.

  18. Model Attitude and Deformation Measurements at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woike, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently participating in an American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) sponsored Model Attitude and Deformation Working Group. This working group is chartered to develop a best practices document dealing with the measurement of two primary areas of wind tunnel measurements, 1) model attitude including alpha, beta and roll angle, and 2) model deformation. Model attitude is a principle variable in making aerodynamic and force measurements in a wind tunnel. Model deformation affects measured forces, moments and other measured aerodynamic parameters. The working group comprises of membership from industry, academia, and the Department of Defense (DoD). Each member of the working group gave a presentation on the methods and techniques that they are using to make model attitude and deformation measurements. This presentation covers the NASA Glenn Research Center s approach in making model attitude and deformation measurements.

  19. Numerical modeling on progressive internal deformation in down-built diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lukas; Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro

    2014-09-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference code (FDCON) is used to estimate the finite deformation within a down-built diapir. The geometry of the down-built diapir is fixed by using two rigid rectangular overburden units which sink into a source layer of a constant viscosity. Thus, the model refers to diapirs consisting of a source layer feeding a vertical stem, and not to other salt structures (e.g. salt sheets or pillows). With this setup we study the progressive strain in three different deformation regimes within the ;salt; material: (I) a squeezed channel-flow deformation regime and (II) a corner-flow deformation regime within the source layer, and (III) a pure channel-flow deformation regime within the stem. We analyze the evolution of finite deformation in each regime individually, progressive strain for particles passing all three regimes, and total 2D finite deformation within the salt layer. Model results show that the material which enters the stem bears inherited strain accumulated from the other two domains. Therefore, finite deformation in the stem differs from the expected channel-flow deformation, due to the deformation accumulated within the source layer. The stem displays a high deformation zone within its center and areas of decreasing progressive strain between its center and its boundaries. High deformation zones within the stem could also be observed within natural diapirs (e.g. Klodowa, Polen). The location and structure of the high deformation zone (e.g. symmetric or asymmetric) could reveal information about different rates of salt supplies from the source layer. Thus, deformation pattern could directly be correlated to the evolution of the diapir.

  20. 3-D deformable image registration: a topology preservation scheme based on hierarchical deformation models and interval analysis optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, Vincent; Heinrich, Christian; Heitz, Fabrice; Armspach, Jean-Paul

    2005-05-01

    This paper deals with topology preservation in three-dimensional (3-D) deformable image registration. This work is a nontrivial extension of, which addresses the case of two-dimensional (2-D) topology preserving mappings. In both cases, the deformation map is modeled as a hierarchical displacement field, decomposed on a multiresolution B-spline basis. Topology preservation is enforced by controlling the Jacobian of the transformation. Finding the optimal displacement parameters amounts to solving a constrained optimization problem: The residual energy between the target image and the deformed source image is minimized under constraints on the Jacobian. Unlike the 2-D case, in which simple linear constraints are derived, the 3-D B-spline-based deformable mapping yields a difficult (until now, unsolved) optimization problem. In this paper, we tackle the problem by resorting to interval analysis optimization techniques. Care is taken to keep the computational burden as low as possible. Results on multipatient 3-D MRI registration illustrate the ability of the method to preserve topology on the continuous image domain.

  1. Modeling of deformation behavior and texture evolution in magnesium alloy using the intermediate $\\phi$-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongsheng; Ahzi, Said; M' Guil, S. M.; Wen, Wei; Lavender, Curt A.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-06

    The viscoplastic intermediate phi-model was applied in this work to predict the deformation behavior and texture evolution in a magnesium alloy, an HCP material. We simulated the deformation behavior with different intergranular interaction strengths and compared the predicted results with available experimental results. In this approach, elasticity is neglected and the plastic deformation mechanisms are assumed as a combination of crystallographic slip and twinning systems. Tests are performed for rolling (plane strain compression) of random textured Mg polycrystal as well as for tensile and compressive tests on rolled Mg sheets. Simulated texture evolutions agree well with experimental data. Activities of twinning and slip, predicted by the intermediate $\\phi$-model, reveal the strong anisotropic behavior during tension and compression of rolled sheets.

  2. Numerical modeling of tunneling induced ground deformation and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Maji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tunnelling through cities underlain by soft soil, commonly associated with soil movement around the tunnels and subsequent surface settlement. The predication of ground movement during the tunnelling and optimum support pressure could be based on analytical, empirical or the numerical methods. The commonly used Earth pressure balance (EPB tunneling machines, uses the excavated soil in a pressurised head chamber to apply a support pressure to the tunnel face during excavation. This face pressure is a critical responsibility in EPB tunnelling because as the varying pressure can lead to collapse of the face. The objective of the present study is to evalute the critical supporting face pressure and grout pressure by observing the vertical deformation and horizontal displacement of soil body during tunneling. The face pressure and grout pressures were varied to see how they might influence the magnitude of surface settlements/heave. A numerical model using PLAXIS-3D tunnel has been developed to analyse the soil movement around the tunnel that includes various geotechnical conditions. The ground surrounding the tunnel found to be very sensitive to the face pressure and grout pressure in terms of surface settlement and collapse of the soil body.

  3. Dystrophic Spinal Deformities in a Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dalong; Yang, Hao; Chen, Shi; Wu, Xiaohua; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Xianlin; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Guise, Theresa A.; Bergner, Amanda L.; Stevenson, David A.; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and significant morbidity of spinal anomalies in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the pathogenesis of these defects remains largely unknown. Here, we present two murine models: Nf1flox/−;PeriCre and Nf1flox/−;Col.2.3Cre mice, which recapitulate spinal deformities seen in the human disease. Dynamic histomorphometry and microtomographic studies show recalcitrant bone remodeling and distorted bone microarchitecture within the vertebral spine of Nf1flox/−;PeriCre and Nf1flox/−;Col2.3Cre mice, with analogous histological features present in a human patient with dystrophic scoliosis. Intriguingly, 36–60% of Nf1flox/−;PeriCre and Nf1flox/−;Col2.3Cre mice exhibit segmental vertebral fusion anomalies with boney obliteration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). While analogous findings have not yet been reported in the NF1 patient population, we herein present two case reports of IVD defects and interarticular vertebral fusion in patients with NF1. Collectively, these data provide novel insights regarding the pathophysiology of dystrophic spinal anomalies in NF1, and provide impetus for future radiographic analyses of larger patient cohorts to determine whether IVD and vertebral fusion defects may have been previously overlooked or underreported in the NF1 patient population. PMID:25786243

  4. Dystrophic spinal deformities in a neurofibromatosis type 1 murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Rhodes

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence and significant morbidity of spinal anomalies in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, the pathogenesis of these defects remains largely unknown. Here, we present two murine models: Nf1flox/-;PeriCre and Nf1flox/-;Col.2.3Cre mice, which recapitulate spinal deformities seen in the human disease. Dynamic histomorphometry and microtomographic studies show recalcitrant bone remodeling and distorted bone microarchitecture within the vertebral spine of Nf1flox/-;PeriCre and Nf1flox/-;Col2.3Cre mice, with analogous histological features present in a human patient with dystrophic scoliosis. Intriguingly, 36-60% of Nf1flox/-;PeriCre and Nf1flox/-;Col2.3Cre mice exhibit segmental vertebral fusion anomalies with boney obliteration of the intervertebral disc (IVD. While analogous findings have not yet been reported in the NF1 patient population, we herein present two case reports of IVD defects and interarticular vertebral fusion in patients with NF1. Collectively, these data provide novel insights regarding the pathophysiology of dystrophic spinal anomalies in NF1, and provide impetus for future radiographic analyses of larger patient cohorts to determine whether IVD and vertebral fusion defects may have been previously overlooked or underreported in the NF1 patient population.

  5. Using transverse isotropy to model arbitrary deformation-induced anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    A unifying framework is developed for the analysis of brittle materials. Heretofore diverse classes of models result from different choices for unspecified coefficient and distribution functions in the unified theory. Material response is described in terms of expectation integrals of transverse symmetry tensors. First, a canonical body containing cracks of all the same orientation is argued to possess macroscopic transverse isotropy. An orthogonal basis for the linear subspace consisting of all double-symmetric transversely-isotropic fourth-order tensors associated with a given material vector is introduced and applied to deduce the explicit functional dependence of the compliance of such contrived materials on the shared crack orientation. A principle of superposition of strain rates is used to write the compliance for a more realistic material consisting of cracks of random size and orientation as an expectation integral of the transverse compliance for each orientation times the joint distribution function for the size and orientation. Utilizing an evolving (initially exponential) size- dependence in the joint distribution, the general theory gives unprecedented agreement with measurements of the dynamic response of alumina to impact loading, especially upon release where the calculations predict the development of considerable deformation- induced anisotropy, challenging the conventional notion of shocks as isotropic phenomena.

  6. A joint physics-based statistical deformable model for multimodal brain image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikou, C; Bueno, G; Heitz, F; Armspach, J P

    2001-10-01

    A probabilistic deformable model for the representation of multiple brain structures is described. The statistically learned deformable model represents the relative location of different anatomical surfaces in brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and accommodates their significant variability across different individuals. The surfaces of each anatomical structure are parameterized by the amplitudes of the vibration modes of a deformable spherical mesh. For a given MRI in the training set, a vector containing the largest vibration modes describing the different deformable surfaces is created. This random vector is statistically constrained by retaining the most significant variation modes of its Karhunen-Loève expansion on the training population. By these means, the conjunction of surfaces are deformed according to the anatomical variability observed in the training set. Two applications of the joint probabilistic deformable model are presented: isolation of the brain from MRI using the probabilistic constraints embedded in the model and deformable model-based registration of three-dimensional multimodal (magnetic resonance/single photon emission computed tomography) brain images without removing nonbrain structures. The multi-object deformable model may be considered as a first step toward the development of a general purpose probabilistic anatomical atlas of the brain.

  7. An asperity-deformation model for effective pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangi, Anthony F.; Carlson, Richard L.

    1996-05-01

    Variations of the mechanical and transport properties of cracked and/or porous rocks under isotropic stress depend on both the confining pressure ( Pc) and the pore-fluid pressure ( Pp). To a first approximation, these rock properties are functions of the differential pressure, Pd = Pc - Pp; at least for low differential pressures. However, at higher differential pressures, the properties depend in a more complicated way upon the two pressures. The concept of effective pressure, Pe, is used to denote this variation and it is defined as Pe( Pc, Pp) = Pc - n( Pc, Pp) Pp. If n = 1 (and therefore, is independent of Pc and Pp), the effective pressure is just the differential pressure. We have used an asperity-deformation model and a force-balance equation to derive expressions for the effective pressure. We equate the total external force (in one direction), Fc, to the total force on the asperities, Fa, and the force of the fluid, Fp, acting in that same direction. The fluid force, Fp, acts only on the parts of the crack (or pore-volume) faces which are not in contact. Then, the asperity pressure, Pa, is the average force per unit area acting on the crack (or grain) contacts P a = {F a}/{A} = {F c}/{A} - {F p}/{A} = P c - (1 - {A c}/{A})P p, where A is the total area over which Fc acts and Ac is the area of contact of the crack asperities or the grains. Thus, the asperity pressure, Pa, is greater than the differential pressure, Pd, because Pp acts on a smaller area, A- Ac, than the total area, A. For elastic asperities, the area of contact Ac and the strain (e.g., crack and pore openings) remain the same, to a high degree of approximation, at constant asperity pressure. Therefore, transport properties such as permeability, resistivity, thermal conductivity, etc. are constant, to the same degree of approximation, at constant asperity pressure. For these properties, the asperity pressure is, very accurately, the effective pressure, Pc. Using this model, we find that the

  8. Application of the Periodic Average System Model in Dam Deformation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqian Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dams are among the most important hydraulic engineering facilities used for water supply, flood control, and hydroelectric power. Monitoring of dams is crucial since deformation might have occurred. How to obtain the deformation information and then judge the safe conditions is the key and difficult problem in dam deformation monitoring field. This paper proposes the periodic average system model and creates the concept of “settlement activity” based on the dam deformation issue. Long-term deformation monitoring data is carried out in a pumped-storage power station, this model combined with settlement activity is used to make the single point deformation analysis, and then the whole settlement activity profile is drawn by clustering analysis. Considering the cumulative settlement value of every point, the dam deformation trend is analyzed in an intuitive effect way. The analysis mode of combined single point with multipoints is realized. The results show that the key deformation information of the dam can be easily grasped by the application of the periodic average system model combined with the distribution diagram of settlement activity. And, above all, the ideas of this research provide an effective method for dam deformation analysis.

  9. Surgical planning for cervical deformity based on a 3D model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Barges-Coll

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of fixed cervical deformity is complex, but the principles guiding its correction remain the same as in deformity of other spinal regions, with the goal of deformity correction that results in a solid fusion with adequate decompression of the neural elements. In these challenging cases, osteotomies are necessary to mobilize the rigid spine and to obtain the desired correction, but they can be associated with increased risk of complications. Therefore, careful preoperative planning and a complete understanding of the anatomic variations allow patient-tailored approaches with and case specific techniques for the optimal and safe treatment of a variety of complex cervical deformities. We present a case report with a complex spinal deformity where a 3D model was used for surgical strategy that allowed us to “simulate” the osteotomies and get a better correction of the cervical deformity.

  10. Surgical planning for cervical deformity based on a 3D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barges-Coll, Juan; Peciu-Florianu, Iulia; Martiniere, Sébastien; Duff, John Michael

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of fixed cervical deformity is complex, but the principles guiding its correction remain the same as in deformity of other spinal regions, with the goal of deformity correction that results in a solid fusion with adequate decompression of the neural elements. In these challenging cases, osteotomies are necessary to mobilize the rigid spine and to obtain the desired correction, but they can be associated with increased risk of complications. Therefore, careful preoperative planning and a complete understanding of the anatomic variations allow patient-tailored approaches with and case specific techniques for the optimal and safe treatment of a variety of complex cervical deformities. We present a case report with a complex spinal deformity where a 3D model was used for surgical strategy that allowed us to “simulate” the osteotomies and get a better correction of the cervical deformity. PMID:29021678

  11. Comparative Analysis of Bulge Deformation between 2D and 3D Finite Element Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bulge deformation of the slab is one of the main factors that affect slab quality in continuous casting. This paper describes an investigation into bulge deformation using ABAQUS to model the solidification process. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of the slab solidification process has been first established because the bulge deformation is closely related to slab temperature distributions. Based on slab temperature distributions, a three-dimensional thermomechanical coupling model including the slab, the rollers, and the dynamic contact between them has also been constructed and applied to a case study. The thermomechanical coupling model produces outputs such as the rules of bulge deformation. Moreover, the three-dimensional model has been compared with a two-dimensional model to discuss the differences between the two models in calculating the bulge deformation. The results show that the platform zone exists in the wide side of the slab and the bulge deformation is affected strongly by the ratio of width-to-thickness. The indications are also that the difference of the bulge deformation for the two modeling ways is little when the ratio of width-to-thickness is larger than six.

  12. Anelastic deformation processes in metallic glasses and activation energy spectrum model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, [No Value; Csach, K; Kasardova, A; Bengus, VZ; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The isothermal kinetics of anelastic deformation below the glass transition temperature (so-called 'stress induced ordering' or 'creep recovery' deformation) was investigated in Ni-Si-B metallic glass. The relaxation time spectrum model and two recently developed methods for its calculation from the

  13. DEFORMATION DEPENDENT TUL MULTI-STEP DIRECT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIENKE,H.; CAPOTE, R.; HERMAN, M.; SIN, M.

    2007-04-22

    The Multi-Step Direct (MSD) module TRISTAN in the nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended in order to account for nuclear deformation. The new formalism was tested in calculations of neutron emission spectra emitted from the {sup 232}Th(n,xn) reaction. These calculations include vibration-rotational Coupled Channels (CC) for the inelastic scattering to low-lying collective levels, ''deformed'' MSD with quadrupole deformation for inelastic scattering to the continuum, Multi-Step Compound (MSC) and Hauser-Feshbach with advanced treatment of the fission channel. Prompt fission neutrons were also calculated. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the ''spherical'' MSD calculations and JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations.

  14. Discrete kinematic modeling of the 3-D deformation of sedimentary basins; Modelisation cinematique discrete de la deformation 3D des bassins sedimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, T.

    2001-01-01

    The present work deals with three-dimensional deformation of sedimentary basins. The main goal of the work was to propose new ways to study tectonic deformation and to insert it into basin-modeling environment for hydrocarbon migration applications. To handle the complexity of the deformation, the model uses kinematic laws, a discrete approach, and the construction of a code that allows the greatest diversity in the deformation mechanisms we can take into account. The 3-D-volume deformation is obtained through the calculation of the behavior of the neutral surface of each basin layer. The main idea is to deform the neutral surface of each layer with the help of geometrical laws and to use the result to rebuild the volume deformation of the basin. The constitutive algorithm includes three characteristic features. The first one deals with the mathematical operator we use to describe the flexural-slip mechanism which is a combination of the translation of the neutral surface nodes and the rotation of the vertical edges attached to these nodes. This performs the reversibility that was required for the basin modeling. The second one is about. the use of a discrete approach, which gives a better description of the global deformation and offers to locally control volume evolutions. The knowledge of volume variations can become a powerful tool in structural geology analysis and the perfect complement for a field study. The last one concerns the modularity of the developed code. Indeed, the proposed model uses three main mechanisms of deformation. But the architecture of the code allows the insertion of new mechanisms or a better interaction between them. The model has been validated first with 2-D cases, then with 3-D natural cases. They give good results from a qualitative point of view. They also show the capacity of the model to provide a deformation path that is geologically acceptable, and its ability to control the volume variations of the basin through the

  15. A Deformable Generic 3D Model of Haptoral Anchor of Monogenean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903

  16. Discrete element modeling of deformable particles in YADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haustein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the open-source discrete element framework YADE and the implementation of a new deformation engine. YADE is a highly expandable software package that allows the simulation of current industrial problems in the field of granular materials using particle-based numerical methods. The description of the compaction of powders and granular material like metal pellets is now possible with a pure and simple discrete element approach in a modern DEM-framework. The deformation is realized by expanding the radius of the spherical particles, depending on their overlap, so that the volume of the material is kept constant.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Aeroelastic Deformation of Slender Wings at Supersonic Speeds Using a Video Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A video-based photogrammetric model deformation system was established as a dedicated optical measurement technique at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This system was used to measure the wing twist due to aerodynamic loads of two supersonic commercial transport airplane models with identical outer mold lines but different aeroelastic properties. One model featured wings with deflectable leading- and trailing-edge flaps and internal channels to accommodate static pressure tube instrumentation. The wings of the second model were of single-piece construction without flaps or internal channels. The testing was performed at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.7, unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 million to 5.0 million, and angles of attack from -4 degrees to +10 degrees. The video model deformation system quantified the wing aeroelastic response to changes in the Mach number, Reynolds number concurrent with dynamic pressure, and angle of attack and effectively captured the differences in the wing twist characteristics between the two test articles.

  18. Modelling MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Celia

    As of July 2012, 777 exoplanets have been discovered utilizing mainly indirect detection techniques. The direct imaging of exoplanets is the next goal for astronomers, because it will reveal the diversity of planets and planetary systems, and will give access to the exoplanet's chemical composition via spectroscopy. With this spectroscopic knowledge, astronomers will be able to know, if a planet is terrestrial and, possibly, even find evidence of life. With so much potential, this branch of astronomy has also captivated the general public attention. The direct imaging of exoplanets remains a challenging task, due to (i) the extremely high contrast between the parent star and the orbiting exoplanet and (ii) their small angular separation. For ground-based observatories, this task is made even more difficult, due to the presence of atmospheric turbulence. High Contrast Imaging (HCI) instruments have been designed to meet this challenge. HCI instruments are usually composed of a coronagraph coupled with the full onaxis corrective capability of an Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) system. An efficient coronagraph separates the faint planet's light from the much brighter starlight, but the dynamic boiling speckles, created by the stellar image, make exoplanet detection impossible without the help of a wavefront correction device. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system is a high performance HCI instrument developed at Subaru Telescope. The wavefront control system of SCExAO consists of three wavefront sensors (WFS) coupled with a 1024- actuator Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM). MEMS DMs offer a large actuator density, allowing high count DMs to be deployed in small size beams. Therefore, MEMS DMs are an attractive technology for Adaptive Optics (AO) systems and are particularly well suited for HCI instruments employing ExAO technologies. SCExAO uses coherent light modulation in the focal plane introduced by the DM, for

  19. Hydrogeological characterisation and modelling of deformation zones and fracture domains, Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (SE)); Leven, Jakob (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben (Serco Assurance, Harwell (GB))

    2007-09-15

    The work reported here collates the structural-hydraulic information gathered in 21 cored boreholes and 32 percussion-drilled boreholes belonging to Forsmark site description, modelling stage 2.2. The analyses carried out provide the hydrogeological input descriptions of the bedrock in Forsmark needed by the end users Repository Engineering, Safety Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment; that is, hydraulic properties of deformation zones and fracture domains. The same information is also needed for constructing 3D groundwater flow models of the Forsmark site and surrounding area. The analyses carried out render the following conceptual model regarding the observed heterogeneity in deformation zone transmissivity: We find the geological division of the deterministically modelled deformation zones into eight categories (sets) useful from a hydrogeological point of view. Seven of the eight categories are steeply dipping, WNW, NW, NNW, NNE, NE, ENE and EW, and on is gently dipping, G. All deformation zones, regardless of orientation (strike and dip), are subjected to a substantial decrease in transmissivity with depth. The data gathered suggest a contrast of c. 20,000 times for the uppermost one kilometre of bedrock, i.e. more than four orders of magnitude. The hydraulic properties below this depth are not investigated. The lateral heterogeneity is also substantial but more irregular in its appearance. For instance, for a given elevation and deformation zone category (orientation), the spatial variability in transmissivity within a particular deformation zone appears to be as large as the variability between all deformation zones. This suggests that the lateral correlation length is shorter than the shortest distance between two adjacent observation points and shorter than the category spacing. The observation that the mean transmissivity of the gently-dipping deformation zones is c. one to two orders of magnitude greater than the mean transmissivities of all

  20. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  1. Modeling Finite Deformations in Trigonal Ceramic Crystals with Lattice Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    sapphire from 15 to 420 kbar. The effects of large anisotropic compressions. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 32, 2311–2330. Heuer, A.H., 1966. Deformation twinning in...Horstemeyer, M.F., Korellis, J.S., Grishabar, R.B., Mosher, D., 1998. High temperature sensitivity of notched AISI 304L stainless steel tests. Theor

  2. Plastic deformation of freestanding thin films : Experiments and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicola, L.; Xiang, Y.; Vlassak, J. J.; Van der Giessen, E.; Needleman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental measurements and computational results for the evolution of plastic deformation in freestanding thin films are compared. In the experiments, the stress-strain response of two sets of Cu films is determined in the plane-strain bulge test. One set of samples consists of electroplated Cu

  3. Two-dimensional numerical modeling for separation of deformable cells using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Li, Hua; Lam, K Y

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we numerically explore the possibility of separating two groups of deformable cells, by a very small dielectrophoretic (DEP) microchip with the characteristic length of several cell diameters. A 2D two-fluid model is developed to describe the separation process, where three types of forces are considered, the aggregation force for cell-cell interaction, the deformation force for cell deformation, and the DEP force for cell dielectrophoresis. As a model validation, we calculate the levitation height of a cell subject to DEP force, and compare it with the experimental data. After that, we simulate the separation of two groups of cells with different dielectric properties at high and low frequencies, respectively. The simulation results show that the deformable cells can be separated successfully by a very small DEP microchip, according to not only their different permittivities at the high frequency, but also their different conductivities at the low frequency. In addition, both two groups of cells have a shape deformation from an original shape to a lopsided slipper shape during the separation process. It is found that the cell motion is mainly determined by the DEP force arising from the electric field, causing the cells to deviate from the centerline of microchannel. However, the cell deformation is mainly determined by the deformation force arising from the fluid flow, causing the deviated cells to undergo an asymmetric motion with the deformation of slipper shape. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. [A virtual deformable mandible model used for reconstruction computer aided design of large mandibular defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Cai, Zhigang; Peng, Xin; Wang, Yang; Liu, Huiyuan; Guo, Chuanbin

    2014-07-01

    To establish a three- dimensional virtual deformable mandible model used for individual reconstruction design of large mandibular defect. A virtual deformable mandible model has been established by a 3D animation software. The model could be used for preoperative reconstruction design of large mandibular defects cases. According to the temporomandibular joint fossa position, maxillary dental arch, the normal relationship of cranio-maxillofacial profile, and the morphology of the residual segments of mandible, the virtual mandible model could be scaled and adjusted and a virtual mandible with individual features was obtained. Three normal skulls have been used to validate the adjustment ability of the virtual deformable mandible model. The preoperative reconstruction design process of 1 typical large mandibular defect case was demonstrated. The deformation matching ability of the virtual deformable mandible model was very good. The registration between the design model and the original mandible was over 90%. The design effect of the large mandiblar defect case was satisfied. Virtual deformable mandible model is a new feasible method to aid preoperative reconstruction design of large mandibular defects.

  5. Stress and deformation characteristics of sea ice in a high resolution numerical sea ice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel; Tsamados, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice floating on the polar oceans is due to the applied wind and ocean currents. The deformations of sea ice over ocean basin length scales have observable patterns; cracks and leads in satellite images and within the velocity fields generated from floe tracking. In a climate sea ice model the deformation of sea ice over ocean basin length scales is modelled using a rheology that represents the relationship between stresses and deformation within the sea ice cover. Here we investigate the link between observable deformation characteristics and the underlying internal sea ice stresses and force balance using the Los Alamos numerical sea ice climate model. In order to mimic laboratory experiments on the deformation of small cubes of sea ice we have developed an idealised square domain that tests the model response at spatial resolutions of up to 500m. We use the Elastic Anisotropic Plastic and Elastic Viscous Plastic rheologies, comparing their stability over varying resolutions and time scales. Sea ice within the domain is forced by idealised winds in order to compare the confinement of wind stresses and internal sea ice stresses. We document the characteristic deformation patterns of convergent, divergent and rotating stress states.

  6. Modeling, Calibration and Control for Extreme-Precision MEMS Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Iris AO will develop electromechanical models and actuator calibration methods to enable open-loop control of MEMS deformable mirrors (DMs) with unprecedented...

  7. Demonstration of finite element simulations in MOOSE using crystallographic models of irradiation hardening and plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Anirban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez Saez, Enrique [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-31

    This report describes the implementation of a crystal plasticity framework (VPSC) for irradiation hardening and plastic deformation in the finite element code, MOOSE. Constitutive models for irradiation hardening and the crystal plasticity framework are described in a previous report [1]. Here we describe these models briefly and then describe an algorithm for interfacing VPSC with finite elements. Example applications of tensile deformation of a dog bone specimen and a 3D pre-irradiated bar specimen performed using MOOSE are demonstrated.

  8. Numerical modeling of a large deformation thermoforming process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrank, M.G.

    1988-04-01

    A numerical solution, using finite element methods, is presented for the simulation of a blow-molding process used to form a thermoplastic polymer (polyethylene terephthalate). The constitutive relationship employed in the analysis is a modification of the creep power law, allowing both strain hardening and strain rate hardening of the material. Analytical results compare well with experimental data for both rate of deformation during the forming process and strain distribution in the final formed configuration. 15 figs.

  9. Mathematic modelling of circular cylinder deformation under inner grouwth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Siasiev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A task on the intensive deformed state (IDS of a viscoelastic declivous cylinder, which is grown under the action of inner pressure, is considered. The process of continuous increase takes a place on an internal radius so, that a radius and pressure change on set to the given law. The special case of linear law of creeping is considered, and also numeral results are presented as the graphs of temporal dependence of tensions and moving for different points of cylinder.

  10. ChainMail based neural dynamics modeling of soft tissue deformation for surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-07-20

    Realistic and real-time modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation is a fundamental research issue in the field of surgical simulation. In this paper, a novel cellular neural network approach is presented for modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation by combining neural dynamics of cellular neural network with ChainMail mechanism. The proposed method formulates the problem of elastic deformation into cellular neural network activities to avoid the complex computation of elasticity. The local position adjustments of ChainMail are incorporated into the cellular neural network as the local connectivity of cells, through which the dynamic behaviors of soft tissue deformation are transformed into the neural dynamics of cellular neural network. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed neural network approach is capable of modeling the soft tissues' nonlinear deformation and typical mechanical behaviors. The proposed method not only improves ChainMail's linear deformation with the nonlinear characteristics of neural dynamics but also enables the cellular neural network to follow the principle of continuum mechanics to simulate soft tissue deformation.

  11. Biomechanical Model for Computing Deformations for Whole-Body Image Registration: A Meshless Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Patient-specific biomechanical models have been advocated as a tool for predicting deformations of soft body organs/tissue for medical image registration (aligning two sets of images) when differences between the images are large. However, complex and irregular geometry of the body organs makes generation of patient-specific biomechanical models very time consuming. Meshless discretisation has been proposed to solve this challenge. However, applications so far have been limited to 2-D models and computing single organ deformations. In this study, 3-D comprehensive patient-specific non-linear biomechanical models implemented using Meshless Total Lagrangian Explicit Dynamics (MTLED) algorithms are applied to predict a 3-D deformation field for whole-body image registration. Unlike a conventional approach which requires dividing (segmenting) the image into non-overlapping constituents representing different organs/tissues, the mechanical properties are assigned using the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm without the image segmentation. Verification indicates that the deformations predicted using the proposed meshless approach are for practical purposes the same as those obtained using the previously validated finite element models. To quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the predicted deformations, we determined the spatial misalignment between the registered (i.e. source images warped using the predicted deformations) and target images by computing the edge-based Hausdorff distance. The Hausdorff distance-based evaluation determines that our meshless models led to successful registration of the vast majority of the image features. PMID:26791945

  12. Preliminary co-sesimic deformation model for Indonesia geospatial reference system 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Meilano, Irwan; Sapiie, Benyamin; Gunawan, Endra; Wijarnto, Antonius B.; Efendi, Joni

    2017-07-01

    In the October 11st 2013, Indonesia introduced the new national geodetic datum which called as Sistem Referensi Geospasial Indonesia 2013 (Indonesian Geospatial Reference System 2013). This is a semi dynamic datum in natural, which the reference epoch define at 2012.0 and the coordinates change due to plate motion and earthquake was accommodate using a deformation model. One of the components of deformation model is co-seismic deformation due to earthquake. In this study we estimate the co-seismic deformation model based on GPS time series data and earthquake geometry parameter. We used 4 major earthquakes with the magnitude > 8 Mw that occurred in the Indonesia region since 2004. Our result shows the rmse of residual co-seismic deformation from both method (GPS and earthquake modeling) in the East and North components is 4.10 mm and 5.26 mm for Sumatra Andaman 2004 EQ, 46.68 mm and 178.92 mm for Sumatra Utara 2005 EQ, 140.42 mm and 171.00 mm for Sumatra Selatan 2007 EQ, and 14.29 mm and 9.73 mm for Wharton Basin 2012 EQ. The preliminary model should be improved by including several earthquakes to get best co-seismic deformation model to support IGRS2013.

  13. Analysis and Modeling of Process of Residual Deformations Accumulation in Soils and Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A. S.; Dolgih, G. V.; Kalinin, A. L.

    2017-11-01

    It is established that under the influence of repeated loads the process of plastic deformation in soils and discrete materials is hereditary. To perform the mathematical modeling of plastic deformation, the authors applied the integral equation by solution of which they manage to obtain the power and logarithmic dependencies connecting plastic deformation with the number of repeated loads, the parameters of the material and components of the stress tensor in the principal axes. It is shown that these dependences generalize a number of models proposed earlier in Russia and abroad. Based on the analysis of the experimental data obtained during material testing in the dynamic devices of triaxial compression at different values of the stress deviator, the coefficients in the proposed models of deformation are determined. The authors determined the application domain for logarithmic and degree dependences.

  14. Computational implementation of the multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model for salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koteras, J.R.; Munson, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Multi-Mechanism Deformation (M-D) model for creep in rock salt has been used in three-dimensional computations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a potential waste, repository. These computational studies are relied upon to make key predictions about long-term behavior of the repository. Recently, the M-D model was extended to include creep-induced damage. The extended model, the Multi-Mechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, is considerably more complicated than the M-D model and required a different technology from that of the M-D model for a computational implementation.

  15. Effects of Host-rock Fracturing on Elastic-deformation Source Models of Volcano Deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holohan, Eoghan P; Sudhaus, Henriette; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Walsh, John J

    2017-09-08

    Volcanoes commonly inflate or deflate during episodes of unrest or eruption. Continuum mechanics models that assume linear elastic deformation of the Earth's crust are routinely used to invert the observed ground motions. The source(s) of deformation in such models are generally interpreted in terms of magma bodies or pathways, and thus form a basis for hazard assessment and mitigation. Using discontinuum mechanics models, we show how host-rock fracturing (i.e. non-elastic deformation) during drainage of a magma body can progressively change the shape and depth of an elastic-deformation source. We argue that this effect explains the marked spatio-temporal changes in source model attributes inferred for the March-April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Reunion. We find that pronounced deflation-related host-rock fracturing can: (1) yield inclined source model geometries for a horizontal magma body; (2) cause significant upward migration of an elastic-deformation source, leading to underestimation of the true magma body depth and potentially to a misinterpretation of ascending magma; and (3) at least partly explain underestimation by elastic-deformation sources of changes in sub-surface magma volume.

  16. Three-dimensional mathematical model for deformation of human fasciae in manual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hans; Schleip, Robert; Ji, Zhiming; Bukiet, Bruce; Maney, Miriam; Findley, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Although mathematical models have been developed for the bony movement occurring during chiropractic manipulation, such models are not available for soft tissue motion. To develop a three-dimensional mathematical model for exploring the relationship between mechanical forces and deformation of human fasciae in manual therapy using a finite deformation theory. The predicted stresses required to produce plastic deformation were evaluated for a volunteer subject's fascia lata, plantar fascia, and superficial nasal fascia. These stresses were then compared with previous experimental findings for plastic deformation in dense connective tissues. Using the three-dimensional mathematical model, the authors determined the changing amounts of compression and shear produced in fascial tissue during 20 seconds of manual therapy. The three-dimensional model's equations revealed that very large forces, outside the normal physiologic range, are required to produce even 1% compression and 1% shear in fascia lata and plantar fascia. Such large forces are not required to produce substantial compression and shear in superficial nasal fascia, however. The palpable sensations of tissue release that are often reported by osteopathic physicians and other manual therapists cannot be due to deformations produced in the firm tissues of plantar fascia and fascia lata. However, palpable tissue release could result from deformation in softer tissues, such as superficial nasal fascia.

  17. Development of a 3D modeling algorithm for tunnel deformation monitoring based on terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongyao Xie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deformation monitoring is vital for tunnel engineering. Traditional monitoring techniques measure only a few data points, which is insufficient to understand the deformation of the entire tunnel. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a newly developed technique that can collect thousands of data points in a few minutes, with promising applications to tunnel deformation monitoring. The raw point cloud collected from TLS cannot display tunnel deformation; therefore, a new 3D modeling algorithm was developed for this purpose. The 3D modeling algorithm includes modules for preprocessing the point cloud, extracting the tunnel axis, performing coordinate transformations, performing noise reduction and generating the 3D model. Measurement results from TLS were compared to the results of total station and numerical simulation, confirming the reliability of TLS for tunnel deformation monitoring. Finally, a case study of the Shanghai West Changjiang Road tunnel is introduced, where TLS was applied to measure shield tunnel deformation over multiple sections. Settlement, segment dislocation and cross section convergence were measured and visualized using the proposed 3D modeling algorithm.

  18. Use of multiscale zirconium alloy deformation models in nuclear fuel behavior analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Robert; Tomé, Carlos; Liu, Wenfeng; Alankar, Alankar; Subramanian, Gopinath; Stanek, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cladding mechanical behavior is a key aspect of modeling nuclear fuel behavior, especially for conditions of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Current approaches to fuel performance modeling rely on empirical models for cladding creep, growth and plastic deformation, which are limited to the materials and conditions for which the models were developed. CASL has endeavored to improve upon this approach by incorporating a microstructurally-based, atomistically-informed, zirconium alloy mechanical deformation analysis capability into the BISON-CASL engineering scale fuel performance code. Specifically, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity modeling approach, developed by Lebensohn and Tome´ [2], has been coupled with BISON-CASL to represent the mechanistic material processes controlling the deformation behavior of the cladding. A critical component of VPSC is the representation of the crystallographic orientation of the grains within the matrix material and the ability to account for the role of texture on deformation. The multiscale modeling of cladding deformation mechanisms allowed by VPSC far exceed the functionality of typical semi-empirical constitutive models employed in nuclear fuel behavior codes to model irradiation growth and creep, thermal creep, or plasticity. This paper describes the implementation of an interface between VPSC and BISON-CASL and provides initial results utilizing the coupled functionality.

  19. A Cable Equation Model of Electrical Signal Transmission in Non-uniformly Deformed Nerve Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Emily

    2012-03-01

    In order for the human body to function, neurons must be able to properly transmit electrical signals. One method of modeling this voltage flow is through the cable equation. Assuming that an aneurysm or tumor is present, we modify the cable equation to account for radially asymmetric deformation of a dendrite. Through this modification, we hope to improve our current understanding of overall brain function in the presence of neuronal deformation.

  20. Numerical models of caldera deformation: Effects of multiphase and multicomponent hydrothermal fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Hsieh, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Ground surface displacement (GSD) in large calderas is often interpreted as resulting from magma intrusion at depth. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD, notably interferometric synthetic aperture radar, reveal complex and multifaceted deformation patterns that often require complex source models to explain the observed GSD. Although hydrothermal fluids have been discussed as a possible deformation agent, very few quantitative studies addressing the effects of multiphase flow on crustal mechanics have been attempted. Recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources allow robust quantitative assessment of the complex time-variant thermal interplay between aqueous fluid flow and crustal deformation. We carry out numerical simulations of multiphase (liquid-gas), multicomponent (H 2O-CO2) hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation using a range of realistic physical parameters and processes. Hydrothermal fluid injection, circulation, and gas formation can generate complex, temporally and spatially varying patterns of GSD, with deformation rates, magnitudes, and geometries (including subsidence) similar to those observed in several large calderas. The potential for both rapid and gradual deformation resulting from magma-derived fluids suggests that hydrothermal fluid circulation may help explain deformation episodes at calderas that have not culminated in magmatic eruption.

  1. A finite element head and neck model as a supportive tool for deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Saitou, Kazuhiro; Matuszak, Martha M; Balter, James M

    2016-07-01

    A finite element (FE) head and neck model was developed as a tool to aid investigations and development of deformable image registration and patient modeling in radiation oncology. Useful aspects of a FE model for these purposes include ability to produce realistic deformations (similar to those seen in patients over the course of treatment) and a rational means of generating new configurations, e.g., via the application of force and/or displacement boundary conditions. The model was constructed based on a cone-beam computed tomography image of a head and neck cancer patient. The three-node triangular surface meshes created for the bony elements (skull, mandible, and cervical spine) and joint elements were integrated into a skeletal system and combined with the exterior surface. Nodes were additionally created inside the surface structures which were composed of the three-node triangular surface meshes, so that four-node tetrahedral FE elements were created over the whole region of the model. The bony elements were modeled as a homogeneous linear elastic material connected by intervertebral disks. The surrounding tissues were modeled as a homogeneous linear elastic material. Under force or displacement boundary conditions, FE analysis on the model calculates approximate solutions of the displacement vector field. A FE head and neck model was constructed that skull, mandible, and cervical vertebrae were mechanically connected by disks. The developed FE model is capable of generating realistic deformations that are strain-free for the bony elements and of creating new configurations of the skeletal system with the surrounding tissues reasonably deformed. The FE model can generate realistic deformations for skeletal elements. In addition, the model provides a way of evaluating the accuracy of image alignment methods by producing a ground truth deformation and correspondingly simulated images. The ability to combine force and displacement conditions provides

  2. A kidney deformation model for use in non-rigid registration during image-guided surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Rowena E.; Herrell, S. Duke, III; Miga, Michael I.; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.

    2008-03-01

    In order to facilitate the removal of tumors during partial nephrectomies, an image-guided surgery system may be useful. This system would require a registration of the physical kidney to a pre-operative image volume; however, it is unclear whether a rigid registration would be sufficient. One possible source of non-rigid deformation is the clamping of the renal artery during surgery and the subsequent loss of pressure as the kidney is punctured and blood loss occurs. To explore this issue, a model of kidney deformation due to loss of perfusion and pressure was developed based on Biot's consolidation model. The model was tested on two resected porcine kidneys in which the renal artery and vein were clamped. CT image volumes of the kidney were obtained before and after the deformation caused unclamping, and fiducial markers embedded on the kidney surface allowed the deformation to be tracked. The accuracy of the kidney model was accessed by calculating the model error at the fiducial locations and using image similarity measures. Preliminary results indicate that the model may be useful in a non-rigid registration scheme; however, further refinements to the model may be necessary to better simulate the deformation due to loss of perfusion and pressure.

  3. Soft object deformation monitoring and learning for model-based robotic hand manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretu, Ana-Maria; Payeur, Pierre; Petriu, Emil M

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a framework that automatically extracts and monitors the shape deformations of soft objects from a video sequence and maps them with force measurements with the goal of providing the necessary information to the controller of a robotic hand to ensure safe model-based deformable object manipulation. Measurements corresponding to the interaction force at the level of the fingertips and to the position of the fingertips of a three-finger robotic hand are associated with the contours of a deformed object tracked in a series of images using neural-network approaches. The resulting model captures the behavior of the object and is able to predict its behavior for previously unseen interactions without any assumption on the object's material. The availability of such models can contribute to the improvement of a robotic hand controller, therefore allowing more accurate and stable grasp while providing more elaborate manipulation capabilities for deformable objects. Experiments performed for different objects, made of various materials, reveal that the method accurately captures and predicts the object's shape deformation while the object is submitted to external forces applied by the robot fingers. The proposed method is also fast and insensitive to severe contour deformations, as well as to smooth changes in lighting, contrast, and background.

  4. Effect of deformation induced nucleation and phase mixing, a two phase model for the ductile deformation of rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevillard, Benoit; Richard, Guillaume; Raimbourg, Hugues

    2017-04-01

    Rocks are complex materials and particularly their rheological behavior under geological stresses remains a long-standing question in geodynamics. To test large scale lithosphere dynamics numerical modeling is the main tool but encounter substantial difficulties to account for this complexity. One major unknown is the origin and development of the localization of deformation. This localization is observed within a large range of scales and is commonly characterized by sharp grain size reduction. These considerations argues for a control of the microscopical scale over the largest ones through one predominant variable: the mean grain-size. However, the presence of second phase and broad grain-size distribution may also have a important impact on this phenomenon. To address this question, we built a model for ductile rocks deformation based on the two-phase damage theory of Bercovici & Ricard 2012. We aim to investigate the role of grain-size reduction but also phase mixing on strain localization. Instead of considering a Zener-pining effect on damage evolution, we propose to take into account the effect of the grain-boundary sliding (GBS)-induced nucleation mechanism which is better supported by experimental or natural observations (Precigout et al 2016). This continuum theory allows to represent a two mineral phases aggregate with explicit log-normal grain-size distribution as a reasonable approximation for polymineralic rocks. Quantifying microscopical variables using a statistical approach may allow for calibration at small (experimental) scale. The general set of evolutions equations remains up-scalable provided some conditions on the homogenization scale. Using the interface density as a measure of mixture quality, we assume unlike Bercovici & Ricard 2012 that it may depend for some part on grain-size . The grain-size independent part of it is being represented by a "contact fraction" variable, whose evolution may be constrained by the dominant deformation

  5. CPM : A Deformable Model for Shape Recovery and Segmentation Based on Charged Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    A novel, physically motivated deformable model for shape recovery and segmentation is presented. The model, referred to as the charged-particle model (CPM), is inspired by classical electrodynamics and is based on a simulation of charged particles moving in an electrostatic field. The charges are

  6. A voxel-based finite element model for the prediction of bladder deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A finite element (FE) bladder model was previously developed to predict bladder deformation caused by bladder filling change. However, two factors prevent a wide application of FE models: (1) the labor required to construct a FE model with high quality mesh and (2) long computation time

  7. Empirical Analysis of Cascade Deformable Models for Multi-View Face Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orozco, J.; Martinez, B.; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper, we present a face detector based on Cascade Deformable Part Models (CDPM) [1]. Our model is learnt from partially labelled images using Latent Support Vector Machines (LSVM). Recently Zhu et al. [2] proposed a Tree StructureModel for multi-view face detection trained with facial

  8. A high-resolution model for soft tissue deformation based on point primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yanni; Liu, Peter X

    2017-09-01

    In order to achieve a high degree of visual realism in surgery simulation, we propose a new model, which is based on point primitives and continuous elastic mechanics theory, for soft tissue deformation, tearing and/or cutting. The model can be described as a two-step local high-resolution strategy. First, appropriate volumetric data are sampled and assigned with proper physical properties. Second, sparsely sampled points in non-deformed regions and densely-sampled points in the deformed zone are selected and evaluated. By using a meshless deformation model based on point primitives for all volumetric data, the affine transform matrix of collision points can be computed. The new positions of neighboring points in the collided surface can be then calculated, and more details in the local deformed zone can be obtained for rendering. Technical details about the derivations of the proposed model as well as its implementation are given. The visual effects and computation cost of the proposed model are evaluated and compared with conventional primitives-based methods. Experimental results show that the proposed model provides users (trainees) with improved visual feedback while the computational cost is at the same magnitude of other similar methods. The proposed method is especially suitable for the simulation of soft tissue deformation and tearing because no grid information needs to be maintained. It can simulate soft tissue deformation in a high degree of authenticity with real-time performance. It could be considered implemented in the development of a mixed reality application of neurosurgery simulators in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling shear-induced particle ordering and deformation in a dense soft particle suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chih-Tang; Wu, Yi-Fan; Chien, Wei; Huang, Jung-Ren; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2017-11-01

    We apply the lattice Boltzmann method and the bead-spring network model of deformable particles (DPs) to study shear-induced particle ordering and deformation and the corresponding rheological behavior for dense DP suspensions confined in a narrow gap under steady external shear. The particle configuration is characterized with small-angle scattering intensity, the real-space 2D local order parameter, and the particle shape factors including deformation, stretching and tilt angles. We investigate how particle ordering and deformation vary with the particle volume fraction ϕ (=0.45-0.65) and the external shear rate characterized with the capillary number Ca (=0.003-0.191). The degree of particle deformation increases mildly with ϕ but significantly with Ca. Under moderate shear rate (Ca  =  0.105), the inter-particle structure evolves from string-like ordering to layered hexagonal close packing (HCP) as ϕ increases. A long wavelength particle slithering motion emerges for sufficiently large ϕ. For ϕ  =  0.61, the structure maintains layered HCP for Ca  =  0.031-0.143 but gradually becomes disordered for larger and smaller Ca. The correlation in particle zigzag movements depends sensitively on ϕ and particle ordering. Layer-by-layer analysis reveals how the non-slippery hard walls affect particle ordering and deformation. The shear-induced reconfiguration of DPs observed in the simulation agrees qualitatively with experimental results of sheared uniform emulsions. The apparent suspension viscosity increases with ϕ but exhibits much weaker dependence compared to hard-sphere suspensions, indicating that particle deformation and unjamming under shear can significantly reduce the viscous stress. Furthermore, the suspension shear-thins, corresponding to increased inter-DP ordering and particle deformation with Ca. This work provides useful insights into the microstructure-rheology relationship of concentrated deformable particle suspensions.

  10. Modeling shear-induced particle ordering and deformation in a dense soft particle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chih-Tang; Wu, Yi-Fan; Chien, Wei; Huang, Jung-Ren; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2017-11-01

    We apply the lattice Boltzmann method and the bead-spring network model of deformable particles (DPs) to study shear-induced particle ordering and deformation and the corresponding rheological behavior for dense DP suspensions confined in a narrow gap under steady external shear. The particle configuration is characterized with small-angle scattering intensity, the real-space 2D local order parameter, and the particle shape factors including deformation, stretching and tilt angles. We investigate how particle ordering and deformation vary with the particle volume fraction ϕ (=0.45-0.65) and the external shear rate characterized with the capillary number Ca (=0.003-0.191). The degree of particle deformation increases mildly with ϕ but significantly with Ca. Under moderate shear rate (Ca  =  0.105), the inter-particle structure evolves from string-like ordering to layered hexagonal close packing (HCP) as ϕ increases. A long wavelength particle slithering motion emerges for sufficiently large ϕ. For ϕ  =  0.61, the structure maintains layered HCP for Ca  =  0.031-0.143 but gradually becomes disordered for larger and smaller Ca. The correlation in particle zigzag movements depends sensitively on ϕ and particle ordering. Layer-by-layer analysis reveals how the non-slippery hard walls affect particle ordering and deformation. The shear-induced reconfiguration of DPs observed in the simulation agrees qualitatively with experimental results of sheared uniform emulsions. The apparent suspension viscosity increases with ϕ but exhibits much weaker dependence compared to hard-sphere suspensions, indicating that particle deformation and unjamming under shear can significantly reduce the viscous stress. Furthermore, the suspension shear-thins, corresponding to increased inter-DP ordering and particle deformation with Ca. This work provides useful insights into the microstructure-rheology relationship of concentrated deformable particle suspensions.

  11. 3D finite element model for roll stack deformation coupled with a Multi-Slab model for strip deformation for flat rolling simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Yukio; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Silva, Jonatas M.

    2017-10-01

    Roll deformation is an extremely important problem in strip rolling, all the more as the strip is thinner. It results in profile defects (the strip thickness varies in the transverse direction) and flatness defects (the strip exits the rolling mill wavy). This becomes a more and more stringent issue for modern, harder steels such as Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). Numerous compensation techniques are used, alone or in combination: roll grinding crown, 4- or 6-Hi mills, cluster mills, with shiftable tapered rolls, CVC-shaped rolls (Continuously Variable Camber), pair-cross stands, etc. Elaborating the correction strategy for a specific strip rolling operation requires a model of the action of these profile and flatness actuators. A hybrid model was developed in which the roll stack deformation is modelled with a commercial Finite Element Method (FEM), coupled with a Multi-Slab model for strip deformation. This new model allows simulating virtually any type of rolling mill configuration at a reasonable cost (CVC, shiftable rolls, pair cross stands, cluster mills) including cases of incoming strip with defects (crown or wedge), by virtue of the FEM generality and versatility. The example taken here is a 6-high rolling mill with shiftable intermediate rolls (an anti-symmetric configuration). Results show quick convergence of FEM ↔ Multi-Slab iterations and good agreement with experiments.

  12. Modeling Deformation Sources From 2005-2007 at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Using InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S.; Amelung, F.

    2007-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are home to some of the most active volcanoes in the world resulting in a constant state of deformation. After 2005, deformation at the summit caldera of Kilauea changed from deflation to inflation before returning to the typically observed deflation. In 2007, new fissure eruptions occurred in the East Rift Zone as a result of dike intrusions. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from Radarsat and Envisat are used to generate source models for the deformation, and, using the small baseline subset (SBAS) algorithm, InSAR time series are created for this period. The results allow for analysis of the deformation patterns both spatially and temporally to better understand the dynamics of the magmatic system.

  13. Virtual Deformation Control of the X-56A Model with Simulated Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Peter M.; Chin, Alexander W.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2014-01-01

    A robust control law design methodology is presented to stabilize the X-56A model and command its wing shape. The X-56A was purposely designed to experience flutter modes in its flight envelope. The methodology introduces three phases: the controller design phase, the modal filter design phase, and the reference signal design phase. A mu-optimal controller is designed and made robust to speed and parameter variations. A conversion technique is presented for generating sensor strain modes from sensor deformation mode shapes. The sensor modes are utilized for modal filtering and simulating fiber optic sensors for feedback to the controller. To generate appropriate virtual deformation reference signals, rigid-body corrections are introduced to the deformation mode shapes. After successful completion of the phases, virtual deformation control is demonstrated. The wing is deformed and it is shown that angle-ofattack changes occur which could potentially be used to an advantage. The X-56A program must demonstrate active flutter suppression. It is shown that the virtual deformation controller can achieve active flutter suppression on the X-56A simulation model.

  14. Modelling and structural analysis of skull/cranial implant: beyond mid-line deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogu, V Phanindra; Kumar, Y Ravi; Kumar Khanara, Asit

    2017-01-01

    This computational study explores modelling and finite element study of the implant under Intracranial pressure (ICP) conditions with normal ICP range (7 mm Hg to 15 mm Hg) or increased ICP (>I5 mm Hg). The implant fixation points allow implant behaviour with respect to intracranial pressure conditions. However, increased fixation points lead to variation in deformation and equivalent stress. Finite element analysis is providing a valuable insight to know the deformation and equivalent stress. The patient CT data (Computed Tomography) is processed in Mimics software to get the mesh model. The implant is modelled by using modified reverse engineering technique with the help of Rhinoceros software. This modelling method is applicable for all types of defects including those beyond the middle line and multiple ones. It is designed with eight fixation points and ten fixation points to fix an implant. Consequently, the mechanical deformation and equivalent stress (von Mises) are calculated in ANSYS 15 software with distinctive material properties such as Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK). The deformation and equivalent stress results are obtained through ANSYS 15 software. It is observed that Ti6Al4V material shows low deformation and PEEK material shows less equivalent stress. Among all materials PEEK shows noticeably good result. Hence, a concept was established and more clinically relevant results can be expected with implementation of realistic 3D printed model in the future. This will allow physicians to gain knowledge and decrease surgery time with proper planning.

  15. Rheological model analysis on depth of toppling deformation in the anti-dip rock slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da

    2017-04-01

    The failure of the toppling deformation occurred in the layered rock mass, it is a kind of mode of deformation and failure, which is bent towards free direction and gradually develops into the slope under the combined forces of in-situ stress, gravity, and groundwater dynamic (hydrostatic) pressure and so on. The most common toppling deformation is the toppling of ductile bending. Obtaining the developmental depth of bending deformation is of great significance for judging the development scale of the plasmodium and the stability of the slope. At present, the developmental depth of toppling deformation mainly depends on the survey and statistic of the exploration adit, or the simulation of the deformation and failure process through the numerical simulation method, there is little research on the developmental depth of toppling deformation from mechanics point of view. In this paper, with the consideration of the time-sensitive characteristics of developmental process of the toppling deformation, the anti-dip layered slope can be considered as a multi-layer superposition cantilever with fixed end and free end, bending under self-weight and inter-layer stress. Under the premise of the initial stage of rheology of the rock slopes, which is considered to be the limit position of the toppling deformation and development, the Kelvin rheological model, which is usually used to describe the decay creep, is chosen to describe the time-sensitive process of rock slopes. The stress-strain analysis calculation is used to obtain the time-varying expression of a certain point on the rock beam. Furthermore, taking the time to infinity, the depth of the layered rock slopes is calculated as x=4Ccosβ/[2γcosαcosβ - γ2(cos (α + β)+2sin(α + β)tanφ)*((1+n) /2+(1-n) cos2α/ 2)] , which is obtained by using the strain reaches zero as the criterion of the depth at toppling deformation development limit position, combining the time-varying expression of a certain point on the beam

  16. Modeling of river bed deformation composed of frozen sediments with increasing environmental temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Debolskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of river flow and of the temperature rise on the deformation of the coastal slopes composed of permafrost with the inclusion of ice layer. The method of investigation is the laboratory and mathematical modeling. The laboratory experiments have shown that an increase in water and air temperature changes in a laboratory analogue of permafrost causes deformation of the channel even without wave action, i.e. at steady-state flow and non-erosive water flow velocity. The previously developed model of the bed deformation was improved to account for long-term changes of soil structure with increasing temperature. The three-dimensional mathematical model of coastal slopes thermoerosion of the rivers flowing in permafrost regions, and its verification was based on the results of laboratory experiments conducted in the hydraulic tray. Analysis of the results of mathematical and laboratory modeling showed that bed deformation of the rivers flowing in the permafrost zone, significantly different from the deformation of channels composed of soils not susceptible to the influence of the phase transition «water-ice», and can occur even under the non-erosive velocity of the water flow.

  17. Bridge Structure Deformation Prediction Based on GNSS Data Using Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jingzhou; Zhou, Jianting; Yang, Simon X; Li, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-19

    Bridges are an essential part of the ground transportation system. Health monitoring is fundamentally important for the safety and service life of bridges. A large amount of structural information is obtained from various sensors using sensing technology, and the data processing has become a challenging issue. To improve the prediction accuracy of bridge structure deformation based on data mining and to accurately evaluate the time-varying characteristics of bridge structure performance evolution, this paper proposes a new method for bridge structure deformation prediction, which integrates the Kalman filter, autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA), and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH). Firstly, the raw deformation data is directly pre-processed using the Kalman filter to reduce the noise. After that, the linear recursive ARIMA model is established to analyze and predict the structure deformation. Finally, the nonlinear recursive GARCH model is introduced to further improve the accuracy of the prediction. Simulation results based on measured sensor data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) deformation monitoring system demonstrated that: (1) the Kalman filter is capable of denoising the bridge deformation monitoring data; (2) the prediction accuracy of the proposed Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model is satisfactory, where the mean absolute error increases only from 3.402 mm to 5.847 mm with the increment of the prediction step; and (3) in comparision to the Kalman-ARIMA model, the Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model results in superior prediction accuracy as it includes partial nonlinear characteristics (heteroscedasticity); the mean absolute error of five-step prediction using the proposed model is improved by 10.12%. This paper provides a new way for structural behavior prediction based on data processing, which can lay a foundation for the early warning of bridge health monitoring system based on sensor data using sensing

  18. Short Review of Computational Models for Single Cell Deformation and Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    This short review communication aims at enumerating several modeling efforts that have been performed to model cell migration and deformation. To optimize and improve medical treatments against diseases like cancer, ischemic wounds or pressure ulcers, it is of vital importance to understand the

  19. Experimental evaluation of a polycrystal deformation modeling scheme using neutron diffraction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bjørn; Lorentzen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    The uniaxial behavior of aluminum polycrystals is simulated using a rate-independent incremental self-consistent elastic-plastic polycrystal deformation model, and the results are evaluated by neutron diffraction measurements. The elastic strains deduced from the model show good agreement with th...

  20. Empirical Analysis of Cascade Deformable Models for Multi-View Face Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orozco, Javier; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-view face detector based on Cascade Deformable Part Models (CDPM). Over the last decade, there have been several attempts to extend the well-established Viola&Jones face detector algorithm to solve the problem of multi-view face detection. Recently a tree structure model for

  1. Modeling of a Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Deformable Mirror for Simulation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    DATE September 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING OF A MICRO-ELECTRONIC- MECHANICAL SYSTEMS...MICRO-ELECTRONIC- MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS) DEFORMABLE MIRROR FOR SIMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION by Mark C. Mueller September 2016 Thesis ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. MODELING OF A

  2. On precisely modelling surface deformation due to interacting magma chambers and dykes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Karen; Neuberg, Jurgen; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    Combined data sets of InSAR and GPS allow us to observe surface deformation in volcanic settings. However, at the vast majority of volcanoes, a detailed 3-D structure that could guide the modelling of deformation sources is not available, due to the lack of tomography studies, for example. Therefore, volcano ground deformation due to magma movement in the subsurface is commonly modelled using simple point (Mogi) or dislocation (Okada) sources, embedded in a homogeneous, isotropic and elastic half-space. When data sets are too complex to be explained by a single deformation source, the magmatic system is often represented by a combination of these sources and their displacements fields are simply summed. By doing so, the assumption of homogeneity in the half-space is violated and the resulting interaction between sources is neglected. We have quantified the errors of such a simplification and investigated the limits in which the combination of analytical sources is justified. We have calculated the vertical and horizontal displacements for analytical models with adjacent deformation sources and have tested them against the solutions of corresponding 3-D finite element models, which account for the interaction between sources. We have tested various double-source configurations with either two spherical sources representing magma chambers, or a magma chamber and an adjacent dyke, modelled by a rectangular tensile dislocation or pressurized crack. For a tensile Okada source (representing an opening dyke) aligned or superposed to a Mogi source (magma chamber), we find the discrepancies with the numerical models to be insignificant (translates into surprisingly large errors when inverting deformation data for source parameters such as depth and volume change. Beyond 8 radii however, we demonstrate that the summation of analytical sources represents adjacent magma chambers correctly.

  3. Microstructure evolution and modeling of 2024 aluminum alloy sheets during hot deformation under different stress states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Zhao, Ting

    2018-01-01

    In this work, specimens of the 2024 aluminum alloy sheet were compressed and stretched along the original rolling direction at elevated temperatures. The microstructure evolution was investigated by characterizing the metallographic structures via electron backscattered diffraction technology before and after deformation. It was found that while recrystallization occurred in the compressed specimens, it was not observed to the same extent in the stretched specimens. This difference in the grain morphology has been attributed to the different movement behaviors of the grain boundaries, i.e., their significant migration in the compression deformation and the transformation from low-angle to high-angle boundaries observed mainly during tension deformation. The empirical model, which can describe the grain size evolution during compression, is not suitable in the case of tension, and therefore, a new model which ignores the detailed recrystallization process has been proposed. This model provides a description of the grain size change during hot deformation and can be used to predict the grain size in the plastic deformation process.

  4. Constraining volcanic inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Field in Oregon, USA, through microgravity and deformation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Jeffrey; William-Jones, Glyn; Johnson, Dan; Eggers, Al

    2012-10-01

    Microgravity data were collected between 2002 and 2009 at the Three Sisters Volcanic Complex, Oregon, to investigate the causes of an ongoing deformation event west of South Sister volcano. Three different conceptual models have been proposed as the causal mechanism for the deformation event: (1) hydraulic uplift due to continual injection of magma at depth, (2) pressurization of hydrothermal systems and (3) viscoelastic response to an initial pressurization at depth. The gravitational effect of continual magma injection was modeled to be 20 to 33 μGal at the center of the deformation field with volumes based on previous deformation studies. The gravity time series, however, did not detect a mass increase suggesting that a viscoelactic response of the crust is the most likely cause for the deformation from 2002 to 2009. The crust, deeper than 3 km, in the Three Sisters region was modeled as a Maxwell viscoelastic material and the results suggest a dynamic viscosity between 1018 to 5 × 1019 Pa s. This low crustal viscosity suggests that magma emplacement or stall depth is controlled by density and not the brittle ductile transition zone. Furthermore, these crustal properties and the observed geochemical composition gaps at Three Sisters can be best explained by different melt sources and limited magma mixing rather than fractional crystallization. More generally, low intrusion rates, low crustal viscosity, and multiple melt sources could also explain the whole rock compositional gaps observed at other arc volcanoes.

  5. Parameterization of shrubby riparian vegetation for mechanically based modelling of plant deformation in flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waygand, Magdalena; Klösch, Mario; Buchinger, Matthias; Tritthart, Michael; Baur, Pamela; Egger, Gregory; Pfemeter, Martin; Sindelar, Christine; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    During higher discharges, riparian vegetation becomes partially or fully submerged and interacts with the flow and sediment transport by acting as a roughness element to the flow. The geometry of flexible vegetation such as willows adjusts to the drag forces exerted by the flow, resulting in a strong variation of the flow resistance depending on the flow characteristics. So far, the deformation of submerged shrubby plants through bending and streamlining was considered in friction factors based on empirical data on plant deformation. We attempt to develop a mechanically based streamlining model for shrubby vegetation by considering the bending of stem and branches as well as the torsion acting onto the bases of the branches as a consequence of drag forces of the flow. For that purpose, we investigated several plants of Salix viminalis, which were coppiced to obtain multiple branches for a more natural, shrubby growth, to be further used in a research channel which offers free flowing discharges up to 10 m3 s-1. We determined the three-dimensional geometries of several plants by performing a photogrammetric analysis, and systematically measured branch and stem thicknesses at several locations. The obtained geometries and data on elastic modulus and shear modulus served for the development of a generic representation of the plant geometry and properties, which is used for the development of the mechanically based model of plant deformation. Preliminary results showed a significant contribution of torsion to plant deformation, emphasising the need of its consideration in physically based deformation models.

  6. Fission gas induced deformation model for FRAP-T6 and NSRR irradiated fuel test simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Sasajima, Hideo; Fuketa, Toyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hosoyamada, Ryuji; Mori, Yukihide

    1996-11-01

    Pulse irradiation tests of irradiated fuels under simulated reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) have been carried out at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). Larger cladding diameter increase was observed in the irradiated fuel tests than in the previous fresh fuel tests. A fission gas induced cladding deformation model was developed and installed in a fuel behavior analysis code, FRAP-T6. The irradiated fuel tests were analyzed with the model in combination with modified material properties and fuel cracking models. In Test JM-4, where the cladding temperature rose to higher temperatures and grain boundary separation by the pulse irradiation was significant, the fission gas model described the cladding deformation reasonably well. The fuel had relatively flat radial power distribution and the grain boundary gas from the whole radius was calculated to contribute to the deformation. On the other hand, the power density in the irradiated LWR fuel rods in the pulse irradiation tests was remarkably higher at the fuel periphery than the center. A fuel thermal expansion model, GAPCON, which took account of the effect of fuel cracking by the temperature profile, was found to reproduce well the LWR fuel behavior with the fission gas deformation model. This report present details of the models and their NSRR test simulations. (author)

  7. Dike propagation energy balance from deformation modeling and seismic release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Alessandro; Aoki, Yosuke; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2017-06-01

    Magma is transported in the crust mainly by dike intrusions. In volcanic areas, dikes can ascend toward the free surface and also move by lateral propagation, eventually feeding flank eruptions. Understanding dike mechanics is a key to forecasting the expected propagation and associated hazard. Several studies have been conducted on dike mechanisms and propagation; however, a less in-depth investigated aspect is the relation between measured dike-induced deformation and the seismicity released during its propagation. We individuated a simple x that can be used as a proxy of the expected mechanical energy released by a propagating dike and is related to its average thickness. For several intrusions around the world (Afar, Japan, and Mount Etna), we correlate such mechanical energy to the seismic moment released by the induced earthquakes. We obtain an empirical law that quantifies the expected seismic energy released before arrest. The proposed approach may be helpful to predict the total seismic moment that will be released by an intrusion and thus to control the energy status during its propagation and the time of dike arrest.Plain Language SummaryDike propagation is a dominant mechanism for magma ascent, transport, and eruptions. Besides being an intriguing physical process, it has critical hazard implications. After the magma intrusion starts, it is difficult to predict when and where a specific horizontal dike is going to halt and what its final length will be. In our study, we singled an equation that can be used as a proxy of the expected mechanical energy to be released by the opening dike. We related this expected energy to the seismic moment of several eruptive intrusions around the world (Afar region, Japanese volcanoes, and Mount Etna). The proposed novel approach is helpful to estimate the total seismic moment to be released, therefore allowing potentially predicting when the dike will end its propagation. The approach helps answer one of the

  8. A Full-Body Layered Deformable Model for Automatic Model-Based Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a full-body layered deformable model (LDM inspired by manually labeled silhouettes for automatic model-based gait recognition from part-level gait dynamics in monocular video sequences. The LDM is defined for the fronto-parallel gait with 22 parameters describing the human body part shapes (widths and lengths and dynamics (positions and orientations. There are four layers in the LDM and the limbs are deformable. Algorithms for LDM-based human body pose recovery are then developed to estimate the LDM parameters from both manually labeled and automatically extracted silhouettes, where the automatic silhouette extraction is through a coarse-to-fine localization and extraction procedure. The estimated LDM parameters are used for model-based gait recognition by employing the dynamic time warping for matching and adopting the combination scheme in AdaBoost.M2. While the existing model-based gait recognition approaches focus primarily on the lower limbs, the estimated LDM parameters enable us to study full-body model-based gait recognition by utilizing the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head as well. In the experiments, the LDM-based gait recognition is tested on gait sequences with differences in shoe-type, surface, carrying condition and time. The results demonstrate that the recognition performance benefits from not only the lower limb dynamics, but also the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head. In addition, the LDM can serve as an analysis tool for studying factors affecting the gait under various conditions.

  9. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  10. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J Casey; Takahashi, Ayuko; Glotzbecker, Michael P; Snyder, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old). Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old). Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8). Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55°) had decreased body weight (89%), right (59%) and left (86%) lung mass, right (74%) and left (69%) radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%), and forced vital capacity (75%). Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may also have future use as a platform to evaluate treatment effectiveness.

  11. Use of multiscale zirconium alloy deformation models in nuclear fuel behavior analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Robert, E-mail: robert.montgomery@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Tomé, Carlos, E-mail: tome@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Liu, Wenfeng, E-mail: wenfeng.liu@anatech.com [ANATECH Corporation (United States); Alankar, Alankar, E-mail: alankar.alankar@iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Subramanian, Gopinath, E-mail: gopinath.subramanian@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi (United States); Stanek, Christopher, E-mail: stanek@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cladding mechanical behavior is a key aspect of modeling nuclear fuel behavior, especially for conditions of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Current approaches to fuel performance modeling rely on empirical constitutive models for cladding creep, growth and plastic deformation, which are limited to the materials and conditions for which the models were developed. To improve upon this approach, a microstructurally-based zirconium alloy mechanical deformation analysis capability is being developed within the United States Department of Energy Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Specifically, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity modeling approach, developed by Lebensohn and Tomé [1], has been coupled with the BISON engineering scale fuel performance code to represent the mechanistic material processes controlling the deformation behavior of light water reactor (LWR) cladding. A critical component of VPSC is the representation of the crystallographic nature (defect and dislocation movement) and orientation of the grains within the matrix material and the ability to account for the role of texture on deformation. A future goal is for VPSC to obtain information on reaction rate kinetics from atomistic calculations to inform the defect and dislocation behavior models described in VPSC. The multiscale modeling of cladding deformation mechanisms allowed by VPSC far exceed the functionality of typical semi-empirical constitutive models employed in nuclear fuel behavior codes to model irradiation growth and creep, thermal creep, or plasticity. This paper describes the implementation of an interface between VPSC and BISON and provides initial results utilizing the coupled functionality.

  12. Enhanced modelling of sand production through improved deformation and stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, A.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Vaziri, H. [BP America (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Shear bands can form in situations such as drilled wellbores because of concentration of deformation in the medium in narrow bands in a process called localization. A computational model that can reproduce the observed damage evolution is needed in the analysis of sanding and wellbore stability. However, analytical and computational models that are developed using a standard continuum description and a strength criterion cannot recover the size effect. They are also unable to create results free of mesh design when the material undergoes degradation and strain softening. By eliminating the influence of artificial conditions and numerical mesh on localization and deformation response in a sanding model, the authors extended the capacity of current sand production models. When using elastoplastic models, previous studies have indicated size effects. Therefore, a fracture energy regularization method was implemented in this numerical model in order to correct this deficiency. The model included transport aspects such as the role of seepage on rock deformation and solid release in addition to geomechanical aspects such as rock elastoplastic deformation and rock disaggregation. A Mohr- Coulomb flow theory of elastoplasticity with friction hardening/cohesion softening was utilized for the model. Calibration procedure and validation of the enriched model through back analysis of triaxial and uniaxial compression tests was emphasized. Numerical predictions were also compared with laboratory data on sand production and incorporated the stress and deformation as well as the sand volume. It was concluded that friction hardening and cohesion softening can numerically reproduce the weak sandstone response to various loading conditions. 24 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Modeling of Macro-deformation Behavior of Thin-Walled Aluminum Foam by Gas Injection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chen; Ningzhen, Wang; Jianyu, Yuan; Yanxiang, Li; Huawei, Zhang; Yuan, Liu

    2017-07-01

    The favorable energy absorption characteristics of foam structures originate from their layer-by-layer deformation behavior. In this paper, the effects of cell morphology on the compressive performance of thin-walled aluminum foams were studied by a finite element method using a three-dimensional, thin-shell Kelvin tetrakaidecahedron model. Models with varying cell structure parameters were established so that the effects of relative density, cell size, cell wall thickness, and cell anisotropy on the plateau stress and energy absorption capacity of the foams could be investigated. Both the numerical deformation behavior and stress-strain curves of aluminum foams are found to have good agreement with the experimental results under quasi-static compressive loading. Moreover, the deformation behaviors of those foams with a certain anisotropy ratio are compared for different loading directions. The cell shape is a key factor affecting the plateau stress as well as the relative density.

  14. Integrated modeling of a laboratory setup for a large deformable mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsten, Rikard; Andersen, Torben; Owner-Petersen, Mette; MacMynowski, Douglas G.

    2011-09-01

    We study a concept for a low-cost, large deformable mirror for an Extremely Large Telescope. The use of inexpensive voice-coil actuators leads to a poorly damped faceplate, with many modes within the desired control bandwidth. A control architecture, including rate and position feedback to add damping and stiness, for the faceplate has been presented in our previous papers. An innovative local control scheme which decouples adjacent actuators and suppresses low-order eigenmodes is a key feature in our controller. Here, we present an integrated model of a partially illuminated large deformable mirror in an experimental laboratory setup with a limited amount of actuators. From the model, conclusions are drawn regarding the number of actuators needed to identify the key features, such as local control performance, dynamic range, and controllability and robustness of the deformable mirror.

  15. Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers

    KAUST Repository

    Sraj, Ihab

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution induced by optical stretchers on a cell encapsulating a nucleus of different optical properties. These optical forces are shape dependent and can deform real non-rigid objects; thus resulting in dynamically changing distributions with cell and nucleus deformation. A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell is a common biological cell that is of interest to the biomedical community because of its use in recombinant protein therapeutics and is an example of a nucleated cell. To this end, we model CHO cells as two concentric three-dimensional elastic capsules immersed in a fluid where the hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the immersed boundary method. We vary the inner capsule size to simulate different nucleus sizes. Our results show that the presence of a nucleus has a major effect on the force distribution on the cell surface and consequently on its net deformation. Scattering and gradient forces are reported for different nucleus sizes and the effect of nucleus size on the cell deformation is discussed quantitatively. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. A structurally based viscoelastic model for passive myocardium in finite deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing Jin

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the finite-deformation viscoelastic modeling for passive myocardium tissue. The formulations established can also be applied to model other fiber-reinforced soft tissue. Based on the morphological structure of the myocardium, a specific free-energy function is constructed to reflect its orthotropicity. After deriving the stress-strain relationships in the simple shear deformation, a genetic algorithm is used to optimally estimate the material parameters of the myocardial constitutive equation. The results show that the proposed myocardial model can well fit the shear experimental data. To validate the viscoelastic model, it is used to predict the creep and the dynamic responses of a cylindrical model of the left ventricle. Upon comparing the results calculated by the proven myocardial elastic model with those by the viscoelastic model, the merits of the latter are discussed.

  17. INVESTIGATION BY NUMERICAL MODELING OF INFLUENCE OF THE SHAPE OF DEFORMING ZONE OF DIE AT WIRE DRAWING OF STEEL HIGH-CARBON WIRE ON TEMPERATURE AND MODE OF DEFORMATION IN WIRE AND DIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. L. Bobarikin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation by numerical modeling of influence of the form of deforming zone of die at drawing of steel highcarbon wire on temperature and strained-deformed state in wire and die is carried out.

  18. Cell resolved, multiparticle model of plastic tissue deformations and morphogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Czirok, Andras

    2014-01-01

    We propose a three dimensional mechanical model of embryonic tissue dynamics. Mechanically coupled adherent cells are represented as particles interconnected with elastic beams which can exert non-central forces and torques. Tissue plasticity is modeled by a stochastic process consisting of a connectivity change (addition or removal of a single link) followed by a complete relaxation to mechanical equilibrium. In particular, we assume that (i) two non-connected, but adjacent particles can form a new link; and (ii) the lifetime of links is reduced by tensile forces. We demonstrate that the proposed model yields a realistic macroscopic elasto-plastic behavior and we establish how microscopic model parameters affect the material properties at the macroscopic scale. Based on these results, microscopic parameter values can be inferred from tissue thickness, macroscopic elastic modulus and the magnitude and dynamics of intercellular adhesion forces. In addition to their mechanical role, model particles can also act...

  19. Homogenization of a double porosity model in deformable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Ainouz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the homogenization of a family of micro-models for the flow of a slightly compressible fluid in a poroelastic matrix containing periodically distributed poroelastic inclusions, with low permeabilities and with imperfect contact on the interface. The micro-models are based on Biot's system for consolidation processes in each phase, with interfacial barrier formulation. Using the two-scale convergence technique, it is shown that the derived system is a general model of that proposed by Aifantis, plus an extra memory term.

  20. Droplet Deformation Prediction with the Droplet Deormation and Break Up Model (DDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model was used to predict deformation of droplets approaching the leading edge stagnation line of an airfoil. The quasi-steady model was solved for each position along the droplet path. A program was developed to solve the non-linear, second order, ordinary differential equation that governs the model. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equation. Experimental slip velocities from droplet breakup studies were used as input to the model which required slip velocity along the particle path. The center of mass displacement predictions were compared to the experimental measurements from the droplet breakup studies for droplets with radii in the range of 200 to 700 mm approaching the airfoil at 50 and 90 m/sec. The model predictions were good for the displacement of the center of mass for small and medium sized droplets. For larger droplets the model predictions did not agree with the experimental results.

  1. Real-time muscle deformation via decoupled modeling of solid and muscle fiber mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berranen, Yacine; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Guiraud, David; Gilles, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for simulating 3D muscle deformations with complex architectures. The approach consists in choosing the best model formulation in terms of computation cost and accuracy, that mixes a volumetric-tissue model based on finite element method (3D FEM), a muscle fiber model (Hill contractile 1D element) and a membrane model accounting for aponeurosis tissue (2D FEM). The separate models are mechanically binded using barycentric embeddings. Our approach allows the computation of several fiber directions in one coarse finite element, and thus, strongly decreases the required finite element resolution to predict muscle deformation during contraction. Using surface registration, fibers tracks of specific architecture can be transferred from a template to subject morphology, and then simulated. As a case study, three different architectures are simulated and compared to their equivalent one dimensional Hill wire model simulations.

  2. MODELING OF PROCESS OF THE MOLDING SAND DEFORMATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Melnikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the ready-built mathematical model of molding sand will enable to control its characteristics and to make forecasting of technological parameters for providing of the given characteristics.

  3. Constitutive Rheological Modeling of Flow Serration Behaviour in Metallic Glasses Showing Nanocrystallization during Deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Yousfi, M. A.; Hajlaoui, K.; Tourki, Z.; Yavari, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple micromechanism-inspired rheological model is developed that incorporates the serrated flow nature of metallic glasses subjected to compressive deformation at room temperatures. The process of propagation and the arrest of shear bands were addressed in this model. Shear-induced nanocrystallisation was believed to be responsible for strain hardening of material within the shear bands. The model is based on the assumption that the behaviour can be decomposed into two resistances acting ...

  4. Modelling of anelastic deformation in dual-phase steel for improved springback simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torkabadi, A.; Perdahcioǧlu, E. S.; Van Den Boogaard, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Classical elasto-plastic models assume linear elastic stress-strain relations for all stresses within the yield surface. Closer examination discloses a nonlinear relation in the elastic domain that is dependent on the prior plastic deformation. The 'unloading strain' can be decomposed in a linear

  5. A model of film deformation and rupture under the action of thermo-capillary forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Pukhnachev; S. Dubinkina (Svetlana)

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstractA model of the deformation of a free weightless liquid film with rims fixed at a plane contour and subject to the action of thermocapillary forces is investigated. The film free-surface temperature is assumed to be a known function of the coordinates and time. The equation describing the

  6. Deformable Registration of Biomedical Images using 2D Hidden Markov Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Renuka; Shih, Min-Chi; Rose, Kenneth

    2016-07-18

    Robust registration of unimodal and multimodal images is a key task in biomedical image analysis, and is often utilized as an initial step on which subsequent analysis techniques critically depend. We propose a novel probabilistic framework, based on a variant of the 2D hidden Markov model, namely the turbo hidden Markov model, to capture the deformation between pairs of images. The HMM is tailored to capture spatial transformations across images via state transitions, and modalityspecific data costs via emission probabilities. The method is derived for the unimodal setting (where simpler matching metrics may be used) as well as the multimodal setting, where different modalities may provide very different representations for a given class of objects, necessitating the use of advanced similarity measures. We utilize a rich model with hundreds of model parameters to describe the deformation relationships across such modalities. We also introduce a local edge-adaptive constraint to allow for varying degrees of smoothness between object boundaries and homogeneous regions. The parameters of the described method are estimated in a principled manner from training data via maximum likelihood learning, and the deformation is subsequently estimated using an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed approach over state-ofthe- art deformable registration techniques, on both unimodal and multimodal biomedical datasets.

  7. Modeling adsorption properties of structurally deformed metal-organic frameworks using structure-property map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, WooSeok; Lim, Dae-Woon; Kim, Sungjune; Harale, Aadesh; Yoon, Minyoung; Suh, Myunghyun Paik; Kim, Jihan

    2017-07-25

    Structural deformation and collapse in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can lead to loss of long-range order, making it a challenge to model these amorphous materials using conventional computational methods. In this work, we show that a structure-property map consisting of simulated data for crystalline MOFs can be used to indirectly obtain adsorption properties of structurally deformed MOFs. The structure-property map (with dimensions such as Henry coefficient, heat of adsorption, and pore volume) was constructed using a large data set of over 12000 crystalline MOFs from molecular simulations. By mapping the experimental data points of deformed SNU-200, MOF-5, and Ni-MOF-74 onto this structure-property map, we show that the experimentally deformed MOFs share similar adsorption properties with their nearest neighbor crystalline structures. Once the nearest neighbor crystalline MOFs for a deformed MOF are selected from a structure-property map at a specific condition, then the adsorption properties of these MOFs can be successfully transformed onto the degraded MOFs, leading to a new way to obtain properties of materials whose structural information is lost.

  8. Modelling Protein-induced Membrane Deformation using Monte Carlo and Langevin Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Agrawal, N.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Liu, J.

    2010-11-01

    In eukaryotic cells, internalization of extracellular cargo via the cellular process of endocytosis is orchestrated by a variety of proteins, many of which are implicated in membrane deformation/bending. We model the energetics of deformations membranes by using the Helfrich Hamiltonian using two different formalisms: (i) Cartesian or Monge Gauge using Langevin dynamics; (ii) Curvilinear coordinate system using Monte Carlo (MC). Monge gauge approach which has been extensively studied is limited to small deformations of the membrane and cannot describe extreme deformations. Curvilinear coordinate approach can handle large deformation limits as well as finite-temperature membrane fluctuations; here we employ an unstructured triangular mesh to compute the local curvature tensor, and we evolve the membrane surface using a MC method. In our application, we compare the two approaches (i and ii above) to study how the spatial assembly of curvature inducing proteins leads to vesicle budding from a planar membrane. We also quantify how the curvature field of the membrane impacts the spatial segregation of proteins.

  9. Modelling and visualizing distributed compressional plate deformation using GPlates2.0: The Arctic Eurekan Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gion, Austin; Williams, Simon; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    Present-day distributed plate deformation is being mapped and simulated in great detail, largely based on satellite observations. In contrast, the modelling of and data assimilation into deforming plate models for the geological past is still in its infancy. The recently released GPLates2.0 (www.gplates.org) software provides a framework for building plate models including diffuse deformation. Here we present an application example for the Eurekan orogeny, a Paleogene tectonic event driven by sea floor spreading in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay, resulting in compression between NW Greenland and the Canadian Arctic. The complexity of the region has prompted the development of countless tectonic models over the last 100 years. Our new tectonic model incorporates a variety of geological field and geophysical observations to model rigid and diffuse plate deformation in this region. Compression driven by Greenland's northward motion contemporaneous with sea floor spreading in the Labrador Sea, shortens Ellesmere Island in a "fan" like pattern, creating a series of thrust faults. Our model incorporates two phases of tectonic events during the orogeny from 63-35 Ma. Phase one from 63 to 55 Ma incorporates 85 km of Paleocene extension between Ellesmere Island and Devon Island with extension of 20 km between Axel Heiberg Island and Ellesmere Island and 85 km of left-lateral strike-slip along the Nares Strait/Judge Daly Fault System, matching a range of 50-100 km indicated by the offset of marker beds, facies contacts, and platform margins between the conjugate Greenland and Ellesmere Island margins. Phase two from 55 to 35 Ma captures 30 km of east-west shortening and 200 km of north-south shortening from Ellesmere Island to the Canadian Arctic Island margins. Our model extends the boundaries of the Eurekan Orogeny northward, considering its effect on the Lomonosov Ridge, Morris Jessup Rise, and the Yermak Plateau , favouring a model in which the Lomonosov Ridge moves

  10. Thermal-mechanical deformation modelling of soft tissues for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza; Subic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues is of great importance for thermal ablation. This paper presents a method by integrating the heating process with thermal-induced mechanical deformations of soft tissues for simulation and analysis of the thermal ablation process. This method combines bio-heat transfer theories, constitutive elastic material law under thermal loads as well as non-rigid motion dynamics to predict and analyze thermal-mechanical deformations of soft tissues. The 3D governing equations of thermal-mechanical soft tissue deformation are discretized by using the finite difference scheme and are subsequently solved by numerical algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues, and can be used for the thermal ablation therapy to effectively control the delivered heat energy for cancer treatment.

  11. Real-time model for simulating a tracked vehicle on deformable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Meywerk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulation is one possibility to gain insight into the behaviour of tracked vehicles on deformable soils. A lot of publications are known on this topic, but most of the simulations described there cannot be run in real-time. The ability to run a simulation in real-time is necessary for driving simulators. This article describes an approach for real-time simulation of a tracked vehicle on deformable soils. The components of the real-time model are as follows: a conventional wheeled vehicle simulated in the Multi Body System software TRUCKSim, a geometric description of landscape, a track model and an interaction model between track and deformable soils based on Bekker theory and Janosi–Hanamoto, on one hand, and between track and vehicle wheels, on the other hand. Landscape, track model, soil model and the interaction are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The details of the real-time model are described in this article, and a detailed description of the Multi Body System part is omitted. Simulations with the real-time model are compared to measurements and to a detailed Multi Body System–finite element method model of a tracked vehicle. An application of the real-time model in a driving simulator is presented, in which 13 drivers assess the comfort of a passive and an active suspension of a tracked vehicle.

  12. Uncertainty quantification and stochastic-based viscoelastic modeling of finite deformation elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, William S.; Hays, Michael; Miles, Paul; Smith, Ralph

    2013-04-01

    Material parameter uncertainty is a key aspect of model development. Here we quantify parameter uncertainty of a viscoelastic model through validation on rate dependent deformation of a dielectric elastomer that undergoes finite deformation. These materials are known for there large field induced deformation and applications in smart structures, although the rate dependent viscoelastic effects are not well understood. To address this issue, we first quantify hyperelastic and viscoelastic model uncertainty using Bayesian statistics by comparing a linear viscoelastic model to uniaxial rate dependent experiments. The probability densities, obtained from the Bayesian statistics, are then used to formulate a refined model that incorporates the probability densities directly within the model using homogenization methods. We focus on the uncertainty of the viscoelastic aspect of the model to show under what regimes does the stochastic homogenization framework provides improvements in predicting viscoelastic constitutive behavior. It is show that VHB has a relatively narrow probability distribution on the viscoelastic time constants. This supports use of a discrete viscoelastic model over the homogenized model.

  13. Rodent brain extraction using B-spline based deformable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Huang; Chen Ling; Su Huang; Zhongkang Lu; Zhiping Lin

    2017-07-01

    Accurate rodent brain extraction is one of the basic steps for many translational study using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In this paper, we present a new approach to model the rodent brain variation using non-rigid B-spline image registration for the brain extraction in MRI images. We model the shape and appearance with the B-spline parameters together with a mean brain image. Followed by a method using multi-expert, we refine the brain extraction region. Compared with the image-based template model using cross-correlation, the performance for rodent brain extraction has shown much improvement on one data set while maintaining the similar yet more consistent performance for another. Both template based methods however outperform the voxel based method (3D PCNN) and a modified BET version for rodent brain extraction.

  14. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  15. A Deformed Shape Monitoring Model for Building Structures Based on a 2D Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-rise buildings subjected to lateral loads such as wind and earthquake loads must be checked not to exceed the limits on the maximum lateral displacement or the maximum inter-story drift ratios. In this paper, a sensing model for deformed shapes of a building structure in motion is presented. The deformed shape sensing model based on a 2D scanner consists of five modules: (1 module for acquiring coordinate information of a point in a building; (2 module for coordinate transformation and data arrangement for generation of time history of the point; (3 module for smoothing by adjacent averaging technique; (4 module for generation of the displacement history for each story and deformed shape of a building, and (5 module for evaluation of the serviceability of a building. The feasibility of the sensing model based on a 2D laser scanner is tested through free vibration tests of a three-story steel frame structure with a relatively high slenderness ratio of 5.0. Free vibration responses measured from both laser displacement sensors and a 2D laser scanner are compared. In the experimentation, the deformed shapes were obtained from three different methods: the model based on the 2D laser scanner, the direct measurement based on laser displacement sensors, and the numerical method using acceleration data and the displacements from GPS. As a result, it is confirmed that the deformed shape measurement model based on a 2D laser scanner can be a promising alternative for high-rise buildings where installation of laser displacement sensors is impossible.

  16. Automatic construction of statistical shape models using deformable simplex meshes with vector field convolution energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinke; Shi, Changfa

    2017-04-24

    In the active shape model framework, principal component analysis (PCA) based statistical shape models (SSMs) are widely employed to incorporate high-level a priori shape knowledge of the structure to be segmented to achieve robustness. A crucial component of building SSMs is to establish shape correspondence between all training shapes, which is a very challenging task, especially in three dimensions. We propose a novel mesh-to-volume registration based shape correspondence establishment method to improve the accuracy and reduce the computational cost. Specifically, we present a greedy algorithm based deformable simplex mesh that uses vector field convolution as the external energy. Furthermore, we develop an automatic shape initialization method by using a Gaussian mixture model based registration algorithm, to derive an initial shape that has high overlap with the object of interest, such that the deformable models can then evolve more locally. We apply the proposed deformable surface model to the application of femur statistical shape model construction to illustrate its accuracy and efficiency. Extensive experiments on ten femur CT scans show that the quality of the constructed femur shape models via the proposed method is much better than that of the classical spherical harmonics (SPHARM) method. Moreover, the proposed method achieves much higher computational efficiency than the SPHARM method. The experimental results suggest that our method can be employed for effective statistical shape model construction.

  17. Tectonic and hydrological controls on multiscale deformations in the Levant: numerical modeling and theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belferman, Mariana; Katsman, Regina; Agnon, Amotz; Ben Avraham, Zvi

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of the dynamics of water bodies in triggering deformations in the upper crust and subsequently leading to earthquakes has been attracting considerable attention. We suggest that dynamic changes in the levels of the water bodies occupying tectonic depressions along the Dead Sea Transform (DST) cause significant variations in the shallow crustal stress field and affect local fault systems in a way that eventually leads to earthquakes. This mechanism and its spatial and temporal scales differ from those in tectonically-driven deformations. In this study we present a new thermo-mechanical model, constructed using the finite element method, and extended by including a fluid flow component in the upper crust. The latter is modeled on a basis of two-way poroelastic coupling with the momentum equation. This coupling is essential for capturing fluid flow evolution induced by dynamic water loading in the DST depressions and to resolve porosity changes. All the components of the model, namely elasticity, creep, plasticity, heat transfer, and fluid flow, have been extensively verified and presented in the study. The two-way coupling between localized plastic volumetric deformations and enhanced fluid flow is addressed, as well as the role of variability of the rheological and the hydrological parameters in inducing deformations in specific faulting environments. Correlations with historical and contemporary earthquakes in the region are discussed.

  18. 4D deformation modeling of cortical disease progression in Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, A L; de Zubicaray, G; Rose, S E; Griffin, M; Chalk, J B; Galloway, G J

    2001-10-01

    This work describes the development of a model of cerebral atrophic changes associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Linear registration, region-of-interest analysis, and voxel-based morphometry methods have all been employed to elucidate the changes observed at discrete intervals during a disease process. In addition to describing the nature of the changes, modeling disease-related changes via deformations can also provide information on temporal characteristics. In order to continuously model changes associated with AD, deformation maps from 21 patients were averaged across a novel z-score disease progression dimension based on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. The resulting deformation maps are presented via three metrics: local volume loss (atrophy), volume (CSF) increase, and translation (interpreted as representing collapse of cortical structures). Inspection of the maps revealed significant perturbations in the deformation fields corresponding to the entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus, orbitofrontal and parietal cortex, and regions surrounding the sulci and ventricular spaces, with earlier changes predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere. These changes are consistent with results from post-mortem studies of AD. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Modeling viscoelastic deformation of the earth due to surface loading by commercial finite element package - ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit Wong, Ching; Wu, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Wu (2004) developed a transformation scheme to model viscoelatic deformation due to glacial loading by commercial finite element package - ABAQUS. Benchmark tests confirmed that this method works extremely well on incompressible earth model. Bangtsson & Lund (2008),however, showed that the transformation scheme would lead to incorrect results if compressible material parameters are used. Their study implies that Wu's method of stress transformation is inadequate to model the load induced deformation of a compressible earth under the framework of ABAQUS. In light of this, numerical experiments are carried out to find if there exist other methods that serve this purpose. All the tested methods are not satisfying as the results failed to converge through iterations, except at the elastic limit. Those tested methods will be outlined and the results will be presented. Possible reasons of failure will also be discussed. Bängtsson, E., & Lund, B. (2008). A comparison between two solution techniques to solve the equations of glacially induced deformation of an elastic Earth. International journal for numerical methods in engineering, 75(4), 479-502. Wu, P. (2004). Using commercial finite element packages for the study of earth deformations, sea levels and the state of stress. Geophysical Journal International, 158(2), 401-408.

  20. Coulomb form factors of even-even nuclei described by axially deformed relativistic mean-field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Xu, Chang; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-04-01

    Background: Combining the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model and distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method, Coulomb form factors for elastic electron scattering have been studied for several stable nuclei (208Pb, 40Ca, 32S, and 24Mg) with a methodology that can be extended to exotic nuclei. Purpose: Previous studies on nuclear Coulomb form factors by the RMF+DWBA method were mainly based on the spherical RMF model. This work aims to further extend the studies to the axially deformed RMF model. Method: The nuclear proton density distributions are first calculated by the deformed RMF model. Next, the axially deformed density distributions are expanded into multipole components. With the spherical ρ0 components, the Coulomb form factors of even-even nuclei are calculated by the DWBA method. Results: For spherical nuclei, the nuclear Coulomb form factors obtained with the deformed RMF model almost coincide with those from the spherical RMF model. For deformed nuclei, Coulomb form factors obtained with the deformed RMF model agree better with the experimental data at the diffraction minima and at high momentum transfers. Conclusions: Results indicate the proton densities calculated from the axially deformed RMF model are valid and reasonable. The electron-scattering experiments will soon be available for exotic nuclei, and the studies in this paper are helpful to interpret the experimental data of deformed exotic nuclei.

  1. Deformation Measurements of Gabion Walls Using Image Based Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Fraštia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The image based modeling finds use in applications where it is necessary to reconstructthe 3D surface of the observed object with a high level of detail. Previous experiments showrelatively high variability of the results depending on the camera type used, the processingsoftware, or the process evaluation. The authors tested the method of SFM (Structure fromMotion to determine the stability of gabion walls. The results of photogrammetricmeasurements were compared to precise geodetic point measurements.

  2. MODELING OF DEVELOPMENT VERTICAL DEFORMATION OF RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kurhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. State of railway track must meet the conditions of safety, comfort and smooth ride. The presence of irregularities deteriorates the dynamics of interaction of track and rolling stock, causes speed limiting, creates the possibility of movement safety violation. This brings up the question concerning the study of the factors leading to the possibility of track irregularities and the process of their development. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the processes of emergence and development of irregularities in the area of unequal vertical elasticity of railway track using mathematical modelling. Methodology. Railroad under the trains works as the system of elastic bodies, so the emergence and development of irregularities can be represented as the transition from elastic to permanent strain. Irregularity development will affect the dynamics of interaction between track and rolling stock not only at the wheel location directly in the area of irregularity, but also at a certain distance beyond. Therefore, to study the development of irregularities, including those along the track, it is necessary to model the process of wheel load movement along the area. The adopted model consists of a wheel set moving on inertia-free beam and resting on individual supports. It is described by Lagrange differential equations. The work introduced the hypothesis that the level of permanent strain is distributed in proportion to the dynamic deflection derivative. Findings. Location of vertical longwise irregularity does not necessarily reproduce the location of the problem area. While in operation the vertical irregularity extends not only in depth but also along the track, herewith the increase in length is accompanied by the displacement of local maxima and the emergence of new ones. This leads to the development of so-called «pits» when approaching unequal-elastic areas. Originality. The work provides further development of tasks for track and

  3. Modeling and predicting tissue movement and deformation for high intensity focused ultrasound therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyun Liao

    Full Text Available In ultrasound-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU therapy, the target tissue (such as a tumor often moves and/or deforms in response to an external force. This problem creates difficulties in treating patients and can lead to the destruction of normal tissue. In order to solve this problem, we present a novel method to model and predict the movement and deformation of the target tissue during ultrasound-guided HIFU therapy.Our method computationally predicts the position of the target tissue under external force. This prediction allows appropriate adjustments in the focal region during the application of HIFU so that the treatment head is kept aligned with the diseased tissue through the course of therapy. To accomplish this goal, we utilize the cow tissue as the experimental target tissue to collect spatial sequences of ultrasound images using the HIFU equipment. A Geodesic Localized Chan-Vese (GLCV model is developed to segment the target tissue images. A 3D target tissue model is built based on the segmented results. A versatile particle framework is constructed based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH to model the movement and deformation of the target tissue. Further, an iterative parameter estimation algorithm is utilized to determine the essential parameters of the versatile particle framework. Finally, the versatile particle framework with the determined parameters is used to estimate the movement and deformation of the target tissue.To validate our method, we compare the predicted contours with the ground truth contours. We found that the lowest, highest and average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC values between predicted and ground truth contours were, respectively, 0.9615, 0.9770 and 0.9697.Our experimental result indicates that the proposed method can effectively predict the dynamic contours of the moving and deforming tissue during ultrasound-guided HIFU therapy.

  4. Anomalous dimensions in deformed WZW models on supergroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candu, Constantin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2012-11-15

    We investigate a class of current-current, Gross-Neveu like, perturbations of WZW models in which the full left-right affine symmetry is broken to the diagonal global algebra only. Our analysis focuses on those supergroups for which such a perturbation preserves conformal invariance. A detailed calculation of the 2-point functions of affine primary operators to 3-loops is presented. Furthermore, we derive an exact formula for the anomalous dimensions of a large subset of fields to all orders in perturbation theory. Possible applications of our results, including the study of non-perturbative dualities, are outlined.

  5. Numerical modelling of the evolution of conglomerate deformation up to high simple-shear strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Hao; Bons, Paul D.; Wang, Genhou; Steinbach, Florian; Finch, Melanie; Ran, Shuming; Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Deformed conglomerates have been widely used to investigate deformation history and structural analysis, using strain analyses techniques, such as the Rf-Φ and Fry methods on deformed pebbles. Although geologists have focused on the study of deformed conglomerates for several decades, some problems of the process and mechanism of deformation, such as the development of structures in pebbles and matrix, are still not understand well. Numerical modelling provides a method to investigate the process of deformation, as a function of different controlling parameters, up to high strains at conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. We use the 2D numerical modelling platform Elle coupled to the full field crystal visco-plasticity code (VPFFT) to simulate the deformation of conglomerates under simple shear conditions, achieving high finite strains of ≥10. Probably for the first time, we included the effect of an anisotropy, i.e. mica-rich matrix. Our simulations show the deformation of pebbles not only depends on the viscosity contrast between pebbles and matrix but emphasises the importance of interaction between neighbouring pebbles. Under the same finite strain shearing the pebbles of conglomerates with high pebble densities show higher Rf and lower Φ than those of conglomerates with a low density pebbles. Strain localisation can be observed at both the margin of strong pebbles and in the bridging area between the pebbles. At low to medium finite strain, local areas show the opposite (antithetic) shear sense because of the different relative rotation and movement of pebbles or clusters of pebbles. Very hard pebbles retain their original shape and may rotate, depending on the anisotropy of the matrix. σ-clasts are formed by pebbles with moderate viscosity contrast between pebble and a softer matrix. By contrast, δ-clasts are not observed in our simulations with both isotropic and anisotropic matrices, which is consistent with their relative scarcity in

  6. RHEOLOGICAL DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR MODEL OF SUGAR DOUGH IN THE CONDITIONS OF MONOAXIAL COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The knowledge of regularities of deformation behavior of the processed confectionery masses with certain rheological properties allows to calculate parameters of shaping process and to select processing equipment for its carrying out. The article studies the obtaining of the rheological equation of deformation behavior of sugar dough in the conditions of monoaxial compression which is realized in sugar cookies dough pieces formation processes. The results of the pilot studies confirming adequacy of the offered rheological equation are presented. The behavior of an elastic-, viscous- and plastic body in the conditions of quasistatic test for creeping during which the set size is tension, and the measured one is relative deformation is considered. The main rheological properties of sugar dough received experimentally are given. Values of rheological constants are received and it is revealed that at 95% confidential probability, the rheological equation for the general deformation of an elastic-, viscous- and plastic body adequately describes experimental data. The maximum fault thus makes 2,3%. It is established that dough pieces shaping processes from the sugar dough possessing visco- and plastic properties should be realized at an external tension (power impact from the forming body which exceeds a limit of fluidity of the dough formed. The level of external tension, as well as the duration of its influence (that is formation duration should be chosen taking into account the residual deformations in the processed mass which guarantee giving of a certain geometrical form and drawing on a surface of dough pieces. The rheological model of sugar dough allows to predict its deformation behavior in the formation conditions, and to calculate the parameters of sugar dough formation process.

  7. Extended Holography: Double-Trace Deformation and Brane-Induced Gravity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2017-03-01

    We put forward a conjecture that for a special class of models - models of the double-trace deformation and brane-induced gravity types - the principle of holographic dualitiy can be extended beyond conformal invariance and anti-de Sitter (AdS) isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on the boundary.

  8. Zernike polynomial based Rayleigh-Ritz model of a piezoelectric unimorph deformable mirror

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available erent voltage applied. In this way the mirror surface can be deformed into complex shapes. Finally, the proposed model is also compared to a commercial nite element package, namely Comsol Multiphysics [15]. 2 Zernike Polynomial Description... also extracted from the nite element analysis and the experimental results. Commercial nite element codes (including Comsol Multiphysics) do not commonly include piezoelectric shell elements. The model is also generally not axisymmetric...

  9. Numerical modeling of present-day stress field and deformation pattern in Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Sunil Kumar; Hayashi, Daigoro; 林, 大五郎

    2010-01-01

    The present-day stress field in the Earth's crust is important and provides insights into mechanisms that drive plate motions. In this study, an elastic plane stress finite element modeling incorporating realistic rock parameters have been used to calculate the stress field, displacement field and deformation of the plate interactions in Anatolia. Modeled stress data for the African-Arabian-Anatolian plate interactions with fixed Eurasian platform correlate well with observed stress indicator...

  10. Study of the fission process of deformed Na clusters in liquid-drop stabilized jellium model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Payami

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available   In this work, using the liquid drop model in the context of the stabilized jellium model, we have studied the fission of charged Na clusters. In this study we have assumed a deformed non-spherical shape for the cluster. The ground state energies, critical sizes, fission barrier height, and the evaporation energies have been calculated. The results show a better agreement to the experimental results compared to our earlier work.

  11. Nonrigid 3D Medical Image Registration and Fusion Based on Deformable Models

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Liu; Benjamin Eberhardt; Christian Wybranski; Jens Ricke; Lutz Lüdemann

    2013-01-01

    For coregistration of medical images, rigid methods often fail to provide enough freedom, while reliable elastic methods are available clinically for special applications only. The number of degrees of freedom of elastic models must be reduced for use in the clinical setting to archive a reliable result. We propose a novel geometry-based method of nonrigid 3D medical image registration and fusion. The proposed method uses a 3D surface-based deformable model as guidance. In our twofold approac...

  12. Motion and deformation estimation from medical imagery by modeling sub-structure interaction and constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2012-09-13

    This paper presents a novel medical image registration algorithm that explicitly models the physical constraints imposed by objects or sub-structures of objects that have differing material composition and border each other, which is the case in most medical registration applications. Typical medical image registration algorithms ignore these constraints and therefore are not physically viable, and to incorporate these constraints would require prior segmentation of the image into regions of differing material composition, which is a difficult problem in itself. We present a mathematical model and algorithm for incorporating these physical constraints into registration / motion and deformation estimation that does not require a segmentation of different material regions. Our algorithm is a joint estimation of different material regions and the motion/deformation within these regions. Therefore, the segmentation of different material regions is automatically provided in addition to the image registration satisfying the physical constraints. The algorithm identifies differing material regions (sub-structures or objects) as regions where the deformation has different characteristics. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on the analysis of cardiac MRI which includes the detection of the left ventricle boundary and its deformation. The experimental results indicate the potential of the algorithm as an assistant tool for the quantitative analysis of cardiac functions in the diagnosis of heart disease.

  13. Deformed potential energy of $^{263}Db$ in a generalized liquid drop model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Bao Qiu; Zhao Yao Lin; 10.1088/0256-307X/20/11/009

    2003-01-01

    The macroscopic deformed potential energy for super-heavy nuclei /sup 263/Db, which governs the entrance and alpha decay channels, is determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). A quasi- molecular shape is assumed in the GLDM, which includes volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, proximity effects, mass asymmetry, and an accurate nuclear radius. The microscopic single particle energies derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods- Saxon potential with a quasi-molecular shape. The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method. The total deformed potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is applied to predict the deformed potential energy of the experiment /sup 22/Ne+/sup 241/Am to /sup 263/Db* to /sup 259/Db+4 n, which was performed on the Heavy Ion Accelerator in Lanzhou. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for t...

  14. Modelling and Simulation of Structural Deformation of Isothermal Subsurface Flow and Carbon Dioxide Injection

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2011-05-15

    Injection of CO2 in hydrocarbon reservoir has double benefit. On the one hand, it is a profitable method due to issues related to global warming, and on the other hand it is an effective mechanism to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. Such injection associates complex processes involving, e.g., solute transport of dissolved materials, in addition to local changes in density of the phases. Also, increasing carbon dioxide injection may cause a structural deformation of the medium, so it is important to include such effect into the model. The structural deformation modelling in carbon sequestration is important to evaluate the medium stability to avoid CO2 leakage to the atmosphere. On the other hand, geologic formation of the medium is usually heterogeneous and consists of several layers of different permeability. In this work we conduct numerical simulation of two-phase flow in a heterogeneous porous medium domain with dissolved solute transport as well as structural deformation effects. The solute transport of the dissolved component is described by concentration equation. The structural deformation for geomechanics is derived from a general local differential balance equation with neglecting the local mass balance of solid phase and the inertial force term. The flux continuity condition is used at interfaces between different permeability layers of the heterogeneous medium. We analyze the vertical migration of a CO2 plume injected into a 2D layered reservoir. Analysis of distribution of flow field components such as saturation, pressures, velocities, and CO2 concentration are presented.

  15. An Experimental Comparison of Similarity Assessment Measures for 3D Models on Constrained Surface Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Lulin; Yang, Zhixin

    2010-05-01

    To address the issues in the area of design customization, this paper expressed the specification and application of the constrained surface deformation, and reported the experimental performance comparison of three prevail effective similarity assessment algorithms on constrained surface deformation domain. Constrained surface deformation becomes a promising method that supports for various downstream applications of customized design. Similarity assessment is regarded as the key technology for inspecting the success of new design via measuring the difference level between the deformed new design and the initial sample model, and indicating whether the difference level is within the limitation. According to our theoretical analysis and pre-experiments, three similarity assessment algorithms are suitable for this domain, including shape histogram based method, skeleton based method, and U system moment based method. We analyze their basic functions and implementation methodologies in detail, and do a series of experiments on various situations to test their accuracy and efficiency using precision-recall diagram. Shoe model is chosen as an industrial example for the experiments. It shows that shape histogram based method gained an optimal performance in comparison. Based on the result, we proposed a novel approach that integrating surface constrains and shape histogram description with adaptive weighting method, which emphasize the role of constrains during the assessment. The limited initial experimental result demonstrated that our algorithm outperforms other three algorithms. A clear direction for future development is also drawn at the end of the paper.

  16. The su(1, 1)-algebraic boson model in the deformed boson scheme. The second Holstein-Primakoff representation as q-deformed boson operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masatoshi [Kansai Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Providencia, Constanca; Providencia, Joao da [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Tsue, Yasuhiko [Kochi Univ., Faculty of Science, Physics Division, Kochi (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Following the deformed boson scheme leading to the su(1, 1)-algebra, a certain simple boson system is deformed in the framework of the second Holstein-Primakoff representation. With the aid of the MYT boson mapping, the second representation arrives at the first Holstein-Primakoff representation. The su(1, 1)-algebraic model obtained in this procedure is compared with that in the Schwinger representation investigated by three of the present authors (A.K., Y.T. and M.Y.). (author)

  17. Process Modelling of Curing Process-Induced Internal Stress and Deformation of Composite Laminate Structure with Elastic and Viscoelastic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongna; Li, Xudong; Dai, Jianfeng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, two kinds of transient models, the viscoelastic model and the linear elastic model, are established to analyze the curing deformation of the thermosetting resin composites, and are calculated by COMSOL Multiphysics software. The two models consider the complicated coupling between physical and chemical changes during curing process of the composites and the time-variant characteristic of material performance parameters. Subsequently, the two proposed models are implemented respectively in a three-dimensional composite laminate structure, and a simple and convenient method of local coordinate system is used to calculate the development of residual stresses, curing shrinkage and curing deformation for the composite laminate. Researches show that the temperature, degree of curing (DOC) and residual stresses during curing process are consistent with the study in literature, so the curing shrinkage and curing deformation obtained on these basis have a certain referential value. Compared the differences between the two numerical results, it indicates that the residual stress and deformation calculated by the viscoelastic model are more close to the reference value than the linear elastic model.

  18. Deformation Monitoring of Geomechanical Model Test and Its Application in Overall Stability Analysis of a High Arch Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoquan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomechanical model testing is an important method for studying the overall stability of high arch dams. The main task of a geomechanical model test is deformation monitoring. Currently, many types of deformation instruments are used for deformation monitoring of dam models, which provide valuable information on the deformation characteristics of the prototype dams. However, further investigation is required for assessing the overall stability of high arch dams through analyzing deformation monitoring data. First, a relationship for assessing the stability of dams is established based on the comprehensive model test method. Second, a stability evaluation system is presented based on the deformation monitoring data, together with the relationships between the deformation and overloading coefficient. Finally, the comprehensive model test method is applied to study the overall stability of the Jinping-I high arch dam. A three-dimensional destructive test of the geomechanical model dam is conducted under reinforced foundation conditions. The deformation characteristics and failure mechanisms of the dam abutments and foundation were investigated. The test results indicate that the stability safety factors of the dam abutments and foundation range from 5.2 to 6.0. These research results provide an important scientific insight into the design, construction, and operation stages of this project.

  19. A model of river bank deformations under the simultaneous effect of waves from a hydropower plant and warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Debolskaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of the river bed deformations in permafrost areas. The deformations are caused by the influence of waves of various origins under an increase of the ambient temperature. The model system consists of an unsteady hydrodynamic module, a thermal module and a bed deformation module. The hydrodynamic module is based on the two-dimensional shallow water equations. The bed deformation module is based on the sediment mass balance conditions. The thermal module is based on the Stefan equation, which defines the "water–ice" boundary movement. We present two applications of the model in which the bed deformation is calculated for the alluvial channels with melting bed under the influences of waves of different duration and intensity. We compared the model predictions with the laboratory data, generally obtaining a good agreement between the two.

  20. Elastic source model of the North Mono eruption (1325-1368 A.D.) based on shoreline deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Wil; Bursik, Marcus; Renshaw, Carl

    2010-12-01

    Topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) captures the permanent deformation of a prominent highstand of Mono Lake, California USA. Deformation of the Dechambeau Ranch highstand shoreline was measured using the elevation of the beach berm—shoreline bluff break-in-slope. Point source models and a boundary element dike model were used to approximate the source of deformation underneath the northern end of the Mono Craters. The point source model could not adequately explain the observed deformation. The dike model yielded the best results for a NW trending dike dipping 60° NE and inflated to widths greater than 60 m. The results suggest that the geometry of the source is more complex than a simple vertical dike and that the deformation is better explained with a dipping dike following a normal fault, or an elongated cryptodome.

  1. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary diffusion, grain boundary sliding and dislocation activities are considered. Effects of pressure on the grain boundary diffusion and sliding mechanisms are taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of grain size distribution on macroscopic response is studied. The model is shown to capture the fundamental mechanical characteristics of nanocrystalline metals. These include grain size dependence of the strength, i.e., both the traditional and the inverse Hall-Petch effects, the tension-compression asymmetry and the enhanced rate sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ductile bookshelf faulting: A new kinematic model for Cenozoic deformation in northern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, A. V.; Yin, A.

    2013-12-01

    It has been long recognized that the most dominant features on the northern Tibetan Plateau are the >1000 km left-slip strike-slip faults (e.g., the Atyn Tagh, Kunlun, and Haiyuan faults). Early workers used the presence of these faults, especially the Kunlun and Haiyuan faults, as evidence for eastward lateral extrusion of the plateau, but their low documented offsets--100s of km or less--can not account for the 2500 km of convergence between India and Asia. Instead, these faults may result from north-south right-lateral simple shear due to the northward indentation of India, which leads to the clockwise rotation of the strike-slip faults and left-lateral slip (i.e., bookshelf faulting). With this idea, deformation is still localized on discrete fault planes, and 'microplates' or blocks rotate and/or translate with little internal deformation. As significant internal deformation occurs across northern Tibet within strike-slip-bounded domains, there is need for a coherent model to describe all of the deformational features. We also note the following: (1) geologic offsets and Quaternary slip rates of both the Kunlun and Haiyuan faults vary along strike and appear to diminish to the east, (2) the faults appear to kinematically link with thrust belts (e.g., Qilian Shan, Liupan Shan, Longmen Shan, and Qimen Tagh) and extensional zones (e.g., Shanxi, Yinchuan, and Qinling grabens), and (3) temporal relationships between the major deformation zones and the strike-slip faults (e.g., simultaneous enhanced deformation and offset in the Qilian Shan and Liupan Shan, and the Haiyuan fault, at 8 Ma). We propose a new kinematic model to describe the active deformation in northern Tibet: a ductile-bookshelf-faulting model. With this model, right-lateral simple shear leads to clockwise vertical axis rotation of the Qaidam and Qilian blocks, and left-slip faulting. This motion creates regions of compression and extension, dependent on the local boundary conditions (e.g., rigid

  3. A multi-branch finite deformation constitutive model for a shape memory polymer based syntactic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianping; Sun, Huiyu; Fang, Changqing

    2015-02-01

    A multi-branch thermoviscoelastic-themoviscoplastic finite deformation constitutive model incorporated with structural and stress relaxation is developed for a thermally activated shape memory polymer (SMP) based syntactic foam. In this paper, the total mechanical deformation of the foam is divided into the components of the SMP and the elastic glass microballoons by using the mixture rule. The nonlinear Adam-Gibbs model is used to describe the structural relaxation of the SMP as the temperature crosses the glass transition temperature (Tg). Further, a multi-branch model combined with the modified Eying model of viscous flow is used to capture the multitude of relaxation processes of the SMP. The deformation of the glass microballoons could be split into elastic and inelastic components. In addition, the phenomenological evolution rule is implemented in order to further characterize the macroscopic post-yield strain softening behaviors of the syntactic foam. A comparison between the numerical simulation and the thermomechanical experiment shows an acceptable agreement. Moreover, a parametric study is conducted to examine the predictability of the model and to provide guidance for reasonable design of the syntactic foam.

  4. 3D dental image registration using exhaustive deformable models: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Maria-Pavlina; Economopoulos, Theodore L; Matsopoulos, George K

    2017-10-01

    Image registration is commonly used in dental applications for aligning imaging data sets, which is particularly useful when assessing the progression or regression of particular pathomorphic conditions. However, due to the nature of the processed data or the data acquisition process itself, rigid body registration may be insufficient to accurately align the processed data sets. In such cases, deformable models are employed. This study presents a comparison of four well-established deformable models for aligning CBCT volumes. The compared models include the original Demons algorithm, symmetric forces Demons, diffeomorphic Demons and level-set motion. The compared techniques are incorporated into a general image registration scheme featuring two distinct stages: a common, fast, rigid-based alignment for pre-registering the data and a finer elastic registration phase, based on the four compared deformation models. The proposed framework was applied to a total of 40 CBCT volume pairs with known and unknown initial differences. After both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the produced aligned data, it was concluded that the level-set motion method outperformed all other techniques for data pairs with both unknown initial differences, as well as with known elastic deviations based on fixed sinusoidal models and B-splines.

  5. Multi-object segmentation framework using deformable models for medical imaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namías, Rafael; D'Amato, Juan Pablo; Del Fresno, Mariana; Vénere, Marcelo; Pirró, Nicola; Bellemare, Marc-Emmanuel

    2016-08-01

    Segmenting structures of interest in medical images is an important step in different tasks such as visualization, quantitative analysis, simulation, and image-guided surgery, among several other clinical applications. Numerous segmentation methods have been developed in the past three decades for extraction of anatomical or functional structures on medical imaging. Deformable models, which include the active contour models or snakes, are among the most popular methods for image segmentation combining several desirable features such as inherent connectivity and smoothness. Even though different approaches have been proposed and significant work has been dedicated to the improvement of such algorithms, there are still challenging research directions as the simultaneous extraction of multiple objects and the integration of individual techniques. This paper presents a novel open-source framework called deformable model array (DMA) for the segmentation of multiple and complex structures of interest in different imaging modalities. While most active contour algorithms can extract one region at a time, DMA allows integrating several deformable models to deal with multiple segmentation scenarios. Moreover, it is possible to consider any existing explicit deformable model formulation and even to incorporate new active contour methods, allowing to select a suitable combination in different conditions. The framework also introduces a control module that coordinates the cooperative evolution of the snakes and is able to solve interaction issues toward the segmentation goal. Thus, DMA can implement complex object and multi-object segmentations in both 2D and 3D using the contextual information derived from the model interaction. These are important features for several medical image analysis tasks in which different but related objects need to be simultaneously extracted. Experimental results on both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging show that the proposed

  6. A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid and deformable ellipsoids in ductile flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dazhi

    2012-01-01

    A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid or deformable objects in viscous flows is presented. It is shown that the rotation of a 3D object in a viscous fluid, regardless of the mechanical property and shape of the object, is defined by a common and simple differential equation, dQ/dt=-Θ˜Q, where Q is a matrix defined by the orientation of the object and Θ˜ is the angular velocity tensor of the object. The difference between individual cases lies only in the formulation for the angular velocity. Thus the above equation, together with Jeffery's theory for the angular velocity of rigid ellipsoids, describes the motion of rigid ellipsoids in viscous flows. The same equation, together with Eshelby's theory for the angular velocity of deformable ellipsoids, describes the motion of deformable ellipsoids in viscous flows. Both problems are solved here numerically by a general approach that is much simpler conceptually and more economic computationally, compared to previous approaches that consider the problems separately and require numerical solutions to coupled differential equations about Euler angles or spherical (polar coordinate) angles. A Runge-Kutta approximation is constructed for solving the above general differential equation. Singular cases of Eshelby's equations when the object is spheroidal or spherical are handled in this paper in a much simpler way than in previous work. The computational procedure can be readily implemented in any modern mathematics application that handles matrix operations. Four MathCad Worksheets are provided for modeling the motion of a single rigid or deformable ellipsoid immersed in viscous fluids, as well as the evolution of a system of noninteracting rigid or deformable ellipsoids embedded in viscous flows.

  7. GPS-Derived Models of Intraplate Deformation of the Yellowstone Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskas, C. M.; Smith, R. B.; Meertens, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    The 800-km long Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) is interpreted to be the track of the Yellowstone hotspot. It has experienced over 150 giant silicic volcanic eruptions in the last 16 Ma from magmatic sources derived from interaction of the N. American Plate with a mantle heat source. GPS measurements at more than 170 temporary stations and 10 continuous sites were made between 1987 and the present to assess the kinematic deformation field. The GPS observations cover a 800 by 600 km area affected by the volcanic system and are used to constrain kinematic and dynamic models. The present center of YSRP volcanic activity, at the Yellowstone Plateau, exhibits extensive earthquake activity and anomalously high rates of crustal deformation of ~4 mm/yr SW extension. In contrast, the hotspot track along the eastern Snake River Plain has much lower displacement rates of ~2 mm/yr SW extension. GPS-derived principal strain rate fields for the entire YSRP reveal rotation of the extensional strain axes from N-S to E-W at Yellowstone. This change corresponds to similar directions for tensional stress axes derived from focal mechanisms, post-caldera vent alignments, and active faults. The YSRP deformation field is compared with other geodetic, geologic, and seismic observations of the strain field for western North America to examine how it fits into the plate boundary framework. Finite-element models of the resolved deformation incorporate GPS rates, fault slip rates, volcanic features, seismicity, etc. These models suggest compression of the Snake River Plain, which apparently deforms as a single block within the resolution of the GPS data. Higher displacement rates at the Yellowstone caldera are likely due to local volcanic activity combined with with regional extension, for regional extension rates alone do not account for the observed rates. Volcanic acitivity has reworked the topography, enhanced heat flow, and modified lithosphere composition through melting and

  8. Longitudinal deformation models, spatial regularizations and learning strategies to quantify Alzheimer's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiot, Jean-Baptiste; Raguet, Hugo; Risser, Laurent; Cohen, Laurent D; Fripp, Jurgen; Vialard, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    In the context of Alzheimer's disease, two challenging issues are (1) the characterization of local hippocampal shape changes specific to disease progression and (2) the identification of mild-cognitive impairment patients likely to convert. In the literature, (1) is usually solved first to detect areas potentially related to the disease. These areas are then considered as an input to solve (2). As an alternative to this sequential strategy, we investigate the use of a classification model using logistic regression to address both issues (1) and (2) simultaneously. The classification of the patients therefore does not require any a priori definition of the most representative hippocampal areas potentially related to the disease, as they are automatically detected. We first quantify deformations of patients' hippocampi between two time points using the large deformations by diffeomorphisms framework and transport these deformations to a common template. Since the deformations are expected to be spatially structured, we perform classification combining logistic loss and spatial regularization techniques, which have not been explored so far in this context, as far as we know. The main contribution of this paper is the comparison of regularization techniques enforcing the coefficient maps to be spatially smooth (Sobolev), piecewise constant (total variation) or sparse (fused LASSO) with standard regularization techniques which do not take into account the spatial structure (LASSO, ridge and ElasticNet). On a dataset of 103 patients out of ADNI, the techniques using spatial regularizations lead to the best classification rates. They also find coherent areas related to the disease progression.

  9. Simultaneous shape and deformation measurements in a blood vessel model by two wavelength interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Nieves; Pinto, Cristina; Lobera, Julia; Palero, Virginia; Arroyo, M. Pilar

    2017-06-01

    Holographic techniques have been used to measure the shape and the radial deformation of a blood vessel model and a real sheep aorta. Measurements are obtained from several holograms recorded for different object states. For each object state, two holograms with two different wavelengths are multiplexed in the same digital recording. Thus both holograms are simultaneously recorded but the information from each of them is separately obtained. The shape analysis gives a wrapped phase map whose fringes are related to a synthetic wavelength. After a filtering and unwrapping process, the 3D shape can be obtained. The shape data for each line are fitted to a circumference in order to determine the local vessel radius and center. The deformation analysis also results in a wrapped phase map, but the fringes are related to the laser wavelength used in the corresponding hologram. After the filtering and unwrapping process, a 2D map of the deformation in an out-of-plane direction is reconstructed. The radial deformation is then calculated by using the shape information.

  10. A general scheme for training and optimization of the Grenander deformable template model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune; Schultz, Nette; Duta, N.

    2000-01-01

    for applying the general deformable template model proposed by (Grenander et al., 1991) to a new problem with minimal manual interaction, beside supplying a training set, which can be done by a non-expert user. The main contributions compared to previous work are a supervised learning scheme for the model...... parameters, a very fast general initialization algorithm and an adaptive likelihood model based on local means. The model parameters are trained by a combination of a 2D shape learning algorithm and a maximum likelihood based criteria. The fast initialization algorithm is based on a search approach using...

  11. A finite element formulation for modeling dynamic wetting on flexible substrates and in deformable porous media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Cairncross, Richard A. (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA); Madasu, S. (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA)

    2004-03-01

    This report summarizes research advances pursued with award funding issued by the DOE to Drexel University through the Presidential Early Career Award (PECASE) program. Professor Rich Cairncross was the recipient of this award in 1997. With it he pursued two related research topics under Sandia's guidance that address the outstanding issue of fluid-structural interactions of liquids with deformable solid materials, focusing mainly on the ubiquitous dynamic wetting problem. The project focus in the first four years was aimed at deriving a predictive numerical modeling approach for the motion of the dynamic contact line on a deformable substrate. A formulation of physical model equations was derived in the context of the Galerkin finite element method in an arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian (ALE) frame of reference. The formulation was successfully integrated in Sandia's Goma finite element code and tested on several technologically important thin-film coating problems. The model equations, the finite-element implementation, and results from several applications are given in this report. In the last year of the five-year project the same physical concepts were extended towards the problem of capillary imbibition in deformable porous media. A synopsis of this preliminary modeling and experimental effort is also discussed.

  12. Finite Element Modelling of the Effects of Average Grain Size and Misorientation Angle on the Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sanusi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper comprises an investigation using finite element analysis to study the behaviour of nanocrystalline grain structures during Equal Channel Angular Press (ECAP processing of metals. The effects of average grain size and misorientation angle on the deformation are examined in order to see how microstructural features might explain the observed increase in strength of nanocrsytalline metals. While this approach forms a convenient starting as it offers a simple way of including grain size effects and grain misorientation to which we could add additional phenomena through developing the material model used to describe the anisotropy and techniques that would automatically re-mesh the refined grain structure produced under severe plastic deformation. From this, it can be concluded that these additional techniques incorporated into the finite element model produced effects that correspond to observed behaviour in real polycrystals.

  13. Lithosphere Deformation Modelling of the Italian Peninsula: A Tool for Seismic Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Munt, I.; Pagani, M.; Marcellini, A.; Sabadini, R.

    2003-04-01

    Large uncertainties of input data for seismic hazard assessment, like the incompleteness of the historical catalogues, magnitude estimation uncertainties and low reliability of epicentral location forces the adoption of additional information for the characterization of seismicity. Lithosphere deformation measuring and modelling techniques were largely increased and improved during the last decade; the detail and the reliability of the deformation models presently available make possible the development of methodologies for constraining the geodynamical evolution of active areas and particularly of their long term seismotectonic behaviour. In the present work we describe and test a procedure to create a probabilistic hazard source model for some areas of the Italian peninsula by integrating crustal deformation modelling results with historical evidences of earthquake occurrence. This procedure uses a Bayesian approach with geophysical input to define the earthquake occurrence behaviour: historical earthquake data characterize the sample likelihood function while strain derived occurrence rates define prior distribution parameters. Modelled strain rates are calculated by means of a finite element model based on the thin shell scheme of peninsular Italy and central Mediterranean that simulates the effects of Africa-Eurasia convergence and subduction underneath the Calabrian Arc on lithospheric deformation. The computed horizontal velocities and strain rates are compared with their geodetic counterparts retrieved by a network of permanent GPS receivers in the area. In order to reproduce the clockwise rotation in southern Italy from the NNW direction of the NOTO site (south eastern Sicily), envisaging the motion of the Africa plate, to the NNE direction of GPS sites in Calabria and Matera, the effects of the Calabrian subduction must be completed by the effects of the counter-clockwise rotation of the Adria microplate. This kinematics of Adria reproduces the NNE motion

  14. Analogue Models of Polyphase Deformation Around a Built-in Thicker Crustal Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerca, M.; Ferrari, L.; Bonini, M.; Corti, G.

    2002-12-01

    Analogue models of polyphase convergence involving crustal differences in strength and density give insights on lateral and vertical strain propagation during the Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary in southern Mexico. Analogue models reproduced a two-phase deformation characterised by a first stage of east directed compression (11 %\\ bulk shortening; b.s.), followed by a second stage of left-lateral transpression directed N 15° E (17 %\\ b. s.). Models were designed to simulate two-layer vertical rheology, a brittle upper crust and a lower ductile crust (silicon+sand) with a thicker built-in parallelepiped-shaped block in the upper crust. Maintaining this basic array, we varied the structure of the rigid block using sand or plastic clay, as well as its position (adjacent or separated from a moving wall in the second deformation phase). In all models, similar structures formed around the block: (1) a north-south striking fold-and-thrust belt produced in the first phase, which distance of propagation decreases where the block is present; (2) a main left-lateral transpressive structure in the second phase; (3) counter clockwise rotations and refolding of the first phase structures in the western side of the block; (4) a fold-and-thrust belt paralleling the geometry of the block in front of its north and eastern sides and; (5) vertical upheaval of the block. In the case of the models with the block separated from the moving wall, the transpression was concentrated in the boundary of the block with the adjacent crust and exhumation of the lower crust was observed south of this limit. Models were compared with the deformation observed around the Mixteco-Oaxaca Block (MOB) of southern Mexico. Most structures were reproduced by the models, but structures observed in nature within the MOB were not accurately reproduced. This is likely due to the action of pre-existing structures that influenced the deformation. The similarity of the modeled structures and natural prototype

  15. Numerical Modeling of Dike-Induced Deformation and Graben Formation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D.; Smart, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Tharsis region of Mars is characterized by large volcanic and tectonic centers with distinct sets of graben systems. These Tharsis-radial graben systems have a simple graben morphology with long narrow grabens bounded by normal faults and a down-dropped flat floor unbroken by antithetic faults. Many of the radially oriented grabens have been inferred to form in response to intrusion of magmatic dikes. This interpretation is based primarily upon early physical and numerical (boundary element) models that were originally developed to understand surface deformation associated with dike emplacement on Earth. In this study, we constructed and analyzed two-dimensional discrete element models to test the hypothesis of shallow dike emplacement and widening as a primary mechanism for the production of grabens on Mars. In particular, our models are designed to explore the extent to which a widening subsurface dike, in the absence of regional extension or pre-existing faults, will induce near-surface graben formation. The use of discrete element models allows for the permanent deformation and material heterogeneity to be captured as opposed to boundary element models that are limited by an assumption of homogeneous elastic behavior. Our analyses consider both homogeneous materials as well as mechanical stratification. The results indicate that forcible widening of a dike alone is unlikely to produce grabens at the surface. In our models, surface deformation took the form of a synclinal trough between two anticlines rather than a graben. Formation of the trough was accomplished primarily through compression adjacent to the dike, causing contractional fold development up to the surface. The model evolution indicates that the primary deformation style of dike widening is via trough margin uplift rather than trough center subsidence and that the most distinctive topographic signature of an underlying dike would be parallel ridges formed by contractional folding on either side

  16. Permeability evolution model and numerical analysis of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid nitrogen cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui ZHANG

    Full Text Available How to quantitatively evaluate the permeability change of coalbed subjected to liquid nitrogen cooling is a key issue of enhanced-permeability technology of coalbed. To analyze the evolution process of permeability of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid introgen cooling, the coal is supposed as elastic, brittle and plastic material. Its deformation process includes elastic deformation stage, brittle strength degradation stage and residual plastic flow stage. Combined with strength degradation index, dilatancy index of the element and Mohr-Column strength criterion, the element scale constitutive model with the effects of confining pressure on peak-post mechanical behaviors is built. Based on the deformation process of coal rock, there exist two stages of permeability evolution of the element including decrease of permeability due to elastic contraction and increase due to coal rock element's failure. The relationships between the permeability and elastic deformation, shear failure and tension failure for coal are studied. The permeability will be influenced by the change of pore space due to elastic contraction or tension of element. Conjugate shear zones appear during the shear failure of the element, in which the flow follows so-called cubic law between smooth parallel plates. The calculation formulas of the permeability and the aperture of the fractures are given out based on the volumetric strain. When tension failure criterion is satisfied with the rock element fails and two orthogonal fractures appear. The calculation formulas of the permeability and the width of the fractures are given out based on the volumetric strain. Further, combined with the thermal conduction theory the permeability evolution model of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid nitrogen cooling is presented. Then Fish function method in FLAC is employed to perform the model. The permeability's evolution process for coal bed cryogenically stimulated

  17. Physical Model and Mesoscale Simulation of Mortar and Concrete Deformations under Freeze–Thaw Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Fuyuan; Sicat, Evdon; Wang, Yi; Ueda, Tamon; Zhang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of concrete material under multiple freeze–thaw cycles is an important issue for structures in cold and wet regions. This paper proposed a physical and mechanical model to explain the deformation behavior observed in previous experiments, from internal pressure calculation to mesoscale simulation, and for both closed and open freeze–thaw tests. Three kinds of internal pressures are considered in this study: hydraulic pressure due to ice volume expansion, crystallization pressu...

  18. Modeling coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical processes including plastic deformation in geological porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, S.; Karra, S.; Pawar, R. J.; Zyvoloski, G.

    2012-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the recent years in developing computational tools for analyzing coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical (THM) processes that occur in geological porous media. This is mainly due to their importance in applications including carbon sequestration, enhanced geothermal systems, oil and gas production from unconventional sources, degradation of Arctic permafrost, and nuclear waste isolation. Large changes in pressures, temperatures and saturation can result due to injection/withdrawal of fluids or emplaced heat sources. These can potentially lead to large changes in the fluid flow and mechanical behavior of the formation, including shear and tensile failure on pre-existing or induced fractures and the associated permeability changes. Due to this, plastic deformation and large changes in material properties such as permeability and porosity can be expected to play an important role in these processes. We describe a general purpose computational code FEHM that has been developed for the purpose of modeling coupled THM processes during multi-phase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code uses a continuum mechanics approach, based on control volume - finite element method. It is designed to address spatial scales on the order of tens of centimeters to tens of kilometers. While large deformations are important in many situations, we have adapted the small strain formulation as useful insight can be obtained in many problems of practical interest with this approach while remaining computationally manageable. Nonlinearities in the equations and the material properties are handled using a full Jacobian Newton-Raphson technique. Stress-strain relationships are assumed to follow linear elastic/plastic behavior. The code incorporates several plasticity models such as von Mises, Drucker-Prager, and also a large suite of models for coupling flow and mechanical deformation via permeability and stresses/deformations

  19. A non-Gaussian option pricing model based on Kaniadakis exponential deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Enrico; Pasquali, Sara; Trivellato, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    A way to make financial models effective is by letting them to represent the so called "fat tails", i.e., extreme changes in stock prices that are regarded as almost impossible by the standard Gaussian distribution. In this article, the Kaniadakis deformation of the usual exponential function is used to define a random noise source in the dynamics of price processes capable of capturing such real market phenomena.

  20. A Fully-Coupled Approach for Modelling Plastic Deformation and Liquid Lubrication in Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    2016-01-01

    elements with fictitious small stiffness to physical modelling based on a fullycoupled procedure in which the lubricant flow and the plastic deformation of the metallic materialare solved simultaneously. The approach takes advantage of the intrinsic velocity-pressurecharacteristics of the finite element...... flow formulation which stands on the border line between fluidand solid mechanics and allows treating the lubricants as viscous incompressible (or nearlyincompressible) fluid and the metallic materials as non-Newtonian, high viscous, incompressiblefluids. The presentation is focused on the theoretical...

  1. Review on exact and perturbative deformations of the Einstein-Straus model: uniqueness and rigidity results

    CERN Document Server

    Mars, Marc; Vera, Raül

    2013-01-01

    The Einstein-Straus model consists of a Schwarzschild spherical vacuole in a Friedman-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) dust spacetime (with or without \\Lambda). It constitutes the most widely accepted model to answer the question of the influence of large scale (cosmological) dynamics on local systems. The conclusion drawn by the model is that there is no influence from the cosmic background, since the spherical vacuole is static. Spherical generalizations to other interior matter models are commonly used in the construction of lumpy inhomogeneous cosmological models. On the other hand, the model has proven to be reluctant to admit non-spherical generalizations. In this review, we summarize the known uniqueness results for this model. These seem to indicate that the only reasonable and realistic non-spherical deformations of the Einstein-Straus model require perturbing the FLRW background. We review results about linear perturbations of the Einstein-Straus model, where the perturbations in the vacuole ar...

  2. Zernike polynomial based Rayleigh-Ritz model of a piezoelectric unimorph deformable mirror

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric bimorph- or unimorph-type deformable mirrors are commonly used in adaptive optics to correct for time-dependent phase aberrations. In the optics community, the surface deformations that deformable mirrors are required to achieve...

  3. Multiple magma emplacement and its effect on the superficial deformation: hints from analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Domenico; Bonini, Marco; Corti, Giacomo; del Ventisette, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    To test the effect exerted by multiple magma emplacement on the deformation pattern, we have run analogue models with synchronous, as well as diachronous magma injection from different, aligned inlets. The distance between injection points, as well as the activation in time of injection points was varied for each model. Our model results show how the position and activation in time of injection points (which reproduce multiple magma batches in nature) strongly influence model evolution. In the case of synchronous injection at different inlets, the intrusions and associated surface deformation were elongated. Forced folds and annular bounding reverse faults were quite elliptical, and with the main axis of the elongated dome trending sub-parallel to the direction of the magma input points. Model results also indicate that the injection from multiple aligned sources could reproduce the same features of systems associated with planar feeder dikes, thereby suggesting that caution should be taken when trying to infer the feeding areas on the basis of the deformation features observed at the surface or in seismic profiles. Diachronous injection from different injection points showed that the deformation observed at surface does not necessarily reflect the location and/or geometry of their feeders. Most notably, these experiments suggest that coeval magma injection from different sources favor the lateral migration of magma rather than the vertical growth, promoting the development of laterally interconnected intrusions. Recently, some authors (Magee et al., 2014, 2016; Schofield et al., 2015) have suggested that, based on seismic reflection data analysis, interconnected sills and inclined sheets can facilitate the transport of magma over great vertical distances and laterally for large distances. Intrusions and volcanoes fed by sill complexes may thus be laterally offset significantly from the melt source. Our model results strongly support these findings, by reproducing

  4. Modelling polymeric deformable granular materials - from experimental data to numerical models at the grain scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teil, Maxime; Harthong, Barthélémy; Imbault, Didier; Peyroux, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Polymeric deformable granular materials are widely used in industry and the understanding and the modelling of their shaping process is a point of interest. This kind of materials often presents a viscoelasticplastic behaviour and the present study promotes a joint approach between numerical simulations and experiments in order to derive the behaviour law of such granular material. The experiment is conducted on a polystyrene powder on which a confining pressure of 7MPa and an axial pressure reaching 30MPa are applied. Between different steps of the in-situ test, the sample is scanned in an X-rays microtomograph in order to know the structure of the material depending on the density. From the tomographic images and by using specific algorithms to improve the images quality, grains are automatically identified, separated and a finite element mesh is generated. The long-term objective of this study is to derive a representative sample directly from the experiments in order to run numerical simulations using a viscoelactic or viscoelastic-plastic constitutive law and compare numerical and experimental results at the particle scale.

  5. Constitutive Rheological Modeling of Flow Serration Behaviour in Metallic Glasses Showing Nanocrystallization during Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Yousfi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple micromechanism-inspired rheological model is developed that incorporates the serrated flow nature of metallic glasses subjected to compressive deformation at room temperatures. The process of propagation and the arrest of shear bands were addressed in this model. Shear-induced nanocrystallisation was believed to be responsible for strain hardening of material within the shear bands. The model is based on the assumption that the behaviour can be decomposed into two resistances acting in parallel: one captures the initial stiffness and shear softening and the second gives the time-shear-temperature hardening of material.

  6. An Explicit Approach Toward Modeling Thermo-Coupled Deformation Behaviors of SMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new elastoplastic J 2 -flow models with thermal effects is proposed toward simulating thermo-coupled finite deformation behaviors of shape memory polymers. In this new model, an elastic potential evolving with development of plastic flow is incorporated to characterize the stress-softening effect at unloading and, moreover, thermo-induced plastic flow is introduced to represent the strain recovery effect at heating. It is shown that any given test data for both effects may be accurately simulated by means of direct and explicit procedures. Numerical examples for model predictions compare well with test data in literature.

  7. Deformation of the central Andes (15-27 deg S) derived from a flow model of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, Shimon; O'Connell, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A simple viscous flow model of a subduction zone is used to calculate the deformation within continental lithosphere above a subducting slab. This formulation accounts for two forces that dominate the deformation in the overriding lithosphere: tectonic forces and buoyancy forces. Numerical solutions, obtained by using a finite element technique, are compared with observations from the central Andes (15-27 deg S). The model predicts the observed deformation pattern of extension in the forearc, compression in the Western Monocline (corresponding to magmatic activity), extension in the Altiplano, compression in the Eastern Monocline and Subandes, and no deformation in the Brazilian Shield. By comparing the calculated solutions with the large-scale tectonic observations, the forces that govern the deformation in the central Andes are evaluated. The approximately constant subduction velocity in the past 26 million years suggests that the rate of crustal shortening in the Andes has decreased with time due to the thickening of the crust.

  8. Conditional-mean initialization using neighboring objects in deformable model segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ja-Yeon; Stough, Joshua V.; Marron, J. Steve; Pizer, Stephen M.

    2008-03-01

    Most model-based segmentation methods find a target object in a new image by constructing an objective function and optimizing it using a standard minimization algorithm. In general, the objective function has two penalty terms: 1) for deforming a template model and 2) for mismatch between the trained image intensities relative to the template model and the observed image intensities relative to the deformed template model in the target image. While it is difficult to establish an objective function with a global minimum at the desired segmentation result, even such an objective function is typically non-convex due to the complexity of the intensity patterns and the many structures surrounding the target object. Thus, it is critical that the optimization starts at a point close to the global minimum of the objective function in deformable model-based segmentation framework. For a segmentation method in maximum a posteriori framework a good objective function can be obtained by learning the probability distributions of the population shape deformations and their associated image intensities because each penalty term can be simplified to a squared function of some distance metric defined in the shape space. The mean shape and intensities of the learned probability distributions also provide a good initialization for segmentation. However, a major concern in estimating the shape prior is the stability of the estimated shape distributions from given training samples because the feature space of a shape model is usually very high dimensional while the number of training samples is limited. A lot of effort in that regard have been made to attain a stable estimation of shape probability distribution. In this paper, we describe our approach to stably estimate a shape probability distribution when good segmentations of objects adjacent to the target object are available. Our approach is to use a conditional shape probability distribution (CSPD) to take into account in the

  9. TO THE MODELING ISSUES OF LIFE CYCLE OF DEFORMATION WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article highlightsthe operational cycle modeling of the railway track elements for the development processes study of deformability as the basis of creating a regulatory framework of the track while ensuring the reliability of the railways. Methodology.The basic theory of wave propagation process in describing the interaction of track and rolling stock are used to achieve the goal. Findings. The basic provisions concerning the concept «the operational cycle of the deformation track» were proposed and formulated. The method was set. On its base the algorithm for determining the dynamic effects of the rolling stock on the way was obtained. The basic principles for the calculation schemes of railway track components for process evaluation of the deformability of the way were formulated. An algorithm was developed, which allows getting the field values of stresses, strains and displacements of all points of the track design elements. Based on the fields of stress-strain state of the track, an algorithm to establish the dependence of the process of deformability and the amount of energy expended on the deformability of the track operation was created. Originality.The research of track reliability motivates the development of new models, provides an opportunity to consider it for some developments. There is a need to define the criteria on which the possibility of assessing and forecasting changes in the track states in the course of its operation. The paper proposed the basic principles, methods, algorithms, and the terms relating to the conduct of the study, questions the reliability of the track. Practical value. Analytical models, used to determine the parameters of strength and stability of tracks, fully meet its objectives, but cannot be applied to determine the parameters of track reliability. One of the main factors of impossibility to apply these models is a quasi-dynamic approach. Therefore, as a rule, not only one dynamic

  10. Efficient inversion of volcano deformation based on finite element models : An application to Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charco, María; González, Pablo J.; Galán del Sastre, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The Kilauea volcano (Hawaii, USA) is one of the most active volcanoes world-wide and therefore one of the better monitored volcanoes around the world. Its complex system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of magma transport and supply. Geodetic techniques, as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are being extensively used to monitor ground deformation at volcanic areas. The quantitative interpretation of such surface ground deformation measurements using geodetic data requires both, physical modelling to simulate the observed signals and inversion approaches to estimate the magmatic source parameters. Here, we use synthetic aperture radar data from Sentinel-1 radar interferometry satellite mission to image volcano deformation sources during the inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in April-May 2015. We propose a Finite Element Model (FEM) for the calculation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain. The key aspect of the methodology lies in applying the reciprocity relationship of the Green functions between the station and the source for efficient numerical inversions. The search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is generally conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region. However, our approach allows to reduce the total number of Green functions to the number of the observation points by using the, above mentioned, reciprocity relationship. This new methodology is able to accurately represent magmatic processes using physical models capable of simulating volcano deformation in non-uniform material properties distribution domains, which eventually will lead to better description of the status of the volcano.

  11. Nonrigid 3D medical image registration and fusion based on deformable models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Wybranski, Christian; Ricke, Jens; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    For coregistration of medical images, rigid methods often fail to provide enough freedom, while reliable elastic methods are available clinically for special applications only. The number of degrees of freedom of elastic models must be reduced for use in the clinical setting to archive a reliable result. We propose a novel geometry-based method of nonrigid 3D medical image registration and fusion. The proposed method uses a 3D surface-based deformable model as guidance. In our twofold approach, the deformable mesh from one of the images is first applied to the boundary of the object to be registered. Thereafter, the non-rigid volume deformation vector field needed for registration and fusion inside of the region of interest (ROI) described by the active surface is inferred from the displacement of the surface mesh points. The method was validated using clinical images of a quasirigid organ (kidney) and of an elastic organ (liver). The reduction in standard deviation of the image intensity difference between reference image and model was used as a measure of performance. Landmarks placed at vessel bifurcations in the liver were used as a gold standard for evaluating registration results for the elastic liver. Our registration method was compared with affine registration using mutual information applied to the quasi-rigid kidney. The new method achieved 15.11% better quality with a high confidence level of 99% for rigid registration. However, when applied to the quasi-elastic liver, the method has an averaged landmark dislocation of 4.32 mm. In contrast, affine registration of extracted livers yields a significantly (P = 0.000001) smaller dislocation of 3.26 mm. In conclusion, our validation shows that the novel approach is applicable in cases where internal deformation is not crucial, but it has limitations in cases where internal displacement must also be taken into account.

  12. A GPU based high-resolution multilevel biomechanical head and neck model for validating deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J; Qi, X; Sheng, K; Staton, R; Pukala, J; Manon, R; Low, D A; Kupelian, P; Santhanam, A

    2015-01-01

    Validating the usage of deformable image registration (dir) for daily patient positioning is critical for adaptive radiotherapy (RT) applications pertaining to head and neck (HN) radiotherapy. The authors present a methodology for generating biomechanically realistic ground-truth data for validating dir algorithms for HN anatomy by (a) developing a high-resolution deformable biomechanical HN model from a planning CT, (b) simulating deformations for a range of interfraction posture changes and physiological regression, and (c) generating subsequent CT images representing the deformed anatomy. The biomechanical model was developed using HN kVCT datasets and the corresponding structure contours. The voxels inside a given 3D contour boundary were clustered using a graphics processing unit (GPU) based algorithm that accounted for inconsistencies and gaps in the boundary to form a volumetric structure. While the bony anatomy was modeled as rigid body, the muscle and soft tissue structures were modeled as mass-spring-damper models with elastic material properties that corresponded to the underlying contoured anatomies. Within a given muscle structure, the voxels were classified using a uniform grid and a normalized mass was assigned to each voxel based on its Hounsfield number. The soft tissue deformation for a given skeletal actuation was performed using an implicit Euler integration with each iteration split into two substeps: one for the muscle structures and the other for the remaining soft tissues. Posture changes were simulated by articulating the skeletal structure and enabling the soft structures to deform accordingly. Physiological changes representing tumor regression were simulated by reducing the target volume and enabling the surrounding soft structures to deform accordingly. Finally, the authors also discuss a new approach to generate kVCT images representing the deformed anatomy that accounts for gaps and antialiasing artifacts that may be caused by the

  13. Characterisation of polycrystal deformation by numerical modelling and neutron diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B.

    1997-09-01

    The deformation of polycrystals are modelled using three micron mechanic models; the Taylor model, the Sachs model and Hutchinson`s self-consistent (SC) model. The predictions of the rigid plastic Taylor and Sachs models are compared with the predictions of the SC model. As expected, the results of the SC model is about half-way between the upper- and lower-bound models. The influence of the elastic anisotropy is investigated by comparing the SC predictions for aluminium, copper and a hypothetical material (Hybrid) with the elastic anisotropy of copper and the Young`s modulus and hardening behaviour of aluminium. It is concluded that the effect of the elastic anisotropy is limited to the very early stages of plasticity, as the deformation pattern is almost identical for the three materials at higher strains. The predictions of the three models are evaluated by neutron diffraction measurements of elastic lattice strains in grain sub-sets within the polycrystal. The two rigid plastic models do not include any material parameters and therefore the predictions of the SC model is more accurate and more detailed than the predictions of the Taylor and Sachs models. The SC model is used to determine the most suitable reflection for technological applications of neutron diffraction, where focus is on the volume average stress state in engineering components. To be able to successfully to convert the measured elastic lattice strains for a specific reflection into overall volume average stresses, there must be a linear relation between the lattice strain of the reflection and the overall stress. According to the model predictions the 311-reflection is the most suitable reflection as it shows the smallest deviations from linearity and thereby also the smallest build-up of residual strains. The model predictions have pin pointed that the selection of the reflection is crucial for the validity of stresses calculated from the measured elastic lattice strains. (au) 14 tabs., 41

  14. A machine learning approach for real-time modelling of tissue deformation in image-guided neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutti, Michele; Gras, Gauthier; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Accurate reconstruction and visualisation of soft tissue deformation in real time is crucial in image-guided surgery, particularly in augmented reality (AR) applications. Current deformation models are characterised by a trade-off between accuracy and computational speed. We propose an approach to derive a patient-specific deformation model for brain pathologies by combining the results of pre-computed finite element method (FEM) simulations with machine learning algorithms. The models can be computed instantaneously and offer an accuracy comparable to FEM models. A brain tumour is used as the subject of the deformation model. Load-driven FEM simulations are performed on a tetrahedral brain mesh afflicted by a tumour. Forces of varying magnitudes, positions, and inclination angles are applied onto the brain's surface. Two machine learning algorithms-artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector regression (SVR)-are employed to derive a model that can predict the resulting deformation for each node in the tumour's mesh. The tumour deformation can be predicted in real time given relevant information about the geometry of the anatomy and the load, all of which can be measured instantly during a surgical operation. The models can predict the position of the nodes with errors below 0.3mm, beyond the general threshold of surgical accuracy and suitable for high fidelity AR systems. The SVR models perform better than the ANN's, with positional errors for SVR models reaching under 0.2mm. The results represent an improvement over existing deformation models for real time applications, providing smaller errors and high patient-specificity. The proposed approach addresses the current needs of image-guided surgical systems and has the potential to be employed to model the deformation of any type of soft tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A GPU based high-resolution multilevel biomechanical head and neck model for validating deformable image registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neylon, J., E-mail: jneylon@mednet.ucla.edu; Qi, X.; Sheng, K.; Low, D. A.; Kupelian, P.; Santhanam, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, 200 Medical Plaza, #B265, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Staton, R.; Pukala, J.; Manon, R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Orlando, 1440 South Orange Avenue, Orlando, Florida 32808 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Validating the usage of deformable image registration (DIR) for daily patient positioning is critical for adaptive radiotherapy (RT) applications pertaining to head and neck (HN) radiotherapy. The authors present a methodology for generating biomechanically realistic ground-truth data for validating DIR algorithms for HN anatomy by (a) developing a high-resolution deformable biomechanical HN model from a planning CT, (b) simulating deformations for a range of interfraction posture changes and physiological regression, and (c) generating subsequent CT images representing the deformed anatomy. Methods: The biomechanical model was developed using HN kVCT datasets and the corresponding structure contours. The voxels inside a given 3D contour boundary were clustered using a graphics processing unit (GPU) based algorithm that accounted for inconsistencies and gaps in the boundary to form a volumetric structure. While the bony anatomy was modeled as rigid body, the muscle and soft tissue structures were modeled as mass–spring-damper models with elastic material properties that corresponded to the underlying contoured anatomies. Within a given muscle structure, the voxels were classified using a uniform grid and a normalized mass was assigned to each voxel based on its Hounsfield number. The soft tissue deformation for a given skeletal actuation was performed using an implicit Euler integration with each iteration split into two substeps: one for the muscle structures and the other for the remaining soft tissues. Posture changes were simulated by articulating the skeletal structure and enabling the soft structures to deform accordingly. Physiological changes representing tumor regression were simulated by reducing the target volume and enabling the surrounding soft structures to deform accordingly. Finally, the authors also discuss a new approach to generate kVCT images representing the deformed anatomy that accounts for gaps and antialiasing artifacts that may

  16. Modelling the stored energy of plastic deformation for individual crystal orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, D.; Van Bael, A.; Sidor, J.; Roose, D.; Van Houtte, P.; Kestens, L.

    2015-04-01

    Recovery and recrystallisation processes in polycrystalline metals are driven by the release of energy stored in defect structures chiefly resulting from dislocation creation, motion and interaction during plastic deformation. Some statistical models of texture change during recrystallisation employ the Taylor factor to quantify the distribution of this stored energy amongst orientations. While the Taylor factor is an instantaneous measure of the plastic power dissipation per orientation for a given strain mode, it is technically only valid as an estimate of stored energy if strain path and texture can be assumed constant. This motivates the search for alternatives to the Taylor factor which do not neglect the effects of changing strain path and evolving texture. In this paper a first step is made toward this goal by comparing the Taylor factor with a possible alternative, the accumulated slip per orientation, for a plane strain compression deformation of a bcc material. It is discovered that even for this idealised deformation there are specific orientations for which there is a consistent difference between the two parameters at various magnitudes of strain. It is concluded that these results lend support to the case for replacing the Taylor factor with a history based parameter in recrystallisation texture models.

  17. Modeling and simulation of the deformation process of PTFE flexiblestamps for nanoimprint lithography on curved surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Smistrup, K.; Hannibal, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In the presented work, simulations of the deformation process of flexible stamps used for nanoimprint lithographron curved surfaces are presented. The material used for the flexible stamps was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) whose material behavior was found to be viscoelastic-viscoplastic. This b......In the presented work, simulations of the deformation process of flexible stamps used for nanoimprint lithographron curved surfaces are presented. The material used for the flexible stamps was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) whose material behavior was found to be viscoelastic...... through a user material subroutine. In order to take the large strains and deformations during the imprinting manufacturing process into account, non-linear geometry was applied in the simulations. The model was first verified through a series of experiments, where nanoimprint lithography on a curved tool...... with a maximum error of 0.5%, indicating that the model is able to capture the physics of this manufacturing process and can be used to give an insight into the nanoimprinting procedure on curved surfaces. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Multiscale Modeling of Primary Cilium Deformations Under Local Forces and Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Feng, Zhe; Resnick, Andrew; Young, Yuan-Nan

    2017-11-01

    We study the detailed deformations of a primary cilium under local forces and shear flows by developing a multiscale model based on the state-of-the-art understanding of its molecular structure. Most eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia. Primary cilia play important roles in chemosensation, thermosensation, and mechanosensation, but the detailed mechanism for mechanosensation is not well understood. We apply the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to model an entire well with a primary cilium and consider its different components, including the basal body, microtubule doublets, actin cortex, and lipid bilayer. We calibrate the mechanical properties of individual components and their interactions from experimental measurements and molecular dynamics simulations. We validate the simulations by comparing the deformation profile of the cilium and the rotation of the basal body with optical trapping experiments. After validations, we investigate the deformation of the primary cilium under shear flows. Furthermore, we calculate the membrane tensions and cytoskeleton stresses, and use them to predict the activation of mechanosensitive channels.

  19. Multiscale modeling of high contrast brinkman equations with applications to deformable porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald

    2013-06-18

    Simulating porous media flows has a wide range of applications. Often, these applications involve many scales and multi-physical processes. A useful tool in the analysis of such problems in that of homogenization as an averaged description is derived circumventing the need for complicated simulation of the fine scale features. In this work, we recall recent developments of homogenization techniques in the application of flows in deformable porous media. In addition, homogenization of media with high-contrast. In particular, we recall the main ideas of the homogenization of slowly varying Stokes flow and summarize the results of [4]. We also present the ideas for extending these techniques to high-contrast deformable media [3]. These ideas are connected by the modeling of multiscale fluid-structure interaction problems. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  20. A finite deformation viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model for self-healing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, H.; Naghdabadi, R.; Baghani, M.; Sohrabpour, S.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, employing the Hencky strain, viscoelastic-viscoplastic response of self-healing materials is investigated. Considering the irreversible thermodynamics and using the effective configuration in the Continuum Damage-Healing Mechanics (CDHM), a phenomenological finite strain viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model is presented. Considering finite viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformations, total deformation gradient is multiplicatively decomposed into viscoelastic and viscoplastic parts. Due to mathematical advantages and physical meaning of Hencky strain, this measure of strain is employed in the constitutive model development. In this regard, defining the damage and healing variables and employing the strain equivalence hypothesis, the strain tensor is determined in the effective configuration. Satisfying the Clausius-Duhem inequality, the evolution equations are introduced for the viscoelastic and viscoplastic strains. The damage and healing variables also evolve according to two different prescribed functions. To employ the proposed model in different loading conditions, the model is discretized in the semi-implicit form. Material parameters of the model are identified employing experimental tests on asphalt mixes available in the literature. Finally, capability of the model is demonstrated comparing the model predictions in the creep-recovery and repeated creep-recovery with the experimental results available in the literature and a good agreement between predicted and test results is revealed.

  1. A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model to Predict Kink-Band Propagation Using Deformation Gradient Tensor Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A new model is proposed that represents the kinematics of kink-band formation and propagation within the framework of a mesoscale continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model. The model uses the recently proposed deformation gradient decomposition approach to represent a kink band as a displacement jump via a cohesive interface that is embedded in an elastic bulk material. The model is capable of representing the combination of matrix failure in the frame of a misaligned fiber and instability due to shear nonlinearity. In contrast to conventional linear or bilinear strain softening laws used in most mesoscale CDM models for longitudinal compression, the constitutive response of the proposed model includes features predicted by detailed micromechanical models. These features include: 1) the rotational kinematics of the kink band, 2) an instability when the peak load is reached, and 3) a nonzero plateau stress under large strains.

  2. Automatic 3D segmentation of spinal cord MRI using propagated deformable models

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leener, B.; Cohen-Adad, J.; Kadoury, S.

    2014-03-01

    Spinal cord diseases or injuries can cause dysfunction of the sensory and locomotor systems. Segmentation of the spinal cord provides measures of atrophy and allows group analysis of multi-parametric MRI via inter-subject registration to a template. All these measures were shown to improve diagnostic and surgical intervention. We developed a framework to automatically segment the spinal cord on T2-weighted MR images, based on the propagation of a deformable model. The algorithm is divided into three parts: first, an initialization step detects the spinal cord position and orientation by using the elliptical Hough transform on multiple adjacent axial slices to produce an initial tubular mesh. Second, a low-resolution deformable model is iteratively propagated along the spinal cord. To deal with highly variable contrast levels between the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid, the deformation is coupled with a contrast adaptation at each iteration. Third, a refinement process and a global deformation are applied on the low-resolution mesh to provide an accurate segmentation of the spinal cord. Our method was evaluated against a semi-automatic edge-based snake method implemented in ITK-SNAP (with heavy manual adjustment) by computing the 3D Dice coefficient, mean and maximum distance errors. Accuracy and robustness were assessed from 8 healthy subjects. Each subject had two volumes: one at the cervical and one at the thoracolumbar region. Results show a precision of 0.30 +/- 0.05 mm (mean absolute distance error) in the cervical region and 0.27 +/- 0.06 mm in the thoracolumbar region. The 3D Dice coefficient was of 0.93 for both regions.

  3. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    2017-12-26

    The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of the OFM in children with foot deformity. Intra-tester repeatability was assessed for 45 children (15 typically developing, 15 hemiplegic, 15 clubfoot). Inter-tester repeatability was assessed in the clubfoot population. The mean absolute differences between testers (clubfoot) and sessions (clubfoot and hemiplegic) were calculated for each of 15 clinically relevant, kinematic variables and compared to typically developing children. Children with clubfoot showed a mean difference between visits of 2.9° and a mean difference between raters of 3.6° Mean absolute differences were within one degree for the intra and inter-rater reliability in 12/15 variables. Hindfoot rotation, forefoot/tibia abduction and forefoot supination were the most variable between testers. Overall the clubfoot data were less variable than the typically developing population. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated slightly higher differences between sessions (mean 4.1°), with the most reliable data in the sagittal plane, and largest differences in the transverse plane. The OFM was designed to measure different types of foot deformity. The results of this study show that it provides repeatable results in children with foot deformity. To be distinguished from measurement artifact, changes in foot kinematics as a result of intervention or natural progression over time must be greater than the repeatability reported here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. InSAR Observations and Finite Element Modeling of Crustal Deformation Around a Surging Glacier, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, K.; Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Icelandic ice caps, covering ~11% of the country, are known to be surging glaciers. Such process implies an important local crustal subsidence due to the large ice mass being transported to the ice edge during the surge in a few months only. In 1993-1995, a glacial surge occurred at four neighboring outlet glaciers in the southwestern part of Vatnajökull ice cap, the largest ice cap in Iceland. We estimated that ~16±1 km3 of ice have been moved during this event while the fronts of some of the outlet glaciers advanced by ~1 km.Surface deformation associated with this surge has been surveyed using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) acquisitions from 1992-2002, providing high resolution ground observations of the study area. The data show about 75 mm subsidence at the ice edge of the outlet glaciers following the transport of the large volume of ice during the surge (Fig. 1). The long time span covered by the InSAR images enabled us to remove ~12 mm/yr of uplift occurring in this area due to glacial isostatic adjustment from the retreat of Vatnajökull ice cap since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland. We then used finite element modeling to investigate the elastic Earth response to the surge, as well as confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. A statistical approach based on Bayes' rule was used to compare the models to the observations and obtain an estimate of the Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (v) in Iceland. The best-fitting models are those using a one-kilometer thick top layer with v=0.17 and E between 12.9-15.3 GPa underlain by a layer with v=0.25 and E from 67.3 to 81.9 GPa. Results demonstrate that InSAR data and finite element models can be used successfully to reproduce crustal deformation induced by ice mass variations at Icelandic ice caps.Fig. 1: Interferograms spanning 1993 July 31 to 1995 June 19, showing the surge at Tungnaárjökull (Tu.), Skaftárjökull (Sk.) and S

  5. Three-dimensional computational modeling of multiple deformable cells flowing in microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddi, Sai K; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2009-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computational modeling and simulation are presented on the motion of a large number of deformable cells in microchannels. The methodology is based on an immersed boundary method, and the cells are modeled as liquid-filled elastic capsules. The model retains two important features of the blood flow in the microcirculation, that is, the particulate nature of blood and deformation of the erythrocytes. The tank-treading and tumbling motion and the lateral migration, as observed for erythrocytes in dilute suspension, are briefly discussed. We then present results on the motion of multiple cells in semidense suspension and study how their collective dynamics leads to various physiologically relevant processes such as the development of the cell-free layer and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. We analyze the 3D trajectory and velocity fluctuations of individual cell in the suspension and the plug-flow velocity profile as functions of the cell deformability, hematocrit, and vessel size. The numerical results allow us to directly obtain various microrheological data, such as the width of the cell-free layer, and the variation in the apparent blood viscosity and hematocrit over the vessel cross section. We then use these results to calculate the core and plasma-layer viscosity and show that the two-phase (or core-annular) model of blood flow in microvessels underpredicts the blood velocity obtained in the simulations by as much as 40%. Based on a posteriori analysis of the simulation data, we develop a three-layer model of blood flow by taking into consideration the smooth variation in viscosity and hematocrit across the interface of the cell-free layer and the core. We then show that the blood velocity predicted by the three-layer model agrees very well with that obtained from the simulations.

  6. Coulomb form factors of odd-A nuclei within an axially deformed relativistic mean-field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Xu, Chang; Wang, Shuo; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-09-01

    Background: The nuclear Coulomb form factor | FC(q) | 2 is a useful tool to study nuclear structure. For spherical nuclei, | FC(q) | 2 can be calculated by combining the spherical relativistic mean-field (RMF) model and the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method. Purpose: In a previous paper, the axially deformed RMF model + DWBA method was successfully applied to study the Coulomb form factors of deformed even-even nuclei. In this paper, we further extend this method to study the Coulomb form factors of deformed odd-A nuclei. Method: First, the charge distributions of odd-A nuclei are calculated with the deformed RMF model and expanded into multipole components. Next, with the multipole moment charge distributions, the Coulomb multipoles C 0 , C 2 , and C 4 are calculated. Finally, by summing over Coulomb multipoles required, the Coulomb form factors of odd-A nuclei can be obtained. Results: For deformed odd-A nuclei, the theoretical Coulomb form factors calculated from the deformed RMF charge densities are in better agreement with the experimental data. For nuclei with J ≥1 , the diffraction minima of Coulomb form factors are much flatter, which is due to the contributions of quadrupole charge distributions. Conclusions: Results indicate that the axially deformed RMF model can give reasonable descriptions for multipole moment charge distributions of odd-A nuclei. The method in this paper can provide a useful guide for future experiments of electron scattering off exotic odd-A nuclei.

  7. Numerical modelling of a thin deformable mirror for laser beam control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available . The Rayleigh-Ritz model is also compact and numerically efficient. For comparison with an existing numerical model, a commercial fi- nite element package, namely Comsol Multiphysics [3], is used. A prototype device, schemat- ically depicted in Figure 1...). The same number of polynomials were therefore also extracted from the finite element analysis and the experimental results. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 (a) Computed surface deformation (Comsol Multiphysics). 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0...

  8. Development of a Refined Rollover Model That Recognizes the Effects of Suspension and Tire Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle rollover represents one of the most dangerous traffic accidents in the world. To improve the antirollover capability of a vehicle, we established an improved rollover model with a particular focus on the effects of independent suspensions and the lateral deformation of the tire. Based on this model, we further developed a new method to mitigate the rollover occurrence by adjusting the stiffness of the spring and the damping coefficient of the damper. Through simulation tests with a brand of SUV, we demonstrated that these adjustments improved the mitigation control as evidenced by better confined steady value and decreased overshoot of the roll angle.

  9. Modeling of high homologous temperature deformation behavior for stress and life-time analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krempl, E. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Stress and lifetime analyses need realistic and accurate constitutive models for the inelastic deformation behavior of engineering alloys at low and high temperatures. Conventional creep and plasticity models have fundamental difficulties in reproducing high homologous temperature behavior. To improve the modeling capabilities {open_quotes}unified{close_quotes} state variable theories were conceived. They consider all inelastic deformation rate-dependent and do not have separate repositories for creep and plasticity. The viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO), one of the unified theories, is introduced and its properties are delineated. At high homologous temperature where secondary and tertiary creep are observed modeling is primarily accomplished by a static recovery term and a softening isotropic stress. At low temperatures creep is merely a manifestation of rate dependence. The primary creep modeled at low homologous temperature is due to the rate dependence of the flow law. The model is unaltered in the transition from low to high temperature except that the softening of the isotropic stress and the influence of the static recovery term increase with an increase of the temperature.

  10. Modeling Material Flow Behavior during Hot Deformation Based on Metamodeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling material flow behavior is an essential step to design and optimize the forming process. In this context, four popular metamodel types Kriging, radial basis function, multivariate polynomial, and artificial neural network are investigated as potential methods for modeling the flow behavior of 6013 aluminum alloy. Based on the experimental data from hot compression tests, the modeling performance of these four methods was tested and subsequently compared from different aspects. It is found that all the methods are capable of constructing models for describing the hot deformation behavior. The merits of Kriging method over other three methods are highlighted when the sample size for modeling is decreased. Furthermore, the applicability of Kriging method is validated while decreasing the sample uniformity with respect to temperature or strain rate. It is proved that Kriging method is competent in modeling the material flow behavior and is the most effective one among the four popular types of metamodeling method.

  11. Chestwall segmentation in 3D breast ultrasound using a deformable volume model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, H.J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2007-01-01

    A deformable volume segmentation method is proposed to detect the breast parenchyma in frontal scanned 3D whole breast ultrasound. Deformable volumes are a viable alternative to the deformable surface paradigm in noisy images with poorly defined object boundaries. A deformable ultrasound volume

  12. Description of the ground state of axially deformed nuclei within the Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebran, J-P [CEA/DAM/DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Khan, E; Arteaga, D Pena [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, University Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Vretenar, D, E-mail: jean-paul.ebran@cea.fr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-09-16

    The Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model for axially deformed nuclei (RHFBz) is presented. The model involves a phenomenological Lagrangian with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings in the particle-hole channel and the central part of the Gogny force in the particle-particle channel. The RHFBz equations are solved by expansion in the basis of a deformed harmonic oscillator. Illustrative RHFBz calculations are performed for Neon isotopes.

  13. Yang-Baxter deformations of supercoset sigma models with ℤ4m grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, San-Min; Yang, Wen-Li; Jang, Ke-Xia; Wang, Chun; Shuai, Xue-Min; Wang, Zhan-Yun; Shi, Gang

    2017-11-01

    We have studied Yang-Baxter deformations of supercoset sigma models with ℤ4m grading. The deformations are specified by a skew-symmetric classical r-matrix satisfying the classical Yang-Baxter equations. The deformed action is constructed and the Lax pair is also presented. When m=1, our results reduce to those of the type IIB Green-Schwarz superstring on AdS 5×S 5 background recently given by Kawaguchi, Matsumoto and Yoshida. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375141, 11425522, 11547050), Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (2013JQ1011, 2017ZDJC-32, 2016JM1027), Special Foundation for Basic Scientific Research of Central Colleges (310812152001, 310812172001, 2013G1121082, CHD2012JC019), Scientific Research Program Funded by Shaanxi Provincial Education Department (2013JK0628), Xi’an Shiyou University Science and Technology Foundation (2010QN018) and partly supported by the Basic Research Foundation of Engineering University of CAPF (WJY-201506)

  14. An Analytical Model for Rotation Stiffness and Deformation of an Antiloosening Nut under Locking Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Screw fasteners are undoubtedly one of the most important machine elements due to their outstanding characteristic to provide a high clamping force just with a simplified design. However, the loosen vibration is their inherent and inevitable fault. The friction locking approach is one of the basic locking fastener categories by enhancing the bearing load on the contact surface of thread by applying a locking force on an antiloosening nut. This locking force may cause more severe deformation in the nut. The contact stress distribution on the nut would be changed and that can cause the variation of the friction torque for the bolt joint. However, there exists no established design calculation procedure that accounts for the rotation deformation and its stiffness of the antiloosening nut under the locking force. The main objective of the work is to develop an analytical solution to the rotation deformation problem encountered in the antiloosening nut. The proposed model is supported by comparison with numerical finite element analysis of different sizes of joint elements and different applied forces.

  15. Development of a Two-Phase Model for the Hot Deformation of Highly-Alloyed Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Beaudoin; J. A. Dantzig; I. M. Robertson; B. E. Gore; S. F. Harnish; H. A. Padilla

    2005-10-31

    Conventional processing methods for highly alloyed aluminum consist of ingot casting, followed by hot rolling and thermal treatments. Defects result in lost productivity and wasted energy through the need to remelt and reprocess the material. This research centers on developing a fundamental understanding for deformation of wrought 705X series alloys, a key alloy system used in structural airframe applications. The development of damage at grain boundaries is characterized through a novel test that provides initiation of failure while preserving a controlled deformation response. Data from these mechanical tests are linked to computer simulations of the hot rolling process through a critical measure of damage. Transmission electron microscopy provides fundamental insight into deformation at these high working temperatures, and--in a novel link between microscale and macroscale response--the evolution of microstructure (crystallographic orientation) provides feedback for tuning of friction in the hot rolling process. The key product of this research is a modeling framework for the analysis of industrial hot rolling.

  16. Model of the Evolution of Deformation Defects and Irreversible Strain at Thermal Cycling of Stressed TiNi Alloy Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Aleksandr E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This microstructural model deals with simulation both of the reversible and irreversible deformation of a shape memory alloy (SMA. The martensitic transformation and the irreversible deformation due to the plastic accommodation of martensite are considered on the microscopic level. The irreversible deformation is described from the standpoint of the plastic flow theory. Isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening are taken into account and are related to the densities of scattered and oriented deformation defects. It is supposed that the phase transformation and the micro plastic deformation are caused by the generalized thermodynamic forces, which are the derivatives of the Gibbs’ potential of the two-phase body. In terms of these forces conditions for the phase transformation and for the micro plastic deformation on the micro level are formulated. The macro deformation of the representative volume of the polycrystal is calculated by averaging of the micro strains related to the evolution of the martensite Bain’s variants in each grain comprising this volume. The proposed model allowed simulating the evolution of the reversible and of the irreversible strains of a stressed SMA specimen under thermal cycles. The results show a good qualitative agreement with available experimental data. Specifically, it is shown that the model can describe a rather big irreversible strain in the first thermocycle and its fast decrease with the number of cycles.

  17. Longitudinal deformation models, spatial regularizations and learning strategies to quantify Alzheimer's disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Fiot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Alzheimer's disease, two challenging issues are (1 the characterization of local hippocampal shape changes specific to disease progression and (2 the identification of mild-cognitive impairment patients likely to convert. In the literature, (1 is usually solved first to detect areas potentially related to the disease. These areas are then considered as an input to solve (2. As an alternative to this sequential strategy, we investigate the use of a classification model using logistic regression to address both issues (1 and (2 simultaneously. The classification of the patients therefore does not require any a priori definition of the most representative hippocampal areas potentially related to the disease, as they are automatically detected. We first quantify deformations of patients' hippocampi between two time points using the large deformations by diffeomorphisms framework and transport these deformations to a common template. Since the deformations are expected to be spatially structured, we perform classification combining logistic loss and spatial regularization techniques, which have not been explored so far in this context, as far as we know. The main contribution of this paper is the comparison of regularization techniques enforcing the coefficient maps to be spatially smooth (Sobolev, piecewise constant (total variation or sparse (fused LASSO with standard regularization techniques which do not take into account the spatial structure (LASSO, ridge and ElasticNet. On a dataset of 103 patients out of ADNI, the techniques using spatial regularizations lead to the best classification rates. They also find coherent areas related to the disease progression.

  18. Development of Advanced Continuum Models that Incorporate Nanomechanical Deformation into Engineering Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; McDowell, David L.; Mayeur, Jason R.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Gao, Huajian

    2008-09-01

    Materials with characteristic structures at nanoscale sizes exhibit significantly different mechani-cal responses from those predicted by conventional, macroscopic continuum theory. For example,nanocrystalline metals display an inverse Hall-Petch effect whereby the strength of the materialdecreases with decreasing grain size. The origin of this effect is believed to be a change in defor-mation mechanisms from dislocation motion across grains and pileup at grain boundaries at mi-croscopic grain sizes to rotation of grains and deformation within grain boundary interface regionsfor nanostructured materials. These rotational defects are represented by the mathematical conceptof disclinations. The ability to capture these effects within continuum theory, thereby connectingnanoscale materials phenomena and macroscale behavior, has eluded the research community.The goal of our project was to develop a consistent theory to model both the evolution ofdisclinations and their kinetics. Additionally, we sought to develop approaches to extract contin-uum mechanical information from nanoscale structure to verify any developed continuum theorythat includes dislocation and disclination behavior. These approaches yield engineering-scale ex-pressions to quantify elastic and inelastic deformation in all varieties of materials, even those thatpossess highly directional bonding within their molecular structures such as liquid crystals, cova-lent ceramics, polymers and biological materials. This level of accuracy is critical for engineeringdesign and thermo-mechanical analysis is performed in micro- and nanosystems. The researchproposed here innovates on how these nanoscale deformation mechanisms should be incorporatedinto a continuum mechanical formulation, and provides the foundation upon which to develop ameans for predicting the performance of advanced engineering materials.4 AcknowledgmentThe authors acknowledge helpful discussions with Farid F. Abraham, Youping Chen, Terry J

  19. Dual-time scale crystal plasticity FE model for cyclic deformation of Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Sivom; Kirane, Kedar; Ghosh, Somnath

    2007-12-01

    A dual-time scale finite element model is developed in this paper for simulating cyclic deformation in a Titanium alloy Ti-6242. The material is characterized by crystal plasticity constitutive relations. Modeling cyclic deformation using conventional time integration algorithms in a single time scale can be prohibitive for crystal plasticity computations. Typically 3D crystal plasticity based fatigue simulations found in the literature are in the range of 100 cycles. Results are subsequently extrapolated to thousands of cycles, which can lead to considerable error in fatigue predictions. However, the dual-time scale model enables simulations up to a significantly high number of cycles to reach local states of damage initiation leading to fatigue crack growth. This formulation decomposes the governing equations into two sets of problems, corresponding to a coarse time scale (low frequency) cycle-averaged problem and a fine time scale (high frequency) oscillatory problem. A statistically equivalent 3D polycrystalline model of Ti-6242 is simulated by the crystal plasticity finite element model to study the evolution of local stresses and strains in the microstructure with cyclic loading. The comparison with the single time scale reference solution shows excellent accuracy while the efficiency gained through time-scale compression can be enormous.

  20. Numerical investigation of compaction of deformable particles with bonded-particle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosta, Maksym; Costa, Clara; Al-Qureshi, Hazim

    2017-06-01

    In this contribution, a novel approach developed for the microscale modelling of particles which undergo large deformations is presented. The proposed method is based on the bonded-particle model (BPM) and multi-stage strategy to adjust material and model parameters. By the BPM, modelled objects are represented as agglomerates which consist of smaller ideally spherical particles and are connected with cylindrical solid bonds. Each bond is considered as a separate object and in each time step the forces and moments acting in them are calculated. The developed approach has been applied to simulate the compaction of elastomeric rubber particles as single particles or in a random packing. To describe the complex mechanical behaviour of the particles, the solid bonds were modelled as ideally elastic beams. The functional parameters of solid bonds as well as material parameters of bonds and primary particles were estimated based on the experimental data for rubber spheres. Obtained results for acting force and for particle deformations during uniaxial compression are in good agreement with experimental data at higher strains.

  1. Numerical modeling of solute transport in deformable unsaturated layered soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil stratification was studied through numerical investigation based on the coupled model of solute transport in deformable unsaturated soil. The theoretical model implied two-way coupled excess pore pressure and soil deformation based on Biot's consolidation theory as well as a one-way coupled volatile pollutant concentration field developed from the advection-diffusion theory. Embedded in the model, the degree of saturation, fluid compressibility, self-weight of the soil matrix, porosity variance, longitudinal dispersion, and linear sorption were computed. Based on simulation results of a proposed three-layer landfill model using the finite element method, the multi-layer effects are discussed with regard to the hydraulic conductivity, shear modulus, degree of saturation, molecular diffusion coefficient, and thickness of each layer. Generally speaking, contaminants spread faster in a stratified field with a soft and highly permeable top layer; soil parameters of the top layer are more critical than the lower layers but controlling soil thicknesses will alter the results. This numerical investigation showed noticeable impacts of stratified soil properties on solute migration results, demonstrating the importance of correctly modeling layered soil instead of simply assuming the averaged properties across the soil profile.

  2. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  3. Evaluation of digital model accuracy and time-dependent deformation of alginate impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesur, M G; Omurlu, I K; Ozer, T

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of digital models produced with the three-dimensional dental scanner, and to test the dimensional stability of alginate impressions for durations of immediately (T0), 1 day (T1), and 2 days (T2). A total of sixty impressions were taken from a master model with an alginate, and were poured into plaster models in three different storage periods. Twenty impressions were directly scanned (negative digital models), after which plaster models were poured and scanned (positive digital models) immediately. The remaining 40 impressions were poured after 1 and 2 days. In total, 9 points and 11 linear measurements were used to analyze the plaster models, and negative and positive digital models. Time-dependent deformation of the alginate impressions and the accuracy of the conventional plaster models and digital models were evaluated separately. Plaster models, negative and positive digital models showed significant differences in nearly all measurements at T (0), T (1), and T (2) times (P 0.05), but they demonstrated statistically significant differences at T (2) time (P digital models offer a high degree of validity when compared to measurements on positive digital models and plaster models; differences between the techniques are clinically acceptable. Direct scanning of the impressions is practicable method for orthodontists.

  4. Evaluating topographic effects on ground deformation: Insights from finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchin, Erika; Geyer, Adelina; Marti, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Ground deformation has been demonstrated to be one of the most common signals of volcanic unrest. Although volcanoes are commonly associated with significant topographic relief, most analytical models assumed the Earth's surface as flat. In the last years, it has been confirmed that this approximation can lead to important misinterpretations of the recorded surface deformation data. Here we perform a systematic and quantitative analysis of how topography may influence ground deformation signals and how these variations correlate with the different topographic parameters characterizing the terrain form (e.g. slope, aspect, curvature, etc.). For this, we bring together the results exposed in previous published papers and complement them with new axisymmetric and 3D Finite Elements (FE) models results. First, we study, in a parametric way, the influence of a volcanic edifice centered above the pressure source axis. Second, we carry out new 3D FE models simulating the real topography of three different volcanic areas representative of topographic scenarios common in volcanic regions: Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea) and the volcanic islands of Tenerife and El Hierro (Canary Islands). The calculated differences are then correlated with a series of topographic parameters. The final aim is to investigate the artifacts that might arise from the use of half-space models at volcanic areas considering their diverse topographic features (e.g. collapse caldera structures, prominent central edifices, large landslide scars, etc.). Final conclusions may be also useful for the design of an optimal geodetic monitoring network. This research was partially funded by the European Commission (FP7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO")and RYC-2012-11024.

  5. Computational modelling of large deformations in layered-silicate/PET nanocomposites near the glass transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figiel, Łukasz; Dunne, Fionn P. E.; Buckley, C. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Layered-silicate nanoparticles offer a cost-effective reinforcement for thermoplastics. Computational modelling has been employed to study large deformations in layered-silicate/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanocomposites near the glass transition, as would be experienced during industrial forming processes such as thermoforming or injection stretch blow moulding. Non-linear numerical modelling was applied, to predict the macroscopic large deformation behaviour, with morphology evolution and deformation occurring at the microscopic level, using the representative volume element (RVE) approach. A physically based elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model, describing the behaviour of the PET matrix within the RVE, was numerically implemented into a finite element solver (ABAQUS) using an UMAT subroutine. The implementation was designed to be robust, for accommodating large rotations and stretches of the matrix local to, and between, the nanoparticles. The nanocomposite morphology was reconstructed at the RVE level using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm that placed straight, high-aspect ratio particles according to the specified orientation and volume fraction, with the assumption of periodicity. Computational experiments using this methodology enabled prediction of the strain-stiffening behaviour of the nanocomposite, observed experimentally, as functions of strain, strain rate, temperature and particle volume fraction. These results revealed the probable origins of the enhanced strain stiffening observed: (a) evolution of the morphology (through particle re-orientation) and (b) early onset of stress-induced pre-crystallization (and hence lock-up of viscous flow), triggered by the presence of particles. The computational model enabled prediction of the effects of process parameters (strain rate, temperature) on evolution of the morphology, and hence on the end-use properties.

  6. Mathematical and computational modeling of a ferrofluid deformable mirror for high-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Aaron J.; Griffiths, Ian M.; Groff, Tyler D.; Rousing, Andreas W.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2016-07-01

    Deformable mirrors (DMs) are an enabling and mission-critical technology in any coronagraphic instrument designed to directly image exoplanets. A new ferro fluid deformable mirror technology for high-contrast imaging is currently under development at Princeton, featuring a flexible optical surface manipulated by the local electromagnetic and global hydraulic actuation of a reservoir of ferro fluid. The ferro fluid DM is designed to prioritize high optical surface quality, high-precision/low-stroke actuation, and excellent low-spatial-frequency performance - capabilities that meet the unique demands of high-contrast coronagraphy in a space-based platform. To this end, the ferro-fluid medium continuously supports the DM face sheet, a configuration that eliminates actuator print-through (or, quilting) by decoupling the nominal surface figure from the geometry of the actuator array. The global pressure control allows independent focus actuation. In this paper we describe an analytical model for the quasi-static deformation response of the DM face sheet to both magnetic and pressure actuation. These modeling efforts serve to identify the key design parameters and quantify their contributions to the DM response, model the relationship between actuation commands and DM surface-profile response, and predict performance metrics such as achievable spatial resolution and stroke precision for specific actuator configurations. Our theoretical approach addresses the complexity of the boundary conditions associated with mechanical mounting of the face sheet, and makes use of asymptotic approximations by leveraging the three distinct length scales in the problem - namely, the low-stroke ( nm) actuation, face sheet thickness ( mm), and mirror diameter (cm). In addition to describing the theoretical treatment, we report the progress of computational multi physics simulations which will be useful in improving the model fidelity and in drawing conclusions to improve the design.

  7. Stress and deformation of rocket gas turbine disc under different loads using finite element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Elhefny

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine discs have numerous applications in the aerospace industry, such as in liquid rocket engines. In this study, the stresses and deformations of a turbine disc were studied. The goal was to highlight the stress and deformation distribution to assist in the design of a disc as well as to demonstrate the importance of using finite element (FE analysis in simulating an actual design case. Then, to present the real model, a two-dimensional (2D axisymmetric model for a non-uniform disc was analysed using FE analysis. The stresses and deformations developed as a result of the disc operating conditions at high rotational speeds and thermal gradients were evaluated using two types of heat transfer modes—conduction and convection, taking into consideration the material behaviour at elevated temperatures. The FE model revealed that the weight of the disc should be reduced optimally by using a non-uniform thickness because this results in a huge increase in the applied stresses. The greatest stresses in the disc result from the thermal load caused by conduction, and they are located at the centre of the disc. In addition, an analytical method was used to evaluate and predict the stresses along the disc, and it gave a good estimate of the stress values compared to the FE model. Based on this estimate, a parametric study was conducted for a range of rotational velocities under high temperature loads for a series of disc radii. Finally, it was found that this method can be used for the preliminary design of different turbines.

  8. Crustal deformation induced by mantle dynamics: insights from models of gravitational lithosphere removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huilin; Currie, Claire A.

    2017-08-01

    Mantle-based stresses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of deformation in the interior regions of continental plates, far from the effects of plate boundary processes. We examine how the gravitational removal of a dense mantle lithosphere root may induce deformation of the overlying crust. Simplified numerical models and a theoretical analysis are used to investigate the physical mechanisms for deformation and assess the surface expression of removal. Three behaviours are identified: (1) where the entire crust is strong, stresses from the downwelling mantle are efficiently transferred through the crust. There is little crustal deformation and removal is accompanied by surface subsidence and a negative free-air gravity anomaly. Surface uplift and increased free-air gravity occur after the dense root detaches. (2) If the mid-crust is weak, the dense root creates a lateral pressure gradient in the crust that drives Poiseuille flow in the weak layer. This induces crustal thickening, surface uplift and a minor free-air gravity anomaly above the root. (3) If the lower crust is weak, deformation occurs through pressure-driven Poiseuille flow and Couette flow due to basal shear. This can overthicken the crust, producing a topographic high and a negative free-air gravity anomaly above the root. In the latter two cases, surface uplift occurs prior to the removal of the mantle stress. The modeling results predict that syn-removal uplift will occur if the crustal viscosity is less than ∼1021 Pa s, corresponding to temperatures greater than ∼400-500 °C for a dry and felsic or wet and mafic composition, and ∼900 °C for a dry and mafic composition. If crustal temperatures are lower than this, lithosphere removal is marked by the formation of a basin. These results can explain the variety of surface expressions observed above areas of downwelling mantle. In addition, observations of the surface deflection may provide a way to constrain the vertical rheological

  9. A three-dimensional coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical model for deformable fractured geothermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salimzadeh, Saeed; Paluszny, Adriana; Nick, Hamidreza M.

    2018-01-01

    A fully coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) finite element model is presented for fractured geothermal reservoirs. Fractures are modelled as surface discontinuities within a three-dimensional matrix. Non-isothermal flow through the rock matrix and fractures are defined and coupled to a mec......A fully coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) finite element model is presented for fractured geothermal reservoirs. Fractures are modelled as surface discontinuities within a three-dimensional matrix. Non-isothermal flow through the rock matrix and fractures are defined and coupled....... The model has been validated against several analytical solutions, and applied to study the effects of the deformable fractures on the injection of cold water in fractured geothermal systems. Results show that the creation of flow channelling due to the thermal volumetric contraction of the rock matrix...

  10. Closed-loop model identification of cooperative manipulators holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents system identification to obtain the closed-loop models of a couple of cooperative manipulators in a system, which function to hold deformable objects. The system works using the master-slave principle. In other words, one of the manipulators is position-controlled through encoder feedback, while a force sensor gives feedback to the other force-controlled manipulator. Using the closed-loop input and output data, the closed-loop models, which are useful for model-based control design, are estimated. The criteria for model validation are a 95% fit between the measured and simulated output of the estimated models and residual analysis. The results show that for both position and force control respectively, the fits are 95.73% and 95.88%.

  11. Coupling models of crustal deformation and mantle convection: An application of GeoFramework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Lavier, L.; Quenette, S.; Tan, E.; Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.; Appelbe, B.

    2004-12-01

    Crustal and mantle deformation are two closely coupled dynamical systems, usually solved in isolation. To numerically solve this problem, it is desirable to have both the crust and mantle as active components of the dynamics. However, materials composing the crust and mantle respond to loading differently and two different constitutive relations are necessary to describe the rheology of this system. Deformations also occur over a wide range of length scales: from a few 100 m for fault zones to well over 104 km for the largest scales involved in mantle convection. As a result, the numerical cost for a single model to resolve all of these spatial features while also incorporating distinct material types is prohibitive. Coupling two distinct modeling codes within a computational framework is a natural avenue to tackle the multi-material and multi-scale dynamics associated with the crust-mantle system. Using GeoFramework (http://geoframework.org), an extension of the Pyre, Python-based modeling framework, the SNAC and CitcomS codes are dynamically coupled. CitcomS has been used in variety of studies of mantle convection; this finite element package has been entirely reengineered within the Pyre environment. SNAC is based on the FLAC algorithm and is well-suited to modeling crustal deformation because it can deal with linear elastic, Maxwell viscoelastic, or elastoplastic rheology with a Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Using the Pyre-coupled SNAC and CitcomS codes, we run 3D numerical experiments of the extension of lithosphere in the presence of a rising mantle plume within a regional spherical geometry. The full thickness of the crust is simulated with SNAC and mantle convection with CitcomS. In the far field, deformation is partly driven by prescribed velocities described by two diverging plates around a single Euler pole. This specific setting for the problem is intended to help understand the evolution of the Red Sea and Afar triple junction. We will show the dynamic

  12. A comparison of numerical methods used for finite element modelling of soft tissue deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Pathmanathan, P

    2009-05-01

    Soft tissue deformation is often modelled using incompressible non-linear elasticity, with solutions computed using the finite element method. There are a range of options available when using the finite element method, in particular the polynomial degree of the basis functions used for interpolating position and pressure, and the type of element making up the mesh. The effect of these choices on the accuracy of the computed solution is investigated, using a selection of model problems motivated by typical deformations seen in soft tissue modelling. Model problems are set up with discontinuous material properties (as is the case for the breast), steeply changing gradients in the body force (as found in contracting cardiac tissue), and discontinuous first derivatives in the solution at the boundary, caused by a discontinuous applied force (as in the breast during mammography). It was found that the choice of pressure basis functions is vital in the presence of a material interface, higher-order schemes do not perform as well as may be expected when there are sharp gradients, and in general it is important to take the expected regularity of the solution into account when choosing a numerical scheme. © IMechE 2009.

  13. A novel multitemporal insar model for joint estimation of deformation rates and orbital errors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lei

    2014-06-01

    Orbital errors, characterized typically as longwavelength artifacts, commonly exist in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery as a result of inaccurate determination of the sensor state vector. Orbital errors degrade the precision of multitemporal InSAR products (i.e., ground deformation). Although research on orbital error reduction has been ongoing for nearly two decades and several algorithms for reducing the effect of the errors are already in existence, the errors cannot always be corrected efficiently and reliably. We propose a novel model that is able to jointly estimate deformation rates and orbital errors based on the different spatialoral characteristics of the two types of signals. The proposed model is able to isolate a long-wavelength ground motion signal from the orbital error even when the two types of signals exhibit similar spatial patterns. The proposed algorithm is efficient and requires no ground control points. In addition, the method is built upon wrapped phases of interferograms, eliminating the need of phase unwrapping. The performance of the proposed model is validated using both simulated and real data sets. The demo codes of the proposed model are also provided for reference. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. 3D computational modeling and simulation of leukocyte rolling adhesion and deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Vijay; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2008-06-01

    A 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model is presented to simulate transient rolling adhesion and deformation of leukocytes over a P-selectin coated surface in shear flow. The computational model is based on immersed boundary method for cell deformation, and stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for receptor/ligand interaction. The model is shown to predict the characteristic 'stop-and-go' motion of rolling leukocytes. Here we examine the effect of cell deformation, shear rate, and microvilli distribution on the rolling characteristics. Comparison with experimental measurements is presented throughout the article. We observe that compliant cells roll more stably, and have longer pause times due to reduced bond force and increased bond lifetime. Microvilli presentation is shown to affect rolling characteristics by altering the step size, but not pause times. Our simulations predict a significant sideway motion of the cell arising purely due to receptor/ligand interaction, and discrete nature of microvilli distribution. Adhesion is seen to occur via multiple tethers, each of which forms multiple selectin bonds, but often one tether is sufficient to support rolling. The adhesion force is concentrated in only 1-3 tethered microvilli in the rear-most part of a cell. We also observe that the number of selectin bonds that hold the cell effectively against hydrodynamic shear is significantly less than the total adhesion bonds formed between a cell and the substrate. The force loading on individual microvillus and selectin bond is not continuous, rather occurs in steps. Further, we find that the peak force on a tethered microvillus is much higher than that measured to cause tether extrusion.

  15. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  16. Modeling static and dynamic thermography of the human breast under elastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jiang; Loew, Murray H [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Wang Zhan, E-mail: loew@gwu.edu [Radiology Department, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121 (United States)

    2011-01-07

    An abnormal thermogram has been shown to be a reliable indicator of increased risk of breast cancer. Numerical modeling techniques for thermography are proposed to quantify the complex relationships between the breast thermal behaviors and the underlying physiological/pathological conditions. Previous thermal modeling techniques did not account for gravity-induced elastic deformation arising from various body postures, nor did they suggest that a dynamic thermal procedure may be used to enhance clinical diagnosis. In this paper, 3D finite element method (FEM)-based thermal and elastic modeling techniques are developed to characterize comprehensively both the thermal and elastic properties of normal and tumorous breast tissues during static and dynamic thermography. In the steady state, gravity-induced breast deformation is found to cause an upper-lower asymmetric surface temperature contrast for sitting/standing up body posture, even though all the thermal and elastic properties are assumed uniform. Additionally, the tumor-induced surface temperature alterations are found to be caused primarily by shallow tumors and to be less sensitive to tumor size than to tumor depth. In the dynamic state, the breast exhibits distinctive temporal patterns that are associated with distinct thermal events: cold stress and thermal recovery induced by changes in the ambient temperature. Specifically, the tumor-induced thermal contrast shows an opposite initial change and delayed peak as compared with the deformation-induced thermal contrast. These findings are expected to provide a stronger foundation for, and greater specificity and precision in, thermographic diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer.

  17. Modeling static and dynamic thermography of the human breast under elastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhan, Wang; Loew, Murray H.

    2011-01-01

    An abnormal thermogram has been shown to be a reliable indicator of increased risk of breast cancer. Numerical modeling techniques for thermography are proposed to quantify the complex relationships between the breast thermal behaviors and the underlying physiological/pathological conditions. Previous thermal modeling techniques did not account for gravity-induced elastic deformation arising from various body postures, nor did they suggest that a dynamic thermal procedure may be used to enhance clinical diagnosis. In this paper, 3D finite element method (FEM)-based thermal and elastic modeling techniques are developed to characterize comprehensively both the thermal and elastic properties of normal and tumorous breast tissues during static and dynamic thermography. In the steady state, gravity-induced breast deformation is found to cause an upper-lower asymmetric surface temperature contrast for sitting/standing up body posture, even though all the thermal and elastic properties are assumed uniform. Additionally, the tumor-induced surface temperature alterations are found to be caused primarily by shallow tumors and to be less sensitive to tumor size than to tumor depth. In the dynamic state, the breast exhibits distinctive temporal patterns that are associated with distinct thermal events: cold stress and thermal recovery induced by changes in the ambient temperature. Specifically, the tumor-induced thermal contrast shows an opposite initial change and delayed peak as compared with the deformation-induced thermal contrast. These findings are expected to provide a stronger foundation for, and greater specificity and precision in, thermographic diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer.

  18. Deformable object model and simulation. Application to lung cancer treatment; Modelisation et simulation parametrable d'objets deformables. Application aux traitements des cancers pulmonaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudet, V

    2006-06-15

    Ionising treatment against cancers such as conformal radiotherapy and hadron therapy are set with error margins that take into account statistics of tumour motions, for instance. We are looking for reducing these margins by searching deformable models that would simulate displacements occurring in lungs during a treatment. It must be personalized with the geometry obtained from CT scans of the patient and also it must be parameterized with physiological measures of the patient. In this Ph. D. thesis, we decided to use a mass-spring system to model lungs because of its fast and physically realist deformations obtained in animation. As a starting point, we chose the model proposed by Van Gelder in order to parameterize a mass-spring system with rheological characteristics of an homogeneous, linear elastic isotropic material in two dimensions (2D). However, we tested this model and proved it was false. Hence we did a Lagrangian study in order to obtain a parametric model with rectangular in 2D (cubic in 3D) elements. We also determined the robustness by testing with stretching, inflating, shearing and bending experiments and also by comparing results with other infinite element method. Thus, in this Ph.D. thesis, we explain how to obtain this parametric model, and how it will be linked to physiological data and how accurate it will be. (author)

  19. Principal axes estimation using the vibration modes of physics-based deformable models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinidis, Stelios; Chatzis, Vassilios

    2008-06-01

    This paper addresses the issue of accurate, effective, computationally efficient, fast, and fully automated 2-D object orientation and scaling factor estimation. The object orientation is calculated using object principal axes estimation. The approach relies on the object's frequency-based features. The frequency-based features used by the proposed technique are extracted by a 2-D physics-based deformable model that parameterizes the objects shape. The method was evaluated on synthetic and real images. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy of the method, both in orientation and the scaling estimations.

  20. Finite element modelling of moisture related and visco-elastic deformations in inhomogeneous timber beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, Ola

    2013-01-01

    of several simply-supported and continuous composite beams subjected to both mechanical and environmental loading to illustrate the advantages this can provide. The results indicate clearly both the inhomogeneity of the material and the variable moisture action occurring to have had a significant effect...... composites behave during both mechanical and environmental load action. The beam element is exposed to both axial and lateral deformation. The material model employed concerns the elastic, shrinkage, mechano-sorption and visco-elastic behaviour of the wood material. It is used here to simulate the behaviour...

  1. Deformation analysis of polymers composites: rheological model involving time-based fractional derivative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Yi, H. Y.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    -bond-shaped GFRP composites at various stress level. A negative exponent function based on structural changes is introduced to describe the damage evolution of material properties in the process of creep test. Accordingly, a new creep constitutive equation, referred to fractional derivative Maxwell model...... by the fractional derivative Maxwell model proposed in the paper are in a good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the new creep constitutive model proposed in the paper needs few parameters to represent various time-dependent behaviors.......A modeling approach to time-dependent property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) composites is of special interest for quantitative description of long-term behavior. An electronic creep machine is employed to investigate the time-dependent deformation of four specimens of dog...

  2. Optimal time lags to use in modeling the thermal deformation of VLBI Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, K.; Gipson, J. M.; Juhl, J.; MacMillan, D. S.

    2013-08-01

    One of the most significant effects on VLBI antennas is thermal expansion which can change the height of the VLBI reference point by as much as 20mm. In this paper, we investigate how using a thermal expansion model in VLBI processing improves the solution, as well as the optimal time delay for the variations in temperature to introduce for the steel telescope structure and for a concrete structure. We use the software Solve and the conventional model of Nothnagel 2009 implemented in Solve. We compare different solutions processed using the R1 and R4 sessions from January 2002 to March 2011: 1) not using the thermal expansion model, 2) using it with no time delay and then 3) different time delays. We show that using the thermal deformation model improves the baseline length repeatability of the solutions by more than 1mm and for more than 75 % of the baselines, as well as reduces the WRMS per station.

  3. Homogenized modeling methodology for 18650 lithium-ion battery module under large deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Zhang, Jinjie; Cheng, Pengle

    2017-01-01

    Effective lithium-ion battery module modeling has become a bottleneck for full-size electric vehicle crash safety numerical simulation. Modeling every single cell in detail would be costly. However, computational accuracy could be lost if the module is modeled by using a simple bulk material or rigid body. To solve this critical engineering problem, a general method to establish a computational homogenized model for the cylindrical battery module is proposed. A single battery cell model is developed and validated through radial compression and bending experiments. To analyze the homogenized mechanical properties of the module, a representative unit cell (RUC) is extracted with the periodic boundary condition applied on it. An elastic-plastic constitutive model is established to describe the computational homogenized model for the module. Two typical packing modes, i.e., cubic dense packing and hexagonal packing for the homogenized equivalent battery module (EBM) model, are targeted for validation compression tests, as well as the models with detailed single cell description. Further, the homogenized EBM model is confirmed to agree reasonably well with the detailed battery module (DBM) model for different packing modes with a length scale of up to 15 × 15 cells and 12% deformation where the short circuit takes place. The suggested homogenized model for battery module makes way for battery module and pack safety evaluation for full-size electric vehicle crashworthiness analysis.

  4. A hybrid Brownian dynamics/constitutive model for yielding, aging, and rejuvenation in deforming polymeric glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Weizhong; Larson, Ronald G

    2016-08-10

    We present a hybrid model for polymeric glasses under deformation that combines a minimal model of segmental dynamics with a beads-and-springs model of a polymer, solved by Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations, whose relaxation is coupled to the segmental dynamics through the drag coefficient of the beads. This coarse-grained model allows simulations that are much faster than molecular dynamics and successfully capture the entire range of mechanical response including yielding, plastic flow, strain-hardening, and incomplete strain recovery. The beads-and-springs model improves upon the dumbbell model for glassy polymers proposed by Fielding et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108, 048301) by capturing the small elastic recoil seen experimentally without the use of ad hoc adjustments of parameters required in the model of Fielding et al. With appropriate choice of parameters, predictions of creep, recovery, and segmental relaxation are found to be in good agreement with poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) data of Lee et al. (Science, 2009, 323, 231-234). Our model shows dramatic differences in behavior of the segmental relaxation time between extensional creep and steady extension, and between extension and shear. The non-monotonic response of the segmental relaxation time to extensional creep and the small elastic recovery after removal of stress are shown to arise from sub-chains that are trapped between folds, and that become highly oriented and stretched at strains of order unity, connecting the behavior of glassy polymers under creep to that of dilute polymer solutions under fast extensional flows. We are also able to predict the effects of polymer pre-orientation in the parallel or orthogonal direction on the subsequent response to extensional deformation.

  5. Sea-ice deformation in a coupled ocean-sea-ice model and in satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, Gunnar; Kwok, Ron; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Nguyen, An T.

    2017-07-01

    A realistic representation of sea-ice deformation in models is important for accurate simulation of the sea-ice mass balance. Simulated sea-ice deformation from numerical simulations with 4.5, 9, and 18 km horizontal grid spacing and a viscous-plastic (VP) sea-ice rheology are compared with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite observations (RGPS, RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System) for the time period 1996-2008. All three simulations can reproduce the large-scale ice deformation patterns, but small-scale sea-ice deformations and linear kinematic features (LKFs) are not adequately reproduced. The mean sea-ice total deformation rate is about 40 % lower in all model solutions than in the satellite observations, especially in the seasonal sea-ice zone. A decrease in model grid spacing, however, produces a higher density and more localized ice deformation features. The 4.5 km simulation produces some linear kinematic features, but not with the right frequency. The dependence on length scale and probability density functions (PDFs) of absolute divergence and shear for all three model solutions show a power-law scaling behavior similar to RGPS observations, contrary to what was found in some previous studies. Overall, the 4.5 km simulation produces the most realistic divergence, vorticity, and shear when compared with RGPS data. This study provides an evaluation of high and coarse-resolution viscous-plastic sea-ice simulations based on spatial distribution, time series, and power-law scaling metrics.

  6. Modeling the Mechanical Response of In Vivo Human Skin Under a Rich Set of Deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac

    2011-03-11

    Determining the mechanical properties of an individual\\'s skin is important in the fields of pathology, biomedical device design, and plastic surgery. To address this need, we present a finite element model that simulates the skin of the anterior forearm and posterior upper arm under a rich set of three-dimensional deformations. We investigated the suitability of the Ogden and Tong and Fung strain energy functions along with a quasi-linear viscoelastic law. Using non-linear optimization techniques, we found material parameters and in vivo pre-stresses for different volunteers. The model simulated the experiments with errors-of-fit ranging from 13.7 to 21.5%. Pre-stresses ranging from 28 to 92 kPa were estimated. We show that using only in-plane experimental data in the parameter optimization results in a poor prediction of the out-of-plane response. The identifiability of the model parameters, which are evaluated using different determinability criteria, improves by increasing the number of deformation orientations in the experiments. © 2011 Biomedical Engineering Society.

  7. Quasi-integrability in deformed sine-Gordon models and infinite towers of conserved charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Harold; Callisaya, Hector Flores

    2018-02-01

    We have studied the space-reflection symmetries of some soliton solutions of deformed sine-Gordon models in the context of the quasi-integrability concept. Considering a dual pair of anomalous Lax representations of the deformed model we compute analytically and numerically an infinite number of alternating conserved and asymptotically conserved charges through a modification of the usual techniques of integrable field theories. The charges associated to two-solitons with a definite parity under space-reflection symmetry, i.e. kink-kink (odd parity) and kink-antikink (even parity) scatterings with equal and opposite velocities, split into two infinite towers of conserved and asymptotically conserved charges. For two-solitons without definite parity under space-reflection symmetry (kink-kink and kink-antikink scatterings with unequal and opposite velocities) our numerical results show the existence of the asymptotically conserved charges only. However, we show that in the center-of-mass reference frame of the two solitons the parity symmetries and their associated set of exactly conserved charges can be restored. Moreover, the positive parity breather-like (kink-antikink bound state) solution exhibits a tower of exactly conserved charges and a subset of charges which are periodic in time. We back up our results with extensive numerical simulations which also demonstrate the existence of long lived breather-like states in these models. The time evolution has been simulated by the 4th order Runge-Kutta method supplied with non-reflecting boundary conditions.

  8. Nuclear Phase Transition from Spherical to Axially Symmetric Deformed Shapes Using Interacting Boson Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The interacting boson model (sd-IBM1 with intrinsic coherent state is used to study the shape phase transitions from spherical U(5 to prolate deformed SU(3 shapes in Nd- Sm isotopic chains. The Hamiltonian is written in the creation and annihilation form with one and two body terms.For each nucleus a fitting procedure is adopted to get the best model parameters by fitting selected experimental energy levels, B(E2 transi- tion rates and two-neutron separation energies with the calculated ones.The U(5-SU(3 IBM potential energy surfaces (PES’s are analyzed and the critical phase transition points are identified in the space of model parameters.In Nd-Sm isotopic chains nuclei evolve from spherical to deformed shapes by increasing the boson number. The nuclei 150 Nd and 152 Sm have been found to be close to critical points.We have also studied the energy ratios and the B(E2 values for yrast band at the critical points.

  9. A Finite Element Modeling Study on the Fingertip Deformation under Pressure Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure stimulus causes skin deformation and tactile sensation on the fingertip. Both theoretical approach and experimental technique may be used to investigate the relationship between the deformation and the sensation. Building an appropriate skin model is the most important step for further theoretical and experimental analysis. In this paper, a two dimensional (2D fingertip biomechanical model employing finite element (FE method is proposed based on the physiological structure of skin. With biomechanical and electrophysiological simulations, the predicted distributions of the strain energy density (SED and the stress/strain are obtained. The relation between the predicted biomechanical responses of the subcutaneous tissue and the discharged rate reported in the literatures are investigated. The results show that the soft tissues of fingertips are very sensitive to the external stimulus, and the spatial distribution characteristics of SED within soft tissues can explain the evoked charging rate of mechanoreceptors effectively. The simulation data of the proposed FE model is highly consistent with the verified data.

  10. Affine q-deformed symmetry and the classical Yang-Baxter σ-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delduc, F.; Kameyama, T.; Magro, M. [Université de Lyon, ENS de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique,F-69342 Lyon (France); Vicedo, B. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire,College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-23

    The Yang-Baxter σ-model is an integrable deformation of the principal chiral model on a Lie group G. The deformation breaks the G×G symmetry to U(1){sup rank(G)}×G. It is known that there exist non-local conserved charges which, together with the unbroken U(1){sup rank(G)} local charges, form a Poisson algebra U{sub q}(g), which is the semiclassical limit of the quantum group U{sub q}(g), with g the Lie algebra of G. For a general Lie group G with rank(G)>1, we extend the previous result by constructing local and non-local conserved charges satisfying all the defining relations of the infinite-dimensional Poisson algebra U{sub q}(Lg), the classical analogue of the quantum loop algebra U{sub q}(Lg), where Lg is the loop algebra of g. Quite unexpectedly, these defining relations are proved without encountering any ambiguity related to the non-ultralocality of this integrable σ-model.

  11. Validation and prediction of traditional Chinese physical operation on spinal disease using multiple deformation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Yang, Xubo; Gu, Lixu; Lu, Wenlong; Fang, Min

    2011-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medical massage is a physical manipulation that achieves satisfactory results on spinal diseases, according to its advocates. However, the method relies on an expert's experience. Accurate analysis and simulation of massage are essential for validation of traditional Chinese physical treatment. The objective of this study is to provide analysis and simulation that can reproducibly verify and predict treatment efficacy. An improved physical multi-deformation model for simulating human cervical spine is proposed. First, the human spine, which includes muscle, vertebrae and inter- vertebral disks, are segmented and reconstructed from clinical CT and MR images. Homogeneous landmark registration is employed to align the spine models before and after the massage manipulation. Central line mass spring and contact FEM deformation models are used to individually evaluate spinal anatomy variations. The response of the human spine during the massage process is simulated based on specific clinical cases. Ten sets of patient data, including muscle-force relationships, displacement of vertebrae, strain and stress distribution on inter-vertebral disks were collected, including the pre-operation, post-operation and the 3-month follow-up. The simulation results demonstrate that traditional Chinese massage could significantly affect and treat most mild spinal disease. A new method that simulates a traditional Chinese medical massage operation on the human spine may be a useful tool to scientifically validate and predict treatment efficacy.

  12. Estimating patient-specific and anatomically correct reference model for craniomaxillofacial deformity via sparse representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Ren, Yi; Gao, Yaozong; Tang, Zhen; Chen, Ken-Chung; Li, Jianfu; Shen, Steve G F; Yan, Jin; Lee, Philip K M; Chow, Ben; Xia, James J; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-10-01

    A significant number of patients suffer from craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformity and require CMF surgery in the United States. The success of CMF surgery depends on not only the surgical techniques but also an accurate surgical planning. However, surgical planning for CMF surgery is challenging due to the absence of a patient-specific reference model. Currently, the outcome of the surgery is often subjective and highly dependent on surgeon's experience. In this paper, the authors present an automatic method to estimate an anatomically correct reference shape of jaws for orthognathic surgery, a common type of CMF surgery. To estimate a patient-specific jaw reference model, the authors use a data-driven method based on sparse shape composition. Given a dictionary of normal subjects, the authors first use the sparse representation to represent the midface of a patient by the midfaces of the normal subjects in the dictionary. Then, the derived sparse coefficients are used to reconstruct a patient-specific reference jaw shape. The authors have validated the proposed method on both synthetic and real patient data. Experimental results show that the authors' method can effectively reconstruct the normal shape of jaw for patients. The authors have presented a novel method to automatically estimate a patient-specific reference model for the patient suffering from CMF deformity.

  13. Crustal deformation across the Southern Patagonian Icefield: GNSS observations and GIA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Luciano; Richter, Andreas; Marderwald, Eric; Hormaechea, José Luis; Ivins, Erik; Perdomo, Raúl; Lange, Heiner; Schröder, Ludwig; Dietrich, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    We present the geodetic observation and geodynamic interpretation of crustal deformation rates in a network of 43 GNSS sites covering the region of the Southern Patagonian Icefield (Argentina and Chile). Repeated and semi-permanent GNSS observations initiated in 1996 yield 3D site velocities within a terrestrial reference frame with mean accuracies of 1 mm/a and 6 mm/a for the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. These site velocities are interpreted with regard to the magnitude, patterns and primary driving processes of vertical and horizontal present-day crustal deformation (Richter et al. 2016). The vertical site velocities document a rapid uplift causally related to glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) reaching 4 cm/a. They yield now an unambiguous preference between two competing regional GIA models (Lange et al. 2014). Remaining discrepancies between the preferred model and our observations point toward an exceptionally low effective upper mantle viscosity and effects of lateral rheological heterogeneities. The extension and geometry of our network allow, for the first time, also a detailed analysis of the horizontal velocity components. An analysis of the horizontal strain-rate field reveals a complex composite, with compression dominating in the west and extension in the east. The observed velocities suggest significant contributions from three processes: GIA, a western interseismic tectonic deformation field related to plate subduction, and an extensional strain-rate field related to active Patagonian slab window tectonics. They document a dual interaction between the peculiar tectonic situation and the visco-elastic response to ice-load changes: First, a mechanical superposition of the characteristic patterns of each of the three processes, which results in the complex superposition of horizontal deformation revealed by our strain analysis. And second, the lateral differentiation of the glacial-isostatic response imposed by the three

  14. Three-dimensional modeling for deformation of austenitic NiTi shape memory alloys under high strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Young, Marcus L.

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for phase transformation of shape memory alloys (SMAs) during high strain rate deformation is developed and is then calibrated based on experimental results from an austenitic NiTi SMA. Stress, strain, and martensitic volume fraction distribution during high strain rate deformation are simulated using finite element analysis software ABAQUS/standard. For the first time, this paper presents a theoretical study of the microscopic band structure during high strain rate compressive deformation. The microscopic transformation band is generated by the phase front and leads to minor fluctuations in sample deformation. The strain rate effect on phase transformation is studied using the model. Both the starting stress for transformation and the slope of the stress–strain curve during phase transformation increase with increasing strain rate.

  15. Hydrological deformation induced by the West African Monsoon: Comparison of GPS, GRACE and loading models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmani, Samuel; Bock, Olivier; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Boy, Jean-Paul; Collilieux, Xavier; Métivier, Laurent; Panet, Isabelle; Genthon, Pierre; de Linage, Caroline; Wöppelmann, Guy

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional ground deformation measured with permanent GPS stations in West Africa was used for investigating the hydrological loading deformation associated with Monsoon precipitation. The GPS data were processed within a global network for the 2003-2008 period. Weekly station positions were retrieved with a repeatability (including unmodeled loading effects) of 1-2 mm in the horizontal components and between 2.5 and 6 mm in the vertical component. The annual signal in the vertical component for sites located between 9.6°N and 16.7°N is in the range 10-15 mm. It is consistent at the 3 mm-level with the annual regional-scale loading deformations estimated from GRACE satellite products and modeled with a combination of hydrological, atmospheric, and nontidal oceanic models. An additional 6 month transient signal was detected in the vertical component of GPS estimates at most of the West African sites. It takes the form of an oscillation occurring between September and March, and reaching a maximum amplitude of 12-16 mm at Ouagadougou (12.5°N). The analysis of in situ hydro-geological data revealed a strong coincidence between this transient signal and peak river discharge at three sites located along the Niger River (Timbuktu, Gao, and Niamey). At Ouagadougou, a similar coincidence was found with the seasonal variations of the water table depth. We propose a mechanism to account for this signal that involves a sequence of swelling/shrinking of clays combined with local loading effects associated with flooding of the Niger River.

  16. Model-based registration for assessment of spinal deformities in idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Lundström, Claes; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of spinal deformity is important within orthopaedic healthcare, in particular for assessment of idiopathic scoliosis. This paper addresses this challenge by proposing an image analysis method, capable of providing a full three-dimensional spine characterization. The proposed method is based on the registration of a highly detailed spine model to image data from computed tomography. The registration process provides an accurate segmentation of each individual vertebra and the ability to derive various measures describing the spinal deformity. The derived measures are estimated from landmarks attached to the spine model and transferred to the patient data according to the registration result. Evaluation of the method provides an average point-to-surface error of 0.9 mm ± 0.9 (comparing segmentations), and an average target registration error of 2.3 mm ± 1.7 (comparing landmarks). Comparing automatic and manual measurements of axial vertebral rotation provides a mean absolute difference of 2.5° ± 1.8, which is on a par with other computerized methods for assessing axial vertebral rotation. A significant advantage of our method, compared to other computerized methods for rotational measurements, is that it does not rely on vertebral symmetry for computing the rotational measures. The proposed method is fully automatic and computationally efficient, only requiring three to four minutes to process an entire image volume covering vertebrae L5 to T1. Given the use of landmarks, the method can be readily adapted to estimate other measures describing a spinal deformity by changing the set of employed landmarks. In addition, the method has the potential to be utilized for accurate segmentations of the vertebrae in routine computed tomography examinations, given the relatively low point-to-surface error.

  17. InSAR observations and models of crustal deformation due to a glacial surge in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A.; Spaans, K. H.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.

    2014-09-01

    Surges are common at all the major ice caps in Iceland. Ice masses of gigatons may shift from the upper part of the outlet glacier towards the terminus in a few months, advancing the glacier front by up to several kilometres. The advancing ice front may be up to 100 m thick, increasing the load on crustal rocks correspondingly. We use the observed change in crustal loading during a surge of the western part of the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, during 1993-1995 and the corresponding elastic crustal deformation, surveyed with interferometric synthetic aperture radar, to investigate the material properties of the solid Earth in this region. Crustal subsidence due to the surge reaches ˜75 mm at the edge of the Síðujökull outlet glacier. This signal is mixed with a broad uplift signal of ˜12 mm yr-1, relative to our reference area, caused by the ongoing retreat of Vatnajökull in response to climate change. We disentangle the two signals by linear inversion. Finite element modelling is used to investigate the elastic Earth response of the surge, as well as to confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. The modelling leads to estimates of the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the underlying Earth. Comparison between the observed and modelled deformation fields is made using a Bayesian approach that yields the estimate of a probability distribution for each of the free parameters. Residuals indicate a good agreement between models and observations. One-layer elastic models result in a Young's modulus of 43.2-49.7 GPa (95 per cent confidence) and Poisson's ratio of 0-0.27, after removal of outliers. Our preferred model, with two elastic layers, provides a better fit to the whole surge signal. This model consists of a 1-km-thick upper layer with an average Young's modulus of 12.9-15.3 GPa and Poisson's ratio of 0.17, overlying a layer with an average Young's modulus of 67.3-81.9 GPa and Poisson's ratio of 0.25.

  18. Numerical analysis of road pavement thermal deformability, based on Biot viscoelastic model of porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlewska-Urban Monika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study presents numerical calculations for establishing the impact of temperature changes on the process of distortion of bi-phase medium represented using Biot consolidation equations with Kelvin–Voigt rheological skeleton presented, on the example of thermo-consolidation of a pavement of expressway S17. We analyzed the behavior of the expressway under the action of its own weight, dynamic load caused by traffic and temperature gradient. This paper presents the application of the Biot consolidation model with the Kelvin–Voigt skeleton rheological characteristics and the influence of temperature on the deformation process is taken into account. A three-dimensional model of the medium was created describing the thermal consolidation of a porous medium. The 3D geometrical model of the area under investigation was based on data obtained from the land surveying and soil investigation of a 200 m long section of the expressway and its shoulders.

  19. Real-time deformation of human soft tissues: A radial basis meshless 3D model based on Marquardt's algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianyong; Luo, Zu; Li, Chunquan; Deng, Mi

    2018-01-01

    When the meshless method is used to establish the mathematical-mechanical model of human soft tissues, it is necessary to define the space occupied by human tissues as the problem domain and the boundary of the domain as the surface of those tissues. Nodes should be distributed in both the problem domain and on the boundaries. Under external force, the displacement of the node is computed by the meshless method to represent the deformation of biological soft tissues. However, computation by the meshless method consumes too much time, which will affect the simulation of real-time deformation of human tissues in virtual surgery. In this article, the Marquardt's Algorithm is proposed to fit the nodal displacement at the problem domain's boundary and obtain the relationship between surface deformation and force. When different external forces are applied, the deformation of soft tissues can be quickly obtained based on this relationship. The analysis and discussion show that the improved model equations with Marquardt's Algorithm not only can simulate the deformation in real-time but also preserve the authenticity of the deformation model's physical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deformable three-dimensional model architecture for interactive augmented reality in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuri, Anant S; Wu, Jungle Chi-Hsiang; Liu, Kai-Che; Wu, Hurng-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    Surgical procedures have undergone considerable advancement during the last few decades. More recently, the availability of some imaging methods intraoperatively has added a new dimension to minimally invasive techniques. Augmented reality in surgery has been a topic of intense interest and research. Augmented reality involves usage of computer vision algorithms on video from endoscopic cameras or cameras mounted in the operating room to provide the surgeon additional information that he or she otherwise would have to recognize intuitively. One of the techniques combines a virtual preoperative model of the patient with the endoscope camera using natural or artificial landmarks to provide an augmented reality view in the operating room. The authors' approach is to provide this with the least number of changes to the operating room. Software architecture is presented to provide interactive adjustment in the registration of a three-dimensional (3D) model and endoscope video. Augmented reality including adrenalectomy, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, and retrocaval ureter and pancreas was used to perform 12 surgeries. The general feedback from the surgeons has been very positive not only in terms of deciding the positions for inserting points but also in knowing the least change in anatomy. The approach involves providing a deformable 3D model architecture and its application to the operating room. A 3D model with a deformable structure is needed to show the shape change of soft tissue during the surgery. The software architecture to provide interactive adjustment in registration of the 3D model and endoscope video with adjustability of every 3D model is presented.

  1. REVIEW OF ADVANCES IN COBB ANGLE CALCULATION AND IMAGE-BASED MODELLING TECHNIQUES FOR SPINAL DEFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Giannoglou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is a 3D deformity of the human spinal column that is caused from the bending of the latter, causing pain, aesthetic and respiratory problems. This internal deformation is reflected in the outer shape of the human back. The golden standard for diagnosis and monitoring of scoliosis is the Cobb angle, which refers to the internal curvature of the trunk. This work is the first part of a post-doctoral research, presenting the most important researches that have been done in the field of scoliosis, concerning its digital visualisation, in order to provide a more precise and robust identification and monitoring of scoliosis. The research is divided in four fields, namely, the X-ray processing, the automatic Cobb angle(s calculation, the 3D modelling of the spine that provides a more accurate representation of the trunk and the reduction of X-ray radiation exposure throughout the monitoring of scoliosis. Despite the fact that many researchers have been working on the field for the last decade at least, there is no reliable and universal tool to automatically calculate the Cobb angle(s and successfully perform proper 3D modelling of the spinal column that would assist a more accurate detection and monitoring of scoliosis.

  2. Review of Advances in Cobb Angle Calculation and Image-Based Modelling Techniques for Spinal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoglou, V.; Stylianidis, E.

    2016-06-01

    Scoliosis is a 3D deformity of the human spinal column that is caused from the bending of the latter, causing pain, aesthetic and respiratory problems. This internal deformation is reflected in the outer shape of the human back. The golden standard for diagnosis and monitoring of scoliosis is the Cobb angle, which refers to the internal curvature of the trunk. This work is the first part of a post-doctoral research, presenting the most important researches that have been done in the field of scoliosis, concerning its digital visualisation, in order to provide a more precise and robust identification and monitoring of scoliosis. The research is divided in four fields, namely, the X-ray processing, the automatic Cobb angle(s) calculation, the 3D modelling of the spine that provides a more accurate representation of the trunk and the reduction of X-ray radiation exposure throughout the monitoring of scoliosis. Despite the fact that many researchers have been working on the field for the last decade at least, there is no reliable and universal tool to automatically calculate the Cobb angle(s) and successfully perform proper 3D modelling of the spinal column that would assist a more accurate detection and monitoring of scoliosis.

  3. Fatigue Modeling for Superelastic NiTi Considering Cyclic Deformation and Load Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtabi, Mohammad J.; Shamsaei, Nima

    2017-09-01

    A cumulative energy-based damage model, called total fatigue toughness, is proposed for fatigue life prediction of superelastic NiTi alloys with various deformation responses (i.e., transformation stresses), which also accounts for the effects of mean strain and stress. Mechanical response of superelastic NiTi is highly sensitive to chemical composition, material processing, as well as operating temperature; therefore, significantly different deformation responses may be obtained for seemingly identical NiTi specimens. In this paper, a fatigue damage parameter is proposed that can be used for fatigue life prediction of superelastic NiTi alloys with different mechanical properties such as loading and unloading transformation stresses, modulus of elasticity, and austenite-to-martensite start and finish strains. Moreover, the model is capable of capturing the effects of tensile mean strain and stress on the fatigue behavior. Fatigue life predictions using the proposed damage parameter for specimens with different cyclic stress responses, tested at various strain ratios ( R ɛ = ɛ min /ɛ max) are shown to be in very good agreement with the experimentally observed fatigue lives.

  4. High-Efficiency Multiscale Modeling of Cell Deformations in Confined Microenvironments in Microcirculation and Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Peng, Zhangli

    2017-11-01

    Our goal is to develop a high-efficiency multiscale modeling method to predict the stress and deformation of cells during the interactions with their microenvironments in microcirculation and microfluidic devices, including red blood cells (RBCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). There are more than 1 billion people in the world suffering from RBC diseases, e.g. anemia, sickle cell diseases, and malaria. The mechanical properties of RBCs are changed in these diseases due to molecular structure alternations, which is not only important for understanding the disease pathology but also provides an opportunity for diagnostics. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of cancer cells are also altered compared to healthy cells. This can lead to acquired ability to cross the narrow capillary networks and endothelial gaps, which is crucial for metastasis, the leading cause of cancer mortality. Therefore, it is important to predict the deformation and stress of RBCs and CTCs in microcirculations. We are developing a high-efficiency multiscale model of cell-fluid interaction to study these two topics.

  5. Dislocation based multilevel model for elastic-plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechulina, E. A.; Trusov, P. V.

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of the work is to study the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect. The occurrence of the effect is closely connected to the phenomenon of dynamic strain ageing, i.e. the additional pinning of mobile dislocations by foreign atoms diffusing into the dislocation core during their arrest at obstacles, e.g. forest dislocation. The description of interaction of dislocation with impurities plays a great role, that’s why it is necessary to develop a several submodels: dislocation submodel for the interaction between dislocations and dislocation submodel for the interaction between dislocations and impurities. The multilevel approach based on using the internal variables, i.e. parameters describing the evolution of meso- and microstructure of the material, was applied to construct the model. The approach to model the dislocation structure is based on introduction of homogeneous dislocations densities on each slip system and obtaining evolutionary equations describing the mechanisms of their generation and interaction. The deformation mechanisms are evaluated and evolution of structural parameters during the process of deformation is analyzed. The dislocation submodel for the interaction between dislocations and impurities will be described in the next papers.

  6. Volcanic deformation sources associated with Fogo 2011-2012 unrest, Azores - The first modelling result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Jun; Araújo, João; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Lorenzo, Maria; Ferreira, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic deformation is often observed at many active volcanoes in the world by using space geodesy techniques, namely GNSS and InSAR. More difficulties in judgement if eruptions are imminent or not arise when such phenomenon occurs at dormant volcanoes due to the lack of eruption experiences with monitoring data. The eruption triggering mechanism is still controversial at many cases, but many attempts to image deformation sources beneath volcanoes have been made using geophysical inversion techniques. In this study, we show the case study of Fogo (Água de Pau) volcano, S. Miguel Island, Azores which represents over 450 years of eruption dormancy since 1563-1564. In the recent decades Fogo has exhibited three prominent unrest episodes (1989, 2003-2006, and 2011-2012). The lack of geochemical and hydrothermal evidences for a magmatic intrusion during those episodes does not encourage discussions on resuming volcanic activity of Fogo. However, the inflation/uplift are evident on the edifices at least for the last two unrest episodes based on GPS data by Trota et al. (2009) and Okada et al. (2015), respectively. The preliminary deformation modelling based on repeated GPS campaign data suggested a shallow expanding spheroid (Trota et al. 2009) or a single Mogi sources beneath the summit caldera. We performed a more integrated inversion for the 2011-2012 episode using a genetic algorithm optimizing the source parameters. The best fit model agrees well with the regional/local tectonic lineament suggesting the close relation between the volcanic sources and the regional/local tectonics. The regional extensional stress (between Eurasia and Nubia plates) may play important roles for the ascent of volcanic fluids at Fogo volcano. We do not discard the possibility that Fogo may have been preparing for eruptions by intermittent ascents of magma at shallow crust (i.e. experiencing "failed eruptions") during the apparent dormant period. As a local monitoring agency, CIVISA

  7. 3-D numerical evaluation of residual stress and deformation due welding process using simplified heat source models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslampanah, Amir Hossein [Islamic Azad University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aalami-aleagha, Mohammad Ebrahim; Feli, Saeid [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Thermal elastic-plastic finite element method has been employed to predict residual stress and deformation in a T-Fillet welded joint. An uncoupled thermal-mechanical three-dimensional (3-D) model has been developed. A nonlinear-transient heat flow analysis was used to obtain the temperature distribution; then by applying thermal results in the three dimensional elastic-plastic model, residual stress and deformation distribution were obtained. Experiments were carried out to find fusion zone dimensions and displacement. Two heat source models with infinite speed are proposed and the mechanical result of the mentioned models and normal moving heat source are compared.

  8. Postseismic Deformation Following the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake: Observations, Kinematic Inversions, and Dynamic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Christopher; Barbot, Sylvain; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Due to its location on a transtensional section of the Pacific-North American plate boundary, the Salton Trough is a region featuring large strike-slip earthquakes within a regime of shallow asthenosphere, high heat flow, and complex faulting, and so postseismic deformation there may feature enhanced viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip that is particularly detectable at the surface. The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake was the largest shock in the Salton Trough since 1892 and occurred close to the US-Mexico border, and so the postseismic deformation recorded by the continuous GPS network of southern California provides an opportunity to study the rheology of this region. Three-year postseismic transients extracted from GPS displacement time-series show four key features: (1) 1-2 cm of cumulative uplift in the Imperial Valley and 1 cm of subsidence in the Peninsular Ranges, (2) relatively large cumulative horizontal displacements 150 km from the rupture in the Peninsular Ranges, (3) rapidly decaying horizontal displacement rates in the first few months after the earthquake in the Imperial Valley, and (4) sustained horizontal velocities, following the rapid early motions, that were still visibly ongoing 3 years after the earthquake. Kinematic inversions show that the cumulative 3-year postseismic displacement field can be well fit by afterslip on and below the coseismic rupture, though these solutions require afterslip with a total moment equivalent to at least a earthquake and higher slip magnitudes than those predicted by coseismic stress changes. Forward modeling shows that stress-driven afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation in various configurations within the lithosphere can reproduce the early and later horizontal velocities in the Imperial Valley, while Newtonian viscoelastic relaxation in the asthenosphere can reproduce the uplift in the Imperial Valley and the subsidence and large westward displacements in the Peninsular Ranges. We present two forward

  9. DTM: Deformable Template Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung; Robinson, Ryan M.; Nothwang, William D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel template matching algorithm that can incorporate the concept of deformable parts, is presented in this paper. Unlike the deformable part model (DPM) employed in object recognition, the proposed template-matching approach called Deformable Template Matching (DTM) does not require a training step. Instead, deformation is achieved by a set of predefined basic rules (e.g. the left sub-patch cannot pass across the right patch). Experimental evaluation of this new method using the PASCAL VO...

  10. Numerical modeling of the deformations associated with large subduction earthquakes through the seismic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Garaud, J.; Vigny, C.; Cailletaud, G.; Simons, W. J.; Satirapod, C.; Shestakov, N.

    2012-12-01

    A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to model deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes: Sumatra, Japan and Chile. The mesh featuring a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere is refined close to the subduction zones. The model is constrained by 6 years of postseismic data in Sumatra area and over a year of data for Japan and Chile plus preseismic data in the three areas. The coseismic displacements on the subduction plane are inverted from the coseismic displacements using the finite element program and provide the initial stresses. The predicted horizontal postseismic displacements depend upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. Non-dimensionalized by the coseismic displacements, they present an almost uniform value between 500km and 1500km from the trench for elastic plates 80km thick. The time evolution of the velocities is function of the creep law (Maxwell, Burger or power-law creep). Moreover, the forward models predict a sizable far-field subsidence, also with a spatial distribution which varies with the geometry of the asthenosphere and lithosphere. Slip on the subduction interface does not induce such a subsidence. The observed horizontal velocities, divided by the coseismic displacement, present a similar pattern as function of time and distance from trench for the three areas, indicative of similar lithospheric and asthenospheric thicknesses and asthenospheric viscosity. This pattern cannot be fitted with power-law creep in the asthenosphere but indicates a lithosphere 60 to 90km thick and an asthenosphere of thickness of the order of 100km with a burger rheology represented by a Kelvin-Voigt element with a viscosity of 3.1018Pas and μKelvin=μelastic/3. A second Kelvin-Voigt element with very limited amplitude may explain some characteristics of the short time-scale signal. The postseismic subsidence is

  11. Review on exact and perturbative deformations of the Einstein-Straus model: uniqueness and rigidity results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Marc; Mena, Filipe C.; Vera, Raül

    2013-11-01

    The Einstein-Straus model consists of a Schwarzschild spherical vacuole in a Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) dust spacetime (with or without ). It constitutes the most widely accepted model to answer the question of the influence of large scale (cosmological) dynamics on local systems. The conclusion drawn by the model is that there is no influence from the cosmic background, since the spherical vacuole is static. Spherical generalizations to other interior matter models are commonly used in the construction of lumpy inhomogeneous cosmological models. On the other hand, the model has proven to be reluctant to admit non-spherical generalizations. In this review, we summarize the known uniqueness results for this model. These seem to indicate that the only reasonable and realistic non-spherical deformations of the Einstein-Straus model require perturbing the FLRW background. We review results about linear perturbations of the Einstein-Straus model, where the perturbations in the vacuole are assumed to be stationary and axially symmetric so as to describe regions (voids in particular) in which the matter has reached an equilibrium regime.

  12. A Late Cenozoic Kinematic Model for Deformation Within the Greater Cascadia Subduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. S.; McCrory, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    Relatively low fault slip rates have complicated efforts to characterize seismic hazards associated with the diffuse subduction boundary between North America and offshore oceanic plates in the Pacific Northwest region. A kinematic forward model that encompasses a broader region, and incorporates seismologic and geodetic as well as geologic and paleomagnetic constraints offers a tool for constraining fault rupture chronologies—all within a framework tracking relative motion of the Juan de Fuca, Pacific, and North American plates during late Cenozoic time. Our kinematic model tracks motions as a system of rigid microplates, bounded by the more important mapped faults of the region or zones of distributed deformation. Though our emphasis is on Washington and Oregon, the scope of the model extends eastward to the rigid craton in Montana and Wyoming, and southward to the Sierra Nevada block of California to provide important checks on its internal consistency. The model reproduces observed geodetic velocities [e.g., McCaffrey et al., 2013, JGR], for 6 Ma to present, with only minor reorganization for 12-6 Ma. Constraints for the older deformation history are based on paleomagnetic rotations within the Columbia River Basalt Group, and geologic details of fault offsets. Since 17 Ma, our model includes 50 km of N-S shortening across the central Yakima fold and thrust belt, substantial NW-SE right-lateral strike slip distributed among faults in the Washington Cascade Range, 90 km of shortening on thrusts of Puget Lowland, and substantial oroclinal bending of the Crescent Formation basement surrounding the Olympic Peninsula. This kinematic reconstruction provides an integrated, quantitative framework with which to investigate the motions of various PNW forearc and backarc blocks during late Cenozoic time, an essential tool for characterizing the seismic risk associated with the Puget Sound and Portland urban areas, hydroelectric dams, and other critical infrastructure.

  13. Lithosphere deformation methods and models constrained by surface fault data on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Lada L.

    Models of lithospheric deformation tie observed field measurements of gravity and topography with surface observations of tectonic features. An understanding of the sources of stress, and the expected style, orientation, and magnitudes of stress and associated elastic strain is important for understanding the evolution of faulting on Mars and its relationship to loading. At the same time, theoretical models of deformation mechanisms and forces, when tied to tectonic observations, can be interpreted in terms of major tectonic events and allow insights into the planet's history and evolution as well as its internal structure and processes. This is particularly important for understanding solid planetary bodies other than Earth where the seismic data is either sparse, e.g. the Moon, or non-existent, e.g. Mars. This kind of research has implications for, and benefits from, an understanding of the petrology and surface processes. In this work, I use MGS MOLA and Radio Science data products (topography and gravity) to systematically test new geodynamic models and evaluate lithosphere dynamics on Mars as a function of time, while satisfying geologic surface observations (surface features) that have been and are being catalogued and studied from Viking, MOLA, MOC, and THEMIS IR images. I investigate (1) the role of internal loads (internal body force effects), (2) loading from the surface and base of lithosphere, and the effects of this loading on membrane and flexural strains and stresses, and (3) the role of global contraction, all viewed in the context of how the surface elastic layer has changed as the planet has evolved. I show that deviatoric stresses associated with gravitational potential differences do a good job at matching the normal faults; however, fitting all the surface-breaking faults is more difficult. I argue that global planetary contraction is an unlikely source of significant deformation. Instead, the simplest inverse models show that small lateral

  14. Characterisation of polycrystal deformation by numerical modelling and neutron diffraction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bjørn

    , that the effect of the elastic anisotropy is limited to the very early stages of plasticity (εP neutron diffraction mea-surements of elastic lattice strains...... reflections. The self-consistent model is used to determine the most suitable reflection for technological applications of neutron diffraction, where focus is on the volume av-erage stress state in engineering components. To be able to successfully convert the measured elastic lattice strains for a specific...... the smallest build-up of residual lattice strains. Below 5% deforma-tion the deviations from linearity and the residual strains are below the normal strain resolution of a neutron diffraction measurement. The model predictions have pinpointed, that the selection of the reflection is crucial for the validity...

  15. Application of Dimensional Analysis in Calibration of a Discrete Element Model for Rock Deformation and Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhimi, A.; Villegas, T.

    2007-04-01

    A discrete element approach was used in the simulation of rock fracture. The numerical synthetic material was made of rigid circular particles or cylinders that have interaction through normal and shear springs. The cylinders were bonded to each other at the contact points to withstand the applied loads. To characterize the microscopic properties of this synthetic material, a dimensional analysis approach was presented. It was shown that the dimensionless parameters and graphs obtained were useful tools for fast and efficient calibration of a synthetic material. This calibration method was employed for finding a numerical model for Pennsylvania Blue Sandstone. The numerical model could mimic many deformational and failure characteristics of the sandstone in both conventional and some non-conventional stress paths.

  16. Deformed shell model study of event rates for WIMP-73Ge scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, R.; Kota, V. K. B.

    2017-12-01

    The event detection rates for the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) (a dark matter candidate) are calculated with 73Ge as the detector. The calculations are performed within the deformed shell model (DSM) based on Hartree-Fock states. First, the energy levels and magnetic moment for the ground state and two low-lying positive parity states for this nucleus are calculated and compared with experiment. The agreement is quite satisfactory. Then the nuclear wave functions are used to investigate the elastic and inelastic scattering of WIMP from 73Ge; inelastic scattering, especially for the 9/2+ → 5/2+ transition, is studied for the first time. The nuclear structure factors which are independent of supersymmetric model are also calculated as a function of WIMP mass. The event rates are calculated for a given set of nucleonic current parameters. The calculation shows that 73Ge is a good detector for detecting dark matter.

  17. The bulk Higgs in the Deformed RS Model arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudi, F.; Sridhar, K.

    The Randall-Sundrum model with a deformed metric can generate light Kaluza-Klein (KK) Higgs modes consistent with the electroweak precision analysis for a certain range of parameters. The first KK mode of the Higgs ($h_{1}$) in such a model could lie in the mass range varying from 800 GeV to 1.3 TeV. We find that the $h_{1}$ is gaugephobic and decays dominantly into a $t\\bar{t}$ pair. The search strategy for $h_{1}$ decaying to $t\\bar{t}$ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in this low mass range has been studies. We have used substructure tools to suppress the large QCD background associated with this channel. We find that $h_{1}$ can be probed at the LHC.

  18. Modeling reactive transport in deformable porous media using the theory of interacting continua.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Daniel Zack

    2012-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the work done as part of an Early Career LDRD aimed at modeling flow induced damage of materials involving chemical reactions, deformation of the porous matrix, and complex flow phenomena. The numerical formulation is motivated by a mixture theory or theory of interacting continua type approach to coupling the behavior of the fluid and the porous matrix. Results for the proposed method are presented for several engineering problems of interest including carbon dioxide sequestration, hydraulic fracturing, and energetic materials applications. This work is intended to create a general framework for flow induced damage that can be further developed in each of the particular areas addressed below. The results show both convincing proof of the methodologies potential and the need for further validation of the models developed.

  19. Estimating anatomically-correct reference model for craniomaxillofacial deformity via sparse representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; Wang, Li; Gaol, Yaozong; Tang, Zhen; Chen, Ken Chung; Li, Jianfu; Shen, Steve G F; Jin Yan; Lee, Philip K M; Chow, Ben; Xia, James J; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    The success of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery depends not only on the surgical techniques, but also upon an accurate surgical planning. However, surgical planning for CMF surgery is challenging due to the absence of a patient-specific reference model. In this paper, we present a method to automatically estimate an anatomically correct reference shape of jaws for the patient requiring orthognathic surgery, a common type of CMF surgery. We employ the sparse representation technique to represent the normal regions of the patient with respect to the normal subjects. The estimated representation is then used to reconstruct a patient-specific reference model with "restored" normal anatomy of the jaws. We validate our method on both synthetic subjects and patients. Experimental results show that our method can effectively reconstruct the normal shape of jaw for patients. Also, a new quantitative measurement is introduced to quantify the CMF deformity and validate the method in a quantitative approach, which is rarely used before.

  20. Modeling the complexity of acoustic emission during intermittent plastic deformation: Power laws and multifractal spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jagadish; Ananthakrishna, G.

    2018-01-01

    Scale-invariant power-law distributions for acoustic emission signals are ubiquitous in several plastically deforming materials. However, power-law distributions for acoustic emission energies are reported in distinctly different plastically deforming situations such as hcp and fcc single and polycrystalline samples exhibiting smooth stress-strain curves and in dilute metallic alloys exhibiting discontinuous flow. This is surprising since the underlying dislocation mechanisms in these two types of deformations are very different. So far, there have been no models that predict the power-law statistics for discontinuous flow. Furthermore, the statistics of the acoustic emission signals in jerky flow is even more complex, requiring multifractal measures for a proper characterization. There has been no model that explains the complex statistics either. Here we address the problem of statistical characterization of the acoustic emission signals associated with the three types of the Portevin-Le Chatelier bands. Following our recently proposed general framework for calculating acoustic emission, we set up a wave equation for the elastic degrees of freedom with a plastic strain rate as a source term. The energy dissipated during acoustic emission is represented by the Rayleigh-dissipation function. Using the plastic strain rate obtained from the Ananthakrishna model for the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, we compute the acoustic emission signals associated with the three Portevin-Le Chatelier bands and the Lüders-like band. The so-calculated acoustic emission signals are used for further statistical characterization. Our results show that the model predicts power-law statistics for all the acoustic emission signals associated with the three types of Portevin-Le Chatelier bands with the exponent values increasing with increasing strain rate. The calculated multifractal spectra corresponding to the acoustic emission signals associated with the three band types have a maximum

  1. Probing deformation substructure by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and dislocation dynamics modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Eve, Sophie; Collins, Steve P

    2010-09-01

    Materials characterization at the nano-scale is motivated by the desire to resolve the structural aspects and deformation behavior at length scales relevant to those mechanisms that define the novel and unusual properties of nano-structured materials. A range of novel techniques has recently become accessible with the help of synchrotron X-ray beams that can be focused down to spot sizes of less than a few microns on the sample. The unique combination of tunability (energy selection), parallelism and brightness of synchrotron X-ray beams allows their use for high resolution diffraction (determination of crystal structure and transformations, analysis of dislocation sub-structures, orientation and texture analysis, strain mapping); small angle X-ray scattering (analysis of nano-scale voids and defects; orientation analysis) and imaging (radiography and tomography). After a brief review of the state-of-the-art capabilities for monochromatic and white beam synchrotron diffraction, we consider the usefulness of these techniques for the task of bridging the gap between experiment and modeling. Namely, we discuss how the experiments can be configured to provide information relevant to the validation and improvement of modeling approaches, and also how the results of various simulations can be post-processed to improve the possibility of (more or less) direct comparison with experiments. Using the example of some recent experiments carried out on beamline 116 at Diamond Light Source near Oxford, we discuss how such experimental results can be interpreted in view and in conjunction with numerical deformation models, particularly those incorporating dislocation effects, e.g., finite-element based pseudo-continuum strain gradient formulations, and discrete dislocation simulations. Post-processing of FE and discrete dislocation simulations is described, illustrating the kind of information that can be extracted from comparisons between modeling and experimental data.

  2. Pathological Deformations of Brain Vascular System Modelling Using Analogous Eletromagnetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Capova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the modelling and simulation of human brain haemodynamics using analogous electromagnetic systems characteristic especially propagation properties of distributed parameters circuits. The cascade connection of analogical transmission line elements represents the vascular tree both from the point of the parameters and the topology as well. In the paper there are presented simulation examples of the healthy cerebral system mainly in the big arteries in comparing with the pathologically changed ones. The various degrees of stenosis are considered for the simulations of blood pressure and blood flow velocity and the results are compared with the healthy arteries. According to the last investigations the pathological deformations of brain arteries are th most frequently reasons of deaths in the world. The stenoses or aneurysms change the physical properties of arteries and they follow insufficient vascularisation of the brain. These computer-aided non-invasive methods together with the non-invasive experimental techniques represent a helpful tool both for the diagnostics and the treatment of vascular pathological deformations.

  3. Block modeling of crustal deformation in Tierra del Fuego from GNSS velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Fritsche, M.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Dietrich, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Tierra del Fuego (TDF) main island is divided by a major transform boundary between the South America and Scotia tectonic plates. Using a block model, we infer slip rates, locking depths and inclinations of active faults in TDF from inversion of site velocities derived from Global Navigation Satellite System observations. We use interseismic velocities from 48 sites, obtained from field measurements spanning 20 years. Euler vectors consistent with a simple seismic cycle are estimated for each block. In addition, we introduce far-field information into the modeling by applying constraints on Euler vectors of major tectonic plates. The difference between model and observed surface deformation near the Magallanes Fagnano Fault System (MFS) is reduced by considering finite dip in the forward model. For this tectonic boundary global plate circuits models predict relative movements between 7 and 9 mm yr- 1, while our regional model indicates that a strike-slip rate of 5.9 ± 0.2 mm yr- 1 is accommodated across the MFS. Our results indicate faults dipping 66- 4+ 6° southward, locked to a depth of 11- 5+ 5 km, which are consistent with geological models for the MFS. However, normal slip also dominates the fault perpendicular motion throughout the eastern MFS, with a maximum rate along the Fagnano Lake.

  4. Modeling internal deformation of salt structures targeted for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemia, Zurab

    2008-09-15

    This thesis uses results of systematic numerical models to argue that externally inactive salt structures, which are potential targets for radioactive waste disposal, might be internally active due to the presence of dense layers or blocks within a salt layer. The three papers that support this thesis use the Gorleben salt diapir (NW Germany), which was targeted as a future final repository for high-grade radioactive waste, as a general guideline. The first two papers present systematic studies of the parameters that control the development of a salt diapir and how it entrains a dense anhydrite layer. Results from these numerical models show that the entrainment of a dense anhydrite layer within a salt diapir depends on four parameters: sedimentation rate, viscosity of salt, perturbation width and the stratigraphic location of the dense layer. The combined effect of these four parameters, which has a direct impact on the rate of salt supply (volume/area of the salt that is supplied to the diapir with time), shape a diapir and the mode of entrainment. Salt diapirs down-built with sedimentary units of high viscosity can potentially grow with an embedded anhydrite layer and deplete their source layer (salt supply ceases). However, when salt supply decreases dramatically or ceases entirely, the entrained anhydrite layer/segments start to sink within the diapir. In inactive diapirs, sinking of the entrained anhydrite layer is inevitable and strongly depends on the rheology of the salt, which is in direct contact with the anhydrite layer. During the post-depositional stage, if the effective viscosity of salt falls below the threshold value of around 1018-1019 Pa s, the mobility of anhydrite blocks might influence any repository within the diapir. However, the internal deformation of the salt diapir by the descending blocks decreases with increase in effective viscosity of salt. The results presented in this thesis suggest that it is highly likely that salt structures

  5. Deformation analysis of polymers composites: rheological model involving time-based fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. W.; Yi, H. Y.; Mishnaevsky, L.; Wang, R.; Duan, Z. Q.; Chen, Q.

    2017-05-01

    A modeling approach to time-dependent property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) composites is of special interest for quantitative description of long-term behavior. An electronic creep machine is employed to investigate the time-dependent deformation of four specimens of dog-bond-shaped GFRP composites at various stress level. A negative exponent function based on structural changes is introduced to describe the damage evolution of material properties in the process of creep test. Accordingly, a new creep constitutive equation, referred to fractional derivative Maxwell model, is suggested to characterize the time-dependent behavior of GFRP composites by replacing Newtonian dashpot with the Abel dashpot in the classical Maxwell model. The analytic solution for the fractional derivative Maxwell model is given and the relative parameters are determined. The results estimated by the fractional derivative Maxwell model proposed in the paper are in a good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the new creep constitutive model proposed in the paper needs few parameters to represent various time-dependent behaviors.

  6. Stress Distribution During Deformation of Polycrystalline Aluminum by Molecular-Dynamics and Finite-Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakov, V.; Saether, E.; Phillips, D.; Glaessgen, E. H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a multiscale modelling strategy is used to study the effect of grain-boundary sliding on stress localization in a polycrystalline microstructure with an uneven distribution of grain size. The development of the molecular dynamics (MD) analysis used to interrogate idealized grain microstructures with various types of grain boundaries and the multiscale modelling strategies for modelling large systems of grains is discussed. Both molecular-dynamics and finite-element (FE) simulations for idealized polycrystalline models of identical geometry are presented with the purpose of demonstrating the effectiveness of the adapted finite-element method using cohesive zone models to reproduce grain-boundary sliding and its effect on the stress distribution in a polycrystalline metal. The yield properties of the grain-boundary interface, used in the FE simulations, are extracted from a MD simulation on a bicrystal. The models allow for the study of the load transfer between adjacent grains of very different size through grain-boundary sliding during deformation. A large-scale FE simulation of 100 grains of a typical microstructure is then presented to reveal that the stress distribution due to grain-boundary sliding during uniform tensile strain can lead to stress localization of two to three times the background stress, thus suggesting a significant effect on the failure properties of the metal.

  7. Deformation of the reference Korean voxel model and its effect on dose calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Hwi; Cho, Sung Koo; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kun Woo [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Recently a high-quality voxel model of a Korean adult male was constructed at Hanyang University by using very high resolution serially-sectioned anatomical images of a cadaver, which was provided by the Korean Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI). Most existing voxel phantoms are developed based on an individual in the supine posture. This study converted the HDRK-Man voxel model into surface model and adjusted the flattened back of the HDRK-Man to a normal shape in the upright posture using 3D graphic software such as 3D-DOCTOR{sup TM}, Rapidform 2006, Rhinoceros 4.0, MAYA 8.5. The effective doses of adjusted model were compared with those of unadjusted model for some standard irradiation geometries (i.e., AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT). In general, the differences were not very large and, among those, the largest difference was found for the PA radiation geometry, as expected. These methodologies can be used for the development of various deformed posture models of HDRK-Man in the later stage of this project.

  8. Model Deformation Measurements of Sonic Boom Models in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Garbeff, Theodore J.; Heineck, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The deformations of two sonic-boom models were measured by stereo photogrammetry during tests in the 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The models were geometrically similar but one was 2.75 times as large as the other. Deformation measurements were made by simultaneously imaging the upper surfaces of the models from two directions by calibrated cameras that were mounted behind windows of the test section. Bending and twist were measured at discrete points using conventional circular targets that had been marked along the leading and trailing edges of the wings and tails. In addition, continuous distributions of bending and twist were measured from ink speckles that had been applied to the upper surfaces of the model. Measurements were made at wind-on (M = 1.6) and wind-off conditions over a range of angles of attack between 2.5 deg. and 5.0 deg. At each condition, model deformation was determined by comparing the wind-off and wind-on coordinates of each measurement point after transforming the coordinates to reference coordinates tied to the model. The necessary transformations were determined by measuring the positions of a set of targets on the rigid center-body of the models whose model-axes coordinates were known. Smoothly varying bending and twist measurements were obtained at all conditions. Bending displacements increased in proportion to the square of the distance to the centerline. Maximum deflection of the wingtip of the larger model was about 5 mm (2% of the semispan) and that of the smaller model was 0.9 mm (1% of the semispan). The change in wing twist due to bending increased in direct proportion to distance from the centerline and reached a (absolute) maximum of about -1? at the highest angle of attack for both models. The measurements easily resolved bending displacements as small as 0.05 mm and bending-induced changes in twist as small as 0.05 deg.

  9. The surgical treatment of spinal deformity in children with myelomeningocele: the role of personalized three-dimensional printed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Lawrence; Weinstock, Peter; Hedequist, Daniel; Prabhu, Sanjay P

    2017-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the benefits of personalized three-dimensional printing as an aid to the performance of surgery for the correction of spinal deformity in children with myelomeningocele. We performed a retrospective review to include all such children for whom personalized three-dimensional spine models were used for surgical planning (group A) and compared them through subjective and objective criteria to a similar group that had no models (group B). The seven children in group A were younger and had more complex deformities than the 10 children in group B. The models provided a markedly improved appreciation of the complex anatomy and enabled the planning and performance of patient-specific spinal instrumentation that was secure and low profile. The efficiency of the surgery as measured by intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss and the extent of the deformity correction was comparable or superior in group A.

  10. Modeling and Measurement of 3D Deformation of Scoliotic Spine Using 2D X-ray Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Leow, Wee Kheng; Huang, Chao-Hui; Howe, Tet Sen

    Scoliosis causes deformations such as twisting and lateral bending of the spine. To correct scoliotic deformation, the extents of 3D spinal deformation need to be measured. This paper studies the modeling and measurement of scoliotic spine based on 3D curve model. Through modeling the spine as a 3D Cosserat rod, the 3D structure of a scoliotic spine can be recovered by obtaining the minimum potential energy registration of the rod to the scoliotic spine in the x-ray image. Test results show that it is possible to obtain accurate 3D reconstruction using only the landmarks in a single view, provided that appropriate boundary conditions and elastic properties are included as constraints.

  11. A Robust and Accurate Non-rigid Medical Image Registration Algorithm Based on Multi-level Deformable Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanli; Hu, Hongpu; Xu, Yanli; Chen, Quan; Wang, Yan; Gao, Dongping

    2017-12-01

    Compared to the rigid image registration task, the non-rigid image registration task faces much more challenges due to its high degree of freedom and inherent requirement of smoothness in the deformation field. The purpose was to propose an efficient coarse-to-fine non-rigid medical image registration algorithm based on a multilevel deformable model. In this paper, a robust and efficient coarse-to-fine non-rigid medical image registration algorithm is proposed. It contains three level deformation models, i.e., the global homography model, the local mesh-level homography model, and the local B-spline FFD (Free-Form Deformation) model. The coarse registration is achieved by the first two level models. In the global homography model, a robust algorithm for simultaneous outliers (error matched feature points) removal and model estimation is applied. In the local mesh-level homography model, a new similarity measure is proposed to improve the robustness and accuracy of local mesh based registration. In the fine registration, a local B-spline FFD model with normalized mutual information gradient is employed. We verified the effectiveness of each stage of the proposed registration algorithm with many non-rigid transformation image pairs, and quantitatively compared our proposed registration algorithm with the HBFFD method which is based on the control points of multi-resolution. The experimental results show that our algorithm is more accurate than the hierarchical local B-spline FFD method. Our algorithm can achieve high precision registration by coarse-to-fine process based on multi-level deformable model, which ourperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Fast pedestrian detection using deformable part model and pyramid layer location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lei; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Zhitao; Li, Yuelong; Zhang, Fang

    2017-05-01

    The majority of pedestrian detection approaches use multiscale detection and the sliding window search scheme with high computing complexity. We present a fast pedestrian detection method using the deformable part model and pyramid layer location (PLL). First, the object proposal method is used rather than the traditional sliding window to obtain pedestrian proposal regions. Then, a PLL method is proposed to select the optimal root level in the feature pyramid for each candidate window. On this basis, a single-point calculation scheme is designed to calculate the scores of candidate windows efficiently. Finally, pedestrians can be located from the images. The Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique dataset for human detection is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the number of feature maps and windows requiring calculation in the detection process. Consequently, the computing cost is significantly reduced, with fewer false positives.

  13. Segmentation of the pectoral muscle in breast MR images using structure tensor and deformable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungeun; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2012-02-01

    Recently, breast MR images have been used in wider clinical area including diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment response evaluation, which requests quantitative analysis and breast tissue segmentation. Although several methods have been proposed for segmenting MR images, segmenting out breast tissues robustly from surrounding structures in a wide range of anatomical diversity still remains challenging. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a practical and general-purpose approach for segmenting the pectoral muscle boundary based on the structure tensor and deformable model. The segmentation work flow comprises four key steps: preprocessing, detection of the region of interest (ROI) within the breast region, segmenting the pectoral muscle and finally extracting and refining the pectoral muscle boundary. From experimental results we show that the proposed method can segment the pectoral muscle robustly in diverse patient cases. In addition, the proposed method will allow the application of the quantification research for various breast images.

  14. Reduction by Lie Group Symmetries in Diffeomorphic Image Registration and Deformation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sommer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We survey the role of reduction by symmetry in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping framework for registration of a variety of data types (landmarks, curves, surfaces, images and higher-order derivative data. Particle relabelling symmetry allows the equations of motion to be reduced to the Lie algebra allowing the equations to be written purely in terms of the Eulerian velocity field. As a second use of symmetry, the infinite dimensional problem of finding correspondences between objects can be reduced for a range of concrete data types, resulting in compact representations of shape and spatial structure. Using reduction by symmetry, we describe these models in a common theoretical framework that draws on links between the registration problem and geometric mechanics. We outline these constructions and further cases where reduction by symmetry promises new approaches to the registration of complex data types.

  15. Study of the Deformation/Interaction Model: How Interactions Increase the Reaction Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions (including weak interactions between dienophiles and dienes play an important role in the Diels-Alder reaction. To elucidate the influence of these interactions on the reactivity, a popular DFT functional and a variational DFT functional corrected with dispersion terms are used to investigate different substituent groups incorporated on the dienophiles and dienes. The bond order is used to track the trajectory of the cycloaddition reaction. The deformation/interaction model is used to obtain the interaction energy from the reactant complex to the inflection point until reaching the saddle point. The interaction energy initially increases with a decrease in the interatomic distance, reaching a maximum value, but then decreases when the dienophiles and dienes come closer. Reduced density gradient and chemical energy component analysis are used to analyse the interaction. Traditional transition state theory and variational transition state theory are used to obtain the reaction rates. The influence of tunneling on the reaction rate is also discussed.

  16. SU-F-J-138: An Extension of PCA-Based Respiratory Deformation Modeling Via Multi-Linear Decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Pitsianis, N [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, FF; Ren, L

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To address and lift the limited degree of freedom (DoF) of globally bilinear motion components such as those based on principal components analysis (PCA), for encoding and modeling volumetric deformation motion. Methods: We provide a systematic approach to obtaining a multi-linear decomposition (MLD) and associated motion model from deformation vector field (DVF) data. We had previously introduced MLD for capturing multi-way relationships between DVF variables, without being restricted by the bilinear component format of PCA-based models. PCA-based modeling is commonly used for encoding patient-specific deformation as per planning 4D-CT images, and aiding on-board motion estimation during radiotherapy. However, the bilinear space-time decomposition inherently limits the DoF of such models by the small number of respiratory phases. While this limit is not reached in model studies using analytical or digital phantoms with low-rank motion, it compromises modeling power in the presence of relative motion, asymmetries and hysteresis, etc, which are often observed in patient data. Specifically, a low-DoF model will spuriously couple incoherent motion components, compromising its adaptability to on-board deformation changes. By the multi-linear format of extracted motion components, MLD-based models can encode higher-DoF deformation structure. Results: We conduct mathematical and experimental comparisons between PCA- and MLD-based models. A set of temporally-sampled analytical trajectories provides a synthetic, high-rank DVF; trajectories correspond to respiratory and cardiac motion factors, including different relative frequencies and spatial variations. Additionally, a digital XCAT phantom is used to simulate a lung lesion deforming incoherently with respect to the body, which adheres to a simple respiratory trend. In both cases, coupling of incoherent motion components due to a low model DoF is clearly demonstrated. Conclusion: Multi-linear decomposition can

  17. Deformable known component model-based reconstruction for coronary CT angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tilley, S.; Xu, S.; Mathews, A.; McVeigh, E. R.; Stayman, J. W.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Atherosclerosis detection remains challenging in coronary CT angiography for patients with cardiac implants. Pacing electrodes of a pacemaker or lead components of a defibrillator can create substantial blooming and streak artifacts in the heart region, severely hindering the visualization of a plaque of interest. We present a novel reconstruction method that incorporates a deformable model for metal leads to eliminate metal artifacts and improve anatomy visualization even near the boundary of the component. Methods: The proposed reconstruction method, referred as STF-dKCR, includes a novel parameterization of the component that integrates deformation, a 3D-2D preregistration process that estimates component shape and position, and a polyenergetic forward model for x-ray propagation through the component where the spectral properties are jointly estimated. The methodology was tested on physical data of a cardiac phantom acquired on a CBCT testbench. The phantom included a simulated vessel, a metal wire emulating a pacing lead, and a small Teflon sphere attached to the vessel wall, mimicking a calcified plaque. The proposed method was also compared to the traditional FBP reconstruction and an interpolation-based metal correction method (FBP-MAR). Results: Metal artifacts presented in standard FBP reconstruction were significantly reduced in both FBP-MAR and STF- dKCR, yet only the STF-dKCR approach significantly improved the visibility of the small Teflon target (within 2 mm of the metal wire). The attenuation of the Teflon bead improved to 0.0481 mm-1 with STF-dKCR from 0.0166 mm-1 with FBP and from 0.0301 mm-1 with FBP-MAR - much closer to the expected 0.0414 mm-1. Conclusion: The proposed method has the potential to improve plaque visualization in coronary CT angiography in the presence of wire-shaped metal components.

  18. Surgical planning for cervical deformity based on a 3D model

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Barges-Coll; Iulia Peciu-Florianu; Sébastien Martiniere; John Michael Duff

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of fixed cervical deformity is complex, but the principles guiding its correction remain the same as in deformity of other spinal regions, with the goal of deformity correction that results in a solid fusion with adequate decompression of the neural elements. In these challenging cases, osteotomies are necessary to mobilize the rigid spine and to obtain the desired correction, but they can be associated with increased risk of complications. Therefore, careful preoperative planni...

  19. 3D femur model reconstruction from biplane X-ray images: a novel method based on Laplacian surface deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, Vikas; Ravi, Bhallamudi

    2015-04-01

    Conventional methods for 3D bone model reconstruction from CT scans can require high-radiation dose, cost and time. A 3D model generated from 2D X-ray images may be a useful alternative. Reconfiguring a 3D template surface mesh model to match bone shape in orthogonal radiographs is a common technique for 3D reconstruction. A computationally efficient 3D bone modeling algorithm was developed and tested. An algorithm for bone template reconfiguration is proposed, which uses Kohonen self-organizing maps for 2D-3D correspondence between input X-ray images and the template. Laplacian surface deformation is then used for final deformation of the template. In the literature, Laplacian deformation has been shown to perform better than thin-plate splines and free form deformation in terms of computation time and mesh quality. The method was applied to 22 sets of simulated input contours generated from 3D models of the distal femur. An acceptable range of reconstruction error: 1.5 mm of RMS-P2S (root-mean-square point-to-surface) distance and 1.2 mm mean-P2S distance errors was observed based on comparison with the corresponding reference models/ground truth. Computation time for the 3D bone modeling algorithm was less than a minute for each case. The new template reconfiguration algorithm based on Laplacian surface deformation provided acceptable reconstruction accuracy and high computation efficiency for 3D modeling of the distal femur using biplane radiographs. This algorithm may provide a useful option for orthopedic modeling applications.

  20. A hybrid DEM-SPH model for deformable landslide and its generated surge waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hai; Chen, Shenghong

    2017-10-01

    Reservoir bank landslide and its generated surge waves are catastrophic hazards which may give rise to additional sedimentation, destroy hydraulic structures, and even cause fatalities. Since this process is very complex involving landslide impact, wave generation and propagation, it cannot be well captured with traditional numerical approaches. In this paper, a hybrid DEM-SPH model is presented to simulate landslide and to reproduce its generated surge waves. This model consists of discrete element method (DEM) for solid phase and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for fluid phase as well as drag force and buoyancy for solid-fluid interaction. Meanwhile, the δ-SPH algorithm is employed to eliminate spurious numerical noise on the pressure field. Submarine rigid block slide is numerically tested to validate the proposed hybrid model, and the computed wave profiles exhibit a satisfactory agreement with the experiment. The hybrid model is further extended towards the submarine granular deformable slide which generates smaller and less violent surge waves. Kinetic and potential energy of both solid and fluid particle system are extracted to throw a light upon the process of landslide water interaction from an energy perspective. Finally, a sensitivity analysis on particle friction coefficient indicates that the lubrication of the solid particles is another important effect influencing the underwater landslide movement in addition to the drag effect.

  1. An automated in vitro model for the evaluation of ultrasound modalities measuring myocardial deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigö Albin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiography is the method of choice when one wishes to examine myocardial function. Qualitative assessment of the 2D grey scale images obtained is subjective, and objective methods are required. Speckle Tracking Ultrasound is an emerging technology, offering an objective mean of quantifying left ventricular wall motion. However, before a new ultrasound technology can be adopted in the clinic, accuracy and reproducibility needs to be investigated. Aim It was hypothesized that the collection of ultrasound sample data from an in vitro model could be automated. The aim was to optimize an in vitro model to allow for efficient collection of sample data. Material & Methods A tissue-mimicking phantom was made from water, gelatin powder, psyllium fibers and a preservative. Sonomicrometry crystals were molded into the phantom. The solid phantom was mounted in a stable stand and cyclically compressed. Peak strain was then measured by Speckle Tracking Ultrasound and sonomicrometry. Results We succeeded in automating the acquisition and analysis of sample data. Sample data was collected at a rate of 200 measurement pairs in 30 minutes. We found good agreement between Speckle Tracking Ultrasound and sonomicrometry in the in vitro model. Best agreement was 0.83 ± 0.70%. Worst agreement was -1.13 ± 6.46%. Conclusions It has been shown possible to automate a model that can be used for evaluating the in vitro accuracy and precision of ultrasound modalities measuring deformation. Sonomicrometry and Speckle Tracking Ultrasound had acceptable agreement.

  2. A study of gradient strengthening based on a finite-deformation gradient crystal-plasticity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouriayevali, Habib; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2017-11-01

    A comprehensive study on a finite-deformation gradient crystal-plasticity model which has been derived based on Gurtin's framework (Int J Plast 24:702-725, 2008) is carried out here. This systematic investigation on the different roles of governing components of the model represents the strength of this framework in the prediction of a wide range of hardening behaviors as well as rate-dependent and scale-variation responses in a single crystal. The model is represented in the reference configuration for the purpose of numerical implementation and then implemented in the FEM software ABAQUS via a user-defined subroutine (UEL). Furthermore, a function of accumulation rates of dislocations is employed and viewed as a measure of formation of short-range interactions. Our simulation results reveal that the dissipative gradient strengthening can be identified as a source of isotropic-hardening behavior, which may represent the effect of irrecoverable work introduced by Gurtin and Ohno (J Mech Phys Solids 59:320-343, 2011). Here, the variation of size dependency at different magnitude of a rate-sensitivity parameter is also discussed. Moreover, an observation of effect of a distinctive feature in the model which explains the effect of distortion of crystal lattice in the reference configuration is reported in this study for the first time. In addition, plastic flows in predefined slip systems and expansion of accumulation of GNDs are distinctly observed in varying scales and under different loading conditions.

  3. A study of gradient strengthening based on a finite-deformation gradient crystal-plasticity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouriayevali, Habib; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive study on a finite-deformation gradient crystal-plasticity model which has been derived based on Gurtin's framework (Int J Plast 24:702-725, 2008) is carried out here. This systematic investigation on the different roles of governing components of the model represents the strength of this framework in the prediction of a wide range of hardening behaviors as well as rate-dependent and scale-variation responses in a single crystal. The model is represented in the reference configuration for the purpose of numerical implementation and then implemented in the FEM software ABAQUS via a user-defined subroutine (UEL). Furthermore, a function of accumulation rates of dislocations is employed and viewed as a measure of formation of short-range interactions. Our simulation results reveal that the dissipative gradient strengthening can be identified as a source of isotropic-hardening behavior, which may represent the effect of irrecoverable work introduced by Gurtin and Ohno (J Mech Phys Solids 59:320-343, 2011). Here, the variation of size dependency at different magnitude of a rate-sensitivity parameter is also discussed. Moreover, an observation of effect of a distinctive feature in the model which explains the effect of distortion of crystal lattice in the reference configuration is reported in this study for the first time. In addition, plastic flows in predefined slip systems and expansion of accumulation of GNDs are distinctly observed in varying scales and under different loading conditions.

  4. Statistical Modeling of CTV Motion and Deformation for IMRT of Early-Stage Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, Luiza, E-mail: M.L.Bondar@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Intven, Martijn; Burbach, J.P. Maarten [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budiarto, Eka [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Kleijnen, Jean-Paul; Philippens, Marielle; Asselen, Bram van; Seravalli, Enrica; Reerink, Onne; Raaymakers, Bas [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To derive and validate a statistical model of motion and deformation for the clinical target volume (CTV) of early-stage rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 16 patients, 4 to 5 magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired before each fraction was administered. The CTV was delineated on each MRI. Using a leave-one-out methodology, we constructed a population-based principal component analysis (PCA) model of the CTV motion and deformation of 15 patients, and we tested the model on the left-out patient. The modeling error was calculated as the amount of the CTV motion-deformation of the left-out-patient that could not be explained by the PCA model. Next, the PCA model was used to construct a PCA target volume (PCA-TV) by accumulating motion-deformations simulated by the model. A PCA planning target volume (PTV) was generated by expanding the PCA-TV by uniform margins. The PCA-PTV was compared with uniform and nonuniform CTV-to-PTV margins. To allow comparison, geometric margins were determined to ensure adequate coverage, and the volume difference between the PTV and the daily CTV (CTV-to-PTV volume) was calculated. Results: The modeling error ranged from 0.9 ± 0.5 to 2.9 ± 2.1 mm, corresponding to a reduction of the CTV motion-deformation between 6% and 60% (average, 23% ± 11%). The reduction correlated with the magnitude of the CTV motion-deformation (P<.001, R=0.66). The PCA-TV and the CTV required 2-mm and 7-mm uniform margins, respectively. The nonuniform CTV-to-PTV margins were 4 mm in the left, right, inferior, superior, and posterior directions and 8 mm in the anterior direction. Compared to uniform and nonuniform CTV-to-PTV margins, the PCA-based PTV significantly decreased (P<.001) the average CTV-to-PTV volume by 128 ± 20 mL (49% ± 4%) and by 35 ± 6 mL (20% ± 3.5%), respectively. Conclusions: The CTV motion-deformation of a new patient can be explained by a population-based PCA model. A PCA model

  5. A Composite Modeling Analysis of the Deformation Behavior of Medium Manganese Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Radhakanta [CSM/ASPPRC; Gibbs, Paul J [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); De Moor, Emmanuel [CSM/ASPPRC; Speer, John G [CSM/ASPPRC; Matlock, David K [CSM/ASPPRC

    2014-09-01

    The deformation behavior of medium manganese steels was evaluated with uniaxial tensile testing and the results were correlated with predictions of a composite model shown previously to provide design insight into the development of multi-phase steels with third-generation advanced high strength steel (3GAHSS) properties. An equilibrium thermodynamic-based methodology to design microstructures containing systematic amounts of metastable austenite with controlled stability against transformation is presented. The analysis is based on Mn enrichment of austenite during intercritical annealing of medium Mn (7 and 10 wt pct.) low carbon (0.1 and 0.15 wt pct) steels. The steels were produced as laboratory heats that were hot and cold rolled prior to annealing. After annealing the microstructures consisted primarily of either a matrix of fine grained ferrite with austenite contents between 32.6 and 45.2 wt pct (7Mn, 0.1C steels) or a matrix of martensite with various amounts of austenite in the higher Mn steel. The different intercritical annealing conditions produced steels with wide variations in austenite contents and austenite compositions (Mn and C contents) resulting in steels with significant variations in austenite stability. Predictions based on the composite analysis with different assumed flow behaviors for the individual constituents and stability functions for the meta-stable austenite are presented and shown to accurately predict strength-ductility combinations over a range of austenite volume fractions for the 7Mn steel. Applicability of the composite analysis is extended to consider the deformation behavior of the 10Mn steel and evaluate other possible microstructural combinations leading to 3GAHSS properties.

  6. Scaling properties of Arctic sea ice deformation in high-resolution viscous-plastic sea ice models and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Nils; Losch, Martin; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice models with the traditional viscous-plastic (VP) rheology and very high grid resolution can resolve leads and deformation rates that are localised along Linear Kinematic Features (LKF). In a 1-km pan-Arctic sea ice-ocean simulation, the small scale sea-ice deformations in the Central Arctic are evaluated with a scaling analysis in relation to satellite observations of the Envisat Geophysical Processor System (EGPS). A new coupled scaling analysis for data on Eulerian grids determines the spatial and the temporal scaling as well as the coupling between temporal and spatial scales. The spatial scaling of the modelled sea ice deformation implies multi-fractality. The spatial scaling is also coupled to temporal scales and varies realistically by region and season. The agreement of the spatial scaling and its coupling to temporal scales with satellite observations and models with the modern elasto-brittle rheology challenges previous results with VP models at coarse resolution where no such scaling was found. The temporal scaling analysis, however, shows that the VP model does not fully resolve the intermittency of sea ice deformation that is observed in satellite data.

  7. Active shape model-based real-time tracking of deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangjin; Kim, Daehee; Shin, Jeongho; Paik, Joonki

    2005-10-01

    Tracking non-rigid objects such as people in video sequences is a daunting task due to computational complexity and unpredictable environment. The analysis and interpretation of video sequence containing moving, deformable objects have been an active research areas including video tracking, computer vision, and pattern recognition. In this paper we propose a robust, model-based, real-time system to cope with background clutter and occlusion. The proposed algorithm consists of following four steps: (i) localization of an object-of-interest by analyzing four directional motions, (ii) region tracker for tracking moving region detected by the motion detector, (iii) update of training sets using the Smart Snake Algorithm (SSA) without preprocessing, (iv) active shape model-based tracking in region information. The major contribution this work lies in the integration for a completed system, which covers from image processing to tracking algorithms. The approach of combining multiple algorithms succeeds in overcoming fundamental limitations of tracking and at the same time realizes real time implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can track people under various environment in real-time. The proposed system has potential uses in the area of surveillance, sape analysis, and model-based coding, to name of few.

  8. A chest-shape target automatic detection method based on Deformable Part Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li

    2016-10-01

    Automatic weapon platform is one of the important research directions at domestic and overseas, it needs to accomplish fast searching for the object to be shot under complex background. Therefore, fast detection for given target is the foundation of further task. Considering that chest-shape target is common target of shoot practice, this paper treats chestshape target as the target and studies target automatic detection method based on Deformable Part Models. The algorithm computes Histograms of Oriented Gradient(HOG) features of the target and trains a model using Latent variable Support Vector Machine(SVM); In this model, target image is divided into several parts then we can obtain foot filter and part filters; Finally, the algorithm detects the target at the HOG features pyramid with method of sliding window. The running time of extracting HOG pyramid with lookup table can be shorten by 36%. The result indicates that this algorithm can detect the chest-shape target in natural environments indoors or outdoors. The true positive rate of detection reaches 76% with many hard samples, and the false positive rate approaches 0. Running on a PC (Intel(R)Core(TM) i5-4200H CPU) with C++ language, the detection time of images with the resolution of 640 × 480 is 2.093s. According to TI company run library about image pyramid and convolution for DM642 and other hardware, our detection algorithm is expected to be implemented on hardware platform, and it has application prospect in actual system.

  9. Description of proton radioactivity using the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Sukumaran, Indu

    2017-09-01

    Half-life predictions have been performed for the proton emitters with Z >50 in the ground state and isomeric state using the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). The agreement of the calculated values with the experimental data made it possible to predict some proton emissions that are not verified experimentally yet. For a comparison, the calculations also are performed using other theoretical models, such as the Gamow-like model of Zdeb et al. [Eur. Phys. J. A 52, 323 (2016), 10.1140/epja/i2016-16323-7], the semiempirical relation of Hatsukawa et al. [Phys. Rev. C 42, 674 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevC.42.674], and the CPPM of Santhosh et al. [Pramana 58, 611 (2002)], 10.1007/s12043-002-0019-2. The Geiger-Nuttall law, originally observed for α decay, studied for proton radioactivity is found to work well provided it is plotted for the isotopes of a given proton emitter nuclide with the same ℓ value. The universal curve is found to be valid for proton radioactivity also as we obtained a single straight line for all proton emissions irrespective of the parents. Through the analysis of the experimentally measured half-lives of 44 proton emitters, the study revealed that the present systematic study lends support to a unified description for studying α decay, cluster radioactivity, and proton radioactivity.

  10. Deformation of the Zurich cementless acetabular cup caused by implantation in a canine cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjeton, Geoffrey D; Kim, Stanley E; Chang, Kelvin; Palm, Lindsey S; Ifju, Peter G

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the change in geometry of the Zurich total hip arthroplasty (THA) acetabular component after implantation. Hemipelves from adult mix-breed dogs weighing between 20 and 25 kg. Digital image correlation imaging was performed prior to, immediately after, and 24 hours after impaction of Zurich THA acetabular component, and after removal of the cup from the specimen. Patterns of deformation were qualitatively described, and maximal deformations were compared between time points. All cups deformed after implantation into the hemipelves by "pinching" in a cranial-caudal direction and dorsoventral expansion, resulting in an ellipsoid configuration to the peripheral rim. The mean ± SD maximum deformation at the rim immediately post-impaction was 0.202 ± 0.052 mm, or approximately 0.4 mm of diametrical deformation. Deformation did not change after the 24-hour saline bath. Impaction and subsequent extraction had a marginal effect on the original cup geometry, as maximum deformation at the rim after cup extraction was 0.074 ± 0.032 mm, relative to prior to impaction. The original Zurich cup geometry is distorted as a consequence of the press-fit mechanism. Further studies are required to determine whether deformation induced by impaction has any association with polyethylene wear rates or other prosthesis-related complications. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Moisture transport in swelling media modelled with a Lattice Boltzmann scheme having a deforming lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel numerical scheme for simulating the one-dimensional deformation of hydrogel material due to drying or rehydration. The scheme is based on the versatile Lattice Boltzmann method, which has been extended such that the computational grid (lattice) deforms due to

  12. On the modelling of the dynamics of elastically deformable floating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Malenica, Sime; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we are reexamining the dynamic equations of an elastically deformable floating structure to identify and evaluate the contribution from the inertia cross coupling terms which commonly have been neglected due to the assumption of small structural deformation. Numerical experiments on...

  13. Mathematical modeling of phenomena of dynamic recrystallization during hot plastic deformation in high-carbon bainitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dembiczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research results, coefficients were determined in constitutive equations, describing the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization in high-carbon bainitic steel during hot deformation. The developed mathematical model takes into account the dependence of changing kinetics in the size evolution of the initial austenite grains, the value of strain, strain rate, temperature and time. Physical simulations were carried out on rectangular specimens measuring 10 × 15 × 20 mm. Compression tests with a plane state of deformation were carried out using a Gleeble 3800.

  14. Deriving 3D coseismic deformation field by combining GPS and InSAR data based on the elastic dislocation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaogang; Jiang, Yu; Shan, Xinjian; Qu, Chunyan

    2017-05-01

    The density of GPS measurements is usually one of the key issues in resolving 3-D coseismic deformation field from integrating GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements with pure mathematic interpolation methods An approach that combines the elastic dislocation model with the Best Quadratic Unbiased Estimator (BQUE) or a robust estimation method named IGG (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics) is proposed to reconstruct 3-D coseismic deformation field, in which only a small amount of GPS data is needed to produce a reasonable initial 3-D coseismic deformation. Then the BQUE and IGG are used to weight the InSAR and GPS measurements to avoid computational issues caused by the negative variance problem and to decrease the impact from gross errors. The Wenchuan earthquake is used to test the proposed method. We find that the developed method makes it possible to use only a few GPSs and InSAR data to recover the 3-D coseismic deformation field, which offers extensive future usage for measuring earthquake deformation, particularly in some tectonically active regions with sparse GPS measurements.

  15. Basement deformation during continental collision: a modelling example of the Swedish central Caledonides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Rémi; Hieronymus, Christoph; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2017-04-01

    Recent geophysical investigations (Hedin et al., 2012; Yan et al., 2015; Juhlin et al., 2015), carried out as part of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project, provide an improved picture of the upper crust over the central Swedish Caledonides. The geometry and lithology of the basal detachment (surface to 1-2 km depth) are relatively well constrained by various observations (Seismic reflection, magneto-telluric, field observations ...), whereas deeper structures (1-2 km depth) observed in the Precambrian autochthonous basement are more ambiguous and may be interpreted as possible deformation zones or dolerite intrusions (dykes). In this study we interpret these structures as shear zones formed during a pre- or syn-Caledonian convergence event, at the boundaries of strong layers (e.g.: dolerites dykes) intruding the basement. In this collisional context, shear zones would work as thrust sheets accommodating the shortening, while the dolerite intrusions would rotate but remain mostly undeformed. We use a two-dimensional thermal-mechanical model to test this hypothesis. Our model is set up as follows: a 200km x 30km rectangular box composed of a sedimentary cover (5-7km thick) and a weak alum shale layer (100-500 m thick), overlying a continental basement intruded by vertical dolerite dykes and horizontal sills. Shortening velocities are applied on the right and bottom boundaries while the left side is fixed and the top boundary defined as a free surface. We use a visco-elasto-plastic rheology to characterize the three layers that compose the model and use consistent thermal parameters to define the temperature field. The governing equations of momentum, energy, and mass conservation are solved using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software. The three main objectives of this study are to: 1) Analyze the localization and distribution of deformation in the basement and in the overlying layers. 2) Quantify the amount of shortening

  16. Modelling of deformation process for the layer of elastoviscoplastic media under surface action of periodic force of arbitrary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheyev, V. V.; Saveliev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Description of deflected mode for different types of materials under action of external force plays special role for wide variety of applications - from construction mechanics to circuits engineering. This article con-siders the problem of plastic deformation of the layer of elastoviscolastic soil under surface periodic force. The problem was solved with use of the modified lumped parameters approach which takes into account close to real distribution of normal stress in the depth of the layer along with changes in local mechanical properties of the material taking place during plastic deformation. Special numeric algorithm was worked out for computer modeling of the process. As an example of application suggested algorithm was realized for the deformation of the layer of elasoviscoplastic material by the source of external lateral force with the parameters of real technological process of soil compaction.

  17. Surface deformation and reaction force estimation of liver tissue based on a novel nonlinear mass-spring-damper viscoelastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Árpád; Rudas, Imre J; Haidegger, Tamás

    2016-10-01

    Rheological soft tissue models play an important role in designing control methods for modern teleoperation systems. In the meanwhile, these models are also essential for creating a realistic virtual environment for surgical training. The implementation of model-based control in teleoperation has been a frequently discussed topic in the past decades, offering solutions for the loss of stability caused by time delay, which is one of the major issues in long-distance force control. In this paper, mass-spring-damper soft tissue models are investigated, showing that the widely used linear models do not represent realistic behavior under surgical manipulations. A novel, nonlinear model is proposed, where mechanical parameters are estimated using curve fitting methods. Theoretical reaction force curves are estimated using the proposed model, and the results are verified using measurement results from uniaxial indentation. The model is extended with force estimation by nonuniform surface deformation, where the surface deformation function is approximated according to visual data. Results show that using the proposed nonlinear model, a good estimation of reaction force can be achieved within the range of 0-4 mm, provided that the tissue deformation shape function is appropriately approximated.

  18. An anthropometric based subject-specific finite element model of the human breast for predicting large deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ePianigiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The large deformation of the human breast threatens proper nodules tracking when the subject mammograms are used as pre-planning data for biopsy. However, techniques capable of accurately supporting the surgeons during biopsy are missing. Finite Element (FE models are at the basis of currently investigated methodologies to track nodules displacement. Nonetheless, the impact of breast material modeling on the mechanical response of its tissues (e.g. tumors is not clear. This study proposes a subject-specific FE model of the breast, obtained by anthropometric measurements, to predict breast large deformation. A healthy breast subject-specific FE parametric model was developed and validated by Cranio-caudal (CC and Medio Lateral Oblique (MLO mammograms. The model was successively modified, including nodules, and utilized to investigate the effect of nodules size, typology and material modeling on nodules shift under the effect of CC, MLO and gravity loads. Results show that a Mooney-Rivlin material model can estimate healthy breast large deformation. For a pathological breast, under CC compression, the nodules displacement is very close to zero when a linear elastic material model is used. Finally, when nodules are modeled including tumor material properties, under CC or MLO or gravity loads, nodules shift shows ∼15% average relative difference.

  19. Analysis of HD Journal Bearings Considering Elastic Deformation and Non-Newtonian Rabinowitsch Fluid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the performance of a finite length journal bearing, taking into account effects of non-Newtonian Rabinowitsch flow rheology and elastic deformations of the bearing liner. According to the Rabinowitsch fluid model, the cubic-stress constitutive equation is used to account for the non-Newtonian effects of pseudoplastic and dilatant lubricants. Integrating the continuity equation across the film, the nonlinear non-Newtonian Reynolds-type equation is derived. The elasticity part of the problem is solved on the base of Vlassov model of an elastic foundation. The numerical solution of the modified Reynolds equation is carried out by using FDM with over-relaxation technique. The results for steady state bearing performance characteristics have been calculated for various values of nonlinear factor and elasticity parameters. It was concluded that in comparison with the Newtonian lubricants, higher values of film pressure and load carrying capacity have been obtained for dilatant lubricants, while the case was reversed for pseudoplastic lubricants.

  20. A shape-guided deformable model with evolutionary algorithm initialization for 3D soft tissue segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Tobias; Münzing, Sascha; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel method for the segmentation of volumetric images, which is especially suitable for highly variable soft tissue structures. Core of the algorithm is a statistical shape model (SSM) of the structure of interest. A global search with an evolutionary algorithm is employed to detect suitable initial parameters for the model, which are subsequently optimized by a local search similar to the Active Shape mechanism. After that, a deformable mesh with the same topology as the SSM is used for the final segmentation: While external forces strive to maximize the posterior probability of the mesh given the local appearance around the boundary, internal forces governed by tension and rigidity terms keep the shape similar to the underlying SSM. To prevent outliers and increase robustness, we determine the applied external forces by an algorithm for optimal surface detection with smoothness constraints. The approach is evaluated on 54 CT images of the liver and reaches an average surface distance of 1.6 +/- 0.5 mm in comparison to manual reference segmentations.

  1. Using the 3D active fault model to estimate the surface deformation, a study on HsinChu area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. K.; Ke, M. C.; Ke, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    An active fault is commonly considered to be active if they have moved one or more times in the last 10,000 years and likely to have another earthquake sometime in the future. The relationship between the fault reactivation and the surface deformation after the Chi-Chi earthquake (M=7.2) in 1999 has been concerned up to now. According to the investigations of well-known disastrous earthquakes in recent years, indicated that surface deformation is controlled by the 3D fault geometric shape. Because the surface deformation may cause dangerous damage to critical infrastructures, buildings, roads, power, water and gas lines etc. Therefore it's very important to make pre-disaster risk assessment via the 3D active fault model to decrease serious economic losses, people injuries and deaths caused by large earthquake. The approaches to build up the 3D active fault model can be categorized as (1) field investigation (2) digitized profile data and (3) build the 3D modeling. In this research, we tracked the location of the fault scarp in the field first, then combined the seismic profiles (had been balanced) and historical earthquake data to build the underground fault plane model by using SKUA-GOCAD program. Finally compared the results come from trishear model (written by Richard W. Allmendinger, 2012) and PFC-3D program (Itasca) and got the calculated range of the deformation area. By analysis of the surface deformation area made from Hsin-Chu Fault, we concluded the result the damage zone is approaching 68 286m, the magnitude is 6.43, the offset is 0.6m. base on that to estimate the population casualties, building damage by the M=6.43 earthquake in Hsin-Chu area, Taiwan. In the future, in order to be applied accurately on earthquake disaster prevention, we need to consider further the groundwater effect and the soil structure interaction inducing by faulting.

  2. 3D Finite Element Modelling for the investigation of the cavity effect in extensometric rock-deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, M.; Detzky, G.; Koppán, A.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of long period near-surface deformations of the Earth-crust is mostly performed by extensometry using equipments with different principles (eg. clinometers, interferometers, metal or quartz extensometers), capable for measuring of variations even in 10^-11 order. Using the observations wide spectra of natural physical processes of the Earth (e.g. tidal phenomena, self-oscillation of the Earth, pole-motion, variations of Earth's rotation, mass rearrangements, tectonics, geodynamics, climatic changes) can be analysed. Beyond these objectives application possibilities include the analysis of consequences caused by such kind of anthropogenic activities as mining, industrial activity, water-, oil- or gas exploitation as well. As the instruments are usually established in natural or artificial caves, tunnels, wells under the surface in order to minimize environmental influences (changes in temperature, air pressure, humidity...), one has to take into account the distorting effect of the cavity system itself on the real rock deformations. The so-called cavity effect covers the phenomena that a rock matrix with a unique cavity system deforms differently than it would be filled with rock materials. This causes an inhomogeneity problem in the observation system. The cavity effect is one of the most important factors influencing the absolute accuracy of geodynamic deformation measurements. Data sets compiled from different observatories could be improved by the estimation of this effect. The calculation of the real cavity effect influencing the accuracy of the deformation measurements cannot be done analytically. In actual practice generally various installation rules are considered in the designing phase to decrease the effect (Mentes, 1997: Continuous measurement methods for observing geodynamic, environmental and industrial deformations, Academic Doctoral Thesis, Sopron, In Hungarian). In this paper finite element modelling has been performed to analyse the

  3. Using Airborne Radar Stratigraphy to Model Surface Accumulation Anomaly and Basal Control over Deformed Basal Ice in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Creyts, T. T.; Wolovick, M.

    2013-12-01

    Large deformed ice structures have been imaged at the base of northern Greenland ice sheet by IceBridge airborne radar. Numerous deformed structures lie along the base of both Petermann Glacier and Northeast Ice stream catchments covering 10-13% of the catchment area. These structures may be combinations of basal freeze-on and folded ice that overturns and inverts stratigraphy. In the interior, where the ice velocity is low, the radar imaged height of the deformed structures are frequently a significant fraction of the ice thickness. They are related to basal freeze on and stick-slip at the base of the ice sheet and may be triggered by subglacial water, sediments or local geological conditions. The larger ones (at times up to 700 m thick and 140 km long) perturb the ice stratigraphy and create prominent undulations on the ice surface and modify the local surface mass balance. Here, we investigate the relationship between the deformed structures and surface processes using shallow and deep ice radar stratigraphy. The surface undulations caused by the deformed structures modulate the pattern of local surface snow accumulation. Using normalized differences of several near-surface stratigraphic layers, we have calculated the accumulation anomaly over these deformed structures. The accumulation anomalies can be as high as 20% of the local surface accumulation over some of the larger surface depressions caused by these deformed structures. We observe distinct differences in the phases of the near-surface internal layers on the Petermann and Northeast catchments. These differences indicate that the deformed bodies over Petermann are controlled by conditions at the bed different from the Northeast Ice stream. The distinctly different near-surface stratigraphy over the deformed structures in the Petermann and Northeast catchments have opened up a number of questions including their formation and how they influence the ice dynamics, ice stratigraphy and surface mass balance

  4. Development of a preoperative predictive model for major complications following adult spinal deformity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Justin K; Smith, Justin S; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Bess, Shay; Daniels, Alan H; Hart, Robert A; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Mundis, Gregory M; Sciubba, Daniel M; Ailon, Tamir; Burton, Douglas C; Klineberg, Eric; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE The operative management of patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has a high complication rate and it remains unknown whether baseline patient characteristics and surgical variables can predict early complications (intraoperative and perioperative [within 6 weeks]). The development of an accurate preoperative predictive model can aid in patient counseling, shared decision making, and improved surgical planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a model based on baseline demographic, radiographic, and surgical factors that can predict if patients will sustain an intraoperative or perioperative major complication. METHODS This study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective, multicenter ASD database. The inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years and the presence of ASD. In total, 45 variables were used in the initial training of the model including demographic data, comorbidities, modifiable surgical variables, baseline health-related quality of life, and coronal and sagittal radiographic parameters. Patients were grouped as either having at least 1 major intraoperative or perioperative complication (COMP group) or not (NOCOMP group). An ensemble of decision trees was constructed utilizing the C5.0 algorithm with 5 different bootstrapped models. Internal validation was accomplished via a 70/30 data split for training and testing each model, respectively. Overall accuracy, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, and predictor importance were calculated. RESULTS Five hundred fifty-seven patients were included: 409 (73.4%) in the NOCOMP group, and 148 (26.6%) in the COMP group. The overall model accuracy was 87.6% correct with an AUROC curve of 0.89 indicating a very good model fit. Twenty variables were determined to be the top predictors (importance ≥ 0.90 as determined by the model) and included (in decreasing importance): age, leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, number of decompression levels, number of

  5. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Shuttle Leading Edge Materials with Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites, such as the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) material used on the leading edges of the Space Shuttle. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression deformation behaviors have also been accounted for. State variable viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear response is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). Several sample qualitative calculations have been conducted, which demonstrate the ability of the model to qualitatively capture the features of the deformation response present in woven ceramic matrix composites.

  6. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites With Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites with a plain weave fiber architecture. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression response have also been considered. State variable based viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear stiffness is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). The tensile, compressive, and shear deformation of a representative plain weave woven ceramic matrix composite are computed and compared to experimental results. The computed values correlate well to the experimental data, demonstrating the ability of the model to accurately compute the deformation response of woven ceramic matrix composites.

  7. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation using a deformable active Fourier contour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachet, Clement; Yvernault, Benjamin; Bhatt, Kshamta; Smith, Rachel G; Gerig, Guido; Hazlett, Heather Cody; Styner, Martin

    2012-03-23

    The corpus callosum (CC) is a structure of interest in many neuroimaging studies of neuro-developmental pathology such as autism. It plays an integral role in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information from homologous regions in both hemispheres. We have developed a framework that allows automatic segmentation of the corpus callosum and its lobar subdivisions. Our approach employs constrained elastic deformation of flexible Fourier contour model, and is an extension of Szekely's 2D Fourier descriptor based Active Shape Model. The shape and appearance model, derived from a large mixed population of 150+ subjects, is described with complex Fourier descriptors in a principal component shape space. Using MNI space aligned T1w MRI data, the CC segmentation is initialized on the mid-sagittal plane using the tissue segmentation. A multi-step optimization strategy, with two constrained steps and a final unconstrained step, is then applied. If needed, interactive segmentation can be performed via contour repulsion points. Lobar connectivity based parcellation of the corpus callosum can finally be computed via the use of a probabilistic CC subdivision model. Our analysis framework has been integrated in an open-source, end-to-end application called CCSeg both with a command line and Qt-based graphical user interface (available on NITRC). A study has been performed to quantify the reliability of the semi-automatic segmentation on a small pediatric dataset. Using 5 subjects randomly segmented 3 times by two experts, the intra-class correlation coefficient showed a superb reliability (0.99). CCSeg is currently applied to a large longitudinal pediatric study of brain development in autism.

  8. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation using a deformable active Fourier contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachet, Clement; Yvernault, Benjamin; Bhatt, Kshamta; Smith, Rachel G.; Gerig, Guido; Cody Hazlett, Heather; Styner, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is a structure of interest in many neuroimaging studies of neuro-developmental pathology such as autism. It plays an integral role in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information from homologous regions in both hemispheres. We have developed a framework that allows automatic segmentation of the corpus callosum and its lobar subdivisions. Our approach employs constrained elastic deformation of flexible Fourier contour model, and is an extension of Szekely's 2D Fourier descriptor based Active Shape Model. The shape and appearance model, derived from a large mixed population of 150+ subjects, is described with complex Fourier descriptors in a principal component shape space. Using MNI space aligned T1w MRI data, the CC segmentation is initialized on the mid-sagittal plane using the tissue segmentation. A multi-step optimization strategy, with two constrained steps and a final unconstrained step, is then applied. If needed, interactive segmentation can be performed via contour repulsion points. Lobar connectivity based parcellation of the corpus callosum can finally be computed via the use of a probabilistic CC subdivision model. Our analysis framework has been integrated in an open-source, end-to-end application called CCSeg both with a command line and Qt-based graphical user interface (available on NITRC). A study has been performed to quantify the reliability of the semi-automatic segmentation on a small pediatric dataset. Using 5 subjects randomly segmented 3 times by two experts, the intra-class correlation coefficient showed a superb reliability (0.99). CCSeg is currently applied to a large longitudinal pediatric study of brain development in autism.

  9. The effect of heat developed during high strain rate deformation on the constitutive modeling of amorphous polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Keivan H.; Zamani, Jamal; Guedes, Rui M.; Ferreira, Fernando J.

    2016-02-01

    An adiabatic constitutive model is proposed for large strain deformation of polycarbonate (PC) at high strain rates. When the strain rate is sufficiently high such that the heat generated does not have time to transfer to the surroundings, temperature of material rises. The high strain rate deformation behavior of polymers is significantly affected by temperature-dependent constants and thermal softening. Based on the isothermal model which first was introduced by Mulliken and Boyce et al. (Int. J. Solids Struct. 43:1331-1356, 2006), an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the yield and post-yield behavior of glassy polymers at high strain rates. When calculating the heat generated and the temperature changes during the step by step simulation of the deformation, temperature-dependent elastic constants are incorporated to the constitutive equations. Moreover, better prediction of softening phenomena is achieved by the new definition for softening parameters of the proposed model. The constitutive model has been implemented numerically into a commercial finite element code through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). The experimental results, obtained using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, are supported by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and Decompose/Shift/Reconstruct (DSR) method. Comparison of adiabatic model predictions with experimental data demonstrates the ability of the model to capture the characteristic features of stress-strain curve of the material at very high strain rates.

  10. A constitutive model of cyclic viscoplasticity considering changes in subsequent viscoplastic deformation due to the evolution of dislocation structures

    OpenAIRE

    T. Mayama; Sasaki, K.; Ishikawa, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a unified constitutive model for cyclic viscoplasticity and changes occurring in subsequent viscoplastic deformation due to the evolution of dislocation structures. The model considers the viscoplastic potential and a modified Ramberg–Osgood law. Stress is assumed to divide into three components: back stress (the center of the yield surface), flow stress (the radius of the yield surface), and viscous stress (overstress). The modification of the Ramberg–Osgood law is carrie...

  11. Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, B.; Kolluru, R.; Pyburn, D.; Leon, R.; Sengupta, S. K.; Testorf, M.; Goodhue, W.; Khoury, J.; Drehman, A.; Woods, C. L.; Kierstead, J.

    2006-05-01

    The fabrication and characterization of an optically addressable deformable mirror for a spatial light modulator are described. Device operation utilizes an electrostatically driven pixelated aluminized polymeric membrane mirror supported above an optically controlled photoconductive GaAs substrate. A 5 μm thick grid of patterned photoresist supports the 2 μm thick aluminized Mylar membrane. A conductive ZnO layer is placed on the backside of the GaAs wafer. Similar devices were also fabricated with InP. A standard Michelson interferometer is used to measure mirror deformation data as a function of illumination, applied voltage, and frequency. The device operates as an impedance distribution between two cascaded impedances of deformable membrane substrate, substrate, and electrode. An analysis of device's operation under several bias conditions, which relates membrane deformation to operating parameters, is presented.

  12. Inelastic models of lithospheric stress - I. Theory and application to outer-rise plate deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Choy, G.L.; Spence, W.

    1996-01-01

    Outer-rise stress distributions determined in the manner that mechanical engineers evaluate inelastic stress distributions within conventional materials are contrasted with those predicted using simple elastic-plate models that are frequently encountered in studies of outer-rise seismicity. This comparison indicates that the latter are inherently inappropriate for studies of intraplate earthquakes, which are a direct manifestation of lithospheric inelasticity. We demonstrate that the common practice of truncating elastically superimposed stress profiles so that they are not permitted to exceed laboratory-based estimates of lithospheric yield strength will result in an accurate characterization of lithospheric stress only under relatively restrictive circumstances. In contrast to elastic-plate models, which predict that lithospheric stress distributions depend exclusively upon the current load, inelastic plate models predict that stress distributions are also significantly influenced by the plate-loading history, and, in many cases, this influence is the dominant factor in determining the style of potential seismicity (e.g. thrust versus normal faulting). Numerous 'intuitive' interpretations of outer-rise earthquakes have been founded upon the implicit assumption that a unique relationship exists between a specified combination of plate curvature and in-plane force, and the resulting lithospheric stress distribution. We demonstrate that the profound influence of deformation history often invalidates such interpretations. Finally, we examine the reliability of 'yield envelope' representations of lithospheric strength that are constructed on the basis of empirically determined frictional sliding relationships and silicate plastic-flow laws. Although representations of this nature underestimate the strength of some major interplate faults, such as the San Andreas, they appear to represent a reliable characterization of the strength of intraplate oceanic lithosphere.

  13. A Regression Model for Predicting Shape Deformation after Breast Conserving Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshiar Zolfagharnasab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer treatments can have a negative impact on breast aesthetics, in case when surgery is intended to intersect tumor. For many years mastectomy was the only surgical option, but more recently breast conserving surgery (BCS has been promoted as a liable alternative to treat cancer while preserving most part of the breast. However, there is still a significant number of BCS intervened patients who are unpleasant with the result of the treatment, which leads to self-image issues and emotional overloads. Surgeons recognize the value of a tool to predict the breast shape after BCS to facilitate surgeon/patient communication and allow more educated decisions; however, no such tool is available that is suited for clinical usage. These tools could serve as a way of visually sensing the aesthetic consequences of the treatment. In this research, it is intended to propose a methodology for predict the deformation after BCS by using machine learning techniques. Nonetheless, there is no appropriate dataset containing breast data before and after surgery in order to train a learning model. Therefore, an in-house semi-synthetic dataset is proposed to fulfill the requirement of this research. Using the proposed dataset, several learning methodologies were investigated, and promising outcomes are obtained.

  14. Deformation Behavior between Hydraulic and Natural Fractures Using Fully Coupled Hydromechanical Model with XFEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing consensus that preexisting natural fractures play an important role during stimulation. A novel fully coupled hydromechanical model using extended finite element method is proposed. This directly coupled scheme avoids the cumbersome process during calculating the fluid pressure in complicated fracture networks and translating into an equivalent nodal force. Numerical examples are presented to simulate the hydraulic fracture propagation paths for simultaneous multifracture treatments with properly using the stress shadow effects for horizontal wells and to reveal the deformation response and interaction mechanism between hydraulic induced fracture and nonintersected natural fractures at orthotropic and nonorthotropic angles. With the stress shadow effects, the induced hydraulic flexural fracture deflecting to wellbore rather than transverse fracture would be formed during the progress of simultaneous fracturing for a horizontal well. The coupled hydromechanical simulation reveals that the adjacent section to the intersection is opened and the others are closed for orthogonal natural fracture, while the nonorthogonal natural fracture is activated near the intersection firstly and along the whole section with increasing perturbed stresses. The results imply that the induced hydraulic fracture tends to cross orthotropic natural fracture, while it is prior to being arrested by the nonorthotropic natural fracture.

  15. Stress Relaxation Effects in TiNi SMA During Superelastic Deformation: Experiment and Constitutive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczyska, Elżbieta A.; Kowalewski, Zbigniew L.; Dunić, Vladimir Lj.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation of thermomechanical effects related to the phenomena of stress relaxation occurring in TiNi SMA subjected to modified program of displacement-controlled tension. The deformation data were taken from testing machine, whereas the temperature changes accompanying the exothermic/endothermic martensite forward/reverse transformation were measured by infrared camera. At the advanced stages of the transformations, the strain was kept constant for a few minutes and the SMA load and temperature were recorded continuously. As a consequence, the stress and temperature changed significantly during the loading stops. A large stress drop, caused by the transformation, was observed during the relaxation stage in both courses of the SMA loading and unloading. Moreover, the non-uniform temperature distribution, reflecting macroscopically inhomogeneous transformation, lapsed while the strain was kept constant, yet restarted at the end of the relaxation stop and developed at the reloading stage. Along with the experimental results, the mechanical and thermal responses induced by the transformation were obtained by 3D coupled thermomechanical numerical analysis, realized in partitioned approach. Latent heat production was correlated with an amount of the martensitic volume fraction. The stress and temperature drops recorded during the experiment were satisfactorily reproduced by the model proposed for the SMA thermomechanical coupling.

  16. A finite deformation continuum modelling framework for curvature effects in fibre-reinforced nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanoglo, Tobias; Menzel, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by experimental findings on one-dimensional nano-materials, this contribution focusses on the elaboration of a fibre curvature based higher-order gradient contribution to the stored energy function in a finite deformation setting. The presented approach is based on the fundamental theoretical developments for fibre-reinforced composites presented by Spencer and Soldatos (2007), which take into account the fibre-bending stiffness in addition to the directional dependency induced by the fibres. A mixed-type finite element formulation is then used for the solution of the resulting system of coupled partial differential equations. A specific form of the stored energy function is introduced such that well-interpretable contributions to the stress- and the couple stress tensor are obtained. It is shown that this framework may, in principle, account for fibres of different diameters and induces a natural length scale into the model. Such continuum theory covering size-effects is of special interest since experiments for different materials suggest significant size-effects at small length scales.

  17. Segmentation of interest region in medical volume images using geometric deformable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungeun; Cho, Wanhyun; Kim, Sunworl; Park, Soonyoung; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new segmentation method using the level set framework for medical volume images. The method was implemented using the surface evolution principle based on the geometric deformable model and the level set theory. And, the speed function in the level set approach consists of a hybrid combination of three integral measures derived from the calculus of variation principle. The terms are defined as robust alignment, active region, and smoothing. These terms can help to obtain the precise surface of the target object and prevent the boundary leakage problem. The proposed method has been tested on synthetic and various medical volume images with normal tissue and tumor regions in order to evaluate its performance on visual and quantitative data. The quantitative validation of the proposed segmentation is shown with higher Jaccard's measure score (72.52%-94.17%) and lower Hausdorff distance (1.2654 mm-3.1527 mm) than the other methods such as mean speed (67.67%-93.36% and 1.3361mm-3.4463 mm), mean-variance speed (63.44%-94.72% and 1.3361 mm-3.4616 mm), and edge-based speed (0.76%-42.44% and 3.8010 mm-6.5389 mm). The experimental results confirm that the effectiveness and performance of our method is excellent compared with traditional approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. UNIVERSAL ALGORITHM OF NONLINEAR PROCESS NUMERICAL MODELLING OF REINFORCED CONSTRUCTION DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizunov P.P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical algorithm and software tools for the study of nonlinear deformation and fracture spatial concrete structures are developed. Finite element method is used. Numerical simulation of nonlinear deformation and fracture of materials is performed according to the phenomenological theories. Calculation algorithm is based on the Newton-Kantorovich method. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by comparison with experimental data and numerical calculations performed using other methods.

  19. Development of self-lubricating coatings via cold spray process: Feedstock formulation and deformation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Gaurav

    Because of their low density, high specific strength and high stiffness, titanium alloys are one of the prime candidates for structural application often requiring specific tribological properties. However, their relatively high friction coefficients and low wear resistance are limiting their application over a wider temperature range. Various coatings deposited with technologies like high velocity oxy flame (HVOF), detonation gun (DGun), electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), etc., can improve wear performance and decrease corrosion damage. These technologies require high processing temperatures precluding the integration of thermally vulnerable lubricants. This research looks at a relatively new coating process called Cold Spray for self-lubricating coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Cold Spray can produce coatings without significant heating of the sprayed powder or substrate. The particles are in solid state as they hit the substrate, and the formation of coatings occurs mainly due to the kinetic energy of the particles. Therefore, the impact velocity plays an important role. Below a critical value, the particles can cause densification and abrasion of the substrate. The focus of this study is to design composite coatings for the cold spray process and determination of the critical velocity through finite element modeling. Different powders and feedstock formulation techniques are discussed in order to find an optimum formulation for self-lubricating coatings. A composite powder (Ni coated hBN) was found to be the best candidate for the feedstock. The deformation of composite particles upon impact on the substrate was modeled and compared to the experiments. A number of approaches involving different modeling platforms, particle-substrate geometries, and material models have been tried. This work presents the results of ANSYS (version 10.0) analysis using an axisymmetric model of the particle impact. Stress and strain distributions in the particle

  20. Modelling of real area of contact between tool and workpiece in metal forming processes including the influence of subsurface deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel ...... for estimating friction in the numerical modelling of metal forming processes.......New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel...... to the surface. Finite element modelling supports the presentation and contributes by extrapolation of results to complete the mapping of contact area as function of normal pressure and one-directional subsurface strain parallel to the surface. Improved modelling of the real contact area is the basis...

  1. Coupled phase transformation, chemical decomposition, and deformation in plastic-bonded explosive: Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Henson, Bryan F.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Zerkle, David K.; Asay, Blaine W.

    2007-12-01

    A continuum thermomechanochemical model of the behavior of a plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) 9501 formulation consisting of the energetic crystal octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) embedded in a polymeric binder is developed. Our main focus is on the study of the β ↔δ phase transformations (PTs) in crystalline HMX under a complex pressure-temperature path. To reproduce the pressure-temperature path, in particular during heating of PBX inside of a rigid cylinder, the β ↔δ PTs in HMX are coupled to chemical decomposition of the HMX and binder leading to gas formation, gas leaking from the cylinder, elastic, thermal, and transformational straining as well as straining due to mass loss. A fully physically based thermodynamic and kinetic model of the β ↔δ PT in HMX crystal is developed. It is based on a suggested nucleation mechanism via melt mediated nanocluster transformation and the recently revealed growth mechanism via internal stress-induced virtual melting. During the nucleation, nanosize clusters of the β phase dissolve in a molten binder and transform diffusionally into δ phase clusters. During the interface propagation, internal stresses induced by transformation strain cause the melting of the stressed δ phase much below (120 K) the melting temperature and its immediate resolidification into the unstressed δ phase. These mechanisms explain numerous puzzles of HMX polymorphism and result in overall transformation kinetics that is in good agreement with experiments. Simple phenomenological equations for kinetics of chemical decomposition of the HMX and the binder are in good correspondence with experiments as well. A continuum deformation model is developed in two steps. The geometrically linear (small strain) theory is used to prove that the internal stresses and macroscopic shear stresses are negligible. Then a large strain theory is developed under hydrostatic loading. The developed continuum thermomechanochemical model is

  2. Coupled elasticity–diffusion model for the effects of cytoskeleton deformation on cellular uptake of cylindrical nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizeng; Li, Long

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations and experiments have recently demonstrated how cylindrical nanoparticles (CNPs) with large aspect ratios penetrate animal cells and inevitably deform cytoskeletons. Thus, a coupled elasticity–diffusion model was adopted to elucidate this interesting biological phenomenon by considering the effects of elastic deformations of cytoskeleton and membrane, ligand–receptor binding and receptor diffusion. The mechanism by which the binding energy drives the CNPs with different orientations to enter host cells was explored. This mechanism involved overcoming the resistance caused by cytoskeleton and membrane deformations and the change in configurational entropy of the ligand–receptor bonds and free receptors. Results showed that deformation of the cytoskeleton significantly influenced the engulfing process by effectively slowing down and even hindering the entry of the CNPs. Additionally, the engulfing depth was determined quantitatively. CNPs preferred or tended to vertically attack target cells until they were stuck in the cytoskeleton as implied by the speed of vertically oriented CNPs that showed much faster initial engulfing speeds than horizontally oriented CNPs. These results elucidated the most recent molecular dynamics simulations and experimental observations on the cellular uptake of carbon nanotubes and phagocytosis of filamentous Escherichia coli bacteria. The most efficient engulfment showed the stiffness-dependent optimal radius of the CNPs. Cytoskeleton stiffness exhibited more significant influence on the optimal sizes of the vertical uptake than the horizontal uptake. PMID:25411410

  3. Coupled elasticity-diffusion model for the effects of cytoskeleton deformation on cellular uptake of cylindrical nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizeng; Li, Long

    2015-01-06

    Molecular dynamic simulations and experiments have recently demonstrated how cylindrical nanoparticles (CNPs) with large aspect ratios penetrate animal cells and inevitably deform cytoskeletons. Thus, a coupled elasticity-diffusion model was adopted to elucidate this interesting biological phenomenon by considering the effects of elastic deformations of cytoskeleton and membrane, ligand-receptor binding and receptor diffusion. The mechanism by which the binding energy drives the CNPs with different orientations to enter host cells was explored. This mechanism involved overcoming the resistance caused by cytoskeleton and membrane deformations and the change in configurational entropy of the ligand-receptor bonds and free receptors. Results showed that deformation of the cytoskeleton significantly influenced the engulfing process by effectively slowing down and even hindering the entry of the CNPs. Additionally, the engulfing depth was determined quantitatively. CNPs preferred or tended to vertically attack target cells until they were stuck in the cytoskeleton as implied by the speed of vertically oriented CNPs that showed much faster initial engulfing speeds than horizontally oriented CNPs. These results elucidated the most recent molecular dynamics simulations and experimental observations on the cellular uptake of carbon nanotubes and phagocytosis of filamentous Escherichia coli bacteria. The most efficient engulfment showed the stiffness-dependent optimal radius of the CNPs. Cytoskeleton stiffness exhibited more significant influence on the optimal sizes of the vertical uptake than the horizontal uptake. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Knapp, Peter; Vaynman, S; Graham, M E; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M P

    2014-09-20

    The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films.

  5. Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures [Thermo-mechanical modeling of laser-induced structural relaxation and deformation of SiO2 glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignes, Ryan M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Soules, Thomas F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Stolken, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Settgast, Randolph R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Elhadj, Selim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Matthews, Manyalibo J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Mauro, J.

    2012-12-17

    In a fully coupled thermomechanical model of the nanoscale deformation in amorphous SiO2 due to laser heating is presented. Direct measurement of the transient, nonuniform temperature profiles was used to first validate a nonlinear thermal transport model. Densification due to structural relaxation above the glass transition point was modeled using the Tool-Narayanaswamy (TN) formulation for the evolution of structural relaxation times and fictive temperature. TN relaxation parameters were derived from spatially resolved confocal Raman scattering measurements of Si–O–Si stretching mode frequencies. These thermal and microstructural data were used to simulate fictive temperatures which are shown to scale nearly linearly with density, consistent with previous measurements from Shelby et al. Volumetric relaxation coupled with thermal expansion occurring in the liquid-like and solid-like glassy states lead to residual stresses and permanent deformation which could be quantified. But, experimental surface deformation profiles between 1700 and 2000 K could only be reconciled with our simulation by assuming a roughly 2 × larger liquid thermal expansion for a-SiO2 with a temperature of maximum density ~150 K higher than previously estimated by Bruckner et al. Calculated stress fields agreed well with recent laser-induced critical fracture measurements, demonstrating accurate material response prediction under processing conditions of practical interest.

  6. Correlation function intercepts for μ˜,q-deformed Bose gas model implying effective accounting for interaction and compositeness of particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Gavrilik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recently proposed two-parameter μ˜,q-deformed Bose gas model (Gavrilik and Mishchenko, 2013 [3], aimed to take effectively into account both compositeness of particles and their interaction, the μ˜,q-deformed virial expansion of the equation of state (EOS was obtained. In this paper we further explore the μ˜,q-deformation, namely the version of μ˜,q-Bose gas model involving deformed distributions and correlation functions. In the model, we explicitly derive the one- and two-particle deformed distribution functions and the intercept of two-particle momentum correlation function. The results are illustrated by plots, and the comparison with known experimental data on two-pion correlation function intercepts extracted in RHIC/STAR experiments is given.

  7. Quantitative assessment of soft tissue deformation using digital speckle pattern interferometry: studies on phantom breast models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Udayakumar; Unni, Sujatha Narayanan; Angarai, Ganesan R

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of mechanical properties of soft matter is a challenging task in a purely noninvasive and noncontact environment. As tissue mechanical properties play a vital role in determining tissue health status, such noninvasive methods offer great potential in framing large-scale medical screening strategies. The digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI)-based image capture and analysis system described here is capable of extracting the deformation information from a single acquired fringe pattern. Such a method of analysis would be required in the case of the highly dynamic nature of speckle patterns derived from soft tissues while applying mechanical compression. Soft phantoms mimicking breast tissue optical and mechanical properties were fabricated and tested in the DSPI out of plane configuration set up. Hilbert transform (HT)-based image analysis algorithm was developed to extract the phase and corresponding deformation of the sample from a single acquired fringe pattern. The experimental fringe contours were found to correlate with numerically simulated deformation patterns of the sample using Abaqus finite element analysis software. The extracted deformation from the experimental fringe pattern using the HT-based algorithm is compared with the deformation value obtained using numerical simulation under similar conditions of loading and the results are found to correlate with an average %error of 10. The proposed method is applied on breast phantoms fabricated with included subsurface anomaly mimicking cancerous tissue and the results are analyzed.

  8. Application of Finite Element Method of Numerical Modelling to Understand Toe Buckling Deformation in the Southern Alps of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridl, Romy; Bell, David; Villeneuve, Marlene

    2017-04-01

    Toe buckling deformation is a temporal product of induced stresses concentrated at the base of a slope. Prolonged induced stresses may lead to yielding of an anisotropic rock mass, either through rheological creep deformation (flexural toe buckling) or brittle failure (hinge buckling). Progressive deformation can lead to the breakout at the buckled toe and ultimately result in deep seated displacements on a mountain range scale, referred to as deep seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD). DSGSD can have a considerable impact on civil infrastructure and should be well understood for hazard identification, to inform civil engineering design and for resource management purposes. Toe buckling deformation was identified beneath the basal sliding zone of three large (≥50 Mm3) landslides in the Cromwell Gorge, New Zealand. This area was subjected to extensive geotechnical investigations for the Clyde Hydropower Scheme. During these investigations seventeen major landslides were identified in the Cromwell Gorge and subsequently stabilised. The data from the landslide stabilisation project, including 26.7 km of boreholes and 9 km of tunnels, for the three landslides exhibiting toe buckling was made available for this study. This comprehensive database has enabled comparison and validation of numerical simulations carried out for the Cromwell Gorge. The application of numerical modelling has demonstrated that toe buckling within the Cromwell Gorge is a result of the combination of induced stresses acting on an anisotropic schistose rock mass. The induced stresses comprise: i) topographically-induced gravitational stresses parallel to the slope, associated with the evolution of the Cromwell Gorge from a relatively low relief surface to present day topography (1400 m deep valley), and ii) active far-field tectonic stresses associated with the obliquely convergent stress regime of the Australian-Pacific continent plate boundary. Finite Element Method (FEM) numerical

  9. Thermodynamic geometry, condensation and Debye model of two-parameter deformed statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Azizian-Kalandaragh, Yashar; Cheraghpour, Narges; Adli, Fereshteh

    2017-08-01

    We consider the statistical distribution function of a two parameter deformed system, namely qp-deformed bosons and fermions. Using a thermodynamic geometry approach, we derive the thermodynamic curvature of an ideal gas with particles obeying qp-bosons and qp-fermions. We show that the intrinsic statistic interaction of qp-bosons is attractive in all physical ranges, while it is repulsive for qp-fermions. Also, the thermodynamic curvature of qp-boson gas is singular at a specified value of fugacity and therefore, a phase transition such as Bose-Einstein condensation can take place. In the following, we compare the experimental and theoretical results of temperature-dependent specific heat capacity of some metallic materials in the framework of q and qp-deformed algebras.

  10. Emergent gravity in the cubic tight-binding model of Weyl semimetal in the presence of elastic deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortijo, Alberto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Zubkov, M.A., E-mail: zubkov@itep.ru [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9, Institutskii per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    We consider the tight-binding model with cubic symmetry that may be relevant for the description of a certain class of Weyl semimetals. We take into account elastic deformations of the semimetal through the modification of hopping parameters. This modification results in the appearance of emergent gauge field and the coordinate dependent anisotropic Fermi velocity. The latter may be interpreted as emergent gravitational field.

  11. Measurement and modeling on hydrodynamic forces and deformation of an air bubble approaching a solid sphere in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahalami, Mansoureh; Wang, Louxiang; Wu, Chu; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe; Chan, Derek Y C

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between bubbles and solid surfaces is central to a broad range of industrial and biological processes. Various experimental techniques have been developed to measure the interactions of bubbles approaching solids in a liquid. A main challenge is to accurately and reliably control the relative motion over a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions and at the same time to determine the interaction forces, bubble-solid separation and bubble deformation. Existing experimental methods are able to focus only on one of the aspects of this problem, mostly for bubbles and particles with characteristic dimensions either below 100 μm or above 1 cm. As a result, either the interfacial deformations are measured directly with the forces being inferred from a model, or the forces are measured directly with the deformations to be deduced from the theory. The recently developed integrated thin film drainage apparatus (ITFDA) filled the gap of intermediate bubble/particle size ranges that are commonly encountered in mineral and oil recovery applications. Equipped with side-view digital cameras along with a bimorph cantilever as force sensor and speaker diaphragm as the driver for bubble to approach a solid sphere, the ITFDA has the capacity to measure simultaneously and independently the forces and interfacial deformations as a bubble approaches a solid sphere in a liquid. Coupled with the thin liquid film drainage modeling, the ITFDA measurement allows the critical role of surface tension, fluid viscosity and bubble approach speed in determining bubble deformation (profile) and hydrodynamic forces to be elucidated. Here we compare the available methods of studying bubble-solid interactions and demonstrate unique features and advantages of the ITFDA for measuring both forces and bubble deformations in systems of Reynolds numbers as high as 10. The consistency and accuracy of such measurement are tested against the well established Stokes-Reynolds-Young-Laplace model

  12. Meshfree Finite Element Technique for Geoscience Research: A New Tool for Modeling Earthquake-induced Crustal Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, I.; Wdowinski, S.

    2008-12-01

    Meshfree (or meshless) Finite Element (FE) may sound as an oxymoron, but it is an emerging modeling technique with many advantages. The method still uses elements, just as the standard (meshed) techniques. However, the elements are set by a grid that does not necessarily conform to the geometry of the modeled object. In the contrast to standard FEMs, in our meshfree method the object's geometry is represented by the distances to the boundaries. Distance to the boundary is an intrinsic property of any geometric object, and it provides a natural way to represent the geometric information and satisfy boundary conditions exactly. Because meshfree methods do not require spatial meshing that conforms to the geometric model, they provide the needed geometrical flexibility lacking in standard FE methods. However, the treatment of boundary conditions becomes more challenging. The meshfree FE technique is used in variety of engineering applications, such as heat transfer, structural analysis, shape-material optimization and stress analysis of acquired models. So far, this very promising technique had a very minor impact in geoscience research. Only three geoscience papers used the meshfree technique in their research. We have started utilizing this flexible numerical modeling tool to study earthquake-induced crustal deformation. So far, we used 3-D elastic models to simulate interseismic deformation due to a buried dislocation. Our preliminary results show an excellent fit with analytical dislocation models. We plan to continue developing the application of the meshfree technique to crustal deformation studies, in order to generate a modeling tool that can easily incorporate complicated geometries (faults, topography, and crustal units), geometrical changes over time, complicated rheologies, and heterogeneous crustal properties.

  13. Two-Dimensional Boundary Element Method Application for Surface Deformation Modeling around Lembang and Cimandiri Fault, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahya, M. J.; Sanny, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    Lembang and Cimandiri fault are active faults in West Java that thread people near the faults with earthquake and surface deformation risk. To determine the deformation, GPS measurements around Lembang and Cimandiri fault was conducted then the data was processed to get the horizontal velocity at each GPS stations by Graduate Research of Earthquake and Active Tectonics (GREAT) Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering Study Program, ITB. The purpose of this study is to model the displacement distribution as deformation parameter in the area along Lembang and Cimandiri fault using 2-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) using the horizontal velocity that has been corrected by the effect of Sunda plate horizontal movement as the input. The assumptions that used at the modeling stage are the deformation occurs in homogeneous and isotropic medium, and the stresses that acted on faults are in elastostatic condition. The results of modeling show that Lembang fault had left-lateral slip component and divided into two segments. A lineament oriented in southwest-northeast direction is observed near Tangkuban Perahu Mountain separating the eastern and the western segments of Lembang fault. The displacement pattern of Cimandiri fault shows that Cimandiri fault is divided into the eastern segment with right-lateral slip component and the western segment with left-lateral slip component separated by a northwest-southeast oriented lineament at the western part of Gede Pangrango Mountain. The displacement value between Lembang and Cimandiri fault is nearly zero indicating that Lembang and Cimandiri fault are not connected each other and this area is relatively safe for infrastructure development.

  14. Statistical model for the mechanical behavior of the tissue engineering non-woven fibrous matrices under large deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Pal, Anupam

    2014-09-01

    The fibrous matrices are widely used as scaffolds for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues due to their structural and mechanical similarities with the fibrous components of the extracellular matrix. These scaffolds not only provide the appropriate microenvironment for the residing cells but also act as medium for the transmission of the mechanical stimuli, essential for the tissue regeneration, from macroscopic scale of the scaffolds to the microscopic scale of cells. The requirement of the mechanical loading for the tissue regeneration requires the fibrous scaffolds to be able to sustain the complex three-dimensional mechanical loading conditions. In order to gain insight into the mechanical behavior of the fibrous matrices under large amount of elongation as well as shear, a statistical model has been formulated to study the macroscopic mechanical behavior of the electrospun fibrous matrix and the transmission of the mechanical stimuli from scaffolds to the cells via the constituting fibers. The study establishes the load-deformation relationships for the fibrous matrices for different structural parameters. It also quantifies the changes in the fiber arrangement and tension generated in the fibers with the deformation of the matrix. The model reveals that the tension generated in the fibers on matrix deformation is not homogeneous and hence the cells located in different regions of the fibrous scaffold might experience different mechanical stimuli. The mechanical response of fibrous matrices was also found to be dependent on the aspect ratio of the matrix. Therefore, the model establishes a structure-mechanics interdependence of the fibrous matrices under large deformation, which can be utilized in identifying the appropriate structure and external mechanical loading conditions for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling the void deformation and closure by hot forging of ingot castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Kotas, Petr

    2012-01-01

    . The analysis concernsboth the void density change and the location of the voids in the part after deformation. The latter can be important for the subsequent reliability of the parts, for instance regarding fatigue properties. The analysis incorporates the Gurson yield criterion for metals containing voids...

  16. Modeling of dislocation generation and interaction during high-speed deformation of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, J.; Leffers, T.; Singh, B.N.

    2002-01-01

    at very high strain rates. We have used molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate high-speed deformation of copper crystals. Even though no pre-existing dislocation sources are present in the initial system, dislocations are quickly nucleated and a very high dislocation density is reached during...

  17. Crystalline cellulose elastic modulus predicted by atomistic models of uniform deformation and nanoscale indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiawa Wu; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini

    2013-01-01

    The elastic modulus of cellulose Iß in the axial and transverse directions was obtained from atomistic simulations using both the standard uniform deformation approach and a complementary approach based on nanoscale indentation. This allowed comparisons between the methods and closer connectivity to experimental measurement techniques. A reactive...

  18. A deformation model of flexible, HAMR objects for accurate propagation under perturbations and the self-shadowing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channumsin, Sittiporn; Ceriotti, Matteo; Radice, Gianmarco

    2018-02-01

    A new type of space debris in near geosynchronous orbit (GEO) was recently discovered and later identified as exhibiting unique characteristics associated with high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects, such as high rotation rates and high reflection properties. Observations have shown that this debris type is very sensitive to environmental disturbances, particularly solar radiation pressure, due to the fact that its motion depends on the actual effective area, orientation of that effective area, reflection properties and the area-to-mass ratio of the object is not stable over time. Previous investigations have modelled this type of debris as rigid bodies (constant area-to-mass ratios) or discrete deformed body; however, these simplifications will lead to inaccurate long term orbital predictions. This paper proposes a simple yet reliable model of a thin, deformable membrane based on multibody dynamics. The membrane is modelled as a series of flat plates, connected through joints, representing the flexibility of the membrane itself. The mass of the membrane, albeit low, is taken into account through lump masses at the joints. The attitude and orbital motion of this flexible membrane model is then propagated near GEO to predict its orbital evolution under the perturbations of solar radiation pressure, Earth's gravity field (J2), third body gravitational fields (the Sun and Moon) and self-shadowing. These results are then compared to those obtained for two rigid body models (cannonball and flat rigid plate). In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the flexible model by varying initial attitude and deformation angle (different shape) are investigated and compared with the two rigid models (cannonball and flat rigid plate) over a period of 100 days. The numerical results demonstrate that cannonball and rigid flat plate are not appropriate to capture the true dynamical evolution of these objects, at the cost of increased computational time.

  19. Calculation model of non-linear dynamic deformation of composite multiphase rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchenko Andrey Viktorovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of formulating non-linear physical equations for multiphase rods is suggested in the article. Composite multiphase rods possess various structures, include shear, polar, radial and axial inhomogeneity. The Timoshenko’s hypothesis with the large rotation angles is used. The method is based on the approximation of longitudinal normal stress low by basic functions expansions regarding the linear viscosity low. The shear stresses are calculated with the equilibrium equation using the subsidiary function of the longitudinal shift force. The system of differential equations connecting the internal forces and temperature with abstract deformations are offered by the basic functions. The application of power functions with arbitrary index allows presenting the compact form equations. The functional coefficients in this system are the highest order rigidity characteristics. The whole multiphase cross-section rigidity characteristics are offered the sums of the rigidity characteristics of the same phases individually. The obtained system allows formulating the well-known particular cases. Among them: hard plasticity and linear elastic deformation, different module deformation and quadratic Gerstner’s low elastic deformation. The reform of differential equations system to the quasilinear is suggested. This system contains the secant variable rigidity characteristics depending on abstract deformations. This system includes the sum of the same uniform blocks of different order. The rods phases defined the various set of uniform blocks phase materials. The integration of dynamic, kinematic and physical equations taking into account initial and edge condition defines the full dynamical multiphase rods problem. The quasilinear physical equations allow getting the variable flexibility matrix of multiphase rod and rods system.

  20. Modelling of the Deformation Diffusion Areas on a Para-Aramid Fabric with B-Spline Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kuşak Samancı

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometrical modelling of the planar energy diffusion behaviors of the deformations on a para-aramid fabric has been performed. In the application process of the study, in the experimental period, drop test with bullets of different weights has been applied. The B-spline curve-generating technique has been used in the study. This is an efficient method for geometrical modelling of the deformation diffusion areas formed after the drop test. Proper control points have been chosen to be able to draw the borders of the diffusion areas on the fabric which is deformed, and then the De Casteljau and De Boor algorithms have been used. The Holditch area calculation according to the beams taken at certain fixed lengths has been performed for the B-spline border curve obtained as a closed form. After the calculations, it has been determined that the diffusion area where the bullet with pointed end was dropped on a para-aramid fabric is bigger and the diffusion area where the bullet with rounded end was dropped is smaller when compared with the areas where other bullets with different ends were dropped.

  1. Parameter Identification of Piecewise Linear Plasticity Metal Models Used in Numerical Modeling of Structures Under Plastic Deformation and Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shmeliov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the models of metallic materials used in the calculation of deformation and destruction of engineering structures. The reliability of material models can adequately assess the strength characteristics of the designs of new technology in its designing and certification.The article deals with contingencies and true mechanical properties of materials and presents equations of their relationship. It notes that in the software systems mechanical characteristics of materials are given in the true sense.The paper considers the linear and exponential models of materials, their characteristics, and methods to implement them. It considers the models of Johnson-Cook Steinberg-Guinan, Zerilli-Armstrong, Cowper-Symonds, Gurson-Tvergaard that take into account the strain rate and temperature of the material. Describes their applications, advantages and disadvantages. Considers single- and multi-parameter criteria of materials fracture, the prospects for their use. Gives a rational justification for using a piecewise linear plasticity material model *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY (024, LS-DYNA software package for the engineering industry, and presents its main parameters.A technique to identify parameters of piecewise linear plasticity metal material models has been developed. The technique consists of the stages, based on the equations of transition from the conventional stress and strain values to the true ones. Taking into consideration the stressstrain state in the neck of the sample is a distinctive feature of the technique.Tensile tests of the round material samples have been conducted. To test the developed technique in the software package ANSYS LS-DYNA PC have been made tensile sample modeling and results comparison to show high convergence.Further improvement of the technique can be achieved through the development of a statistical approach to the analysis of the results of a series of tests. This will allow a kind of

  2. BPS black holes in a non-homogeneous deformation of the stu model of N=2, D=4 gauged supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemm, Dietmar [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, and INFN - Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Marrani, Alessio [Centro Studi e Ricerche ‘Enrico Fermi’, Via Panisperna 89A, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘Galileo Galilei’, Università di Padova, and INFN - Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Petri, Nicolò; Santoli, Camilla [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, and INFN - Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-09-29

    We consider a deformation of the well-known stu model of N=2, D=4 supergravity, characterized by a non-homogeneous special Kähler manifold, and by the smallest electric-magnetic duality Lie algebra consistent with its upliftability to five dimensions. We explicitly solve the BPS attractor equations and construct static supersymmetric black holes with radial symmetry, in the context of U(1) dyonic Fayet-Iliopoulos gauging, focussing on axion-free solutions. Due to non-homogeneity of the scalar manifold, the model evades the analysis recently given in the literature. The relevant physical properties of the resulting black hole solution are discussed.

  3. A deformation mechanism map for polycrystals modeled using strain gradient plasticity and interfaces that slide and separate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Carl F.O.; Faleskog, Jonas; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2013-01-01

    Small scale strain gradient plasticity is coupled with a model of grain boundaries that take into account the energetic state of a plastically strained boundary and the slip and separation between neighboring grains. A microstructure of hexagonal grains is investigated using a plane strain finite...... element model. The results show that three different microstructural deformation mechanisms can be identified. The standard plasticity case in which the material behaves as expected from coarse grained experiments, the nonlocal plasticity region where size of the microstructure compared to some intrinsic...

  4. Dynamic modeling for rigid rotor bearing systems with a localized defect considering additional deformations at the sharp edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Shao, Yimin

    2017-06-01

    Rotor bearing systems (RBSs) play a very valuable role for wind turbine gearboxes, aero-engines, high speed spindles, and other rotational machinery. An in-depth understanding of vibrations of the RBSs is very useful for condition monitoring and diagnosis applications of these machines. A new twelve-degree-of-freedom dynamic model for rigid RBSs with a localized defect (LOD) is proposed. This model can formulate the housing support stiffness, interfacial frictional moments including load dependent and load independent components, time-varying displacement excitation caused by a LOD, additional deformations at the sharp edges of the LOD, and lubricating oil film. The time-varying displacement model is determined by a half-sine function. A new method for calculating the additional deformations at the sharp edges of the LOD is analytical derived based on an elastic quarter-space method presented in the literature. The proposed dynamic model is utilized to analyze the influences of the housing support stiffness and LOD sizes on the vibration characteristics of the rigid RBS, which cannot be predicted by the previous dynamic models in the literature. The results show that the presented method can give a new dynamic modeling method for vibration formulation for a rigid RBS with and without the LOD on the races.

  5. Numerical simulation of deformation of dynamic mesh in the human vocal tract model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řidký Václav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of the acoustic signal generation in the human vocal tract is a very complex problem. The computational mesh is not static; it is deformed due to vibration of vocal folds. Movement of vocal folds is in this case prescribed as function of translation and rotation. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the vocal folds was implemented in OpenFOAM, an open-source software package based on finite volume method Work is focused on the dynamic mesh and deformation of structured meshes in the computation a package OpenFOAM. These methods are compared with focus onquality of the mesh (non-orthogonality, aspect ratio and skewness.

  6. Numerical simulation of deformation of dynamic mesh in the human vocal tract model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řidký, Václav; Šidlof, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic signal generation in the human vocal tract is a very complex problem. The computational mesh is not static; it is deformed due to vibration of vocal folds. Movement of vocal folds is in this case prescribed as function of translation and rotation. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the vocal folds was implemented in OpenFOAM, an open-source software package based on finite volume method Work is focused on the dynamic mesh and deformation of structured meshes in the computation a package OpenFOAM. These methods are compared with focus onquality of the mesh (non-orthogonality, aspect ratio and skewness).

  7. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  8. The Surface Layer Mechanical Condition and Residual Stress Forming Model in Surface Plastic Deformation Process with the Hardened Body Effect Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalov, M. S.; Blumenstein, V. Yu

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical condition and residual stresses (RS) research and computational algorithms creation in complex types of loading on the product lifecycle stages relevance is shown. The mechanical state and RS forming finite element model at surface plastic deformation strengthening machining, including technological inheritance effect, is presented. A model feature is the production previous stages obtained transformation properties consideration, as well as these properties evolution during metal particles displacement through the deformation space in the present loading step.

  9. Affine and non-affine deformations quantified in cytoskeletal networks through three-dimensional form-finding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Gong, Jinghai; Wirtz, Denis; Schafer, Benjamin W

    2017-08-01

    Actin filaments and cross-linkers are main components of cytoskeletal networks in eukaryotic cells, and they support bending moments and axial forces respectively. A three-dimensional form-finding model is proposed in this work to investigate affine and non-affine deformations in cytoskeletal networks. In recent studies, modeling of cytoskeletal networks turns out to be a key piece in the cell mechanics puzzle. We used form-finding analysis to compute and analyze cytoskeletal models. A three-dimensional model is much more flexible and contains more elements than a two-dimensional model, and non-linear finite element analysis is difficult to converge. Thus, vector form intrinsic finite element analysis is employed here for valid results. The three-dimensional model reveals new behaviors beyond earlier two-dimensional models and better aligns with available data. Relative density of actin filaments and height of the form-finding model both play important roles in determining cytoskeletal stiffness, positively and negatively, respectively. Real cytoskeletal networks are quite mixed in terms of affine and non-affine deformations, which are quantified by internal strain energy in actin filaments and cross-linkers. Results are also influenced by actin filament relative density and height of the model. The three-dimensional form-finding model does provide much more room for intensive studies on cytoskeletal networks. In our future study, microtubules, fluidics, viscoelastic-plastic cross-linkers and even the whole cell model may be taken into account gradually to improve the cytoskeletal form-finding model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistically motivated model of mechanisms controlling evolution of deformation band substructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, J.; Kružík, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2016), s. 196-208 ISSN 0749-6419 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/12/0121 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Crystal plasticity * Microstructures * Deformation bands Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.702, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/kruzik-0457407.pdf

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy under Various Plastic Deformation Conditions by Coupling Microstructure Evolution and Macroscopic Mechanical Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhou, Tao; Tu, Jian; Shi, Laixin; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Mingbo

    2017-10-13

    Numerical modeling of microstructure evolution in various regions during uniaxial compression and canning compression of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) are studied through combined macroscopic and microscopic finite element simulation in order to investigate plastic deformation of NiTi SMA at 400 °C. In this approach, the macroscale material behavior is modeled with a relatively coarse finite element mesh, and then the corresponding deformation history in some selected regions in this mesh is extracted by the sub-model technique of finite element code ABAQUS and subsequently used as boundary conditions for the microscale simulation by means of crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM). Simulation results show that NiTi SMA exhibits an inhomogeneous plastic deformation at the microscale. Moreover, regions that suffered canning compression sustain more homogeneous plastic deformation by comparison with the corresponding regions subjected to uniaxial compression. The mitigation of inhomogeneous plastic deformation contributes to reducing the statistically stored dislocation (SSD) density in polycrystalline aggregation and also to reducing the difference of stress level in various regions of deformed NiTi SMA sample, and therefore sustaining large plastic deformation in the canning compression process.

  12. Zygomatic bone shape in intentional cranial deformations: a model for the study of the interactions between skull growth and facial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketoff, S; Girinon, F; Schlager, S; Friess, M; Schouman, T; Rouch, P; Khonsari, R H

    2017-04-01

    Intentional cranial deformations (ICD) were obtained by exerting external mechanical constraints on the skull vault during the first years of life to permanently modify head shape. The repercussions of ICD on the face are not well described in the midfacial region. Here we assessed the shape of the zygomatic bone in different types of ICDs. We considered 14 non-deformed skulls, 19 skulls with antero-posterior deformation, nine skulls with circumferential deformation and seven skulls with Toulouse deformation. The shape of the zygomatic bone was assessed using a statistical shape model after mesh registration. Euclidian distances between mean models and Mahalanobis distances after canonical variate analysis were computed. Classification accuracy was computed using a cross-validation approach. Different ICDs cause specific zygomatic shape modifications corresponding to different degrees of retrusion but the shape of the zygomatic bone alone is not a sufficient parameter for classifying populations into ICD groups defined by deformation types. We illustrate the fact that external mechanical constraints on the skull vault influence midfacial growth. ICDs are a model for the study of the influence of epigenetic factors on craniofacial growth and can help to understand the facial effects of congenital skull malformations such as single or multi-suture synostoses, or of external orthopedic devices such as helmets used to correct deformational plagiocephaly. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy under Various Plastic Deformation Conditions by Coupling Microstructure Evolution and Macroscopic Mechanical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling of microstructure evolution in various regions during uniaxial compression and canning compression of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA are studied through combined macroscopic and microscopic finite element simulation in order to investigate plastic deformation of NiTi SMA at 400 °C. In this approach, the macroscale material behavior is modeled with a relatively coarse finite element mesh, and then the corresponding deformation history in some selected regions in this mesh is extracted by the sub-model technique of finite element code ABAQUS and subsequently used as boundary conditions for the microscale simulation by means of crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM. Simulation results show that NiTi SMA exhibits an inhomogeneous plastic deformation at the microscale. Moreover, regions that suffered canning compression sustain more homogeneous plastic deformation by comparison with the corresponding regions subjected to uniaxial compression. The mitigation of inhomogeneous plastic deformation contributes to reducing the statistically stored dislocation (SSD density in polycrystalline aggregation and also to reducing the difference of stress level in various regions of deformed NiTi SMA sample, and therefore sustaining large plastic deformation in the canning compression process.

  14. CHANGE IN DEFORMATION PROPERTIES MODELING OF CONCRETE IN PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES OF NUCLEAR REACTOR BY IONIZING RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Agakhanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of studying the effect impact of elementary particles impact on the strength and deformation materials properties used in protective constructions nuclear reactors and reactor technology has been stipulated. A nuclear reactor pressure vessel from prestressed concrete, combining the functions of biological protection is to be considered. The neutron flux problem distribution in the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor has been solved. The solution is made in axisymmetric with the finite element method using a flat triangular finite element. Computing has been conducted in Matlab package. The comparison with the results has been obtained using the finite difference method, as well as the graphs of changes under the influence of radiation exposure and the elastic modulus of concrete radiation deformations have been constructed. The proposed method allows to simulate changes in the deformation properties of concrete under the influence of neutron irradiation. Results of the study can be used in the calculation of stress-strain state of structures, taking into account indirect heterogeneity caused by the physical fields influence.

  15. Effect of Hypoxemia on Fetal Ventricular Deformation in a Chronically Instrumented Sheep Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Amarnath; Rasanen, Juha; Huhta, Heikki; Junno, Juulia; Erkinaro, Tiina; Ohtonen, Pasi; Haapsamo, Mervi; Acharya, Ganesh

    2017-05-01

    We hypothesized that in near-term sheep fetuses, hypoxemia changes myocardial function as reflected in altered ventricular deformation on speckle-tracking echocardiography. Fetuses in 21 pregnant sheep were instrumented. After 4 d of recovery, fetal cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography at baseline, after 30 and 120 min of induced fetal hypoxemia and after its reversal. Left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular cardiac output and myocardial strain were measured. Baseline mean (standard deviation [SD]) LV and RV global longitudinal strains were -18.7% (3.8) and -14.3% (5.3). Baseline RV global longitudinal and circumferential deformations were less compared with those of the left ventricle (p = 0.016 and p hypoxemia. Circumferential and radial strains did not exhibit significant changes. In the near-term sheep fetus, LV global longitudinal and circumferential strains are more negative than RV strains. Acute hypoxemia leads to LV rather than RV dysfunction as reflected by decreased deformation. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Detailed Volumetric Finite Element Model of the Spine to Simulate Surgical Correction of Spinal Deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Driscoll

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A large spectrum of medical devices exists; it aims to correct deformities associated with spinal disorders. The development of a detailed volumetric finite element model of the osteoligamentous spine would serve as a valuable tool to assess, compare, and optimize spinal devices. Thus the purpose of the study was to develop and initiate validation of a detailed osteoligamentous finite element model of the spine with simulated correction from spinal instrumentation. A finite element of the spine from T1 to L5 was developed using properties and geometry from the published literature and patient data. Spinal instrumentation, consisting of segmental translation of a scoliotic spine, was emulated. Postoperative patient and relevant published data of intervertebral disc stress, screw/vertebra pullout forces, and spinal profiles was used to evaluate the models validity. Intervertebral disc and vertebral reaction stresses respected published in vivo, ex vivo, and in silico values. Screw/vertebra reaction forces agreed with accepted pullout threshold values. Cobb angle measurements of spinal deformity following simulated surgical instrumentation corroborated with patient data. This computational biomechanical analysis validated a detailed volumetric spine model. Future studies seek to exploit the model to explore the performance of corrective spinal devices.

  17. Flat-ramp vs. convex-concave thrust geometries in a deformable hanging wall: new insights from analogue modeling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Pedro; Tomas, Ricardo; Rosas, Filipe; Duarte, Joao; Terrinha, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Different modes of strain accommodation affecting a deformable hanging-wall in a flat-ramp-flat thrust system were previously addressed through several (sandbox) analog modeling studies, focusing on the influence of different variables, such as: a) thrust ramp dip angle and friction (Bonini et al, 2000); b) prescribed thickness of the hanging-wall (Koy and Maillot, 2007); and c) sin-thrust erosion (compensating for topographic thrust edification, e.g. Persson and Sokoutis, 2002). In the present work we reproduce the same experimental procedure to investigate the influence of two different parameters on hanging-wall deformation: 1) the geometry of the thrusting surface; and 2) the absence of a velocity discontinuity (VD) that is always present in previous similar analogue modeling studies. Considering the first variable we use two end member ramp geometries, flat-ramp-flat and convex-concave, to understand the control exerted by the abrupt ramp edges in the hanging-wall stress-strain distribution, comparing the obtain results with the situation in which such edge singularities are absent (convex-concave thrust ramp). Considering the second investigated parameter, our motivation was the recognition that the VD found in the different analogue modeling settings simply does not exist in nature, despite the fact that it has a major influence on strain accommodation in the deformable hanging-wall. We thus eliminate such apparatus artifact from our models and compare the obtained results with the previous ones. Our preliminary results suggest that both investigated variables play a non-negligible role on the structural style characterizing the hanging-wall deformation of convergent tectonic settings were such thrust-ramp systems were recognized. Acknowledgments This work was sponsored by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through project MODELINK EXPL/GEO-GEO/0714/2013. Pedro Almeida wants to thank to FCT for the Ph.D. grant (SFRH/BD/52556/2014) under the

  18. STUDY OF NUMERICAL MODELING OF SHAPE DEFORMING ZONE OF DIES, DURING DRAWING HIGH CARBON STEEL WIRE TO THE TEMPERATURE AND THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE IN THE WIRE AND DIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Bobarikin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation by numerical modeling of influence of the form of deforming zone of die at drawing of steel high- carbon wire on temperature and strained-deformed state in wire and die is carried out.

  19. A two-stage method for microcalcification cluster segmentation in mammography by deformable models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikidis, N.; Kazantzi, A.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Karahaliou, A.; Costaridou, L., E-mail: costarid@upatras.gr [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Vassiou, K. [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa 41500 (Greece)

    2015-10-15

    tenfold cross-validation methodology. A previously developed B-spline active rays segmentation method was also considered for comparison purposes. Results: Interobserver and intraobserver segmentation agreements (median and [25%, 75%] quartile range) were substantial with respect to the distance metrics HDIST{sub cluster} (2.3 [1.8, 2.9] and 2.5 [2.1, 3.2] pixels) and AMINDIST{sub cluster} (0.8 [0.6, 1.0] and 1.0 [0.8, 1.2] pixels), while moderate with respect to AOM{sub cluster} (0.64 [0.55, 0.71] and 0.59 [0.52, 0.66]). The proposed segmentation method outperformed (0.80 ± 0.04) statistically significantly (Mann-Whitney U-test, p < 0.05) the B-spline active rays segmentation method (0.69 ± 0.04), suggesting the significance of the proposed semiautomated method. Conclusions: Results indicate a reliable semiautomated segmentation method for MC clusters offered by deformable models, which could be utilized in MC cluster quantitative image analysis.

  20. The propagation model of NE Pamir syntaxis constraining from Cenozoic deformation and sedimentary characteristic in Southwestern Tarim basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Cheng, X. G.; Lin, X.; Li, K.; Chen, X.

    2016-12-01

    Pamir sytaxis has been being a focus for geologist to understand orogenic process and its response. Relying on the interpretation of seismic exploration data, sedimentological correlation of Cenozoic section, this paper analyzes Cenozoic deformation characteristics and process, sedimentary evolution and shifting of sedimentary center in SW Tarim basin and put forward a propagation model of NE Pamir syntaxis according to the Cenozoic deformation and sedimentary characteristic etc.. The Cenozoic deformation in Southwestern Tarim basin and adjacent area is dominated by transpressoinal stress and dextral strike-slip. Dextral Kashi-Ycheng Transfer System (KYTS) and Yangdaman Fault orienting in NNW direction control the formation of several en-echolon folds systems, such as Yingjisha Anticline and Qibei structure etc.. The Qimugen and Puxi area are featured by strike-slip-related half flower structure in NEE direction which is late than the fault in NNW direction. The Neocene sediment varies in spatial and temporal. The Anjuan Formation (N1) shows strong lithofacies variations. The Anjuan Formation is characterized by alluvial conglomerates in the Heshilafu-Aertashi area, while is featured by lacustrine mudstone in other area, which may indicate the activity of dextral Kashi-Ycheng Transfer System. Deposition of Artux Formation (N2) and Xiyu Formation (Q) is dominated by alluvial conglomerates, while it does not change much in front of NE Pamir syntaxis, which may indicate the intense northward-indention of Pamir syntaxis into the Tarim Basin since the Pleiocene. Based on the Cenozoic deformation and sedimentary characteristic etc., this paper puts forward a three stage propagation model for NE Pamir syntaxis: a) In the Oligocene, radial-thrusting exist both along the west and the east flank of the Pamir, clockwise rotation took place in the NE Pamir which is indicated by paleomagnetic data, b) In the Miocene, dextral KYTS accommodate the variant displacements of the NE

  1. What Do Kinematic Models Imply About the Constitutive Properties of Rocks Deformed in Flat-Ramp-Flat Folds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, L.; Nevitt, J. M.; Seixas, G.; Hilley, G. E.

    2017-10-01

    Kinematic theories of flat-ramp-flat folds relate fault angles to stratal dips in a way that allows prediction of structural geometries in areas of economic or scientific interest. However, these geometric descriptions imply constitutive properties of rocks that might be discordant with field and laboratory measurements. In this study, we compare deformation resulting from kinematic and mechanical models of flat-ramp-flat folds with identical geometries to determine the conditions over which kinematic models may be reasonably applied to folded rocks. Results show that most mechanical models do not conform to the geometries predicted by the kinematic models, and only low basal friction (μ ≤ 0.1) and shallow ramps (ramp angle ≤10°) produce geometries consistent with kinematic predictions. This implies that the kinematic models might be appropriate for a narrow set of geometric and basal fault friction parameters.

  2. Ground deformation source model at Kuchinoerabu-jima volcano during 2006-2014 as revealed by campaign GPS observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kohei; Iguchi, Masato

    2017-12-01

    We analyzed campaign Global Positioning System observation data in Kuchinoerabu-jima during 2006-2014. Most benchmarks located around Shin-dake crater showed crater-centered radial horizontal displacements. Horizontal displacements at western rim of the Shin-dake crater were tended to be larger compared to those at eastern rim. In addition, benchmark KUC14 which locates near the cliff at Furu-dake showed westward horizontal displacement rather than crater-centered radial (southward) one. Meanwhile, small displacements were detected at the benchmarks located at the foot of Kuchinoerabu-jima. We modeled the observed displacements applying a finite element method. We set entire FE domain as 100 × 100 × 50 km3. We set top of the domain as a free surface, and sides and bottom to be fixed boundaries. Topography was introduced in the area within Kuchinoerabu-jima using digital elevation model data provided by Kagoshima prefecture and elevation information from Google earth, and elevation of the outside area was assumed to be sea level. We assumed a stratified structure based on a one-dimensional P-wave velocity structure. We applied a vertical spheroid source model and searched optimal values of horizontal location, depth, equatorial and polar radiuses, and internal pressure change of the source using the forward modeling method. A spherical source with a radius of 50 m was obtained beneath the Shin-dake crater at a depth of 400 m above sea level. The internal pressure increase of 361 MPa yields its volume increase of 31,700 m3. Taking effects of topography and heterogeneity of ground into account allowed reproduction of overall deformation in Kuchinoerabu-jima. The location of deformation source coincides with hypocenters of shallow volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes and the aquifer estimated from a two-dimensional resistivity model by audio-frequency magnetotellurics method. The obtained deformation source may be corresponding to the pressurized aquifer, and shallow VT

  3. Improved geodetic European very-long-baseline interferometry solution using models of antenna gravitational deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Abbondanza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI is used for establishing global geodetic networks where the coordinates attain a 1-mm level of precision. Technique-dependent bias can degrade the VLBI positioning accuracy if it is present and unaccounted for. Among the potential bias, gravitational flexure of VLBI telescopes can vary the path traveled by the incoming radio signal and induce a bias in the height component of the station position. We process here more than 100 European VLBI sessions spanning 1990-2009 with VLBI time delay/Solve software, as the only VLBI analysis package that can be used to correct signal-path variation (SPV due to gravitational flexure of VLBI telescopes. Currently, SPV models are neglected in VLBI data analysis. To determine the kinematics of the European area over the last 20 years and to assess the effects of telescope gravitational deformation on geodetic VLBI estimates, we perform two VLBI solutions with and without SPV models for telescopes in Medicina (northern Italy and Noto (southern Italy. The two solutions differ by 8.8 mm and 7.2 mm in their height components, with this bias being one order of magnitude larger than the formal errors of the estimated heights. SPV models impact uniquely on the height component of stations where SPVs are modeled. Velocities are not affected by the use of the Medicina and Noto SPV models, and we show that the crustal kinematics derived from VLBI does not suffer from a lack of information with regard to the flexure of other telescopes.

  1. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation: a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Lin, Y. C.; Li, Kuo-Kuo; Chen, Jian

    2016-09-01

    In authors' previous work (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi: 10.1007/s00339-016-0371-6, 2016), the nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy was investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The characters of unloading curves were discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model was proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior of the studied Ni-based superalloy. Still, the functional relationships between the deformation temperature, strain rate, pre-strain and the parameters of the proposed constitutive model need to be established. In this study, the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate and pre-strain on the parameters of the new constitutive model proposed in authors' previous work (Chen et al. 2016) are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate and pre-strain.

  2. Analysis of the Mechanism of Longitudinal Bending Deformation Due to Welding in a Steel Plate by Using a Numerical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Yan, Jieshen; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu Yeong [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, Yeongcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Welding deformation is a permanent deformation that is caused in structures by welding heat. Welding distortion is the primary cause of reduced productivity, due to welded structural strength degradation, low dimensional accuracy, and appearance. As a result, research and numerous experiments are being carried out to control welding deformation. The aim of this study is to analyze the mechanism of longitudinal bending deformation due to welding. Welding experiments and numerical analyses were performed for this study. The welding experiments were performed on 4 mm and 8.5 mm thickness steel plates, and the numerical analysis was conducted on the welding deformation using the FE software MSC.marc.

  3. On the Role of Arctic Sea Ice Deformations: An Evaluation of the Regional Arctic System Model Results with Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, Robert; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Roberts, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The atmosphere - sea ice - ocean fluxes and their contribution to rapid changes in the Arctic system are not well understood and generally are not resolved by global climate models (GCMs). While many significant model refinements have been made in the recent past, including the representation of sea ice rheology, surface albedo and ice-albedo feedback, other processes such as sea ice deformations, still require further studies and model advancements. Of particular potential interest here are linear kinematic features (LKFs), which control winter air-sea heat exchange and affect buoyancy forces in the ocean. Their importance in Arctic climate change, especially under an increasing first-year ice cover, is yet to be determined and their simulation requires representation of processes currently at sub-grid scale of most GCMs. To address some of the GCM limitations and to better understand the role of LKFs in air-sea exchange we use the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), which allows high spatio-temporal resolution and regional focus on the Arctic. RASM is a fully coupled regional climate model, developed to study dynamic and thermodynamic processes and their coupling across the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean interface. It consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice Model (CICE) and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land hydrology model. The sea ice component has been upgraded to the Los Alamos Community Ice Model version 5.1 (CICE5.1), which allows either Elastic-Viscous-Plastic (EVP) or a new anisotropic (EPA) rheology. RASM's domain is pan-Arctic, with the ocean and sea ice components configured at an eddy-permitting horizontal resolution of 1/12-degree as well as 1/48-degree, for limited simulations. The atmosphere and land model components are configured at 50-km grids. All the components are coupled at a 20-minute time step. Results from multiple RASM simulations are analyzed and

  4. The Gibraltar Arc System: Miocene formation and Plio-Pleistocene deformation from seismic images, Vp models, and magnetoteluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranero, Cesar R.; Gràcia, Eulalia; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Garcia, Xavier; TopoMed, Geomargen-1, WestMed,; cruises, Amelie

    2014-05-01

    The Gibraltar Arc System (GAS) has been deformed during the Plio-pleistocene deformation driven by the NW-SE, slow 4-5 mm/yr convergence of Africa and Iberia. However, the GAS is formed by four large-scale geological units with a basement and sediment structures that appear unrelated to recent plate kinematics. The GAS is an arc-shaped structure fronted in the Gulf of Cadiz by a large imbricated wedge of tectonically piled rock slices, and formed several extensional basins east of the structural arc, in the Mediterranean portion of the region. The Western Alboran Basin is located on the rear of the Gibraltar stacked units, and displays little-deformed sediment infill. The Eastern Alboran Basin is characterized by ridges and promontories that appear volcanic in origin . To the east the South Balearic - North Algerian Basin with a generally lower relief displays crustal features typical of back arc crust. The different tectonic elements of the GAS are floored by poorly known basement, and their age, evolution and geodynamic origin are still debated. The uncertainty arises from the lack of deep-penetration modern geophysical data in much of the region. In the last 8 years, 4 successive experiments have produced an extensive coverage of the structures of those geological units. In 2006 the WestMed cruise with German R/V Meteor collected five wide angle seismic profiles in the eastern Alboran and South Balearic basins. Two multichannel seismic reflection cruises with the R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa in 2011 collected about 6000 km of deep reflection images across the South Balearic, West and East Alboran and Gulf of Cadiz. Two marine magnetotelluric cruises in the Alborán basin (Amelie project) collected complementary data in 2009 and 2011. The goal of this contribution is to present a summary of results recently produced from models and images from the data collected in the 4 marine experiments. We present P-wave velocity models across key regions of the system and new

  5. Coseismic deformation and slip model of the 17 November 2015 M=6.5 earthquake, Lefkada Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Melgar, Diego; Briole, Pierre; Geng, Jianghui; Papathanassiou, George; Bozionelos, George; Avallone, Antonio; Valkaniotis, Sotirios; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Argyrakis, Panagiotis; Moshou, Alexandra; Elias, Panagiotis

    2016-04-01

    On November 17, 2015 a strong, shallow earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred on the island of Lefkada along a strike-slip fault with right-lateral sense of slip. The event triggered widespread environmental effects that were mainly reported at the south and western part of the island while moving towards the eastern part, the intensity and severity of these earthquake-induced deformations were decreased. Coseismic deformation was measured in the order of tens of centimeters of horizontal motion by continuous GPS stations of NOANET (the NOA GPS network) and by InSAR (Sentinel 1A image pairs). Released interferograms from various groups show a large decorrelation area that extends almost along all the western coast of Lefkada, observation which provides strong support of landsliding. We also found extensive landslides during field work and no surface ruptures. A coseismic slip model was produced from the ascending InSAR, which it's cleaner than the GPS only and both data sets have ~90% variance reduction. The fault dips to the east-southeast at an angle of 65-70 degrees.

  6. Comparison of optimization strategy and similarity metric in atlas-to-subject registration using statistical deformation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Grupp, R. B.; Sato, Y.; Taylor, R. H.; Armand, M.

    2015-03-01

    A robust atlas-to-subject registration using a statistical deformation model (SDM) is presented. The SDM uses statistics of voxel-wise displacement learned from pre-computed deformation vectors of a training dataset. This allows an atlas instance to be directly translated into an intensity volume and compared with a patient's intensity volume. Rigid and nonrigid transformation parameters were simultaneously optimized via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation - Evolutionary Strategy (CMA-ES), with image similarity used as the objective function. The algorithm was tested on CT volumes of the pelvis from 55 female subjects. A performance comparison of the CMA-ES and Nelder-Mead downhill simplex optimization algorithms with the mutual information and normalized cross correlation similarity metrics was conducted. Simulation studies using synthetic subjects were performed, as well as leave-one-out cross validation studies. Both studies suggested that mutual information and CMA-ES achieved the best performance. The leave-one-out test demonstrated 4.13 mm error with respect to the true displacement field, and 26,102 function evaluations in 180 seconds, on average.

  7. Implementation and Evaluation of the Virtual Fields Method: Determining Constitutive Model Parameters From Full-Field Deformation Data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Sharlotte Lorraine Bolyard; Scherzinger, William M.

    2014-09-01

    The Virtual Fields Method (VFM) is an inverse method for constitutive model parameter identication that relies on full-eld experimental measurements of displacements. VFM is an alternative to standard approaches that require several experiments of simple geometries to calibrate a constitutive model. VFM is one of several techniques that use full-eld exper- imental data, including Finite Element Method Updating (FEMU) techniques, but VFM is computationally fast, not requiring iterative FEM analyses. This report describes the im- plementation and evaluation of VFM primarily for nite-deformation plasticity constitutive models. VFM was successfully implemented in MATLAB and evaluated using simulated FEM data that included representative experimental noise found in the Digital Image Cor- relation (DIC) optical technique that provides full-eld displacement measurements. VFM was able to identify constitutive model parameters for the BCJ plasticity model even in the presence of simulated DIC noise, demonstrating VFM as a viable alternative inverse method. Further research is required before VFM can be adopted as a standard method for constitu- tive model parameter identication, but this study is a foundation for ongoing research at Sandia for improving constitutive model calibration.

  8. Kinematic Models of Southern California Deformation calibrated to GPS Velocities and a Strain Energy Minimization Criterion: How do they Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault slip rates inferred from GPS-calibrated kinematic models may be influenced by seismic-cycle and other transient effects, whereas models that minimize strain energy ("TSEM models") represent average deformation rates over geological timescales. To explore differences in southern California fault slip rates inferred from these two approaches, I have developed kinematic, finite-element models incorporating the UCERF3 block model-bounding fault geometry and slip rates from the UCERF3 report (Field et al., 2014). A fault segment (the "Ventura-Oak Ridge segment") was added to represent shortening accommodated collectively by the San Cayetano, Ventura, Oak Ridge, Red Mountain and other faults in the Transverse Ranges. Fault slip rates are randomly sampled from ranges given in the UCERF3 report, assuming a "boxcar" distribution, and models are scored by their misfit to GPS site velocities or to their total strain energy, for cases with locked and unlocked faults. Both Monte Carlo and Independence Sampler MCMC methods are used to identify the best models of each category. All four suites of models prefer low slip rates (i.e. less than about 5 mm/yr) on the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system. For TSEM models, low rates ( 13 and > 3 mm/yr, respectively), and a somewhat low rate for the Mojave segment of the SAF (25-34 mm/yr). Because blind thrust faults of the Los Angeles Basin are not represented in the model, the inferred Ventura-Oak Ridge slip rate should be high, but the opposite is observed. GPS-calibrated models decisively prefer a lower slip rate along the Mojave segment of the SAF than TSEM models, consistent with viscoelastic velocity perturbations late in the SSAF seismic cycle. The low San Gorgonio SAF slip rates inferred from TSEM models are consistent with strain transfer from the SAF Coachella segment to the ECSZ, bypassing the San Gorgonio SAF segment (e.g., Wallace, 1984).

  9. Influence of pre-salt topographic features on supra-salt deformation in Mediterranean basins: Geology vs. physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Gratacós, Oscar; Roca, Eduard; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Esestime, Paolo; Rodriguez, Karyna; Yazmin Piragauta, Mary; Feliu, Nil

    2017-04-01

    The presence of a thick Messinian evaporite unit is a well known feature of the Mediterranean basins. This salt unit is composed of three sub-units (Lower, Mobile and Upper Units) in the Northwest Mediterranean. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean it is characterized by a multilayered evaporite sequence. In both regions the salt acted as a detachment favoring the downslope gravitational failure of the overlying sediments in a thin-skinned deformation regime (e.g. Liguro-Provençal or Levant basins). As a result, these salt-bearing passive margins exhibit the classical three-domain structural zonation characterized by upslope extension, intermediate translation and downslope contraction. Nevertheless, the presence of pre-salt reliefs (e.g. irregularly eroded palaeotopography or volcanic edifices) is rather common in the translational domain of the Northwestern Mediterranean (e.g. Liguro-Provençal and West Corsica margins). In this scenario, pre-salt reliefs act as flow barriers and hinder salt drainage. When their summit lies close or above the top salt, these structures may partially or fully block salt flow. They also disrupt locally the structural zonation of the passive margin and constrain cover deformation. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean the Eratosthenes seamount is characterized by a large scale submerged massif (ca. 120 km in size) that significantly influenced the structural evolution of the surrounding areas. This inherited relief acted as a buttress and deflected the Messinian salt flow constraining supra-salt deformation (e.g. Levant Basin and Nile margin). In addition, the geometry of the Eratosthenes seamount also restrained the structural style of the allochthonous salt that was expulsed during the development of the Cyprus subduction zone to the north. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and new analysis techniques, we investigate salt and supra-salt deformation in response to two different types of pre-salt relief: 1

  10. Modeling the thermal deformation of TATB-based explosives. Part 1: Thermal expansion of “neat-pressed” polycrystalline TATB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Darby J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-08

    thermal deformation of engineered components whose consolidation process is generally more complex than isostatic or die-pressed specimens. Finally, an envisioned application of the modeling approach to simulating thermal expansion of weapon systems and components is outlined along with necessary future work to introduce the effects of binder and ratcheting behavior. Key conclusions from this work include the following. Both porosity and grain aspect ratio have an influence on the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB considering realistic material variability. Thepreferred orientation of the single crystal TATB [001] poles within a polycrystal gives rise to pronounced anisotropy of the macroscopic thermal expansion. The extent of this preferred orientation depends on the magnitude of deformation, and consequently, is expected to vary spatially throughout manufactured components much like porosity. The modeling approach presented here has utility toward bringing spatially variable microstructural features into macroscale system engineering modelsAbstract Not Provided

  11. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  12. Modeling ground deformation associated with the destructive earthquakes occurring on Mt. Etna's southeastern flank in 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Puglisi, Biagio; Velardita, Rosanna

    2016-11-01

    The Timpe Fault System is the source of very shallow but destructive earthquakes that affect several towns and villages on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna (Italy). In 1984, several seismic events, and specifically on 19 and 25 October, caused one fatality, 12 injuries and produced serious damage in the Zafferana and Acireale territories. This seismicity was mainly related to the activity of the Fiandaca Fault, one of the structures belonging to the Timpe Fault System. We inverted ground deformation data collected by a geodimeter trilateration network set up in 1977 at a low altitude along the eastern side of the volcano in order to define the Timpe Fault System faulting mechanisms linked to the seismicity in 1984. We have found that in the period May 1980-October 1984, the Fiandaca Fault was affected by a strike-slip and normal dip-slip of about 20.4 and 12.7 cm respectively. This result is kinematically consistent with field observations of the coseismic ground ruptures along the fault but it is notably large compared to displacements estimated by seismicity, then suggesting that most of the slip over the fault plane was aseismic. The results once again confirm how seismicity and its relation with ground ruptures and creep displacement represent a very high hazard to the several towns and villages situated along the Timpe Fault System.

  13. Modelling of cyclic creep in the finite strain range using a nested split of the deformation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutov, Alexey V.; Larichkin, Alexey Yu.; Shutov, Valeriy A.

    2017-09-01

    A new phenomenological model of cyclic creep is proposed which is suitable for applications involving finite creep deformations of the material. The model accounts for the the effect of the transient increase of the creep strain rate upon the load reversal. In order to extend the applicability range of the model, the creep process is fully coupled to the classical Kachanov-Rabonov damage evolution. As a result, the proposed model describes all the three stages of creep. Large strain kinematics is described in a geometrically exact manner using the assumption of a nested multiplicative split, originally proposed by Lion for finite strain plasticity. The model is thermodynamically admissible, objective, and w-invariant. Implicit time integration of the proposed evolution equations is discussed. The corresponding numerical algorithm is implemented into the commercial FEM code MSC.MARC. Using this code, the model is validated using real experimental data on cyclic torsion of a thick-walled tubular specimen made of the D16T aluminium alloy. The numerically computed stress distribution exhibits a "skeletal point" within the specimen.

  14. Modeling of coulpled deformation and permeability evolution during fault reactivation induced by deep underground injection of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2010-06-01

    The interaction between mechanical deformation and fluid flow in fault zones gives rise to a host of coupled hydromechanical processes fundamental to fault instability, induced seismicity, and associated fluid migration. In this paper, we discuss these coupled processes in general and describe three modeling approaches that have been considered to analyze fluid flow and stress coupling in fault-instability processes. First, fault hydromechanical models were tested to investigate fault behavior using different mechanical modeling approaches, including slip interface and finite-thickness elements with isotropic or anisotropic elasto-plastic constitutive models. The results of this investigation showed that fault hydromechanical behavior can be appropriately represented with the least complex alternative, using a finite-thickness element and isotropic plasticity. We utilized this pragmatic approach coupled with a strain-permeability model to study hydromechanical effects on fault instability during deep underground injection of CO{sub 2}. We demonstrated how such a modeling approach can be applied to determine the likelihood of fault reactivation and to estimate the associated loss of CO{sub 2} from the injection zone. It is shown that shear-enhanced permeability initiated where the fault intersects the injection zone plays an important role in propagating fault instability and permeability enhancement through the overlying caprock.

  15. Analysis of Blood Flow Through a Viscoelastic Artery using the Cosserat Continuum with the Large-Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedaghatizadeh, N.; Atefi, G.; Fardad, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, semiempirical and numerical studies of blood flow in a viscoelastic artery were performed using the Cosserat continuum model. The large-amplitude oscillatory shear deformation model was used to quantify the nonlinear viscoelastic response of blood flow. The finite difference...

  16. Modelling Plasticity of Ni3Al-Based L12 Intermetallic Single Crystals. II. Two-Step (T1) and T2) Deformation Behaviour (Postprint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Y. S; Dimiduk, D. M; Uchic, M. D; Parthasarathy, T. A

    2007-01-01

    The two-step (T1 and T2) deformation behaviour of Ni3Al-based single crystals was modelled under the framework of a new constitutive model proposed by Y.S. Choi, D.M. Dimiduk, M.D. Uchic, et al. [Phil. Mag. 87 1939 (2007...

  17. Gravitational and tectonic forces controlling the post-collisional deformation and present-day stress of the Alps. Insights from numerical modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Munt, I.; Garcia-Gastellanos, D.; Negredo, A.; Platt, J.

    2005-01-01

    We perform numerical modeling to investigate the mechanisms leading to the postcollisional tectonic evolution of the Alps. We model the lithospheric deformation as a viscous thin sheet with vertically averaged rheology and coupled with surface mass transport. The applied kinematic boundary

  18. Statistical model of fractures and deformation zones. Preliminary site description, Laxemar subarea, version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The goal of this summary report is to document the data sources, software tools, experimental methods, assumptions, and model parameters in the discrete-fracture network (DFN) model for the local model volume in Laxemar, version 1.2. The model parameters presented herein are intended for use by other project modeling teams. Individual modeling teams may elect to simplify or use only a portion of the DFN model, depending on their needs. This model is not intended to be a flow model or a mechanical model; as such, only the geometrical characterization is presented. The derivations of the hydraulic or mechanical properties of the fractures or their subsurface connectivities are not within the scope of this report. This model represents analyses carried out on particular data sets. If additional data are obtained, or values for existing data are changed or excluded, the conclusions reached in this report, and the parameter values calculated, may change as well. The model volume is divided into two subareas; one located on the Simpevarp peninsula adjacent to the power plant (Simpevarp), and one further to the west (Laxemar). The DFN parameters described in this report were determined by analysis of data collected within the local model volume. As such, the final DFN model is only valid within this local model volume and the modeling subareas (Laxemar and Simpevarp) within.

  19. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  20. Applications of mean-field plus nearest-orbit pairing interaction model to well-deformed nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Yu Yan

    2002-01-01

    An exactly solvable mean-field plus nearest-orbit pairing model for describing the well-deformed nuclei is adopted for study of the nuclei in rare-earth and actinide regions. Binding energies and pairing excitation energies of sup 1 sup 5 sup 8 sup - sup 1 sup 7 sup 1 Er, sup 1 sup 6 sup 0 sup - sup 1 sup 7 sup 8 Yb, sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 sup - sup 1 sup 8 sup 3 Hf, sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 sup - sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 Th, sup 2 sup 3 sup 0 sup -