simulation specs, answer processing, and response history branching schemes). e. Title, description, excerpts desired, and location of film, videotape...Media production includes the narration and soundtrack for the videodisc. At present, audio is available on the videodisc only with motion. (i.e., to...MLLITARY ACAuE4Y DEPT. OF HISTORY , BLOG 6O1 1 USA iNTELLIGENCE CEN ANI SCH ATTNt SCHOOL LIBRARY I US4 iNTELLIGENCE CEN ANU SCM ArTNI ATSI-UP I mAkl.*E
Reigeluth, Charles M.; Garfield, Joanne M.
Examines the state-of-the-art of intelligent videodisc systems and of the aspects of instructional theory that have implications for design of hardware, software, and courseware for such systems. Some problems inhibiting the introduction of videodisc systems into education are discussed along with solutions to these inhibiting factors. (MBR)
Reigeluth, Charles M.; Garfield, Joanne M.
Arguing that the systematic application of knowledge about instruction to videodisc technology is essential if the full potential of this medium is to be realized, this paper begins by discussing the need for intelligent videodisc technology in our educational system. A brief review of the state of the art in intelligent videodisc systems, which…
Smith, Coralee S.; Barrow, Lloyd H.
The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to examine the categories of teacher-asked questions while using moving and still frames of science videodisc instruction. Videotapes were made of 12 volunteer, Midwestern, urban, elementary teachers using videodisc instruction. Coding of the teacher-asked questioning categories was determined…
Marsh, F.E. Jr.
An overview of the technology of videodiscs is given. The emphasis is on systems that use reflection or transmission of laser light. Possible use of videodiscs for storage of bibliographic information is considered. 6 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)
Galloway, Emily; Paris, Judith
Explores the possibilities of using videodisc and optical disk technology as publishing media, highlighting the videodisc as an educational tool and visual supplement to online databases, digital database publishing on videodisc, optical disks for electronic document and image delivery systems, and costs associated with videodisc design and…
Lunin, Lois F.
Introduction to videodisc and optical disk technology (information storage media which are able to handle word, data, image, and sound) cites articles written about videodisc and optical disk applications, instructional use, videodisc research, and information retrieval. A list of 30 suggested readings and additional information resources are…
Marsh, Fred E., Jr.
Identifies and describes the major areas of videodisc technology; discusses the operation, reliability, storage capacities, and applications of two types of laser systems; and illustrates the versatility of the optical digital disc through a description of its ability to digitize large bodies of data. Included are six figures and three tables.…
Howson, Betty Ann; Davis, Hilarie
Discusses the use of videodiscs to increase students' comprehension. Benefits of adding visual images to learning activities are discussed, videodiscs as sources of data for students to analyze are considered, and an example is given of using videodiscs to illustrate concepts in a chemistry class. (LRW)
M. J. Jenkins; K.Y. Matsumoto-Grah
Interactive video is a powerful medium, bringing together the emotional impact of video and film and the interactive capabilities of the computer. Interactive videodisc instruction can be used as a tutorial, for drill and practice and in simulations, as well as for information storage. Videodisc technology is being used in industrial, military and medical applications...
McLuhan (1964) who believed that the wheel had "amputated" our feet and pondered what the computer as "an extension of our brain" might be doing to...Computerized instruction in second-language aquisition. Studies in Language Learning, 1975, 1(1), 145-150. McLuhan , M. Understanding media: The extension of man
Gale, Larrie E.
The development of an interactive videodisc-microcomputer simulation of a visit to a Mexican village for college-level Spanish instruction is described. Problems encountered, production considerations, computer program development, hardware, and classroom results are discussed. (MSE)
Explains that the laser videodisc is a versatile and cost-effective tool with enormous instructional potential for art education. Describes the origins, quality, and capability of videodiscs, and discusses the varieties of players and discs presently available. Maintains that this technology is especially relevant now that art education includes…
This overview of optical videodisc technology focuses on microcomputer-based applications for information processing. Topics discussed include fundamentals of videodisc technology, interactive videodisc technology, and associated hardware systems; government-supported and commercial videodisc and CD ROM information projects; and speculations on…
Outlines basic videodisc and optical disk technology describing both optical and capacitance videodisc technology. Optical disk technology is defined as a mass digital image and data storage device and briefly compared with other information storage media including magnetic tape and microforms. The future of videodisc and optical disk is…
Production Sheet No. Lesson Segment SMPTE( ) to Compositor Cartridge-Page _Estimated time (second) Branch on To GRAPHICS: __Prop _Art __Photo No. NOTES VIDEO...Still __Motion Tape( ) to NOTES COMPOSITOR : ’External __Text _Animation NOTES STUDIO: _Split __Quad _Window _Highlight NOTES PROGRAMMING: Stop Calc...SMPTE( ) to Compositor Cartridge-Page Estimated time (second) Branch on To GRAPHICS: _Prop _Art _Photo No. NOTES VIDEO: __Still _Motion Tape( ) to NOTES
ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070-0083 (Online). Enhancing Quality in Educational Practice and. Instructional Delivery by Teachers of Technology and. Vocational Education in Nigeria. (Pp. 355-369). Okoye, K.R.E. - Technology and Vocational Education Department,. Electrical/Electronics Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, ...
Carter, LaTanya Woods
The purpose of this causal comparative study is to test the theory of no significant difference that compares pre- and post-test assessment scores, controlling for the instructional delivery model of online and face-to-face students at a Mid-Atlantic university. Online education and virtual distance learning programs have increased in popularity…
Dukes, Lyman L., III; Koorland, Mark A.; Scott, Sally S.
Online instruction in general and blended instruction in particular have gained a sizable and permanent foothold in postsecondary educational environments. In addition, student diversity has become the norm. Universal design for instruction is a framework that consists of nine principles for instructional design and delivery; it proposes that…
support interactive instruction. The videodisc can hold a large volume of ~vii 0 - . . .W" CONTINUED pictures, both stills and movies, and a stereo sound...conduct Code of conduct seminar Ethics and leadership Professional ethics Air Force professionals: the NCO Leadership American style Tips for...China Arab-Israeli Conflict Introduction to Islamic political world-view East Asia and US security Contemporary Africa Latin America-United States
Garner, William E.; Pack, Tresvil G.; Szirony, Gary M.; Beeson, Eric T.
The purposes of this study were to examine students' perceptions and attitudes toward changes in Distance Education (DE) course management systems and to evaluate their instructional delivery preferences. Students (N = 145) enrolled in an online master's degree program on either a full- or part-time basis completed an online survey instrument…
Copra, Edward R.
This article describes "Hands On," a research project employing interactive computer/videodisc technology to teach English to deaf children with American Sign Language (ASL) skills. Elementary school students can read a story in printed English text, watch an ASL-signed version of the story, access a list of vocabulary words, or caption a story…
KEYWORDS: Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), Expert System, Artificial Intelligence, .... popularly called database is an Expert System. The ... Teacher/instruction. Designer/Author. 4. Stand alone expert system on instructional design, decision making, planning, controlling etc. 5. Intelligent embedded.
instructions to students in technical and vocational education (TVE) programs. ... problem of ICT implementation for effective instruction, there has been an ..... the teaching style (methods), teaching technique, and motivation to facilitate.
Montgomery, Rae; Sayre, Scott
This bibliography lists 360 monographs, journal articles, research reports, and conference proceedings on interactive videodisc and educational applications of this technology. Materials through December 1988 are included. A sidebar provides background on interactive video technology. (MES)
Renshaw, Sharon M.; Beadenkopf, F. Scott; Murray, Rodney
An interactive videodisc program on the process of administering medications to clients will be demonstrated. Discussion will center on the strengths and limitations of interactive video for teaching psychomotor skills to healthcare professionals as well as design modifications that will facilitate this process. Interactive videodisc technology provides an exciting new medium for teaching psychomotor clinical skills to health care professionals. It is a particularly valuable approach for complex skills which involve visualization of motor activities and extensive client assessments.
Mitchell, J A; Bridges, A J; Reid, J C; Cutts, J H; Hazelwood, S; Sharp, G C
AI/LEARN/Rheumatology is a level three videodisc system to teach clinical observational skills in three important diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The AI/LEARN software was developed on an independent authoring system called GALE designed for MS-DOS based computers. The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary data about the efficacy of teaching by the use of an interactive videodisc system as evaluated by examinations centered upon disease-oriented learning objectives and by attitude questionnaires. We tested the efficacy of the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology system using both medical students and residents taking the rheumatology elective. Data collected were on learning, attitudes, and ranking of curricular elements of the rotation. We kept records on the student time and search path through the interactive videodisc system. Control data were collected during 1990, before the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology program was available. Data for the treatment groups were collected during 1991 and 1992, while the trainees used the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology system. The basic difference between the control year and the treatment year curricula was the substitution of AI/LEARN/Rheumatology for three hours of lecture covering the three target diseases. AI/LEARN/Rheumatology was as effective as traditional methods of instruction as measured by scores on a multiple choice test. Student and resident learning was related to the time spent on the system. Students and residents ranked the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology system as the single most helpful learning tool in their 8 week rheumatology block, ranking it above the examination of patients.
Underwood, William B.; Hernandez-Gantes, Victor M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether student outcomes are a function of participation in different modes of delivery and student age in an Opticianry program at the community college level. The three instructional delivery methods were traditional face-to-face instruction, online delivery, and a hybrid format where students take…
Zavarella, Carol A.; Ignash, Jan M.
Studies of students enrolled in computer-based instruction have yielded mixed results, with some reporting a high dropout rate. Tis article describes a quantitative study examining the probability of students' withdrawal from a computer- versus lecture-based developmental math course based on learning style, reasons for selecting the instructional…
instructions to students in technical and vocational education (TVE) programs. Realizing that TVE involves skills acquisition and also practically affiliated, the paper is conscious of this fact. As a result, it highlighted techniques and the factors that determine good teaching assignment as part of best means to achieve success ...
Alstete, Jeffrey W.; Beutell, Nicholas J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contend that collegiate programs should carefully plan their capstone courses in light of the educational mission, pedagogical content knowledge, instructional techniques and delivery formats. Design/methodology/approach: This is a concept paper with elements of theory building from the case of business…
Rogers, Jeffrey Ray
The purpose of this study was to determine if educational technologies, including LCD projectors, interactive whiteboards, tablets, document cameras, and student response systems, modify instructional delivery and student learning. This case study was researched in four classrooms, including an English, math, science and social studies classroom…
Gordon, Howard R. D.
This paper reviews the literature on the relevance of learner characteristics and learning styles when planning law school courses, focusing on the instructional delivery methods and teaching techniques applicable to law school courses. It examines the four major learning modalities: kinesthetic, tactual, auditory, and visual; and the four major…
Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Lina; Leung, Felix; Luo, Hui; Wang, Limei; Wu, Ji; Guo, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xiangping; Zhang, Linhui; Hui, Na; Tao, Qin; Jia, Hui; Liu, Zhiguo; Chen, Zhangqin; Liu, Junjun; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang
Bowel preparation is closely linked to the quality of colonoscopy. We investigated whether delivery of instructions via a social media app increases the quality of colonoscopy by improving adequacy of bowel preparation. We performed a prospective study at 3 endoscopic centers in China of 770 colonoscopy outpatients (18-80 years old) with convenient access to Wechat (a widely used mobile social media app) from May through November 2014. Patients were randomly assigned to groups that received standard education along with delivery of interactive information via Wechat (n = 387) or standard education (controls, n = 383). The primary outcome was proportion of patients with adequate bowel preparation (Ottawa score higher proportion of patients in the group that received social media instruction had adequate bowel preparation than the control group (82.2% vs 69.5%, P social media instruction had lower mean total and segmental Ottawa scores (P higher proportion of patients receiving social media instruction also had cecal intubation (97.2% vs 93.2% in controls, P = .014) and were found to have adenomas (18.6% vs 12.0% in controls, P = .012). Instruction via a mobile social media app, in conjunction with regular instruction, increases subjective measures of adequacy of bowel preparation. Use of the app significantly increased the proportion of patients with successful cecal intubation and in whom adenomas were detected, indicating increased quality of colonoscopy. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02140827. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frames, Animations The bulk of text on the videodisc will come from a video character generator (CG). We use a Fernseh (Telemation) Compositor I. A number...used the Compositor graphics digitizer for some of the graphics/ animations. An example is a highly detailed animated bus on the ARI disc. Another...considering in some applications. Art, photos, slides or video intended to be used with compositor need to be considered carefully to be certain they work
Mason, L; Glenn, S; Walton, I; Hughes, C
to examine the instruction in pelvic floor exercises given to women during pregnancy or following delivery, to assess the quality of any instruction provided, and to consider these in light of the women's views about the service. a postal questionnaire was sent to a sample of women when they reached 34 weeks of pregnancy and a second at 8 weeks postpartum. A sub-sample of women who reported symptoms of stress incontinence at 8 weeks postpartum were interviewed about the instruction in pelvic floor exercises that they received during their pregnancy, or in the puerperium. of the 918 women who were sent the first questionnaire, 717 returned it completed (78%). Five-hundred-and-seventy-two of 894 women (64%) completed the second questionnaire. Forty-two of 179 symptomatic women (23%) took part in an interview. 55% of women received some form of instruction in pelvic floor exercises by 34 weeks of pregnancy. Eighty-six percent received instruction following birth. The way the information was given varied, ranging from a brief reminder, to exercising in a class with an instructor. The information was provided by a range of health professionals, and no single profession appeared to undertake responsibility for the service. As a result, the views of the service varied. A few women reported that they had received good quality instruction, others were critical of it, and a small number reported that they had received no instruction at all. The widespread practice of leaving a leaflet by the women's beds during their stay in hospital, was criticised by a large proportion of the women. the instruction in pelvic floor exercises by health service professionals was provided on an ad hoc basis. In many instances, the programme of instruction did not meet recommendations made in the literature. It is likely that the success of randomised controlled trials reported in the literature would not be repeated in the 'real world' Implications for practice: there is a need for the service
Mitchell, J. A.; Bridges, A. J.; Reid, J. C.; Cutts, J. H.; Hazelwood, S.; Sharp, G. C.
AI/LEARN/Rheumatology is a level three videodisc system to teach clinical observational skills in three important diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The AI/LEARN software was developed on an independent authoring system called GALE designed for MS-DOS based computers. The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary data about the efficacy of teaching by the use of an interactive videodisc system as evaluated by examinations centered upon disease-or...
Irvin, L K; Walker, H M; Noell, J; Singer, G H; Irvine, A B; Marquez, K; Britz, B
This article describes the development of a microcomputer-based videodisc assessment prototype for measuring children's social skills. The theoretical and empirical foundations for the content are described, and the contributions of interactive microcomputer-based video technology to assessment of children with handicaps are detailed. An application of Goldfried and D'Zurilla's "behavior-analytic" approach to development of the content of assessments is presented, and the related video and computer technology development is detailed. The article describes the conceptual foundations of the psychometrics of the assessment prototype as well as the psychometric methodology that was employed throughout the development process. Finally, a discussion of the potential applications and implications of the social skills assessment prototype is included.
Guarino, Vincenzo; Altobelli, Rosaria; Cirillo, Valentina; Ambrosio, Luigi
A large variety of processes and tools is continuously investigated to discover new solutions to design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among them, electro fluido dynamic techniques (EFDTs) are emerging as an interesting strategy, based on highly flexible and low-cost processes, to revisit old biomaterial's manufacturing approach by utilizing electrostatic forces as the driving force for the fabrication of 3D architectures with controlled physical and chemical functionalities to guide in vitro and in vivo cell activities. By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDTs allow to produce fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the chance to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate biopolymers (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides) or active molecules (e.g., drugs) for different applications. Here, we focus on the optimization of basic EFDTs - namely electrospinning, electrospraying and electrodynamic atomization - to develop active platforms (i.e., monocomponent, protein and drug loaded scaffolds and µ-scaffolds) made of synthetic (PCL, PLGA) or natural (chitosan, alginate) polymers. In particular, we investigate how to set materials and process parameters to impart specific morphological, biochemical or physical cues to trigger all the fundamental cell-biomaterial and cell- cell cross-talking elicited during regenerative processes, in order to reproduce the complex microenvironment of native or pathological tissues.
Guarino, Vincenzo, E-mail: email@example.com; Altobelli, Rosaria; Cirillo, Valentina; Ambrosio, Luigi [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, Department of Chemical Sciences & Materials Technology, National Research Council of Italy, V.le Kennedy 54, Naples (Italy)
A large variety of processes and tools is continuously investigated to discover new solutions to design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among them, electro fluido dynamic techniques (EFDTs) are emerging as an interesting strategy, based on highly flexible and low-cost processes, to revisit old biomaterial’s manufacturing approach by utilizing electrostatic forces as the driving force for the fabrication of 3D architectures with controlled physical and chemical functionalities to guide in vitro and in vivo cell activities. By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDTs allow to produce fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the chance to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate biopolymers (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides) or active molecules (e.g., drugs) for different applications. Here, we focus on the optimization of basic EFDTs - namely electrospinning, electrospraying and electrodynamic atomization - to develop active platforms (i.e., monocomponent, protein and drug loaded scaffolds and µ-scaffolds) made of synthetic (PCL, PLGA) or natural (chitosan, alginate) polymers. In particular, we investigate how to set materials and process parameters to impart specific morphological, biochemical or physical cues to trigger all the fundamental cell–biomaterial and cell– cell cross-talking elicited during regenerative processes, in order to reproduce the complex microenvironment of native or pathological tissues.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the influences of a training programme’s instructional delivery method (synchronous and asynchronous on Greek in-service physical educators’ cognitive understanding on student assessment. Forty nine participants were randomly divided into synchronous, asynchronous, and control group. The experimental groups participated in the same training programme with different online instructional method. The control group received no intervention. A 17-item questionnaire was completed before and after programme implementation by the entire sample. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures on the last factor was used for data analysis. The methods x measures interaction effect were significant. Both experimental groups, unlike the control, presented a similar significant increase in their understanding. Conclusively, synchronous and asynchronous instructional approaches of a training programme enhance equally Greek physical educators’ cognitive understanding.
Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the rapid change and growth of information and communication technology (ICT, the use of computer technology in education has become an essential requisite. With the Millennial generation, who has been surrounded by high volume of multimedia content, the concept of computer-assisted learning is intrinsic. Computer is simultaneously perceived as a toy, tool, and a source of information, which has ingrained in people’s habits of communication, education and research. The concept of the computer-assisted learning refers to the delivery of new knowledge; the use, consolidation, and synthesis of the newly acquired knowledge. As suggested, computer technology is „the most important innovation in the modern pedagogy” for its impact on the efficiency of education. The pupil-computer interaction enables the diversification of teaching strategies and opens up a whole wealth of structured information with many opportunities for its visualisation. However, it is not the computer in itself with its multimedia configurations that lead to the educational enhancement; but, the quality of the digital learning resources and their appropriate incorporation in classroom aligned to the innovative pedagogy that counts the most. The modernization of pedagogy involves, thus, the presence of hardware (computer, software (programs and the capacity to use, adapt, and harness the ICT in the instructional environment. This paper presents the experience of the use of computer technology in one of the courses offered by vocational schools that aims to develop both general and professional competencies, as well as the capacity to work with diverse types of multimedia contents.
Kissau, Scott; Algozzine, Bob
Research has called into question the suitability of fully-online instruction for certain teacher preparation courses. Methodology coursework, in particular, has been singled out in research as ill-suited to online instruction. Recent research, for example, involving second language (L2) teacher candidates has demonstrated that aspiring teachers…
Vincent, Susan, Ed.
In multigrade instruction, children of at least a 2-year grade span and diverse ability levels are grouped in a single classroom and share experiences involving intellectual, academic, and social skills. "The Multigrade Classroom" is a seven-book series that provides an overview of current research on multigrade instruction, identifies…
Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.
Despite recent advances in the development of instructional interventions, many students with significant learning problems do not benefit from them. This includes 25% to 50% of students with learning disabilities (LD). In this article, we identify five limitations of current instructional programs that may help to explain students' inadequate…
Wilkinson, Colleen Ann
Online learning has become a prevalent method of instruction in higher education. There are many reasons for this change in pedagogy, including rapid developments in technology, as well as the logistic challenges of enrolling in college, such as commuting and coordinating work schedules. The quality of online instruction and its impact on teacher…
Kretlow, Allison G.; Wood, Charles L.; Cooke, Nancy L.
Early intervention is key to preventing academic failure and referral to special education. General educators are responsible for providing primary instruction for students at risk for failure; however, the training they receive related to specific instructional strategies for these students is often insufficient (e.g., 1-day workshops).…
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.
This nine-paper collection from a June 1983 Open University (OU) campus workshop in Milton Keynes, England, describes an interactive video project developed for an OU undergraduate course, T252, Introduction to Engineering Materials, and discusses varied aspects of interactive videodisc program development. The following papers are included:…
Campbell, Katy; And Others
Discussion of the use of videodiscs to improve postsecondary teaching focuses on a project at the University of Alberta (Canada) that considered ethical standards in visual anthropology. Topics include identifying teaching examples, accountability, collaboration, integrity, intentionality, authenticity, and dignity and privacy. (LRW)
Ogilvie, R W
Cell Biology and HISTOLOGY (alias Microanatomy, alias Microscopic Anatomy) is a required course for first-year medical and dental students in most health science centers. The traditional approach used in teaching this discipline is to present photomicrographic images of structures to students in lecture using 35 mm slides of fields seen through the microscope. The students then spend many hours viewing and studying specimens of tissues using a light microscope in a laboratory setting. Students in traditional courses of histology spend an inordinate amount of time learning the component structures by attempting to find and identify them in tissue sections using a microscope, where the structure being sought is surrounded by a multitude of other structures with which they are also not familiar. With the recent availability of videodisc stored image libraries of histological samples, it is now possible to study histological principles without the use of the microscope as the primary learning tool. A videodisc entitled " A Photographic Atlas" by S. Downing (published by Image Premastering Services Limited, Minneapolis, MN, 1991) has been incorporated into our histology course. Fifteen videodisc player stations are provided for 150 students. Images are retrieved by students using a bar code scanner attached to a videodisc player (Pioneer CLD-2400). Using this kind of image library, students can now learn basic histological structure, such as cell and tissue types, without the use of a microscope or as a tool for facilitating microscopy. The use of a videodisc library of randomly accessible images simplifies learning the basic components which all organs are composed of by presenting the learner with clear-cut examples to avoid confusion with other structures. However, videodisc players and TV monitors are still not appropriately priced for every student to own. This presents a problem in that the same images studied in class are not available to study and review outside
Kemper, Karen L.
Due to growing student demand for flexibility concerning time and space, blended instruction continues to expand in colleges and universities (Garrison & Kanuka 2004). In order for institutions to reach higher levels of effectiveness in blended learning, pedagogical approaches that impact the way higher education faculty design and deliver…
Agran, Martin; Alper, Sandra
Surveys of 78 general educators and 94 special educators indicate that general educators used many, but not all, behavior analytic instructional strategies considered to be best practice. In addition, special educators regarded social interactions and friendships and self-determination skills as the most important skills for successful inclusion…
Kaplow, Roy; And Others
The Teacher-Interactive Computer System (TICS) is an on-line and interactive programing system for authoring interactive programs, particularly instructional programs. The system provides a fairly natural language, in which the author's statements for creating items in a program, for examining the structure and flow, for simulating its use by…
Cutts, J H; Hazelwood, S E; Mitchell, J A; Bridges, A J; Reid, J C
GALE, a Graphics Assisted Learning Environment, is a computer-based interactive videodisc authoring tool. GALE was created as the authoring package for AI/LEARN/Rheumatology, an independent study system for teaching rheumatology to medical trainees. GALE has potential widespread application beyond rheumatology. Interactive videodisc technology is a prime feature of GALE. Other highlights are: WordPerfect macros which simplify programming, graphics-based large text characters, tracking of user responses, hypertext-like definition capabilities, color coded screens to distinguish between hypertext branches and the mainstream of the course content and ability to overlay text on the video image. GALE runs on a PC-compatible computer with selected Pioneer LaserDisc players. GALE uses WordPerfect 5.1 for text editing and has been designed for use by non-programmers.
Dotterweich, Douglas P.; Rochelle, Carolyn F.
Distance education has surged in recent years while research on student characteristics and factors leading to successful outcomes has not kept pace. This study examined characteristics of regional university students in undergraduate Business Statistics and factors linked to their success based on three modes of delivery - Online, Instructional…
Weeks, B.R.; Smith, R.; Snell, J.R.; Hall, S. Mark
The International Veterinary Pathology Slide Bank Videodisc is an archival resource containing more than 12,000 color video images of interest to veterinary and comparative pathologists. To increase the utility of this database, we have developed a HyperCard-based database for Macintosh computers that allows rapid searches of the information associated with the images, and automatic display of specified images. Complex searches are handled using HyperKRS™, an indexing and search utility for H...
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From-Friesen, Bendta S.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) Identify and describe principal and teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Kotter's strategies used to facilitate change in instructional delivery to improve student success in Algebra 1; (b) identify and describe which strategies used by principals and teachers were perceived as most…
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Cerva, John R.; And Others
Eight papers cover: optical storage technology; cross-cultural videodisc design; optical disk technology use at the Library of Congress Research Service and National Library of Medicine; Internal Revenue Service image storage and retrieval system; solving business problems with CD-ROM; a laser disk operating system; and an optical disk for…
This mixed-methods action research study was designed to assess the achievement of ninth-grade Physical Science Honors students by analysis of pre and posttest data. In addition, perceptual data from students, parents, and the researcher were collected to form a complete picture of the flipped lecture format versus the traditional lecture format. The researcher utilized a 4MAT learning cycle in two Physical Science Honors classes. One of these classes was traditionally delivered with lecture-type activities taking place inside the classroom and homework-type activities taking place at home; the other inverted, or flipped, delivered with lecture-type activities taking place outside the classroom and homework-type activities taking place inside the classroom. Existing unit pre and posttests for both classes were analyzed for differences in academic achievement. At the completion of the units, the flipped class students and parents were surveyed, and student focus groups were convened to ascertain their perceptions of the flipped classroom delivery model. Statistical analysis of posttest data revealed that there is no significant difference between the traditional lecture delivery format and the flipped delivery format. Analysis of perceptual data revealed six themes that must be considered when deciding to flip the classroom: how to hold students accountable for viewing the at-home videos, accessibility of students to the required technology, technical considerations relating to the video production, comprehension of the material both during and after viewing the videos, pedagogy of the overall flipped method, and preference for the flipped method overall. Findings revealed that students, parents, and the researcher all had a preference for the flipped class format, provided the above issues are addressed. The flipped class format encourages students to become more responsible for their learning, and, in addition, students reported that the hands-on inquiry
Roytek, Margaret A.
Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…
Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Wetzel, C. D.; Radtke, Paul H.; Stern, Hervey W.; Dickieson, Jan; McLachlan, J. C.
Visual forms of instruction are increasingly used as a result of the widespread use of video technologies such as broadcasts, teleconferencing, tapes, videodiscs, and emerging multimedia combinations of computer and digital video technologies. The considerable amount of research that stretches back to early work with film, television, and static visual materials can be of benefit in developing these new forms of instruction. The objective is to present a review of the current research literature regarding the use of dynamic video media in instruction. Research on the following topics was reviewed: general reviews of the effectiveness, acceptance, and costs of several forms of educational television; teaching techniques used effectively with video media; combining visual and verbal information; the effects of motion, animation, and interactivity, the relationship between media perceptions and learning; the effect of various video production techniques on learning; and critical perspectives on learning from media. This review can be used as background material for future research or instructional development efforts concerned with learning from video-based media.
Lomask, Michal S.; Jacobson, Larry; Hafner, Laurin P.
A new assessment of science teachers' knowledge of school lab safety management was developed and tested. The assessment, called the Safety Simulator, is based on Interactive Videodisc (IVD) technology and was developed as part of the Beginning Educator Support and Training program for beginning teachers in Connecticut. The Safety Simulator contains two phases: 1) A walk through the lab room, designed to assess teacher knowledge of current regulations about safety equipment and storage of chemicals; 2) A General science lab activity, performed by four middle school students, designed to assess teacher knowledge of school safety management and his/her ability to monitor students' work. Reliability of scores for the four different categories of school lab safety (Physical facilities, Chemicals. Lab techniques and Students' behavior), examined by calculating the mean correlation coefficients among three different scorers, was found to be moderate to high. Evidence for content and construct validity were studied by examining job relatedness, safety expert judgment, and by comparing the performance of known groups.
Experiments on using Instructional Television. Most experiments compare instruction using TV, with the conventional classroom instruction by the teacher. The findings are clear. ... scientific reliability, and all of these showed no significant difference.
Vitalone-Raccaro, Nancy A.
The national focus on teacher accountability and the resulting emphasis on raising the bar for teacher evaluations challenge teachers of students with learning disabilities (LD) to rethink instructional design and delivery. In response to these challenges, this article introduces a two-part protocol for planning and teaching strategy instruction…
Martino, Sal; Odle, Teresa
An ASRT task force on new educational delivery methods produced research and resources to guide publication of a white paper titled New Models, New Tools: The Role of Instructional Technology in Radiologic Science Education. This special report summarizes the white paper findings.
Matthews, Denise; Reiss, John G.
An instructional videoconference (IVC) is an interactive delivery mechanism for long-distance communication and education, which uses 2-way audio and 1- or 2-way video to facilitate interaction between presenters and learners who are separated by significant distance. This guide, intended for the staff of federal, state, and local programs that…
Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih
Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…
This case study explored a process of team-based curriculum deliberation, design, and delivery, used to teach a classroom management course in the context of a school university partnership. A team of university and school-based teacher educators negotiated how best to prepare preservice teachers with effective classroom management knowledge and…
Summey, Terri Pedersen; Valenti, Sandra
Librarians offer a variety of library instruction utilizing multiple formats. Many struggle with the task of transferring instruction to the online environment. Principles of instructional design can be leveraged to effect quality change in the delivery of instruction to make teaching more effective, efficient, and appealing to learners. Although…
Rosenzweig, Amanda H.
Through distance learning, the community college system has been able to serve more students by providing educational opportunities to students who would otherwise be unable to attend college. The community college of focus in the study increased its online enrollments and online course offerings due to the growth of overall enrollment. The need and purpose of the study is to address if there is a difference in students' grades between face-to-face and online biology related courses and if there are differences in grades between face-to-face and online biology courses taught by different instructors and the same instructor. The study also addresses if online course delivery is a viable method to educate students in biology-related fields. The study spanned 14 semesters between spring 2006 and summer 2011. Data were collected for 6,619 students. For each student, demographic information, cumulative grade point average, ACT, and data on course performance were gathered. Student data were gathered from General Biology I, Microbiology of Human Pathogens, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, and Human Anatomy and Physiology II courses. Univariate analysis of variance, linear regression, and descriptive analysis were used to analyze the data and determine which variables significantly impacted grade achievement for face-to-face and online students in biology classes. The findings from the study showed that course type, face-to-face or online, was significant for Microbiology of Human Pathogens and Human Anatomy and Physiology I, both upper level courses. Teachers were significant for General Biology I, a lower level course, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, and Human Anatomy and Physiology II. However, in every class, there were teachers who had significant differences within their courses between their face-to-face and online courses. This study will allow information to be concluded about the relationship between the students' final grades and class type, face-to-face or
Dubeck, Margaret M.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.; Okello, George
We report on a study that used observations, conversations, and formal interviews to explore literacy instruction in 24 lower-primary classrooms in coastal Kenya. Specifically, we report the ways literacy instruction is delivered and how that delivery aligns with practices understood to promote reading acquisition. We find (1) prioritization of…
Draper, Darryl C.
To promote knowledge convergence through collaborative learning activities in groups, this qualitative case study involved a layered approach for the design and delivery of a highly collaborative learning environment incorporating various instructional technologies grounded in learning theory. In a graduate-level instructional technology course,…
Chawdhry, Adnan A.; Paullet, Karen; Benjamin, Daniel
Universities and colleges have been offering online classes without assessing the tools used for online learning management to determine student perceptions. An understanding of the benefits and concerns as perceived by the student population is essential to implementing an online education environment that is conducive to a student's learning.…
Full Text Available Beyond promoting a mode of ethnographic inquiry that is conceptually informed and rigorously attentive to the actualities of human lived experience, this article encourages a more sustained, comparative analysis of the ways that administrators and instructors deal with education as a collectively developed venture. After (a establishing an analytic frame for a more comprehensive approach to education as a socially engaged process, this article focuses on (b the administration of educational programs and (c providing instruction as activity “in the making,” using an ethnographic study of two Protestant Christian seminaries as an empirical, illustrative case. While providing an agenda for examining the ways that people generate and sustain instructional ventures in any educational context, the material presented here also represents an important focal point for theoretically, conceptually, and methodologically integrating research that attends to the ways that instructional (administrative and teaching activities are accomplished in practice.
Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise
Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....
Franklin T. Thompson
Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.
Peslak, Alan R.; Lewis, Griffith R.; Aebli, Fred
Teaching computer information systems via distance education is a challenge for both student and faculty. Much research work has been performed on methods of teaching via distance education. Today we are faced with a variety of options for course delivery. Asynchronous delivery via online or lesson instruction still remains most common. But…
Mulhearn, Tyler J; Steele, Logan M; Watts, Logan L; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane
Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were identified through this clustering procedure, and these instructional approaches showed different levels of effectiveness. Instructional effectiveness was assessed based on one of nine commonly used ethics criteria. With respect to specific training types, Professional Decision Processes Training (d = 0.50) and Field-Specific Compliance Training (d = 0.46) appear to be viable approaches to ethics training based on Cohen's d effect size estimates. By contrast, two commonly used approaches, General Discussion Training (d = 0.31) and Norm Adherence Training (d = 0.37), were found to be considerably less effective. The implications for instruction in ethics training are discussed.
Defines hypermedia and describes the structure and functional requirements of a hypermedia program. Potentials of hypermedia for instructional delivery, idea generation and organization, file storage and organization, and development of computer-based instruction materials are discussed. Several research issues related to instructional…
Having observed the reckless abandonment of professional codes and ethics of teaching soon after certification, and specifically the subterfuge of the use of instructional materials in lesson delivery, the researchers set out to investigate the state-of-the-art in terms of availability and use of mathematical instructional materials ...
Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas
In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…
Print-based instructional materials have been more popular than any other medium for teaching practical skills during the delivery of technical and vocational education and training via distance learning. However, the approach has its shortcomings and in recent times alternatives have been sought. The comparative instructional effectiveness of one such alternative is the focus of this paper. The study sought to examine the instructional effectiveness of video-based instructional materials vis...
Lipschultz, Joshua; Wilder, David A
The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence consists of the delivery of a series of high-probability instructions immediately before delivery of a low-probability or target instruction. It is commonly used to increase compliance in a variety of populations. Recent research has described variations of the high-p instructional sequence and examined the conditions under which the sequence is most effective. This manuscript reviews the most recent research on the sequence and identifies directions for future research. Recommendations for practitioners regarding the use of the high-p instructional sequence are also provided. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Begeny, John C.; Hawkins, Amy Lynn; Krouse, Hailey E.; Laugle, Kelly M.
With limited educational resources and numerous other variables that complicate effective teaching, educators need to think prudently about how to allocate resources. In essence, teachers must allocate resources in ways that will best maximize student learning. However, minimal research has systematically evaluated whether increased instructional…
... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... A Listen En Español After Delivery After your baby arrives, your body begins to recover from the ...
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Lohr, L. L.
Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…
Goldwater, Paul N; Bhatia, Vineesh; Cooper, Celia
A case of HIV seroconversion associated with high viral load occurring at or near delivery is described. The management of the case in terms of prevention of mother-to-child-transmission is described and discussed in terms of the published literature and guidelines. From this instructive case a constructive strategy for delivery and immediate post-natal care is derived. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Kurz, Kim B.; Schick, Brenda; Hauser, Peter C.
This research study compared learning of 6-9th grade deaf students under two modes of educational delivery--interpreted vs. direct instruction using science lessons. Nineteen deaf students participated in the study in which they were taught six science lessons in American Sign Language. In one condition, the lessons were taught by a hearing…
Gorin, Amy A; Raynor, Hollie A; Niemeier, Heather M; Wing, Rena R
... (SBT) or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home). SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges...
Lee, Reba-Anna; Dashew, Brian
In transitioning to a hybrid delivery model, faculty are presented with an opportunity to engage in a systematic instructional design process which can bring coursework in line with pedagogical best practices that may not exist in traditional face-to-face classes. This paper presents a model whereby Marist College Academic Technology &…
Murphy, Molly; RuppSerrano, Karen
Interlibrary loan and document delivery services have the potential to provide a wealth of information for collection development librarians. Insights into book and serial needs, departmental emphases, instructional opportunities and distant learning are available from interlibrary loan and document delivery databases, provided librarians are…
Reigeluth, Charles M.; Merrill, M. David
Describes three classes of variables which should be considered when one is designing instructional materials, doing research on instruction, or developing better methods of instruction, and proposes a classification scheme which is summarized in the last of the 13 figures that illustrate the article. A blbliography is included. (Author/RAO)
Conclusion: The results of this study showed in comparison with cesarean delivery, normal vaginal delivery provides better outcomes in terms of breast problems, breast feeding status, duration of labor and duration of maternal hospitalization for both mother and infant. So, adopting careful instructions in management and administration of deliveries will help the prevalence of making decisions for normal vaginal delivery and the recovery of delivery outcomes.
machine. Turing’s computer ( Colossus ), using vacuum tubes instead of telephone relays, was used to break these random letter codes. After nine ver- sions...of Colossus were built and by wars end the British were able to unscramble German secret codes in a matter of a few minutes. By the mid 1940s vacuum... Rhode Island, Vermont, and New Hampshire. SOUTH CENTRAL (n=100) 30% Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland
Print-based instructional materials have been more popular than any other medium for teaching practical skills during the delivery of technical and vocational education and training via distance learning. However, the approach has its shortcomings and in recent times alternatives have been sought. The comparative instructional effectiveness of one…
Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal
The research explored the current practices of information literacy (IL) instruction in medical libraries of Pakistan. A semi-structured questionnaire was mailed to the head librarians of all 114 academic medical libraries in Pakistan. It investigated the types of IL instruction provided, topics covered, methods of delivery and assessment, level of integration in the curriculum, and level of collaboration with teaching staff. The study revealed that 74% of the respondents had offered some types of IL instruction in their institutions during the previous year, ranging from library orientation to research-level skills. IL instruction is typically only offered to new students or first-time library users or on demand. A majority of the respondents developed IL instruction programs without faculty involvement. Librarians were primarily responsible for offering IL instruction in medical institutions. Face-to-face instruction in computer labs or lecture halls and individual instruction at reference desks were identified as the most common IL instruction delivery methods. The data indicated that oral feedback, written feedback, and searching in a computer lab were the most popular assessment methods that medical librarians used. IL instruction activities in medical libraries of Pakistan are in their infancy. Medical librarians also lack systematic approaches to IL instruction. Medical librarians need to develop educational partnerships with faculty for integrating IL instruction into the mainstream curriculum.
Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal
Objectives: The research explored the current practices of information literacy (IL) instruction in medical libraries of Pakistan. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was mailed to the head librarians of all 114 academic medical libraries in Pakistan. It investigated the types of IL instruction provided, topics covered, methods of delivery and assessment, level of integration in the curriculum, and level of collaboration with teaching staff. Results: The study revealed that 74% of the respondents had offered some types of IL instruction in their institutions during the previous year, ranging from library orientation to research-level skills. IL instruction is typically only offered to new students or first-time library users or on demand. A majority of the respondents developed IL instruction programs without faculty involvement. Librarians were primarily responsible for offering IL instruction in medical institutions. Face-to-face instruction in computer labs or lecture halls and individual instruction at reference desks were identified as the most common IL instruction delivery methods. The data indicated that oral feedback, written feedback, and searching in a computer lab were the most popular assessment methods that medical librarians used. Conclusion: IL instruction activities in medical libraries of Pakistan are in their infancy. Medical librarians also lack systematic approaches to IL instruction. Implications: Medical librarians need to develop educational partnerships with faculty for integrating IL instruction into the mainstream curriculum. PMID:25349546
Full Text Available We describe a model of instruction in mathematics which combines the traditional university lecture with computer aided delivery of homework and testing. While this model of emporium instruction was developed at Virginia Tech to deal with the burden of increased class sizes and increasing demands on faculty time, it has, in fact, proven to be an effective pedagogical method with advantages as compared to traditional lecture style instruction. We will argue that it also provides an economic alternative for less developed nations, with partiuclar benefits for the special problems faced by these universities.
The importance of teaching students based on their levels of development and ability, or differentiated instruction, has been used in Language Arts classes increasingly over the last decade. However, it is only recently that attention in research has been given to the use of differentiated instruction in a mathematics lesson. This paper aims to explore what research is being done to not only improve mathematics instruction in the classroom, but to better prepare future teachers for teaching m...
GSE1 (PG Information Literacy and Communication Skills) module was redesigned to a more project orientated and problem-based learning (POPBL) delivery. Research showed evidence for the benefits to Information Literacy instruction of a PBL approach.
Keefe, James W., Ed.; Jenkins, John M., Ed.
Instructional leadership is the principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to teachers and students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school. This handbook reviews factors affecting that role in four broad domains: keeping informed about trends, planning for instructional improvement, implementing…
Pace, Jesse R.; Mellard, Daryl F.
This study evaluated the effects of a blended learning instructional experience for sixth-grade students in an English/language arts (ELA) course. Students at two treatment schools participated in a blended learning instructional paradigm, and their ELA test scores were compared to one comparison school that used a face-to-face delivery. Other…
This case study explores the use of flipped teaching in three different undergraduate engineering courses, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of class size and how it affects the delivery of information literacy instruction as observed through student engagement and the perceived helpfulness of the instruction. A flipped classroom was…
Lundeberg, Mary A.
This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.
McCracken, T O; Spurgeon, T L
The goal of the Vesalius Project is a high-resolution, interactive 3-D atlas of human/animal anatomy, stored on a laser videodisc and displayed on graphics workstations--an an "electronic Gray's Anatomy." Students will use this computerized atlas interactively to learn the structure of the body and to understand their own bodies in health and disease. The Human Factors Research Laboratory at Colorado State University has designed and is conducting a comprehensive evaluation program for the project.
Purpose: This paper aims to postulate an emerging unified cultural-convergence framework to converge the delivery of instructional technology and intercultural education (ICE) that extends beyond web-learning technologies to inculcate inclusive pedagogy in teacher education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explores the literature and a…
explicitly discussed. Equally, the various strategies information and communication technologies are used to support instructional delivery, as well as the associated problems of ICT applications in education were also reviewed. To dress this piece further, the prospects of ICT application in Nigeria education system was ...
Radford, Curt L.
Advances in technology have significantly influenced educational delivery options, particularly in the area of American Sign Language (ASL) instruction. As a result, ASL online courses are currently being explored in higher education. The review of literature remains relatively unexplored regarding the effectiveness of learning ASL online. In…
Cabot, Lloyd H.
I show that the Modeling physics curriculum is readily accommodated by most teachers in favor of traditional didactic pedagogies. This is so, at least in part, because Modeling focuses on a small set of connected models embedded in a self-consistent theoretical framework and thus is closely congruent with human cognition in this context which is to generate mental models of physical phenomena as both predictive and explanatory devices. Whether a teacher fully implements the Modeling pedagogy depends on the depth of the teacher's commitment to inquiry-based instruction, specifically Modeling instruction, as a means of promoting student understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Moreover, this commitment trumps all other characteristics: teacher educational background, content coverage issues, student achievement data, district or state learning standards, and district or state student assessments. Indeed, distinctive differences exist in how Modeling teachers deliver their curricula and some teachers are measurably more effective than others in their delivery, but they all share an unshakable belief in the efficacy of inquiry-based, constructivist-oriented instruction. The Modeling Workshops' pedagogy, duration, and social interactions impacts teachers' self-identification as members of a professional community. Finally, I discuss the consequences my research may have for the Modeling Instruction program designers and for designers of professional development programs generally.
This paper highlights the instructional design process followed by the Maricopa Community College faculty in the creation of instructional modules in Digital Visual Literacy. The paper categorizes 10 tasks that an instructional designer, a teacher, or a trainer performs during the design phase of the instructional design process. The importance of…
There is a big difference between preparing to teach in the classroom and preparing to teach online. The classroom environment is typically marked by a level of spontaneity in instruction; beyond the preparation-the course syllabus and the PowerPoint slides, for example-the delivery of the course is largely altered by both the dynamics of the class and the impromptu decisions of the professor. Mediating this dynamic is the nature of the subject matter itself-teaching a course in computer programming varies dramatically from a course in sociology. The goal of this article is to explain the uses and misuses of instructional design, its foundational frameworks, and its implications for online education.
Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.
Gur, Bekir S; Wiley, David A
.... A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility...
Monica W. Tracey
Full Text Available In an authentic example of linking design and development with learning and performance, an international real estate development firm defined a problem; implementing a cleaning system in the largest mall in the world with a cross-cultural unskilled work force in Dubai, UAE. Partnering with a university instructional design team employing a rapid prototyping methodology and the constructivist ID approach, Layers of Negotiation Model, a comprehensive curriculum was designed. This article describes the project background, initial design, the ID team's work in Dubai, illustrates the product, and summarizes the design experience.
Jerković Ljiljana S.
Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B
Leanne R. Ketterlin-Geller
Full Text Available Diagnosis is an integral part of instructional decision-making. As the bridge between identification of students who may be at-risk for failure and delivery of carefully designed supplemental interventions, diagnosis provides valuable information about students' persistent misconceptions in the targeted domain. In this paper, we discuss current approaches to diagnosis in mathematics and highlight the strengths and limitations of each approach for making instructional decisions. We point to cognitive diagnostic assessments as an emerging solution for providing detailed and precise information about students' thinking that is needed to provide appropriate educational opportunities for students struggling in mathematics.
Fisher, Michele M.
The purpose of this study was to identify current practices for the delivery of exercise physiology content at the undergraduate level. An anonymous 22-item survey was sent to instructors of exercise physiology to collect information concerning the structure of course offerings and instructional practices. One hundred ten instructors responded to…
Williams, Kimberly Gail
Changing demographics, student diversity, and increased accountability have compelled educators to challenge the uniform constraints of traditional instruction and create an environment focused on individual achievement. Differentiated instruction empowers teachers to target multiple learning styles through varied themes, adapted content delivery,…
... prescription. If sitting is uncomfortable, sit on a pillow. There also are special cushions that may be ... vagina. Cesarean Delivery: Delivery of a baby through surgical incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. ...
Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…
Lowyck, Joost; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine
Learners are active actors in learning environments and not mere consumers of instructional designers' products. In line with mediating paradigm instructional conceptions of students are analysed. These conceptions act as cognitive filters that affect students' use of both instructional interventions and support in learning environments. To gain…
Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale
Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…
Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.
Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…
van der Meij, Hans
This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were
Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…
includes evaluative essays on mental measurement and the contributions of E. L. Thorndike, Piaget, Freud , Skinner, and others. A recent book edited by...as a private audio visual aid. Instructional Science, 1980, 9, 295-309. Paolitto, D. P. The effect of cross-age tutoring on adolescence : An inquiry
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.
Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…
Please note that the Safety Instruction No 43 (IS 43) entitled "ASBESTOS - DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS" is available on the web at the following URL: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335809/LAST_RELEASED/ Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC secretariat, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. SC Secretariat
Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies
For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of
Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.
Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…
Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan
This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…
Nelson, Wayne A.; Palumbo, David B.
Examines the psychological basis of hypermedia as a medium for learning, surveys the characteristics of current hypermedia systems, and suggests ways to make hypermedia systems more valuable as instructional environments. Highlights include parallels between human memory and hypermedia architectures; and hypermedia as knowledge presentation,…
Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan
This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…
Sizemore, Barbara; And Others
A group of three conference papers, all addressing effective instructional programs, is presented in this document. The first paper, entitled "The Organization--A Viable Instrument for Progress" (Barbara Sizemore), addresses the subject of high-achieving, predominantly black elementary schools. Routines in these schools not present in…
Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.
Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss
Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako
We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...
Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…
Sahin, Mehmet Can
This study proposes a new approach to the Instructional Design field. By the constructivism, education systems are moving from a massive structure to the more learner centered and more individualist structure. So far, ID field has adopted and digested the individualism notion partly. This paper proposes an individualistic approach to the…
Gender based learning has become an acceptable facet of the differentiated classroom. The female learner has unique needs that can be addressed through differentiated instruction. There are distinct differences between men and women. These differences effect how females approach learning as well as how they retain information. "A fundamental…
A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…
In this article, the author talks about George Orwell, his instructive errors, and the manner in which Orwell pierced worthless theory, faced facts and defended decency (with fluctuating success), and largely ignored the tradition of accumulated wisdom that has rendered him a timeless teacher--one whose inadvertent lessons, while infrequently…
Deeney, Theresa A.
Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…
Full Text Available Print-based instructional materials have been more popular than any other medium for teaching practical skills during the delivery of technical and vocational education and training via distance learning. However, the approach has its shortcomings and in recent times alternatives have been sought. The comparative instructional effectiveness of one such alternative is the focus of this paper. The study sought to examine the instructional effectiveness of video-based instructional materials vis-à-vis traditional print-based instructional materials for teaching distance learners of a Block-Laying and Concreting practical skills programme. An experimental design was used and participants were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: Users of video-based instructional materials or users of print-based instructional materials. A researcher-designed performance test and an achievement test of 20 multiple-choice items were used to collect data from 34 participants who used print-based instructional materials and 35 participants who used video-based instructional materials to learn practical skills. The instruments were based on the instructional objectives of lessons on mortar and wall finish. Pilot test data for the achievement test yielded Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84. Descriptive statistics and t-test at a 0.05 level of significance were used to analyse the data. The results indicated that the two instructional materials were pedagogically equivalent in terms of theoretical knowledge acquired. Practical skills acquired, however, were significantly higher among users of video-based instructional materials. Finally, users of video-based instructional materials displayed significantly superior craftsmanship.
Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von
Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…
Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to
Spector, J. Michael; And Others
Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…
Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William
This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…
San Khin Thida
Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.
almost identical to the popular Gameboy system. The performance of an experimental group, who used the videogames , was compared to a group from the same...prior to and during the evaluation). Teaching Marketing , Business, and Management Principles. Fritzsche (1981) compared the use of a marketing ...simulation game, Marketing in Action, as either the central delivery vehicle for instructional information or as a supplement to the standard lecture on the
Please note that a revised version of Safety Instruction No. 36 (IS 36), entitled "Safety rules for the use of static magnetic fields at CERN" is available on the Web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335801/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit secretariat (e-mail : email@example.com) SC Secretariat
Blouin, Robert A; Riffee, William H; Robinson, Evan T; Beck, Diane E; Green, Charles; Joyner, Pamela U; Persky, Adam M; Pollack, Gary M
This paper reviews trends in higher education, characterizing both the current learning environments in pharmacy education as well as a vision for future learning environments, and outlines a strategy for successful implementation of innovations in educational delivery. The following 3 areas of focus are addressed: (1) rejecting the use of the majority of classroom time for the simple transmission of factual information to students; (2) challenging students to think critically, communicate lucidly, and synthesize broadly in order to solve problems; and (3) adopting a philosophy of "evidence-based education" as a core construct of instructional innovation and reform.
Baudner, Barbara C; O'Hagan, Derek T
Mucosal vaccine delivery potentially induces mucosal as well as systemic immune responses and may have advantages particularly for optimal protection against pathogens that infect the host through mucosal surfaces. However, the delivery of antigens through mucosal membranes remains a major challenge due to unfavorable physiological conditions (pH and enzymes) and significant biological barriers, which restrict the uptake of antigens. To improve mucosal vaccine delivery, the use of bioadhesive delivery systems offers numerous advantages, including protection from degradation, increasing concentration of antigen in the vicinity of mucosal tissue for better absorption, extending their residence time, and/or targeting them to sites of antigen uptake. Although some bioadhesives have direct immune stimulating properties, it appears most likely that successful mucosal vaccination will require the addition of vaccine adjuvants for optimal immune responses, particularly if they are to be used in an unprimed population. Thus, complex vaccine formulations and delivery strategies have to be carefully designed to appropriately stimulate immune response for the target pathogen. In addition, careful consideration is needed to define the "best" route for mucosal immunization for each individual pathogen.
As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.
Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.
Buck, Michael D; Sowell, Ryan T; Kaech, Susan M; Pearce, Erika L
Choices have consequences. Immune cells survey and migrate throughout the body and sometimes take residence in niche environments with distinct communities of cells, extracellular matrix, and nutrients that may differ from those in which they matured. Imbedded in immune cell physiology are metabolic pathways and metabolites that not only provide energy and substrates for growth and survival, but also instruct effector functions, differentiation, and gene expression. This review of immunometabolism will reference the most recent literature to cover the choices that environments impose on the metabolism and function of immune cells and highlight their consequences during homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Célia D.S. Bell
Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.
Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.; Dumolin, J. R.; Singh, J. P.
The use of television in schools as an aid to instruction is proposed for individualized instruction, repetition for slow learners, acceleration for fast learners, and lectures from the best teachers for all students. A dedicated school district cable system, a 40 channel cable to each school and classroom, is considered. This innovation offers an opportunity for improving the quality and content of the school's instruction and for reducing the cost.
Preterm delivery is in quantity and in severity an important issue in the obstetric care in the Western world. There is considerable knowledge on maternal and obstetric risk factors of preterm delivery. Of the women presenting with preterm labor, the majority is pregnant with a male fetus and in
Romero Martínez, Jorge; Guerrero Guijo, Inmaculada; Artura Serrano, Antonio
In different cultures and mythologies, the moon is related with fertility, pregnancy and delivery. Professional obstetricians also notice an increase in care demands on the days when the moon is full. Many studies have been made which try to correlate delivery processes to the phases of the moon with contradictory results. The authors plan to try to find any basis in fact which support these popular beliefs and to discover if lunar phases bear an influence on the distribution of deliveries. They carried out a descriptive transversal study on a total of 1715 unassisted deliveries over the course of ten complete lunar cycles. The authors have carried out a descriptive and inferential analysis, a one way ANOVA and a Kruskal Wallis test on their three data bases which are general, primipara and multipara in which they contemplated the total number of deliveries per phase, the mean of each phase, as well as the central day in each phase of the lunar cycle. The differences found in the distribution of deliveries over the four lunar phases, along with the comparison of the means and the comparison of the number of deliveries on the central day in each phase are not statistically significant. The different phases in the lunar cycle and especially the full moon do not appear to have any influence over the distribution of deliveries in this study.
Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush
This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...
Borghans, L.; Diris, R.E.M.
There exists substantial variation in how schools allocate instruction time to school subjects. The effectiveness of that allocation depends on the immediate effect of instruction in one subject on achievement in the same subject, on how skills further develop over time, and on possible spillover
Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik
Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…
Garrett, Kristi N.; Benson, Angela D.
From a quantitative perspective, this study examined the instructional design knowledge of higher education instructors and others within the instructional design/technology arena who are members of a global educational based Internet forum. Results showed significant difference in opinions between genders, where males were more inclined to…
Mazurak, Vera C; Whybrow, Ellen; Varnhagen, Stanley; Field, Catherine J
Questions often arise about the quality of an educational experience in a distance format. Debate exists as to whether the relatively new format of on-line education can offer an equivalent learning experience for students, and the perception remains that virtual learning is impersonal. We examined students' experience in an introductory undergraduate nutrition course that had been remodelled as an asynchronous, active-learning, student-centred model. The investigation used the framework of instructional message design, a concept based on cognitive science principles, to highlight themes in student survey and focus group data. Results indicate that a motivating and accessible quality educational experience is possible in an on-line format through a student-centred model. Such a model provides a means to offer education to a diverse and larger audience. Further investigation is needed to determine faculty professional development needs and cost-effective ways to expand the model. Such a model provides alternatives to expand delivery to encourage interest in the field, and to provide continuing education for allied professionals and the general public.
Hamel, Cheryl J.; Ryan-Jones, David
Discussion of online learning and standards for web-based and computer-based courseware focuses on learning objects, defined here as small, stand-alone units of instruction that can be tagged with descriptors and stored for reuse in various instructional contexts. Presents principles of learning object design and guidelines for assuring that…
Tennyson, Robert D.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying research variables for concept acquisition into a generalized instructional model for teaching concepts. This paper does not present the methodology for the decision/selection stages in designing the actual instruction task, but offers references to other sources which give…
Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others
Distinguishes between the process and products of science and describes the role of each in Instructional Development (ID). The observe, hypothesize, test components of the scientific process are examined as they apply to front-end analysis, instructional strategy description, and formative evaluation stages used in ID models. Thirty-four…
Li, Ming-Fen; Reigeluth, Charles M.
The discussion of the critical analysis of instructional design is framed within Habermas' three fundamental human interests: technical, practical, and emancipatory. The primary goal of this paper is to explore alternative approaches for instructional designers' reflection and critique. Ultimately, this reflection and critique should shed light on…
Hopcus, Sharron; Armstrong, Ivan J.
This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…
Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias
This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction exchan...
Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.
Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…
LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.
PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…
Cronnell, Bruce; Humes, Ann
One of the most valuable uses of microcomputers and word processors in composition instruction is in the teaching of writing revision. A number of activities can be carried out with these tools; for example, (1) after appropriate instruction on revision, students can be given prewritten text and asked to revise it on the word processors; (2) after…
Low achievement on standardized tests may be attributed to many factors, including teaching methods. Differentiated instruction has been identified as a teaching method using different learning modalities that appeal to varied student interests with individualized instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare whole-group…
Hu, Amanda; Shewokis, Patricia A; Ting, Kimberly; Fung, Kevin
Computer-aided instruction (CAI) is defined as instruction in which computers play a central role as the means of information delivery and direct interaction with learners. Computer-aided instruction has become mainstream in medical school curricula. For example, a three-dimensional (3D) computer module of the larynx has been created to teach laryngeal anatomy. Although the novelty and educational potential of CAI has garnered much attention, these new technologies have been plagued with low utilization rates. Several experts attribute this problem to lack of motivation in students. Motivation is defined as the desire and action toward goal-oriented behavior. Psychologist Dr. John Keller developed the ARCS theory of motivational learning, which proposed four components: attention (A), relevance (R), concentration (C), and satisfaction (S). Keller believed that motivation is not only an innate characteristic of the pupil; it can also be influenced by external factors, such as the instructional design of the curriculum. Thus, understanding motivation is an important step to designing CAI appropriately. Keller also developed a 36-item validated instrument called the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) to measure motivation. The objective of this study was to study motivation in CAI. Medical students learning anatomy with the 3D computer module will have higher laryngeal anatomy test scores and higher IMMS motivation scores. Higher anatomy test scores will be positively associated with higher IMMS scores. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. After obtaining institutional review board approval, 100 medical students (mean age 25.5 ± 2.5, 49% male) were randomized to either the 3D computer module (n = 49) or written text (n = 51). Information content was identical in both arms. Students were given 30 minutes to study laryngeal anatomy and then completed the laryngeal anatomy test and IMMS. Students were categorized as either junior (year 1
Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.
Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.
ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....
Kumar, David D.
Explores the potential for using Intelligent Educational Systems (IES) for anchoring instruction in macro contexts in science education. Topics include anchored instruction; situated cognition; problem solving; cognitivism; interactive video environments; and examples of combining IES and anchored instruction. (LRW)
Di Paolo, Terry; Wakefield, Jenny S.; Mills, Leila A.; Baker, Laura
This paper outlines a rudimentary process intended to guide faculty in K-12 and higher education through the steps involved to produce video for their classes. The process comprises four steps: planning, development, delivery and reflection. Each step is infused with instructional design information intended to support the collaboration between…
Newman, Daniel S.; Salmon, Diane; Cavanaugh, Kate; Schneider, Mary Frances
Response to intervention (RtI) is an influential system of service delivery in contemporary schools, but the specific role of school consultation in RtI implementation is not clearly defined. Instructional consultation provides a potential meeting point between consultation and RtI practices. Through a mixed-methods approach, this study explored…
Adkins, Megan; Wajciechowski, Misti R.; Scantling, Ed
Quick response codes, better known as QR codes, are small barcodes scanned to receive information about a specific topic. This article explains QR code technology and the utility of QR codes in the delivery of physical education instruction. Consideration is given to how QR codes can be used to accommodate learners of varying ability levels as…
The purpose of this study was to assess and determine impacts of insufficient instructional materials and ineffective lesson delivery methods on teaching in biology higher education. The participants of this study were 60 trainees who graduated in Bachelor of Sciences from eight public universities in majoring biology. Data for the study was…
Fyle, Clifford Omodele; Moseley, Alexander; Hayes, Nichola
Reduced higher education funding and other austerity measures imposed by governments and institutions have resulted in cascading cuts in resources for programme design, delivery and revision. The instructional design function is often the first casualty of these cuts in many universities. This paper considers the roles and functions of…
Mazo, Lucille B.
Research on learning styles often focuses on the learning style of the student; however, the learning style of the educator may affect instructional choices and student learning. Few studies have addressed the lack of knowledge that exists in universities with respect to educators' learning styles and a lesson framework (development, delivery, and…
Nguyen, Trien T.; Williams, Julia; Trimarchi, Angela
This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL) tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory…
Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut
The key to successful learning in most formal instructional settings is effective instructional design (ID). Instructional design for teachers serves as an organized source of directions, which can help classroom teachers to integrate available resources to improve students‘ acquisition of the instructional goals. The book is consisted of 151 pages (+xvii) covering eight chapters which address a commonsense model of instructional design to guide K-12 teachers during their unique instructional...
Describes development of a learning module for students studying foreign languages, which usually depicts social behavior between the foreign language nationals to teach communicative competence in face-to-face interactions between nationals and students. Marketing of the module, which was first produced on videotape and later on interactive…
... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery Page Content Article Body A ... delivered vaginally. It is especially important to begin breastfeeding as soon as you are able and to ...
Susan Gardner Archambault
Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this study was twofold: 1 to assess the effectiveness of curriculum changes made from the 2009 freshman English library instruction curriculum to the 2010 curriculum at Loyola Marymount University (LMU; and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of library instruction delivered via a “blended” combination of face-to-face and online instruction versus online instruction alone.Methods – An experimental design compared random samples of student scores from 2009 and 2010 worksheets to determine the effects of a new curriculum on student learning. A second experiment examined the effect of delivery method on student learning by comparing scores from a group of students receiving only online instruction against a group receiving blended instruction.Results – The first component of the study, which compared scores between 2009 and 2010 to examine the effects of the curriculum revisions, had mixed results. Students scored a significantly higher mean in 2010 on completing and correctly listing book citation components than in 2009, but a significantly lower mean on constructing a research question. There was a significant difference in the distribution of scores for understanding differences between information found on the Internet versus through the Library that was better in 2010 than 2009, but worse for narrowing a broad research topic. For the study that examined computer aided instruction, the group of students receiving only computer-assisted instruction did significantly better overall than the group receiving blended instruction. When separate tests were run for each skill, two particular skills, generating keywords and completing book citation and location elements, resulted in a significantly higher mean.Conclusions – The comparison of scores between 2009 and 2010 were mixed, but the evaluation process helped us identify continued problems in the teaching materials to address in the next cycle of revisions
Full Text Available Under pressure to become more cost effective and competitive in the delivery of educational courses and programs, Alberta colleges have identified the integration of communication and information technologies as an appropriate response to these fiscal demands. This requires highly skilled computer and communication technologists who are both technology specialists and pedagogical experts. Twenty-eight Instructional Technology Specialists at fourteen Alberta colleges responded to a written survey. Follow-up interviews were held with seven respondents. Respondents perceived the college’s administration as lacking understanding of the implications of integrating technology into teaching and uncertain about ongoing funding for projects. As Instructional Technology Specialists they brought a variety of backgrounds and experiences to their work. They provided a broad range of services and maintained currency through ongoing formal and informal professional development. For these IT Specialists, their concerns are about growth and a better balance between the technical and pedagogical aspects of technology.
market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone delivery. Keywords: Transdermal, Delivery systems, ... delivery compared with gels, emulsions, patches, and subcutaneous implants. Among .... In a safety announcement, the US Food and. Drug Administration (FDA) warned that ...
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of Ernst Meyer's group instruction in relation to frontal instruction. In this paper, the following three points are analyzed. (1) In the historical development of German didactics, how Ernst Meyer's group instruction is positioned is clarified. (2) Ernst Meyer's frontal instruction and the form of his instruction are clarified, and the position of Ernst Meyer's group instruction in the theory of the instructional form is analyzed. (...
Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Singer, Neal
An instructional robotics laboratory that is unique in the United States was created in 1984 at the University of New Mexico. Descriptions of the laboratory, course work offered, student projects, and other areas are provided. (JN)
Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)
A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.
Murray, William R; Sams, Michelle; Belleville, Michael
This intelligent tools and instructional simulations project was an investigation into the utility of a knowledge-based performance support system to support learning and on-task performance for using...
Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger
A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)
Reviews relevant professional literature concerning hypermedia environments and adaptive instruction for online learning for distance education and continuing education. Highlights include aptitude-treatment interaction; cognitive processes; navigational paths; log files; and intelligent tutors. Contains 125 references. (LRW)
.... While distance learning has been demonstrated to be an effective and efficient tool for increased access it also requires greater emphasis on instructional design and instructor training to obtain satisfactory results...
Join a fellow instructional designer, Dr. Dave Ernst, now Chief Information Officer of the College of Education and Human Development at University of Minnesota, in exploring possibilities for incorporating open educational resources in your instructional design philosophy and work. Learn how you can make a difference by supporting faculty exploring or interested in developing or redesigning their courses. Discussion topics include: Open and OER - what it is and what it isn't; how to attribut...
Muhammad Ajmal CHAUDRY
Full Text Available Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU. It was survey study. Population of the study consisted of 120 academicians of different academic department of AIOU. Survey was conducted through questionnaire for academic staff. It was revealed that need assessment is not done before conceiving the outlines of a course. Also the course did not contain sufficient activities, picture and illustrations. It was also found that did not confirm the course objectives. The study recommended that proper of the course writers for distance learning may be arranged.
The Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based System for Managing the Design and Pilot-Testing of Interactive Videodisc Programs. Training and Development Research Center, Project Number Forty-Three.
Sayre, Scott Alan
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based system that would allow interactive video developers to integrate and manage the design components prior to production. These components of an interactive video (IVD) program include visual information in a variety of formats, audio information, and instructional techniques,…
Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank
Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…
Those involved in instructional technology in higher education are urged to view instructional technology as a means of improving academic productivity. Instructional technology has been used for over forty years to analyze instructional problems and design solutions that reduce costs and improve learning outcomes. The Pew Program in Course…
Reasons seem to include a lack of proper teacher training in comprehension instruction, teachers remaining unconvinced about the value of strategy instruction, and concerns that strategy instruction is time consuming and difficult to learn and teach. This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction ...
The purpose of this study was to identify the instructional coaching activities most used by instructional coaches in southeast Texas school districts and to test if there was a relationship between the use of instructional coaching and perceived improvement in the instructional practices of teachers and student achievement. The participants for…
Weiner, Kimberly Beth
As of 2007, 718,119 instructional assistants were employed in the United States (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009b). Of those instructional assistants, 373,466 were classified as full-time special education instructional assistants (Data Accountability Center, 2009a). As the employment of instructional assistants continues to grow,…
Taylor, Barbara Kline
Modeling differentiated instruction is one way to demonstrate how educators can incorporate instructional strategies to address students' needs, interests, and learning styles. This article discusses how secondary teacher candidates learn to focus on content--the "what" of instruction; process--the "how" of instruction;…
Reese, M; Hatcher, R A
Guidelines are provided for women who use minipills. Minipills are low dose, progestin only oral contraceptives (OC), which are frequently prescribed for women who 1) experience estrogen related side effects if they take combined OCs; 2) are 35 years of age or older; 3) are 30 years of age or aver and smoke; 4) have a history of headaches, hypertension, or varicose veins; 5) desire immediate postpartum protection; or 6) are lactating. Minipills prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and implantation and by making the cervical mucus more impervious to sperm penetration. Minipills can be effective if they are used properly. Women who take minipills should be advised to carefully read and follow the instructions provided in the OC packet, initiate pill taking on the 1st day of menstrual bleeding, and take 1 pill every day without and breaks. A backup method should be used during the 1st month and subsequently, during each midcycle phase. If a woman misses 1 pill, she should immediately, upon remembering, take a pill, take her next day's pill at regular time, and use a backup method until menstruation reoccurs. If a woman misses 2 pills, she should immediately, upon remembering, take 2 pills, take 2 pills the following day, and use a backup method until menstruation begins. Women should be advised that many minipill users experience irregular menstural cycles, including amenorrhea and spotting between periods. If menstruation is delayed for 45 days, a pregnancy test is advisable. Women should be advised to immediately seek medical attention if they experience severe chest pain, shortness breath, severe headaches, vision problems, or severe leg pain. Minipill users should let their clinicians know if they experience and changes in mood or sexual drive. These problems can frequently be avoided by switching to another brand of minipills.
Jawad, Afif A.
Institutes are incorporating computer-assisted instruction (CAI) into their classrooms in an effort to enhance learning. The implementation of computers into the classroom is parallel with education's role of keeping abreast with societal demands. The number of microcomputers in schools has increased tremendously. Computer Based Interactive Instruction (CBBI) software is available for the language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, etc. The traditional instruction, supplemented with CAI, seems to be more effective than traditional instruction alone. Although there is a large quantity of research regarding specific aspects of learning through computers, there seems to be a lack of information regarding the impact of computers upon student success. The goal of this study is to determine how much of CAI is implemented in higher education in the USA. Instructors from 38 states were surveyed to compare between the institutes that use Computer Based Interactive Instruction and the ones that do not and are still applying traditional delivery method. Based on the analysis of the data gathered during this study, it is concluded that the majority of instructors are now using computers in one form or another. This study has determined that the computer is a major component in the teaching of introductory physics, and therefore, may be a suitable substitute for the traditional delivery system. Computers as an instructional delivery system are an alternative that may result in a higher level of student learning for many higher education courses.
Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush
We investigate antecedents and contingencies of location configurations supporting global delivery models (GDMs) in global outsourcing. GDMs are a new form of IT-enabled client-specific investment promoting services provision integration with clients by exploiting client proximity and time-zone s...... commoditized. Findings imply that coordination across time zones increasingly affects international operations in business-to-business and born-global industries.......We investigate antecedents and contingencies of location configurations supporting global delivery models (GDMs) in global outsourcing. GDMs are a new form of IT-enabled client-specific investment promoting services provision integration with clients by exploiting client proximity and time-zone...
Taylor, Tony Dewayne
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an instructional system management-level model proposed by the author designed to orchestrate the efficient development and implementation of customer requested curriculum. The three phases of systems-based model are designed to ensure delivery of high quality and timely instruction are: (1) the assessment and documentation of organizational training requirements; (2) project management control of curriculum development; and (3) the implementation of relevant instruction by competent instructors. This model also provides (4) measurable and quantifiable course evaluation results to justify return on investment and validate its importance with respect to the customer's organizational strategic objectives. The theoretical approach for this study was systems theory-based due to the nature of the instructional systems design model and the systematic design of the management model. The study was accomplished using single-case study application of qualitative style of inquiry as described by Patton (2002). Qualitative inquiry was selected to collect and analyze participant holistic perspective assessment of effectiveness, relevance, and timeliness of the instructional design management model. Participants for this study included five managers, five subject matter experts, and six students assigned to a military organization responsible for the collection of hydrographic data for the U.S. Navy. Triangulation of data sources within the qualitative framework of the study incorporated the three participant groups---managers, SMEs, and students---incorporated multiple views of the course development and implementation to validate the findings and the remove researcher bias. Qualitative coding was accomplished by importing transcribed interviews into Microsoft Excel and sorted using Auto-Filter. The coded interviews indicated effective functionality in the views of the model from each of the three participant groups
Child, Angela R.
Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...
FDA has developed standardized, simplified instructions for all brands of combined estrogen and progestogen oral contraceptives (OCs) to help reduce unplanned pregnancies. FDA asked manufacturers in April to incorporate these changes into patient package inserts as soon as possible. Since current instructions vary significantly from brand to brand, problems can occur when women switch brands and compare instructions. If they become confused, women may either take the pills incorrectly or stop altogether, risking an unwanted pregnancy. In addition to reducing patients' confusion about correct use, the new recommended instructions reflect current research on the effective use of OCs. An important change concerns when women should start taking pills. The new instructions provide only 2 options (current instructions provide more): either start on day 1 of the next normal menstrual cycle ("Day 1 Start") or on the 1st Sunday after the next cycle begins ("Sunday Start"). Although the "Sunday Start" option is popular, the "Day 1 Start" has been shown to be more effective since back-up contraceptive methods are not required for the 1st week, as they are for the "Sunday Start." Other changes in the patient package insert simplify and clarify the instructions when different numbers of pills are missed. Any patient who is unsure about what to do when pills are missed is told to use a back-up method of birth control and to keep taking pills with hormones until she van consult with a health professional. The new labeling also advises women to consult a health professional regarding other methods of contraception if taking a daily pill is a problem. These new directions for patients are for combination pills and do not apply to progestin-only OCs. FDA is still developing new labeling for them. FDA's Fertility and Maternal Health Advisory Committee recommended on FEb. 8, 1991, that the agency ask manufacturers of OCs to make these changes in the patient package insert. full text
The present invention relates to a medical delivery device comprising at least two membrane electrode assembly units each of which comprises three layers: an upper and a lower electrode and a selective ionic conductive membrane provided there-between. At least one of the three layers are shared...
using a conceptual framework so as to remove the. 14 possible confounding effect of this on education . Overall, it may not have been surprising that the number of years of schooling for mothers, the household income and distance were significant determinants for home deliveries given that this is plausible. In addition to ...
PO Box 50110, Lusaka. Telephone: (+260) - 977-248033-mobile;. Telefax (+260) - 211-256181-office. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Conclusion: The association of home deliveries with access to health care suggests a need for structural response coupled with ethnographic studies to explore linked aspects of traditional.
Pan, Michael; Harcharik, Sara; Moskalenko, Marina; Luber, Adam; Bernardo, Sebastian; Levitt, Jacob
Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals, to avoid accidental occupational injury. This study investigates whether watching an instructional video improves medical students' ability to perform venepuncture safely. This was a randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded trial that evaluated the utility of an instructional video, with the primary outcome of the ability to perform venepuncture safely. Forty-two second-year medical students were recruited and randomised to receive either video instruction (group A, n = 20) or no intervention (group B, n = 22). Prior to the study, all students attended an instructor-led workshop on venepuncture. During the study, students were paired and instructed to perform venepuncture on a partner. Performance was assessed using a points-based checklist. Pre- and post-study surveys were conducted to assess confidence with technique. The mean total checklist score was higher in group A than in group B, with values of 14.15 and 9.18, respectively (p video performed venepuncture more effectively and reported greater confidence with the technique. Medical students can benefit from having access to an instructional video on venepuncture as an adjunct to the standard curriculum. Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tattersall, Colin; Sodhi, Tim; Burgos, Daniel; Koper, Rob
Tattersall, C., Sodhi, T., Burgos, D., & Koper, E. J. R. (2007). Using the IMS Learning Design notation for the modelling and delivery of education. In L. Botturi & T. Stubbs (Eds.), Handbook of Visual Languages for Instructional Design: Theories and Practices (pp. 299-314). Hershey-New York, USA:
... additional information or copies of the information collection instrument and instructions should be directed... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Delivery Verification... international trade of strategic commodities. II. Method of Collection Submitted electronically or in paper form...
Silverberg, Lee J.; Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew J.
Doceri software for iPad is useful for both synchronous online and asynchronous online delivery of chemistry course content. Using the Doceri wireless connection between the iPad and a personal computer that is running Adobe Connect, online synchronous instruction can be accomplished in which drawings can be completed by hand on the iPad. For…
Hall, Owen P., Jr.; Ko, Ken
Globalization is bringing about a radical "rethink" regarding the delivery of graduate management education. Today, many students entering a residential MBA program do not possess an undergraduate degree in business. As a result, many business schools are increasingly turning to the Internet to provide "customized" instructional content to ensure…
Describes possible future uses of multimedia computers for instructional applications. Highlights include databases; publishing; telecommunications; computers and videocassette recorders (VCRs); audio and video digitizing; video overlay, or genlock; still-image video; videodiscs and CD-ROM; and hypermedia. (LRW)
Shaibani, Saami J.
There has been an ever-increasing emphasis on the integration of material in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics during the past decade or so. However, there are two major requirements for accomplishing the effective delivery of such multidisciplinary content in the classroom: having high levels of expertise in all of the subjects; and, having the ability to combine the separate fields in a consistent manner without compromising academic purity. The research reported here involves a teacher with this skill set and it includes an example from kinematics, which is initially explored with standard treatment of concepts in mechanics and then developed with analysis employing algebra. As often happens, the non-trivial nature of the result in this case does not readily allow students to have a sense that the physics-based outcome is correct. This shortfall is remedied by adopting a complementary approach with geometry and calculus, which adds an independent perspective that reassures students by confirming the validity of the original answer. The enhanced quality of instruction achieved with the above methodology produces many benefits, including greater student understanding and more opportunities for active involvement by students in the learning process.
Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A
An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner
Henry, Nick; Jackson, Carrie N.; Dimidio, Jack
This study investigates the role of prosodic cues and explicit information (EI) in the acquisition of German accusative case markers. We compared 4 groups of 3rd-semester learners (low intermediate level) who completed 1 of 4 Processing Instruction (PI) treatments that manipulated the presence or absence of EI and focused prosody. The results…
Sánchez-Navarro, Macarena; Teixidó, Meritxell; Giralt, Ernest
Intracellular protein delivery has been a major challenge in the field of cell biology for decades. Engineering such delivery is a key step in the development of protein- and antibody-based therapeutics. Now, two different approaches that enable the delivery of antibodies and antibody fragments into the cytosol have been developed.
Fliervoet, Lies A L; Mastrobattista, Enrico
The field of drug delivery has grown tremendously in the past few decades by developing a wide range of advanced drug delivery systems. An interesting category is cell-based drug delivery, which includes encapsulation of drugs inside cells or attached to the surface and subsequent transportation
Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of skeletal muscle that arises from haematogenous spread, usually with abscess formation. It can develop after a transient bacteraemia of any cause. This type of infection has never been reported before in the literature after vaginal delivery. A 34-year-old woman had progressive severe pain in the left buttock and thigh and weakness in the left lower limb day 1 post spontaneous vaginal delivery. MRI showed severe oedema of the left gluteus, iliacus, piriformis and adductor muscles of the left thigh and a small fluid collection at the left hip joint. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis. She had fever of 37.9°C immediately postpartum and her risk factors for bacteraemia were a mild IV cannula-associated cellulitis and labour itself. She required prolonged treatment with antibiotics before significant clinical improvement was noted.
Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.
Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu
This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...
Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush M.
Global delivery models (GDMs) are transforming the global IT and business process outsourcing industry. GDMs are a new form of client-specific investment promoting service integration with clients by combining client proximity with time-zone spread for 24/7 service operations. We investigate....... Findings imply that coordination across time zones increasingly affects international operations in business-to-business and born-global industries....
Shaw, Robert A.
Universal design for instruction (UDI) is an approach to course design that seeks to create an appropriate learning environment for all students, including those with disabilities. This approach also helps other students to learn the course material in ways most appropriate to their individual learning needs. When done well, this approach has…
Moore, Patrick; Fitz, Chad
Offers a brief overview of Gestalt theory. Shows how six Gestalt principles (proximity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground segregation, good continuation, and similarity) can be applied to improve a reader's comprehension of a badly designed instruction module that uses several graphics. (SR)
Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.
Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the
Reexamines the notion of "teaching." Drawing on data from a range of classrooms, as well as from recently published teaching texts, particular attention is focused on the question: "What do we mean by teaching/instruction?" (eight references) (Author/JL)
Chung, Jaesam; Reigeluth, Charles M.
Discussion of learner control in instructional management describes six learner control methods: (1) content control; (2) sequence control; (3) pace control; (4) display or strategy control; (5) internal processing control; and (6) advisor strategies. Relevant literature, both theoretical and empirical, is reviewed, and learner control and…
Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob
To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…
Ely, D.P.; Ely, Donald P.; Plomp, T.
This paper describes the selection process of 17 articles for inclusion in the book, "Classic Writings on Instructional Technology." The book brings together original "classic" educational technology articles into one volume to document the history of the field through its literature. It is also an
Öznacar, Behcet; Osma, Elif
This research, based on observations of teacher candidates in prep school educations and secondary schools the instructional leaders of executive managers who aim at investigating a research study descriptive nature. General screening model is used for the study. The research population in the Near East University in the Faculty of Education,…
Robin, Arthur L.; Cook, Donald A.
Describes a study which measured the effectiveness of a Personalized System of Instruction training package for proctors in undergraduate psychology courses. The package consisted of role-playing and a discussion between the proctor and an instructor-trainer, followed by feedback on actual proctoring experience in the classroom. (Author/AV)
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.
This preliminary draft of instructional materials for an English curriculum offering vocational preparation focuses on grammar concepts, selected vocational English topics, and the use of resource materials. The unit plans contain general and specific behavioral objectives, student activities, and teaching procedures. Information sheets, student…
Wright, Peter H.
A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…
Schumaker, Jean B.
One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 12. Very Long Instruction Word Processors. S Balakrishnan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 12 December 2001 pp 61-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/12/0061-0068 ...
Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina
This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…
A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…
Berkowitz, Jay; Packer, Todd
How would you like to put some "Pow!" into your art instruction? A lesson in comic books--history, design, story, and production--can make your classes come alive. The authors present a new approach to using comics to build artistic skills and involve students in art appreciation. Why Comics? Many art teachers have students who say, "I hate art!"…
Educational Products Information Exchange Inst., Stony Brook, NY.
The problem of sex bias in textbooks, particularly at the elementary level, is treated in this report. Sexism is defined and discussed in relation to the current women's movement. Research findings, as well as examples taken from various texts, indicate sex stereotyping and discrimination in instructional materials. A list of available remedies…
Horner, Beth A.
Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…
Full Text Available According to this study, through leadership training, school principals learn about highqualityinstruction and about actions that they can take to motivate and support their teachers. Principalsthen organize professional learning for their teachers and otherwise help teachers improve their classroompractices. With improved instruction, the theory maintains, student achievement will also improve.Thestudy objective of learning for district and school administrators is guided by a theory of action that isdepicted in Figure 1. As the figure suggests, principals play a key role in the instructional improvementprocess by setting in motion a sequence of school-level behavior changes that make for improved teachingand learning. We want to definitive the method that can be used to improve learning and we named thisprogram - Principles of Learning - this Principles are about concrete actions that professor can take to motivateand support their teachers. Principals are expected to organize professional learning for their teachersas well as to monitor teachers' classroom practices and help them incorporate new behaviors that are inaccordance with the Principles of Learning into their instructional repertory. With improved instruction,the theory holds, student achievement will improve.
Hayes, Gary E.; And Others
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct non-professional dental personnel in selected job-related skills. The first module, by Gary E. Hayes, describes how to locate the hinge axis point of the jaw, place and secure a bitefork, and perform a facebow transfer. The second module,…
Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.
Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…
Today's classrooms are more diverse than ever. In fact, research shows that there will be a steady increase in Hispanic, Asian Americans, and African American students in the coming years. Therefore, differentiated instruction may be the panacea that educators are searching for. This paper commences with an introduction and then segways into a…
Smit, Robbert; Humpert, Winfried
Rural areas in the alpine regions suffer from dwindling student numbers. Differentiated instruction (DI) could help improve the teaching culture by allowing instructors to better adapt to heterogeneous student groups. At the beginning of a combined research and school improvement project, a survey of 162 teachers and 1180 students was conducted to…
Powell, William; Napoliello, Susan
The International School of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, which serves international students in preschool through middle school, focused a great deal of professional attention on differentiation. The administrators in Malaysian school, by making rounds of classrooms, raised teachers' awareness of differentiated instruction.
Teaching Music, 1994
Maintains that use of the Suzuki, Orff, and Dalcroze methods have assisted string teachers in helping music students achieve mastery from the beginning of instruction. Describes how these methods are used by five music teachers. Includes addresses of organizations that provide information about these music teaching methods. CFR)
Challoo, L.; Saldana, J.; Davis, R.; Kupczynski, Lori
This study identifies factors in distance learning that affect the educational excellence of institutions of higher learning. The main elements of this study are: the examination of benefits and disadvantages of implementing online instruction in institutions of higher learning; investigating the factors that contribute to successful web-based…
This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…
Ley, Kathryn; Gannon-Cook, Ruth
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a collaborative design process for selecting instructional graphics and online learner perceptions of graphic appropriateness. At the end of their online graduate course, 9 students ranked how appropriately each of 25 graphics represented 1 of 8 human performance technology…
This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and…
Durham, W. Harry; And Others
This document is one of a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. A system is presented to assist in standardizing the production of lesson plans and instructional materials in the water quality control field. A procedure for selecting appropriate instructional media…
... https://medlineplus.gov/medwords/medicalwordsdownload.html Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions To use the sharing features ... no Internet connection is available. Download: Understanding Medical Words [16MB zip file] Download instructions : Click on the ...
Sartain, Harry W.
Reading instruction for learning disabled students is discussed, with emphasis on the instruction provided by the general classroom teacher and by the reading specialist with cooperation from other personnel. (IM)
Tomal, Daniel R.
Incorporating personality styles into technical instruction can enhance student learning. Four personality styles based on Jung--intuitor, feeler, thinker, and doer--have implications for individualizing technical instruction. (JOW)
Crangle, C.; Suppes, P.; Michalowski, S.
An instructable robot is one that accepts instruction in some natural language such as English and uses that instruction to extend its basic repertoire of actions. Such robots are quite different in conception from autonomously intelligent robots, which provide the impetus for much of the research on inference and planning in artificial intelligence. Examined here are the significant problem areas in the design of robots that learn from vebal instruction. Examples are drawn primarily from our earlier work on instructable robots and recent work on the Robotic Aid for the physically disabled. Natural-language understanding by machines is discussed as well as in the possibilities and limits of verbal instruction. The core problem of verbal instruction, namely, how to achieve specific concrete action in the robot in response to commands that express general intentions, is considered, as are two major challenges to instructability: achieving appropriate real-time behavior in the robot, and extending the robot's language capabilities.
Face-to-face Training is the Preferred Modality of Professional Continuing Education for Librarians of All Ages, but More Evidence is Needed. A Review of: Lynn, V. A., Bose, A., & Boehmer, S. J. (2010. Librarian instruction-delivery modality preferences for professional continuing education. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 98(1, 57-64.
Full Text Available Objective – To establish the preferred modality for professional continuing education (CE among members of three library associations. The primary hypothesis was that face-to-face training is the preferred modality, and the secondary hypothesis was that younger librarians are more likely to favour online or blended training modalities. In addition, the authors sought to investigate which factors influence participants’ decisions to take up training.Design – Online questionnaire.Setting – Three library associations based in the United States of America. These were the American Library Association (ALA, the Special Libraries Association (SLA, and the Medical Library Association (MLA.Subjects – A random sample of 328 members of the ALA (86 participants, SLA (63 participants, and MLA (291 participants. Some participants were members of more than one association.Methods – Participants were recruited to complete an online survey via direct e-mail contact (MLA, messages on email discussion lists (SLA and social networks (ALA. The survey asked about participants’ experience of, and preference for, five different training modalities for CE. These were: face-to-face (classroom instruction, web-based synchronous (with real-time participant-instructor interaction, web-based asynchronous (with instructor involvement, but not in real time, blended (a combination of different modalities, and webcasts (live online presentations with limited participant-instructor interaction. Participants were then asked to rank factors which would influence their decision to undertake CE courses. The factors were cost, opportunity to socialize/network, time away from work, learning at their own pace, and having immediate access to either the class instructor or other participants. Participants were also given space to comment on both CE modalities and influencing factors.Main Results – There was a statistically significant preference for face
Holleman, John J.
A study was conducted to investigate: the types of telecommunications systems available for the delivery of instructional material at higher education institutions; coordinated and integrated telecommunication systems being used by educational institutions, the military, and industry in the United States and other countries; and the current state…
Powell, P. E.
Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.
Erickson, Karen A
The purpose of this clinical focus article is to briefly describe comprehensive emergent and conventional literacy instruction for students with severe disabilities. Specific attention is given to interprofessional collaborative practice and the roles of team members in planning and delivering instruction. A rationale for the delivery of comprehensive instruction that balances skill and meaning emphases is provided with reference to new college and career readiness standards, the literature on literacy acquisition for students without disabilities, and, when possible, the literature on literacy acquisition for students with severe disabilities. Specific instructional approaches are presented to demonstrate how teams can actively engage students with severe disabilities in instruction that is collaborative, participatory, and interactive. Successful provision of comprehensive literacy instruction that allows students with severe disabilities to achieve conventional literacy takes time and the efforts of a collaborative interprofessional team. Speech-language pathologists play a critical role on these teams as they ensure that students with severe disabilities have the language and communication supports they need to be successful.
Child, Angela R.
Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…
Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.
Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…
Golden, Diane Cordry
This status report on instructional software accessibility for individuals with disabilities notes current initiatives to further instructional technology accessibility and reports on a survey of 19 major companies producing instructional software. Only two responses reflected awareness of accessibility considerations and all the remaining…
Jones-Carey, Margaret H.
This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…
Naumann, Alexander; Hartig, Johannes; Hochweber, Jan
Valid inferences on teaching drawn from students' test scores require that tests are sensitive to the instruction students received in class. Accordingly, measures of the test items' instructional sensitivity provide empirical support for validity claims about inferences on instruction. In the present study, we first introduce the concepts of…
Salo, Petri; Nylund, Jan; Stjernstrøm, Else
This paper explores the concept of instructional leadership and principals' perceptions of the practices of instructional leadership. Despite the emphasis on the effects of school leadership regarding teaching practices and learning outcomes, research on direct instructional leadership is scarce. It is focused either on identifying overall…
Humphrey, David A.
The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…
Halverson, Richard; Clifford, Matthew
This article explores the idea of distributed instructional leadership as a way to understand instructional leadership practice in comprehensive high schools. Our argument is that distributed leadership analyses allow researchers to uncover and explain how instructional improvement in high schools occurs through the efforts of multiple individuals…
With electronic technologies, differentiated instruction has the same meaning as in traditional instruction, but different tools are available for teachers to help students learn. Electronic technologies for differentiated instruction can add powerful new types of media inclusion, levels of interactivity, and response actions. This rapidly…
Regmi, Kapil Dev
Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…
Vann, Linda S.
Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…
Reiser, Robert A.
Discusses the history of the field of instructional design and technology in the United States. Includes a definition, major features, rational for using instructional design and technology as the label for the field, history of instructional media from 1900 to the present, effects media have had on instructional practices, and the effect…
Nie, Youyan; Tan, Gim Hoon; Liau, Albert Kienfie; Lau, Shun; Chua, Bee Leng
Constructivist instruction has been implemented in the current instructional innovation in Singapore. Large scale survey study was conducted to examine the roles of teacher efficacy in implementing the innovative constructivist instruction. The results showed that the positive correlation between teacher efficacy and constructivist instruction was…
Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.
Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…
Examination of instructional leadership organized into four sections: Reflections on school leadership, definitions of instructional leadership, reviews of two empirical studies on instructional leadership, and conclusions about the development of instructional leaders. (Contains 44 references.) (PKP)
Ruzek, Mitchel James
The purpose of this investigation was to explore how aspects of identity, perceived levels of controversy, and the strength of a student's attachment to their controversial identity relate to conceptual understanding and knowledge acquisition during socioscientific issues (SSI) based instruction in a biology classroom. The knowledge gained from this study will have the capacity to enhance our understanding of the role that attachment to identity plays during SSI negotiation. Additionally, insight was gained into the role played by aspects of identity in conceptual understanding of scientifically controversial topics during SSI based instruction. This study contributed to the existing knowledge base in science education by illuminating processes involved in socioscientific issue navigation among students of differing perceptions of controversy as well as students who held aspects of controversial identity that may or may not interact with the specific issues chosen. Students demonstrated evidence of variations of reasoning, justification, perception of controversy, and aspects of knowledge gain as they negotiated the issues of marijuana safety and fast food legality. Additionally, evidence was provided that showed general knowledge gain throughout the group during socioscientific issues instruction. It has been said that one of the appeals of the SSI instructional model is that is serves not only as a context for the delivery of content, but acts as a catalyst for various forms of epistemological beliefs and research into the development of conceptual and psychological knowledge structures (Zeidler, 2013). This investigation supports the deeper understanding of the contribution of controversy perception to epistemology as well as conceptual and psychological knowledge structures during SSI navigation.
Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.
The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.
Grant, M J; Martin, S
There is increasing evidence that enteral feeding is superior to parenteral nutrition with regard to maintaining gut structure and function. Selection of the enteral access route depends on the type and anticipated duration of nutrient delivery. At present, enteral feeding devices can be divided into two major categories: those entering the gastrointestinal tract through the oral or nasal cavity (oroenteric or nasoenteric tubes) and those entering through the abdominal wall including gastrostomy, duodenostomy, or jejunostomy tubes. This article provides a review of methods to insert and confirm gastric and intestinal feeding tube placement. Care of the patient with an enteric tube will be described.
Lee, Hyunjoo J; Choi, Nakwon; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Cho, Il-Joo
Novel drug delivery systems based on microtechnology have advanced tremendously, but yet face some technological and societal hurdles to fully achieve their potential. The novel drug delivery systems aim to deliver drugs in a spatiotemporal- and dosage-controlled manner with a goal to address the unmet medical needs from oral delivery and hypodermic injection. The unmet needs include effective delivery of new types of drug candidates that are otherwise insoluble and unstable, targeted delivery to areas protected by barriers (e.g. brain and posterior eye segment), localized delivery of potent drugs, and improved patient compliance. After scrutinizing the design considerations and challenges associated with delivery to areas that cannot be efficiently targeted through standard drug delivery (e.g. brain, posterior eye segment, and gastrointestinal tract), this review provides a summary of recent advances that addressed these challenges and summarizes yet unresolved problems in each target area. The opportunities for innovation in devising the novel drug delivery systems are still high; with integration of advanced microtechnology, advanced fabrication of biomaterials, and biotechnology, the novel drug delivery is poised to be a promising alternative to the oral administration and hypodermic injection for a large spectrum of drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. Preterm birth is a major course of neonatal morbidity and mortality, the incidence of premature delivery in developedcountries is 5 to 9%. Aims of this study were to determine the common etiological factors for preterm delivery, most common weeks of gestation for pretern delivery, and most commom way of delivery for preterm delivery.Methods: The study included 600 patients divided into two groups, experimental group (included 300 preterm delivered pregnant women, control group (included 300 term delivered women.Results: The incidence of preterm delivery in pregnant women younger than 18 years was 4.4%, and in pregnant women older than 35 years was 14%. 44.6 % of preterm delivered women at the experimentalgroup had lower education. In the experimental group burdened obstetrical history had 29%, 17.2% had a preterm delivery, 35.6% had a premature rupture of membranes, 15% had a preterm delivery before32 weeks of gestation, 12.4% between 32-33.6 weeks of gestation, while 72.6% of deliveries were between 34- 36.6 weeks of gestation. Multiple pregnancy as an etiological factor was present in 10.07% ofcases. Extragenital diseases were present in 10.4%. In the experimental group there were 29%, while in the control group there were 15% subjects with burdened obstetrical history.Conclusions: Preterm birth more often occurs in a pregnant women younger than 18 and older than 35 years, and in a pregnant women of lower educational degree. Preterm delivery in the most commoncases was fi nished in period from 34 to 36.6 weeks of gestation. The most common etiological factor of preterm delivery in the experimental group was preterm rupture of membranes and idiopathic pretermdelivery.
This book clearly demonstrates the progression of nanoparticle therapeutics from basic research to applications. Unlike other books covering nanoparticles used in medical applications, Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications presents the medical challenges that can be reduced or even overcome by recent advances in nanoscale drug delivery. Each chapter highlights recent progress in the design and engineering of select multifunctional nanoparticles with topics covering targeting, imaging, delivery, diagnostics, and therapy.
on hardware/software issues Dean (1977) Benefits and risks of CBI Fletcher (1975a) State-of-the-art survey and critical issues Fullan and Pomfert...Research described by Fullan and Pomfert (1977) shows the criticality of implementation support above the instructional delivery level and of a...when the reception by instructors of this potential boon was not only frequently unfavorable, but sometimes hostile ( Fullan and Pomfert, 1977; Kearsley
Hultström, Michael; Roxhed, Niclas
The incidence of insulinopenic diabetes mellitus is constantly increasing, and in addition, approximately a third of all hyperinsulinemic diabetic patients develop insulinopenia. Optimal glycemic control is essential to minimize the risk for diabetes-induced complications, but the majority of diabetic patients fail to achieve proper long-term glucose levels even in clinical trials, and even more so in clinical practice. Compliance with a treatment regimen is likely to be higher if the procedure is simple, painless, and discreet. Thus, insulin has been suggested for nasal, gastrointestinal, and inhalation therapy, but so far with considerable downsides in effect, side effects, or patient acceptance. The stratum corneum is the main barrier preventing convenient drug administration without the drawbacks of subcutaneous injections. Recently, devices with miniaturized needles have been developed that combine the simplicity and discretion of patch-based treatments, but with the potential of peptide and protein administration. As this review describes, initial comparisons with subcutaneous administration now suggest microneedle patches for active insulin delivery are efficient in maintaining glycemic control. Hollow microneedle technology could also prove to be efficient in systemic as well as local delivery of other macromolecular drugs, such as vaccines. PMID:24876605
Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John
The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.
Full Text Available Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation . The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes . While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments . This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.
Bui, Duy; Nakamura, Carlos; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing
A picture can be a powerful communication tool. However, creating pictures to illustrate patient instructions can be a costly and time-consuming task. Building on our prior research in this area, we developed a computer application that automatically converts text to pictures using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques. After iterative testing, the automated illustration system was evaluated using 49 previously unseen cardiology discharge instructions. The completeness of the system-generated illustrations was assessed by three raters using a three-level scale. The average inter-rater agreement for text correctly represented in the pictograph was about 66 percent. Since illustration in this context is intended to enhance rather than replace text, these results support the feasibility of conducting automated illustration.
Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy
With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.
Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch
Ely, D.P.; Ely, Donald P.; Plomp, T.
This paper describes the selection process of 17 articles for inclusion in the book, "Classic Writings on Instructional Technology." The book brings together original "classic" educational technology articles into one volume to document the history of the field through its literature. It is also an attempt to make available articles that traditionally have been difficult to obtain. The final selection of articles, all considered the "core" of the literature and all published in the United Sta...
George J. Petersen
Full Text Available To confirm perceptions, actions, and behaviors articulated by the district superintendents, triangulation interviews were conducted with school principals and school board members in each of the participating districts. A 52- item questionnaire was also administered to every principal and school board member in these districts. Responses of these personnel confirmed the articulated actions and behaviors of these superintendents in their promotion of the technical core of curriculum and instruction.
instruction be adapted to individual differences. In R. M. Gagne (Ed.). Learning and individual differences . Columbus, OH: Merrill Books, 1967. Cronbach, L. 3...specialization of cognitive mode: An EEG study. Psychophysiology, 1972, 9(4), 412-418. Glaser, R. Some implications of previous work on learning and individual differences . In...R. M. Gagne(Ed.). Learning and individual differences . Columbus, OH: Merrill Books, 1967. Glaser, R. Individuals and
Westover, Jennifer M; Martin, Emma J
Literacy skills are fundamental for all learners. For students with significant disabilities, strong literacy skills provide a gateway to generative communication, genuine friendships, improved access to academic opportunities, access to information technology, and future employment opportunities. Unfortunately, many educators lack the knowledge to design or implement appropriate evidence-based literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. Furthermore, students with significant disabilities often receive the majority of their instruction from paraeducators. This single-subject design study examined the effects of performance feedback on the delivery skills of paraeducators during systematic and explicit literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. The specific skills targeted for feedback were planned opportunities for student responses and correct academic responses. Findings suggested that delivery of feedback on performance resulted in increased pacing, accuracy in student responses, and subsequent attainment of literacy skills for students with significant disabilities. Implications for the use of performance feedback as an evaluation and training tool for increasing effective instructional practices are provided. © The Author(s) 2014.
After downloading the PDF form from the IDRC competition website, save a copy to your computer .... included in this section, including the results of formal market potential assessments such as willingness- .... The testing and assessment of delivery mechanisms, models and approaches should be based on sound.
Design and maintain document delivery services that are ideal for academic patrons! In Document Delivery Services: Contrasting Views, you'll visit four university library systems to discover the considerations and challenges each library faced in bringing document delivery to its clientele. This book examines the questions about document delivery that are most pressing in the profession of library science. Despite their own unique experiences, you'll find common practices among all four?including planning, implementation of service, and evaluation of either user satisfaction and/or vendor per
Kasner, James H.; Brower, Bernard V.
In this paper we present formats and delivery methods of Large Volume Streaming Data (LVSD) systems. LVSD systems collect TBs of data per mission with aggregate camera sizes in the 100 Mpixel to several Gpixel range at temporal rates of 2 - 60 Hz. We present options and recommendations for the different stages of LVSD data collection and delivery, to include the raw (multi-camera) data, delivery of processed (stabilized mosaic) data, and delivery of user-defined region of interest windows. Many LVSD systems use JPEG 2000 for the compression of raw and processed data. We explore the use of the JPEG 2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) for interactive client/server delivery to thick-clients (desktops and laptops) and MPEG-2 and H.264 to handheld thin-clients (tablets, cell phones). We also explore the use of 3D JPEG 2000 compression, defined in ISO 15444-2, for storage and delivery as well. The delivery of raw, processed, and region of interest data requires different metadata delivery techniques and metadata content. Beyond the format and delivery of data and metadata we discuss the requirements for a client/server protocol that provides data discovery and retrieval. Finally, we look into the future as LVSD systems perform automated processing to produce "information" from the original data. This information may include tracks of moving targets, changes of the background, snap shots of targets, fusion of multiple sensors, and information about "events" that have happened.
Full Text Available Direct delivery of medication to the target organ results in a high ratio of local to systemic bioavailability and has made aerosol delivery of respiratory medication the route of choice for the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. The most commonly prescribed device is the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI; its major drawback is the requirement that inspiration and actuation of the device be well coordinated. Other requirements for effective drug delivery include an optimal inspiratory flow, a full inspiration from functional residual capacity and a breath hold of at least 6 s. Available pMDIs are to be gradually phased out due to their use of atmospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs as propellants. Newer pMDI devices using non-CFC propellants are available; preliminary experience suggests these devices greatly increase systemic bioavailability of inhaled corticosteroids. The newer multidose dry powder inhalation devices (DPIs are breath actuated, thus facilitating coordination with inspiration, and contain fewer ingredients. Furthermore, drug delivery is adequate even at low inspired flows, making their use appropriate in almost all situations. Equivalence of dosing among different devices for inhaled corticosteroids will remain imprecise, requiring the physician to adjust the dose of medication to the lowest dose that provides adequate control of asthma. Asthma education will be needed to instruct patients on the effective use of the numerous inhalation devices available.
Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette
The oral cavity is considered an attractive site of drug administration. Metformin is currently, used in oral diabetes treatment. The aim of the current study was to study the feasibility of metformin, to permeate the buccal epithelium applying a bioadhesive and permeation enhancing drug delivery...... system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via......, suggest that in vivo absorption of therapeutic doses of metformin needs to take place as a combination of buccal and intestinal absorption as metformin therapy requires the use of high doses....
Calderer, M Carme; Siegel, Ronald A; Yao, Lingxing
We present modeling, analysis and numerical simulation of a prototype glucose driven drug delivery device based on chemomechanical interactions and volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels. The device consists of two fluid compartments, an external cell (I) mimicking the physiological environment, and a closed chamber (II), separated by a hydrogel membrane. Cell I, which is held at constant pH and ionic strength, provides a constant supply of glucose to cell II, and also serves as clearance station for reaction products. Cell II contains the drug to be delivered to the body, an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of glucose into hydrogen ions, and a piece of marble to remove excess hydrogen ions that would otherwise overwhelm the system. When the membrane is swollen, glucose flux into Cell II is high, leading to rapid production of hydrogen ions. However, the hydrogen ions are not immediately released to Cell I but react, instead, with the negatively charged carboxyl groups of the membrane, which collaps...
The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.
Marson Guilherme Andrade
Full Text Available In the last decades the world has witnessed a revolution in the expansion and access to knowledge, whi-ch has dramatically changed the relationship between labor and production. According to UNESCO(United Nations Educational, Scientical and Cultural Organization and ILO (International LaborOrganization, in the of information it is fundamental that Higher Education Institutes educate pro-fessionals capable to update their knowledge in the course of professional life. The so-called life-longlearning s pointed out as a request for creating and maintaining jobs, and for supporting the develop-ment of nations as well. In such context, Biochemistry is a eld of knowledge which has outstandinglyexpanded its boundaries. Preparing the next generation of biochemists for the age of informationrequires the development of cognitive skills as an essential educational goal concerning graduationcourses, which have been historically limited to the exposition of contents. The achievement of suchobjective depends on many factors, including the development of suitable instructional materials thatcan improve the teaching and learning experience. This conference deals with the development ofinstructional software at the crossroad of Educational research, Informatics and Biochemistry. Theinvestigative approach leading to the development and improvement of instructional software for Bi-ochemical education will be discussed on the basis of the following issues: i motivating questionsto software development - teaching and learning problems; ii development of digital content: speci-c content, interface and interactivity; iii evaluation of the software s instructional eciency; ivexamples of softwares which have been conceived according to the discussed methodology.
Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.
Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.
skills are frequently performed poorly (or not at all) by personnil in this job? b. Which aspects of the job require emphasis due to mistakes made by a...instruction. (4) Reduces damage and wasre. .-ecause performance is guided, students are les- likely to make mistakes which will damage equipnt or waste...expense. cpe •ter-ba•.e4 systems are• elabor- arc, ttCci rqet’uhc . large ilvest-Out for purck.ase or relltal 4"d t’or insta-laci.on atnd (l l’.s Frogra
COLAKOGLU, Ozgur M.; Omur AKDEMIR
The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different experiences for learners in terms of motivation than instruction developed following the standard instructional design procedure for blended courses. Thi...
Felix, Jeffrey P.
The heart of education beats with a teacher's perception of instructional effectiveness with students. Research suggests that differentiated instruction, using multiple modes of presentation, will positively increase a student's opportunity for earning. Communicating efficiently will enhance a teacher's instructional effectiveness and a student's ability to understand. This study begins by examining selected modes of communication available to educators and poses questions of the validity of ...
Figl, Kathrin; Derntl, Michael; Rodriguez, Manuel Caeiro; Botturi, Luca
The introduction of learning technologies into education is making the design of courses and instructional materials an increasingly complex task. Instructional design languages are identified as conceptual tools for achieving more standardized and, at the same time, more creative design solutions, as well as enhancing communication and transparency in the design process. In this article we discuss differences in cognitive aspects of three visual instructional design languages (E²ML, PoEML, c...
Hamdy A. ABDELAZIZ,
Full Text Available Web-based education is facing a paradigm shift under the rapid development of information and communication technology. The new paradigm of learning requires special techniques of course design, special instructional models, and special methods of evaluation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of an adaptive instructional strategy for teaching and learning through the Web and blended learning environments. The central theme of this strategy is that instructional strategies give instructors and students a conceptual as well as a practical mode of delivery from which to teach and learn. Considering and applying new instructional strategy can help instructors to understand the uses of pedagogical content knowledge, as well as to reflect the role of technological content knowledge that can be adapted and/or adopted in teaching in all educational levels and environments. The main objective of this paper was to develop a holonomic instructional strategy for Web-based and blended learning. This strategy is guided by the non-linear and interactive features of learning environments. The strategy is consisted of four dimensions: designing, developing, delving and distributing. In this new instructional strategy, learning is holonomic and adaptive. Learning occurs in an open learning environment, in which instructors are designing a shared vision, developing a sharable e-learning task, delving students’ learning through scaffolding and salvaging students’ knowledge. The expected outcome of this instructional strategy is that each learner will develop a cognitive schema to be used to organize and construct knowledge and meaning in similar context of learning which may increase the generalizability, trustworthiness and transferability of learning. The results of applying this new strategy showed that this strategy is effective on developing both achievement and deep learning levels among a sample of graduate students.
Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian
This paper presents a study of what happens when innovation of an instructional design is too innovative. The study investigates an implementation process of a new instructional design in nursing education. The new instructional design should be a step away for a functionalist approach to learning...... and it was developed to include, motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students. The new instructional design utilized teacher-produced video-clips to qualify the students learning in the preparation...
Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others
Discusses the importance of models of instruction and the need to consider subject-matter structure in organizing instruction. The components of the elaboration model and variations in the model for different kinds of goals are described. (Author/CHC)
Ying-Shao Hsu; Hsin-Kai Wu; Fu-Kwun Hwang
... computer-based instructional evolution. In this study of approximately six hundred junior high school science and mathematics teachers in Taiwan who have integrated computing technology into their instruction, we correlated each teacher's...
Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.
McDonald, Jeremy Anthony
This study examined the relationship between strong instructional leadership, as measured by the Principal Instructional Measurement Rating Scale (PIMRS) and high student academic outcomes in 35 Mid35-Atlantic Catholic elementary schools. In addition, the research explored the role of Catholic identity in supporting instructional leadership…
Manaseh, Aaron Mkanga
Scholars and practitioners agree that instructional leadership (IL) can be one of the most useful tools for creating an effective teaching and learning environment. This paper investigates the instructional leadership practices engaged in by heads of secondary schools to enhance classroom instruction and students learning, particularly the way…
Abrams, Lisa; Varier, Divya; Jackson, Lisa
The use of assessment data to inform instruction is an important component of a comprehensive standards-based assessment programme. Examining teachers' data use for instruction can reveal the extent to which instruction is aligned with established content standards and assessment. This paper describes results of a qualitative study of teachers'…
This paper brings together the research and developments of instructed pragmatics over the past three decades by reporting the synthesis findings of instructional intervention studies in interlanguage pragmatics. Two questions have guided this investigation: (1) is instruction effective in learning pragmatics?; and (2) what methods are most…
Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina
This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…
Stevenson, Nathan A.; Reed, Deborah K.
When students do not respond adequately to core instruction, teachers must provide instruction and intervention that is more intensive and, therefore, more effective. However, for many educators, it is often unclear what it means to intensify instruction and how intensive instruction differs from high-quality core instruction. This article…
Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron
In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated instruction; and an ambiguous instruction.…
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
We study sequential programs that are instruction sequences with jump-shift instructions in the setting of PGA (ProGram Algebra). Jump-shift instructions preceding a jump instruction increase the position to jump to. The jump-shift instruction is not found in programming practice. Its merit is that
Jones, W. L.
Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.
Khan Ghilzai, Naushad M
A vigorous research effort has been undertaken worldwide to replace injectable insulin by a more comfortable and painless delivery method. Several routes have been explored for their suitability with respect to insulin degradation in the human body. Considerable progress has been made in achieving the common goal for a convenient and equally effective insulin delivery. This article reviews the different routes available for insulin administration and the many successful developments that have been made in recent years for improving that particular route for a much better insulin delivery.
Yin, Hao; Kauffman, Kevin J; Anderson, Daniel G
With the recent development of CRISPR technology, it is becoming increasingly easy to engineer the genome. Genome-editing systems based on CRISPR, as well as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), are becoming valuable tools for biomedical research, drug discovery and development, and even gene therapy. However, for each of these systems to effectively enter cells of interest and perform their function, efficient and safe delivery technologies are needed. This Review discusses the principles of biomacromolecule delivery and gene editing, examines recent advances and challenges in non-viral and viral delivery methods, and highlights the status of related clinical trials.
Huffman, Scott Bradley
In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible
How can basic research on mathematics instruction contribute to instructional improvement? In our research on the practical rationality of geometry teaching we describe existing instruction and examine how existing instruction responds to perturbations. In this talk I consider the proposal that geometry instruction could be improved by infusing it…
Horan, Sean M.; Afifi, Tamara D.
Celebrating 100 years of the National Communication Association necessitates that, as we commemorate our past, we also look toward our future. As part of a larger conversation about the future of instructional communication, this essay reinvestigates the importance of integrating biosocial approaches into instructional communication research. In…
This paper identifies a set of universal instructional design (UID) principles appropriate to distance education (DE) and specifically tailored to the needs of instructional designers and instructors teaching online. These principles are then used to assess the accessibility level of a sample online course and the availability of options in its…
Asher, Asha; Estes, Joanne
Handwriting is an essential literacy and communication skill developed through a variety of instructional methods in elementary school. This study explored the consistency in handwriting instruction across grade levels in a Midwest public school district 15 years after the school initially implemented a uniform handwriting program. Additionally,…
Hamilton, John; Tee, Singwhat
This empirical research surveys first year tertiary business students across different campuses regarding their perceived views concerning traditional, blended and flexible instructional approaches. A structural equation modeling approach shows traditional instructional modes deliver lower levels of student-perceived learning quality, learning…
Collins, Gingere; Norris, Jan
This study explored whether presenting grammar instruction within the context of reading and writing would improve writing skills. The participating schools were using a traditional grammar instruction in which grammar lessons were predominately taught using worksheets and were presented separately from other reading and writing activities. This…
Delaney, Diane W.
A qualitative study was completed to identify and study the content of selected elementary general music teachers' evaluations of their own instruction and the instruction of another elementary general music teacher. Participants represented a variety of educational backgrounds and teaching experience: Teacher A (9 years teaching Grades 4-6 at…
Retalis, Symeon; Avgeriou, Paris
The size and complexity of modern instructional systems, which are based on the World Wide Web, bring about great intricacy in their crafting, as there is not enough knowledge or experience in this field. This imposes the use of new instructional design models in order to achieve risk-mitigation,
Clark, MaryAnn; Olson, Valerie
Scientific writing is composed of a unique skill set and corresponding instructional strategies are critical to foster learning. In an age of technology, the blended instructional model provides the instrumental format for student mastery of the scientific writing competencies. In addition, the course management program affords opportunities for…
Tennyson, Robert D.
Describes a fourth-generation ISD (instructional systems development) model, an integrative problem solving system that dynamically adjusts the authoring activities of instructional development by direct reference to a specific learning problem or need. Includes case studies that illustrate the three model components: situational evaluation,…
Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…
Samson, Sue; McLure, Merinda
A new model of library instruction assessment--a 360 degrees analysis--is needed to address the many facets of the teaching process. This model establishes interconnections in all aspects of instruction and requires a multi-faceted approach that incorporates assessment in every stage of teaching and learning. At The University of Montana Mansfield…
Woodard, Beth S.; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke
Presents theoretical frameworks relating to technological change and innovation, including the diffusion of innovations, and then discusses how those theories can be applied to the management of instruction programs in libraries. Highlights include traditional instructional strategies; infrastructure and support; integrating technology into…
Roberts, Wesley K.
This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental instructions. 740.13 Section 740.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.13 Supplemental instructions. As deemed appropriate, the Council...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing instructions. 1412.7 Section 1412.7 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.7 Filing instructions. Requests to make excess nondiscriminatory severance plan payments and...
Poster given at the 2015 SLA - All Sciences Poster Session. Many academic libraries are developing research data management instruction programs including online guides and workshops. A wealth of materials are available to draw from. However, the quantity and variety can be overwhelming to someone just starting out. This poster examines and compares 17 publicly available research data management instruction materials.
Trotti, Judy; Hendricks, Randy; Bledsoe, Christie
In this mixed-methods study, researchers examined the literacy development of prekindergarten students (N = 162) randomly placed in one of two treatment groups with each receiving 15 minutes of computer-assisted literacy instruction for four months. Literacy development of a control group of children not receiving computer-assisted instruction was…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Reporting Instructions Section 22... General Reporting Provisions-Large Certificated Air Carriers Section 22 General Reporting Instructions (a...) X X T-100 U.S. air carrier traffic and capacity data by nonstop segment and on-flight market M X X X...
This review examines instructional design models and the construction of knowledge. It further explores to identify the chilling benefits of these models for the inputs and outputs of knowledge transfer. This assessment also attempts to define instructional design models through the eyes and the minds of renowned scholars as well as the most…
Roediger, Henry L., III; Crowder, Robert G.
Performance on the last few items of a 12-word list was impaired when a spoken "Recall" was used as the cue for recall, relative to performance with a nonverbal cue. This suffix effect occured with four types of recall instructions after auditory presentation, including instructions for conventional serial and after free recall. (Editor)
Recker, Mimi M.; Olson, Daren; Rogers, Jim; duPlessis, Jacques
This paper examines some of the theoretical changes that have led the field of instructional and educational technology into a time of critical transactions. It begins by outlining some of the standard notions and assumptions within the field of instructional technology, and goes on to examine how they may be changing as a result of influences of…
Thomas, Kevin M.; Willis, Dottie
This paper analyzes the use of instructional podcasts with students in introductory computer application classes at a small, independent, private university. Participants were all undergraduates in the school of education. In an effort to model effective use of instructional technology for preservice teachers and to "meet digital native…
Examines eight reasons diffusion efforts fail to produce instructional change. Recommends a model for change which focuses on teachers, the instructional program, and the school system and uses a team of an internal change agent, external change agent, and a consultant or diffuser. (CK)
Hartley, J., Ed.
The purpose of this book is to compare, contrast, and evaluate various strategies of programed instruction (PI). The underlying view is that programed instruction implies a systematic methodological approach to education and training, an approach which bases its decisions on facts rather than value judgements. Several strategies for task analysis…
Searby, Linda; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Wang, Chih-hsuan
This article reports findings from a study investigating the capacity of assistant principals to be instructional leaders. Analyses of survey responses yielded four interesting findings: (a) years of experience as a teacher and age had no significance on assistant principals' perceived readiness as an instructional leader; (b) those completing…
Explore the practical steps teacher teams must take to establish clear, comprehensive assessment systems that guide instruction and strengthen PLCs. This book has the capacity to reignite passion and energy assessment practices bring as tools to guide teaching and learning. Strengthen instructional agility in professional learning communities with…
Turner, Philip M.
Argues that the school library media specialist's instructional consultation role can optimize the impact of information skills, and proposes that the choice of the information skills be dictated by (1) the cognitive requirements of the lesson; (2) the teacher's instructional design decisions; and (3) the learning characteristics of the students.…
This article addressed the need for authentic interdisciplinary instruction. Authentic interdisciplinary instruction is defined as a learning activity that simultaneously improves student performance related to grade-level standards in two or more disciplines (e.g., science and physical education). The process described for creating authentic…
"Flipping the classroom", or reverse instruction has been hailed the new pedagogical approach for preparing students for the 21st century. The idea behind this method is relatively simple. Instead of structuring class work to deliver direct instruction from the teacher in class and giving homework to students to practice outside of…
Garza Mitchell, Regina L.
Community colleges are known for keeping abreast of the latest instructional technologies, but the constant and rapid growth of available technology also presents challenges. This chapter reviews the current literature regarding instructional technology usage, with a focus on beneficial applications of technology for teaching and learning, and…
Discussion of leadership functions and practices in the realm of instructional technology in community colleges cannot be limited to the administrative side. Faculty members and faculties as collective bodies have influenced or attempted to influence the use of instructional technology and can claim professionally to have the right to participate…
Weinstein, Carol S.
This review of the literature of the effects of the physical setting on instructional goals posits that the physical setting in which instruction occurs will affect learners' behavior, whether or not it is intended to. These effects occur in two ways--directly, by the behavior the setting allows, and indirectly or symbolically, by the messages the…
Spector, J. Michael; And Others
This paper describes the Guided Approach to Instructional Design Advising (GAIDA), an automated instructional design tool that incorporates techniques of artificial intelligence. GAIDA was developed by the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory to facilitate the planning and production of interactive courseware and computer-based training materials.…
This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help…
Louisiana State Technical Resource Center, Natchitoches.
This resource listing contains those culinary occupations instructional materials given a rating of "highly recommended" or "recommended" by a committee of instructors. Titles are arranged alphabetically by title within each of the following Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) categories: institutional management;…
Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.
Based on recent research in fluency instruction, the authors present a scenario in which a teacher focuses her fluency instruction on authentic fluency tasks based in performance. Beginning with establishing a student-friendly definition of fluency and culminating with student engagement in fun fluency activities, this article explores the…
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.
The thesaurus is intended to clarify and standardize terminology used to index instructional materials for exceptional children within the Special Education Instructional Materials Centers/Regional Media Centers Network. Although most of the approximately 1100 terms are descriptors selected from the thesaurus of the Educational Resources…
Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.
Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)
Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.
One of a series of coaching guides for Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this booklet focuses on basketball instruction for mentally retarded persons. An initial section introduces the sport and discusses general coaching ideas. Goals, objectives, and benefits are listed along with information on clothing and court…
Jung, Insung; Hong, Seongyoun
This study aimed to investigate and classify faculty members' instructional priorities for adopting OER. In-depth interview data were collected from 10 faculty members from different regions and analyzed with NVivo 10. The original supposition was that the well-established instructional priorities, effectiveness, efficiency, and appeal would…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementing instructions. 211.4 Section 211.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... Implementing instructions will be issued in Part IV, “Disbursing,” of the Treasury Fiscal Requirements Manual...
Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.
Online education has emerged as an effective and increasingly common alternative to face-to-face instruction in postsecondary education. This article is a summary of effective practices in online instructional methods, including course design, interaction among course participants, and instructor preparation and support.
Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 2011
In this article, we describe a framework and instrument for measuring the mathematical quality of mathematics instruction. In describing this framework, we argue for the separation of the "mathematical quality of instruction" (MQI), such as the absence of mathematical errors and the presence of sound mathematical reasoning, from pedagogical…
Computer Assisted Programmed Instruction and Cognitive Preference Style as. Determinant of Achievement of Secondary School Physics Students. Sotayo, M. A. O.. Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Abstract. The study probes into the effect of Computer Assisted Instruction and Cognitive preference.
Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe
The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…
Honebein, Peter C.; Sink, Darryl L.
Eclectic instructional design is the process whereby a designer blends ideas from multiple learning theories to construct a learning experience that works better than a course designed from only one theoretical influence. Eclectic instructional designers are those who do not get hung up or rely consistently on any one theory for their designs.…
Gropper, George L.
Instructional design can be more effective if it is as fixedly dedicated to the accommodation of individual differences as it currently is to the accommodation of subject matters. That is the hypothesis. A menu of accommodation options is provided that is applicable at each of three stages of instructional development or administration: before,…
Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…
Watts-Taffe, Susan; Laster, B. P.; Broach, Laura; Marinak, Barbara; Connor, Carol McDonald; Walker-Dalhouse, Doris
This article addresses approaches to differentiating instruction to meet the needs of students whose literacy needs, interests, and strengths vary widely. This article was designed to support classroom teachers who understand the importance of differentiating instruction, but are unsure of how best to design and implement differentiation within…
Hanson, Helene M.
In today's diverse and inclusive classrooms, teachers face the challenge of delivering instruction that is effective and accessible to students with a wide range of needs, abilities, and learning styles. Newly updated for 2014, "RTI & DI: Response to Intervention & Differentiated Instruction," by Helene Hanson, shows teachers how…
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous instructions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.4 Miscellaneous instructions. (a) Dimensional conventions...
Kemper, M.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.
The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a
Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.
The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…
... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and nonreactive for hepatitis B surface antigen by FDA required tests and nonreactive... of the frozen product if there is evidence of breakage or thawing. (2) Instructions to thaw the frozen product at a temperature between 30 and 37 °C. (3) When applicable, instructions to begin...
Wiley, Ann L., Comp.
This booklet is designed to help instructional technologists, students of instructional technology, faculty, and researchers in the field locate information quickly and easily. Information services described are libraries, the ERIC system, online information services, state education departments, regional education centers, and information…
Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin
This paper constructs a simple two-tier education framework to analyze the effectiveness of multiple language instruction. Suppose that the government attempts to maximize the average post-education productivity. It is shown that the optimal education policy requires different languages of instruction be adopted in the education system. The…
Boyle, Gloria J.; Herrick, Merlyn C.
This progress report concerns an audio-tutorial approach used at the University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine. Instructional techniques such as slide-tape presentations, compressed speech audio tapes, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), motion pictures, television, microfiche, and graphic and printed materials have been implemented,…
Branch, Robert Maribe
Instructional design is a process that is creative, active, iterative and complex; however, many diagrams of instructional design are interpreted as stifling, passive, lock-step and simple because of the visual elements used to model the process. The purpose of this study was to determine the expressed perceptions of the types of flow diagrams…
Goodson, Roger A.; Floyd, Barbara J.
This book outlines a plan for individualizing instruction in spelling. Part 1 describes how to organize and manage the program and provides examples of instructional materials. Part 2 concerns the ways that students learn to spell words as they work within this individualized spelling program. The appendixes which comprise over half the document,…
Poff, Raymond; Stuessy, Tom
This paper briefly presents ideas and techniques that can facilitate effective whitewater kayaking instruction. Instructors often focus so much on the mechanics of specific skills that they overlook less obvious, but equally important, aspects of instruction. These aspects include the underlying purposes and guiding principles of kayaking…
Hess, Amanda Nichols
Motivational design theory complements instructional design theory and, when used together, both principles can affect learning, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge retention. In information literacy instruction, motivational design exists throughout the appropriate standards documents. However, there is limited current research on the best…
It is now generally agreed that some form of focus on the target code is necessary in adult L2 instruction. One question that remains to be answered is whether all aspects of L2 grammar are equally amenable to pedagogic intervention. A number of researchers have examined the effectiveness of instruction with regard to simple vs. difficult grammar…
Jackson, Janice K.
This study focus on the question: "How do high school principals, regarded as having skills in developing the instructional capacity of teachers, exercise their leadership to promote the development of teacher's instructional capacity in three primary contexts; whole school, content department or grade level teams and individually?"…
Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi; Ghanem, Amyl; Khademhosseini, Ali
Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity, and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosine’s extremely short half-life in human blood (less than 10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this paper, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials, and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted. PMID:26453156
Thanki, Kaushik; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T
The present report focuses on the various aspects of oral delivery of anticancer drugs. The significance of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics has been highlighted which principally includes improvement in quality of life of patients and reduced health care costs. Subsequently, the challenges...... incurred in the oral delivery of anticancer agents have been especially emphasized. Sincere efforts have been made to compile the various physicochemical properties of anticancer drugs from either literature or predicted in silico via GastroPlus™. The later section of the paper reviews various emerging...... trends to tackle the challenges associated with oral delivery of anticancer drugs. These invariably include efflux transporter based-, functional excipient- and nanocarrier based-approaches. The role of drug nanocrystals and various others such as polymer based- and lipid based...
Ye George JC
Full Text Available Abstract For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1 controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2 targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger the release of drugs and localize the therapeutic within a particular site. These novel biomaterials, usually termed "smart" or "intelligent", are able to deliver a therapeutic agent based on either environmental cues or a remote stimulus. Stimuli-responsive materials could potentially elicit a therapeutically effective dose without adverse side effects. Polymers responding to different stimuli, such as pH, light, temperature, ultrasound, magnetism, or biomolecules have been investigated as potential drug delivery vehicles. This review describes the most recent advances in "smart" drug delivery systems that respond to one or multiple stimuli.
After introducing Continuous Delivery, I will switch the topic and try to answer the question how much should we invest in quality and how to do it efficiently. My observations reveal that software quality is often considered as the slo...
Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V
One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...
Siddiqui, N I; Siddiqui, Ni; Rahman, S; Nessa, A
Delivery system of insulin is vital for its acceptance and adherence to therapy for achieving the glycemic targets. Enormous developments have occurred in the delivery system of insulin during the last twenty years and each improvement was aimed at two common goals: patients convenience and better glycemic control. Till to date, the various insulin delivery systems are: syringes/vials, injection aids, jet injectors, transmucosal delivery, transdermal delivery, external insulin infusion pump, implantable insulin pumps, insulin pens and insulin inhalers. Syringe/vial is the oldest and conventional method, still widely used and relatively cheaper. Modern plastic syringes are disposable, light weight with microfine needle for patients convenience and comfort. Oral route could be the most acceptable and viable, if the barriers can be overcome and under extensive trial. Insulin pen device is an important milestone in the delivery system of insulin as it is convenient, discrete, painless, attractive, portable with flexible life style and improved quality of life. More than 80% of European diabetic patients are using insulin pen. Future digital pen will have better memory option, blood glucose monitoring system, insulin dose calculator etc. Insulin infusion pump is a good option for the children, busy patients with flexible lifestyle and those who want to avoid multiple daily injections. Pulmonary route of insulin delivery is a promising, effective, non-invasive and acceptable alternative method. Exubera, the world first insulin inhaler was approved by FDA in 28 January 2006. But due to certain limitations, it has been withdrawn from the market in October 2007. The main concern of inhaled insulin are: long term pulmonary safety issues, cost effectiveness and user friendly device. In future, more acceptable and cost effective insulin inhaler will be introduced. Newer avenues are under extensive trial for better future insulin delivery systems.
Sunshine, Joel; Bhise, Nupura; Green, Jordan J.
Degradable polymers were synthesized that self-assemble with DNA to form particles that are effective for gene delivery. Small changes to polymer synthesis conditions, particle formulation conditions, and polymer structure led to significant changes to efficacy in a cell-type dependent manner. Polymers presented here are more effective than Lipofectamine 2000 or polyethylenimine for gene delivery to cancerous fibroblasts or human primary fibroblasts. These materials may be useful for cancer therapeutics and regenerative medicine. PMID:19964958
This paper focuses on the search for suitable research methods for research regarding iteration in instructional design. More specifically my research concerned the question how instructional designers can be supported during an iterative design process. Although instructional design and development
Conway-Klaassen, Janice M; Wiesner, Stephen M; Desens, Christopher; Trcka, Phyllis; Swinehart, Cheryl
Hemostasis laboratory testing methods have changed significantly over the past decades, from totally manual, to fully automated methodologies. Most medical laboratory educators prefer to use manual or semiautomated methods to teach hemostasis so that students can "see" what is occurring during the testing method, but many semi-automated instruments are no longer commercially available or are not cost-effective for education programs. In consideration of these factors and due to programmatic expansion to a coordinate campus, the CLS program explored new ways to teach hemostasis methods equitably and affordably across two distant locations. Working with an instructional design team versed in online education, five virtual hemostasis laboratory exercises were created that mimic the manual methodologies. Web-based didactic instruction was also developed to teach the testing theory and pathophysiology related to patient results. The efficacy of the virtual instruction was evaluated through assessment of student performance on exam questions, professional certification scores for the platelet/hemostasis sub-category, student satisfaction surveys, and evaluation of student performance during their clinical experience. Results showed that students in the virtual delivery format performed significantly better on exam questions compared to the traditional delivery method group, but there was no significant difference in their performance on the professional certification exam. Both student and preceptor feedback have been positive on the value of the exercises for students' understanding of hemostasis.
Hammig, Bart; Ogletree, Roberta; Wycoff-Horn, Marcie R
The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of professional preparation and class structure on health content delivery and time spent delivering content among required health education classes in the United States. Data from the classroom-level file of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study were utilized. A series of multivariable logistic regression models were employed to determine if instruction of content was dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Years of teaching health topics and size of the school district were included as covariates in the multivariable logistic models. We also conducted a multivariable logistic regression model to examine if time spent teaching each topic area was dependent upon professional preparation and/or class structure. Findings indicated that professionally prepared teachers were significantly more likely to deliver content in 6 of 12 health topic areas when compared to untrained teachers. Class structure was also an important predictor of content delivery among many topic areas. Teachers who taught classes that were devoted to health instruction were significantly more likely to deliver content in the following topic areas: alcohol/drug prevention, tobacco prevention, sexuality, pregnancy, human immuno virus and sexually transmitted disease prevention, emotional/mental health and suicide, and violence prevention. Research concerning the relationship between professional preparation and teaching outcomes is scant. The present study indicates that health content coverage and time spent on instruction are associated with both professional preparation and class structure for many health content areas. © 2011, American School Health Association.
AKBULUT, Reviewed By Yavuz
The key to successful learning in most formal instructional settings is effective instructional design (ID). Instructional design for teachers serves as an organized source of directions, which can help classroom teachers to integrate available resources to improve students’ acquisition of the instructional goals. The book is consisted of 151 pages (+xvii) covering eight chapters which address a commonsense model of instructional design to guide K-12 teachers during their unique instructional...
The indicator of a professional teachers is the extent to which the teachers has the ability to design instructional well. A good instructional design will effectively achieve the instructional objectives that have been set. The problem that arises is that there is a signal that the teachers implement the learning without first doing systematic instructional design. This paper aims to provide guidance on how instructional components are designed. The instructional components include instructi...
Lee, Mary Y; Benn, Rita; Wimsatt, Leslie; Cornman, Jane; Hedgecock, Joan; Gerik, Susan; Zeller, Janice; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Allweiss, Pamela; Finklestein, Claudia; Haramati, Aviad
A few years ago, the National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine funded a program called the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Education Project. Grantees were 14 medical and nursing schools and the American Medical Student Association, which funded six additional medical schools. Grants were awarded in cohorts of five per year in 2000, 2001, and 2002-2003. The R25 grant recipients identified several major themes as crucial to the success of integrating CAM into health professions curricula. The rationale for integrating CAM curricula was in part to enable future health professionals to provide informed advice as patients dramatically increase the use of CAM. Success of new CAM education programs relied on leadership, including top-down support from institutions' highest administrators. Formal and informal engagement of key faculty and opinion leaders raised awareness, interest, and participation in programs. A range of faculty development efforts increased CAM-teaching capacity. The most effective strategies for integration addressed a key curriculum need and used some form of evidence-based practice framework. Most programs used a combination of instructional delivery strategies, including experiential components and online resources, to address the needs of learners while promoting a high level of ongoing interest in CAM topics. Institutions noted several benefits, including increased faculty development activities, the creation of new programs, and increased cross- and inter-university collaborations. Common challenges included the need for qualified faculty, crowded and changing curricula, a lack of defined best practices in CAM, and post-grant sustainability of programs.
Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok
The lymphatic system plays important roles for immune responses, spreading cancer cells or viruses and disseminating infections. Thus, targeting drugs, such as anticancer, immunotherapeutic and lymphoid contrast agents, to both tumors and the lymphatics, has several advantages such as reduced systemic side effects and increased efficacy. For these reasons, much interest has been focused on the nature of the lymphatics and various studies on the lymphatic delivery of drugs have been carried out. Because the lymphatics consist of a single layer endothelium and have higher permeability compared with that of blood capillaries, studies using nano-sized carriers have been performed. Polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, and lipid-based vehicles have been adopted as lymphatic delivery carriers. This review will focus on the clinical use of such nano-sized carriers that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymphatic system. Lymphatic delivery of drugs, such as anticancer, immunotherapeutic and lymphoid contrast agents, using nano-sized carriers has much more improved ability compared with that of conventional dosage forms, but it has not shown the specific lymphatic targeting ability yet. Finally, the challenges for the future are suggested in terms of the mechanisms governing the lymphatic delivery of nano-sized carriers.
Contag, Stephen A
We compared outcomes for neonates with forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial in laboring, low-risk, nulliparous women at >or=36 weeks\\' gestation. Neonatal outcomes after use of forceps, vacuum, and cesarean were compared among women in the second stage of labor at station +1 or below (thirds scale) for failure of descent or nonreassuring fetal status. Nine hundred ninety women were included in this analysis: 549 (55%) with an indication for delivery of failure of descent and 441 (45%) for a nonreassuring fetal status. Umbilical cord gases were available for 87% of neonates. We found no differences in the base excess (P = 0.35 and 0.78 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) or frequencies of pH below 7.0 (P = 0.73 and 0.34 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) among the three delivery methods. Birth outcomes and umbilical cord blood gas values were similar for those neonates with a forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. The occurrence of significant fetal acidemia was not different among the three delivery methods regardless of the indication.
Dameff, Christian; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Tully, Jeffrey; Panczyk, Micah; Dunham, Aaron; Murphy, Ryan; Stolz, Uwe; Chikani, Vatsal; Spaite, Daniel; Bobrow, Bentley
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival. Telephone CPR (TCPR) comprises CPR instruction given by emergency dispatchers to bystanders responding to OHCA and the CPR performed as a result. TCPR instructions improve bystander CPR rates, but the quality of the instructions varies widely. No standardized system exists to critically evaluate the TCPR intervention. Investigators analyzed audio recordings of suspected OHCA calls from a large regional 9-1-1 dispatch center and applied descriptive terms, a data collection tool and a six metric reporting template to describe TCPR. Data were obtained from October 2010 to November 2011. Dispatcher recognition of CPR need, delivery of TCPR instructions, and bystander CPR performance were documented. A total of 590 calls were analyzed. Call evaluators achieved "near perfect agreement" with 5/6 reporting metrics and "strong agreement" on the 6th metric: percentage of calls where need for CPR was recognized by dispatch. CPR was indicated in 317 calls and already in progress in 94. Dispatchers recognized the need for TCPR in 176 of the 223 (79%) remaining calls. CPR instructions were started in 65/223 (29%) and bystander CPR resulting from TCPR instructions was started in 31/223 (14%). We developed and demonstrated successful implementation of a simple data collection and reporting system for critical evaluation of the TCPR intervention. A standardized methodology for measuring TCPR is necessary to perform on-going quality improvement, to establish performance standards, and for future research on how to optimize bystander CPR rates and OHCA survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.
This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.
Onwuagboke, Bede Blaise Chukwunyere; Singh, Termit Kaur Ranjit; Fook, Fong Soon
Teaching and learning is the principal stock in trade of any educational enterprise throughout human history whether in the developed, developing or under-developed countries. The various developments in the field of information and communications technology (ICT) have been found very useful in the learning environment globally. The need to fully…
Dufrene, Brad A.; Parker, Kizzy; Menousek, Kathryn; Zhou, Qi; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Olmi, D. Joe
Chronic disruptive behaviors during early childhood are associated with many poor developmental outcomes including, but not limited to, school dropout and conduct disorder during adolescence. Much is known regarding effective intervention procedures for disruptive classroom behaviors by preschool children. Unfortunately, evidence-based…
Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.
Describes the symptoms associated with Gerstmann's syndrome, a disorder of cognition, as well as the resulting challenges for educators in planning an education program based on the child's information-processing strengths, taking into account disabilities. Discusses educational implications as well as specific recommendations for children with…
Adiane Fogali Marinello
Full Text Available This article analyses the instructional text as a textual genre and is part of the research called Reading and text production from the textual genre perspective, done at Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Campus Universitário da Região dos Vinhedos. Firstly, some theoretical assumptions about textual genre are presented, then, the instructional text is characterized. After that an instructional text is analyzed and, finally, some activities related to reading and writing of the mentioned genre directed to High School and University students are suggested.
Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina; Wulan Febriana, Beta; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia
Instructional technology course must be studied by students in order to 1) understand the role of technology in learning, 2) capable of analyzing advantages and disadvantages of using technology in teaching, 3) capable of performing technology in teaching. A poster session in instructional technology course was performed to 1) enhance students' interest in this course and develop students' creativity. The step of this research includes: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The result showed that students' responses towards poster session in instructional technology course were good.
Full Text Available This article describes transformations in the discourse of five elementary teachers on the practice of differentiated instruction. The teachers collaborated with university researchers and an instructional consultant in action-research on their professional development process. At monthly meetings held over two years, the elementary teachers received training and support in order to implement differentiated teaching strategies. The authors examine the changes in participants’ discourse concerning their perceptions of the diversity of students’ needs and of applying differentiated pedagogy. Findings were interpreted through a framework combining ethical, epistemological, and ideological aspects of differentiated instruction in mixed-ability classrooms.
Antes, Alison L.; Murphy, Stephen T.; Waples, Ethan P.; Mumford, Michael D.; Brown, Ryan P.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.
Scholars have proposed a number of courses and programs intended to improve the ethical behavior of scientists in an attempt to maintain the integrity of the scientific enterprise. In the present study, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis based on 26 previous ethics program evaluation efforts, and the results showed that the overall effectiveness of ethics instruction was modest. The effects of ethics instruction, however, were related to a number of instructional program factors, such as course content and delivery methods, in addition to factors of the evaluation study itself, such as the field of investigator and criterion measure utilized. An examination of the characteristics contributing to the relative effectiveness of instructional programs revealed that more successful programs were conducted as seminars separate from the standard curricula rather than being embedded in existing courses. Furthermore, more successful programs were case-based, interactive and allowed participants to learn and practice the application of real-world ethical decision-making skills. The implications of these findings for future course development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:19838311
Kotaska, Andrew; Menticoglou, Savas; Gagnon, Robert
To review the physiology of breech birth; to discern the risks and benefits of a trial of labour versus planned Caesarean section; and to recommend to obstetricians, family physicians, midwives, obstetrical nurses, anaesthesiologists, pediatricians, and other health care providers selection criteria, intrapartum management parameters, and delivery techniques for a trial of vaginal breech birth. Trial of labour in an appropriate setting or delivery by pre-emptive Caesarean section for women with a singleton breech fetus at term. Reduced perinatal mortality, short-term neonatal morbidity, long-term infant morbidity, and short- and long-term maternal morbidity and mortality. Medline was searched for randomized trials, prospective cohort studies, and selected retrospective cohort studies comparing planned Caesarean section with a planned trial of labour; selected epidemiological studies comparing delivery by Caesarean section with vaginal breech delivery; and studies comparing long-term outcomes in breech infants born vaginally or by Caesarean section. Additional articles were identified through bibliography tracing up to June 1, 2008. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Maternal Fetal Medicine Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and quantified using the criteria and classifications of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This guideline was compared with the 2006 American College of Obstetrician's Committee Opinion on the mode of term singleton breech delivery and with the 2006 Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecologists Green Top Guideline: The Management of Breech Presentation. The document was reviewed by Canadian and International clinicians with particular expertise in breech vaginal delivery. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Vaginal breech birth can be associated with a higher risk of perinatal mortality and short-term neonatal morbidity than
Norman, Marie K
The use of instructional video is increasing across all disciplines and levels of education. Although video has a number of distinct advantages for course delivery and student learning, it can also be time-consuming and resource-intensive to produce, which imposes a burden on busy faculty. With video poised to play a larger role in medical education, we need strategies for streamlining video production and ensuring that the video we produce is of lasting value. This article draws on learning research and best practices in educational technology, along with the author's experience in online education and video production. It offers 12 practical tips for reducing the initial time investment in video production and creating video that can be reused long into the future. These tips can help faculty and departments create high-quality instructional video while using their time and resources more wisely.
Full Text Available A theory-based system of educational reform through instructional technology, the Training, Infrastructure and Empowerment System (TIES, was developed and piloted in a research university during the late 1990s. In 2001, a research study was conducted on this implementation using qualitative methodology. Interviews were conducted with 12 participants who represented 4 different stakeholder groups. Some of the themes to emerge were: (a Vision for instructional technology, (b learning technologies and alternative delivery systems, (c adoption of innovation, (d general challenges and (e lessons learned. Discussion includes implications of these themes for reform of education as they relate to a theoretical reform framework. Suggestions for further research are also identified.
Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke
binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform.......The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...
Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke
The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....
Broom, Frances A.
This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.
Gschwind, Michael K
Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.
Ackerley, Katherine; Helm, Francesca
This volume gives voice to the views and experiences of researchers, lecturers, administrative staff, teacher trainers and students with regard to the implementation of English-medium instruction in a public university based in the north-east of Italy.
... must be in English and must not exceed 50 words. Illustrations must be used in addition to the words... thrown into the water. (b) The instructions required by paragraph (a) of this section must be on the...
The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.
The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it. Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal...... analysis tools help us understand the impact of multimodal channels used in instructions? This paper looks at Kress and VanLeewan's questions of "how narrative is shaped in a specific mode and how it is reshaped when it appears in different modes?" (2001:128) In addition, the intersection of linguistics...... and rhetoric is explored as a means of understanding the multimodal possibilities for technical communication genres such as instructions....
Lutton, Lewis M.
Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)
David C Marchant
Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.
Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. DATA SOURCES: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. DATA SYNTHESIS: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning.
Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L.
Objective: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. Data Sources: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. Data Synthesis: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. Conclusions/Recommendations: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning. PMID:12937537
Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.
Jarodzka, H. (2012, 27 April). Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts. Presentation during the ‘Symposium 4C-ID: Hoe implementer je de blauwdruk?’, Studiecentrum Open Universiteit, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
This paper explores the cognitive approach to instruction and provides several strategies for using knowledge engineering information in the instructional development process to strengthen the systems approach to training. When students learn using the behavioral approach to instruction, drawbacks have been noted because gaps are apparent between the students' high performance levels on objective tests and their inadequate problem solving performance levels. Augmentation of the behaviorist process with applications of knowledge engineering can result in obtaining detailed information about student misconceptions relative to expert knowledge. This information is then applied to individualized learning prescriptions. Normally, instructional developers are working under significant resource and time constraints, and this modified systems approach is an efficient solution to this problem. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Content-based Instruction (CBI) is an approach in English learning that integrates certain topic and English learning objectives. This approach focuses on using English competencies as a “bridge” to comprehend certain topic or theme in English. Nowadays, this approach can be used in instructional multimedia to support English learning by using computer. Instructional multimedia with computer system refers to the sequential or simultaneous use of variety of media formats in a given presentatio...
Myriam Lemay; Annie Presseau; Luc Prud’homme
This article describes transformations in the discourse of five elementary teachers on the practice of differentiated instruction. The teachers collaborated with university researchers and an instructional consultant in action-research on their professional development process. At monthly meetings held over two years, the elementary teachers received training and support in order to implement differentiated teaching strategies. The authors examine the changes in participants’ dis...
Symeon Retalis; Paris Avgeriou
The size and complexity of modern instructional systems, which are based on the World Wide Web, bring about great intricacy in their crafting, as there is not enough knowledge or experience in this field. This imposes the use of new instructional design models in order to achieve risk-mitigation, cost and time efficiency, high pedagogical quality of the end product, which will capitalise on the potential of the networked technologies. This paper presents a model for constructing such systems,...
Schmölzer, Georg M; Kamlin, C Omar F; Dawson, Jennifer A; Morley, Colin J; Davis, Peter G
Reduced mortality for infants born at less than 30 weeks’ gestation after prophylactic surfactant administration has led many to advocate routine intubation and administration of surfactant in all infants at risk of respiratory distress syndrome. However, surfactant administration is associated with adverse events including bradycardia, changes in cerebral blood flow and endotracheal tube obstruction. The aim of this study was to analyse respiratory function immediately before and after surfactant administration in the delivery room. We reviewed video recordings of the initial resuscitation in the delivery room of infants born at less than 32 weeks’ gestation between February 2007 and March 2010. Positive pressure ventilation was delivered with either a Neopuff T-piece or self-inflating bag. Respiratory parameters were recorded with a respiratory function monitor (RFM). Each RFM recording was analysed for 30 s before and 2 min after surfactant administration. Of 230 infants recorded during the study period 16 infants received surfactant in the delivery room. Their mean (standard deviation, SD) gestation and birth weight were 25 (1) weeks and 757 (249) g, respectively. Complete airway obstruction was seen in 4/16 (25%) infants. The median (interquartile range, IQR) duration of this obstruction was 16 (8–27) s. The median (IQR) expired tidal volume before surfactant delivery was 8.0 (5.2–11.2) mL/kg compared to 4.6 (4.1–7.3) mL/kg (p = 0.03) after surfactant administration. Substantial tidal volume changes occur before, during and after surfactant administration in the delivery room. Complete airway obstruction is common. Monitoring respiratory function during this procedure may help to assess the delivered tidal volume and airway pressures after surfactant treatment.
Andersen, Ida Gran; Andersen, Simon Calmar
inequality. Using combined survey and register data for more than 56,000 students in 825 schools, this article conducts the first empirical test of the argument that instructional strategies which emphasize student responsibility and activity, also referred to as student-centered instruction, increase...... educational inequality. We analyze whether the impact of student-centered instructional strategies on academic achievement differs for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Results suggest that a student-centered instructional strategy has a negative impact on academic achievement in general...
Suárez-Cortés, María; Armero-Barranco, David; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel; Martínez-Roche, María Emilia
get to know, analyze and describe the current situation of the Delivery and Birth Plans in our context, comparing the delivery and birth process between women who presented a Delivery and Birth Plan...
Full Text Available Preparing and teaching subjects in the Higher Education environment has been attracting much attention over the past decade as the sector diversifies and adds online instruction to its on campus delivery to cater to the increased demand for flexibility and choice from students. University lecturers are now required to assume greater responsibility to develop the subject content and teaching structure for their subjects and it is the latter where lecturers don’t necessarily have formal qualifications or experience. This paper describes the implementation of the Confluence of Learning framework at one university together with a style guide and a mobile app. The subsequent trial with 20 participants illustrated that a framework developed in the lecturers own context can generate a change in practice. The lecturers’ comments were thematically analysed and demonstrated that an unambiguous but well structured framework will motivate and empower lecturers with their subject design resulting in a positive impact on students studying their subjects.
Piasta, Shayne B.; Purpura, David J.; Wagner, Richard K.
Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive small group instruction in letter names and/or sounds or numbers (treated control). Alphabet instruction followed one of two approaches currently utilized in early childhood classrooms: combined letter name and sound instruction or letter sound only instruction. Thirty-four 15…
Sagy, John; Ravi, R.; Ananthasayanam, R.
The present study attempts to gauge the effect of individualized instructional methods as a reinforcement strategy for mastery learning. Among various individualized instructional methods, the study focuses on PIM (Programmed Instructional Method) and CAIM (Computer Assisted Instruction Method). Mastery learning is a process where students achieve…
Reigeluth, Charles M.
Defines the discipline of instructional science, discusses its applications, and reviews three instructional models--the component theory display, elaboration theory of instruction, and motivational design of instruction--to illustrate the kind of integrative, multi-perspectived common knowledge base needed at this point in the development of…
Campbell, Paul Clayton
There are many instructional design theories to assist librarians in creating effective instructional modules for student learning. ADDIE is a generic instructional design model that has been in existence for more than 30 years and is known for its flexibility in application (Molenda, 2003). Using instructional design theories such as ADDIE helps…
While state requirements vary on the number of instructional days and/or hours in the school year, the majority of states require 180 days of student instruction. Most also specify the minimum length of time that constitutes an instructional day. Some states set instructional time in terms of days, some specify hours, and some provide…
Objective: To prospectively study the behaviour of oral surgery patients given verbal and written instructions, verbal instructions alone and written instructions alone after minor surgical procedures to return for review visits, remember correctly form of instruction given, compliance and level of satisfaction with treatment.
Howard, Craig D.; Boling, Elizabeth; Rowland, Gordon; Smith, Kennon M.
The field of instructional design does not collect and share actual completed instructional designs and designers' reflections on the creation of those designs as an integral, widespread aspect of its practice. This article defines the instructional design case as a means of knowledge building. It lays out the components of instructional design…
Apel, Jens K; Revie, Gavin F; Cangelosi, Angelo; Ellis, Rob; Goslin, Jeremy; Fischer, Martin H
We investigated the mental rehearsal of complex action instructions by recording spontaneous eye movements of healthy adults as they looked at objects on a monitor. Participants heard consecutive instructions, each of the form "move [object] to [location]". Instructions were only to be executed after a go signal, by manipulating all objects successively with a mouse. Participants re-inspected previously mentioned objects already while listening to further instructions. This rehearsal behavior broke down after 4 instructions, coincident with participants' instruction span, as determined from subsequent execution accuracy. These results suggest that spontaneous eye movements while listening to instructions predict their successful execution.
Joseph E O'Doherty
Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs establish direct communications between the brain and artificial actuators. As such, they hold considerable promise for restoring mobility and communication in patients suffering from severe body paralysis. To achieve this end, future BMIs must also provide a means for delivering sensory signals from the actuators back to the brain. Prosthetic sensation is needed so that neuroprostheses can be better perceived and controlled. Here we show that a direct intracortical input can be added to a BMI to instruct rhesus monkeys in choosing the direction of reaching movements generated by the BMI. Somatosensory instructions were provided to two monkeys operating the BMI using either: (a vibrotactile stimulation of the monkey’s hands or (b multi-channel intracortical microstimulation (ICMS delivered to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 in one monkey and posterior parietal cortex (PP in the other. Stimulus delivery was contingent on the position of the computer cursor: the monkey placed it in the center of the screen to receive machine-brain recursive input. After two weeks of training, the same level of proficiency in utilizing somatosensory information was achieved with ICMS of S1 as with the stimulus delivered to the hand skin. ICMS of PP was not effective. These results indicate that direct, bi-directional communication between the brain and neuroprosthetic devices can be achieved through the combination of chronic multi-electrode recording and microstimulation of S1. We propose that in the future, bidirectional BMIs incorporating ICMS may become an effective paradigm for sensorizing neuroprosthetic devices.
O'Doherty, Joseph E.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Hanson, Timothy L.; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.
Brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) establish direct communication between the brain and artificial actuators. As such, they hold considerable promise for restoring mobility and communication in patients suffering from severe body paralysis. To achieve this end, future BMIs must also provide a means for delivering sensory signals from the actuators back to the brain. Prosthetic sensation is needed so that neuroprostheses can be better perceived and controlled. Here we show that a direct intracortical input can be added to a BMI to instruct rhesus monkeys in choosing the direction of reaching movements generated by the BMI. Somatosensory instructions were provided to two monkeys operating the BMI using either: (a) vibrotactile stimulation of the monkey's hands or (b) multi-channel intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) delivered to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in one monkey and posterior parietal cortex (PP) in the other. Stimulus delivery was contingent on the position of the computer cursor: the monkey placed it in the center of the screen to receive machine–brain recursive input. After 2 weeks of training, the same level of proficiency in utilizing somatosensory information was achieved with ICMS of S1 as with the stimulus delivered to the hand skin. ICMS of PP was not effective. These results indicate that direct, bi-directional communication between the brain and neuroprosthetic devices can be achieved through the combination of chronic multi-electrode recording and microstimulation of S1. We propose that in the future, bidirectional BMIs incorporating ICMS may become an effective paradigm for sensorizing neuroprosthetic devices. PMID:19750199
Prausnitz, Mark R
The success of transdermal drug delivery has been severely limited by the inability of most drugs to enter the skin at therapeutically useful rates. Recently, the use of micron-scale needles in increasing skin permeability has been proposed and shown to dramatically increase transdermal delivery, especially for macromolecules. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, microneedles have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. Most drug delivery studies have emphasized solid microneedles, which have been shown to increase skin permeability to a broad range of molecules and nanoparticles in vitro. In vivo studies have demonstrated delivery of oligonucleotides, reduction of blood glucose level by insulin, and induction of immune responses from protein and DNA vaccines. For these studies, needle arrays have been used to pierce holes into skin to increase transport by diffusion or iontophoresis or as drug carriers that release drug into the skin from a microneedle surface coating. Hollow microneedles have also been developed and shown to microinject insulin to diabetic rats. To address practical applications of microneedles, the ratio of microneedle fracture force to skin insertion force (i.e. margin of safety) was found to be optimal for needles with small tip radius and large wall thickness. Microneedles inserted into the skin of human subjects were reported as painless. Together, these results suggest that microneedles represent a promising technology to deliver therapeutic compounds into the skin for a range of possible applications.
Tentor, Fabio; Mazzoni, Chiara; Keller, Stephan Sylvest
Among all the drug administration routes, the oral one is the most preferred by the patients being less invasive, faster and easier. Oral drug delivery systems designed to target the intestine are produced by powder technology and capsule formulations. Those systems including micro- and nano-particulate...
Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This presentation deals with the hierarchy of software build and delivery systems. One of the goals is to maximize the success rate of new users and developers when first trying your software. First impressions are important. Early successes are important. This also reduces critical documentation costs. This is a presentation focused on computer science and goes into detail about code documentation.
Charles M. Reigeluth
This article describes instructional theory that supports post-industrial education and training systems - ones that are customized and learner-centered, in which student progress is based on learning rather than time. The article describes universal methods of instruction, situational methods, core ideas of the post-industrial paradigm of instruction, the importance of and problems with task-based instruction, a vision of an instructional theory for post-industrial education and training, an...
Educators are often tasked with developing courses and curricula that teach learners how to perform medical procedures. This instruction must provide an optimal, uniform learning experience for all learners. If not well designed, this instruction risks being unstructured, informal, variable amongst learners, or incomplete. This article shows how an instructional design model can help craft courses and curricula to optimize instruction in performing medical procedures. Educators can use this as a guide to developing their own course instruction.
Carter, Curtis W.
This article contends that instructional designers and developers should attend to four particular design principles when creating instructional audio. Support for this view is presented by referencing the limited research that has been done in this area, and by indicating how and why each of the four principles is important to the design process.…
McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David
Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…
Austin, John H.
This document is one in a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Approximately 900 items are listed in this document along with guidelines for the production of instructional materials. Information is provided regarding the source, type of material, intended…
Reiser, Robert A.
This second of a two-part article focuses on the history of instructional design in the United States. Starting with its origins during World War II, major events in the development of instructional design are described. Factors affecting the field over the last two decades, including increasing interest in cognitive psychology, microcomputers,…
Blik, H.; Harskamp, E. G.; Naayer, H. M.
In the Netherlands, students with intellectual disabilities (ID) attend practical education (PE). Teachers generally use demonstration as a form of direct instruction (DI) and students have difficulty working independently. Strategy instruction (SI) is a question-answer-based method that stimulates students' autonomy by getting them to verbalize…
Bickford, James O.; Falco, Ruth A.
Introduction: The study reported here evaluated whether there was a difference in students' outcomes for braille fluency when instruction was provided with traditional braille media or refreshable braille. Students' and teachers' perceptions of the efficacy of the use of the different instructional media were analyzed. Methods: Nine students from…
In this response, Scott Titsworth analyzes similarities among the forum essays and then offers ideas for how instructional communication scholars might adopt greater situational awareness in research, theory, and application of their work. [Other essays in this forum include: (1) FORUM: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings: The…
Web-based learning tools (WBLTs), also known as learning objects, have been evaluated with a wide range of metrics, but rarely with respect to pedagogical design. The current study evaluated the impact of instructional architecture (direct instruction vs. constructive-based) on middle (n = 333)
Christensen, Trudy K.; Osguthorpe, Russell T.
Many theories have been proposed to help instructional designers make instructional-strategy decisions, yet it is not clear if these theories are actually used by ID practitioners. This study used a web-survey to examine the design strategies of 113 ID practitioners. The survey asked respondents to rate how frequently they used learning or ID…
Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2008). Ten steps to complex learning: A new approach to instruction and instructional design. In T. L. Good (Ed.), 21st century education: A reference handbook (pp. 244-253). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Widdall, Christine L.
This qualitative research project used a multiple case study methodology, in connection with observational learning to explore to what degree prospective online secondary teachers achieved an awareness of instructional design strategies as they concurrently observed online instruction in two unique online courses: one with student-centered…
Goddard, Yvonne; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung
The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between school instructional climate and students' fifth-grade mathematics and reading achievement, with a particular emphasis on norms for practice consistent with differentiated instruction. Using data from a stratified random sample of Michigan elementary schools, we employed…
Valenzano, Joseph M., III; Wallace, Samuel P.
Communication is, by its nature, inherently interdisciplinary. In no other subfield of the discipline is this truer than instructional communication. To that end, instructional communication scholars contribute to the understanding of classroom dynamics and effective methods for facilitating learning. A close examination of that work highlights…
McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.; Shaw, Stan F.
Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), a construct that serves as the foundation for the work of a federally funded project at the University of Connecticut, offers an approach to inclusive instruction that is responsive to the diverse learning needs of a changing postsecondary population. In this article elements relating to the implementation…
McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.
Universal design for instruction (UDI) represents the systematic application of universal design, the construct from architecture and product development, to instructional practices in higher education. In addition to a description of the deliberative process by which UDI was developed, this article provides confirmatory evidence of the validity…
Lurie, Samuel; Steinberg, Netanel; Tannus, Samer; Golan, Abraham; Sadan, Oscar
To assess mode of subsequent delivery in women with previous instrumental vaginal delivery. In this retrospective longitudinal study we followed women who underwent instrumental delivery. The study group included all consecutive parturient women who underwent an instrumental vaginal delivery during a 24-month period (1996-1999). We then identified women who had a subsequent delivery in our center until the end of the year 2010. The control group included women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery from the same time. During the index period we had 349 consecutive successful instrumental vaginal deliveries. Of those, 125 women had a subsequent delivery in our center (35.8%). In subsequent pregnancies, the spontaneous vaginal delivery rate was 76.8% and 90.4%; the instrumental delivery rate was 8.8% and 1.6%; and the cesarean rate was 14.4% and 8.0%, in the instrumental delivery, and spontaneous vaginal delivery groups, respectively (Pinstrumental delivery or a cesarean after having an instrumental delivery in a previous pregnancy was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.4-5.9, Pinstrumental delivery are at an increased risk of requiring either an instrumental delivery or a cesarean section in a subsequent pregnancy compared with women with a previous spontaneous vaginal delivery.
Full Text Available Gene therapy is the process of introducing foreign genomic materials into host cells to elicit a therapeutic benefit. Although initially the main focus of gene therapy was on special genetic disorders, now diverse diseases with different patterns of inheritance and acquired diseases are targets of gene therapy. There are 2 major categories of gene therapy, including germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Although germline gene therapy may have great potential, because it is currently ethically forbidden, it cannot be used; however, to date human gene therapy has been limited to somatic cells. Although numerous viral and nonviral gene delivery systems have been developed in the last 3 decades, no delivery system has been designed that can be applied in gene therapy of all kinds of cell types in vitro and in vivo with no limitation and side effects. In this review we explain about the history of gene therapy, all types of gene delivery systems for germline (nuclei, egg cells, embryonic stem cells, pronuclear, microinjection, sperm cells and somatic cells by viral [retroviral, adenoviral, adeno association, helper-dependent adenoviral systems, hybrid adenoviral systems, herpes simplex, pox virus, lentivirus, Epstein-Barr virus] and nonviral systems (physical: Naked DNA, DNA bombardant, electroporation, hydrodynamic, ultrasound, magnetofection and (chemical: Cationic lipids, different cationic polymers, lipid polymers. In addition to the above-mentioned, advantages, disadvantages, and practical use of each system are discussed.
... different bioadhesive polymers, characteristics of desired bioadhesive polymers, this article then proceeds to cover the various sites suitable for mucoadhesive drug delivery system followed by the factors affecting bio/ mucoadhesion. Keywords: Mucosa; Tansmucosal delivery; Bioadhesion; Lectin; Polymers; Thiomer; ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...
Detlefsen, Ellen Gay
This is a review of the master's-level curricula of the fifty-eight America Library Association-accredited library and information science programs and iSchools for evidence of coursework and content related to library instruction. Special emphasis is placed on the schools and programs that also offer coursework in medical or health sciences librarianship. Fifty-eight school and program websites were reviewed. Course titles and course descriptions for seventy-three separate classes were analyzed. Twenty-three syllabi were examined. All North American library education programs offer at least one course in the general area of library instruction; some programs offer multiple courses. No courses on instruction, however, are focused directly on the specialized area of health sciences librarianship. Master's degree students can take appropriate classes on library instruction, but the medical library profession needs to offer continuing education opportunities for practitioners who want to have specific instruction for the specialized world of the health sciences.
Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Lee, Tae Hwa; Willmann, Jugen K. [Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)
Recent advancements in ultrasound and microbubble (USMB) mediated drug delivery technology has shown that this approach can improve spatially confined delivery of drugs and genes to target tissues while reducing systemic dose and toxicity. The mechanism behind enhanced delivery of therapeutics is sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. In this review, progress and challenges of USMB mediated drug delivery are summarized, with special focus on cancer therapy.
Sayan Mullick Chowdhury
Full Text Available Recent advancements in ultrasound and microbubble (USMB mediated drug delivery technology has shown that this approach can improve spatially confined delivery of drugs and genes to target tissues while reducing systemic dose and toxicity. The mechanism behind enhanced delivery of therapeutics is sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. In this review, progress and challenges of USMB mediated drug delivery are summarized, with special focus on cancer therapy.
Simanenkov, V I; Vyalov, S S
The paper highlights the features of drug use in the legal aspect. It analyzes instructions for medical use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and gastric protective agents. Taking into account the characteristics of indications registered in the instruction, the authors discuss the possibility of using various PPIs. The instruction for medical application is an official document approved by the Ministry of Health, the basis of which is the data of trials carried out by a manufacturer, and it should be a key or fundamental source for a physician in choosing a medication. The use of a drug with no indications given in the manual (the so-called 'off-label' use in foreign practice), is a clinical trial of a sort conducted by a physician individually, by taking upon himself/herself a legal liability. If arguments break out over the correct choice of this or that drug in treating the specific patient, the instruction containing the indications for use of specific medications to treat a specific disease is one of the proofs that the physician has correctly chosen the drug or a criterion for skilled medical care. The inclusion of chronic gastritis as a primary and only diagnosis into the primary documentation substantially limits the possibilities of using PPIs. When a PPI is indicated for therapy of erosive gastritis, a formal rationale is contained only in the instruction for use of Controloc. There are no registered indications for PPI use to treat chronic non-erosive gastritis; the gastric protective agent Rebagit is indicated.
Kochevar, Deborah T
Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.
Liu, Qian; Zhan, Changyou; Kohane, Daniel S
Light has many desirable properties as the stimulus for triggerable drug delivery systems. Inorganic nanomaterials are often key components in transducing light into drug delivery events. The nature of the light and the inorganic materials can affect the efficacy and safety of the drug delivery system.
Budding, G.; Faber, A.S.C.; Gradus, R.H.J.M.
In the Netherlands, electronic service delivery has become an important issue in many municipalities. Using the Internet for service delivery is seen as an important element of e-government. Based on 2014-2016 panel-data of ICT service delivery for all Dutch municipalities, we show that there is a
Oct 5, 2009 ... Forceps delivery was most frequently performed (55.7%), while vacuum delivery was found to be in increased use (38.2%). Embryotomy .... suction pump was used for vacuum extraction. The subjects reviewed consisted of all .... for their application, more liberal use of caesarean deliveries, lack of skills, ...
The choice of delivery places was also found to be affected by family size. Mothers with smaller family were more likely to be attended by a physician at their delivery places compared to mothers With large families (Kim 86. Oh, 1985). In this study we investigated the characteristics and trend of women of receiving delivery ...
Nordström, Randi; Malmsten, Martin
are likely to play a key role in the development of potent and safe AMP-based therapeutics, e.g., through reducing chemical or biological degradation of AMPs either in the formulation or after administration, by reducing adverse side-effects, by controlling AMP release rate, by promoting biofilm penetration......Due to rapidly increasing resistance development against conventional antibiotics, finding novel approaches for the treatment of infections has emerged as a key health issue. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted interest in this context, and there is by now a considerable literature...... on the identification such peptides, as well as on their optimization to reach potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects at simultaneously low toxicity against human cells. In comparison, delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerably less interest. However, such delivery systems...
Trotta, Valentina; Scalia, Santo
This review reports on the beneficial pharmacological properties of naturally occurring polyphenols for the treatment of inflammatory pulmonary diseases. In addition, it presents an overview of the different types of inhalable formulations which have been developed in order to achieve efficient delivery of polyphenols to the respiratory tract. The main biological activities of polyphenols (anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory) are covered, with particular emphasis on the studies describing their therapeutic effects on different factors and conditions characteristic of lung pathologies. Special focus is on the technological aspects which influence the pulmonary delivery of drugs. The various polyphenol-based inhalable formulations reported in the literature are examined with specific attention to the preparation methodologies, aerosol performance, lung deposition and in vitro and in vivo polyphenol uptake by the pulmonary epithelial cells.
Sy, Jolene R; Donaldson, Jeanne M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Pizarro, Eliana
Behavior that resembles instruction following might sometimes be under stimulus control of extraneous variables. We evaluated the effects of some of these variables (i.e., presence of relevant objects, associations between instructions and object sets) with 3 children with intellectual disabilities. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether subjects were more likely to follow instructions that required object manipulation and whether subjects were more likely to follow these instructions when only relevant objects were present. All subjects were more likely to follow instructions that required object manipulation when only relevant objects were present. In Experiment 2, we evaluated whether instruction following would be less likely if the same object set was associated with multiple instructions, and found this to be the case for 2 of 2 subjects. Findings highlight the need to train instruction following under different conditions to ensure that responding comes under stimulus control of the instructions. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Reese, M; Hatcher, R A
Guidelines are provided for women who take combined oral contraceptives. Women should carefully read and follow the instructions provided on the package insert and initiate pill taking as advised by their clinicians. Clincians generally advise patients to either start on the 1st day of their menstrual period, 5 days following the 1st menstrual day, or the 1st Sunday following the 1st menstrual day. Women should not start taking OCs at any other time unless they are absolutely sure that they are not pregnant. A backup method should be used until menstruation reoccurs. Women on a 21-day regimen should take 1 pill/day for 21 days, stop for 1 week, and then start over again with a new package. Women on a 28-day regimen should take 1 pill each day for 28 days and start a new package on the 29th day. The pill should be taken at the same time each day, and as an aid in remembering, women should try to associate taking the pill with an activity they perform daily. If a woman misses 1 pill, she should immediately, upon remembering, take the missed pill, take the next day's pill at the regular time, and use a backup method until menstruation begins. If 2 pills are missed, the women should take 2 pills immediately, and 2 pills the following day at the regular time. A backup method should be used until menstruation reoccurs. If 3 pills are missed, there are several alternates which can be followed; however, the woman should consider switching to a more suitable method. If a woman misses a period and took all her pills, it is unlikely that she is pregnant. She should simply start a new packet at the regular time. Women who miss a period, and also missed a pill, and women who missed 2 periods, even if they took all their pills, should contact their clinicians and have a pregnancy test. Women who are pregnant should immediately stop taking the pill. OC users who want to become pregnant should stop taking the pill, but use a backup method until they have 3 normal menstrual periods
You probably have mixed feelings about going into labor. On one hand, bringing a new life into the world is really exciting. On the other, it can be really scary to have a baby, especially if this is your first child. Unfortunately, it can be even scarier if you smoke. Research shows that smoking during pregnancy can lead to serious complications for you and your baby during labor and delivery.
In display advertising, a publisher targets a specific audience by displaying ads on content web pages. Because the publisher has little control over the supply of display opportunities, the actual supply of ads that it can sell is stochastic. We consider the problem of optimal ad delivery, where an advertiser requests a certain number of impressions to be displayed by the publisher over a certain time horizon. Time is divided into periods, and in the beginning of each period the publisher ch...
Mužíková, Gabriela; Laga, Richard
Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S203-S216 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : vaccine delivery * cellular and humoral immunity * polymer immunostimulants Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S203.pdf