Reigeluth, Charles M.; Garfield, Joanne M.
Examines the state-of-the-art of intelligent videodisc systems and of the aspects of instructional theory that have implications for design of hardware, software, and courseware for such systems. Some problems inhibiting the introduction of videodisc systems into education are discussed along with solutions to these inhibiting factors. (MBR)
Reigeluth, Charles M.; Garfield, Joanne M.
Arguing that the systematic application of knowledge about instruction to videodisc technology is essential if the full potential of this medium is to be realized, this paper begins by discussing the need for intelligent videodisc technology in our educational system. A brief review of the state of the art in intelligent videodisc systems, which…
Smith, Coralee S.; Barrow, Lloyd H.
The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to examine the categories of teacher-asked questions while using moving and still frames of science videodisc instruction. Videotapes were made of 12 volunteer, Midwestern, urban, elementary teachers using videodisc instruction. Coding of the teacher-asked questioning categories was determined…
Marsh, F.E. Jr.
An overview of the technology of videodiscs is given. The emphasis is on systems that use reflection or transmission of laser light. Possible use of videodiscs for storage of bibliographic information is considered. 6 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)
simulation specs, answer processing, and response history branching schemes). e. Title, description, excerpts desired, and location of film, videotape...Media production includes the narration and soundtrack for the videodisc. At present, audio is available on the videodisc only with motion. (i.e., to...MLLITARY ACAuE4Y DEPT. OF HISTORY , BLOG 6O1 1 USA iNTELLIGENCE CEN ANI SCH ATTNt SCHOOL LIBRARY I US4 iNTELLIGENCE CEN ANU SCM ArTNI ATSI-UP I mAkl.*E
Lunin, Lois F.
Introduction to videodisc and optical disk technology (information storage media which are able to handle word, data, image, and sound) cites articles written about videodisc and optical disk applications, instructional use, videodisc research, and information retrieval. A list of 30 suggested readings and additional information resources are…
Marsh, Fred E., Jr.
Identifies and describes the major areas of videodisc technology; discusses the operation, reliability, storage capacities, and applications of two types of laser systems; and illustrates the versatility of the optical digital disc through a description of its ability to digitize large bodies of data. Included are six figures and three tables.…
Howson, Betty Ann; Davis, Hilarie
Discusses the use of videodiscs to increase students' comprehension. Benefits of adding visual images to learning activities are discussed, videodiscs as sources of data for students to analyze are considered, and an example is given of using videodiscs to illustrate concepts in a chemistry class. (LRW)
M. J. Jenkins; K.Y. Matsumoto-Grah
Interactive video is a powerful medium, bringing together the emotional impact of video and film and the interactive capabilities of the computer. Interactive videodisc instruction can be used as a tutorial, for drill and practice and in simulations, as well as for information storage. Videodisc technology is being used in industrial, military and medical applications...
McLuhan (1964) who believed that the wheel had "amputated" our feet and pondered what the computer as "an extension of our brain" might be doing to...Computerized instruction in second-language aquisition. Studies in Language Learning, 1975, 1(1), 145-150. McLuhan , M. Understanding media: The extension of man
Gale, Larrie E.
The development of an interactive videodisc-microcomputer simulation of a visit to a Mexican village for college-level Spanish instruction is described. Problems encountered, production considerations, computer program development, hardware, and classroom results are discussed. (MSE)
Explains that the laser videodisc is a versatile and cost-effective tool with enormous instructional potential for art education. Describes the origins, quality, and capability of videodiscs, and discusses the varieties of players and discs presently available. Maintains that this technology is especially relevant now that art education includes…
This overview of optical videodisc technology focuses on microcomputer-based applications for information processing. Topics discussed include fundamentals of videodisc technology, interactive videodisc technology, and associated hardware systems; government-supported and commercial videodisc and CD ROM information projects; and speculations on…
Outlines basic videodisc and optical disk technology describing both optical and capacitance videodisc technology. Optical disk technology is defined as a mass digital image and data storage device and briefly compared with other information storage media including magnetic tape and microforms. The future of videodisc and optical disk is…
Galloway, Emily; Paris, Judith
Explores the possibilities of using videodisc and optical disk technology as publishing media, highlighting the videodisc as an educational tool and visual supplement to online databases, digital database publishing on videodisc, optical disks for electronic document and image delivery systems, and costs associated with videodisc design and…
support interactive instruction. The videodisc can hold a large volume of ~vii 0 - . . .W" CONTINUED pictures, both stills and movies, and a stereo sound...conduct Code of conduct seminar Ethics and leadership Professional ethics Air Force professionals: the NCO Leadership American style Tips for...China Arab-Israeli Conflict Introduction to Islamic political world-view East Asia and US security Contemporary Africa Latin America-United States
Copra, Edward R.
This article describes "Hands On," a research project employing interactive computer/videodisc technology to teach English to deaf children with American Sign Language (ASL) skills. Elementary school students can read a story in printed English text, watch an ASL-signed version of the story, access a list of vocabulary words, or caption a story…
Montgomery, Rae; Sayre, Scott
This bibliography lists 360 monographs, journal articles, research reports, and conference proceedings on interactive videodisc and educational applications of this technology. Materials through December 1988 are included. A sidebar provides background on interactive video technology. (MES)
Renshaw, Sharon M.; Beadenkopf, F. Scott; Murray, Rodney
An interactive videodisc program on the process of administering medications to clients will be demonstrated. Discussion will center on the strengths and limitations of interactive video for teaching psychomotor skills to healthcare professionals as well as design modifications that will facilitate this process. Interactive videodisc technology provides an exciting new medium for teaching psychomotor clinical skills to health care professionals. It is a particularly valuable approach for complex skills which involve visualization of motor activities and extensive client assessments.
Mitchell, J A; Bridges, A J; Reid, J C; Cutts, J H; Hazelwood, S; Sharp, G C
AI/LEARN/Rheumatology is a level three videodisc system to teach clinical observational skills in three important diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The AI/LEARN software was developed on an independent authoring system called GALE designed for MS-DOS based computers. The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary data about the efficacy of teaching by the use of an interactive videodisc system as evaluated by examinations centered upon disease-oriented learning objectives and by attitude questionnaires. We tested the efficacy of the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology system using both medical students and residents taking the rheumatology elective. Data collected were on learning, attitudes, and ranking of curricular elements of the rotation. We kept records on the student time and search path through the interactive videodisc system. Control data were collected during 1990, before the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology program was available. Data for the treatment groups were collected during 1991 and 1992, while the trainees used the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology system. The basic difference between the control year and the treatment year curricula was the substitution of AI/LEARN/Rheumatology for three hours of lecture covering the three target diseases. AI/LEARN/Rheumatology was as effective as traditional methods of instruction as measured by scores on a multiple choice test. Student and resident learning was related to the time spent on the system. Students and residents ranked the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology system as the single most helpful learning tool in their 8 week rheumatology block, ranking it above the examination of patients.
Frames, Animations The bulk of text on the videodisc will come from a video character generator (CG). We use a Fernseh (Telemation) Compositor I. A number...used the Compositor graphics digitizer for some of the graphics/ animations. An example is a highly detailed animated bus on the ARI disc. Another...considering in some applications. Art, photos, slides or video intended to be used with compositor need to be considered carefully to be certain they work
Mitchell, J. A.; Bridges, A. J.; Reid, J. C.; Cutts, J. H.; Hazelwood, S.; Sharp, G. C.
AI/LEARN/Rheumatology is a level three videodisc system to teach clinical observational skills in three important diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The AI/LEARN software was developed on an independent authoring system called GALE designed for MS-DOS based computers. The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary data about the efficacy of teaching by the use of an interactive videodisc system as evaluated by examinations centered upon disease-or...
Irvin, L K; Walker, H M; Noell, J; Singer, G H; Irvine, A B; Marquez, K; Britz, B
This article describes the development of a microcomputer-based videodisc assessment prototype for measuring children's social skills. The theoretical and empirical foundations for the content are described, and the contributions of interactive microcomputer-based video technology to assessment of children with handicaps are detailed. An application of Goldfried and D'Zurilla's "behavior-analytic" approach to development of the content of assessments is presented, and the related video and computer technology development is detailed. The article describes the conceptual foundations of the psychometrics of the assessment prototype as well as the psychometric methodology that was employed throughout the development process. Finally, a discussion of the potential applications and implications of the social skills assessment prototype is included.
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.
This nine-paper collection from a June 1983 Open University (OU) campus workshop in Milton Keynes, England, describes an interactive video project developed for an OU undergraduate course, T252, Introduction to Engineering Materials, and discusses varied aspects of interactive videodisc program development. The following papers are included:…
Campbell, Katy; And Others
Discussion of the use of videodiscs to improve postsecondary teaching focuses on a project at the University of Alberta (Canada) that considered ethical standards in visual anthropology. Topics include identifying teaching examples, accountability, collaboration, integrity, intentionality, authenticity, and dignity and privacy. (LRW)
Ogilvie, R W
Cell Biology and HISTOLOGY (alias Microanatomy, alias Microscopic Anatomy) is a required course for first-year medical and dental students in most health science centers. The traditional approach used in teaching this discipline is to present photomicrographic images of structures to students in lecture using 35 mm slides of fields seen through the microscope. The students then spend many hours viewing and studying specimens of tissues using a light microscope in a laboratory setting. Students in traditional courses of histology spend an inordinate amount of time learning the component structures by attempting to find and identify them in tissue sections using a microscope, where the structure being sought is surrounded by a multitude of other structures with which they are also not familiar. With the recent availability of videodisc stored image libraries of histological samples, it is now possible to study histological principles without the use of the microscope as the primary learning tool. A videodisc entitled " A Photographic Atlas" by S. Downing (published by Image Premastering Services Limited, Minneapolis, MN, 1991) has been incorporated into our histology course. Fifteen videodisc player stations are provided for 150 students. Images are retrieved by students using a bar code scanner attached to a videodisc player (Pioneer CLD-2400). Using this kind of image library, students can now learn basic histological structure, such as cell and tissue types, without the use of a microscope or as a tool for facilitating microscopy. The use of a videodisc library of randomly accessible images simplifies learning the basic components which all organs are composed of by presenting the learner with clear-cut examples to avoid confusion with other structures. However, videodisc players and TV monitors are still not appropriately priced for every student to own. This presents a problem in that the same images studied in class are not available to study and review outside
Cutts, J H; Hazelwood, S E; Mitchell, J A; Bridges, A J; Reid, J C
GALE, a Graphics Assisted Learning Environment, is a computer-based interactive videodisc authoring tool. GALE was created as the authoring package for AI/LEARN/Rheumatology, an independent study system for teaching rheumatology to medical trainees. GALE has potential widespread application beyond rheumatology. Interactive videodisc technology is a prime feature of GALE. Other highlights are: WordPerfect macros which simplify programming, graphics-based large text characters, tracking of user responses, hypertext-like definition capabilities, color coded screens to distinguish between hypertext branches and the mainstream of the course content and ability to overlay text on the video image. GALE runs on a PC-compatible computer with selected Pioneer LaserDisc players. GALE uses WordPerfect 5.1 for text editing and has been designed for use by non-programmers.
Weeks, B.R.; Smith, R.; Snell, J.R.; Hall, S. Mark
The International Veterinary Pathology Slide Bank Videodisc is an archival resource containing more than 12,000 color video images of interest to veterinary and comparative pathologists. To increase the utility of this database, we have developed a HyperCard-based database for Macintosh computers that allows rapid searches of the information associated with the images, and automatic display of specified images. Complex searches are handled using HyperKRS™, an indexing and search utility for H...
you’ll have to put them CAUTION: PRIOR TO PROBING. ITEMS SUCH AS HELMETS. BAYONETS. WEAPONS. AND WEB GEAR SHOULD BE RE- in a form that’ ll help you...remember MOVED AND PLACED TO YOUR REAR. DOG TAGS AND JEWELRY SHOULD BE REMOVED AND PLACED IN EITHER POCKETS OR WEB GEAR PRIOR TO ENTERING. OR UPON them...He.re are the. things you should check oefore everty rit SreO they flash When they are turned on and are bright enough to Do seen. Tires 0 Hoadlifft
Cerva, John R.; And Others
Eight papers cover: optical storage technology; cross-cultural videodisc design; optical disk technology use at the Library of Congress Research Service and National Library of Medicine; Internal Revenue Service image storage and retrieval system; solving business problems with CD-ROM; a laser disk operating system; and an optical disk for…
p-Toluidine (5 g) gave 4-0 g. of the toludide of m.p. 135°. Found: C, 71.5; H, 7.0; N, 6-4. Theory C18H15NO2: C, 71.9;. H, 6.9; N, 6-5. Cyclisation of 1.5 g. of the toluidide gave 1-0 g. of the product of m.p.. 220° after crystallisation from dilute ethanol. Found: C, 78.1; H, 6-4; N, 6.9. Theory CºFiano: C, 784;. H, 6.5; N, 7.0.
Wetzel, C. D.; Radtke, Paul H.; Stern, Hervey W.; Dickieson, Jan; McLachlan, J. C.
Visual forms of instruction are increasingly used as a result of the widespread use of video technologies such as broadcasts, teleconferencing, tapes, videodiscs, and emerging multimedia combinations of computer and digital video technologies. The considerable amount of research that stretches back to early work with film, television, and static visual materials can be of benefit in developing these new forms of instruction. The objective is to present a review of the current research literature regarding the use of dynamic video media in instruction. Research on the following topics was reviewed: general reviews of the effectiveness, acceptance, and costs of several forms of educational television; teaching techniques used effectively with video media; combining visual and verbal information; the effects of motion, animation, and interactivity, the relationship between media perceptions and learning; the effect of various video production techniques on learning; and critical perspectives on learning from media. This review can be used as background material for future research or instructional development efforts concerned with learning from video-based media.
Lomask, Michal S.; Jacobson, Larry; Hafner, Laurin P.
A new assessment of science teachers' knowledge of school lab safety management was developed and tested. The assessment, called the Safety Simulator, is based on Interactive Videodisc (IVD) technology and was developed as part of the Beginning Educator Support and Training program for beginning teachers in Connecticut. The Safety Simulator contains two phases: 1) A walk through the lab room, designed to assess teacher knowledge of current regulations about safety equipment and storage of chemicals; 2) A General science lab activity, performed by four middle school students, designed to assess teacher knowledge of school safety management and his/her ability to monitor students' work. Reliability of scores for the four different categories of school lab safety (Physical facilities, Chemicals. Lab techniques and Students' behavior), examined by calculating the mean correlation coefficients among three different scorers, was found to be moderate to high. Evidence for content and construct validity were studied by examining job relatedness, safety expert judgment, and by comparing the performance of known groups.
Experiments on using Instructional Television. Most experiments compare instruction using TV, with the conventional classroom instruction by the teacher. The findings are clear. ... scientific reliability, and all of these showed no significant difference.
Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15
Joel O Wertheim
Full Text Available Great strides have been made in understanding the evolutionary history of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV and the zoonoses that gave rise to HIV-1 and HIV-2. What remains unknown is how long these SIVs had been circulating in non-human primates before the transmissions to humans. Here, we use relaxed molecular clock dating techniques to estimate the time of most recent common ancestor for the SIVs infecting chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys, the reservoirs of HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. The date of the most recent common ancestor of SIV in chimpanzees is estimated to be 1492 (1266-1685, and the date in sooty mangabeys is estimated to be 1809 (1729-1875. Notably, we demonstrate that SIV sequences sampled from sooty mangabeys possess sufficient clock-like signal to calibrate a molecular clock; despite the differences in host biology and viral dynamics, the rate of evolution of SIV in sooty mangabeys is indistinguishable from that of its human counterpart, HIV-2. We also estimate the ages of the HIV-2 human-to-human transmissible lineages and provide the first age estimate for HIV-1 group N at 1963 (1948-1977. Comparisons between the SIV most recent common ancestor dates and those of the HIV lineages suggest a difference on the order of only hundreds of years. Our results suggest either that SIV is a surprisingly young lentiviral lineage or that SIV and, perhaps, HIV dating estimates are seriously compromised by unaccounted-for biases.
Hagman, A; Wennerholm, U-B; Källén, K; Barrenäs, M-L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K; Hanson, C; Bryman, I
The aim was to identify maternal risk factors in women giving birth to girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to describe the characteristics of newborns with TS. The Swedish Genetic Turner Register was cross-linked with the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Between 1973 and 2005, 494 children with TS were born. Maternal age, parity, height, smoking habits and neonatal characteristics; mode of delivery, gestational age, size at birth and Apgar score, were compared with women in the general population who gave birth to girls during the same period. More women with advanced maternal age (40+) delivered girls with TS, 3.2% when compared with 1.8% in the general population [OR 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-3.08, after adjustment for year of birth]. Maternal height was inversely associated with TS pregnancies (P = 0.005). Late preterm birth occurred in newborns with TS in 10.5% when compared with 4.8% in the general population (OR 2.23; 95% CI: 1.67-2.97, after adjustment for year of birth and maternal age). Newborns with TS had birthweight less than -2SD in 17.8% and birth length less than -2SD in 21.0% when compared with 3.5 and 3.4%, in the general population (OR 6.55; 95% CI: 5.12-8.38 and OR 8.69; 95% CI: 6.89-10.97, after adjustment for year of birth and maternal age). Advanced maternal age and short stature were risk factors for giving birth to a girl with TS. More TS girls were born late preterm and were smaller for gestational age than non-TS girls in the general population.
Parker, Carolyn Ann
My study examined the experiences of eight seventh and eighth grade girls of Central American descent, in and out of the science classroom. The study was interpretive in design and explored the question, "How did the eight participants understand and make meaning of science?" Guided by a sociocultural perspective and a socially critical stance, I explored issues of educational access, particularly to science, mediated by the relationships and experiences formed by families, peers, science classrooms, schools, and society. Data sources included monthly individual interviews, regular focus group meetings, school observations, and interviews with teachers and family members. Findings include the importance of school science experiences that emphasize hands-on activities and the study of topics relevant to students' everyday lives. School influences that I discuss include English-as-a-Second Language learning, English language ability and its effect on classroom interactions, ability grouping, standardized testing, and teachers' instructional practices. Out-of-school influences I examine include the national science education reform movement, familial expectations, and society and the media's portrayal of science and the scientist. The implications and recommendations of the study are particularly germane to practice. Recommendations for the science classroom include a continued emphasis on hands-on science experiences that incorporate high academic expectations for all students, including second-language learners. Moreover, curriculum should be connected and relevant to students' everyday experiences. Recommendations for outside-the-science classroom include a thoughtful examination of the educational environment created by a school's tracking policy and continued support of meaningful professional development experiences for teachers. Future research and the subsequent development of theory should include a further analysis of the influence of gender, ethnicity
Franklin T. Thompson
Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.
Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas
In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…
Full Text Available Beyond promoting a mode of ethnographic inquiry that is conceptually informed and rigorously attentive to the actualities of human lived experience, this article encourages a more sustained, comparative analysis of the ways that administrators and instructors deal with education as a collectively developed venture. After (a establishing an analytic frame for a more comprehensive approach to education as a socially engaged process, this article focuses on (b the administration of educational programs and (c providing instruction as activity “in the making,” using an ethnographic study of two Protestant Christian seminaries as an empirical, illustrative case. While providing an agenda for examining the ways that people generate and sustain instructional ventures in any educational context, the material presented here also represents an important focal point for theoretically, conceptually, and methodologically integrating research that attends to the ways that instructional (administrative and teaching activities are accomplished in practice.
Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise
Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....
Sardu, Claudia; Mereu, Alessandra; Sotgiu, Alessandra; Contu, Paolo
Although community participation is a component of community empowerment, it often remains a theoretical exhortation. Reporting experiences which enable people to take control of their lives, can be useful to suggest practical elements for promoting empowerment. This article describes the experience of a Sardinian village (Ulassai), that developed into a community empowerment. The Laverack's operational domains were used to measure the community empowerment process. The process started in 1979 'almost by chance' with an art performance that was the entry point for community participation. This experience has been the foundation for the community empowerment. Citizens acquired the 'ability of thinking and planning as a community and not mere individuals'. In the following 30 years citizens gave birth to several outcomes rooted in that event. The intermediate outcomes highlight the 'ability of action by a group to mobilize existing resources, and act collectively against opposing forces'. The long-term outcomes demonstrate the 'ability to integrate the cultural experiences that strengthened the community's identification into a sustainable community asset', and the 'ability to cope with global environmental challenges and to collaborate on an equal basis with other stakeholders. The pathways to community empowerment, showed by the community of Ulassai, overlap with the 'operational domains'. The Ulassai experience shows that the empowerment process can start from an event apparently unrelated to health promotion. This community experience illustrates the positive role arts can play in community development. Hence, the call for health promoters to look carefully into those situations that occur naturally in communities.
Full Text Available Asylum seekers are considered to be a particularly vulnerable group with respect to HIV. Data on the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers, however, are scarce. The aim of this study is to map the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers who gave birth in The Netherlands.We used a nationwide electronic medical records database from the community health services for asylum seekers (MOA. The study population consisted of 4,854 women and girls who delivered in asylum reception between 2000 and 2008. A unique electronic health data base was used and case allocation was based on ICPC-codes.The number of women and girls that was HIV positive during their last pregnancy was 80, of which 79 originated from sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence for women from this region of origin (3.4% was high compared to women from all other regions of origin (0.04%; OR = 90.2; 95%CI 12.5-648.8. The highest HIV prevalence rates were found for women from Rwanda (17.0% and Cameroon (13.2%. HIV prevalence rates were higher among women who arrived in reception without partner (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 0.75-4.44 and unaccompanied minors (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.79-8.49, compared to women who arrived in reception with partner.We conclude that, among asylum-seeking women from sub-Saharan Africa giving birth in The Netherlands, the HIV prevalence is high compared to the host population. For women from other regions of origin, the prevalence is at the same level as in the host population. The high HIV prevalence underlines the importance of preventive interventions and voluntary HIV testing for sub-Saharan African asylum seekers as from shortly after arrival.
Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Leskinen, Esko; Torppa, Minna; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka
This study examined the longitudinal associations between children's academic skills and the instructional support teachers gave individual students. A total of 253 Finnish children were tested on reading and math skills twice in the first grade and once in the second grade. The teachers of these children rated the instructional support that they…
Aird, Andrew; Tomera, Audrey
Sixth grade students were divided into two groups. Students in one group received instruction on water conservation using expository and discovery activities. The students in the control group received none. Results gave evidence that students' values could be changed by this mode of water conservation instruction. (MA)
Lohr, L. L.
Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…
Larsen, Peter Stein
Mens Caspar Erics debutdigtsamling, " 7/ 11", fra sidste år var præget af en stil, hvor der i en hæsblæsende strøm blev refereret til Facebook, You-Tube, iPhone, mp3, Macbook, Twitter og Netflix, frem for at man fik noget at vide om, hvad der rørte sig i ... ......Mens Caspar Erics debutdigtsamling, " 7/ 11", fra sidste år var præget af en stil, hvor der i en hæsblæsende strøm blev refereret til Facebook, You-Tube, iPhone, mp3, Macbook, Twitter og Netflix, frem for at man fik noget at vide om, hvad der rørte sig i ... ...
career or even joining the highly coveted Indian Administrative. Services (IAS), it was not necessary to study science. Therefore, my wish to move from a girls' school where no science (except. 'domestic science') or higher mathematics courses were offered, to another where I would be able to study these subjects, was not.
Reigeluth, Charles M.; Merrill, M. David
Describes three classes of variables which should be considered when one is designing instructional materials, doing research on instruction, or developing better methods of instruction, and proposes a classification scheme which is summarized in the last of the 13 figures that illustrate the article. A blbliography is included. (Author/RAO)
Production Sheet No. Lesson Segment SMPTE( ) to Compositor Cartridge-Page _Estimated time (second) Branch on To GRAPHICS: __Prop _Art __Photo No. NOTES VIDEO...Still __Motion Tape( ) to NOTES COMPOSITOR : ’External __Text _Animation NOTES STUDIO: _Split __Quad _Window _Highlight NOTES PROGRAMMING: Stop Calc...SMPTE( ) to Compositor Cartridge-Page Estimated time (second) Branch on To GRAPHICS: _Prop _Art _Photo No. NOTES VIDEO: __Still _Motion Tape( ) to NOTES
machine. Turing’s computer ( Colossus ), using vacuum tubes instead of telephone relays, was used to break these random letter codes. After nine ver- sions...of Colossus were built and by wars end the British were able to unscramble German secret codes in a matter of a few minutes. By the mid 1940s vacuum... Rhode Island, Vermont, and New Hampshire. SOUTH CENTRAL (n=100) 30% Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland
Jones, Edmund; Sweeting, Michael J; Sharp, Stephen J; Thompson, Simon G
A case-cohort study is an efficient epidemiological study design for estimating exposure-outcome associations. When sampling of the subcohort is stratified, several methods of analysis are possible, but it is unclear how they compare. Our objective was to compare five analysis methods using Cox regression for this type of data, ranging from a crude model that ignores the stratification to a flexible one that allows nonproportional hazards and varying covariate effects across the strata. We applied the five methods to estimate the association between physical activity and incident type 2 diabetes using data from a stratified case-cohort study and also used artificial data sets to exemplify circumstances in which they can give different results. In the diabetes study, all methods except the method that ignores the stratification gave similar results for the hazard ratio associated with physical activity. In the artificial data sets, the more flexible methods were shown to be necessary when certain assumptions of the simpler models failed. The most flexible method gave reliable results for all the artificial data sets. The most flexible method is computationally straightforward, and appropriate whether or not key assumptions made by the simpler models are valid. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The importance of teaching students based on their levels of development and ability, or differentiated instruction, has been used in Language Arts classes increasingly over the last decade. However, it is only recently that attention in research has been given to the use of differentiated instruction in a mathematics lesson. This paper aims to explore what research is being done to not only improve mathematics instruction in the classroom, but to better prepare future teachers for teaching m...
Keefe, James W., Ed.; Jenkins, John M., Ed.
Instructional leadership is the principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to teachers and students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school. This handbook reviews factors affecting that role in four broad domains: keeping informed about trends, planning for instructional improvement, implementing…
Lundeberg, Mary A.
This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.
McCracken, T O; Spurgeon, T L
The goal of the Vesalius Project is a high-resolution, interactive 3-D atlas of human/animal anatomy, stored on a laser videodisc and displayed on graphics workstations--an an "electronic Gray's Anatomy." Students will use this computerized atlas interactively to learn the structure of the body and to understand their own bodies in health and disease. The Human Factors Research Laboratory at Colorado State University has designed and is conducting a comprehensive evaluation program for the project.
Shadab, Parisa; Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Yadegarfar, Ghasem
BACKGROUND: Preconception care is a set of interventions that aim to identify and repair the factors that can affect the outcome of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of receiving preconception care, its relation with recipients’ individuality, fertility, and determining the reason for lack of checkup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted based on simple stratified random quota sampling on 702 women who gave birth in hospitals of Isfahan (Iran) from April to June in 2016. The tool of collecting data was researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 18 using the mean, standard deviation, relativity, and independent Chi-square tests. RESULTS: The results showed that 47.7% of participants had received preconception care. There was a significant relationship between educational levels, income, wanted pregnancy, number of pregnancies, and previous individual delivery with preconception care (P < 0/05). The main reason for the lack of preconception care was unplanned pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicated that the quantity of preconception care is not desirable. Therefore, notifying and sensitizing women of childbearing age is essential to refer to service centers and receiving preconception care and planning to present it to all eligible women before pregnancy care. The main causes of the lack of preconception care can be adjusted through health programs. PMID:29114556
Franklin, Alyssa; Laskin, Daniel M
Although there are Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines for the proper disposal of hazardous waste in the dental office, there are no guidelines for patients regarding the disposal of the gauze packs that are usually placed after tooth extraction or other dental surgery. Thus there is the possibility of cross contamination by patients with undiagnosed blood-transmitted viral diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, instructions are given by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) and if such instructions are adequate. A 5-question survey was sent electronically to 375 randomly selected OMSs, and there was a 17% response. They were asked whether they provided written and verbal postoperative instructions, whether these included instructions about gauze pack disposal, and whether they gave special instructions to patients with known viral diseases such as hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus infection. All respondents indicated that they provided both written and verbal postoperative instructions. However, only 1 respondent's instructions indicated how to dispose of the gauze pack, and only 1 gave special instructions to patients with known viral infections. There is a need for OMSs to provide specific instructions to all patients about the proper disposal of blood-soaked sponges to avoid potential cross contamination. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper highlights the instructional design process followed by the Maricopa Community College faculty in the creation of instructional modules in Digital Visual Literacy. The paper categorizes 10 tasks that an instructional designer, a teacher, or a trainer performs during the design phase of the instructional design process. The importance of…
Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.
Gur, Bekir S; Wiley, David A
.... A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility...
北原, みゆき; 片岡, 沙月; 伊藤, 梓; 松下, 慶子; 山下, 紗也加; 川俣, 幸一
Abstract：It is important for athletes who need stamina to take antioxidants. There are many findings that they can reduce muscular pain and fatigue. They are however,usually taken in the form of supplements and there are few studies on the nutritional instructions to take antioxidant-rich food.This study gave a Japanese male amateur bicyclist nutritional instructions through his team's official blog to increase antioxidant concentrations in his blood. The antioxidants assisted him in diminish...
Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Monica W. Tracey
Full Text Available In an authentic example of linking design and development with learning and performance, an international real estate development firm defined a problem; implementing a cleaning system in the largest mall in the world with a cross-cultural unskilled work force in Dubai, UAE. Partnering with a university instructional design team employing a rapid prototyping methodology and the constructivist ID approach, Layers of Negotiation Model, a comprehensive curriculum was designed. This article describes the project background, initial design, the ID team's work in Dubai, illustrates the product, and summarizes the design experience.
Jerković Ljiljana S.
Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B
Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2015
In this webinar, long-time educator and developer of education technology Michael Jay discussed the importance of using technology to support learning and gave examples of how teachers can integrate technology into their instruction based on the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. The PowerPoint presentation and…
Roytek, Margaret A.
Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…
Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…
Lowyck, Joost; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine
Learners are active actors in learning environments and not mere consumers of instructional designers' products. In line with mediating paradigm instructional conceptions of students are analysed. These conceptions act as cognitive filters that affect students' use of both instructional interventions and support in learning environments. To gain…
Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale
Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…
Vitalone-Raccaro, Nancy A.
The national focus on teacher accountability and the resulting emphasis on raising the bar for teacher evaluations challenge teachers of students with learning disabilities (LD) to rethink instructional design and delivery. In response to these challenges, this article introduces a two-part protocol for planning and teaching strategy instruction…
Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.
Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…
van der Meij, Hans
This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were
Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…
includes evaluative essays on mental measurement and the contributions of E. L. Thorndike, Piaget, Freud , Skinner, and others. A recent book edited by...as a private audio visual aid. Instructional Science, 1980, 9, 295-309. Paolitto, D. P. The effect of cross-age tutoring on adolescence : An inquiry
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.
Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…
Please note that the Safety Instruction No 43 (IS 43) entitled "ASBESTOS - DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS" is available on the web at the following URL: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335809/LAST_RELEASED/ Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC secretariat, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. SC Secretariat
Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies
For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of
Martino, Sal; Odle, Teresa
An ASRT task force on new educational delivery methods produced research and resources to guide publication of a white paper titled New Models, New Tools: The Role of Instructional Technology in Radiologic Science Education. This special report summarizes the white paper findings.
Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.
Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…
Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan
This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…
Nelson, Wayne A.; Palumbo, David B.
Examines the psychological basis of hypermedia as a medium for learning, surveys the characteristics of current hypermedia systems, and suggests ways to make hypermedia systems more valuable as instructional environments. Highlights include parallels between human memory and hypermedia architectures; and hypermedia as knowledge presentation,…
Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan
This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…
Sizemore, Barbara; And Others
A group of three conference papers, all addressing effective instructional programs, is presented in this document. The first paper, entitled "The Organization--A Viable Instrument for Progress" (Barbara Sizemore), addresses the subject of high-achieving, predominantly black elementary schools. Routines in these schools not present in…
Matthews, Denise; Reiss, John G.
An instructional videoconference (IVC) is an interactive delivery mechanism for long-distance communication and education, which uses 2-way audio and 1- or 2-way video to facilitate interaction between presenters and learners who are separated by significant distance. This guide, intended for the staff of federal, state, and local programs that…
Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih
Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…
Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.
Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss
Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako
We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...
Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…
Sahin, Mehmet Can
This study proposes a new approach to the Instructional Design field. By the constructivism, education systems are moving from a massive structure to the more learner centered and more individualist structure. So far, ID field has adopted and digested the individualism notion partly. This paper proposes an individualistic approach to the…
Gender based learning has become an acceptable facet of the differentiated classroom. The female learner has unique needs that can be addressed through differentiated instruction. There are distinct differences between men and women. These differences effect how females approach learning as well as how they retain information. "A fundamental…
A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…
In this article, the author talks about George Orwell, his instructive errors, and the manner in which Orwell pierced worthless theory, faced facts and defended decency (with fluctuating success), and largely ignored the tradition of accumulated wisdom that has rendered him a timeless teacher--one whose inadvertent lessons, while infrequently…
Deeney, Theresa A.
Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…
Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von
Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…
Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to
Spector, J. Michael; And Others
Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…
Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William
This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…
Please note that a revised version of Safety Instruction No. 36 (IS 36), entitled "Safety rules for the use of static magnetic fields at CERN" is available on the Web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335801/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit secretariat (e-mail : email@example.com) SC Secretariat
Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.
Buck, Michael D; Sowell, Ryan T; Kaech, Susan M; Pearce, Erika L
Choices have consequences. Immune cells survey and migrate throughout the body and sometimes take residence in niche environments with distinct communities of cells, extracellular matrix, and nutrients that may differ from those in which they matured. Imbedded in immune cell physiology are metabolic pathways and metabolites that not only provide energy and substrates for growth and survival, but also instruct effector functions, differentiation, and gene expression. This review of immunometabolism will reference the most recent literature to cover the choices that environments impose on the metabolism and function of immune cells and highlight their consequences during homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Célia D.S. Bell
Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.
Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.; Dumolin, J. R.; Singh, J. P.
The use of television in schools as an aid to instruction is proposed for individualized instruction, repetition for slow learners, acceleration for fast learners, and lectures from the best teachers for all students. A dedicated school district cable system, a 40 channel cable to each school and classroom, is considered. This innovation offers an opportunity for improving the quality and content of the school's instruction and for reducing the cost.
Borghans, L.; Diris, R.E.M.
There exists substantial variation in how schools allocate instruction time to school subjects. The effectiveness of that allocation depends on the immediate effect of instruction in one subject on achievement in the same subject, on how skills further develop over time, and on possible spillover
Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik
Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…
Garrett, Kristi N.; Benson, Angela D.
From a quantitative perspective, this study examined the instructional design knowledge of higher education instructors and others within the instructional design/technology arena who are members of a global educational based Internet forum. Results showed significant difference in opinions between genders, where males were more inclined to…
This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…
Hvordan er forholdet mellem orden og udvikling i et byrumligt perspektiv? Et overskudsrum under én af Sao Paulos mange motorveje giver et bud på en rumlig orden, hvor menneskelige relationer, bevægelsesfrihed og genbrug af byens skrald og vraggods er i centrum....
Full Text Available Although the flora of Africa is rather poor in plant species when compared to the floras of Tropical America or South-east Asia, this vast continent is the home of a wide range of plants useful to Man. Many of these have become famous in cultivation around the world. Coffee now provides an important source of income for certain countries, and the Yams yield one of the world’s staple foods. The Oil Palm and Cola trees are widely cultivated in Africa itself and elsewhere. African Mahoganies and Ironwoods are much sought after timber trees of excellent quality. Numerous grasses and pulses are well-known for their food value, and some of the native Cucurbitaceae are appreciated additions to our vegetable diet. African plants have also made their contribution to horticulture, ranging from world-famous trees such as the African or Gabon Tulip tree and many of the South African species of Proteaceae to the multitude of East and South African succulents. The present paper provides a survey of the most important of these useful plants and will emphasize the need of further research for forestry and agricultural as well as horticultural purposes, especially as far as some still little-known but potentially important plants species are concerned.
Halacy, D. S
...: Ernst Mach and his number, Gergor Mendel and his laws, Christian Johann Doppler and his effect, Hans Geiger and his radiation counter, Nicholas Sadi Carnot and thermodynamics, Gustave, Gaspard de...
Teaching anatomy is becoming increasingly challenging due to the progressive evolution of university teaching missions, student populations, medical and undergraduate curricula, coupled with a paucity of empirically tested evidence-based instructional practices in the anatomical and medical education literature. As a mechanism to confront these pedagogical challenges, recent advances in educational psychology are analyzed for developing a framework to guide educational reform efforts. Extensive research in educational psychology over the last 100 years has resulted in four major theories on human learning that have facilitated a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered classrooms and are described here in temporal order of development: behavioral theory, information processing theory, metacognitive theory, and social constructivist theory. Each theory is analyzed in detail and is used to construct instructional design principles for enhancing anatomical education research and practice. An example of a cognitively based learning environment for an undergraduate anatomy course is presented. Preliminary results suggest that intentionally drawing on different theories of learning when making instructional decisions gave students the learning support they needed to be successful and nearly doubled the course's student retention rate over a 3-year period.
Hamel, Cheryl J.; Ryan-Jones, David
Discussion of online learning and standards for web-based and computer-based courseware focuses on learning objects, defined here as small, stand-alone units of instruction that can be tagged with descriptors and stored for reuse in various instructional contexts. Presents principles of learning object design and guidelines for assuring that…
Tennyson, Robert D.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying research variables for concept acquisition into a generalized instructional model for teaching concepts. This paper does not present the methodology for the decision/selection stages in designing the actual instruction task, but offers references to other sources which give…
Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others
Distinguishes between the process and products of science and describes the role of each in Instructional Development (ID). The observe, hypothesize, test components of the scientific process are examined as they apply to front-end analysis, instructional strategy description, and formative evaluation stages used in ID models. Thirty-four…
Li, Ming-Fen; Reigeluth, Charles M.
The discussion of the critical analysis of instructional design is framed within Habermas' three fundamental human interests: technical, practical, and emancipatory. The primary goal of this paper is to explore alternative approaches for instructional designers' reflection and critique. Ultimately, this reflection and critique should shed light on…
Hopcus, Sharron; Armstrong, Ivan J.
This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…
Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias
This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction exchan...
Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.
Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…
LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.
PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…
Cronnell, Bruce; Humes, Ann
One of the most valuable uses of microcomputers and word processors in composition instruction is in the teaching of writing revision. A number of activities can be carried out with these tools; for example, (1) after appropriate instruction on revision, students can be given prewritten text and asked to revise it on the word processors; (2) after…
Low achievement on standardized tests may be attributed to many factors, including teaching methods. Differentiated instruction has been identified as a teaching method using different learning modalities that appeal to varied student interests with individualized instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare whole-group…
Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.
Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.
Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.
ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....
Kumar, David D.
Explores the potential for using Intelligent Educational Systems (IES) for anchoring instruction in macro contexts in science education. Topics include anchored instruction; situated cognition; problem solving; cognitivism; interactive video environments; and examples of combining IES and anchored instruction. (LRW)
Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut
The key to successful learning in most formal instructional settings is effective instructional design (ID). Instructional design for teachers serves as an organized source of directions, which can help classroom teachers to integrate available resources to improve students‘ acquisition of the instructional goals. The book is consisted of 151 pages (+xvii) covering eight chapters which address a commonsense model of instructional design to guide K-12 teachers during their unique instructional...
Describes development of a learning module for students studying foreign languages, which usually depicts social behavior between the foreign language nationals to teach communicative competence in face-to-face interactions between nationals and students. Marketing of the module, which was first produced on videotape and later on interactive…
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of Ernst Meyer's group instruction in relation to frontal instruction. In this paper, the following three points are analyzed. (1) In the historical development of German didactics, how Ernst Meyer's group instruction is positioned is clarified. (2) Ernst Meyer's frontal instruction and the form of his instruction are clarified, and the position of Ernst Meyer's group instruction in the theory of the instructional form is analyzed. (...
Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Singer, Neal
An instructional robotics laboratory that is unique in the United States was created in 1984 at the University of New Mexico. Descriptions of the laboratory, course work offered, student projects, and other areas are provided. (JN)
Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)
A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.
Murray, William R; Sams, Michelle; Belleville, Michael
This intelligent tools and instructional simulations project was an investigation into the utility of a knowledge-based performance support system to support learning and on-task performance for using...
Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger
A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)
Reviews relevant professional literature concerning hypermedia environments and adaptive instruction for online learning for distance education and continuing education. Highlights include aptitude-treatment interaction; cognitive processes; navigational paths; log files; and intelligent tutors. Contains 125 references. (LRW)
.... While distance learning has been demonstrated to be an effective and efficient tool for increased access it also requires greater emphasis on instructional design and instructor training to obtain satisfactory results...
Xiao, Lu; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hong-cai
To determine the extent to which Chinese medical (CM) journals incorporate Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) into their "instruction to authors". We reviewed the latest "instruction to authors" of the CM journals in China which indexed by MEDLINE in 2010 or Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) in 2012 and extracted all information of CONSORT, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), other reporting guidelines or clinical trial registration. By reading the instructions to authors and reviewing recent studies published in those journals, those that do not publish clinical trials were excluded. We also contacted each of journals by telephone on contributor's status to ask them whether mentioned CONSORT in their instructions and incorporated it into their editorial and peer-review process. Full-text papers of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, from January 2011 to March 2012) published in the journals which mentioned "CONSORT" in their instructions for authors were downloaded. Seven CM journals were included. Three of these journals mentioned CONSORT in its instructions. By telephone survey, all journals gave responses and all respondents knew CONSORT statement. Three of 7 journals required authors to comply with the CONSORT statement and provide the CONSORT checklist and a flow chart of the trial. The rest 4 journals recommended authors of RCTs to refer to the CONSORT statement. From January 2011 to March 2012, a total of 50 RCTs were obtained from the 3 journals endorsing the CONSORT statement; 17 (17/50, 34%) contained a flow diagram in their manuscript, and none of those RCTs had mentioned the trial registration information. The endorsement of CONSORT by CM journals' "instruction to authors" was not satisfactory. The spread of CONSORT endorsement should be wider in instructing the performance of CM clinical trials in the future. Chinese journals should introduce CONSORT to their authors and require authors to comply with
Join a fellow instructional designer, Dr. Dave Ernst, now Chief Information Officer of the College of Education and Human Development at University of Minnesota, in exploring possibilities for incorporating open educational resources in your instructional design philosophy and work. Learn how you can make a difference by supporting faculty exploring or interested in developing or redesigning their courses. Discussion topics include: Open and OER - what it is and what it isn't; how to attribut...
The Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based System for Managing the Design and Pilot-Testing of Interactive Videodisc Programs. Training and Development Research Center, Project Number Forty-Three.
Sayre, Scott Alan
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based system that would allow interactive video developers to integrate and manage the design components prior to production. These components of an interactive video (IVD) program include visual information in a variety of formats, audio information, and instructional techniques,…
Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank
Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…
Those involved in instructional technology in higher education are urged to view instructional technology as a means of improving academic productivity. Instructional technology has been used for over forty years to analyze instructional problems and design solutions that reduce costs and improve learning outcomes. The Pew Program in Course…
Reasons seem to include a lack of proper teacher training in comprehension instruction, teachers remaining unconvinced about the value of strategy instruction, and concerns that strategy instruction is time consuming and difficult to learn and teach. This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction ...
The purpose of this study was to identify the instructional coaching activities most used by instructional coaches in southeast Texas school districts and to test if there was a relationship between the use of instructional coaching and perceived improvement in the instructional practices of teachers and student achievement. The participants for…
Weiner, Kimberly Beth
As of 2007, 718,119 instructional assistants were employed in the United States (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009b). Of those instructional assistants, 373,466 were classified as full-time special education instructional assistants (Data Accountability Center, 2009a). As the employment of instructional assistants continues to grow,…
Taylor, Barbara Kline
Modeling differentiated instruction is one way to demonstrate how educators can incorporate instructional strategies to address students' needs, interests, and learning styles. This article discusses how secondary teacher candidates learn to focus on content--the "what" of instruction; process--the "how" of instruction;…
Reese, M; Hatcher, R A
Guidelines are provided for women who use minipills. Minipills are low dose, progestin only oral contraceptives (OC), which are frequently prescribed for women who 1) experience estrogen related side effects if they take combined OCs; 2) are 35 years of age or older; 3) are 30 years of age or aver and smoke; 4) have a history of headaches, hypertension, or varicose veins; 5) desire immediate postpartum protection; or 6) are lactating. Minipills prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and implantation and by making the cervical mucus more impervious to sperm penetration. Minipills can be effective if they are used properly. Women who take minipills should be advised to carefully read and follow the instructions provided in the OC packet, initiate pill taking on the 1st day of menstrual bleeding, and take 1 pill every day without and breaks. A backup method should be used during the 1st month and subsequently, during each midcycle phase. If a woman misses 1 pill, she should immediately, upon remembering, take a pill, take her next day's pill at regular time, and use a backup method until menstruation reoccurs. If a woman misses 2 pills, she should immediately, upon remembering, take 2 pills, take 2 pills the following day, and use a backup method until menstruation begins. Women should be advised that many minipill users experience irregular menstural cycles, including amenorrhea and spotting between periods. If menstruation is delayed for 45 days, a pregnancy test is advisable. Women should be advised to immediately seek medical attention if they experience severe chest pain, shortness breath, severe headaches, vision problems, or severe leg pain. Minipill users should let their clinicians know if they experience and changes in mood or sexual drive. These problems can frequently be avoided by switching to another brand of minipills.
Child, Angela R.
Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...
FDA has developed standardized, simplified instructions for all brands of combined estrogen and progestogen oral contraceptives (OCs) to help reduce unplanned pregnancies. FDA asked manufacturers in April to incorporate these changes into patient package inserts as soon as possible. Since current instructions vary significantly from brand to brand, problems can occur when women switch brands and compare instructions. If they become confused, women may either take the pills incorrectly or stop altogether, risking an unwanted pregnancy. In addition to reducing patients' confusion about correct use, the new recommended instructions reflect current research on the effective use of OCs. An important change concerns when women should start taking pills. The new instructions provide only 2 options (current instructions provide more): either start on day 1 of the next normal menstrual cycle ("Day 1 Start") or on the 1st Sunday after the next cycle begins ("Sunday Start"). Although the "Sunday Start" option is popular, the "Day 1 Start" has been shown to be more effective since back-up contraceptive methods are not required for the 1st week, as they are for the "Sunday Start." Other changes in the patient package insert simplify and clarify the instructions when different numbers of pills are missed. Any patient who is unsure about what to do when pills are missed is told to use a back-up method of birth control and to keep taking pills with hormones until she van consult with a health professional. The new labeling also advises women to consult a health professional regarding other methods of contraception if taking a daily pill is a problem. These new directions for patients are for combination pills and do not apply to progestin-only OCs. FDA is still developing new labeling for them. FDA's Fertility and Maternal Health Advisory Committee recommended on FEb. 8, 1991, that the agency ask manufacturers of OCs to make these changes in the patient package insert. full text
Pan, Michael; Harcharik, Sara; Moskalenko, Marina; Luber, Adam; Bernardo, Sebastian; Levitt, Jacob
Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals, to avoid accidental occupational injury. This study investigates whether watching an instructional video improves medical students' ability to perform venepuncture safely. This was a randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded trial that evaluated the utility of an instructional video, with the primary outcome of the ability to perform venepuncture safely. Forty-two second-year medical students were recruited and randomised to receive either video instruction (group A, n = 20) or no intervention (group B, n = 22). Prior to the study, all students attended an instructor-led workshop on venepuncture. During the study, students were paired and instructed to perform venepuncture on a partner. Performance was assessed using a points-based checklist. Pre- and post-study surveys were conducted to assess confidence with technique. The mean total checklist score was higher in group A than in group B, with values of 14.15 and 9.18, respectively (p video performed venepuncture more effectively and reported greater confidence with the technique. Medical students can benefit from having access to an instructional video on venepuncture as an adjunct to the standard curriculum. Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Describes possible future uses of multimedia computers for instructional applications. Highlights include databases; publishing; telecommunications; computers and videocassette recorders (VCRs); audio and video digitizing; video overlay, or genlock; still-image video; videodiscs and CD-ROM; and hypermedia. (LRW)
Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A
An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner
Henry, Nick; Jackson, Carrie N.; Dimidio, Jack
This study investigates the role of prosodic cues and explicit information (EI) in the acquisition of German accusative case markers. We compared 4 groups of 3rd-semester learners (low intermediate level) who completed 1 of 4 Processing Instruction (PI) treatments that manipulated the presence or absence of EI and focused prosody. The results…
Munodawafa, D; Marty, P J; Gwede, C
This demonstration project used student nurses (n = 12) on community deployment to provide health instruction among rural school-age populations in Zimbabwe. A quasi-experimental (pre- and post-test), non-equivalent control group design was used and consisted of 141 school pupils in the intervention group and 144 pupils in the comparison group (N = 285). The curriculum focused on prevention of STDs, HIV/AIDS and drugs (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana). A gain in health knowledge scores among the intervention group was reported at post-test. More than 70% of the pupils who received health instruction from student nurses gave a high approval rating of student nurses' performance. Further, student nurses, teachers and tutors all support school health instruction by student nurses although tutors and teachers differ on teaching about condoms.
Pontoppidan, Birgitte Schou; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
of the study presented is to contribute to the further development of the local PDS initiative, examine how the PDS setting can frame first year pre-service science teachers’ inquiries and understand their learning through such authentic instructional tasks. Two examples, which meet the five criteria...... for an authentic instructional task, are presented. Ten students were asked to describe their experiences of working with these tasks during repeated interviews. They refer to concrete examples of school students’ activities and/or learning when reflecting on their own learning and to dialogue with school students....... The small groups gave the student teachers the opportunity to get on a level with the school students. They also refer to the iterative dimension and the importance of formative assessment. Based on the evaluative criteria it may be concluded that the two examples are successful models for authentic...
Pontoppidan, Birgitte; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
of the study presented is to contribute to the further development of the local PDS initiative, examine how the PDS setting can frame first year pre-service science teachers’ inquiries and understand their learning through such authentic instructional tasks. Two examples, which meet the five criteria...... for an authentic instructional task, are presented. Ten students were asked to describe their experiences of working with these tasks during repeated interviews. They refer to concrete examples of school students’ activities and/or learning when reflecting on their own learning and to dialogue with school students....... The small groups gave the student teachers the opportunity to get on a level with the school students. They also refer to the iterative dimension and the importance of formative assessment. Based on the evaluative criteria it may be concluded that the two examples are successful models for authentic...
Shaw, Robert A.
Universal design for instruction (UDI) is an approach to course design that seeks to create an appropriate learning environment for all students, including those with disabilities. This approach also helps other students to learn the course material in ways most appropriate to their individual learning needs. When done well, this approach has…
Moore, Patrick; Fitz, Chad
Offers a brief overview of Gestalt theory. Shows how six Gestalt principles (proximity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground segregation, good continuation, and similarity) can be applied to improve a reader's comprehension of a badly designed instruction module that uses several graphics. (SR)
Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.
Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the
Reexamines the notion of "teaching." Drawing on data from a range of classrooms, as well as from recently published teaching texts, particular attention is focused on the question: "What do we mean by teaching/instruction?" (eight references) (Author/JL)
Chung, Jaesam; Reigeluth, Charles M.
Discussion of learner control in instructional management describes six learner control methods: (1) content control; (2) sequence control; (3) pace control; (4) display or strategy control; (5) internal processing control; and (6) advisor strategies. Relevant literature, both theoretical and empirical, is reviewed, and learner control and…
Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob
To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…
Ely, D.P.; Ely, Donald P.; Plomp, T.
This paper describes the selection process of 17 articles for inclusion in the book, "Classic Writings on Instructional Technology." The book brings together original "classic" educational technology articles into one volume to document the history of the field through its literature. It is also an
Öznacar, Behcet; Osma, Elif
This research, based on observations of teacher candidates in prep school educations and secondary schools the instructional leaders of executive managers who aim at investigating a research study descriptive nature. General screening model is used for the study. The research population in the Near East University in the Faculty of Education,…
Robin, Arthur L.; Cook, Donald A.
Describes a study which measured the effectiveness of a Personalized System of Instruction training package for proctors in undergraduate psychology courses. The package consisted of role-playing and a discussion between the proctor and an instructor-trainer, followed by feedback on actual proctoring experience in the classroom. (Author/AV)
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.
This preliminary draft of instructional materials for an English curriculum offering vocational preparation focuses on grammar concepts, selected vocational English topics, and the use of resource materials. The unit plans contain general and specific behavioral objectives, student activities, and teaching procedures. Information sheets, student…
Wright, Peter H.
A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…
Schumaker, Jean B.
One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 12. Very Long Instruction Word Processors. S Balakrishnan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 12 December 2001 pp 61-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/12/0061-0068 ...
Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina
This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…
A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…
Berkowitz, Jay; Packer, Todd
How would you like to put some "Pow!" into your art instruction? A lesson in comic books--history, design, story, and production--can make your classes come alive. The authors present a new approach to using comics to build artistic skills and involve students in art appreciation. Why Comics? Many art teachers have students who say, "I hate art!"…
Educational Products Information Exchange Inst., Stony Brook, NY.
The problem of sex bias in textbooks, particularly at the elementary level, is treated in this report. Sexism is defined and discussed in relation to the current women's movement. Research findings, as well as examples taken from various texts, indicate sex stereotyping and discrimination in instructional materials. A list of available remedies…
Horner, Beth A.
Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…
Full Text Available According to this study, through leadership training, school principals learn about highqualityinstruction and about actions that they can take to motivate and support their teachers. Principalsthen organize professional learning for their teachers and otherwise help teachers improve their classroompractices. With improved instruction, the theory maintains, student achievement will also improve.Thestudy objective of learning for district and school administrators is guided by a theory of action that isdepicted in Figure 1. As the figure suggests, principals play a key role in the instructional improvementprocess by setting in motion a sequence of school-level behavior changes that make for improved teachingand learning. We want to definitive the method that can be used to improve learning and we named thisprogram - Principles of Learning - this Principles are about concrete actions that professor can take to motivateand support their teachers. Principals are expected to organize professional learning for their teachersas well as to monitor teachers' classroom practices and help them incorporate new behaviors that are inaccordance with the Principles of Learning into their instructional repertory. With improved instruction,the theory holds, student achievement will improve.
Hayes, Gary E.; And Others
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct non-professional dental personnel in selected job-related skills. The first module, by Gary E. Hayes, describes how to locate the hinge axis point of the jaw, place and secure a bitefork, and perform a facebow transfer. The second module,…
Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.
Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…
Today's classrooms are more diverse than ever. In fact, research shows that there will be a steady increase in Hispanic, Asian Americans, and African American students in the coming years. Therefore, differentiated instruction may be the panacea that educators are searching for. This paper commences with an introduction and then segways into a…
Smit, Robbert; Humpert, Winfried
Rural areas in the alpine regions suffer from dwindling student numbers. Differentiated instruction (DI) could help improve the teaching culture by allowing instructors to better adapt to heterogeneous student groups. At the beginning of a combined research and school improvement project, a survey of 162 teachers and 1180 students was conducted to…
Powell, William; Napoliello, Susan
The International School of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, which serves international students in preschool through middle school, focused a great deal of professional attention on differentiation. The administrators in Malaysian school, by making rounds of classrooms, raised teachers' awareness of differentiated instruction.
Teaching Music, 1994
Maintains that use of the Suzuki, Orff, and Dalcroze methods have assisted string teachers in helping music students achieve mastery from the beginning of instruction. Describes how these methods are used by five music teachers. Includes addresses of organizations that provide information about these music teaching methods. CFR)
Challoo, L.; Saldana, J.; Davis, R.; Kupczynski, Lori
This study identifies factors in distance learning that affect the educational excellence of institutions of higher learning. The main elements of this study are: the examination of benefits and disadvantages of implementing online instruction in institutions of higher learning; investigating the factors that contribute to successful web-based…
This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…
Ley, Kathryn; Gannon-Cook, Ruth
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a collaborative design process for selecting instructional graphics and online learner perceptions of graphic appropriateness. At the end of their online graduate course, 9 students ranked how appropriately each of 25 graphics represented 1 of 8 human performance technology…
This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and…
Durham, W. Harry; And Others
This document is one of a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. A system is presented to assist in standardizing the production of lesson plans and instructional materials in the water quality control field. A procedure for selecting appropriate instructional media…
... https://medlineplus.gov/medwords/medicalwordsdownload.html Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions To use the sharing features ... no Internet connection is available. Download: Understanding Medical Words [16MB zip file] Download instructions : Click on the ...
Sartain, Harry W.
Reading instruction for learning disabled students is discussed, with emphasis on the instruction provided by the general classroom teacher and by the reading specialist with cooperation from other personnel. (IM)
Tomal, Daniel R.
Incorporating personality styles into technical instruction can enhance student learning. Four personality styles based on Jung--intuitor, feeler, thinker, and doer--have implications for individualizing technical instruction. (JOW)
Crangle, C.; Suppes, P.; Michalowski, S.
An instructable robot is one that accepts instruction in some natural language such as English and uses that instruction to extend its basic repertoire of actions. Such robots are quite different in conception from autonomously intelligent robots, which provide the impetus for much of the research on inference and planning in artificial intelligence. Examined here are the significant problem areas in the design of robots that learn from vebal instruction. Examples are drawn primarily from our earlier work on instructable robots and recent work on the Robotic Aid for the physically disabled. Natural-language understanding by machines is discussed as well as in the possibilities and limits of verbal instruction. The core problem of verbal instruction, namely, how to achieve specific concrete action in the robot in response to commands that express general intentions, is considered, as are two major challenges to instructability: achieving appropriate real-time behavior in the robot, and extending the robot's language capabilities.
Child, Angela R.
Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…
Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.
Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…
Golden, Diane Cordry
This status report on instructional software accessibility for individuals with disabilities notes current initiatives to further instructional technology accessibility and reports on a survey of 19 major companies producing instructional software. Only two responses reflected awareness of accessibility considerations and all the remaining…
Jones-Carey, Margaret H.
This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…
Naumann, Alexander; Hartig, Johannes; Hochweber, Jan
Valid inferences on teaching drawn from students' test scores require that tests are sensitive to the instruction students received in class. Accordingly, measures of the test items' instructional sensitivity provide empirical support for validity claims about inferences on instruction. In the present study, we first introduce the concepts of…
Salo, Petri; Nylund, Jan; Stjernstrøm, Else
This paper explores the concept of instructional leadership and principals' perceptions of the practices of instructional leadership. Despite the emphasis on the effects of school leadership regarding teaching practices and learning outcomes, research on direct instructional leadership is scarce. It is focused either on identifying overall…
Humphrey, David A.
The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…
Halverson, Richard; Clifford, Matthew
This article explores the idea of distributed instructional leadership as a way to understand instructional leadership practice in comprehensive high schools. Our argument is that distributed leadership analyses allow researchers to uncover and explain how instructional improvement in high schools occurs through the efforts of multiple individuals…
With electronic technologies, differentiated instruction has the same meaning as in traditional instruction, but different tools are available for teachers to help students learn. Electronic technologies for differentiated instruction can add powerful new types of media inclusion, levels of interactivity, and response actions. This rapidly…
Regmi, Kapil Dev
Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…
Vann, Linda S.
Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…
Reiser, Robert A.
Discusses the history of the field of instructional design and technology in the United States. Includes a definition, major features, rational for using instructional design and technology as the label for the field, history of instructional media from 1900 to the present, effects media have had on instructional practices, and the effect…
Nie, Youyan; Tan, Gim Hoon; Liau, Albert Kienfie; Lau, Shun; Chua, Bee Leng
Constructivist instruction has been implemented in the current instructional innovation in Singapore. Large scale survey study was conducted to examine the roles of teacher efficacy in implementing the innovative constructivist instruction. The results showed that the positive correlation between teacher efficacy and constructivist instruction was…
Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.
Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…
Examination of instructional leadership organized into four sections: Reflections on school leadership, definitions of instructional leadership, reviews of two empirical studies on instructional leadership, and conclusions about the development of instructional leaders. (Contains 44 references.) (PKP)
Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.
The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.
Tweed, Mike; Wilkinson, Tim
Marking of multiple choice type examinations often just takes account of the correct responses. This may encourage guessing of incorrect and potentially unsafe responses. Ideally responses should contain a high proportion of correct, unsafe and the use of 'don't know' response rather than incorrect. This study explored the effect of instructions on responses. Fourth- and fifth-year students sitting for an optional multiple choice examination were randomized to receive one of four instruction options: number-correct marking (the control group); alert to unsafe; mark deduction for unsafe; or correction for guessing. A total of 210 students sat the test. For the fourth-year cohort, compared with the control group, being alerted to unsafe and mark deduction for unsafe or incorrect responses were associated with graduated increases in the use of 'don't know' and reductions in incorrect responses. For the fifth-year cohort, there were no differences in responses between options. The fifth-year cohort, gave more correct, and fewer incorrect, unsafe and 'don't know' responses. Both the year group and instructions had an effect. Being alerted to potentially unsafe responses, even when there is no mark deduction penalty, had an effect, although mark deduction still had the greatest effect. Assessment instructions may give subliminal messages that have important consequences.
Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John
The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.
Full Text Available Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation . The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes . While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments . This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.
Bui, Duy; Nakamura, Carlos; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing
A picture can be a powerful communication tool. However, creating pictures to illustrate patient instructions can be a costly and time-consuming task. Building on our prior research in this area, we developed a computer application that automatically converts text to pictures using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques. After iterative testing, the automated illustration system was evaluated using 49 previously unseen cardiology discharge instructions. The completeness of the system-generated illustrations was assessed by three raters using a three-level scale. The average inter-rater agreement for text correctly represented in the pictograph was about 66 percent. Since illustration in this context is intended to enhance rather than replace text, these results support the feasibility of conducting automated illustration.
Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy
With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.
Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch
Ely, D.P.; Ely, Donald P.; Plomp, T.
This paper describes the selection process of 17 articles for inclusion in the book, "Classic Writings on Instructional Technology." The book brings together original "classic" educational technology articles into one volume to document the history of the field through its literature. It is also an attempt to make available articles that traditionally have been difficult to obtain. The final selection of articles, all considered the "core" of the literature and all published in the United Sta...
George J. Petersen
Full Text Available To confirm perceptions, actions, and behaviors articulated by the district superintendents, triangulation interviews were conducted with school principals and school board members in each of the participating districts. A 52- item questionnaire was also administered to every principal and school board member in these districts. Responses of these personnel confirmed the articulated actions and behaviors of these superintendents in their promotion of the technical core of curriculum and instruction.
instruction be adapted to individual differences. In R. M. Gagne (Ed.). Learning and individual differences . Columbus, OH: Merrill Books, 1967. Cronbach, L. 3...specialization of cognitive mode: An EEG study. Psychophysiology, 1972, 9(4), 412-418. Glaser, R. Some implications of previous work on learning and individual differences . In...R. M. Gagne(Ed.). Learning and individual differences . Columbus, OH: Merrill Books, 1967. Glaser, R. Individuals and
Pittiruti, Mauro; Bertoglio, Sergio; Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Biffi, Roberto; Lamperti, Massimo; Dal Molin, Alberto; Panocchia, Nicola; Petrosillo, Nicola; Venditti, Mario; Rigo, Carla; DeLutio, Enrico
The most appropriate lock solution for central venous access devices is still to be defined. GAVeCeLT - the Italian group for venous access devices - has developed a consensus on the evidence-based criteria for the choice and the clinical use of the most appropriate lock solution for central venous catheters (excluding dialysis catheters). After the constitution of a panel of experts, a systematic collection and review of the literature has been performed, focusing on clinical studies dealing with lock solutions used for prevention of occlusion (heparin, citrate, urokinase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [r-TPA], normal saline) or for prevention of infection (citrate, ethanol, taurolidine, ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid [EDTA], vancomycin, linezolid and other antibiotics), in both adults and in pediatric patients. Studies on central lines used for dialysis or pheresis, on peripheral venous lines and on arterial lines were excluded from this analysis. Studies on lock solutions used for treatment of obstruction or infection were not considered. The consensus has been carried out according to the Delphi method. The panel has concluded that: (a) there is no evidence supporting the heparin lock; (b) the prevention of occlusion is based on the proper flushing and locking technique with normal saline; (c) the most appropriate lock solution for infection prevention should include citrate and/or taurolidine, which have both anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity, with negligible undesired effects if compared to antibiotics; (d) the patient populations most likely to benefit from citrate/taurolidine lock are yet to be defined. The actual value of heparinization for non-dialysis catheters should be reconsidered. Also, the use of lock with substances with anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity (such as citrate or taurolidine) should be taken into consideration in selected populations of patients.
Marson Guilherme Andrade
Full Text Available In the last decades the world has witnessed a revolution in the expansion and access to knowledge, whi-ch has dramatically changed the relationship between labor and production. According to UNESCO(United Nations Educational, Scientical and Cultural Organization and ILO (International LaborOrganization, in the of information it is fundamental that Higher Education Institutes educate pro-fessionals capable to update their knowledge in the course of professional life. The so-called life-longlearning s pointed out as a request for creating and maintaining jobs, and for supporting the develop-ment of nations as well. In such context, Biochemistry is a eld of knowledge which has outstandinglyexpanded its boundaries. Preparing the next generation of biochemists for the age of informationrequires the development of cognitive skills as an essential educational goal concerning graduationcourses, which have been historically limited to the exposition of contents. The achievement of suchobjective depends on many factors, including the development of suitable instructional materials thatcan improve the teaching and learning experience. This conference deals with the development ofinstructional software at the crossroad of Educational research, Informatics and Biochemistry. Theinvestigative approach leading to the development and improvement of instructional software for Bi-ochemical education will be discussed on the basis of the following issues: i motivating questionsto software development - teaching and learning problems; ii development of digital content: speci-c content, interface and interactivity; iii evaluation of the software s instructional eciency; ivexamples of softwares which have been conceived according to the discussed methodology.
Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.
Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.
skills are frequently performed poorly (or not at all) by personnil in this job? b. Which aspects of the job require emphasis due to mistakes made by a...instruction. (4) Reduces damage and wasre. .-ecause performance is guided, students are les- likely to make mistakes which will damage equipnt or waste...expense. cpe •ter-ba•.e4 systems are• elabor- arc, ttCci rqet’uhc . large ilvest-Out for purck.ase or relltal 4"d t’or insta-laci.on atnd (l l’.s Frogra
Watershed Boundaries, HDR engineering consulting company conducted stormwater master plan and gave us the dataset.ArcHydro can create watersheds using DEM and ArcGIS Spatial Analyst., Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Decatur Government.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Watershed Boundaries dataset current as of 2010. HDR engineering consulting company conducted stormwater master plan and gave us the dataset.ArcHydro can create...
COLAKOGLU, Ozgur M.; Omur AKDEMIR
The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different experiences for learners in terms of motivation than instruction developed following the standard instructional design procedure for blended courses. Thi...
Felix, Jeffrey P.
The heart of education beats with a teacher's perception of instructional effectiveness with students. Research suggests that differentiated instruction, using multiple modes of presentation, will positively increase a student's opportunity for earning. Communicating efficiently will enhance a teacher's instructional effectiveness and a student's ability to understand. This study begins by examining selected modes of communication available to educators and poses questions of the validity of ...
Figl, Kathrin; Derntl, Michael; Rodriguez, Manuel Caeiro; Botturi, Luca
The introduction of learning technologies into education is making the design of courses and instructional materials an increasingly complex task. Instructional design languages are identified as conceptual tools for achieving more standardized and, at the same time, more creative design solutions, as well as enhancing communication and transparency in the design process. In this article we discuss differences in cognitive aspects of three visual instructional design languages (E²ML, PoEML, c...
Mulhearn, Tyler J; Steele, Logan M; Watts, Logan L; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane
Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were identified through this clustering procedure, and these instructional approaches showed different levels of effectiveness. Instructional effectiveness was assessed based on one of nine commonly used ethics criteria. With respect to specific training types, Professional Decision Processes Training (d = 0.50) and Field-Specific Compliance Training (d = 0.46) appear to be viable approaches to ethics training based on Cohen's d effect size estimates. By contrast, two commonly used approaches, General Discussion Training (d = 0.31) and Norm Adherence Training (d = 0.37), were found to be considerably less effective. The implications for instruction in ethics training are discussed.
Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian
This paper presents a study of what happens when innovation of an instructional design is too innovative. The study investigates an implementation process of a new instructional design in nursing education. The new instructional design should be a step away for a functionalist approach to learning...... and it was developed to include, motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students. The new instructional design utilized teacher-produced video-clips to qualify the students learning in the preparation...
Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others
Discusses the importance of models of instruction and the need to consider subject-matter structure in organizing instruction. The components of the elaboration model and variations in the model for different kinds of goals are described. (Author/CHC)
Ying-Shao Hsu; Hsin-Kai Wu; Fu-Kwun Hwang
... computer-based instructional evolution. In this study of approximately six hundred junior high school science and mathematics teachers in Taiwan who have integrated computing technology into their instruction, we correlated each teacher's...
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.
McDonald, Jeremy Anthony
This study examined the relationship between strong instructional leadership, as measured by the Principal Instructional Measurement Rating Scale (PIMRS) and high student academic outcomes in 35 Mid35-Atlantic Catholic elementary schools. In addition, the research explored the role of Catholic identity in supporting instructional leadership…
Manaseh, Aaron Mkanga
Scholars and practitioners agree that instructional leadership (IL) can be one of the most useful tools for creating an effective teaching and learning environment. This paper investigates the instructional leadership practices engaged in by heads of secondary schools to enhance classroom instruction and students learning, particularly the way…
Abrams, Lisa; Varier, Divya; Jackson, Lisa
The use of assessment data to inform instruction is an important component of a comprehensive standards-based assessment programme. Examining teachers' data use for instruction can reveal the extent to which instruction is aligned with established content standards and assessment. This paper describes results of a qualitative study of teachers'…
This paper brings together the research and developments of instructed pragmatics over the past three decades by reporting the synthesis findings of instructional intervention studies in interlanguage pragmatics. Two questions have guided this investigation: (1) is instruction effective in learning pragmatics?; and (2) what methods are most…
Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina
This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…
Stevenson, Nathan A.; Reed, Deborah K.
When students do not respond adequately to core instruction, teachers must provide instruction and intervention that is more intensive and, therefore, more effective. However, for many educators, it is often unclear what it means to intensify instruction and how intensive instruction differs from high-quality core instruction. This article…
Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron
In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated instruction; and an ambiguous instruction.…
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
We study sequential programs that are instruction sequences with jump-shift instructions in the setting of PGA (ProGram Algebra). Jump-shift instructions preceding a jump instruction increase the position to jump to. The jump-shift instruction is not found in programming practice. Its merit is that
Huffman, Scott Bradley
In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible
How can basic research on mathematics instruction contribute to instructional improvement? In our research on the practical rationality of geometry teaching we describe existing instruction and examine how existing instruction responds to perturbations. In this talk I consider the proposal that geometry instruction could be improved by infusing it…
Horan, Sean M.; Afifi, Tamara D.
Celebrating 100 years of the National Communication Association necessitates that, as we commemorate our past, we also look toward our future. As part of a larger conversation about the future of instructional communication, this essay reinvestigates the importance of integrating biosocial approaches into instructional communication research. In…
This paper identifies a set of universal instructional design (UID) principles appropriate to distance education (DE) and specifically tailored to the needs of instructional designers and instructors teaching online. These principles are then used to assess the accessibility level of a sample online course and the availability of options in its…
Asher, Asha; Estes, Joanne
Handwriting is an essential literacy and communication skill developed through a variety of instructional methods in elementary school. This study explored the consistency in handwriting instruction across grade levels in a Midwest public school district 15 years after the school initially implemented a uniform handwriting program. Additionally,…
Hamilton, John; Tee, Singwhat
This empirical research surveys first year tertiary business students across different campuses regarding their perceived views concerning traditional, blended and flexible instructional approaches. A structural equation modeling approach shows traditional instructional modes deliver lower levels of student-perceived learning quality, learning…
Collins, Gingere; Norris, Jan
This study explored whether presenting grammar instruction within the context of reading and writing would improve writing skills. The participating schools were using a traditional grammar instruction in which grammar lessons were predominately taught using worksheets and were presented separately from other reading and writing activities. This…
Delaney, Diane W.
A qualitative study was completed to identify and study the content of selected elementary general music teachers' evaluations of their own instruction and the instruction of another elementary general music teacher. Participants represented a variety of educational backgrounds and teaching experience: Teacher A (9 years teaching Grades 4-6 at…
Retalis, Symeon; Avgeriou, Paris
The size and complexity of modern instructional systems, which are based on the World Wide Web, bring about great intricacy in their crafting, as there is not enough knowledge or experience in this field. This imposes the use of new instructional design models in order to achieve risk-mitigation,
Clark, MaryAnn; Olson, Valerie
Scientific writing is composed of a unique skill set and corresponding instructional strategies are critical to foster learning. In an age of technology, the blended instructional model provides the instrumental format for student mastery of the scientific writing competencies. In addition, the course management program affords opportunities for…
Tennyson, Robert D.
Describes a fourth-generation ISD (instructional systems development) model, an integrative problem solving system that dynamically adjusts the authoring activities of instructional development by direct reference to a specific learning problem or need. Includes case studies that illustrate the three model components: situational evaluation,…
Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…
Samson, Sue; McLure, Merinda
A new model of library instruction assessment--a 360 degrees analysis--is needed to address the many facets of the teaching process. This model establishes interconnections in all aspects of instruction and requires a multi-faceted approach that incorporates assessment in every stage of teaching and learning. At The University of Montana Mansfield…
Woodard, Beth S.; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke
Presents theoretical frameworks relating to technological change and innovation, including the diffusion of innovations, and then discusses how those theories can be applied to the management of instruction programs in libraries. Highlights include traditional instructional strategies; infrastructure and support; integrating technology into…
Roberts, Wesley K.
This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…
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Poster given at the 2015 SLA - All Sciences Poster Session. Many academic libraries are developing research data management instruction programs including online guides and workshops. A wealth of materials are available to draw from. However, the quantity and variety can be overwhelming to someone just starting out. This poster examines and compares 17 publicly available research data management instruction materials.
Trotti, Judy; Hendricks, Randy; Bledsoe, Christie
In this mixed-methods study, researchers examined the literacy development of prekindergarten students (N = 162) randomly placed in one of two treatment groups with each receiving 15 minutes of computer-assisted literacy instruction for four months. Literacy development of a control group of children not receiving computer-assisted instruction was…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Reporting Instructions Section 22... General Reporting Provisions-Large Certificated Air Carriers Section 22 General Reporting Instructions (a...) X X T-100 U.S. air carrier traffic and capacity data by nonstop segment and on-flight market M X X X...
This review examines instructional design models and the construction of knowledge. It further explores to identify the chilling benefits of these models for the inputs and outputs of knowledge transfer. This assessment also attempts to define instructional design models through the eyes and the minds of renowned scholars as well as the most…
Roediger, Henry L., III; Crowder, Robert G.
Performance on the last few items of a 12-word list was impaired when a spoken "Recall" was used as the cue for recall, relative to performance with a nonverbal cue. This suffix effect occured with four types of recall instructions after auditory presentation, including instructions for conventional serial and after free recall. (Editor)
Recker, Mimi M.; Olson, Daren; Rogers, Jim; duPlessis, Jacques
This paper examines some of the theoretical changes that have led the field of instructional and educational technology into a time of critical transactions. It begins by outlining some of the standard notions and assumptions within the field of instructional technology, and goes on to examine how they may be changing as a result of influences of…
Thomas, Kevin M.; Willis, Dottie
This paper analyzes the use of instructional podcasts with students in introductory computer application classes at a small, independent, private university. Participants were all undergraduates in the school of education. In an effort to model effective use of instructional technology for preservice teachers and to "meet digital native…
Examines eight reasons diffusion efforts fail to produce instructional change. Recommends a model for change which focuses on teachers, the instructional program, and the school system and uses a team of an internal change agent, external change agent, and a consultant or diffuser. (CK)
Hartley, J., Ed.
The purpose of this book is to compare, contrast, and evaluate various strategies of programed instruction (PI). The underlying view is that programed instruction implies a systematic methodological approach to education and training, an approach which bases its decisions on facts rather than value judgements. Several strategies for task analysis…
Searby, Linda; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Wang, Chih-hsuan
This article reports findings from a study investigating the capacity of assistant principals to be instructional leaders. Analyses of survey responses yielded four interesting findings: (a) years of experience as a teacher and age had no significance on assistant principals' perceived readiness as an instructional leader; (b) those completing…
Explore the practical steps teacher teams must take to establish clear, comprehensive assessment systems that guide instruction and strengthen PLCs. This book has the capacity to reignite passion and energy assessment practices bring as tools to guide teaching and learning. Strengthen instructional agility in professional learning communities with…
Turner, Philip M.
Argues that the school library media specialist's instructional consultation role can optimize the impact of information skills, and proposes that the choice of the information skills be dictated by (1) the cognitive requirements of the lesson; (2) the teacher's instructional design decisions; and (3) the learning characteristics of the students.…
This article addressed the need for authentic interdisciplinary instruction. Authentic interdisciplinary instruction is defined as a learning activity that simultaneously improves student performance related to grade-level standards in two or more disciplines (e.g., science and physical education). The process described for creating authentic…
"Flipping the classroom", or reverse instruction has been hailed the new pedagogical approach for preparing students for the 21st century. The idea behind this method is relatively simple. Instead of structuring class work to deliver direct instruction from the teacher in class and giving homework to students to practice outside of…
Garza Mitchell, Regina L.
Community colleges are known for keeping abreast of the latest instructional technologies, but the constant and rapid growth of available technology also presents challenges. This chapter reviews the current literature regarding instructional technology usage, with a focus on beneficial applications of technology for teaching and learning, and…
Discussion of leadership functions and practices in the realm of instructional technology in community colleges cannot be limited to the administrative side. Faculty members and faculties as collective bodies have influenced or attempted to influence the use of instructional technology and can claim professionally to have the right to participate…
Weinstein, Carol S.
This review of the literature of the effects of the physical setting on instructional goals posits that the physical setting in which instruction occurs will affect learners' behavior, whether or not it is intended to. These effects occur in two ways--directly, by the behavior the setting allows, and indirectly or symbolically, by the messages the…
Spector, J. Michael; And Others
This paper describes the Guided Approach to Instructional Design Advising (GAIDA), an automated instructional design tool that incorporates techniques of artificial intelligence. GAIDA was developed by the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory to facilitate the planning and production of interactive courseware and computer-based training materials.…
This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help…
Louisiana State Technical Resource Center, Natchitoches.
This resource listing contains those culinary occupations instructional materials given a rating of "highly recommended" or "recommended" by a committee of instructors. Titles are arranged alphabetically by title within each of the following Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) categories: institutional management;…
Dubeck, Margaret M.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.; Okello, George
We report on a study that used observations, conversations, and formal interviews to explore literacy instruction in 24 lower-primary classrooms in coastal Kenya. Specifically, we report the ways literacy instruction is delivered and how that delivery aligns with practices understood to promote reading acquisition. We find (1) prioritization of…
Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.
Based on recent research in fluency instruction, the authors present a scenario in which a teacher focuses her fluency instruction on authentic fluency tasks based in performance. Beginning with establishing a student-friendly definition of fluency and culminating with student engagement in fun fluency activities, this article explores the…
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.
The thesaurus is intended to clarify and standardize terminology used to index instructional materials for exceptional children within the Special Education Instructional Materials Centers/Regional Media Centers Network. Although most of the approximately 1100 terms are descriptors selected from the thesaurus of the Educational Resources…
Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.
Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)
Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.
One of a series of coaching guides for Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this booklet focuses on basketball instruction for mentally retarded persons. An initial section introduces the sport and discusses general coaching ideas. Goals, objectives, and benefits are listed along with information on clothing and court…
Jung, Insung; Hong, Seongyoun
This study aimed to investigate and classify faculty members' instructional priorities for adopting OER. In-depth interview data were collected from 10 faculty members from different regions and analyzed with NVivo 10. The original supposition was that the well-established instructional priorities, effectiveness, efficiency, and appeal would…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementing instructions. 211.4 Section 211.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... Implementing instructions will be issued in Part IV, “Disbursing,” of the Treasury Fiscal Requirements Manual...
Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.
Online education has emerged as an effective and increasingly common alternative to face-to-face instruction in postsecondary education. This article is a summary of effective practices in online instructional methods, including course design, interaction among course participants, and instructor preparation and support.
Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 2011
In this article, we describe a framework and instrument for measuring the mathematical quality of mathematics instruction. In describing this framework, we argue for the separation of the "mathematical quality of instruction" (MQI), such as the absence of mathematical errors and the presence of sound mathematical reasoning, from pedagogical…
Computer Assisted Programmed Instruction and Cognitive Preference Style as. Determinant of Achievement of Secondary School Physics Students. Sotayo, M. A. O.. Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Abstract. The study probes into the effect of Computer Assisted Instruction and Cognitive preference.
Draper, Darryl C.
To promote knowledge convergence through collaborative learning activities in groups, this qualitative case study involved a layered approach for the design and delivery of a highly collaborative learning environment incorporating various instructional technologies grounded in learning theory. In a graduate-level instructional technology course,…
Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe
The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…
Honebein, Peter C.; Sink, Darryl L.
Eclectic instructional design is the process whereby a designer blends ideas from multiple learning theories to construct a learning experience that works better than a course designed from only one theoretical influence. Eclectic instructional designers are those who do not get hung up or rely consistently on any one theory for their designs.…
Gropper, George L.
Instructional design can be more effective if it is as fixedly dedicated to the accommodation of individual differences as it currently is to the accommodation of subject matters. That is the hypothesis. A menu of accommodation options is provided that is applicable at each of three stages of instructional development or administration: before,…
Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…
Watts-Taffe, Susan; Laster, B. P.; Broach, Laura; Marinak, Barbara; Connor, Carol McDonald; Walker-Dalhouse, Doris
This article addresses approaches to differentiating instruction to meet the needs of students whose literacy needs, interests, and strengths vary widely. This article was designed to support classroom teachers who understand the importance of differentiating instruction, but are unsure of how best to design and implement differentiation within…
Hanson, Helene M.
In today's diverse and inclusive classrooms, teachers face the challenge of delivering instruction that is effective and accessible to students with a wide range of needs, abilities, and learning styles. Newly updated for 2014, "RTI & DI: Response to Intervention & Differentiated Instruction," by Helene Hanson, shows teachers how…
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous instructions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.4 Miscellaneous instructions. (a) Dimensional conventions...
Kemper, M.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.
The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a
Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.
The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…
... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and nonreactive for hepatitis B surface antigen by FDA required tests and nonreactive... of the frozen product if there is evidence of breakage or thawing. (2) Instructions to thaw the frozen product at a temperature between 30 and 37 °C. (3) When applicable, instructions to begin...
Wiley, Ann L., Comp.
This booklet is designed to help instructional technologists, students of instructional technology, faculty, and researchers in the field locate information quickly and easily. Information services described are libraries, the ERIC system, online information services, state education departments, regional education centers, and information…
Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin
This paper constructs a simple two-tier education framework to analyze the effectiveness of multiple language instruction. Suppose that the government attempts to maximize the average post-education productivity. It is shown that the optimal education policy requires different languages of instruction be adopted in the education system. The…
Boyle, Gloria J.; Herrick, Merlyn C.
This progress report concerns an audio-tutorial approach used at the University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine. Instructional techniques such as slide-tape presentations, compressed speech audio tapes, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), motion pictures, television, microfiche, and graphic and printed materials have been implemented,…
Branch, Robert Maribe
Instructional design is a process that is creative, active, iterative and complex; however, many diagrams of instructional design are interpreted as stifling, passive, lock-step and simple because of the visual elements used to model the process. The purpose of this study was to determine the expressed perceptions of the types of flow diagrams…
Goodson, Roger A.; Floyd, Barbara J.
This book outlines a plan for individualizing instruction in spelling. Part 1 describes how to organize and manage the program and provides examples of instructional materials. Part 2 concerns the ways that students learn to spell words as they work within this individualized spelling program. The appendixes which comprise over half the document,…
Poff, Raymond; Stuessy, Tom
This paper briefly presents ideas and techniques that can facilitate effective whitewater kayaking instruction. Instructors often focus so much on the mechanics of specific skills that they overlook less obvious, but equally important, aspects of instruction. These aspects include the underlying purposes and guiding principles of kayaking…
Hess, Amanda Nichols
Motivational design theory complements instructional design theory and, when used together, both principles can affect learning, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge retention. In information literacy instruction, motivational design exists throughout the appropriate standards documents. However, there is limited current research on the best…
It is now generally agreed that some form of focus on the target code is necessary in adult L2 instruction. One question that remains to be answered is whether all aspects of L2 grammar are equally amenable to pedagogic intervention. A number of researchers have examined the effectiveness of instruction with regard to simple vs. difficult grammar…
Jackson, Janice K.
This study focus on the question: "How do high school principals, regarded as having skills in developing the instructional capacity of teachers, exercise their leadership to promote the development of teacher's instructional capacity in three primary contexts; whole school, content department or grade level teams and individually?"…
Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V
One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...
This paper focuses on the search for suitable research methods for research regarding iteration in instructional design. More specifically my research concerned the question how instructional designers can be supported during an iterative design process. Although instructional design and development
AKBULUT, Reviewed By Yavuz
The key to successful learning in most formal instructional settings is effective instructional design (ID). Instructional design for teachers serves as an organized source of directions, which can help classroom teachers to integrate available resources to improve students’ acquisition of the instructional goals. The book is consisted of 151 pages (+xvii) covering eight chapters which address a commonsense model of instructional design to guide K-12 teachers during their unique instructional...
The indicator of a professional teachers is the extent to which the teachers has the ability to design instructional well. A good instructional design will effectively achieve the instructional objectives that have been set. The problem that arises is that there is a signal that the teachers implement the learning without first doing systematic instructional design. This paper aims to provide guidance on how instructional components are designed. The instructional components include instructi...
Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.
This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.
Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the factors causing teachers and students to use code switching (CS and the factors affecting language attitude of EFL learners in using CS in instruction. The participants of this study were 8 English teachers and 312 students of 12 Junior High Schools in Malang, Indonesia. This study used a mixed method. To collect the data, questionnaire and classroom observation were applied. Post hoc item analysis was employed to meet the requirement of validity and reliability. The factors causing the use of CS in EFL instruction were (a involvement of the learner, (b use of learner‘s language, (c situation of the classroom, (d weariness of teacher (e expressing of teacher‘s anger. All these five factors gave a significant effect to the use of CS in EFL instruction. It was statistically significance (p < .01. The fifth factor, the use of the learners‘ language had dominant influence toward the use of CS in EFL instruction.
Adiane Fogali Marinello
Full Text Available This article analyses the instructional text as a textual genre and is part of the research called Reading and text production from the textual genre perspective, done at Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Campus Universitário da Região dos Vinhedos. Firstly, some theoretical assumptions about textual genre are presented, then, the instructional text is characterized. After that an instructional text is analyzed and, finally, some activities related to reading and writing of the mentioned genre directed to High School and University students are suggested.
Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina; Wulan Febriana, Beta; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia
Instructional technology course must be studied by students in order to 1) understand the role of technology in learning, 2) capable of analyzing advantages and disadvantages of using technology in teaching, 3) capable of performing technology in teaching. A poster session in instructional technology course was performed to 1) enhance students' interest in this course and develop students' creativity. The step of this research includes: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The result showed that students' responses towards poster session in instructional technology course were good.
Full Text Available This article describes transformations in the discourse of five elementary teachers on the practice of differentiated instruction. The teachers collaborated with university researchers and an instructional consultant in action-research on their professional development process. At monthly meetings held over two years, the elementary teachers received training and support in order to implement differentiated teaching strategies. The authors examine the changes in participants’ discourse concerning their perceptions of the diversity of students’ needs and of applying differentiated pedagogy. Findings were interpreted through a framework combining ethical, epistemological, and ideological aspects of differentiated instruction in mixed-ability classrooms.
Broom, Frances A.
This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.
Gschwind, Michael K
Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.
Ackerley, Katherine; Helm, Francesca
This volume gives voice to the views and experiences of researchers, lecturers, administrative staff, teacher trainers and students with regard to the implementation of English-medium instruction in a public university based in the north-east of Italy.
... must be in English and must not exceed 50 words. Illustrations must be used in addition to the words... thrown into the water. (b) The instructions required by paragraph (a) of this section must be on the...
The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.
The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it. Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal...... analysis tools help us understand the impact of multimodal channels used in instructions? This paper looks at Kress and VanLeewan's questions of "how narrative is shaped in a specific mode and how it is reshaped when it appears in different modes?" (2001:128) In addition, the intersection of linguistics...... and rhetoric is explored as a means of understanding the multimodal possibilities for technical communication genres such as instructions....
Lutton, Lewis M.
Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)
David C Marchant
Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.
Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. DATA SOURCES: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. DATA SYNTHESIS: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning.
Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L.
Objective: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. Data Sources: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. Data Synthesis: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. Conclusions/Recommendations: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning. PMID:12937537
Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.
Jarodzka, H. (2012, 27 April). Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts. Presentation during the ‘Symposium 4C-ID: Hoe implementer je de blauwdruk?’, Studiecentrum Open Universiteit, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
This paper explores the cognitive approach to instruction and provides several strategies for using knowledge engineering information in the instructional development process to strengthen the systems approach to training. When students learn using the behavioral approach to instruction, drawbacks have been noted because gaps are apparent between the students' high performance levels on objective tests and their inadequate problem solving performance levels. Augmentation of the behaviorist process with applications of knowledge engineering can result in obtaining detailed information about student misconceptions relative to expert knowledge. This information is then applied to individualized learning prescriptions. Normally, instructional developers are working under significant resource and time constraints, and this modified systems approach is an efficient solution to this problem. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Content-based Instruction (CBI) is an approach in English learning that integrates certain topic and English learning objectives. This approach focuses on using English competencies as a “bridge” to comprehend certain topic or theme in English. Nowadays, this approach can be used in instructional multimedia to support English learning by using computer. Instructional multimedia with computer system refers to the sequential or simultaneous use of variety of media formats in a given presentatio...
Myriam Lemay; Annie Presseau; Luc Prud’homme
This article describes transformations in the discourse of five elementary teachers on the practice of differentiated instruction. The teachers collaborated with university researchers and an instructional consultant in action-research on their professional development process. At monthly meetings held over two years, the elementary teachers received training and support in order to implement differentiated teaching strategies. The authors examine the changes in participants’ dis...
Symeon Retalis; Paris Avgeriou
The size and complexity of modern instructional systems, which are based on the World Wide Web, bring about great intricacy in their crafting, as there is not enough knowledge or experience in this field. This imposes the use of new instructional design models in order to achieve risk-mitigation, cost and time efficiency, high pedagogical quality of the end product, which will capitalise on the potential of the networked technologies. This paper presents a model for constructing such systems,...
Andersen, Ida Gran; Andersen, Simon Calmar
inequality. Using combined survey and register data for more than 56,000 students in 825 schools, this article conducts the first empirical test of the argument that instructional strategies which emphasize student responsibility and activity, also referred to as student-centered instruction, increase...... educational inequality. We analyze whether the impact of student-centered instructional strategies on academic achievement differs for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Results suggest that a student-centered instructional strategy has a negative impact on academic achievement in general...
Piasta, Shayne B.; Purpura, David J.; Wagner, Richard K.
Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive small group instruction in letter names and/or sounds or numbers (treated control). Alphabet instruction followed one of two approaches currently utilized in early childhood classrooms: combined letter name and sound instruction or letter sound only instruction. Thirty-four 15…
Sagy, John; Ravi, R.; Ananthasayanam, R.
The present study attempts to gauge the effect of individualized instructional methods as a reinforcement strategy for mastery learning. Among various individualized instructional methods, the study focuses on PIM (Programmed Instructional Method) and CAIM (Computer Assisted Instruction Method). Mastery learning is a process where students achieve…
Reigeluth, Charles M.
Defines the discipline of instructional science, discusses its applications, and reviews three instructional models--the component theory display, elaboration theory of instruction, and motivational design of instruction--to illustrate the kind of integrative, multi-perspectived common knowledge base needed at this point in the development of…
Campbell, Paul Clayton
There are many instructional design theories to assist librarians in creating effective instructional modules for student learning. ADDIE is a generic instructional design model that has been in existence for more than 30 years and is known for its flexibility in application (Molenda, 2003). Using instructional design theories such as ADDIE helps…
While state requirements vary on the number of instructional days and/or hours in the school year, the majority of states require 180 days of student instruction. Most also specify the minimum length of time that constitutes an instructional day. Some states set instructional time in terms of days, some specify hours, and some provide…
Objective: To prospectively study the behaviour of oral surgery patients given verbal and written instructions, verbal instructions alone and written instructions alone after minor surgical procedures to return for review visits, remember correctly form of instruction given, compliance and level of satisfaction with treatment.
Howard, Craig D.; Boling, Elizabeth; Rowland, Gordon; Smith, Kennon M.
The field of instructional design does not collect and share actual completed instructional designs and designers' reflections on the creation of those designs as an integral, widespread aspect of its practice. This article defines the instructional design case as a means of knowledge building. It lays out the components of instructional design…
Apel, Jens K; Revie, Gavin F; Cangelosi, Angelo; Ellis, Rob; Goslin, Jeremy; Fischer, Martin H
We investigated the mental rehearsal of complex action instructions by recording spontaneous eye movements of healthy adults as they looked at objects on a monitor. Participants heard consecutive instructions, each of the form "move [object] to [location]". Instructions were only to be executed after a go signal, by manipulating all objects successively with a mouse. Participants re-inspected previously mentioned objects already while listening to further instructions. This rehearsal behavior broke down after 4 instructions, coincident with participants' instruction span, as determined from subsequent execution accuracy. These results suggest that spontaneous eye movements while listening to instructions predict their successful execution.
Dukes, Lyman L., III; Koorland, Mark A.; Scott, Sally S.
Online instruction in general and blended instruction in particular have gained a sizable and permanent foothold in postsecondary educational environments. In addition, student diversity has become the norm. Universal design for instruction is a framework that consists of nine principles for instructional design and delivery; it proposes that…
Summey, Terri Pedersen; Valenti, Sandra
Librarians offer a variety of library instruction utilizing multiple formats. Many struggle with the task of transferring instruction to the online environment. Principles of instructional design can be leveraged to effect quality change in the delivery of instruction to make teaching more effective, efficient, and appealing to learners. Although…
Charles M. Reigeluth
This article describes instructional theory that supports post-industrial education and training systems - ones that are customized and learner-centered, in which student progress is based on learning rather than time. The article describes universal methods of instruction, situational methods, core ideas of the post-industrial paradigm of instruction, the importance of and problems with task-based instruction, a vision of an instructional theory for post-industrial education and training, an...
Educators are often tasked with developing courses and curricula that teach learners how to perform medical procedures. This instruction must provide an optimal, uniform learning experience for all learners. If not well designed, this instruction risks being unstructured, informal, variable amongst learners, or incomplete. This article shows how an instructional design model can help craft courses and curricula to optimize instruction in performing medical procedures. Educators can use this as a guide to developing their own course instruction.
Carter, Curtis W.
This article contends that instructional designers and developers should attend to four particular design principles when creating instructional audio. Support for this view is presented by referencing the limited research that has been done in this area, and by indicating how and why each of the four principles is important to the design process.…
McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David
Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…
Austin, John H.
This document is one in a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Approximately 900 items are listed in this document along with guidelines for the production of instructional materials. Information is provided regarding the source, type of material, intended…
Reiser, Robert A.
This second of a two-part article focuses on the history of instructional design in the United States. Starting with its origins during World War II, major events in the development of instructional design are described. Factors affecting the field over the last two decades, including increasing interest in cognitive psychology, microcomputers,…
Blik, H.; Harskamp, E. G.; Naayer, H. M.
In the Netherlands, students with intellectual disabilities (ID) attend practical education (PE). Teachers generally use demonstration as a form of direct instruction (DI) and students have difficulty working independently. Strategy instruction (SI) is a question-answer-based method that stimulates students' autonomy by getting them to verbalize…
Bickford, James O.; Falco, Ruth A.
Introduction: The study reported here evaluated whether there was a difference in students' outcomes for braille fluency when instruction was provided with traditional braille media or refreshable braille. Students' and teachers' perceptions of the efficacy of the use of the different instructional media were analyzed. Methods: Nine students from…
In this response, Scott Titsworth analyzes similarities among the forum essays and then offers ideas for how instructional communication scholars might adopt greater situational awareness in research, theory, and application of their work. [Other essays in this forum include: (1) FORUM: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings: The…
Web-based learning tools (WBLTs), also known as learning objects, have been evaluated with a wide range of metrics, but rarely with respect to pedagogical design. The current study evaluated the impact of instructional architecture (direct instruction vs. constructive-based) on middle (n = 333)
Christensen, Trudy K.; Osguthorpe, Russell T.
Many theories have been proposed to help instructional designers make instructional-strategy decisions, yet it is not clear if these theories are actually used by ID practitioners. This study used a web-survey to examine the design strategies of 113 ID practitioners. The survey asked respondents to rate how frequently they used learning or ID…
Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2008). Ten steps to complex learning: A new approach to instruction and instructional design. In T. L. Good (Ed.), 21st century education: A reference handbook (pp. 244-253). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Widdall, Christine L.
This qualitative research project used a multiple case study methodology, in connection with observational learning to explore to what degree prospective online secondary teachers achieved an awareness of instructional design strategies as they concurrently observed online instruction in two unique online courses: one with student-centered…
Goddard, Yvonne; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung
The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between school instructional climate and students' fifth-grade mathematics and reading achievement, with a particular emphasis on norms for practice consistent with differentiated instruction. Using data from a stratified random sample of Michigan elementary schools, we employed…
Valenzano, Joseph M., III; Wallace, Samuel P.
Communication is, by its nature, inherently interdisciplinary. In no other subfield of the discipline is this truer than instructional communication. To that end, instructional communication scholars contribute to the understanding of classroom dynamics and effective methods for facilitating learning. A close examination of that work highlights…
McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.; Shaw, Stan F.
Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), a construct that serves as the foundation for the work of a federally funded project at the University of Connecticut, offers an approach to inclusive instruction that is responsive to the diverse learning needs of a changing postsecondary population. In this article elements relating to the implementation…
McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.
Universal design for instruction (UDI) represents the systematic application of universal design, the construct from architecture and product development, to instructional practices in higher education. In addition to a description of the deliberative process by which UDI was developed, this article provides confirmatory evidence of the validity…
Detlefsen, Ellen Gay
This is a review of the master's-level curricula of the fifty-eight America Library Association-accredited library and information science programs and iSchools for evidence of coursework and content related to library instruction. Special emphasis is placed on the schools and programs that also offer coursework in medical or health sciences librarianship. Fifty-eight school and program websites were reviewed. Course titles and course descriptions for seventy-three separate classes were analyzed. Twenty-three syllabi were examined. All North American library education programs offer at least one course in the general area of library instruction; some programs offer multiple courses. No courses on instruction, however, are focused directly on the specialized area of health sciences librarianship. Master's degree students can take appropriate classes on library instruction, but the medical library profession needs to offer continuing education opportunities for practitioners who want to have specific instruction for the specialized world of the health sciences.
Simanenkov, V I; Vyalov, S S
The paper highlights the features of drug use in the legal aspect. It analyzes instructions for medical use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and gastric protective agents. Taking into account the characteristics of indications registered in the instruction, the authors discuss the possibility of using various PPIs. The instruction for medical application is an official document approved by the Ministry of Health, the basis of which is the data of trials carried out by a manufacturer, and it should be a key or fundamental source for a physician in choosing a medication. The use of a drug with no indications given in the manual (the so-called 'off-label' use in foreign practice), is a clinical trial of a sort conducted by a physician individually, by taking upon himself/herself a legal liability. If arguments break out over the correct choice of this or that drug in treating the specific patient, the instruction containing the indications for use of specific medications to treat a specific disease is one of the proofs that the physician has correctly chosen the drug or a criterion for skilled medical care. The inclusion of chronic gastritis as a primary and only diagnosis into the primary documentation substantially limits the possibilities of using PPIs. When a PPI is indicated for therapy of erosive gastritis, a formal rationale is contained only in the instruction for use of Controloc. There are no registered indications for PPI use to treat chronic non-erosive gastritis; the gastric protective agent Rebagit is indicated.
Kochevar, Deborah T
Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.
Sy, Jolene R; Donaldson, Jeanne M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Pizarro, Eliana
Behavior that resembles instruction following might sometimes be under stimulus control of extraneous variables. We evaluated the effects of some of these variables (i.e., presence of relevant objects, associations between instructions and object sets) with 3 children with intellectual disabilities. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether subjects were more likely to follow instructions that required object manipulation and whether subjects were more likely to follow these instructions when only relevant objects were present. All subjects were more likely to follow instructions that required object manipulation when only relevant objects were present. In Experiment 2, we evaluated whether instruction following would be less likely if the same object set was associated with multiple instructions, and found this to be the case for 2 of 2 subjects. Findings highlight the need to train instruction following under different conditions to ensure that responding comes under stimulus control of the instructions. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Reese, M; Hatcher, R A
Guidelines are provided for women who take combined oral contraceptives. Women should carefully read and follow the instructions provided on the package insert and initiate pill taking as advised by their clinicians. Clincians generally advise patients to either start on the 1st day of their menstrual period, 5 days following the 1st menstrual day, or the 1st Sunday following the 1st menstrual day. Women should not start taking OCs at any other time unless they are absolutely sure that they are not pregnant. A backup method should be used until menstruation reoccurs. Women on a 21-day regimen should take 1 pill/day for 21 days, stop for 1 week, and then start over again with a new package. Women on a 28-day regimen should take 1 pill each day for 28 days and start a new package on the 29th day. The pill should be taken at the same time each day, and as an aid in remembering, women should try to associate taking the pill with an activity they perform daily. If a woman misses 1 pill, she should immediately, upon remembering, take the missed pill, take the next day's pill at the regular time, and use a backup method until menstruation begins. If 2 pills are missed, the women should take 2 pills immediately, and 2 pills the following day at the regular time. A backup method should be used until menstruation reoccurs. If 3 pills are missed, there are several alternates which can be followed; however, the woman should consider switching to a more suitable method. If a woman misses a period and took all her pills, it is unlikely that she is pregnant. She should simply start a new packet at the regular time. Women who miss a period, and also missed a pill, and women who missed 2 periods, even if they took all their pills, should contact their clinicians and have a pregnancy test. Women who are pregnant should immediately stop taking the pill. OC users who want to become pregnant should stop taking the pill, but use a backup method until they have 3 normal menstrual periods
Neidlinger, Kristin; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Telfair, Caty; Feijs, Loe; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Evers, Vanessa
Awe is a powerful, visceral sensation described as a sudden chill or shudder accompanied by goosebumps. People feel awe in the face of extraordinary experiences: the sublimity of nature, the beauty of art and music, the adrenaline rush of fear. Awe is healthy, both physically and mentally. It can be
Ji, Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Cheng, Yen-Nien
Viviparity (giving birth to live young) in fossil reptiles has been known only in a few marine groups: ichthyosaurs, pachypleurosaurs, and mosasaurs. Here, we report a pregnant specimen of the Early Cretaceous Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis, a species of Choristodera, a diapsid group known from unequivocal fossil remains from the Middle Jurassic to the early Miocene (about 165 to 20 million years ago). This specimen provides the first evidence of viviparity in choristoderan reptiles and is also the sole record of viviparity in fossil reptiles which lived in freshwater ecosystems. This exquisitely preserved specimen contains up to 18 embryos arranged in pairs. Size comparison with small free-living individuals and the straight posture of the posterior-most pair suggest that those embryos were at term and had probably reached parturition. The posterior-most embryo on the left side has the head positioned toward the rear, contrary to normal position, suggesting a complication that may have contributed to the mother’s death. Viviparity would certainly have freed species of Hyphalosaurus from the need to return to land to deposit eggs; taking this advantage, they would have avoided intense competition with contemporaneous terrestrial carnivores such as dinosaurs.
Ashfaq, Muhammad; Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed
The main objective of this study was to ensure instructional quality, effectiveness, efficiency and enjoyment. Instructional design maximizes the value of the instructions for the learners. Instructional design include identifying instructional out-comes, developing instructional contents and established how instructional effectiveness will be…
Full Text Available This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI. This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2 learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining main characteristics of PI which distinguish it from other types of L2 grammar instruction. Then, a large body of research attempting to investigate the relative efficacy of PI is scrutinized. The paper concludes with a number of important issues that future studies on PI need to address.
Yajaira del Valle Cadenas Terán
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to expose significantly instruccionales strategic alternatives that help improve the process of reading in college students to be trained holistically, able to make critical decisions, thoughtful and successful in the academic field. The strategies implemented educational event isolated to produce no change is necessary, that are planned and executed in the proper context of the need to ensure a certain extent the instructional success. It is also essential that teachers be the first to appropriate it. This study was conducted with a literature review serves as instructional foundation - strategic. In conclusion the importance of instructional strategies in reading comprehension was determined, since they increase communication skills, provide specific or complex experiences and promote meaningful learning.
Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find out the teacher’s instructional language, kinds of nonverbal communication and effects in EFL Classroom. The objects of the research were the teacher and students of one primary school in Merauke. The approach employed was qualitative approach. The type of this research applied discourse analysis (DA. Data collection was conducted through observation by recording and interview. Data from observa tion was used to know the teacher’s instructional Language and kinds of nonverbal communication. Interview was used to know the effects of using the teacher’s instructional Language and nonverbal communication to the students. The research findings showed that (1 the teacher’s instructional language in the classroom activities covered explanations, asking questions, giving feedback, and giving corrections. In term of explanation, the teacher used English, switched and mixed the Indonesian language. The teacher used display question to know the students understanding related to the material. She used referential question to start the classroom and when she checked the progress of the students’ activity. In giving feedback, mostly same with explanation, the teacher also used English even she switched and mixed her language with Indonesian. The teacher used direct correction and indirect correction in giving correction. Repetition was also found in explanation, asking question, giving feedback and giving correction. (2 that the kind The findings revealed s of nonverbal communication used by the teacher in the classroom included gesture, body movement and posture, eye contact and facial expression. These nonverbal were applied to explain some unclear verbal communication. (3 The last, the findings showed that there were positive and negative effects of the teacher’s instructional language The positive effects included motivating the students in studying, increasing the students’ vocabulary mastery
Tandyonomanu, D.; Mutiah; Setianingrum, V. M.
This study aims to understand the process of shaping communication competence. Participants were pre-service teachers in the primary school education teacher who conducted teaching program internship program. Observations and interviews found that culture, experience, and education were the components that developed the communication competence within the instructional context. The former two components dominantly shape communication instructional competencies, whereas the latter contributes insignificantly. Education emphasizes on teacher’s pedagogy and professional competences. In the future, educational institutions for pre-service teachers could use this research results to Determine the process of developing communication competence.
Full Text Available The digital revolution changes the way we teach and learn. This paper introduces a concept of a Hybrid course structure. It aims to show the benefits of blended learning and describes the course design used at the Bibliothèque Saint-Jean (BSJ, University of Alberta (U of A. We seek to assist other librarians in their choice of instructional model by providing a rational for combining onsite and online instruction, and by giving recommendations for the development and implementation of a hybrid course.
Hughes, Christopher J
Having hit power limitations to even more aggressive out-of-order execution in processor cores, many architects in the past decade have turned to single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) execution to increase single-threaded performance. SIMD execution, or having a single instruction drive execution of an identical operation on multiple data items, was already well established as a technique to efficiently exploit data parallelism. Furthermore, support for it was already included in many commodity processors. However, in the past decade, SIMD execution has seen a dramatic increase in the set of
Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.
Kinder, D; Bursuck, W
This multiple baseline study investigated the effectiveness of history strategy instruction emphasizing the linkage of knowledge in teaching junior high students with behavior disorders. The intervention included 24 students and 3 teachers across three classes for 3-6 weeks. The strategy included a scripted curriculum involving brisk student-teacher interchanges; student note taking and constructing of timelines and vocabulary definitions; and reciprocal questioning, using a carefully selected history textbook. Results indicate that the history strategy was effective; students in each class showed immediate and educationally significant improvement compared with baseline instruction that employed traditional history instruction.
Martin, Cortney V; Smith-Jackson, Tonya L
We examined the usability of common formats of pictorial toy assembly instructions for 6- and 9-year-old children. Interlocking building toys and models are increasingly prevalent and important for developing spatial abilities and fine motor skills among children. Little is known about how effectively the intended child users can interpret and carry out the instructions. Twenty-four children used five sets of manufacturer-supplied pictorial toy assembly instructions. We evaluated the impact of toy instruction set, age, gender, and previous experience on usability problems, assembly speed and accuracy, instruction gaze time, and subjective ratings. The children had difficulty with all but the simplest instructions and assemblies. As predicted, older participants assembled more quickly, with fewer errors and fewer instruction looks. However, the 6-year-old girls assembled the fewest parts correctly, and the 9-year-old girls reported having the least fun. Instruction look time and frequency revealed differences in instruction complexity and were correlated with subjective ratings of fun. Thirty-two usability problems were observed, and 10 are described in detail. Product age recommendations may not reflect developmentally appropriate instructions. Small design changes should contribute to improved instruction usability among young children. For instance, designers should avoid complex graphic syntax, depict colors accurately, select clear angles of view, and support natural tendencies to assemble top to bottom. This research provides pictorial assembly instruction guidelines to inform instruction designers and describes performance and look-time benchmarks for future usability studies.
Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon
The Generate an Argument instructional model was designed to engage students in scientific argumentation. By using this model, students develop complex reasoning and critical-thinking skills, understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge, and improve their communication skills (Duschl and Osborne 2002). This article describes the…
The report extends a previous analysis of universal instructional design principles in distance education by applying them to the design of mobile learning. Eight principles with particular relevance for distance education are selected, and their recommendations are discussed in relation to the design of educational materials for a range of mobile…
Blase, Jo; Blase, Joseph
A survey of teachers revealed that principals who want to promote classroom instruction must talk openly and freely with teachers about teaching and learning, provide time and encourage peer connections for teachers, empower teachers, embrace the challenge of teachers' professional development, and lead and motivate teachers. (MLH)
Interactive writing is a process-oriented instructional approach designed to make the composing and encoding processes of writing overt and explicit for young students who are learning to write. It is particularly suitable for students who struggle with literacy learning. This article describes one first-grade teacher's use of interactive writing…
The purpose of this participatory action research study was to answer the following research question: How does online instructional design impact students' virtual teamwork performance? Through the lens of social constructivism, a qualitative, in-depth multi-case study design was utilized to conduct document analyses, observations, and student…
identification, and phrase recognition) become integrated and automatic . Since skilled readers process words and phrases as units, the holistic...Classroom Instruction The control group used a phonics work booklet that contained a series of rules for the syllabication and pronunciation of words
Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer
Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…
This study used both focus groups (qualitative) and survey data (quantitative) to develop and expand an instruction program for GIS services. It examined the needs and preferences faculty and graduate students have for learning about GIS applications for teaching and research. While faculty preferred in person workshops and graduate students…
Hinton, Vanessa; Flores, Margaret M.; Shippen, Margaret
Response to intervention (RTI) is a framework in which interventions are implemented mostly in general education classes to resolve academic difficulties and help to mitigate contextual variables (i.e., lack of instruction, socio economic status, cultural differences, etc.) as an explanation for academic failure. The implementation of…
Lincolnshire-Prairie View Elementary School District, Deerfield, IL.
This handbook, which complements another handbook designed for reading instruction, focuses on the behavioral objectives in the four language arts skills of spelling, writing, listening, and speaking. The first section of the handbook contains an introductory statement, a diagram of the program design, and a list of the affective objectives. The…
Tennyson, Robert; And Others
An instructional development model is described that provides for evaluation of the feasibility of a project, evaluation during the formative design and development phases, summative evaluation prior to dissemination, and continued evaluation after implementation. These guidelines view evaluation as an integral part of development; before the…
Isom, Bess A.; Casteel, Carolyn P.
Discusses how literature can facilitate students' appreciation of the multifaceted Hispanic culture. Offers advice on merging Hispanic literature and literacy instruction, organizing children's books by category to help structure classroom activities, exploring themes and cultural concepts, and integrating literacy/thinking strategies with…
De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others
A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…
Wind, Stefanie A.
Mokken scale analysis (MSA) is a probabilistic-nonparametric approach to item response theory (IRT) that can be used to evaluate fundamental measurement properties with less strict assumptions than parametric IRT models. This instructional module provides an introduction to MSA as a probabilistic-nonparametric framework in which to explore…
This article explores the relationship between federal and state educational policymaking and classroom reading instruction. The past 50 years of federal literacy education policy is summarized, particularly emphasizing the connections of these policies to reading curriculum and classroom assessment. The paper concludes with a discussion of the…
Altemueller, Lisa; Lindquist, Cynthia
The flipped classroom is a teaching methodology that has gained recognition in primary, secondary and higher education settings. The flipped classroom inverts traditional teaching methods, delivering lecture instruction outside class, and devoting class time to problem solving, with the teacher's role becoming that of a learning coach and…
De Kieffer, Robert E.
Audiovisual instruction has become a necessary part of good teaching. This monograph separates the experiences and devices of audiovisual materials into three categories: nonprojected, projected, and audio materials and equipment. The design of schools for the use of such materials, the importance of audiovisual research, and the administration of…
Gadzella, Bernadette M.
A computer-assisted instruction study skills program was presented to 88 college students, while a control group did not have access to it. Scores for the experimental group on the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes increased during the semester, while scores for the control group decreased. (Author/BW)
Hester, Donald D.
Describes an instructional simulation of a commercial banking system. Identifies the teaching of portfolio theory, market robustness, and the subtleties of institutional constraints and decision making under uncertainty as the project's goals. Discusses the results of applying the simulation in an environment of local and national markets and a…
Scott, Olive P.
The purpose of this paper is to aid curriculum development specialists, state leadership personnel, and local supervisors of trade and industry in evaluating curriculum and instructional materials development in cosmetology and barbering. Intended to help either the new or experienced teacher improve programs and identify useful instructional…
Instructional Variables and Students' Acquisition of Employable Vocational Skills From Technical Colleges in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. ... Mean, Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Regressional analysis were used for data analysis. The results indicated significant relationships between teacher quality, ...
The achievement of students of application learning mode was also significantly higher than those of recall and principle respectively. There was no significant interaction effect between Cognitive Preference Style and Computer Assisted Programmed Instruction. The implications of the result to the stakeholder were ...
Jong, F.P.C.M. de
This paper does not attempt to be an introduction on process-oriented instruction by providing all the assumptions and key principles. It rather highlights the necessary epistemological shift in education from learning as a receptive process towards learning as a constructive process. The basis for
Results show that teachers' practice was very poor. Years of experience had influence on their practice but location did not. Recommendations made among others include the need to mount retraining and retooling programmes to improve teachers'/caregivers practice in differentiating instruction at this foundation level.
McKenney, Susan; Visscher-Voerman, Irene
In practice, few researchers and designers have strong conceptual understanding of the marriage between the design discipline and scientific research traditions. Rather, most have strong exposure to either research methodologies or instructional design methods, theories and/or practices. Within the
Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Bastiaens, Theo; Hoogveld, Bert
Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Bastiaens, T., & Hoogveld, A. W. M. (2004). Instructional design for integrated e-learning. In W. Jochems, J. van Merriënboer & E. J. R. Koper (Eds.), Integrated E-learning. Implications for pedagogy, technology & organization (pp. 13-23). London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Elkins, D. M.
A number of crop science instructors have indicated that there is a shortage of quality, current crop/plant science teaching materials, particularly textbooks. A survey instrument was developed to solicit information from teachers about the use and adequacy of textbooks, laboratory manuals, and videotapes in crop/plant science instruction. (LZ)
Gray, P. Allen, Jr.; And Others
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nursing students in techniques for initiating intravenous (I.V.) therapy. The first module, "Selection of a Venipuncture Site: Arm" by P. Allen Gray, Jr., describes the utilization of a tourniquet in locating filled veins in the arm. The second…
Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg
Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…
Rollinson, Joseph; Brunskill, Emma
At their core, Intelligent Tutoring Systems consist of a student model and a policy. The student model captures the state of the student and the policy uses the student model to individualize instruction. Policies require different properties from the student model. For example, a mastery threshold policy requires the student model to have a way…
Jones, Julie P.; Tiller, Margaret
Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA) instruction is a process for teaching and learning mathematical concepts. Starting with manipulation of concrete materials (counters, beans, Unifix cubes), the process moves students to the representational level (tallies, dots, stamps), and peaks at the abstract level, at which numbers and symbols are…
Baker, Robert L.; Elam, Robert J.
Identifies six stages for the development of a comprehensive instructional system (planning, design, development, implementation, management transfer, client operation) and describes briefly the general purpose of each stage as it relates to the total development efforts. Maintaining a strong user orientation and involvement at each stage is…
Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen
Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…
Early childhood education is recognized by the Federal Government of Nigeria and is the foundation of education for ... addition to keeping the physical space, social and emotional environment of all classroom appropriate, to .... practice in differentiating instruction at the early childhood care education in Owerri educational ...
Hoy, Anita Woolfolk; Hoy, Wayne Kolter
This book was written with the assumption that teachers and administrators must work as colleagues to improve instruction and learning in schools. It was written to be consistent with the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards for school administrators, especially Standards 1 and 2, which emphasize a learning-centered…
Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth
Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…
Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.
This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…
Love, Mary Susan
Multimodality of learning results from the intertextual relationship between multimodal design and other meaning-making modes. Meaning making is becoming more multimodal because language is continually reshaped by new forms of communication media. This article examines anchored instruction from a multimodal perspective. The first section includes…
Issues of dimensionality, validity, reliability, and generalizability of students' ratings of instruction were studied with 610 college students who evaluated their instructors on the Teacher Effectiveness Scale. The Scale had high internal consistency, but interrater reliability, generalizability, and predictive validity warrant further study.…
Lindaman, Brian; Gay, A. Susan
Calculus instructors struggle to teach infinite series, and students have difficulty understanding series and related concepts. Four instructional strategies, prominently used during the calculus reform movement, were implemented during a 3-week unit on infinite series in one class of second-semester calculus students. A description of each…
... Installation Crime Prevention Program. (r) All personnel operating a vehicle on Fort Stewart/Hunter Army... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.32 Miscellaneous instructions. (a) All unattended motor vehicles will have the engine stopped and...
Please note that the Safety Instruction no 48 (IS48) entitled 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR CABLES, CABLE TRAYS AND CONDUITS' is available on the web at the following url: Fire Prevention Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email Tis.Secretariat@cern.ch.
Please note that the Safety Instruction no 48 (IS48) entitled 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR CABLES, CABLE TRAYS AND CONDUITS' is available on the web at the following url: Fire Prevention Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email Tis.Secretariat@cern.ch.
O'Neill, Colin E.
Describes ways that components of Information Engineering (IE) methodology can be used by training system developers to extend Instructional Systems Development (ISD) methodology. Aspects of IE that are useful in ISD are described, including requirements determination, group facilitation, integrated automated tool support, and prototyping.…
Discussion of how learner and teacher communicate in distance education focuses on Morre's concept of transactional distance in light of recent developments in telecommunications. Integrated telecommunications systems are described, adult learning and instructional transactions are discussed, and system dynamics are presented as a tool for…
analysis indicate that library skill instruction courses are taught in most tertiary institutions in Nigeria, but this has not attained a firm ... students' performance in the course has not been fully granted to the library skill instructors. Information technology is not fully ..... reading skills in Tertiary institutions. Library philosophy and ...
Communication strategies (CSs) play important roles in resolving problematic second language interaction and facilitating language learning. While studies in face-to-face contexts demonstrate the benefits of communication strategy instruction (CSI), there have been few attempts to integrate computer-mediated communication and CSI. The study…
Presents a three-component instructional model to helpdance and movement educators compose dances with children. The paper discusses how to develop and expand the compositional base,select aesthetic content for children's dances, and compose dances using a sequential process. A curriculum theme, "The Praries," is used to illustrate the…
The Study investigated the factors responsible for accidents in instructional mechanic workshops in Rivers State. Four technical colleges were selected for the study. Properly validated questionnaire were developed and used for the study. In addition, two research questions were posed for the study. Data gathered were ...
Lambert, Richard D., Ed.
A collection of papers of directions in second language education includes: "The Improvement of Foreign Language Competency in the United States" (Richard D. Lambert); "The Measurement of Foreign/Second Language Proficiency" (Lyle F. Bachman, John D. Clark); "Advanced Technology in Foreign Language Instruction and Translation" (John Fought);…
Interdisciplinarity is defined as communication and collaboration across academic disciplines. The instructional technology (IT) field has claimed to have an interdisciplinary nature influenced by neighboring fields such as psychology, communication, and management. However, it has been difficult to find outstanding evidence of the field's…
E – contains a pattern that can well be interpreted as another calendrical instruction, quite similar in nature to the Mamari calendar. Engraved on tablet Keiti is a string of glyphs known as sequence alpha 1-10, which is repeated 10 times throughout one side of the tablet. This repetitious string...
Programmed instruction (PI) was devised to make the teaching-learning process more humane by making it more effective and customized to individual differences. B.F. Skinner's original prescription was modified by later innovators to incorporate more human interaction, social reinforcers and other forms of feedback, larger and more flexible chunks…
Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.
Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were
Conderman, Greg; Hedin, Laura R.
Despite the popularity of co-teaching and widespread professional literature describing exemplary co-teaching practices, this instructional approach has yet to realize its potential. One way to increase the effectiveness of co-teaching is for special educators to contribute meaningfully by assuming the role of strategy leader in the co-taught…
The function of leadership is to create a vision for the future, establish strategic priorities, and develop an environment of trust within and between organizations. Great leadership is a process; leadership involves motivational influence, leadership occurs in groups, and involves a shared vision (Northouse, 2010). Instructional designers are…
Wojcik, Bonnie; And Others
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to instruct parents and nursing students in topics related to child care and development. The first module, "Growth and Development: Let's Test Your Baby's Reflexes" by Bonnie Wojcik, describes the behavioral signs that are indicative of eight normal primitive…
Describes the design and development of an instructional game, GEO, in which the user learns elements of Canadian geography. The use of knowledge-based artificial intelligence techniques is discussed, the use of HyperCard in the design of GEO is explained, and future directions are suggested. (15 references) (Author/LRW)
Abdul Razak, Muhammad Razuan; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri
The literature review indicates that the benefit of screencast as an instructional media has not clearly proved effective for all categories of students. This is due to the individual differences in processing the information. Inadequate screencast design will cause strain to students' cognitive process which might impede learning. This…
Greene, Mark M.; And Others
A self-instructional system is presented designed to teach high school students fundamental concepts of electricity and how they are applied in daily life. In six lessons, the student attends to a self-paced slide and tape presentation and makes written responses in the workbooks. A supplementary application problem, requiring the assembly of some…
Boekhorst, Albert K.; Groot, Tineke
In 1989 a two year collaborative project, CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) & Humanities, was initiated between the Faculty of Arts and IBM Netherlands during which General Information Retrieval All Faculties For Bibliographic Education (GIRAFFE), a program for the retrieval of information on general bibliographies, was developed. The…
Steady, Joseph C.
Fills the cells of a 3 X 3 matrix with individualized tasks. One dimension is based on Bruner's three modes of learning, the other on Bloom's recall, application, and creativity levels of abstraction. Using the grill, a self-instruction approach to learning is described. (CP)
This paper lists and dates important historical happenings related to reading instruction. John Locke (1632-1704) was an early advocate that school should be a pleasant place to learn. He believed in the "tabula rasa" theory whereby a student had a mind like a blank sheet with nothing printed initially. Starting from the conception that…
This document reports the findings of a doctoral project regarding the perceptions held by administrators and teachers of comprehensive Catholic schools in one Midwestern diocese. With the recent explosion of research in the area of the brain and brain compatible instruction it is valuable to know and understand the perceptions held by current…
Describes the application of audio as a vehicle of information. In applying audio to the audiovisual, computer-assisted instruction format, a consideration of the aspects of dominance and redundancy in auditory-visual presentation is required. Understanding acoustic and informational characteristics of audio and qualities of voice and speech may…
Tan, Liang Soon; Ang, Keng Cheng
This paper posits that teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in mathematical modelling instruction can be demonstrated in the crafting of action plans and expected teaching and learning moves via their lesson images (Schoenfeld, 1998). It can also be developed when teachers shape appropriate teaching moves in response to students' learning…
Koelewyn, Arie C.; Corby, Katherine
A library instruction computer game created at Newberry College, South Carolina challenges players' skill at using the "Readers' Guide," and by noting elapsed time needed to create a bibliography of citations on a given topic, encourages an increase in skill. Computer equipment used, illustrative examples, and five references are noted.…
The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.
This article explores misunderstandings identified in an instructional context where oral communication is the primary form of communication and focuses on the teacher as sender of the message. Although the misinterpretation of the teacher's oral message may reside with the receiver, the speaker's inaccurate expression ...
Vance, Kate O'Brien
This article discusses how several simple adaptations in the music classroom can greatly enhance dyslexic students' learning. The sections included in this article are: (1) What Is Dyslexia?; (2) Students with Dyslexia; (3) What to Look for; (4) Adapting Instruction; (5) Reading Notation; and (6) Motor Skills. A list of practical adaptations; and…
This work examined the significance of evaluating the Library Instruction Programme (LIP) with a view to drawing a relationship between the LIP and the academic performance of students using the law students of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-ife in southwestern Nigeria as a case study. The study adopted the survey ...
Shanahan, Lynn E.; Flury-Kashmanian, Caroline
Research and pedagogical information provided to teachers on implementing explicit strategy instruction has primarily focused on teachers' speech, with limited attention to other modes of communication, such as gesture and artefacts. This interpretive case study investigates two teachers' use of different semiotic resources when introducing…
Cabot, Lloyd H.
I show that the Modeling physics curriculum is readily accommodated by most teachers in favor of traditional didactic pedagogies. This is so, at least in part, because Modeling focuses on a small set of connected models embedded in a self-consistent theoretical framework and thus is closely congruent with human cognition in this context which is to generate mental models of physical phenomena as both predictive and explanatory devices. Whether a teacher fully implements the Modeling pedagogy depends on the depth of the teacher's commitment to inquiry-based instruction, specifically Modeling instruction, as a means of promoting student understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Moreover, this commitment trumps all other characteristics: teacher educational background, content coverage issues, student achievement data, district or state learning standards, and district or state student assessments. Indeed, distinctive differences exist in how Modeling teachers deliver their curricula and some teachers are measurably more effective than others in their delivery, but they all share an unshakable belief in the efficacy of inquiry-based, constructivist-oriented instruction. The Modeling Workshops' pedagogy, duration, and social interactions impacts teachers' self-identification as members of a professional community. Finally, I discuss the consequences my research may have for the Modeling Instruction program designers and for designers of professional development programs generally.
Recker, Mimi; Walker, Andrew; Robertshaw, M Brooke; Sellers, Linda; Leary, Heather M.
Three handouts for the teacher professional development workshops on the Instructional Architect (IA). Starting spring 2009 the face-to-face workshop was changed to be three different days of learning about how to use the IA, inquiry based and problem based learning, evaluation of IA projects with a rubric, and creating IA projects.
Satterwhite, Zarinaha N.
The focus on measuring student growth based on teacher effectiveness has presented new challenges for an urban school in Massachusetts. The purpose of this general interpretive qualitative study was to examine the instructional practices of a group of middle school teachers, the practices they perceived to be effective for ensuring student…
Describes a systems development process to organize and report the data needed to prepare a microcomputer program for evaluating library instruction programs in high school libraries and media centers. A flow chart illustrating the sample program and seven references are included. (JL)
Cross, Barbara J.; And Others
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of seven learning modules designed to instruct diabetes patients in health care practices necessary for the control of their illness. The first module, by Barbara J. Cross, describes materials and procedures used in testing the urine for sugar and acetone. The second module, by Ruth…
Salisbury, David F.
The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…
Salisbury, David F.
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)
Henrie, Curtis R.; Williams, Greg S.; West, Richard E.
The authors analyzed all research articles published between 2002 and 2011 in the international journal "Instructional Science," with a goal to provide an understanding of the type of research being published in this journal, major contributing authors, and the most-cited publications of this time period. They examined research…
Gropper, George L.
What would it take for instructional design to qualify as a bona fide applied discipline? First and foremost, a fundamental requirement is a testable and tested theoretical base. Untested rationales until verified remain in limbo. Secondly, the discipline's applied prescriptions must be demonstrably traceable to the theoretical base once it is…
Bailey, Debra H.; Ledford, Bruce R.
Current cognitive learning theory stresses the importance of observational learning and interactions with other people. Motion pictures have value for instruction for two reasons: film is a popular medium due to its visual format and its resulting sensory impact; and film is a form of vicarious interaction with other people. (Author/AEF)
This study investigated instructional Television (ITV) programmes and Academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Anambra state-Nigeria. The need for the study arose from the problem of the declining nature of West African school certificate examination results of senior secondary school students in ...
Robinson, Lora; Maldonado, Nancy; Whaley, Jerita
The absence of differentiated instruction in many classrooms stifles success for students who do not learn the same way as their peers. Providing teachers with the knowledge and tools to differentiate in their classrooms may increase test scores and help low achieving students find success, while expanding the learning growth of gifted and…
Lynch, Sararose D.; Hunt, Jessica H.; Lewis, Katherine E.
This article demonstrates how to consider differentiating instruction for diverse learners while maintaining the cognitive demand of a mathematics task. The authors present scenarios involving hypothetical cases of students in inclusive classrooms who engaged in productive struggle within the differentiated task. The authors specifically focus on…
Butler, Melanie; Van Lowe, Kelly
The article discusses using differentiated instruction in mathematics education for pre-service teachers, including background information and details on a differentiated unit on fractions and integers. In addition, a study was conducted on this lesson and results are included which suggest that students who received the differentiated lesson did…
Cox, Susan G.
As classrooms become more culturally diverse, it becomes more imperative that differentiated instruction occur in elementary classrooms. Today's classrooms usually contain students with a wide range of abilities and varied experiential backgrounds. These students learn at different rates and in different ways. Differentiation is important in the…
Byars, Jennifer Pallon
Schools are required to meet a range of students' learning needs and effective school leadership is needed for the implementation of pedagogical practices responsive to the challenges of increasing student diversity and academic accountability. Literature on differentiated instruction and its constituent elements suggests differentiation results…
IGI Global, 2017
The integration of technology into modern classrooms has enhanced learning opportunities for students. With increased access to educational content, students gain a better understanding of the concepts being taught. "Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice" is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly…
Fulton, Carolyn D.
Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…
Ostrander, Betty; And Others
Text, illustrations, and reinforcement exercises are utilized in these nine learning modules to instruct nurses and expectant mothers in topics related to pre-natal care, labor, and post-partum readjustment. The first module, "Pre-Natal Evaluation" by Betty Ostrander, teaches the nurse to diagnose toxemia of pregnancy. The second module,…
Murphy, Joseph; Neumerski, Christine M.; Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason; Porter, Andy
Elsewhere, the authors have unpacked instructional leadership and have documented that such leadership is associated with more effective schools. Indeed, there has been for a considerable time nearly universal acceptance that learning-centered leadership should provide the central platform on which leadership is enacted. In this paper, a less…
Jessica N. Witchley
Full Text Available Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration instructions are unknown. Here, we report that position control genes (PCGs that control regeneration and tissue turnover are expressed in a subepidermal layer of nonneoblast cells. These subepidermal cells coexpress many PCGs. We propose that these subepidermal cells provide a system of body coordinates and positional information for regeneration, and identify them to be muscle cells of the planarian body wall. Almost all planarian muscle cells express PCGs, suggesting a dual function: contraction and control of patterning. PCG expression is dynamic in muscle cells after injury, even in the absence of neoblasts, suggesting that muscle is instructive for regeneration. We conclude that planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of any body region.
Witchley, Jessica N; Mayer, Mirjam; Wagner, Daniel E; Owen, Jared H; Reddien, Peter W
Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration instructions are unknown. Here, we report that position control genes (PCGs) that control regeneration and tissue turnover are expressed in a subepidermal layer of nonneoblast cells. These subepidermal cells coexpress many PCGs. We propose that these subepidermal cells provide a system of body coordinates and positional information for regeneration, and identify them to be muscle cells of the planarian body wall. Almost all planarian muscle cells express PCGs, suggesting a dual function: contraction and control of patterning. PCG expression is dynamic in muscle cells after injury, even in the absence of neoblasts, suggesting that muscle is instructive for regeneration. We conclude that planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of any body region. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Hoog, Robert; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; de Vries, Frits
The learner interface is the component of an instructional system that mediates between a learner and the system. Two fundamentally different approaches for interfaces can be distinguished: conversational methapor and direct manipulation metaphor. Interfaces in both metaphors can be scaled on a
Alwi, Asmidah; McKay, Elspeth
The use of multimedia instructions for online learning has become very common particularly with the advances of the Internet technology. Consequently museums around the world utilize such information and communications technology (ICT) tools in order to provide richer learning experiences for their visitors. This paper discusses a study that…
Caldwell, Edward C.; And Others
A computer analysis of the most frequently occurring (approximately 18,000) words in the English language was conducted. All letter strings from two to seven letters in length (ngrams) were output. The information maybe useful for reading instruction. (Author/RD)
Lindquist, David H.
Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…
Paloyo, Alfredo R.
Selection bias pervades the evaluation of supplemental instruction (SI) in non-experimental settings. This brief note provides a formal framework to understand this issue. The objective is to contribute to the accumulation of credible evidence on the impact of SI.
A concept-based introduction to public transportation pricing is presented in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business administration, and technology. After an introductory section on transportation pricing planning and the history of transportation system…
A concept-based introduction to rural public transportation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, sociology, and technology. Rural public transportation involves systems in rural and small urban areas with populations under 50,000…
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly instructions. 1508.8 Section 1508.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS... and description of all parts and tools required for assembly, and a full-size diagram of the required...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly instructions. 1509.10 Section 1509.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... drawing; (b) Include a list and description of all parts and tools required for assembly; (c) Include a...
In this article, the author describes a high school art teacher's experience in teaching big ideas with her high school graphics design class. The author's purpose is to offer an example of concrete instructional practice with artmaking that focuses on making meaning and incorporates the perspectives of contemporary culture, personal relevance,…
As schools across the state implement the Next Generation Science Standards, this EdSource primer provides an easy-to-read guide for parents and other community members to understand the rationale for the standards and their potential to affect science instruction in California schools. California adopted the Next Generation Science Standards, or…
Hilden, Katherine R.; Pressley, Michael
In a qualitative, multiple case study, we explored the challenges and successes teachers encounter while participating in a professional development program aimed at improving their reading comprehension instruction so as to increase students' self-regulated use of comprehension strategies. We documented five fifth grade teachers' experiences as…
Morrow, Lesley Mandel, Ed.; Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Pressley, Michael, Ed.
Now revised and updated, this book's second edition aims to guide teachers in providing effective, engaging literacy instruction that meets the challenges of today's legislative mandates. Identified in the book are principles of best practice that reflect cutting-edge scientific research as well as decades of hands-on classroom experience.…
The main goal of the new instructional design model is to organize long term and full learning activities. The new model is based on the theoretical foundation of behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. During teaching and learning activities, learners are active and use cognitive, constructivist, or behaviorist learning to construct new…
This study examined a cross-age population of 1,237 students from grades 6 through 12 and also 76 university students. Also, 75 8th grade students in two instructional groups were involved in a session of 16-hour science courses. A questionnaire with six knowledge and twelve cognitive ability questions was used to evaluate students' understanding of combustion. Furthermore, one pre-test and two post-tests were used to evaluate students' learning gains in instruction. Video recordings and curriculum materials were examined in terms of how both types of instruction were implemented. Five patterns were found to describe how students developed their understanding of combustion, including (I) gradual increase, (II) stepwise increase, (III) persistent misunderstanding, (IV) early understanding, and (V) varied understanding . The first two patterns are consistent with results from previous studies. However, the next three non-age-growing patterns suggest that the age maturation is not necessarily a determining factor and other variables such as curricula may be more important. Students at different ages applied their knowledge and problem solving strategies differently. The 6--8th grade students used more intuitive, real-life experiences to solve combustion questions in contrast to the 10th grade and older students, who applied more formal science knowledge to solve combustion questions. It was also found that the older students integrated their mobilized knowledge more accurately than the younger learners when they answered combustion questions in different versions of the questionnaire. Two types of instruction, established and experimental, were shown to be effective in promoting 8th grade students' understanding of combustion in the context of Taiwanese classrooms. In addition, although the two types of instruction had been implemented differently, the findings suggested that neither form of instruction was superior to the other as measured by the students
Results showed a significant positive difference between urban and rural teachers in principals' performance of supervisory functions, including classroom supervision of instruction, monitoring students' achievement, provision and maintenance of instructional materials and supporting continuous staff development.
Ward, Patrick C. J.; And Others
It is increasingly important for physicians to develop competence in ordering and interpreting laboratory tests. The goals, organization, instructional approaches, and assessment of a course offering systematic instruction in laboratory medicine are described. (Editor/LBH)
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial Survey Instructions for wind power wetland survey and duck pair count instructions for Kulm Wetland Management District. This survey has two surveying...
Hoogveld, Bert; Paas, Fred; Jochems, Wim; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Hoogveld, A. W. M., Paas, F., Jochems, W. M. G., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2002). Exploring teacher's instructional design practices from a systems design perspective. Instructionals Science, 30, 291-305.
Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.
Reports on a study of six fourth grade reading groups that were observed to see if vocabulary instruction was a priority, what kinds of vocabulary instruction occurred, and what shaped teaching decisions. (JC)
Firssova, O. (2011, January 19). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation at the ICO Course Domain specific research on learning and instruction: theories, methodology and curricular innovations, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Interuniversitair Centrum voor Onderwijswetenschappen.
KEYWORDS: Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), Expert System, Artificial Intelligence, .... popularly called database is an Expert System. The ... Teacher/instruction. Designer/Author. 4. Stand alone expert system on instructional design, decision making, planning, controlling etc. 5. Intelligent embedded.
Firssova, O. (2011, January 19). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation at the ICO Course Domain specific research on learning and instruction: theories, methodology and curricular innovations, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Interuniversitair Centrum voor
Firssova, O. (2012, 19 January). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation given at the ICO Masterclass, Theme Domain-Specific Instruction, January 19-February 10, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
instructions to students in technical and vocational education (TVE) programs. ... problem of ICT implementation for effective instruction, there has been an ..... the teaching style (methods), teaching technique, and motivation to facilitate.
Zhang, Huizhen; Chen, Yonghong
Instruction set extension with custom instructions has become common to speed up execution of applications. And it is crucial of the problem to generate new optimised code with custom instructions through retargetable tool suites. This article proposes a code mapping algorithm, which maps static code of programs to dynamic hot paths corresponding to custom instructions. The algorithm uses parameterised polynomial representations and invokes some string matching method. It can play both fine-grained mapping and coarse-grained mapping and find nested matching optimisation in representations. Correctness of the algorithm is formally proved, and time complexity is also analysed from it. Furthermore, some experiments are designed with some programs of NetBench and MiBench. The results show that the algorithm can achieve high accuracy and have notable performance improvement.
Tolbert, Sara E.
placements---in particular, the extent to which their cooperating teachers gave them the autonomy and planning time to design and implement their own activities and lessons. While the "integrated approach" to diversity and equity in science teacher education was, overall, successful in helping preservice teachers' move closer toward developing the beliefs, knowledge, and practices necessary for effective instruction in underserved classrooms, suggestions are given for increasing the effectiveness of the "integrated approach," particularly in the context of a one-year credentialing program.
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners’ writing performance. PMID:24578591
Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.
Kissling, Elizabeth M.
Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…
Loorbach, N.R.; Karreman, Joyce; Torrance, M.; Alamargot, D.
For a long time, user instructions were considered as purely instrumental documents: Instructions had to enable readers to perform tasks with an accompanying device. And even though this still remains the main purpose of user instructions, views on how to accomplish this have changed over the years.
This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…
Burton, Larry D.; Prest, Sharon
Intel-ebration is an attempt to integrate the following research-based instructional frameworks and strategies: (1) dimensions of learning; (2) multiple intelligences; (3) thematic instruction; (4) cooperative learning; (5) project-based learning; and (6) instructional technology. This paper presents a thematic unit on safari, using the…
The subjects were exposed to 5 weeks of instruction in selected science concepts from primary 5 curriculum module. Two modes of instruction used were the cooperative small group and the whole class instructional modes. Instrument for collecting the data was the Primary Science Achieve ment Test (PSAT). Data analysis ...