Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø
OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001......) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... was involved in 60% of the cases. One-third of the victims had experienced a previous sexual assault(s). Women were more likely to report to the police when they were assaulted by a stranger (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3-2.6) and sustained a physical injury (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1...
This document provides information on issues related to sexual assault in the US. The specific topics briefly discussed are incidence, psychological impact, assault assessment kits, medical evaluation, legal concerns, counseling, follow-up, and special circumstances. It is stated that a woman who is sexually assaulted would experience intense anxiety, anger or fear, and rape-trauma syndrome. The physician evaluating the victim should be aware of the state statutory requirements, which may involve the use of kits for gathering evidence. Informed consent from the victim and meticulous physical examination of the entire body should be performed with photographs and drawings made in the injured areas. In counseling, the physician should talk with the patient concerning the degree of the injury and the probability of infection or pregnancy. There is a need for patients to be reevaluated concerning her medical and psychological status.
Jan 1, 2014 ... BACKGROUND: Sexual assault affects one out of every five women, and it is a substantial public health ... public health and human rights problem around ..... against women of a younger age, especially those aged 15 to 19, living in single parent households and grandparent headed households (17).
Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam
Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965
Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H
Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military.
Kerner, Laura Lynn; Kerner, Jim; Herring, Susan D.
Recent sexual assault scandals have brought public attention to the fact that there is a need for colleges to aggressively address the issues surrounding sexual assaults on their campuses. Studies indicate that one in four women are being sexually assaulted each year, but few women report this. Women suffer major psychological issues when…
O'Neal, Eryn Nicole; Decker, Scott H; Spohn, Cassia; Tellis, Katharine
This study examines questions about forced unprotected sex. Study objectives include assessing the prevalence of condom use in sexual assault and improving our understanding of the correlates of condom use in sexual assault. We analyze 841 sexual assault complaints reported to three law enforcement agencies. Descriptive data are used to assess the prevalence of condom use in sexual assault and to examine the contextual factors associated with condom use in sexual assault. We conduct logistic regression analysis to examine motivations for condom use during sexual assault. Condom use prevalence rates across the sites range from 11.7% to 15.6%. Few differences exist across jurisdictions regarding the correlates of condom use. Condom use during sexual assault appears to be motivated by three contextual factors. Younger suspects and suspects who use a weapon during assaults are more likely to use a condom. The suspect's use of alcohol is negatively related to condom use. The low rates of condom use found in this study, coupled with the dangers of unprotected sexual contact, suggest that public health efforts must address the needs of victims of sexual assault more carefully. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bluhm, Brandi K.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Bureau of Justice Statistics' Criminal Victimization Survey reported that there were 284,350 rapes or sexual assaults in the United States in 2014. In the same year, the Department of Defense (DOD) Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (SAPRO) estimated that 18,900 sexual assaults occurred in the military. In recent years, Congress has been increasing pressure on the military to improve sexual assault prevention and respons...
... Management (MOVE!) Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Veterans Canteen Service (VCS) Research Research Home About VA Research ... to develop new relationships. Performance at work and school can also be affected. Sexual problems Sexual problems ...
Rhynard, J; Krebs, M; Glover, J
This article focuses on acquaintance rape, which under Canadian law constitutes a form of sexual assault. Frequency of acquaintance rape often is underestimated due to under-reporting, resulting in a local perception that acquaintance rape rarely occurs in a small Canadian community. A survey was conducted to determine whether acquaintance rape does occur in this community. One hundred sixty-four male and female students from grades 8-12 completed a questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of respondents reported being forced into some type of sexual activity. Based on the survey, this article explores the type of force used, the relationship between acquaintance rape and use of alcohol and drugs, and the relationship between acquaintance rape and the ability to indicate to a partner to stop a behavior. Results confirmed a need to develop programs to prevent rather than merely respond to issues of sexual assault on a date.
Melkonian, Alexander J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Bridges, Ana J.; Fugitt, Jessica L.
Objective: High rates of sexual victimization among college students necessitate further study of factors associated with sexual assault risk detection. The present study examined how social information processing relates to sexual assault risk detection as a function of sexual assault victimization history. Participants: 225 undergraduates…
brain structures are related to the motivation to have sex with children . 188.8.131.52 Personality Traits: Psychopathic Empathy, Callousness, Narcissism...surveillance is possible with emerging tools such as those used by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children that employ a deep hash algorithm... Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 338-351. 6 Widman, L., & McNulty, J. (2010). Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual
some form of social (bullying, disabling of a car, harassed by multiple phone calls, etc.) or professional (being denied training opportunities...the Stigma : Changing Public Perceptions of Sexual Assault in Rural Communities,” California Coalition Against Sexual Assault, accessed September 1...uploads/2011/05/Training- Standards.pdf. ———. “Stopping the Stigma : Changing Public Perceptions of Sexual Assault in Rural Communities. Accessed
Carmody, Dianne; Ekhomu, Jessica; Payne, Brian K.
Most campuses have sexual assault crisis centers that are designed to assist victims and educate the college community about this crime. While much is known about sexual assault victimization patterns on college campuses, there is still a lack of understanding about the needs of those working to prevent sexual assault. In the current study, campus…
Minow, Jacqueline Chevalier; Einolf, Christopher J
This study tested the relationship between sexual assault victimization, sorority membership, and participation in a range of sorority activities, using data from a large-sample (N = 779) survey conducted at a midsize public university. A total of 29% of sorority women reported having been sexually assaulted while in college, four times the rate (7%) among nonsorority members. The difference between Greek and non-Greek women remained large even when controls were included for alcohol consumption and attendance at Greek parties where alcohol is served. Among sorority members, participation in social events not involving alcohol correlated negatively with sexual assault, indicating a possible protective effect.
Deliramich, Aimee N; Gray, Matt J
The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity postassault. Such outcomes are not mutually exclusive possibilities but may instead reflect subtypes of sexual assault victims. A significant percentage of assault survivors did report increases in sexual activity following trauma. Assault survivors also reported increases in posttraumatic alcohol consumption relative to a comparison sample of motor vehicle accident survivors. In both groups, increases in posttraumatic alcohol usage predicted increases in posttraumatic sexual activity, suggesting that use of alcohol as a coping strategy may result in an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. If true, this maladaptive coping mechanism could help to account for some instances of revictimization.
Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi
Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process.
Allana M. Krolikowski
Full Text Available Sexual assault is a topic of importance worldwide to health professionals that provide emergency care. Victims of sexual assault include adult men, adult women, and children. The prevalence of sexual assault is likely under-reported. These patients should be offered comprehensive medical care upon arrival to the emergency centre. This includes assessment for acute injuries; medical history; physical examination; and possible collection of evidence. Depending on the patient's situation, he or she may be offered prophylactic and therapeutic management, which includes pregnancy testing and emergency contraception, prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections, and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. This article addresses the most up-to-date information on this management. Patients should also be offered mental health counselling on-site if appropriate health professionals are available. A number of countries have national protocols for care of the sexual assault patient. Implementing these protocols can be strengthened through such interventions as hiring sexual assault nurse examiners or creating a sexual assault centre within the emergency centre. The patient's immediate and future safety and emotional needs should be evaluated and a plan formulated for safety when the patient is discharged. Medical follow up is recommended and should be strongly encouraged.
Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.
Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence.
Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin
A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...
Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels
INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports produced by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), circumstances were.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...
Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P
Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a complex and ever-prevalent problem presenting to emergency departments. Emergency personnel should consider DFSA in patients who are amnestic to the specific details of the event following a reported sexual assault. The presence of ethanol or a positive routine drug screen in a sexual assault victim does not exclude the potential of a surreptitious drug being present. In addition, a negative routine drug screen does not exclude all potential agents that are used in DFSA. This article discusses agents reported in DFSA. It is imperative for emergency personnel to clearly document the history and the presenting signs and symptoms to assist laboratory personnel to hone in and detect the correct agent used in a DFSA.
Dworkin, Emily R; Allen, Nicole
Contacts with responders after sexual assault may influence further disclosure, but this possibility has not been explored empirically. Thus, this study investigates associations between survivors' contacts with responders and their decisions to discontinue disclosure. Fifty-four college students with a history of unwanted sexual experiences described 94 ordered contacts with responders. Results indicate that survivors' perceptions of responsiveness were not associated with continued disclosure, but survivors were more likely to continue disclosing when they perceived more rape myth acceptance from responders and when the assault was more recent. These findings highlight survivors' tenacity in meeting their needs, even after problematic responses. © The Author(s) 2016.
Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene
in several ways; they were more often assaulted by a stranger; more likely to be assaulted by more than one perpetrator; more likely being victim of drug rape; less likely to have experienced previous sexual abuse and less willing to report their assault to the police. Being victim of a sexual assault......This study aims to provide descriptive data regarding male victims of sexual assault seen at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, Denmark. All 55 male victims attending the center in the time period of March 2001 until December 2010 underwent a standardized data collection. Data...... included information on the victim and the sexual assault. Male victims accounted for less than 2% of the total number of visits to the center in this time period. Fifty three percent were between 15 and 24 years. In all cases the perpetrator was male, and 25% were assaulted by more than one perpetrator...
... suffer the pain and trauma of sexual assault. From verbal harassment and intimidation to molestation and... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8492 of April 1, 2010 National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2010 By the... physical and emotional scars. During National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, we recommit ourselves not...
Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with the aim of assessing sexual assault patterns and related complications on 99 sexual assault cases which were managed at the Gynecology Out-patient Department of the Hospital. Data on circumstances of sexual assault, survivor specific ...
Marshall, Sarah; Betron, Rachel; Bubbers, Caroline; Keightley, Melissa
This case involves the alleged sexual assault of a college athlete by her professor. Rather than report the incident, the athlete turns to social media to cryptically share her story. Her messages are clear cries for help and give window to her accelerating depressed state. Given the nature of her postings and follow-up accusations, various…
Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...
The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit of a community hospital in the Nkangala district in the Mpumalanga Province. A qualitative, phenomenological design was applied. Purposeful sampling was used to select ...
When the author started graduate school in the late 1970s, she was drawn to studying sexual assault. She had been a declared feminist since high school as the Women's Movement even reached the coal region of eastern Pennsylvania! Attending college in New York City, with its myriad opportunities for more exposure to what feminists were up to, made…
seem fragmented…. [Health problems comprise of] depression, chronic pain, diabetes, anxiety, eating disorders , and post- traumatic stress disorder .”41...sexual assault problem starts with the American culture. Perpetrators reside in society ??? communities, businesses, churches, schools, and sports ...culture. Perpetrators reside in society – communities, businesses, churches, schools, and sports – and in the military. In an all-voluntary military, the
Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve
This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…
Immediate needs after sexual assault include safety and privacy in the first instance, followed by treatment of injuries and prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. Management should include risk identification of self-harm and suicide, as well as safeguarding children and vulnerable adults. Pregnancy prevention can be achieved through oral or mechanical methods of emergency contraception. Availability of emergency contraception may vary between districts and countries, depending on local laws and cultural or religious beliefs. Sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhoea, chlamydia, hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus, represent an important part of management of victims of sexual assault. They can be prevented immediately by offering bacterial and viral prophylaxis followed by sexual health screening 2 weeks later unless symptomatic. In deciding what antibiotics to use as prophylaxis, local prevalence of infections and resistance to antibiotics should be considered. Prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual exposure should be discussed and offered in high-risk cases for up to 72 h after exposure. This should be accompanied by baseline human immunodeficiency virus test and referral for follow up. In high prevalence areas, prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual exposure should be offered as a routine. Psychosocial support and risk assessment of vulnerabilities, including self-harm or domestic violence and practical support should be addressed and acted on depending on identified needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
the experimental video. Pinzone-Glover, Gidycz, and Jacobs , 1998 College students 152 Experiment, survey Analyze the effects of a sexual assault...Layman, Cindy L. Rich, Marie Crothers, Julius Gylys, Abigail Matorin, and Cecilia Dine Jacobs , “An Evaluation of an Acquaintance Rape Prevention...gender differences when designing rape prevention programs. Lefley, Harriet P., Clarissa S. Scott, Maria Llabre, and Dorothy Hicks, “Cultural
35 3. Analyzing Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network Website ....35 D. DEVLOPING THEMATIC WEBSITE ANALSIS METRIC (T- WAM...portable document format PLAIN Plain Language Action and Information Network RAINN Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network SARC sexual assault...the literature review. The Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN) website (http://www.rainn.org) was used to develop the WAM baseline and
Easton, A N; Summers, J; Tribble, J; Wallace, P B; Lock, R S
College women's perceptions about resistance to sexual assault were examined. Twenty-one percent of the 334 women surveyed stated that they had been sexually assaulted. The vast majority of participants had changed their lifestyles to prevent a sexual assault. Less than 1 woman in 5 of those surveyed had taken a self-defense class. Participants believed that resisting sexual assault by a stranger with a weapon was more likely than resisting an unarmed attacker to increase their chances of being physically harmed, raped, or murdered. Twenty-two percent of the participants said they were "very likely" to resist sexual assault by a stranger with a weapon; 52% would resist a stranger without a weapon. The findings indicate the need for an increase in the number of women taking self-defense classes and a revision in women's perceptions about resisting sexual assault.
This podcast discusses the impact and prevalence of sexual violence and the importance of prevention. Created: 4/2/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 4/2/2012.
Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights ...
of Sexual Violence or Recidivism. Am J Publ. Health 2010; 100(3): 412-419. 2. Micheal CL, Jessica SL, Halfin VP. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault. In: Decherney AH (Ed). Current Diagnosis and treatment, 10th Edition. NewYork. McGrawHills Publishers, 2007: 1025 –. 1030. 3. Delahunta E, Baram DA. Sexual Assault ...
Starzynski, Laura L.; Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Long, LaDonna M.; Long, Susan M.
Although many sexual assault survivors seek support from mental health sources for adverse psychological symptoms due to sexual assault, many do not. A diverse sample of adult sexual assault survivors was surveyed about their sexual assault experiences, social reactions received when disclosing assault, attributions of blame, coping strategies,…
Davies, Michelle; Austen, Kerry; Rogers, Paul
The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between subjects. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their attributions toward both the victim and the perpetrator. Results revealed that male participants blamed the victim more than female participants when the victim was both gay and attacked by a male perpetrator. All participants, regardless of gender, made more positive judgements toward the female as opposed to male perpetrator. Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotypes and homophobia.
Choudhary, Ekta; Gunzler, Douglas; Tu, Xin; Bossarte, Robert M
Sexual assault among males, compared with females, is understudied, and may also be significantly underreported. Past studies have relied primarily on population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of sexual assault and associated health outcomes. However, survey-based studies rely primarily on self-reports of victimization and may not accurately estimate the true prevalence of male sexual assault victimization. In order to obtain a detailed assessment of sexual assault among males, criminological databases like the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) may provide an important and unique source of information. The objective of the current study was to use data from the 2001-2005 NIBRS to construct an epidemiological profile of sexual assault among males. Our results suggest that the incidence of sexual assault was higher among young males (less than 19 years of age), with approximately 90% of all cases being reported among members of this age group. Among males of all ages, forcible fondling and sodomy were the most prevalent forms of sexual assault. Results from additional analyses include age- and race-specific rates of male sexual assault, the prevalence and severity of injury, and time trends detailing incidence by time of the day and location of the incident. Our analyses show that sexual assault is experienced by males of all age groups. However, the rate of sexual assault is higher among younger males. Despite some limitations, results from this study suggest that NIBRS data may provide a important complement to survey data for understanding breadth and consequences of male sexual assault.
Ruch, L O; Leon, J J
An exploratory model of variables affecting level of sexual assault trauma at given times and change in trauma levels over time is developed and tested using a sample of female rape victims admitted to a treatment center over a two-year period. Based on a one-way analysis of variance and multiple classification analysis, the findings indicate that a previous rape best explains trauma change, while victim's demographics, social supports, and other prior life stress variables are important at specific time periods during the rape trauma syndrome. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of treatment-related issues.
Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.
Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…
Edwards, Keith E.
The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary
We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…
Cue, Kelly L.; And Others
Investigated how 165 female college students appraised their sexual assault risk in hypothetical dating situations, varying male partner characteristics and the consumption of alcohol. Findings suggest that women are partially accurate in making sexual-assault risk appraisals, and thus may benefit from rape prevention education that specifically…
Most of the sexual assault reported (57.6%) occurred in the evenings and nights. In 35.6% of the cases, the respondents sustained extra-genital trauma, while others had psychological (24.9%) and genital trauma (15.6%). Conclusion: Sexual assault rate among female students in the University of Maiduguri is high and is ...
Both parametric and non-parametric statistics were employed. Ethical measures were adhered to throughout the research process. Results: A significantly-higher proportion of sexually-assaulted women disclosed the incident to family (p = 0.021). The majority of sexually- (90%) and physically- (86%) assaulted women were ...
Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio ...
... consistent with the U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women Protocol. Gender-responsive.... Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, ``A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical... services provided to victims of domestic violence to victims who are sexually assaulted, in violation of...
Blayney, Jessica A; Read, Jennifer P
Sexual assault (SA) is a potent psychological stressor, linked to harmful mental health outcomes in both the short- and long-term. Specific assault characteristics can add to the toxicity of SA events. Although research has assessed characteristics of the assault itself (e.g., force, penetration), few studies have examined the larger socioenvironmental context in which SA takes place. This was the purpose of the present study. Young adults (N = 220; 80% female; 54% current students) reported on their most recent SA during college. Cross-sectional associations were tested via structural equation modeling to determine the contributions of socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics in predicting event-related distress. Socioenvironmental context from the most recent assault included assault setting, intoxication at the time of the assault, perpetrator relationship, and prior consensual sexual experiences with the perpetrator. We also examined assault characteristics, including physical force and penetration. Participants reported how upsetting the most recent assault was (a) at the time it occurred and (b) currently. Results revealed differential patterns for socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics based on the timing of distress (past or present). Notably, many of the socioenvironmental factors showed associations with distress above and beyond the powerful effects of physical force and penetration. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the unique factors that contribute to and maintain psychological distress in sexually victimized young adults. © The Author(s) 2015.
Parekh, Vanita; Currie, Marian; Brown, Cassandra Beaumont
A government-funded service to provide forensic and medical care to survivors of sexual assault was established in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) in 2001. Doctors employed by the service lacked the specific skills required to care comprehensively for survivors. Our aim was to develop, implement and evaluate a sexual assault medical education program. It consisted of an 'in-house' education program, and external university course and incorporated team-building, networking activities and protocol development. Core elements were: forensic evidence collection, assessment and management of injuries, prevention of sexually transmissible infections and pregnancy, counselling and emotional support. Participant satisfaction and knowledge acquisition were evaluated using a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire. Seven doctors participated in a 16-session program conducted by the director and nurse coordinator with help from local forensic, legal and medical experts. All doctors successfully completed the Certificate in Forensic Medicine, and reported satisfaction with the program and their increased knowledge, particularly associated with collection of forensic evidence and court procedures. A compete set of protocols was developed and cohesive networks established. We have designed an effective education program for doctors working in the field of sexual assault and offer it as a template to other health professionals working in this area.
Alderden, Megan; Long, LaDonna
This research seeks to examine why victim participation rates in police investigations and prosecution decline following reporting of sexual assault to police. It was hypothesized that several factors would impact victim participation, including whether the incident reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios, if the victim used alcohol or illicit drugs prior to the incident, and if the hospital staff initially reported the incident. The study coded victim participation following initial police reporting from police case investigation narratives. Based on the 544 cases of sexual assault reported to a Midwestern police department, it was found that victims were indeed more likely to continue participating after initial reports to police if their assaults reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios. Future research should include discussions with victims about their participation in the criminal justice system following initial reporting to further clarify the findings noted here.
Goyal, Vinita; Mengeling, Michelle A; Booth, Brenda M; Torner, James C; Syrop, Craig H; Sadler, Anne G
Women veterans report a high prevalence of sexual assault. Unfortunately, there are limited data on the reproductive health sequelae faced by these women. Our objective was to evaluate the association between completed lifetime sexual assault (LSA) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among a cohort of women veterans, adjusting for sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a retrospective study among women veterans aged 51 years or younger who enrolled for care at two Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare sites between 2000 and 2008. Participants completed a telephone interview assessing reproductive health and sexual violence history. We compared the frequencies of past STI diagnoses among those who had and had not experienced LSA. We used logistic regression to assess the effect of sexual assault with history of an STI diagnosis after adjusting for age, sexual risk behaviors, and substance abuse treatment. Among 996 women veterans, a history of STIs was reported by 32%, including a lifetime history of gonorrhea (5%), chlamydia (15%), genital herpes infection (8%), and human papillomavirus infection (15%), not mutually exclusive; 51% reported LSA. Women with a history of LSA were significantly more likely to report a history of STIs (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-2.50; adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.07-2.08). Women veterans who have experienced LSA are at increased risk for lifetime STI diagnoses. To adequately address the reproductive health needs of the growing population of women veterans, STI risk assessments should include queries of military service and LSA histories.
BACKGROUND. Sexual violence is a common phenomenon and occurs worldwide. Data available suggests that in some countries one in five women report sexual violence by an intimate partner and up to a third of girls report forced sexual initiation.1 Sexual assault encompasses a range of acts, including coerced sex in ...
Felson, Richard B; Cundiff, Patrick R
Evidence based on almost 300,000 sexual assaults from the National Incident-Based Reporting System showed that the modal age of victims was 15 years, regardless of the age of the offender, the gender of the offender, or the gender of the victim. We suggest that adolescents have the highest risk of victimization because of their sexual attractiveness, vulnerability, and exposure to motivated offenders. As a result of these factors, sexual assault is as much an offense against young people as it is against women. The sexual attractiveness of young people also has implications for the age of offenders. Older men have much higher rates of offending than one would expect, given the age-desistance relationship. Thus, we found that older men have much higher rates of sexual assault than physical assault. Finally, evidence suggested that homosexual men were at least as likely as heterosexual men to commit sexual assault. The pattern suggests that the tendency for sexual assaults to involve male offenders and female victims reflects male sexuality rather than attitudes toward women.
Jun 20, 2014 ... a psychologist by the survivor support officer (SSO), who is a trauma counsellor. Within the context of Limpopo Province, survivors who reported sexual assault at the clinic had experienced stranger rape and rape by non-strangers who were not intimate partners, whilst those who reported physical assault ...
Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia
This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…
Senn, Charlene Y.; Gee, Stephanie S.; Thake, Jennifer
The current study examined whether adding emancipatory sexuality education, which encourages the exploration of women's own sexual values and desires, to a sexual assault resistance program would improve women's resistance to sexual assault by known men. The participants were 214 first-year university students. A randomized experimental design…
DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C
Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p shame. These findings offer new insight concerning the intervening role of assault-related shame and highlight the importance of shame as a target for therapeutic intervention. This study suggests the need for future research concerning the role of shame in the etiology of PTSD and process of disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cook, Paul J; Jones, Alan M; Lipari, Rachel N; Lancaster, Anita R
This report provides the results for the Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey that the Defense Manpower Defense Center conducted in response to Section 527 of the National Defense...
Coulter, Robert W S; Rankin, Susan R
Sexual- and gender-minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) undergraduate students are at greater risk for sexual assault victimization than their cisgender (i.e., nontransgender) heterosexual peers. However, few studies have examined how social environments affect sexual assault victimization among sexual- and gender-minority undergraduate students. Nevertheless, this research area was identified as a priority by the Institute of Medicine as well as President Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault. Therefore, we tested the association between college campuses' inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people and experiences of sexual assault victimization. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by sexual- and gender-minority undergraduate students ( N = 1,925) from higher education institutions in all 50 U.S. states in 2010. Our dependent variable was experiencing sexual assault victimization at college. Our primary independent variable was campus climate, measured with items assessing perceived inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people and witnessing sexual- or gender-minority harassment. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (accounting for the clustering of students within schools) to estimate the association between campus climate and experiencing sexual assault victimization. Overall, 5.2% of the sample reported ever being victims of sexual assault at college. Controlling for sexual orientation, gender identity, race/ethnicity, and year in school, greater perceived inclusion of sexual- and gender-minority people on campus was associated with significantly lower odds of experiencing sexual assault victimization. Our study suggests that improving campus climate for sexual- and gender-minority individuals may reduce their prevalence of college sexual assault, which has potential implications for college practitioners and administrators as well as sexual assault
Full Text Available The appropriateness of restorative justice (RJ for gendered violence offences such as domestic violence and sexual assault has always been and still is highly contested. This paper focuses on the appropriateness of RJ measures in addressing sexual assault, primarily with reference to experience of restorative dialogues as practiced at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, and it takes a feminist approach to the application of RJ measures to sexual assault. Within this framework, the paper tackles two issues in particular: the privacy element of RJ versus the public aspect of the criminal justice system (CJS, and the intersection of the CJS and RJ in cases of sexual assault. In relation to the relationship between CJS and RJ, the authors argue that RJ could be used for victims of sexual assault, not primarily as part of diversion programmes, but when offered apart from and/or parallel to the CJS. In relation to the private/public debate, the authors argue that while RJ encounters, by taking place in highly confidential settings, might have a negative impact on efforts by women’s movements to move violence against women out of the private and into the public realm, creating high standard alternatives for individual women who are in need of support and constantly generating public debate about gendered violence is a good feminist response to this complex issue.
Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette
Little guidance exists about how to tailor empowerment and resistance sexual assault programming to be responsive to varying groups of women. Using an investigation of 415 college women who completed a self-administered survey about a range of sexually aggressive experiences by a known male assailant, this investigation tested for distinct…
Nielson, Mary Hugo; Strong, Linda; Stewart, Julie G
There are over 243,800 female sexual assaults in the United States annually. Of those who seek healthcare services after being sexually assaulted, 90% present to hospitals. Unfortunately, care and services for women who have been sexually assaulted are inconsistent. Increased burnout, frustration, and feelings of inadequacy can lead healthcare providers to exhibit personal biases or negative attitudes toward their patients. The Joint Commission, responsible for accreditation of healthcare organizations, has stated that nurses must provide competent care to all patients. Therefore, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) training needs to be available for emergency department (ED) nurses who care for patients who have been sexually assaulted. A survey using the Attitude Toward Rape Victims Scale was sent to 1503 ED nurses throughout the United States, from the Emergency Nursing Association's mailing list. The results of the survey showed that there was a significant difference in attitudes toward the patients between SANE-trained emergency nurses and those without training. This study also showed that 35.5% of hospitals represented by the respondents did not have SANE services available for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted, and furthermore, 85.5% of the respondents who cared for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted were not SANE trained. The negative attitudes held toward such patients as found in this study, coupled with a lack of training provides evidence that ED nurses may benefit from education related to appropriate treatment for patients who have been sexually assaulted. As evidence-based practice becomes the gold standard of care, ensuring that nurses are properly trained to care for all patients must be the goal.
Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara
Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…
... are aware of the DoD definition of ``sexual assault'' as defined in DoD Directive 6495.01, Sexual... Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics to develop requirements in all DoD contracts supporting contingency... ``sexual assault,'' as defined in DoD Directive 6495.01, Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR...
... the trauma of sexual assault. And ultimately, we must prevent sexual assault before it happens. Under...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8643 of March 31, 2011 National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month... confront rape and other forms of sexual violence as a deplorable crime. Too many victims suffer unaided...
Sep 22, 2011 ... The United Nation defines violence against women as any act of sexual assault that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty whether occurring in public or private life.[1,2] Following.
Kelley, Erika L; Gidycz, Christine A
Little research has examined the relationship between women's labeling of their sexual assault experiences and sexual functioning, as well as identification of variables that may mediate the labeling-trauma outcome relationship. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap in the literature, by examining the potential mediating role of coping strategies in response to sexual assault in the relationship between labeling and sexual functioning. The sample included 135 college women with a history of adolescent/early adulthood sexual assault. Labeling was not bivariately related to sexual functioning outcomes; however, anxious coping mediated the relationships between labeling and both sexual lubrication and sexual satisfaction. This suggests that correlational analyses between labeling and trauma outcomes may not capture the complexity of this relationship, as it may be more indirect. Furthermore, results suggest that labeling is part of the coping process in response to sexual assault; some women who consider their experience to be sexual assault may engage in anxious coping efforts, contributing to difficulties with sexual lubrication and sexual dissatisfaction. Victims actively working to integrate their sexual assault experience with prior beliefs and self-concept may benefit from treatment focused on decreasing anxious coping, especially as it relates to sexual functioning. © The Author(s) 2014.
Moller, Anna Sofia; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Sondergaard, Hans Peter; Helstrom, Lotti
Earlier studies have explored the differences between known-assailant sexual assaults and stranger assaults and reported the stranger assaults as being more violent. Only a few studies have discriminated between sexual assaults by intimate partners from assaults by other known assailants when comparing with assaults by strangers. In this study, we…
During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims ar...... as the frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder in relation to sexual assault. Multidisciplinary centers as WDSAC may be the strategy for preventing the serious disability of the posttraumatic stress disorder following sexual assault.......During the 1980’s and 1990’s several Sexual Assault Centers were established in the Nordic countries in order to counteract the health consequences of sexual assault. In Denmark the Western Danish Sexual Assault Center (WDSAC) was established in November 1999 in the town of Aarhus. The victims...
NURIUS, PAULA S.; NORRIS, JEANETTE; MACY, REBECCA J.; HUANG, BU
Drawing on theories of appraisal-based coping, the present study applied structural modeling to examine relationships among personal goal orientations, primary and secondary appraisals of acquaintance sexual assault, and women’s emotional and behavioral responses to it. Based on 415 college women’s reports of a sexual assault experience, the model shows both direct and indirect effects. Assertive, diplomatic, and immobilized responding were each predicted by a unique profile of appraisals and orientations; personal goal orientations and primary appraisals were completely mediated by secondary appraisals. Ways that these findings can facilitate self-protective coping in an acquaintance sexual assault situation, leading to the development of effective, well-tailored self-defense and resistance programs, are discussed. PMID:26345173
Anderson, C L
The definite and persistent phenomenon of sexual assault upon males is virtually ignored in the literature, although incidence data reported here suggest the greater scope of the problem. The avoidance of the subject of sexual assault on males creates a negative environment for victims. While the motivation of assailants is briefly discussed, the article focuses on the psychological aftermath for sexual assault victims. A paradigm is offered, consisting of "Set-up," "Attack," and "Aftermath" phases. Male victims suffer "Rape Trauma Syndrome" as described for females, as well as various forms of stigmatization and secondary trauma. Differences and similarities between male and female victims are identified. Victim responses are discussed as they proceed through several stages, with implications for appropriate interventions on both the clinical and community levels. The article concludes with an extensive bibliography.
Henry, Wilma J.
Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.
Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…
Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.
Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…
Towson, Shelagh M. J.; Zanna, Mark P.
Examined differences in responses to retaliation against sexual assault in a study of 107 students who read vignettes in which the victim or her fiance shot the rapist. Results indicated women regarded the retaliation as more morally justified and were more lenient in their legal judgments. (JAC)
Jun 20, 2014 ... Background: Gender-based violence is a challenge in South Africa, despite available interventions. Caring for the survivors of both forms of violence is critical for ensuring their speedy recovery. Objectives: To compare the effects of trauma on female survivors of sexual assault versus those experienced by ...
Beauregard, Eric; Busina, Irina
The aim of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between situational and modus operandi characteristics and criminal mobility during the sexual assault event. Data collected from both police files and semistructured interviews with 72 serial sex offenders who have committed 361 sexual assaults have been used. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationships between the situational and modus operandi characteristics and the criminal mobility exhibited during the sexual assault. Events that involved child or adolescent victims, those where the offender did not use pornography prior to crime, and those where victim resistance was observed exhibited more criminal mobility. Moreover, crimes in which the victim was selected, the victim was alone when approached by the offender, and the assault was characterized by sexual penetration and a lack of premeditation exhibited more criminal mobility. Results seem to suggest that criminal mobility is a goal-oriented action taken by serial sex offenders to successfully complete their crime and to avoid detection and apprehension.
The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…
Miller, Audrey K.; Markman, Keith D.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Menaker, Tasha A.
Legal scholars have argued that laws have an "expressive function", specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages--specifically their…
Dept of Population and Family Health
punishable by law and 146 (45.2%) respondents believed that penal code of Ethiopia on rape that states maximum of 10 years imprisonment for the act of rape is inadequate. CONCLUSION: sexual assault is an important health and social problem-affecting women. Hence there is a need for more concerted efforts to be ...
Gray-Rosendale, Laura; Dierking, Kirsten
At a conference last fall, Kirsten Dierking came across "College Girl: A Memoir," a book by Laura Gray-Rosendale that tells the story of a brutal sexual assault she experienced as a college student. While she purchased a copy of the book, it sat unopened on her desk for a while; also a victim of brutal rape in college, she was not sure…
Depressive symptoms after a sexual assault among women: understanding victim-perpetrator relationships and the role of social perceptions. ... it is more generally assumed that multiple perpetrator rapes, stranger rapes and those with weapons would result in more psychological trauma and thus more enduring symptoms.
... objective of this study is therefore to assess the magnitude of sexual assault among women in Assendabo town. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 323 women 10 years and above. Data was collected by trained female interviewers using structured questionnaire and entered into computer, ...
Sexual assault can be psychologically devastating for survivors and this aspect of impact is often not addressed in post-rape care. After rape, survivors often develop a cluster of symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may develop depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic attacks, substance abuse.
Guidelines: Medical management of a survivor of sexual assault/abuse: Including Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and the Forensic Kit. Adrienne Wulfsohn. Abstract. No Abstract Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine Vol. 5 (1) 2004: 21-27. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...
Masculinity Approach Definition Essentialism Sexual assault or violence occurs due to the aggressive and natural tendencies of humans. It also serves as a... violence . 2. Allied masculinity : Access to the inner sanctum of hegemonic masculinity is open not just to men but even to woman—as long as...Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2011), 13-20. 16. Aaron Belkin, Bring Me Men: Military Masculinity and the
Schultz, Jessica R; Bell, Kathryn M; Naugle, Amy E; Polusny, Melissa A
The purpose of this study was to investigate childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adulthood sexual victimization (ASV), and adulthood sexual assault experiences in a comparison sample of female military veterans (n = 142) and civilian community members (n = 81). Women veterans were significantly more likely than civilian women to report adult sexual assault. Although comparable rates of CSA and ASV were found across groups, veterans more frequently reported having been sexually abused by a parental figure, reported longer durations of CSA, and significantly greater severity of ASV than civilians. Implications for mental health professionals providing sexual trauma services to female military personnel and veterans are discussed.
La Harpe, Romano; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse
In Geneva, all sexual assault victims are examined both by a gynaecologist and a forensic pathologist with special training in clinical forensic medicine. Between 2006 and 2010, 473 victims were examined following such an assault. Over the years, the number of sexual assaults rose steadily. Most victims were aged between 15 and 30 years. The majority of the assaults occurred at night and on the weekend and often happened at the place where the perpetrator or the victim lived. Usually, the offender acted alone and was known to the victim. Many victims hesitate to present for an examination, which makes it difficult to collect evidence. Penetration was usually vaginal and without the use of a condom. Injuries on the body or genitals were seen in only half of the cases for the first ones and in less than one third for the second ones. Quite often (at least in 42 % of the cases), the victim consumed alcohol before the assault and the use of drugs--especially cannabis--was not uncommon either.
... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... crimes involving adult sexual assault and related offenses under section 920 of title 10, United States...
Keshet, Hadar; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
The unique characteristics of sexual assault (SA)-a toxic mix of an interpersonal harm, a violent exploitation of one's body, and a transformation of an act of connectedness into an act of submission-are postulated to negatively affect the self-concept. We sought to deepen the understanding of self-concept impairments among sexually assaulted women with varying levels of posttraumatic distress. To this end, we compared women with a main trauma of SA to women with a main trauma of motor-vehicle accident (MVA) and to nontraumatized (NT) women on several self-concept aspects. Our main hypotheses were (a) sexually assaulted women without PTSD exhibit impaired self-concept as compared with NT women and (b) SA is related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when posttraumatic distress is statistically controlled. Women (N = 235: NT = 69, MVA = 87, SA = 79) completed a web-based survey including measures designed to assess the global and domain-specific contents and structure of the self-concept as well as background and clinical questionnaires. Sexually assaulted women without PTSD reported impaired self-concept as compared with NT women. Furthermore, SA was related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when considering participants' levels of posttraumatic distress. SA is related to unique self-concept impairments that extend beyond symptoms, emphasizing the need to assess and address self-concept impairments in sexually assaulted women. The importance of adopting a multifaceted conceptualization of the self to gain a deeper understanding of the aftermath of trauma is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Christian, C W; Lavelle, J M; De Jong, A R; Loiselle, J; Brenner, L; Joffe, M
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends forensic evidence collection when sexual abuse has occurred within 72 hours, or when there is bleeding or acute injury. It is not known whether these recommendations are appropriate for prepubertal children, because few data exist regarding the utility of forensic evidence collection in cases of child sexual assault. This study describes the epidemiology of forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. The medical records of 273 children Criminalistics Laboratory were retrospectively reviewed for history, physical examination findings, forensic evidence collection, and forensic results. Some form of forensic evidence was identified in 24.9% of children, all of whom were examined within 44 hours of their assault. Over 90% of children with positive forensic evidence findings were seen within 24 hours of their assault. The majority of forensic evidence (64%) was found on clothing and linens, yet only 35% of children had clothing collected for analysis. After 24 hours, all evidence, with the exception of 1 pubic hair, was recovered from clothing or linens. No swabs taken from the child's body were positive for blood after 13 hours or sperm/semen after 9 hours. A minority of children (23%) had genital injuries. Genital injury and a history of ejaculation provided by the child were associated with an increased likelihood of identifying forensic evidence, but several children had forensic evidence found that was unanticipated by the child's history. The general guidelines for forensic evidence collection in cases of acute sexual assault are not well-suited for prepubertal victims. The decision to collect evidence is best made by the timing of the examination. Swabbing the child's body for evidence is unnecessary after 24 hours. Clothing and linens yield the majority of evidence and should be pursued vigorously for analysis.
Souder, William C., III
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, this thesis studies the effects of demographics, prior victimization, deployment status, and workplace characteristics—specifically, command climate, leadership and training quality—on both incidence and reporting of sexual assault and sexual harassment. Sexual assault consists of a nonconsensual sexual act coupled with a use of force or threat thereof that is likely to cause physical harm ...
together reported 604 sexual assault incidents in fiscal year 2015; however, sexual assault is generally an underreported crime . Congress included a... reported to Army and National Guard personnel; however, sexual assault is generally an underreported crime . Based on a survey of reserve-component... reporting of sexual assault crimes , and improve victim response capabilities. Starting with its fiscal year 2007 report on sexual assault in the military
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C
Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault after the 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members' relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Participants were 1,674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008 and 2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Approximately 13.2% of men (n = 198) and 43.5% of women (n = 74) reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% of men (n = 17) and 18.8% of women (n = 32) reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Greater unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Greater unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has the potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Au, Teresa M; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Comer, Jonathan S; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn; Litz, Brett T
... meaningfully distinct subgroups with discordant PTSD and depression symptoms. Latent profile analysis was used to examine self-reported PTSD and depression symptoms among 119 female sexual assault survivors at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-months post-assault...
sexual assaults go unreported each year. Some victims may never consider reporting a sexual assault, as they may minimize the incident or cope in...FY15. Qualitative data about reporting concerns indicated that stigma and perceptions about sexual orientation were quite prominent for men who...with sufficient information to dispel myths about male sexual assault and combat stigma associated with victimization. The Service and NGB
Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M
In 2005, the Department of Defense reformed military sexual assault (MSA) prevention and response efforts. However, research suggests that some Service members may not be informed of MSA resources. We examined how lacking such knowledge may undermine psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress) among MSA survivors as well as Service members who feel unsafe from MSA. The data were collected by the DoD in 2010 and sampled active duty Service women and men. Experiencing MSA, feeling unsafe from MSA, and lacking knowledge of MSA resources predicted greater psychiatric symptoms. Service members who felt unsafe from MSA reported greater psychiatric symptoms as a function of lacking knowledge of MSA resources. Findings suggest that education about sexual assault resources may be critical for the protection of mental health-among survivors and nonvictims alike.
Staples, Jennifer M; Eakins, Danielle; Neilson, Elizabeth C; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette
Previous research has demonstrated that a history of adult sexual assault (ASA) is associated with negative outcomes, including trauma symptomatology and fear of sexual intimacy. Disclosing sexual assault might be protective against such negative outcomes. To examine the indirect effect of trauma symptomatology on the association between disclosing ASA and current sexual functioning. Participants included 652 women 21 to 30 years old with a history of ASA recruited from the community. Participants completed self-report measurements on a computer. Separate models were performed, with sexual functioning divided into sexual desire, orgasm, and pain during sex. ASA disclosure was indirectly associated with sexual orgasm and pain during sex by trauma symptomatology. However, there was no indirect effect of trauma symptomatology on the relation between ASA disclosure and sexual desire. Disclosing experiences of ASA could serve a protective function by lessening trauma symptomatology, thereby mitigating impacts on aspects of sexual functioning, such as orgasm and pain. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cooper, Gregory M; King, Michael R
Sexual assault is considered one of the most terrible crimes committed against the elderly, particularly as they are noted to be among the most innocent and vulnerable of populations. To better understand offender motivation and related behaviors, this article presents suggestions that are possible guidelines for forensic interviews, including an examination of potential methods for obtaining cooperation to optimize a truthful and accurate disclosure of offenders' crimes for research purposes.
Hansen, Ole Ingemann
November 1999 the first Center for (adult) Victims of Sexual Assault in Denmark opened in the town of Aarhus in cooperation with the Aarhus County’s Health Service, Aarhus University Hospital, the police and the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus. The Center is located at the em......November 1999 the first Center for (adult) Victims of Sexual Assault in Denmark opened in the town of Aarhus in cooperation with the Aarhus County’s Health Service, Aarhus University Hospital, the police and the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus. The Center is located...... at the emergency department, open 24-hours a day and no referral is needed nor police notification. The victim can talk to specially trained nurses and get a medical examination with collection of forensic evidence performed by a specially trained physician. The day after the acute treatment and crisis care......, the forensic scientists, the department of gynaecology, the county’s general practitioners and the university institutes of psychology and forensic medicine. The prevention of sexual assault is a difficult issue, but the fact that half the cases happens in privacy or at work, and that only 25...
Full Text Available Drugs used in sexual assault, which are also called as date rape drugs, are common phenomenon of crime in many countries. In a typical scenario, a perpetrator adds a date-rape drug which has sedative effect into alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person. After drug administration, mostly amnesia and symptoms such as confussion, loss of memory, lack of muscle control, dizziness occur. The main drugs in sexual assaults are benzodiazepines such as γ-hydroxy butyrate and its analogs, clonazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam, oxazepam, ketamine, barbiturates, antidepressants, cocaine and stimulants. Most of these drugs are colorless, odorless and highly soluble in alcohol or other beverages quickly. They are rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration. A victim may complain to police or other legal forces after several days due to emotional trauma as shame, fear, doubt and disbelief. For this reason, It is important to know what time the sample is taken from the victim to confirm the presence of the drug. In this study, we will present a general approach to date-rape drugs used in sexual assault. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 418-425
Beckmann, C R; Groetzinger, L L
Sexual assault victims require a multidisciplinary approach encompassing emotional, medical, and forensic care. Evaluation should include general and genital examinations, collection of forensic specimens, and culturing for sexually transmitted diseases. Obtaining a complete history is not only medically and legally crucial, but also can be a valuable therapeutic activity. Antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital contraception, and testing for human immunodeficiency virus should be offered. An understanding of the rape trauma syndrome is the foundation for providing emotional support. The need for follow-up evaluation and counseling should be stressed.
Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M
Sexual assault is an insidious problem in the United States military. In 2005 the Department of Defense (DoD) created the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office, which centralizes responsibility for sexual assault training. However, this training initiative has undergone little evaluation by outside researchers. Addressing this need, we analyzed responses from over 24,000 active duty personnel who completed the 2010 DoD Workplace and Gender Relations Survey. We assessed whether sexual assault training exposure (None, Minimal, Partial, or Comprehensive) predicted accurate knowledge of sexual assault resources and protocols. Using a social-ecological framework, we investigated whether institutional and individual factors influenced Service members' training exposure and judgment of training effectiveness. According to our results, exposure to comprehensive training predicted lower sexual assault incidence and superior knowledge. However, comprehensive training differed as a function of military branch, rank, gender, and sexual assault history. Judgments of training effectiveness also varied across these dimensions. Our results highlight the importance of considering context, gender, and victimization history when evaluating institutional efforts to end sexual violence. The DoD's 2010 annual report on military sexual assault concluded that "most Active Duty members receive effective training on sexual assault" (p. 104). Our results cast doubt on that assertion.
Barth, Shannon K; Kimerling, Rachel E; Pavao, Joanne; McCutcheon, Susan J; Batten, Sonja V; Dursa, Erin; Peterson, Michael R; Schneiderman, Aaron I
Military sexual trauma (MST) includes sexual harassment or sexual assault that occurs during military service and is of increasing public health concern. The population prevalence of MST among female and male veterans who served during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) has not been estimated to our knowledge. The purpose of this study is to assess the population prevalence and identify military correlates of MST, sexual harassment, and sexual assault among OEF/OIF veterans. MST was assessed in the 2009-2011 National Health Study for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans, a survey of 60,000 veterans who served during the OEF/OIF eras (response rate, 34%, n=20,563). Weighted prevalence estimates and AORs of MST, sexual harassment, and sexual assault among women and men were calculated. Gender-stratified logistic regression models controlled for military and demographic characteristics. Data analyses were conducted in 2013-2014. Approximately 41% of women and 4% of men reported experiencing MST. Deployed men had lower risk for MST compared with non-deployed men, though no difference was found among women. However, veterans reporting combat exposure during deployment had increased risk for MST compared with those without, while controlling for OEF/OIF deployment. Among women, Marines and Navy veterans had increased risk for MST compared with Air Force veterans. MST was significantly higher among veterans who reported using Veterans Affairs healthcare services. These prevalence estimates underscore the importance of public awareness and continued investigation of the public health impact of MST. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Geffner, Robert, Ed.
These two Bulletins contain selected articles that highlight research and treatment issues in child abuse and child sexual abuse. The first issue includes the following featured articles: (1) "The Relationships between Animal Abuse and Other Forms of Family Violence" (Phil Arkow), which addresses animal cruelty as a harbinger of…
Abbey, Antonia; McAuslan, Pam
Self-administered surveys were completed by 197 men in college at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Men who committed sexual assault at multiple time points (repeat assaulters) had the most extreme scores on measures of hostility toward women, past sexual experiences, drinking in sexual situations, and adolescent delinquency. Nonassaulters had the…
Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.
This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors…
Watkins, Kimberley; Bennett, Rachel; Zamorski, Mark A; Richer, Isabelle
Most research on military-related sexual assault is based on the United States military and has important limitations, such as low response rates. We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault, assess its relation to military service and identify the circumstances, correlates and associations with mental disorders of military-related sexual assault among Canadian military personnel. We used the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional representative survey of Canadian Regular Force personnel (n = 6696). The sample was weighted to be representative of the entire Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force population in 2012 (n = 67 776), as per Statistics Canada requirements. We assessed lifetime trauma exposure and past-year mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We defined lifetime military-related sexual assault as forced sexual activity or unwanted sexual touching that occurred on deployment or in another military workplace, or was perpetrated by Department of National Defence or Canadian Armed Forces personnel. We defined all other sexual assault as non-military-related sexual assault. Self-reported sexual assault was more prevalent among women (non-military-related sexual assault 24.2%, military-related sexual assault 15.5%) than men (5.9% and 0.8%, respectively). About a quarter of women with military-related sexual assault reported experiencing at least 1 event on deployment. After covariates were controlled for, military-related sexual assault was independently associated with any lifetime and any past-year mental disorder (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 and 3.0, respectively) and lifetime and past-year posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio 4.3 and 4.1, respectively). Canadian military women are at increased risk for sexual assault and military-related sexual assault relative to their male counterparts. Deployment may be a period of elevated risk for military-related sexual assault, and
Sturgiss, Elizabeth Ann; Tyson, Alexandra; Parekh, Vanita
This retrospective clinical audit reviews cases of adult sexual assault where the victim alleges that they were penetrated with a foreign object. These assaults were more likely to have positive genital and non-genital findings recorded by the clinician compared to assaults where no object was used. There is a suggestion that these assaults may be more violent with multiple assailants more common and an association with more use of threats and weapons. It is important to ask about the penetrative use of foreign objects in a sexual assault history and for clinicians to be aware of the greater possibility of injury in these cases.
Senn, Charlene Y; Eliasziw, Misha; Barata, Paula C; Thurston, Wilfreda E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Radtke, H Lorraine; Hobden, Karen L
Young women attending university are at substantial risk for being sexually assaulted, primarily by male acquaintances, but effective strategies to reduce this risk remain elusive. We randomly assigned first-year female students at three universities in Canada to the Enhanced Assess, Acknowledge, Act Sexual Assault Resistance program (resistance group) or to a session providing access to brochures on sexual assault, as was common university practice (control group). The resistance program consists of four 3-hour units in which information is provided and skills are taught and practiced, with the goal of being able to assess risk from acquaintances, overcome emotional barriers in acknowledging danger, and engage in effective verbal and physical self-defense. The primary outcome was completed rape, as measured by the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Victimization, during 1 year of follow-up. A total of 451 women were assigned to the resistance group and 442 women to the control group. Of the women assigned to the resistance group, 91% attended at least three of the four units. The 1-year risk of completed rape was significantly lower in the resistance group than in the control group (5.2% vs. 9.8%; relative risk reduction, 46.3% [95% confidence interval, 6.8 to 69.1]; P=0.02). The 1-year risk of attempted rape was also significantly lower in the resistance group (3.4% vs. 9.3%, Pwomen. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the University of Windsor; SARE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01338428.).
Resnick, Heidi S.; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Self-Brown, Shannon
Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape in efforts to ameliorate post assault distress. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address this problem,...
Claude A Mellins
Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across
Mellins, Claude A; Walsh, Kate; Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie; Gilbert, Louisa; Santelli, John S; Thompson, Martie; Wilson, Patrick A; Khan, Shamus; Benson, Stephanie; Bah, Karimata; Kaufman, Kathy A; Reardon, Leigh; Hirsch, Jennifer S
Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes) and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration). Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively), although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%). Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%); physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women) and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups") vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across gender
Full Text Available Background:Gender-based violence is a challenge in South Africa, despite available interventions. Caring for the survivors of both forms of violence is critical for ensuring their speedy recovery. Objectives:To compare the effects of trauma on female survivors of sexual assault versus those experienced by survivors of physical assault by their intimate partners. Method:A quantitative cross-sectional comparative study design was used to compare 30 sexually-assaulted women and 30 physically-assaulted women regarding depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder and coping styles three months after the incident. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the survivors of both types of assault and the Beck Depression Inventory posttraumatic stress disorder checklist and Brief COPE Inventory were administered in order to obtain quantitative data. Both parametric and non-parametric statistics were employed. Ethical measures were adhered to throughout the research process. Results:A significantly-higher proportion of sexually-assaulted women disclosed the incident to family (p = 0.021. The majority of sexually- (90% and physically- (86% assaulted women were likely to recall the incident. Sexually-assaulted women had a significantly-higher mean for avoidance/numbness (p 0.051. About 41%of sexually-assaulted participants reported severe depression. Findings confirmed that sexual assault is more personal whilst physical assault is more interpersonal. If physically-assaulted women were removed from the perpetrators they recovered faster than sexually-assaulted women. Their stay with the perpetrators may perpetuate the violence. Conclusion:The need for counselling and support for the survivors of both traumas was recommended. All stakeholders should be educated to provide support to survivors of both traumas.
sexual assault is a crime defined as, “intentional sexual contact, characterized by use of force, physical threat, abuse of authority, when the...dealing with sexual abuse or assault.8 7Antoinette Bonsignore, “The Military’s Rape and Sexual ... Hollywood , “Creating a True Army of One: Four Proposals to Combat Sexual Harassment in Today’s Army,” www.law.harvard.edu (accessed January 2, 2012). 10
Margaret K Sande
Full Text Available Introduction: There is currently no standard forensic medicine training program for emergency medicine residents. In the advent of sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE programs aimed at improving the quality of care for sexual assault victims, it is also unclear how these programs impact emergency medicine (EM resident forensic medicine training. The purpose of this study was togather information on EM residency programs’ training in the care of sexual assault patients and determine what impact SANE programs may have on the experience of EM resident training from the perspective of residency program directors (PDs.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. The study cohort was all residency PDs from approved EM residency training programs who completed a closed-response self-administered survey electronically.Results: We sent surveys to 152 PDs, and 71 responded for an overall response rate of 47%. Twenty-two PDs (31% reported that their residency does not require procedural competency for the sexual assault exam, and 29 (41% reported their residents are required only to observe sexual assault exam completion to demonstrate competency. Residency PDs were asked how their programs established resident requirements for sexual assault exams. Thirty-seven PDs (52% did not know how their sexual assault exam requirement was established.Conclusion: More than half of residency PDs did not know how their sexual assault guidelines were established, and few were based upon recommendations from the literature. There is no clear consensus as to how PDs view the effect of SANE programs on resident competency with the sexual assault exam. This study highlights both a need for increased awareness of EM resident sexual assault education nationally and also a possible need for a training curriculum defining guidelines forEM residents performing sexual assault exams. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:461–466.
Ahlin, Eileen M
Research suggests that youth are at higher risk of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than adult inmates. However, compared with adult inmates, very little is known about the risk factors associated with such violence among youth in custody. Without sufficient research on risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody, practitioners and policy makers may be reliant on the adult literature when making decisions about how to address and prevent such violence among juveniles. This article seeks to determine if extrapolating data from the substantial prison literature is appropriate by assessing the parallels between risk factors of sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody and those identified for adult inmates. This study uses data of 8,659 youth from the second administration of the National Survey of Youth in Custody (NSYC-2) to assess correlates of sexual assault and victimization during periods of detention. Study findings show that experiences with assault and victimization prior to the present period of detention were stronger indicators of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than youth characteristics and demographics and other experiences with assault and victimization. Further, there are differences in risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody compared to adult inmates, which emphasizes the risk of prior sexual assault and victimization in the community and prior custodial settings.
Duma, S E; Mekwa, J N; Denny, L D
Thousands of women and children experience sexual assault trauma annually in South Africa. The challenge posed by recovery from sexual assault trauma is a reality that confronts the survivors of sexual assault, their families and the larger community of service providers. Yet, little research has been conducted on recovery from sexual assault as a phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering and developing the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: What constitutes the journey of recovery undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault? A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted using the principles of grounded theory methodology as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1990, 1998). A series of in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with a sample of ten women. The participants were selected through open, purposive and theoretical sampling procedures. The study was conducted over a period of six months following the event of sexual assault. The substantive theory was discovered and constructed through the inductive and deductive analysis of data, grounded on the ten women's descriptions of their journey of recovery from sexual assault. The theory of women's journey of recovery that was discovered and developed consisted of eight theoretical concepts or categories. These included the following concepts: 1. Sexual assault trauma 2. Awakening 3. Pragmatic acceptance 4. Turning point 5. Reclaiming what was lost 6. Defining own landmarks of healing 7. Readiness for closure 8. Returning to self. The grounded theory of the journey of recovery from sexual assault is a contribution to the knowledge about women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. It provides a process and language for understanding women
Dan Valeriu Voinea
Full Text Available The most debated media story of 2015 in Romania was related to a case of sexual assualt. On the 19th of July 2015 seven teenagers were released from house arrest in the case where they were accused of collectively raping an 18-year-old high school student. The Romania media landscape was quickly overtaken by this story: we had in depth media reports about the alleged assailaints and their home town, scandal regarding a facebook group created by a parent of one of the former mentioned and even a TV appearance from the victim and her mother on live television. The present article will attempt an analysis of the responsabilities that journalists have in protecting victims of sexual assault, according to the European law, Romanian legislation and in the media code of ethics. The questions we are starting from are these: were the Romanian journalists really disgusted by the actions of the seven or was it just a race for larger readership and viewership? What did the journalists do wrong when reporting n this story? What could they and should they have done more in order to protect a victim of sexual assault? And why was this case so widely reported while other cases of rape are constantly ignored by the Romanian media and society?
Sadler, Anne G; Mengeling, Michelle A; Syrop, Craig H; Torner, James C; Booth, Brenda M
Little is known about the reproductive health of military women. This study sought to determine women Veterans' competing risk factors, including life span sexual assault (LSA) exposures, associated with recent and lifetime cervical cytologic abnormalities. This cross-sectional study of a retrospective cohort of 999 Midwestern Veterans (enrolled in the VA) included computer-assisted telephone interviews and chart reviews. Over half (57%) of participants self-reported lifetime abnormal cytology. Chart review demonstrated 16% had abnormal cytology in the preceding 5 years. Almost two thirds of participants (62%) reported LSA, and one third (32%) reported assault during military service. Women with completed LSA were more likely to self-report abnormal cytology than peers with no or attempted-only assaults (63% vs. 51%, pmilitary service (Active Component [AC] or both AC and Reserve or National Guard) was significant even when human papillomavirus (HPV) was included. LSA was significant when well-established risk factors, except HPV, were included. Nearly all participants had health insurance (84%), and only one third (32%) used the VA for all care. Military type and completed LSA are significant risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology and should be routinely assessed by women's care providers. LSA and gynecologic health risk factors are widespread in the female Veteran population. These findings have clinical implications for vigilant screening, gynecologic follow-up, and behavioral health interventions. Most participants had insurance and used only some or no VA care, so findings are relevant to all women's health providers.
Brecklin, Leanne R.; Ullman, Sarah E.
Past research has shown that self-defense/assertiveness training may have positive implications for sexual assault survivors. However, little is known about the correlates of self-defense/assertiveness training participation for sexually victimized women. In this study we examined the assault characteristics and experiences that relate to women's…
Ruch, Libby O.; Wang, Chang-Hwai
To examine the utility of a self-report scale of sexual assault trauma, 223 female victims were interviewed with the 43-item Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) at 1, 3, 7, 11, and 15 months postassault. Factor analyses using principal-components extraction with an oblimin rotation yielded 7 common factors with 31 items. The internal…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military... terminating the Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services, effective June 1, 2010. FOR...
Full Text Available Thousands of women and children experience sexual assault trauma annually in South Africa. The challenge posed by recovery from sexual assault trauma is a reality that confronts the survivors of sexual assault, their families and the larger community of service providers. Yet, little research has been conducted on recovery from sexual assault as a phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering and developing the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: What constitutes the journey of recovery undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault? A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted using the principles of grounded theory methodology as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1990,1998. A series of indepth one-to-one interviews were conducted with a sample of ten women. The participants were selected through open, purposive and theoretical sampling procedures. The study was conducted over a period of six months following the event of sexual assault.
Bicanic, I.; Snetselaar, H.; de Jongh, A.; van de Putte, E.
Background: Prior research endorsed the establishment of sexual assault centres in the Netherlands because of the potential benefit for victims’ mental recovery. In 2012, the first Dutch sexual assault centre was founded at the University Medical Center Utrecht. The aim of the centre is to provide
Monahan-Kreishman, Mollie M.
This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sexual assault survival for women in college. Through a grounding in the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology (Gadamer, 1960/2000; Heidegger, 1927/1962, 1968, 1928/1998, 1971/2001, 1950/2002), this work uncovers the lives of six sexual assault survivors who lived through rape during…
Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron
To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174
This rule implements policy, assigns responsibilities, and provides guidance and procedures for the SAPR Program; establishes the processes and procedures for the Sexual Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) Kit; establishes the multidisciplinary Case Management Group (CMG) and provides guidance on how to handle sexual assault; establishes SAPR minimum program standards, SAPR training requirements, and SAPR requirements for the DoD Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military. The Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) program continues to evolve, and the Department is committed to incorporating best practices and Congressional requirements to ensure that sexual assault victims receive the services they need. As part of this commitment and in addition to the Interim Final Rule, the Department is exploring the feasibility and advisability of extending the Restricted Reporting option to DoD civilians and contractors serving overseas.
Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault.
... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory... Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. This meeting is open to the public. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (``the Panel'') will be held December 11...
... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Floor, Washington, DC 20001. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... Sexual Assault Crimes Panel, 1600 Pentagon, Room 3B747, Washington, DC 20301- 1600. Dated: August 23...
... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory... Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (``the Panel'') will be held November 7-8, 2013. The Public Session will...
Campbell, Rebecca; Raja, Sheela
A sample of predominantly low-income, African American female veterans and reservists seeking health care in a Veterans' Administration medical clinic was screened for a history of sexual assault since age 18. Overall, 39% had been sexually assaulted in adulthood. Those who had been sexually victimized were asked to describe one assault incident…
... Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... 6 CFR Part 115 RIN 1653-AA65 Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault... standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and assault in DHS confinement facilities. DATES...
estimates to omit 900 to 2,800 service members with sexual assaults in the year prior to the survey. unwanted sexual experience but could not recall ...the details because of the effects of alcohol and those who stated that they could not indicate nonconsent to sexual activity because they were...three complaints from sexual assault victims that the survey language triggered distressing memories ; all said they discontinued their survey
Davies, Michelle; Pollard, Paul; Archer, John
Most researchers who have investigated attributions of blame toward victims in sexual-assault depictions have considered only female victims of male perpetrators. Few researchers have investigated the effects of perpetrator gender or victim sexual orientation on blame attributions toward male victims. The present authors investigated those two variables. Participants were 161 undergraduates at a British university in social science courses, each of whom read one scenario of a set in which perpetrator gender and victim sexual orientation were varied between subjects, and who completed a questionnaire measuring their blame toward the victim and the perpetrator. The present results showed that male participants blamed the victim more if a person of the gender that he was normally attracted to assaulted him. Male participants also regarded the female perpetrator in more favorable terms than they did the male perpetrator regardless of the victim's sexual orientation. The authors discussed the present results in relation to gender role stereotypes.
Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard
Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…
Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy
The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences. © The Author(s) 2015.
Schry, Amie R; Hibberd, Rachel; Wagner, H Ryan; Turchik, Jessica A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Wong, Madrianne; Elbogen, Eric E; Strauss, Jennifer L; Brancu, Mira
Despite research findings that similar numbers of male and female veterans are affected by military sexual trauma (MST), there has been considerably less research on the effects of MST specific to male veterans. The aim of the present study was to provide preliminary data describing functional correlates of military sexual assault (MSA) among male Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans to identify potential health care needs for this population. We evaluated the following functional correlates: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression symptoms, alcohol use, drug use, suicidality, social support, violent behavior in the past 30 days, incarceration, disability eligibility status, and use of outpatient mental health treatment. We compared 3 groups: (a) male veterans who endorsed a history of MSA (n = 39), (b) a general non-MSA sample (n = 2,003), and (c) a matched non-MSA sample (n = 39) identified by matching algorithms on the basis of factors (e.g., age, education, adult premilitary sexual trauma history, childhood sexual and physical trauma history, and race) that could increase veterans' vulnerability to the functional correlates examined. MSA in men was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity, greater depression symptom severity, higher suicidality, and higher outpatient mental health treatment, above and beyond the effects of vulnerability factors. These findings suggest that, for male veterans, MSA may result in a severe and enduring overall symptom profile requiring ongoing clinical management. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This study examined the hypothesis that sexual assault in childhood is a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control in adulthood. It comprised 40 participants who were survivors of child sexual abuse and 40 participants who were not sexually abused. The sample had 20 sexually abused men, 20 non sexually abused men, 20 sexually abused women and 20 non sexually abused women. The group that had men and women who had a history of sexual assault reported higher HIV and AIDS risk behaviours than the non-abused comparison group. The survivors of sexual assault also had higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide ideation and external locus of control. They reported low self-esteem. This unhealthy psychological functioning was found to be a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control. Implications for future research are discussed.
Bo, Dianna L.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This research estimates the organizational costs of sexual-assault incidents involving active-duty members of the U.S. military in FY 2012. The study builds on previous work by Robert H. Faley, in which he and his colleagues presented a model for estimating the organizational annual cost of sexual harassment. In this study, I develop a comprehensive framework of all organizational costs related to sexual assaults in the military workp...
Sexual Assault, Department of Psychology , Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2854. ^Division of Psychology and Counseling, Governors State...MILITARY MEDICINE, 175, 6:429, 2010 Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Education/Prevention Program for Male U.S. Navy Personnel Terri J. Rau, PhD*; Lex...Mandy M. Rabenhorst, PhDf, Joel S. Milner, PhDt ABSTRACT A randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Navy Sexual
Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J
Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context. © The Author(s) 2014.
Smith, K; Holmseth, J; Macgregor, M; Letourneau, M
After several years of planning, The SART at Immanuel St. Joseph's--Mayo Health Systems became a reality in August 1997. The nurses who were trained for this program were already providing 24-hour coverage in the emergency department for psychiatric emergencies and patients with chemical dependency. The SANE responsibilities were added to their on-call duties. Five nurses participated in a 40-hour training program by SANE specialists and experts in the local community. As expected, nurses were apprehensive as they conducted their first examinations; however, all has gone well. Over time, the providers' and clients' satisfaction with the program has improved. The examination is completed in less time, and the person assaulted does not have to wait as long for the SANE to arrive. Members of law enforcement and the prosecutor's office are especially pleased with the quality of evidence collected and the procedures followed to maintain chain of evidence so the evidence obtained can be used in prosecution. The program has resulted in kind and compassionate care for persons who have been sexually assaulted. The providers are continuing to meet monthly as an interdisciplinary, interagency team and are addressing concerns as they arise. Members of the SART are developing a good working relationship. Everyone involved agrees that developing this program has been a worthwhile effort and that the hospital is providing a valued service for the community.
Chen, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Hui-Chu
The more advancements in technology, the more temptations there are for teenagers on the Internet. Despite satisfying the fancies of juveniles, the Internet predisposes them to many kinds of danger. In this article, a seventeen-year-old girl met a net pal on the Internet, went out with him out of curiosity, and was sexual assaulted. The Roy's adaptation model was applied to the victim. Further, all data were collected by observation and conversation in the emergency room, during routine outpatient follow-up and through phone conversations from April, 27, 2006 to June, 1, 2006. Sleep pattern disturbance, situational low self-esteem, impaired social interaction, and Rape-trauma syndrome were diagnosed after nursing assessment. In accordance with these diagnoses, individualized nursing implementation was performed, including encouraging her to express herself, listening to her patiently, and providing her with support as well as social welfare resources. Finally, the victim was assisted not only to overcome the dark shadow of her assault but to develop a positive attitude and set a new goal through the cooperation of her family, our medical group, and herself. This nursing experience may provide some helpful information for us to share in caring for such cases.
Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.
Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290
Gilmore, Amanda K; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H
Sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greenwood, Marc D
The effectiveness of the SANE program is borne out by the following testimonies: "The emotional support required by these victims is best rendered by a SANE. This frees the ED nurse to care for other patients, while sexual assault victims receive a high level of care," says Nancy Donel, RN manager at St. Thomas Hospital ED. "The DOVE program benefits not only the emergency physician, but the EMS system as well. It gives us a resource and a specifically identified program with well-trained, qualified providers. Through their training and knowledge, SANEs not only help victims, but also increase the number of legal convictions that take assailants off the streets. This improves the health and safety of the communities in which we live and serve," says Michael Mackan, MD, of the Summa Health System.
Bletzer, Keith V; Koss, Mary P
Restorative justice alternatives to criminal justice are designed to balance the needs of victims, offenders, families, friends, and the community at large to achieve social justice, repair of victims, and deterrence of crime. In the model we evaluated from RESTORE (Responsibility and Equity for Sexual Transgressions Offering a Restorative Experience), each offender and victim received individual services and met in guided conferencing to mutually determine reparative actions for the offender. At the exit meeting, the offender, as the responsible person, read a written apology to the survivor/victim. In this article, we analyze the expression of empathy in the apology, in which the initial mitigation of responsibility in early documents was replaced by acknowledgment of harm to the survivor/victim and acceptance of responsibility for the assault. Those accused of felony rape and those targeting a visible person in cases of misdemeanor indecent exposure expressed greater regret and remorse than offenders of indecent exposure with an indeterminate victim.
Bell, Margret E; Turchik, Jessica A; Karpenko, Julie A
Research has shown that experiences ofmilitary sexual assault and harassment can have a negative impact on veterans' health and functioning, even years or decades later, thus clearly identifying this as an important area of concern for social workers. In addition to understanding the scope and general impact of military sexual assault and harassment, social workers also must thoroughly understand how different cultural factors may intersect with veterans' experiences. To this end, this article reviews the current knowledge base on how veterans' life experiences related to gender can affect their experience of and recovery from military sexual assault and harassment, highlights common gender-specific issues, and discusses implications for practice.
Frayne, Susan M; Skinner, Katherine M; Sullivan, Lisa M; Freund, Karen M
The purpose of this article is to determine whether known cardiac risk factors are more prevalent among women veterans who report having sustained sexual assault while in the military. We surveyed a random sample of 3,632 women veterans using Veterans Administration (VA) ambulatory care nationally. Obesity, smoking, problem alcohol use, sedentary lifestyle, and hysterectomy before age 40 were found to be more common in women reporting a history of sexual assault while in the military than in women without such history. An association between myocardial infarction and prior sexual assault history may be mediated in part by known cardiac risk factors.
Farris, Coreen; Hepner, Kimberly A.
On the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey on Active Duty Service Members, 23 percent of female and 4 percent of male service members indicated that they had experienced a completed or attempted sexual assault during their military service. In addition, official numbers show no decline in sexual assaults, despite the implementation of sexual assault prevention programs across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Alcohol misuse is also a problem in the military: One-third of active-dut...
Office (SAPRO).1 September 25, 2012 – As part of the DOD’s efforts to confront the crime of sexual assault in the military, then Secretary of Defense...in their commands.9 May 7, 2013 – DOD announced the establishment of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel consisting of nine...of sexual assault in the U.S. Armed Forces. The President stated that not only is it “shameful and disgraceful ” but also “dangerous to our national
Charak, R.; Koot, H. M.; Dvorak, R. D.
The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more......-smoking, chewing tobacco, non-prescribed use of medicines, and drug-use, latent class analysis indicated a three class solution for substance-use, namely, Experimental use, Light polysubstance-use, and Polysubstance-use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that as compared to adolescents exposed...
Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly
A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women's increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…
Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane; Mahan, Clare M; Hendricks, Ann
The current investigation identified the gender-specific prevalence of sexual harassment and assault experienced during U.S. military service and the negative mental and physical health correlates of these experiences in a sample of former reservists. We surveyed a stratified random sample of 3,946 former reservists about their experiences during military service and their current health, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, and medical conditions. Prevalence estimates and confidence intervals of sexual harassment and assault were calculated. A series of logistic regressions identified associations with health symptoms and conditions. Both men and women had a substantial prevalence of military sexual harassment and assault. As expected, higher proportions of female reservists reported sexual harassment (60.0% vs 27.2% for males) and sexual assault (13.1% vs 1.6% for males). For both men and women, these experiences were associated with deleterious mental and physical health conditions, with sexual assault demonstrating stronger associations than other types of sexual harassment in most cases. This investigation is the first to document high instances of these experiences among reservists. These data provide further evidence that experiences of sexual harassment and assault during military service have significant implications for the healthcare needs of military veterans.
and Nehama Babin. “ Sexual Harrassment and Sexual Assault: Research Reviews and Recommendations.” U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral...NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY STRENGTHENING OUR SUSPECT-FOCUS: HOW THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CAN IMPROVE ITS APPROACH TO SEXUAL ...1 Visualizing A Holistic Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program ..................... 2 Points of Consideration
Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit
The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ≥ 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually
be prolonged and deleterious. Common reactions include PTSD, fear and anxiety, difficulty sleeping, lack of concentration, depression , poor self...sexual assault and prevention are inadequate.53 SARCs indicated that the requirement for around-the-clock coverage contributes to staff burnout and...insufficient Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE) or the training to conduct SAFEs is inadequate.89 Mental Health Treatment and Counseling In
Jeanette M. Sebaeng
Full Text Available Background: Sexual assault poses a serious health problem to both the survivor and the health system. Experiencing sexual assault requires women to seek medical and psychological assistance as part of their journey towards recovery. This study examined the experiences of women who received post-sexual assault services from a specialised care centre within a provincial hospital.Methods: A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design was used to explore and describe experiences of women. Data were obtained through individual in-depth interviews from a total of 18 women aged between 18 and 55 years. Interviews were supplemented by the researcher’s field notes and audiotape recordings.Results: Findings yielded two main themes: Women expressed their lived experiences of sexual assault characterised by different forms of trauma. The second theme was an expression of a need for safety and support.Conclusion: Women who experience sexual assault are left with devastating effects such as physical and psychological harm and social victimisation. There is also a need for safety and support towards the recovery of these women. This study recommends that professional practitioners involved in the management of sexual assault be sensitised regarding the ordeal experienced by women and stop perceiving survivors as crime scene ‘clients’ from whom only medico-legal evidence has to be collected. Professional practitioners and family members must be supportive, non-judgemental and considerate of the dignity of survivors. The establishment of sexual assault response teams (SART is also recommended. There should also be inter-professional education for better coordination of services rendered to sexually assaulted women.
2012) . Myths about male rape: A literature review. Psychology of Men & Masculinity , 13, 211-226. 2 Davies, M. (2002). Male sexual assault victims... Violence , 11, 441 -448. Dye, E., & Roth, S. (1990). Psychotherapists’ knowledge about and attitudes toward sexual assault victim clients. Psychology...Edwards, K. M. (2012). Myths about male rape: A literature review. Psychology of Men & Masculinity , 13, 21 1-226. 6 Morral, A.R. , Gore, K.L
Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E.
Objective The purpose of this study was to test a model of the relations of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, self-blame and problem drinking. This is the first study to investigate whether type of self-blame has different relationships with social reactions and problem drinking in a large, diverse sample of sexually assaulted women. These relationships are important to investigate in order to identify specific targets for treatment and intervention with sexual assault victims and their social networks. Method Community-residing female sexual assault survivors (N = 1863) in a large metropolitan area completed a mail survey about sexual assault, social reactions to disclosure, self-blame attributions, and problem drinking symptoms. Results Structural equation modeling showed that characterological self-blame mediated the effect of negative social reactions on drinking, but behavioral self-blame did not function as a mediator. A second model showed unique relationships of specific positive and negative social reactions to drinking through characterological and behavioral self-blame. Conclusions Characterological self-blame needs to be targeted in treatment and intervention with survivors, as it appears to be a key mechanism through which social reactions may influence recovery. Secondary prevention with informal social networks should educate people about social reactions to avoid negative reactions and promote those that are helpful, so people can better respond to survivors’ sexual assault disclosures and improve recovery. PMID:26366320
Holland, Kathryn J; Cortina, Lilia M
Approximately 1 in 4 women is sexually assaulted in college, a problem that federal law has attempted to address with recent changes. Under the evolving landscape of Title IX, and related law, universities nationwide have overhauled their sexual assault policies, procedures, and resources. Many of the new policies designate undergraduate resident assistants (RAs) as Responsible Employees-requiring them to provide assistance and report to the university if a fellow student discloses sexual assault. We investigated factors that predict the likelihood of RAs enacting their policy mandate, that is, reporting sexual assault disclosures to university authorities and referring survivors to sexual assault resources. Based on data from 305 Responsible Employee RAs, we found that likelihood to report and refer varied, depending on RAs' knowledge of reporting procedures and resources, trust in these supports, and perceptions of mandatory reporting policy. Understanding mandatory reporter behavior is crucial, because help-providers' responses can have serious implications for the recovery of sexual assault survivors. Our findings elucidate some effects of changes in the interpretation and implementation of Title IX, with potential to inform the development of more theoretically and empirically informed policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Davis, Robert C; Auchter, Bernard; Howley, Susan; Camp, Torie; Knecht, Ilse; Wells, William
Texas SB 1191 was enacted in 2013 with the intent of increasing access to medical forensic examinations for sexual assault victims by requiring every hospital with an emergency department to be prepared to provide a medical forensic examination if requested by a sexual assault victim. To realize that goal, the law also required basic forensic training for medical professionals before conducting a medical forensic examination as well as a requirement that hospitals develop a "plan to train personnel on sexual assault forensic evidence collection." Interviews were conducted in 18 healthcare facilities (five with sexual assault nurse examiner [SANE] programs and 13 without SANE programs) in Dallas, Lubbock, and Austin to determine their awareness and compliance with SB 1191. The data suggest that the law had a little effect on actual practice, and sexual assault survivors still sought a SANE program for a medical forensic examination. Although SB 1191 is an important state level effort to make forensic examinations more readily available, it did not fully account for the challenges faced by smaller hospitals that do not see enough sexual assault victims to justify training staff to SANE standards and did not adequately address the training required by medical professionals to feel prepared to conduct a medical forensic examination.
Violence Against Women. 13(9), 961–970. Kauffman, B. R . (2014). United states marine corps sexual assault data analytics (Master’s Thesis). Retrieved...53 ix LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for Control Variables by... Statistics for Control Variables by Gender (Random Subsample with Complete Survey) ............................................................30 Table
Stermac, L E; Du Mont, J A; Kalemba, V
OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of sexual assaults by strangers and those by people known to the victims in an urban community-based population of women. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Care Centre, Women's College Hospital, Toronto. PARTICIPANTS: All 677 women who presented to the centre between June 1, 1991, and Sept. 30, 1993, and for whom the victim-assailant relationship was known. OUTCOME MEASURES: Assailant's relationship to victim, sex of assailant, number of assailants, number, type and location of assaults, use of weapons, type of coercion and extent of physical trauma or injury. RESULTS: Sexual assault by a person known to the victim accounted for 456 (67.4%) of the assaults reported. In 344 cases the person was known more than 24 hours; 99 (28.8%) were current or previous boyfriends or spouses. Assailants who were strangers were more likely to assault the victim more than once (t = -2.42, 355 degrees of freedom [df], p fellatio (chi 2 = 8.63, 1 df, p < 0.005), use weapons (chi 2 = 12.01, 1 df, p < 0.001) and use physical coercion (chi 2 = 4.42, 1 df, p < 0.05), whereas assailants who were known to the victims were more likely to assault a woman who was sleeping or drugged (chi 2 = 10.38, 1 df, p < 0.005). Sexual assault by a known assailant was more likely to occur in the home of the victim (chi 2 = 36.27, 1 df, p < 0.001) or the assailant (chi 2 = 8.46, 1 df, p < 0.005), whereas sexual assault by a stranger was more likely to occur outdoors (chi 2 = 89.80, 1 df, p < 0.001) or in a vehicle (chi 2 = 32.81, 1 df, p < 0.001). Overall, the mean number of trauma sites was greater among victims assaulted by strangers than among those assaulted by people they knew (t = -4.29, 180 df, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Two thirds of the sexual assaults in this urban population were committed by people known to the victims, and over two thirds of these assaults were associated with physical trauma. Improved victim services and prevention
Gibson, Laura E.; Leitenberg, Harold
A study of 106 undergraduates who had experienced a sexual assault within the past year found that those with a history of child sexual abuse used more disengagement methods of coping. The relationship between prior sexual abuse and use of disengagement coping strategies was mediated by feelings of stigma. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Ferguson, Cynthia T
Recently instituted sexual assault prevention and response policies and programs within the Department of Defense (DoD) have paved the way for significant improvements in the medical care of sexual assault patients in the military services. Military personnel who suffer assault are now able to choose a method of reporting that either immediately triggers an investigation or allows the incident to remain confidential. This process allows for the development of an enhanced trust in the system and allows military personnel to receive medical and forensic care on the level of their choice. Military medical professionals are continually striving to provide the highest standard of care for military personnel, DoD employees, and beneficiaries. The new policies and programs are continually taking shape; however, there are barriers to education and understanding of the sexual assault prevention and response processes that require increased coordination between military and civilian personnel and their medical services in order to provide optimum care for all patients involved.
Kerka, Jaimie E; Heckman, Derek J; Albert, James H; Sprague, Jon E; Maddox, Lewis O
The Ohio Attorney General's Sexual Assault Kit (SAK) Testing Initiative has resulted in nearly 14,000 kits being processed since the initiation of the project in 2012. A logistic regression model was fit to the data from 2500 SAKs in order to determine the probability of obtaining at least one Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) eligible DNA profile based on a number of predictor variables. The probability of obtaining at least one CODIS eligible DNA profile from an SAK varied as a function of (i) days to kit collection following a sexual assault; (ii) years to kit submission to the laboratory for testing following kit collection; (iii) the age of the victim; and (iv) the occurrence of victim-reported consensual sex around the time of the assault and/or kit collection. These findings demonstrate the utility of the statistical modeling of data obtained from the "forklift" testing approach of sexual assault kits. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Mukhtar, S Aqif; Smith, Debbie A; Phillips, Maureen A; Kelly, Maire C; Zilkens, Renate R; Semmens, James B
The Sexual Assault Resource Center (SARC) in Perth, Western Australia provides free 24-hour medical, forensic, and counseling services to persons aged over 13 years following sexual assault. The aim of this research was to design a data management system that maintains accurate quality information on all sexual assault cases referred to SARC, facilitating audit and peer-reviewed research. The work to develop SARC Medical Services Clinical Information System (SARC-MSCIS) took place during 2007-2009 as a collaboration between SARC and Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. Patient demographics, assault details, including injury documentation, and counseling sessions were identified as core data sections. A user authentication system was set up for data security. Data quality checks were incorporated to ensure high-quality data. An SARC-MSCIS was developed containing three core data sections having 427 data elements to capture patient's data. Development of the SARC-MSCIS has resulted in comprehensive capacity to support sexual assault research. Four additional projects are underway to explore both the public health and criminal justice considerations in responding to sexual violence. The data showed that 1,933 sexual assault episodes had occurred among 1881 patients between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015. Sexual assault patients knew the assailant as a friend, carer, acquaintance, relative, partner, or ex-partner in 70% of cases, with 16% assailants being a stranger to the patient. This project has resulted in the development of a high-quality data management system to maintain information for medical and forensic services offered by SARC. This system has also proven to be a reliable resource enabling research in the area of sexual violence.
Frey, Lisa L; Beesley, Denise; Abbott, Deah; Kendrick, Elizabeth
There is little research related to sexual assault and domestic violence advocates' experiences, with the bulk of the literature focused on stressors and systemic barriers that negatively impact efforts to assist survivors. However, advocates participating in these studies have also emphasized the positive impact they experience consequent to their work. This study explores the positive impact. Vicarious resilience, personal trauma experiences, peer relational quality, and perceived organizational support in advocates (n = 222) are examined. Also, overlap among the conceptual components of vicarious resilience is explored. The first set of multiple regressions showed that personal trauma experiences and peer relational health predicted compassion satisfaction and vicarious posttraumatic growth, with organizational support predicting only compassion satisfaction. The second set of multiple regressions showed that (a) there was significant shared variance between vicarious posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction; (b) after accounting for vicarious posttraumatic growth, organizational support accounted for significant variance in compassion satisfaction; and (c) after accounting for compassion satisfaction, peer relational health accounted for significant variance in vicarious posttraumatic growth. Results suggest that it may be more meaningful to conceptualize advocates' personal growth related to their work through the lens of a multidimensional construct such as vicarious resilience. Organizational strategies promoting vicarious resilience (e.g., shared organizational power, training components) are offered, and the value to trauma-informed care of fostering advocates' vicarious resilience is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
... Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Department of..., DHS proposed to issue regulations setting standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse... Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities.'' 77 FR 75300. The NPRM required commenters...
Xifró-Collsamata, Alexandre; Pujol-Robinat, Amadeo; Barbería-Marcalain, Eneko; Arroyo-Fernández, Amparo; Bertomeu-Ruiz, Antonia; Montero-Núñez, Francisco; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi
To determine the frequency and characteristics of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) among the victims of sexual assault in Barcelona. Prospective study of every adult consulting an emergency service because of alleged sexual assault and receiving forensic assessment in the city of Barcelona in 2011. A total of 35 of 114 cases (30.7%) met suspected DFSA criteria. Compared with the other victims, suspected DFSA cases were more likely to experience amnesia, to have been assaulted by night, after a social situation and by a recently acquainted man, to have used alcohol before the assault and to be foreigners. In this group ethanol was detected in blood or urine in 48.4% of analyzed cases; their mean back calculated blood alcohol concentration was 2.29g/l (SD 0.685). Also, at least one central nervous system drug other than ethanol was detected in 60,6%, mainly stimulant drugs of abuse. Suspected DFSA is frequent among victims of alleged sexual assault in Barcelona nowadays. The depressor substance most commonly encountered is alcohol, which contributes to victims' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Farris, Coreen; Hepner, Kimberly A
On the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey on Active Duty Service Members, 23 percent of female and 4 percent of male service members indicated that they had experienced a completed or attempted sexual assault during their military service. In addition, official numbers show no decline in sexual assaults, despite the implementation of sexual assault prevention programs across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Alcohol misuse is also a problem in the military: One-third of active-duty service members reported binge drinking, a rate that compares unfavorably with that of their civilian counterparts. DoD has invested considerable resources in universal sexual assault prevention programs and social media campaigns, but evaluation results are not yet available, and the effectiveness of these programs is unclear. Research on civilian populations-particularly college students, who share some characteristics with junior enlisted personnel-could provide insights for DoD. For example, the research indicates a connection between alcohol and aggression, including sexual aggression. Alcohol can also have a range of effects on the risk of victimization-from a reduced awareness of risk indicators to incapacitation or unconsciousness. An extensive review of the existing research provides some guidance for how DoD can implement and evaluate efforts to reduce alcohol misuse as part of a larger strategy to reduce the incidence of sexual assault among members of the armed forces.
Ryan, Ginny L; Mengeling, Michelle A; Booth, Brenda M; Torner, James C; Syrop, Craig H; Sadler, Anne G
To assess associations between lifetime sexual assault and childlessness in female veterans. Cross-sectional, computer-assisted telephone interview study. Two Midwestern Veterans Administration (VA) medical centers. A total of 1,004 women aged ≤52 years, VA-enrolled between 2000 and 2008. None. Sociodemographic variables, reproductive history and care utilization, and mental health. A total of 620 veterans (62%) reported at least one attempted or completed sexual assault in their lifetime (LSA). Veterans with LSA more often self-reported a history of pregnancy termination (31% vs. 19%) and infertility (23% vs. 12%), as well as sexually transmitted infection (42% vs. 27%), posttraumatic stress disorder (32% vs. 10%), and postpartum dysphoria (62% vs. 44%). Lifetime sexual assault was independently associated with termination and infertility in multivariate models; sexually transmitted infection, posttraumatic stress disorder, and postpartum dysphoria were not. The LSA by period of life was as follows: 41% of participants in childhood, 15% in adulthood before the military, 33% in military, and 13% after the military (not mutually exclusive). Among the 511 who experienced a completed LSA, 23% self-reported delaying or foregoing pregnancy because of their assault. This study demonstrated associations between sexual assault history and pregnancy termination, delay or avoidance (voluntary childlessness), and infertility (involuntary childlessness) among female veterans. Improved gender-specific veteran medical care must attend to these reproductive complexities. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels
INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports made at the Department of Forensic Medicine, the University of Copenhagen, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), information about the assault, including both violence and the perpetrator's line of sexual...... by slight, blunt force. Information on line of sexual action was present in 148 cases. A total of 123 victims reported penetration: 94% vaginal, 16% anal and 20% oral. Three were exposed to anal penetration only. Eleven perpetrators used a condom. 50% of the cases with vaginal and/or anal penetration had...
In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence....... Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few...
Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Bustin, Amy; Wheeler, Jenna; Gau, Jeff
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals encounter social conditions that create important considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims. This exploratory, mixed-methods study examines the relationship between community attitudes toward LGBTQ persons and associated community responses to LGBTQ sexual assault victims. An online and paper-and-pencil survey (n = 130) and four focus group interviews (n = 14) are analyzed using frequency distributions and grounded theory methods. The central theme that emerged in focus group interviews, titled "low community awareness and support for sexual violence in the LGBTQ community," was corroborated by survey participants. Participants' views of unique considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims are presented, including causal factors, consequences, and recommended strategies.
Rau, Terri J; Merrill, Lex L; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Stander, Valerie A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Dyslin, Christopher W; Crouch, Julie L; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S
The U.S. Navy Sexual Assault Intervention Training (SAIT) program for women was evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The SAIT uses multiple presentation modalities (lecture, slides, discussion, film) to provide information related to sexual assault, including risk factors, consequences, prevention, and relevant military regulations. Female personnel who had completed basic training (N = 550) participated in the SAIT or a Comparison condition, and then completed measures of rape knowledge, empathy for rape victims, and acceptance of rape myths (false beliefs about rape justifying sexual violence). Results showed that the SAIT increased factual knowledge about rape. In addition, the SAIT increased empathy with rape victims in some groups of women. However, the program did not reduce women's rape myth acceptance. Given the enormity of the problem of sexual assault and these promising initial findings, additional research on the efficacy of the SAIT is clearly warranted.
Girardet, Rebecca G.; Lemme, Scott; Biason, Tiffany A.; Bolton, Kelly; Lahoti, Sheela
Background: The appropriate use of antiretroviral medications to protect against infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear in cases of sexual assault of children, for whom the perpetrator's risk of HIV is often unknown, and physical proof of sexual contact is usually absent. Objective: In an effort to clarify prescribing…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Giattina, Mary C.; Parish, Susan L.; Crosby, Carmen
More than 20 years ago, concerns were raised about whether domestic violence and sexual assault agencies need for stable funding would conflict with the values that initiated these respective movements. Since then, the movements have evolved considerably. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the challenges domestic violence and sexual assault…
Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.
A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…
Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia
Sexual assault is a pervasive problem in the U.S. military, especially against women. Bystander intervention is increasingly promoted as important for reducing sexual violence, and it may be particularly helpful in contexts with high rates of sexual violence. Bystander training encourages and enables people to intervene safely and stop sexual violence. In this study, we drew from an ecological model to investigate intrapersonal, microsystem, and exosystem factors that predicted Service members' assumption of personal responsibility to intervene in an alcohol-involved sexual assault. Moreover, we examined how these predictors played a role in decisions about how to intervene: confronting the perpetrator, assisting the victim, or finding someone to help. We analyzed data from 24,610 active duty personnel collected by the Department of Defense. Several factors significantly related to Service members' bystander intentions: gender, rank, morale, attitudes about sexual assault, training, and trust in the military sexual assault system predicted the likelihood and method of bystander intervention. These findings help identify how and why people intervene (or fail to intervene) when they witness situations that could develop into sexual violence. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
The liability of churches for the historical sexual assault of children by priests. ... In Canada, the UK and South Africa courts have in different ways acknowledged the fact that victims of child sexual abuse are often not able to process their claims timeously, because of psychological factors. The victims are allowed to bring ...
McMahon, Sarah; Stepleton, Kate; Cusano, Julia; O'Connor, Julia; Gandhi, Khushbu; McGinty, Felicia
The White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault identified campus climate surveys as "the first step" for addressing campus sexual violence. Through a process case study, this article presents one model for engaging in a comprehensive, action-focused campus climate assessment process. Rooted in principles of…
estimated number of servicemember victims are significant, sexual assault is an underreported crime , and DOD officials believe the increase in...using the WGRA to identify the past-year prevalence of unwanted sexual contact, the survey term for a range of sexual crimes that include sexual ... SEXUAL ASSAULT Actions Needed to Improve DOD’s Prevention Strategy and to Help Ensure It Is Effectively
assault are more likely to experience chronic medi- cal conditions, such as fibromyalgia , gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel...medications for pain relief and reduction of anxiety symptoms, when indicated (DoJ, 2004, and WHO, 2003). Not all sexual assault victims require or...symptoms, including anxiety , disorganized thoughts and memory, nausea, hypervigilance, and numbing or dissociation that may make them fear that they are
Ollen, Elizabeth W; Ameral, Victoria E; Palm Reed, Kathleen; Hines, Denise A
While the majority of research on dating violence (DV) and sexual assault (SA) in college students has focused on heterosexual students, victimization rates among sexual minority students are the same or higher than that of their heterosexual counterparts. The current study sought to explore sexual minority college students' perceptions of the prevalence of DV and SA, risk and protective factors, and barriers to seeking help, using focus groups. A total of 14 sexual minority students ranging in age from 18 to 24 participated across 2 focus groups. Findings suggest the majority of the students perceived DV and SA among sexual minority individuals to be less common compared to their heterosexual counterparts and to be less common on their campus compared to other colleges and universities. Students' reflections about risk and protective factors overlapped with those previously established among heterosexuals as well as factors unique to the sexual minority community. Students identified societal, community, and psychological-level barriers related to help-seeking. We provide recommendations for practice based on the current findings (e.g., colleges could expand current educational material about DV and SA to include more recognition of these issues for sexual minority students). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Relyea, Mark
This study examined whether coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame mediate relationships of trauma histories with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in adult sexual assault victims (N = 1863). A path analysis showed that theorized mediators partially mediated associations between trauma history variables and psychological symptoms. Specifically, child sexual abuse severity was related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder and depression indirectly through maladaptive coping and decreased emotion regulation but not self-blame. Other traumas had direct relationships with symptoms and partially mediated effects through maladaptive coping and emotion regulation. Child sexual abuse was unrelated to self-blame, but other traumas were related to greater self-blame. Results differed according to whether women had counseling post-assault. Implications are drawn for future research and clinical treatment of adult sexual assault victims.
M.P.P. Scientific Advisory Board Major General John Altenburg, Esq. ( USA , ret.) Captain Thomas A. Grieger, M.D. (USN, ret.) Dean Kilpatrick, Ph.D...ensure that they make clear that some reportable sexual assaults may occur in the context of hazing or bullying , and so may not be perceived by...systems for sexual harassment, gender discrimination, hazing, bullying , and physical assaults. The prevalence of sexual assault in the Coast Guard is
Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263
Masters, N. Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.
This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M=24.78, SD=2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across two cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: Contact or Attempted assault (17% of the sample), Incapacitated assault (52%), and Forceful Severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the Forceful Severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms, higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex, and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other two groups. Women in the Forceful Severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the Incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. PMID:26052619
Gibson, Carolyn J; Gray, Kristen E; Katon, Jodie G; Simpson, Tracy L; Lehavot, Keren
Exposure to sexual and physical trauma during military service is associated with adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Little is known about their prevalence and impact in women veterans across age cohorts. Data from a 2013 national online survey of women veterans was used to examine associations between age and trauma during military service, including sexual assault, sexual harassment, and physical victimization. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression, adjusting for service duration and demographic factors. In secondary analyses, the moderating role of age in the relationship between trauma and self-reported health was examined. The sample included 781 women veterans. Compared with the oldest age group (≥ 65), all except the youngest age group had consistently higher odds of reporting trauma during military service. These differences were most pronounced in women aged 45 to 54 years (sexual assault odds ratio [OR], 3.81 [95% CI, 2.77-6.71]; sexual harassment, OR, 3.99 [95% CI, 2.25-7.08]; and physical victimization, OR, 5.72 [95% CI, 3.32-9.85]). The association between trauma during military service and self-reported health status also varied by age group, with the strongest negative impact observed among women aged 45 to 54 and 55 to 64. Compared with other age groups, women in midlife were the most likely to report trauma during military service, and these experiences were associated with greater negative impact on their self-reported health. Providers should be aware that trauma during military service may be particularly problematic for the cohort of women currently in midlife, who represent the largest proportion of women who use Department of Veterans Affairs health care. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nurius, Paula S; Norris, Jeanette; Macy, Rebecca J; Huang, B U
Drawing on theories of appraisal-based coping, the present study applied structural modeling to examine relationships among personal goal orientations, primary and secondary appraisals of acquaintance sexual assault, and women's emotional and behavioral responses to it. Based on 415 college women's reports of a sexual assault experience, the model shows both direct and indirect effects. Assertive, diplomatic, and immobilized responding were each predicted by a unique profile of appraisals and orientations; personal goal orientations and primary appraisals were completely mediated by secondary appraisals. Ways that these findings can facilitate self-protective coping in an acquaintance sexual assault situation, leading to the development of effective, well-tailored self-defense and resistance programs, are discussed.
Patterson, Debra; Tringali, Brenda
Following a sexual assault, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). However, sexual assault survivors often feel apprehensive about participating in the CJS and thus, few report their victimizations to law enforcement. Of those who report, many withdraw their participation from the CJS. Rape crisis center advocates often are one of the first professionals victims encounter while seeking help after a victimization and thus, they may play a key role in reducing barriers to victim participation in the CJS. Qualitative interviews were conducted with forensic nurses and victim advocates at a Midwest Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program to examine how advocacy services may influence victim engagement with the CJS. This study found multiple components of advocacy services that may address common barriers to victim participation. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Katz, Jennifer; Moore, Jessica
The present meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of bystander education programs for preventing sexual assault in college communities. Undergraduates trained in bystander education for sexual assault were expected to report more favorable attitudes, behavioral proclivities, and actual behaviors relative to untrained controls. Data from 12 studies of college students (N = 2,926) were used to calculate 32 effect sizes. Results suggested moderate effects of bystander education on both bystander efficacy and intentions to help others at risk. Smaller but significant effects were observed regarding self-reported bystander helping behaviors, (lower) rape-supportive attitudes, and (lower) rape proclivity, but not perpetration. These results provide initial support for the effectiveness of in-person bystander education training. Nonetheless, future longitudinal research evaluating behavioral outcomes and sexual assault incidence is needed.
Franklin, Cortney A
The current research used survey data from 282 college women to investigate the relationship between female Greek membership and sexual assault victimization. Drawing from routine activity theory, low self-control, and social learning theory, this study tested a theoretical model that identified pertinent factors present among sorority environments to determine the relationships between Greek affiliation and sexual assault. Path analyses revealed that sorority women reported consuming more alcohol and with greater frequency, increased risk-taking behavior, delayed assessments of threat and responses to risk, and increased contact with fraternity men-all of which significantly predicted sexual assault. Future theory, research, and policy directions are proposed. © The Author(s) 2015.
their masculinity and their sexuality. In 2008, DOD recognized that more information was needed on the needs of males who are sexually assaulted but...it would need to address the “unofficial” culture that is defined by exaggerated characteristics of stereotypical masculinity , among other things...January 2015 that will address the topic and include a working group of male victims; continuing to engage subject- matter experts on sexual violence
1in6.org.54 The organization, 1in6, provides support to adult men who were sexually abused in childhood . The organization’s name reflects the...statistic that approximately one in every six adult males has some history of sexual abuse from childhood . The website provides resources for helping men...remove the perceived stigma of reporting male sexual assaults by reducing bullying and hazing that occurs and by offering resources geared toward
Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca
Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a "sexual assault kit" [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities…
McCloskey, Kathy A.; Raphael, Desreen N.
Data from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) show that while males make up about nine out of every 10 adult sexual assault perpetrators, totaling about 26,878 incidents within the reporting period, females account for about one out of 10 perpetrators, totaling about 1,162 incidents. Male sexual assault perpetrators offend…
Harper, Shannon; Maskaly, Jon; Kirkner, Anne; Lorenz, Katherine
Title IX prohibits sex discrimination--including sexual assault--in higher education. The Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' 2011 "Dear Colleague Letter" outlines recommendations for campus sexual assault adjudication allowing a variety of procedures that fail to protect accused students' due process rights and victims'…
Charan Kishor Shetty
Full Text Available Sexual assault is both a common and a very serious crime which is investigated by the police with an intensity second only to that of murder. Despite India stiffening its laws on sexual crimes, nothing much has changed on the ground. This retrospective study was conducted on 86 cases of sexual assault received for examination at Vijayanagara Institute of medical sciences (VIMS, Ballari, Karnataka, during the year 2010 - 2013. This study revealed that most vulnerable age group were males aged 11-20 years, where most commonly sexual crimes were performed by the person familiar to the victim (33.72%. The maximum numbers of victims were medico-legally examined on the second day (46.51% of the assault. Examinations as recent tear of hymen was noticed in 16.66% female victims, and restrain marks on the victims were present in 25 (29.06% cases. The study aims to enhance public awareness regarding sexual violence, as support the ground to the law enforcement authorities to implement strategies to prevent such cases in the future. Keywords: Forensic science; forensic pathology; sexual assault; hymen; anal intercourse.
Macy, Rebecca J; Giattina, Mary C; Montijo, Natalie Johns; Ermentrout, Dania M
Community-based domestic violence and sexual assault service providers need sound knowledge regarding services that work well to improve the lives of survivors. This exploratory, qualitative research aimed to help provide such knowledge by investigating domestic violence and sexual assault agency executive directors' ( n = 14) opinions regarding what services are most helpful for survivors. In-depth interviews with directors provided findings about (a) critical services for survivors; (b) essential service delivery practices; (c) ideal services that are challenging to deliver because of funding and other barriers; and (d) areas of service delivery practice uncertainty due to a lack of best practices.
Moylan, Carrie A; Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko A
Multidisciplinary coordinated Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are a growing model of providing health, legal, and emotional support services to victims of sexual assault. This article conceptualizes SARTs from an organizational perspective and explores three approaches to researching SARTs that have the potential of increasing our understanding of the benefits and challenges of multidisciplinary service delivery. These approaches attend to several levels of organizational behavior, including the organizational response to external legitimacy pressures, the inter-organizational networks of victim services, and the negotiation of power and disciplinary boundaries. Possible applications to organizational research on SARTs are explored. © The Author(s) 2015.
Senn, Charlene Y; Eliasziw, Misha; Barata, Paula C; Thurston, Wilfreda E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Radtke, H Lorraine; Hobden, Karen L
More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance
Gatley, Jodi M; Sanches, Marcos; Benny, Claire; Wells, Samantha; Callaghan, Russell C
Sexual-assault crimes, primarily perpetrated by males against female victims, impose a substantial burden on societies worldwide, especially on youth. Given that approximately half of all sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator or victim, it is reasonable to expect that minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) restrictions might have an effect on sexual-assault patterns. Canadian MLDA laws are 18 years in Quebec, Alberta, and Manitoba (MLDA-18), and 19 years in the rest of the country (MLDA-19). The present study assesses whether MLDA laws might have an impact on sexual-assault crimes. A regression-discontinuity design was applied to sexual-assault crime data (n = 12,980 incidents) from the national Uniform Crime Reporting survey 2009-2013, a population-level registry of all police-reported crimes in Canada. Uniform Crime Reporting data does not include an explicit alcohol involvement indicator. Nationally, in comparison to males slightly younger than the MLDA, those just older had significant and immediate increases in sexual-assault perpetration of 31.9% (95% confidence interval: 8.7%-54.5%, p = .007). In MLDA-19 provinces, there was an immediate post-MLDA increase of 56.0% (95% confidence interval: 18.9%-90.8%, p = .004) in sexual-assault crimes by males just older than 19 years, whereas in MLDA-18 provinces no significant effect was found. For females, there was no evidence of MLDA effects on sexual-assault crimes. Release from Canadian MLDA law restrictions was strongly associated with increases in sexual-assault perpetration by young men. These findings lend support to the potential effectiveness of population-level alcohol control policies for sexual-assault prevention among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matsumoto, Jumpei; Urakawa, Susumu; Takamura, Yusaku; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; Hori, Etsuro; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao
A large number of studies have analyzed social and sexual interactions between rodents in relation to neural activity. Computerized video analysis has been successfully used to detect numerous behaviors quickly and objectively; however, to date only 2D video recording has been used, which cannot determine the 3D locations of animals and encounters difficulties in tracking animals when they are overlapping, e.g., when mounting. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 3D video analysis system for examining social and sexual interactions in rats. A 3D image was reconstructed by integrating images captured by multiple depth cameras at different viewpoints. The 3D positions of body parts of the rats were then estimated by fitting skeleton models of the rats to the 3D images using a physics-based fitting algorithm, and various behaviors were recognized based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the 3D movements of the body parts. Comparisons between the data collected by the 3D system and those by visual inspection indicated that this system could precisely estimate the 3D positions of body parts for 2 rats during social and sexual interactions with few manual interventions, and could compute the traces of the 2 animals even during mounting. We then analyzed the effects of AM-251 (a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist) on male rat sexual behavior, and found that AM-251 decreased movements and trunk height before sexual behavior, but increased the duration of head-head contact during sexual behavior. These results demonstrate that the use of this 3D system in behavioral studies could open the door to new approaches for investigating the neuroscience of social and sexual behavior.
Full Text Available A large number of studies have analyzed social and sexual interactions between rodents in relation to neural activity. Computerized video analysis has been successfully used to detect numerous behaviors quickly and objectively; however, to date only 2D video recording has been used, which cannot determine the 3D locations of animals and encounters difficulties in tracking animals when they are overlapping, e.g., when mounting. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 3D video analysis system for examining social and sexual interactions in rats. A 3D image was reconstructed by integrating images captured by multiple depth cameras at different viewpoints. The 3D positions of body parts of the rats were then estimated by fitting skeleton models of the rats to the 3D images using a physics-based fitting algorithm, and various behaviors were recognized based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the 3D movements of the body parts. Comparisons between the data collected by the 3D system and those by visual inspection indicated that this system could precisely estimate the 3D positions of body parts for 2 rats during social and sexual interactions with few manual interventions, and could compute the traces of the 2 animals even during mounting. We then analyzed the effects of AM-251 (a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist on male rat sexual behavior, and found that AM-251 decreased movements and trunk height before sexual behavior, but increased the duration of head-head contact during sexual behavior. These results demonstrate that the use of this 3D system in behavioral studies could open the door to new approaches for investigating the neuroscience of social and sexual behavior.
Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Abbey, Antonia; Martell, Joel; Stoner, Susan A.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Buck, Philip O.; Masters, N. Tatiana; McAuslan, Pamela; Beshears, Renee; Parkhill, Michele R.; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique
This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2004 meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. There were four presentations and a discussant. The symposium was co-chaired by Tina Zawacki and Jeanette Norris. The first presentation was made by Jeanette Norris, who found that alcohol consumption and preexisting alcohol expectancies affected women’s hypothetical responses to a vignette depicting acquaintance sexual aggression. The second presentation was made by Joel Martell, who reported that alcohol-induced impairment of executive cognitive functioning mediated the effect of intoxication on men’s perceptions of a sexual assault vignette. In the third presentation, Antonia Abbey found that the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved intoxication or force were more negative than were the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved verbal coercion. The fourth presentation was made by Tina Zawacki, who reported that men who perpetrated sexual assault only in adolescence differed from men who continued perpetration into adulthood in terms of their drinking patterns and attitudes toward women. William H. George discussed these findings in terms of their implications for theory development and prevention programming. PMID:15714049
Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Abbey, Antonia; Martell, Joel; Stoner, Susan A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Buck, Philip O; Masters, N Tatiana; McAuslan, Pamela; Beshears, Renee; Parkhill, Michele R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique
This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2004 meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. There were four presentations and a discussant. The symposium was co-chaired by Tina Zawacki and Jeanette Norris. The first presentation was made by Jeanette Norris, who found that alcohol consumption and preexisting alcohol expectancies affected women's hypothetical responses to a vignette depicting acquaintance sexual aggression. The second presentation was made by Joel Martell, who reported that alcohol-induced impairment of executive cognitive functioning mediated the effect of intoxication on men's perceptions of a sexual assault vignette. In the third presentation, Antonia Abbey found that the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved intoxication or force were more negative than were the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved verbal coercion. The fourth presentation was made by Tina Zawacki, who reported that men who perpetrated sexual assault only in adolescence differed from men who continued perpetration into adulthood in terms of their drinking patterns and attitudes toward women. William H. George discussed these findings in terms of their implications for theory development and prevention programming.
Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Testa, Maria; Parks, Kathleen; Norris, Jeanette; Martin, Susan E; Livingston, Jennifer A; McAuslan, Pam; Clinton, A Monique; Kennedy, Cheryl L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Martell, Joel
This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium of the 2001 RSA Meeting in Montreal, Canada. The chair was Antonia Abbey and the organizers were Tina Zawacki and Philip O. Buck. There were four presentations and a discussant. The first presentation was made by Maria Testa whose interviews with sexual assault victims suggest that there may be differences in the characteristics of sexual assaults in which both the victim and perpetrator were using substances as compared to when only the perpetrator was using substances. The second presentation was made by Tina Zawacki whose research found that perpetrators of sexual assaults that involved alcohol were in most ways similar to perpetrators of sexual assaults that did not involve alcohol, although they differed on impulsivity and several alcohol measures. The third presentation was made by Kathleen Parks who described how alcohol consumption affected women's responses to a male confederate's behavior in a simulated bar setting. The fourth presentation was made by Jeanette Norris who found that alcohol and expectancies affected men's self-reported likelihood of acting like a hypothetical sexually aggressive man. Susan E. Martin discussed the implications of these studies and made suggestions for future research.
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela
This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…
Davis, Kelly Cue; Stoner, Susan A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Masters, N. Tatiana
Two studies examined the effects of alcohol and relationship type on women’s sexual assault risk perception. Study 1 participants (N=62) consumed a moderate alcohol dose or non-alcoholic beverage, then rated their awareness of and discomfort with sexual assault risk cues in a hypothetical encounter with a new or established dating partner. Study 2 (N=351) compared control, placebo, low and high alcohol dose conditions using a similar scenario. Intoxicated women reported decreased awareness of and discomfort with risk cues. An established relationship decreased discomfort ratings. Findings indicate that alcohol may increase women’s sexual victimization likelihood through reduced sexual assault risk perception. PMID:19675365
Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self
..., survivors are more empowered to speak out and get help. But even today, too many women, men, and children.... While rape and sexual assault affect all communities, those at the greatest risk are children, teens... investigate cases of rape, and breaks down barriers that keep lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender victims...
Lutzker, John R.; Polvinale, Robert A.
Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior was used in combination with a naturalistic restitution procedure utilizing victim participation to reduce the assaultive and interpersonal sexual behavior and genital self stimulation of an adolescent Down's syndrome male in a school setting. (Author/DLS)
Violence Resource Center); internal and external literature reviews; and foreign militaries (e.g., Australia ). Figure 7 depicts many of the programs...of Court Martial UOTHC Victim was homeless living with several different Soldiers in the barracks. Victim alleged she sexually assaulted against her
Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.
This exploratory study sought to better understand what constitutes the empowerment approach used by rape crisis advocates working with sexual assault survivors. A grounded theory, qualitative, semistructured interview study was conducted of rape victim advocates (N=25) working in rape crisis centers in a large metropolitan area. Several…
King, Gary; Flisher, Alan, J.; Noubary, Farzad.; Reece, Robert; Marais, Adele; Lombard, Carl
Objective: The aim of this article is twofold: first, to examine the prevalence of being the victim of actual and attempted rape among a large representative sample of Cape Town high school students; and second, to identify the correlates of sexual assault for both boys and girls, including alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, behavioral problems,…
Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University. Correspondence ... interviews were conducted with 20 rape victims, three rape crisis counsellors, nursing staff and doctors working in the casualty .... Medical staff should increase their knowledge and skills in sexual assault.
... the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim... comprehensive guidance to schools, colleges, and universities to clarify their obligations under existing civil rights law to prevent and respond to campus sexual assault. In January, we issued a revised definition of...
Biastro, Leslie A.; Larwin, Karen H.; Carano, Marla E.
Discussions have recently intensified regarding how to curtail the disturbingly high amount of sexual assaults that occur each year on U.S. College and university campuses. One suggestion to assist in the reduction of these crimes would be to allow students to carry concealed weapons as a means of self-protection. Considering the current culture…
Sham, Minakshi; Singh, Dasmit; Wankhede, Uma; Wadate, Abhijeet
Aim: To evaluate the outcome of definitive repair of anogenital injuries (AGI) in child victims of acute sexual assault. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study of emergency care provided to child victims of acute sexual assault at a tertiary care Pediatric Surgical Unit in Maharashtra, India. Material and Methods: Out of 25 children, who presented during January 2009-December 2010 with suspected sexual assault, five children (one male and four female, between 4-9 years of age), had incurred major AGI. These children underwent definitive repair and a diverting colostomy. Perineal pull-through was performed in the male child with major avulsion of rectum. One 4-year-old girl with intraperitoneal vaginal injury required exploratory laparotomy in addition. Results: The postoperative period and follow-up was uneventful in all our patients. Four out of five patients have excellent cosmetic and functional outcome with a follow-up of 2-4 years. Our continence results are 100%. Conclusion: Children with acute sexual assault need emergency care. To optimally restore the distorted anatomy, all major AGI in such children should be primarily repaired by an expert, conversant with a child’s local genital and perineal anatomy. Along with provision of comprehensive and compassionate medical care, prevention of secondary injuries should be the ultimate goal. PMID:24019641
Best, Neil A.; Jun, Alexander
Victims and survivors of sexual violence are sometimes blamed for the assault because of irrelevant factors such as how much they had to drink or what they wore. Research has indicated that conservative religious beliefs increase the prevalence of victim blaming. In order to see if this pattern extended to college administrators, we used a…
Maier, Shana L.
In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…
Maier, Shana L.
While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…
Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth
Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the…
Quinlan, Elizabeth; Clarke, Allyson; Miller, Natasha
Recent media coverage of the rape chant at Saint Mary's University, the misogynist Facebook posts at Dalhousie's dental school, and the suspension of the University of Ottawa's hockey team have brought the topic of campus sexual assault under intense public scrutiny and the media accounts point to a widespread systemic rape culture on Canadian…
Yoshimura, Christina Granato; Campbell, Kimberly Brown
A university in the United States Mountain West utilized grant resources to track counseling services for students who were currently experiencing or who had historically experienced relationship violence, sexual assault and/or stalking. This report reflects on the first 2 years of this program, including an overview of prevalence and reporting…
Bryan, Craig J.; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie
The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault…
Paul, Lisa A.
A sexual assault intervention was designed using applicable research from social psychology (i.e., social norms). Undergraduate men were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention or an active control condition. Attitudinal and behavioral data were collected preintervention, post-intervention and at a one month follow-up. Significant…
Boehm, Amnon; Itzhaky, Haya
Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for…
Terrell, Nathanial Eugene
Examines aggravated and sexual assaults among 240 runaway and homeless adolescents (RHAs) in Des Moines (Iowa). Results suggest RHAs are at risk of life-threatening situations on the streets due to aggressive and abusive parents. Additionally, street life situations have significant impacts on the probability that RHAs will be victims of…
Hiney, Teresa J.
Focuses on the use of line poetry as a therapeutic technique in a support group for survivors of sexual assault. Finds line poetry, a group activity in which members contribute lines to a collective poem, to be helpful in developing a bond among members, validating feelings, and offering a powerful outlet for self-expression. (SG)
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the outcome of definitive repair of anogenital injuries (AGI in child victims of acute sexual assault. settings and Design: It is a prospective study of emergency care provided to child victims of acute sexual assault at a tertiary care Pediatric Surgical Unit in Maharashtra, India. Material and Methods : Out of 25 children, who presented during January 2009-December 2010 with suspected sexual assault, five children (one male and four female, between 4-9 years of age, had incurred major AGI. These children underwent definitive repair and a diverting colostomy. Perineal pull-through was performed in the male child with major avulsion of rectum. One 4-year-old girl with intraperitoneal vaginal injury required exploratory laparotomy in addition. Results : The postoperative period and follow-up was uneventful in all our patients. Four out of five patients have excellent cosmetic and functional outcome with a follow-up of 2-4 years. Our continence results are 100%. Conclusion : Children with acute sexual assault need emergency care. To optimally restore the distorted anatomy, all major AGI in such children should be primarily repaired by an expert, conversant with a child′s local genital and perineal anatomy. Along with provision of comprehensive and compassionate medical care, prevention of secondary injuries should be the ultimate goal.
Yeater, Elizabeth A; Naugle, Amy E; O'Donohue, William; Bradley, April R
The present research evaluated the efficacy of a skills-based bibliotherapy approach to sexual assault prevention for college-aged women. One hundred and ten participants were followed prospectively for 16 weeks. A self-help book, written by the authors, was compared to a wait-list control on several self-report measures. Results revealed significant differences between groups, with bibliotherapy participants reporting decreased participation in risky dating behaviors and improvement in sexual communication strategies across a variety of dating situations. However, results suggested that the self-help book was no more effective than the wait-list control in reducing rates of sexual victimization. Limitations of the study and directions for future sexual assault prevention research with women are discussed.
Ernst, A A; Green, E; Ferguson, M T; Weiss, S J; Green, W M
We sought to compare the use of anoscopy and colposcopy in examinations of male sexual assault victims and to characterize the demographics of male sexual assault victims. This is a case series of 67 male sexual assault victims evaluated over an 8-year period by the Sexual Assault Forensic Examination team. The setting is a university-based emergency department serving as the primary site for examination of sexual assault victims by trained nurse practitioners and physician's assistants. Police and victims' advocates are available at the time of the examination. Anoscopy was done routinely over the entire study period in all patients with any anal penetration or involvement. Colposcopy use started in 1994 to magnify and take pictures. Patients were categorized into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of subjects receiving only anoscopy, and group 2 consisted of subjects receiving initial colposcopy. Anoscopy in group 1 and colposcopy in group 2 were compared for positive results. A positive result was defined as an additional finding to those obtained by means of gross examination by using the test being evaluated (anoscopy versus colposcopy). Colposcopy and anoscopy were also compared among the subjects receiving both tests. Groups were compared by using a Pearson chi(2) test. Sixty-seven male sexual assault victims were evaluated between 1991 and 1998. The average age was 26+/-8 years, and the distribution of races was 30% black, 62% white, and 8% Hispanic. Results of gross examination were positive in 42 (63%) subjects. Four patients did not receive either anoscopy or colposcopy. Of the remaining 63, 25 patients had anoscopy only (group 1), and 38 patients had initial colposcopy (group 2). There were no significant differences in age, race, or rate of positive gross examination results between groups. Findings in addition to those obtained by means of gross examination were revealed by means of anoscopy in 8 (32%) of 25 subjects in group 1 and colposcopy in 3 (8%) of 38
Shahali, Shadab; Mohammadi, Eesa; Lamyian, Minoor; Kashanian, Maryam; Eslami, Mohammad; Montazeri, Ali
Victims of sexual assault need comprehensive healthcare services to deal with the consequences of their experience. However, there are still many girls/women that delay seeking healthcare after they experience sexual assault. To explore the process of health care and clinical services for victims of sexual assault in the health care centers of Iran. This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory method. The sample consisted of 23 health care providers and 10 victims of sexual violence. Unstructured interviews and observations were used for data collection. Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. The analysis of all data led to the extraction of four categories: "performing routines", "victims' expectations", "conflict between expectations of victims and existing healthcare services", and the core category of "neglect of healthcare providers to address the needs and expectations of victims". Providers were offering health care to the victims of sexual violence regardless of their needs. Due to this neglect, victims sought illegal solutions to overcome the consequences that led to social stigma. The findings indicate the lack of mutual understanding between health care providers and victims of sexual violence in relation to the expectations and priorities of victims.
Full Text Available Background: Prior research endorsed the establishment of sexual assault centres in the Netherlands because of the potential benefit for victims’ mental recovery. In 2012, the first Dutch sexual assault centre was founded at the University Medical Center Utrecht. The aim of the centre is to provide 24/7 coordinated and integrated services (i.e., medical, forensic, and psychological in one location. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to describe demographic, background, and assault characteristics of victims seen at the centre within one week post-assault, and their use of post-assault services in order to improve current services. Method: From January 2012 to September 2013, prospective data of 108 patients were collected. To describe the population included, frequency counts and proportions were generated for categorical variables. Results: The mean age was 21.3 years (SD=9.8. Most victims were female (91.7%. A large proportion of victims reported background characteristics known to increase the risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and revictimisation such as prior sexual abuse (32.4%, pre-existing use of mental health services (45.4%, and not living with both biological parents (61.7%. Most patients (88.9% consulted the centre within 72 hours post-assault. The uptake of services was high: 82.4% received emergency medical care, 61.7% underwent a forensic–medical exam, 34% reported to the police, and 82.4% utilised psychological services. Conclusion: To prevent revictimisation and PTSD, current psychological services could be improved with immediate trauma-focused treatments. Current forensic services may be improved with the use of standard top to toe forensic–medical examinations for both children and adults.
Dworkin, Emily R; Newton, Emily; Allen, Nicole E
After sexual assault, survivors often reach to others for support and receive a range of reactions. Although these reactions have been characterized by researchers as positive (e.g., emotional support) or negative (e.g., victim blaming), survivors vary in their perceptions in ways that do not always match this framework. The goal of this research was to examine the degree to which designations of reactions as "positive" or "negative" fits across types of reactions and explain instances of mismatch between these designations and survivors' perceptions. We conducted a qualitative analysis of interviews with 26 survivors of sexual assault to identify themes in their perceptions of social reactions. Although social reactions were generally perceived in a manner that matched researcher categorizations, there was significant variation. Perceptions could be characterized in terms of whether the reaction felt comfortable/soothing, consistent with survivors' needs/hopes/expectations, and helpful in the long term. The closeness of survivors' relationships with responders, the degree to which they were impacted by the assault, and the presence of other social reactions explained variation from researcher designations of reaction types. This study clarifies the considerations that survivors make when evaluating social reactions and what accounts for discrepant perceptions of these reactions; in particular, they highlight that there is no "one size fits all" reaction to survivors of sexual assault and the context in which reactions occur may affect how they are seen.
Young, Amy M; King, Lindsay; Abbey, Antonia; Boyd, Carol J
The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of adolescents involved in alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related sexual assault of peers. A Web-based survey was administered to 1,220 7th- to 12th-grade students from a middle school and high school in southeastern Michigan. Adolescents who reported alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related sexual aggression had higher levels of impulsivity and more extensive histories of dating, early sexual activity, and alcohol consumption than adolescents who did not assault. Moreover, aggressors of alcohol-related assault had higher levels of past-30-day alcohol use and reported more alcohol-/drug-related problems than aggressors of non-alcohol-related assault. Early identification of the characteristics associated with alcohol-related sexual aggression suggests that targeted interventions may be feasible for this group of adolescents at high risk for both sexual perpetration and alcoholism during adulthood.
Smothers, Melissa Kraemer; Smothers, D. Brian
In this study, a nonprofit community mental health clinic developed a socioecological model of sexual abuse prevention that was implemented in a public school. The goal of the program was to promote and create community change within individuals and the school community by reducing tolerance of sexual violence and sexual harassment. Participants…
Full Text Available Biological evidence with forensic interest may be found in several cases of assault, being particularly relevant if sexually related. Sexual assault cases are characterized by low rates of disclosure, reporting, prosecution, and conviction. Biological evidence is sometimes the only way to prove the occurrence of sexual contact and to identify the perpetrator. The major focus of this review is to propose practical approaches and guidelines to help health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to deal with biological evidence for DNA analysis. Attention should be devoted to avoiding contamination, degradation, and loss of biological evidence, as well as respecting specific measures to properly handle evidence (i.e., selection, collection, packing, sealing, labeling, storage, preservation, transport, and guarantee of the chain custody. Biological evidence must be carefully managed since the relevance of any finding in Forensic Genetics is determined, in the first instance, by the integrity and quantity of the samples submitted for analysis.
Mathews, Shanaaz; Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel
Large numbers of children are affected by child sexual abuse in South Africa. This study aimed to assess psychological adjustment of children post sexual assault. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with caretakers, and structured interviews using mental health assessment screening tools were given to children at three intervals over a five-month period after presentation at a sexual assault center. Almost half of the children met clinical criteria for anxiety, and two-thirds met criteria for full symptom post-traumatic stress disorder two to four weeks post disclosure. With standard care, we observed some recovery; 43.3% of children still met full symptom post-traumatic stress disorder nearly six months post disclosure. Our findings indicate that current practice in South Africa does not promote adequate recovery for children.
Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Silva, Benedita; Corte-Real, Francisco; Nuno Vieira, Duarte
Biological evidence with forensic interest may be found in several cases of assault, being particularly relevant if sexually related. Sexual assault cases are characterized by low rates of disclosure, reporting, prosecution, and conviction. Biological evidence is sometimes the only way to prove the occurrence of sexual contact and to identify the perpetrator. The major focus of this review is to propose practical approaches and guidelines to help health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to deal with biological evidence for DNA analysis. Attention should be devoted to avoiding contamination, degradation, and loss of biological evidence, as well as respecting specific measures to properly handle evidence (i.e., selection, collection, packing, sealing, labeling, storage, preservation, transport, and guarantee of the chain custody). Biological evidence must be carefully managed since the relevance of any finding in Forensic Genetics is determined, in the first instance, by the integrity and quantity of the samples submitted for analysis. PMID:26587562
Mancino, P; Parlavecchio, E; Melluso, J; Monti, M; Russo, P
Victims of sexual assault require appropriate care, follow-up and information regarding their legal rights. Clinicians are faced with the challenging responsibility of identifying victims and providing effective interventive and preventive counselling. The most pressing medical task is to confirm the assault and to undertake correct documentation and exhibition of biological traces. Performing colposcopy and vulvovaginoscopy does not allow us to diagnose a sexual assault trauma, but it can help us to identify those microscopic lesions (due to the enhanced visualization and the higher resolution under which the genital areas are examined) that may not be seen during a normal clinical examination. The colposcopic and vulvovaginoscopic examination starts from the vulvar region looking for superficial lacerations and ecchymosis; the labia majora and minor are examined scrupulously, then the posterior forchette, the perineum and the hymen where it is possible to report microulcerations, contusions and even possible scars due to a precedent defloration. Recent advances in clinical forensic medicine show that trained examiners using colposcopy obtain evidence of genital trauma in 87% to 92% of rape victims. Colposcopy and vulvovaginoscopy must be performed within 48 hours from the sexual assault, because most of the lesions heal rapidly. Colposcopy and vulvovaginoscopy may be seen as a stressful invasion of a woman who is already vulnerable and at risk of the rape trauma syndrome. Prior information about colposcopy may reduce the level of anxiety experienced by many women undergoing this procedure. Incorporating colposcopy and vulvovaginoscopy into the routine assessment of sexual assault victims could be a valid way of identifying genital injuries; moreover the medical report will be more detailed and precise.
Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; White, Meghan; Turner, Linda; White, Deborah; Kaplan, Sarah; Smith, Tanya
There is still little known about survivors' experiences of and satisfaction with comprehensive nursing-led hospital-based sexual assault and domestic violence treatment programs. To address this gap, we surveyed and collected information from clients/guardians presenting to 30 of 35 of Ontario's Sexual Assault/Domestic Violence Treatment Centres across seven domains: presentation characteristics, client characteristics, assailant characteristics, assault characteristics, health consequences, service use, and satisfaction with services. One thousand four hundred eighty-four clients participated in the study, 96% of whom were women/girls. Most were White (75.3%), 12-44 years old (87.8%), and living with family (69.6%); 97.9% of clients used at least one service. The most commonly used service was assessment and/or documentation of injury (84.8%), followed by on-site follow-up care (73.6%). Almost all clients/guardians reported that they received the care needed (98.6%), rated the overall care as excellent or good (98.8%), and stated that the care had been provided in a sensitive manner (95.4%). Concerns and recommendations to improve care expressed by a small proportion of clients/guardians focused on long wait times, negative emergency department staff attitudes, issues of privacy and confidentiality, and difficulty with accessing services. The high uptake and positive evaluation of services provided by Ontario's Sexual Assault/Domestic Violence Treatment Centre programs confirms the value of nursing-led, hospital-based care in the aftermath of sexual assault and domestic violence. Ongoing evaluation of such services will ensure the best care possible for this patient population.
McCauley, Jenna L.; Conoscenti, Lauren M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Incapacitated/drug-alcohol facilitated sexual assault (IS/DAFS) is rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct form of assault with unique public health implications. This study reports the prevalence, case characteristics, and associated health risks of IS/DAFS using a large, nationally representative sample of 1,763 adolescent girls. Results…
Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.
Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…
Ekbia, Hamid R.
Abstract Objective: Sexual assault is prevalent among college students. In response, universities have implemented prevention education initiatives. These interventions, however, often ignore the broader sociocultural context in which sexual violence occurs. This calls for innovative approaches in prevention education, which address the broader context. Computer games provide such an opportunity by providing simulated real-life scenarios, nonlinear narratives, and an interactive medium. We report the development and pilot testing of “Campus Craft,” a game prototype that focuses, among other things, on sexual assault prevention. Materials and Methods: The prototype was developed through a participatory design process; students, educators, and subject matter experts helped design and develop scenarios, game mechanics, and learning objectives. The prototype was evaluated by college students (n=141) in a multi-method approach. The evaluation encompassed issues of usability, game mechanics, attitudes, and learning outcomes. Results: Findings indicated that participants rated various aspects of the game positively. Additionally, use of “Campus Craft” contributed to differences in student learning of prevention concepts between the pre- and post-test such that students scored higher on the post-test. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate that, on average, students learned several core concepts related to sexual consent and rape culture through gameplay. Results suggest that computer-based gaming may be a viable avenue for sexual assault prevention education. Findings demonstrate that this approach could be effective in increasing student knowledge and understanding of factors that contribute to sexual assault in college. Future research is needed to corroborate findings and better understand the feasibility of using this approach among larger samples of college students. PMID:26181803
Flack, William F; Hansen, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Bryant, Leigh A; Lang, Katherine W; Massa, Andrea A; Whalen, Jenni E
The high prevalence of campus sexual assault (CSA) among college students in the United States is a chronic public health crisis. Some risk factors for CSA victimization, such as alcohol consumption and female gender, are firmly established, but the evidence for others is less robust. One factor that has received little attention in the literature on CSA is "hooking up," defined as a physically intimate dyadic encounter that may not entail further contact between partners. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of hooking up, both as a general risk factor for CSA victimization, and the roles of different types of hookups, varying in degree of relatedness between partners, for different types of victimization. A stratified random sample of female undergraduate students (n = 373) from a single, small campus in the northeastern United States completed measures of demographics, alcohol consumption, hooking up, and sexual victimization in an online survey. Results revealed high-risk levels of drinking, and a low-to-moderate frequency of hooking up. Overall prevalence of CSA reported by this sample was 44%, with 40% reporting nonconsensual sexual contact, and 33% attempted rape or rape. Follow-up questions to reports of sexual assaults indicated that most (78%) took place during hookups, and that the riskiest hookups were those with acquaintances and previous romantic partners. If found to generalize to other campus populations, the role of hooking up in sexual assault should be added to systems-based models of sexual assault (e.g.,Heise, 1998) and to educational prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene; Skovlund, Charlotte W
system: 3.2 (2.6-4.1) and 2.6 (2.1-3.2); epilepsy: 2.9 (2.2-3.8) and 4.1 (3.0-5.6) and disease of the liver: 3.5 (1.9-6.3) and 7.0 (4.4-11.1), respectively. The rate ratios of laparoscopic surgery: 1.5 (0.9-2.5) and 3.4 (2.3-5.0) and of cervical cancer: 0.8 (0.4-1.7) and 2.0 (1.4-3.0) increased...... significantly after sexual assault. Likewise, the number of visits to a general practitioner was significantly higher in exposed women both before and after the assault (16 vs. 10/year). Complications associated with childbirth were not statistically different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results...... and after the assault. RESULTS: The incidence of several somatic disorders was found to be significantly higher for the exposed women than for controls, both before and after the assault. Rate ratios of main disorders before and after the assault were respectively: disease of circulatory and respiratory...
Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael
Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.
local law enforcement the following: rape, spousal rape, sodomy, oral copulation, sexual penetration, sexual banerv~ Incest , procurtng any female to...DoD) http://www.sapro.mil SAPR Website (USMC) www.manpower.usmc.mil/SAPR Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network http://www.rainn.org Office...Against Women: http://www.ovw.usdoj.gov/sexassault.htm National Sexual Violence Resources Center http://www.nsvrc.org Rape Abuse Incest
Ryan, Ginny L; Mengeling, Michelle A; Summers, Karen M; Booth, Brenda M; Torner, James C; Syrop, Craig H; Sadler, Anne G
Several gynecological conditions associated with hysterectomy, including abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain, have been observed at increased rates in women who have experienced sexual assault. Previous findings have suggested that one of the unique health care needs for female military veterans may be an increased prevalence of hysterectomy and that this increase may partially be due to their higher risk of sexual assault history and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although associations between trauma, PTSD, and gynecological symptoms have been identified, little work has been done to date to directly examine the relationship between sexual assault, PTSD, and hysterectomy within the rapidly growing female veteran population. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of hysterectomy in premenopausal-aged female veterans, compare with general population prevalence, and examine associations between hysterectomy and sexual assault, PTSD, and gynecological symptoms in this veteran population. We performed a computer-assisted telephone interview between July 2005 and August 2008 of 1004 female Veterans Affairs (VA)-enrolled veterans ≤ 52 years old from 2 Midwestern US Veterans Affairs medical centers and associated community-based outreach clinics. Within the veteran study population, associations between hysterectomy and sexual assault, PTSD, and gynecological symptoms were assessed with bivariate analyses using χ(2), Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney, and Student t tests; multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for independent associations. Hysterectomy prevalence and ages were compared with large civilian populations represented in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases from similar timeframes using χ(2) and Student t tests. Prevalence of hysterectomy was significantly higher (16.8% vs 13.3%, P = .0002), and mean age at hysterectomy was
Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Nguyen, Hanh; Yamawaki, Niwako; Bhattacharya, Haimanti; Mo, Wenjing; Birkholz, Ryan; Makomenaw, Angie; Olson, Lenora M
College women are at a high risk of sexual assault. Although programs that aim to change bystander behaviors have been shown to be potentially effective in preventing sexual assault on campuses in the United States, little is known about bystander behaviors outside of the United States. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare factors affecting bystander behaviors regarding sexual assault intervention and prevention among undergraduate students in the United States, Japan, India, Vietnam, and China. A total of 1,136 students participated in a self-reported survey. Results demonstrate substantial variations across countries. Bystander behaviors are associated with multilevel factors, including gender, knowledge of individuals who have experienced a sexual assault, and knowledge about campus or community organizations.
Hankin, C S; Skinner, K M; Sullivan, L M; Miller, D R; Frayne, S; Tripp, T J
Among a national sample of 3,632 women VA outpatients, we determined self-reported prevalence of sexual assault experienced during military service and compared screening prevalence for current symptoms of depression and alcohol abuse between those who did and did not report this history. Data were obtained by mailed questionnaire. Military-related sexual assault was reported by 23%. Screening prevalence for symptoms of current depression was 3 times higher and for current alcohol abuse was 2 times higher among those who reported experiencing military-related sexual assault. Recent mental health treatment was reported by 50% of those who reported experiencing sexual assault during military service and screened positive for symptoms of depression, and by 40% of those who screened positive for symptoms of alcohol abuse.
Alsaker, Kjersti; Morken, Tone; Baste, Valborg; Campos-Serna, Javier; Moen, Bente E
To investigate whether sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of abuse rather than others in violent intimate relationships. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all Norwegian women's shelters. Women seeking refuge at Norwegian women's shelters in 2002 and 2003. Sexual assault and experiences of intimate partner violence were measured using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale (SVAWS) and psychological violence was measured using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). Student's t-test analyses were performed between the mean values of the different acts of reported violence, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between sexual violence and the other forms of violence reported. Sexual violence correlated significantly with the other eight categories in SVAWS, and with violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen and psychological violence in PMWI. When we adjusted all categories for each other by linear regression analysis, sexual intimate partner violence was significantly associated with hair pulling, arm twisting, spanking or biting, dominance and isolation abuse and violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen. Sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of physical and psychological violence than with others. This knowledge may be important for improving our understanding of sexual violence in intimate partner relationships and in the efforts to detect intimate partner violence. Bruises, loss of hair and bite marks may suggest that sexual acts were committed against the victim's will. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Peter-Hagene, Liana C.
Sexual assault survivors receive various positive and negative social reactions to assault disclosures, yet little is known about the directionality of associations of social reactions to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over time. Data from a large, diverse sample of women who had experienced adult sexual assault was analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine how negative and positive reactions relate to PTSD symptoms over 3 years and to test the hypothesis that the relationship between negative social reactions and PTSD symptoms is reciprocal. We found that, as predicted, social reactions predicted subsequent PTSD symptoms, and in turn PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent social reactions. We also investigated the role of sexual revictimization by comparing women who suffered (versus not) additional sexual victimization during the course of our study. Revictimized women had greater PTSD symptoms and more negative social reactions, but associations of social reactions with PTSD symptoms did not vary according to revictimization status. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25538120
Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C
Sexual assault survivors receive various positive and negative social reactions to assault disclosures, yet little is known about the directionality of associations of social reactions to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over time. Data from a large, diverse sample of women who had experienced adult sexual assault was analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine how negative and positive reactions relate to PTSD symptoms over 3 years and to test the hypothesis that the relationship between negative social reactions and PTSD symptoms is reciprocal. We found that, as predicted, social reactions predicted subsequent PTSD symptoms, and in turn PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent social reactions. We also investigated the role of sexual revictimization by comparing women who suffered (vs. not) additional sexual victimization during the course of our study. Revictimized women had greater PTSD symptoms and more negative social reactions, but associations of social reactions with PTSD symptoms did not vary according to revictimization status. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The victims of sexual assault cases seem to refuse the events and do not engage in legal ways to handle the situation. This study was designed to discuss the related laws in the criminal code law, in light of cases brought to the attention of the Criminal Court. The summaries of the court decisions of the Adana Penalty Court (1996/1-450 and 1997/1-150 were reviewed in order to group the age, sex and the claimed event together with the decisions made by the court. Of the 81 victims, only 3 were male. 55.55% of the victims were aged between 12-15, 37.03 % of the accused were between the ages 21 and 30. İn 22 cases, the victim and the accused got married and according to TCK 434 the court was dismissed. In 24 cases, the accused got free for several reasons and in 43-20% of the cases, the accused received punishment. The dilemma between the legal age for having sexual relationships and legal age of marriage and the postponement of the punishment in case of marriage suggests the need for sexual assault centers around the country. Key words: Penalty Courts, Sexual Assault, Marriage, Gender.
Dworkin, Emily R; Menon, Suvarna V; Bystrynski, Jonathan; Allen, Nicole E
Sexual assault (SA) is a common and deleterious form of trauma. Over 40years of research on its impact has suggested that SA has particularly severe effects on a variety of forms of psychopathology, and has highlighted unique aspects of SA as a form of trauma that contribute to these outcomes. The goal of this meta-analytic review was to synthesize the empirical literature from 1970 to 2014 (reflecting 497 effect sizes) to understand the degree to which (a) SA confers general risk for psychological dysfunction rather than specific risk for posttraumatic stress, and (b) differences in studies and samples account for variation in observed effects. Results indicate that people who have been sexually assaulted report significantly worse psychopathology than unassaulted comparisons (average Hedges' g=0.61). SA was associated with increased risk for all forms of psychopathology assessed, and relatively stronger associations were observed for posttraumatic stress and suicidality. Effects endured across differences in sample demographics. The use of broader SA operationalizations (e.g., including incapacitated, coerced, or nonpenetrative SA) was not associated with differences in effects, although including attempted SA in operationalizations resulted in lower effects. Larger effects were observed in samples with more assaults involving stranger perpetrators, weapons, or physical injury. In the context of the broader literature, our findings provide evidence that experiencing SA is major risk factor for multiple forms of psychological dysfunction across populations and assault types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The assailants of sexuel assault to serve this purpose to the victims of many different drug can use. These drugs can be applied together with alcohol, soft drinks, water and other drinks can be given together. Most of these drugs tasteless and odorless. In a few minutes after ingestion chemical effect of drugs can start. Victims the conscious reduction and limitation of the physical move occur. Drug drinking from the pass the time until impact memory loss can occur. For this purpose the main benzodiazepines (Diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc., hypnotics (Zopiclone, zolpidem, anesthetics (Gama-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine, amphetamines (Metylendioxymetamphetamine=ecstasy, opiats (Cocaine, cannabis=marihuana and alcohols such as ethanol substances used. However in study frequently encountered in the literature; cocaine, cannabis, metylendioxymetamphetamine, zolpidem, ketamine hydrochloride, zopiclone, gamma hydroxybutirate, diazepam, flunitrazepam and the effects of these substances after oral ingestion were evaluated and the approach to victims.
Coulter, Robert W S; Mair, Christina; Miller, Elizabeth; Blosnich, John R; Matthews, Derrick D; McCauley, Heather L
A critical step in developing sexual assault prevention and treatment is identifying groups at high risk for sexual assault. We explored the independent and interaction effects of sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity on past-year sexual assault among college students. From 2011 to 2013, 71,421 undergraduate students from 120 US post-secondary education institutions completed cross-sectional surveys. We fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine differences in past-year sexual assault. Compared to cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) men, cisgender women (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.29, 2.68) and transgender people (AOR = 3.93; 95% CI 2.68, 5.76) had higher odds of sexual assault. Among cisgender people, gays/lesbians had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals for men (AOR = 3.50; 95% CI 2.81, 4.35) but not for women (AOR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.87, 1.46). People unsure of their sexual identity had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals, but effects were larger among cisgender men (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.10, 4.08) than cisgender women (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.40, 2.02). Bisexuals had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals with similar magnitude among cisgender men (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 2.37, 4.27) and women (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI 2.05, 2.60). Among transgender people, Blacks had higher odds of sexual assault than Whites (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI 1.09, 62.82). Predicted probabilities of sexual assault ranged from 2.6 (API cisgender men) to 57.7% (Black transgender people). Epidemiologic research and interventions should consider intersections of gender identity, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity to better tailor sexual assault prevention and treatment for college students.
Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Elklit, Ask; Nielsen, Louise Hjort
Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards of and the......Most centers for rape and sexual assault victims today build on the original principles proposed in Boston by Burgess and Holmstrom in the 1970s (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1973; Burgess, 2006). In line with technological advances, scientific developments, and societal changes, the standards...... of and the framework behind these centers must be assessed and developed further to accommodate the growing need for rape trauma services in Europe and worldwide. This paper describes the experiences of a public Danish center for rape victims and proposes a management model for current and future rape victim centers....
Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tania; Badgley, Robin F
This is the first Canadian study to focus directly on whether factors commonly identified as reflecting the seriousness of a sexual assault are noted by judges, and in turn, related to the severity of the sentences they impose. We examined adolescent and adult female sexual assault cases heard in Ontario between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-one cases were identified using Quicklaw, Canada's most comprehensive on-line legal information system, with data extracted onto a coding instrument. In 201 (91%) of these cases, a perpetrator had been sentenced to prison or jail. Judges reported that in a substantial proportion of these women they had been penetrated (67%), forced (49%), coerced (50%), physically injured (33%), and psychologically harmed (65%). However, only two of the six offence seriousness factors examined were associated with a prison versus jail sentence: the occurrence of vaginal and/or anal penetration and the threat or use of a weapon(s).
Lonsway, Kimberly A; Archambault, Joanne
Media coverage often reports "good" news about the criminal justice system's ability to effectively respond to sexual assault, concluding that the past two decades have seen an increase in rape reporting, prosecution, and conviction. The objective of this article is to examine the validity of such conclusions by critically reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of various data sources and comparing the statistics they produce. These statistics include estimates for sexual assault reporting rates and case outcomes in the criminal justice system. We conclude that such pronouncements are not currently supported by statistical evidence, and we outline some directions for future research and reform efforts to make the "good news" a reality in the United States.
Mackenzie, Bonnie; Jenny, Carole
Alternate light sources are devices that produce visible and invisible light at specific wavelengths to allow for enhanced visualization of fluorescent substances. These devices (which include Wood's lamp and blue light) are often used in forensics for evidence collection and can be quite useful to physicians in the medical evaluation of suspected physical or sexual assault. An understanding of the proper applications, as well as the limitations, of each alternate light source is imperative to correctly performing and interpreting medical evaluations in the emergency department. This review discusses the evidence from prospective trials in children and adults on the ability of specific alternate light sources to identify evidence of physical or sexual assault and also highlights some promising new technological adjuncts to alternate light sources that may allow for accurate dating of bruising.
place. Table B.20. Where the Sexual Assault Occurred Category Total CID NCIS AFOSI Barracks/dorm 5 2 3 0 Daycare or child development center 2 2 0...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of Defense Inspector General,4800 Mark Center ...Inspector General Policy and Oversight INSPECTOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 4800 MARK CENTER DRIVE ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22350-1500 iv │ DODIG-2014-105
perpetrator’s modus operandi . - Understand how to identify a potential perpetrator in order to set in motion bystander intervention learning. - Explore the...with serial offenders) or especially serious sexual assault allegations. The Air Force Office of Special Investigations has other operational...will think of them as a “buzz killer ,” or as someone who interferes with someone’s efforts to hook up. Has there been a change in this perception so
Clapton, S; Lonne, R; Theunissen, C A
There is a paucity of information regarding cases of multi-victim sexual assault of children. The reported incidence suggests that these cases are rare. The aim of this paper is to provide practitioners with information about effective intervention strategies arising out of the direct experience of managing a case of multi-victim sexual assault in an Australian rural community. A descriptive, case-report methodology summarizing the investigation and intervention in a case of multi-victim sexual assault is reported. A community based intervention arising out of the disclosures of 21 male children is described. The intervention occurred at an individual, group, and community level using a coordinated multi-disciplinary team and natural helping networks. The coordination of police and welfare services increased the communication flow to victims, their families, and the community. The case also demonstrated the utility in regularly briefing political and bureaucratic authorities as well as local officials about emergent issues. Coordinating political and bureaucratic responses was essential in obtaining ongoing support and sufficient researching to enable the effective delivery of services. Interventions were focussed at an individual, group, and community level using a coordinated multi-disciplinary team and natural helping networks. This provided a choice of services which were sensitive to the case setting. Recommendations are offered for practitioners who are confronted with similar events. While this paper describes an approach for intervening in a case of multi-victim sexual assault, further empirical research is needed to enable service deliverers to efficaciously target interventions which offer choice to victims and their families.
Du Mont, Janice; White, Deborah; McGregor, Margaret J
Across many jurisdictions, a key institutional response to sexual assault is centred on the collection of medico-legal evidence through a medical forensic examination (MFE). Despite the increased routinization of this practice, such evidence often is not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. As there has been little systematic investigation of the perspectives of victims regarding the MFE, we conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 19 women aged 17-46 years who had been sexually assaulted and had undergone an MFE in the previous six months at one of four specialized hospital-based sexual assault centres in Ontario, Canada. Extracts from the transcribed interviews were coded into two broad themes, 'Expectations' and 'Experiences', from which a series of lower order constructs were derived. We found that most women went to a centre to have their physical and emotional needs addressed rather than medico-legal evidence collected and were overwhelmingly satisfied with their interactions with specially trained nurse examiners. However, some women were confused about the purpose of the MFE, believing that their access to treatment hinged upon undergoing this process. Moreover, though optional, several indicated that they had been instructed to have an MFE by the police and/or nurse examiner. Most women who chose to have evidence collected did so with the hope that it would hold the assailant accountable and generate social recognition of the harm done to them. While many stated that they were distressed during the MFE, some reported feeling simultaneously empowered by the fact that the experience fostered a "sense of doing something". These findings point to the value of collecting medico-legal evidence in settings staffed with supportive practitioners who also attend to women's health related concerns. Implications with respect to issues of informed consent, revictimization, and empowerment, as well as the relative weight given to the MFE in the
Edwards, Katie M; Probst, Danielle R; Tansill, Erin C; Dixon, Kristiana J; Bennett, Sidney; Gidycz, Christine A
The purpose of this study was to utilize a mixed methodological approach to better understand the co-occurrence of perpetrator tactics and women's resistance strategies during a sexual assault and women's reflections on these experiences. College women were recruited from introductory psychology courses and completed both forced-choice response and open-ended survey questions for course credit. Content-analytic results of college women's written responses to an open-ended question suggested that women's resistance strategies generally mirrored the tactics of the perpetrator (e.g., women responded to perpetrator verbal pressure with verbal resistance). However, there were some instances in which this was not the case. Furthermore, a number of women expressed a degree of self-blame for the sexual assault in their responses, as well as minimization and normalization of the experience. These findings suggest that sexual assault risk reduction programs need to directly address victims' self-blame as well as create an atmosphere where societal factors that lead to minimization can be addressed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Morabito, Melissa Schaefer; Pattavina, April; Williams, Linda M
The underreporting of sexual assault is well known to researchers, practitioners, and victims. When victims do report, their complaints are unlikely to end in arrest or prosecution. Existing research on police discretion suggests that the police decision to arrest for sexual assault offenses can be influenced by a variety of legal and extra-legal factors particularly challenges to victim credibility. Although extant literature examines the effects of individual behaviors on police outcomes, less is known about how the accumulation of these behaviors, attributions, and characteristics affects police decision making. Using data collected from the Los Angeles Police Department and Sheriff's Department, we examine one police decision point-the arrest to fill this gap in the literature. First, we examine the extent to which the effects of potential challenges to victim credibility, based on victim characteristics and behaviors, influence the arrest decision, and next, how these predictors vary across circumstances. Specifically, we examine how factors that challenge victim credibility affect the likelihood of arrest in sexual assault cases where the victim and offender are strangers, acquaintances, and intimate partners.
McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S; Liebschutz, Jane M; Spiro, Avron; Seaver, Margaret R
Sexual assault in the military (SAIM) is associated with decreased sexual satisfaction. However, mediators of this association have not been fully described. Using a retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data collected for the national Veterans Affairs (VA) Women's Health Survey, we propose a mediator model to explain the association between SAIM and decreased sexual satisfaction among women veterans. Four mediators of the association between SAIM and decreased sexual satisfaction are tested: (1) emotional health-related quality of life, (2) physical health-related quality of life, (3) lack of a close partner, and (4) gynecological illness. These mediators were chosen to encompass independent domains potentially relevant to sexual satisfaction, including emotional, physical, and relational. Of 3161 women (87%) who answered the sexual satisfaction question, the mean age was 45 (SD 15) years; 85% were white. Twenty-four percent reported a history of SAIM, and 39% reported sexual dissatisfaction. In age-adjusted logistic regression analyses, both SAIM and sexual dissatisfaction were strongly associated with each of the proposed mediators. However, of the four mediators, emotional health-related quality of life most strongly attenuated the association between SAIM and sexual dissatisfaction. After including all mediators, the association between SAIM and decreased sexual satisfaction was markedly attenuated. SAIM's negative impact on sexual satisfaction in women veterans operates both directly and through its physical and mental health sequelae. Of the proposed mediators in this association, the most prominent is mental health-related quality of life; the other proposed mediators were minimally related.
Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.
Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.
Zeynep Belma Gölge
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological and social problems faced by female victims after rape and additionally the impact of also being a victim of childhood sexual abuse in Turkey, where opportunity of getting medical and psychological support for sexual assault for victims is limited and legal process lasts for years. Method: Participants consisted of 93 female rape victims who were examined by the Second Specialization Board of State Council of Forensic Medicine. An interview form, which is developed in order to investigate socio-demographic features, assault charactersitics, psychological and social problems of victim, Post Traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were applied for the investigation. Results: 61.3 % of victims were diagnosed with post traumatic stres disorder (PTSD and 54.8% of victims had sexual dysfunctions caused by the sexual assault. 68.8 % of victims reported that they were exposed to negative social reactions. 70,3% of victims who were exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD while only 41,4% of people who were not exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Difference between groups was analyzed with chi squre method and there is significant difference between them ( X2:7.04, df:1, p<0.01. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts were high in victims of adult rape who were also sexually abused in childhood. Discussion: Considering duration between the sexual assault and interview, in our research findings the ratio of the people who have PTSD and sexual issues, is more than the other studies consequences. On the other hand, the victims which reported that incident occured more than three years ago, are fitted to the diagnosis criterias of PTSD, with the ratio of 58.8%. It’s been thought that, studying with the victims who has been sent for physical examination and the continuation of judicial
This article provides a general overview of the principles of conducting a forensic evaluation of adolescents who have been exposed to sexual abuse. This problem is common and is associated with a large burden of suffering. There is a strong likelihood that most paediatricians will be called on to perform such evaluations at some point in time. This overview includes a description of the forensic examination, focuses on such issues as consent and contact with child protection services, and pr...
Dworkin, Emily R; Pittenger, Samantha L; Allen, Nicole E
Most survivors of sexual assault disclose their experiences within their social networks, and these disclosure decisions can have important implications for their entry into formal systems and well-being, but no research has directly examined these networks as a strategy to understand disclosure decisions. Using a mixed-method approach that combined survey data, social network analysis, and interview data, we investigate whom, among potential informal responders in the social networks of college students who have experienced sexual assault, survivors contact regarding their assault, and how survivors narrate the role of networks in their decisions about whom to contact. Quantitative results suggest that characteristics of survivors, their social networks, and members of these networks are associated with disclosure decisions. Using data from social network analysis, we identified that survivors tended to disclose to a smaller proportion of their network when many network members had relationships with each other or when the network had more subgroups. Our qualitative analysis helps to contextualize these findings. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
McFarlane, Judith; Malecha, Ann; Gist, Julia; Watson, Kathy; Batten, Elizabeth; Hall, Iva; Smith, Sheila
In order to establish the frequency of substance use, following and attributed to sexual assault, and describe the danger for femicide and suicidality for women physically and sexually abused compared to physically-abused only women, a personal interview of 148 African-American, Hispanic, and white English and Spanish-speaking abused women was completed. Women who reported more than one sexual assault were 3.5 (95% CI, 0.9, 13.4) times more likely to report beginning or increasing substance use compared to women who reported only one sexual assault. Sexually assaulted women reported significantly (p=.002) more risk factors for femicide compared to physically- abused only women. Specific to suicide, women reporting sexual assault were 5.3 (95% CI, 1.3, 21.5) times more likely to report threatening or attempted suicide within a 90-day period compared to physically-abused only women. The health assessment and intervention of intimate partner violence must extend beyond injury to include behavior risk sequelae of substance abuse and suicidality.
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gold, Sari D; Marx, Brian P; Lexington, Jennifer M
This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 74 gay male sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. IH accounted for more variance than assault severity in predicting both PTSD and depression symptom severity. IH and experiential avoidance similarly predicted PTSD symptom severity. In comparison with IH, however, experiential avoidance is a stronger predictor of depression symptom severity. Results also showed that experiential avoidance partially mediated the relation between IH and both depressive and PTSD symptom severity. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.
Bell, Margret E; Reardon, Annemarie
Given the frequent occurrence and significant health impact of sexual harassment and sexual assault in the military, it is important that for health care providers working with Veterans to have at least some basic knowledge in this area. Targeting providers addressing mental health and psychosocial issues, but also applicable to clinicians working with survivors in a variety of capacities, this article provides an overview of clinical care with survivors of sexual trauma in the military, particularly those who are OEF/OIF Veterans. We cover basic background information, focusing primarily on the impact of sexual trauma in the military, how survivor's reactions are shaped by various aspects of the military context, and general principles to assist clinicians in working effectively with survivors, whatever their role.
Ullman, Sarah E; Najdowski, Cynthia J
Adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors report greater levels of problem drinking than do other women, and research suggests that their coping strategies, reactions from their social networks, and traumatic life events affect their problem drinking. The links between these factors and problem drinking may be moderated by whether survivors are revictimized, yet research has not examined this possibility. Therefore, the current study examined psychosocial factors, problem drinking, and revictimization in women ASA survivors. Community-dwelling urban women (n = 555) who had experienced an ASA completed a mail survey at Time 1 (T1) and were resurveyed 1 year later to examine how revictimization between survey waves moderated the effects of coping strategies, social reactions to assault disclosures, and traumatic life events on problem drinking at Time 2 (T2). The findings showed that recent revictimization that occurred between surveys was related to increased problem drinking at T2, after T1 problem drinking was controlled for. Moderated hierarchical multiple regressions showed that survivors who engaged in drinking to cope with distress, who received negative social reactions in response to recent assault disclosures, or who experienced additional traumatic events had increased T2 problem drinking only if they were revictimized since T1. Psychosocial factors relate to increases in problem drinking for sexually revictimized women but not for nonrevictimized women. Interventions to reduce problem drinking in women ASA survivors should target drinking to cope with assault-related symptomatology, informal social networks to improve their supportiveness, and safety issues through risk-reduction education and self-defense training for women when appropriate.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.
Objective: Adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors report greater levels of problem drinking than do other women, and research suggests that their coping strategies, reactions from their social networks, and traumatic life events affect their problem drinking. The links between these factors and problem drinking may be moderated by whether survivors are revictimized, yet research has not examined this possibility. Therefore, the current study examined psychosocial factors, problem drinking, and revictimization in women ASA survivors. Method: Community-dwelling urban women (n = 555) who had experienced an ASA completed a mail survey at Time 1 (T1) and were resurveyed 1 year later to examine how revictimization between survey waves moderated the effects of coping strategies, social reactions to assault disclosures, and traumatic life events on problem drinking at Time 2 (T2). Results: The findings showed that recent revictimization that occurred between surveys was related to increased problem drinking at T2, after T1 problem drinking was controlled for. Moderated hierarchical multiple regressions showed that survivors who engaged in drinking to cope with distress, who received negative social reactions in response to recent assault disclosures, or who experienced additional traumatic events had increased T2 problem drinking only if they were revictimized since T1. Conclusions: Psychosocial factors relate to increases in problem drinking for sexually revictimized women but not for nonrevictimized women. Interventions to reduce problem drinking in women ASA survivors should target drinking to cope with assault-related symptomatology, informal social networks to improve their supportiveness, and safety issues through risk-reduction education and self-defense training for women when appropriate. PMID:19118390
Olsen, Angela; Majeed-Ariss, Rabiya; Teniola, Simonette; White, Catherine
Background: People with learning disabilities are more likely to experience sexual abuse and less likely to access support than the general population, this is due to a range of variables at the individual, societal and service-delivery level. This study presents a service evaluation of St Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre, Manchester to…
Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B
Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.
Sandberg, Alicia A; Murdoch, Maureen; Polusny, Melissa A; Grill, Joe
Surveys are among the most common methods for evaluating military sexual assault experiences among members of the U.S. military; however, little research has examined how receiving surveys about such sexual assaults might affect recipients. In the present sample of 530 active duty and veteran military personnel, just 10% reported unexpected upset, 11% reported regretting participation in the survey, and 22% reported benefitting from that participation overall. A minority of respondents with a history of sexual assault while in the military reported unexpected upset, although the prevalence was three times higher than that of participants without such history (24% vs 8%). There were no statistically significant differences in perceived regret and benefit of participation in the survey between those with and without a history of sexual assault while in the military. Although limited in number, male military sexual assault survivors (n = 8) were significantly more likely than female survivors to report being more upset by the survey than they had anticipated. Implications for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.
Smith, A D
Very little is known about the nature of serious sex offences against women by psychotic men. This study aimed to examine such offences by carrying out a search of Home Office records for all 80 male restricted hospital order in-patients with schizophrenia, resident in any hospital in England and Wales during May 1997, with an index conviction for a contact sex offence against a woman, committed whilst psychotic. Offences peaked in the afternoon, but were proportionally distributed according to day and month. Most (47/59%) offences occurred indoors, with over half of these in the victim's home. Assailants were strangers in 49 (61%) offences. Offences involving strangers were more likely to occur outdoors and without any preceding social interaction compared to those involving assailants known to their victims. Offenders' speech tended to be impersonal, with little attempt at intimacy. Offence sexual behaviours were: breast/genital fondling 63 (79%), vaginal intercourse 42 (52%), fellatio eight (10%), anal intercourse seven (9%), and cunnilingus six (8%). Excessive violence or bizarre behaviour occurred in a minority of offences. The findings are discussed with reference to the literature on sex offences by men without mental illness. The data do not support anecdotal or popular images that most psychotic sex attackers behave in an exceptionally violent or bizarre manner.
General HIV laws seldom, if ever, address the human rights abuses that most affect women, particularly rape, sexual assault and domestic violence. In this article, which is based on his presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Richard Pearshouse describes a Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network project to develop draft legislation covering certain areas of women's rights. The draft legislation is intended to be used as a practical resource for bringing about concrete law reform. This presentation won for Richard the International AIDS Society's Young Investigator Award for the conference's Track E (Policy and Political Sciences).
of a sexual assault incident.” Within CID, according to U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command Regulation ( CIDR ) 195-1, “Criminal Investigation...agrees or declines to cooperate in the criminal investigation. CIDR 195-1, paragraph 15.1.h.(7), states: When making a restricted report, the victim is...enforcement programs. . . .” CIDR 195-1, paragraph 15.6.d., describes what it identifies as “non-CID purview offenses”7 as follows: If the
Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is prevalent in Western society. There is a significant degree of confusion regarding the definition and prevalence of DFSA. It is a subject with medical, scientific and legal aspects. These facets are explored in this review through a detailed examination of published data. The legal issues are defined in the context of the Irish judicial system. Several key case-law studies are presented to aid in understanding unresolved difficulties that persist in this complex field of forensics. The aim of this paper is to aid individuals from disparate disciplines to increase their evidence base in the complex and evolving issue of DFSA.
Kennedy, Kieran M
In order for medical practitioners to adequately explain to the court the findings of their clinical examinations of victims of sexual violence, they must have access to research data which will place their findings in to context. Unfortunately, existing research has reported a very wide range of injury prevalence data. This papers aims to provide an explanation for this wide variation in results and, furthermore, this paper aims to establish if it is possible to carry out a meta-analysis of existing research data, pertaining to the prevalence of injury after sexual assault. It is suggested that pooling of individual study results may allow statistically robust determination of the true prevalence of injury in victims of sexual violence. It is concluded that heterogeneity in research methodology, between existing research studies, is responsible for the broad range of reported prevalence rates. Finally, this heterogeneity is seen to preclude robust meta-analysis.
Dardis, Christina M; Kraft, Kathryn M; Gidycz, Christine A
Approximately 60% of legally defined rape victims do not label their experiences as "rape," most of whom label the experience as "a serious miscommunication." However, little research has examined why women choose this label. Labeling rape as a miscommunication could be problematic if chosen due to stereotypical conceptions that one's experience is not "real" rape. The present study used a mixed-methodological approach to understand why women might refer to rape as a "miscommunication," and how their reasons for labeling might differ from those who label their experiences and those who are nonlabeled (i.e., unequivocally state that they were "not victimized"). Participants included 123 undergraduate women who experienced rape. Participants responded to how they labeled rape and answered questions regarding assault characteristics, disclosure, reporting, and self- and perpetrator blame. Chi-square analyses assessed labeling group differences. Responses to an open-ended question about factors contributing to their labeling decision were content analyzed. Whereas miscommunication-labeled and nonlabeled victims reported similar assault characteristics in the quantitative analyses, qualitative content analyses revealed varying reasons for labeling rape as miscommunication, not victimization, and rape. Over three quarters of miscommunication-labeled victims reported that one or more of the following factors influenced their labeling: victim and perpetrator substance use, sexual activity prior to the rape, and perceptions that one did not express nonconsent strongly enough and that the perpetrator "did not realize" their lack of desire. Whereas miscommunication-labeled and nonlabeled victims reported similar assault characteristics, the extent to which those assault characteristics affected their labeling differed. Those who labeled their experiences as miscommunication gave reasons for their label that centered on factors which reflect inconsistencies between their
Parkhill, Michele R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Hessler, Danielle M; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Zawacki, Tina
Assertive resistance to sexual assault can decrease the likelihood of completed rape and its subsequent aftermath; however, this relationship may be influenced by situational characteristics. This study examined how 2 manipulated variables, level of consensual sex during an encounter and acute alcohol intoxication, along with sexual victimization history, affected women's responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario. Female participants were assigned to a drink condition (alcohol/control) and to a consent history condition (low/high). Path analysis found that women who were previously victimized, consumed alcohol, and who were in the high consent condition endorsed greater immobility intentions during the assault; only level of consent predicted likelihood of assertive resistance. Resistance strategies were related to subsequent responding. Results suggest that interventions should seek to decrease negative consequences by empowering women to assertively resist unwanted sexual advances.
Li, Jo-Yun; Kim, Sei-Hill; O'Boyle, Jane
The topic of campus sexual assault has received much media attention recently, prompting scholars to examine media effects on students' attitudes and behaviors. A survey of 567 American college students examined how their media exposure is related to issue engagement, perceived responsibility, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that reading newspaper stories about campus sexual assault might contribute to college students' victim blaming. Among other media channels examined, social media were found to be highly correlated with students' engagement with the issue. We also found that victim blaming and acceptance of rape myths could be reduced by raising students' perceived importance of the issue. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in detail.
Campbell, Rebecca; Shaw, Jessica; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system. Victims of nonstranger sexual assaults were less likely to reengage postnotification compared with victims of stranger rape.
Shechory-Bitton, Mally; Cohen-Louck, Keren
The study describes an examination of three types of fear: crime, sexual assault, and terrorism. The sample consisted of 507 adults from three different geographical locations in Israel with different levels of crime and terror attacks. With regard to fear of crime and fear of sexual assault, the results were compatible with the findings of many studies that indicate the effect of residential area features on levels of fear. Fear of terrorism was found to be more complex. The theoretical framework used to assess fear of crime is not fully suitable for assessing and examining fear of terrorism. Other variables should be taken into consideration, such as religion and ideology.
Ferree, Nikole K; Wheeler, Malinda; Cahill, Larry
Conservative estimates indicate that 18-25% of women in the United States will be exposed to some form of sexual assault in their lifetime. A great number of these women will develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study explores the relationship between emergency contraception (EC) administration and subsequent post-traumatic stress symptoms in female sexual assault (SA) survivors. In a study population of 111 participants, post-traumatic stress symptoms were assessed approximately six months after the SA. Women who were already taking hormonal contraception (HC) at the time of the SA and those who declined EC were compared to women who took either Ogestrel or Plan B following the SA. While the administration of traditional HC and both types of EC were associated with fewer intrusive symptoms, women who took Ogestrel reported significantly lower post-traumatic stress total symptom levels than did those who took Plan B or those who declined EC. The results suggest that the manipulation of sex hormone levels with HC and EC in the immediate aftermath of trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress symptoms. The current results may be useful in guiding the choice of EC. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Gidycz, Christine A; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Probst, Danielle R; Edwards, Katie M; Murphy, Megan; Tansill, Erin
The present study describes the 4- and 7-month postintervention outcomes of a sexual assault risk reduction program for women, which was part of an evaluation that included a prevention program for men. Relative to the control group, participants evidenced more relational sexual assertiveness and self-protective behavior, and were more likely to indicate that they utilized active verbal and physical self-defense strategies. Whether or not women experienced subsequent victimization did not differ between groups. Relative to control group women who were victimized, program participants who were victimized between the 4- and 7-month follow-up blamed the perpetrator more and evidenced less self-blame. © The Author(s) 2015.
Stander, Valerie A; Thomsen, Cynthia J
Recently, there has been increasing concern regarding the problem of sexual violence in the military. Because sexual harassment and assault are more closely intertwined in the military than in most civilian contexts, the military context affords a unique opportunity to study the interrelationships between these two types of sexual violence. In this review, we briefly summarize existing research on military sexual trauma prevalence rates, effects on victims, and risk factors, as well as prevention and response programs in the military context. In each of these topic areas, we emphasize issues unique to the complex interplay between sexual harassment and assault in the military and make recommendations for future research. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Gavril, Amy R; Kellogg, Nancy D; Nair, Prakash
The purpose of this study was to determine whether follow-up examinations of suspected victims of child sexual abuse influence medical diagnosis or treatment. A retrospective chart review of patients with initial and follow-up examinations (examinations 1 and 2, respectively) over a 5-year study period was conducted. Patient and abuse characteristics, interval between examinations and abuse, and examiner experience levels were collected; examination findings and test results for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were compared for examinations 1 and 2. Among 727 patients, examination 2 resulted in a change in interpretation of trauma likelihood in 129 (17.7%) patients and identified STIs in 47 (6.5%) patients. Changes in trauma likelihood and detection of additional STIs during follow-up examinations were more likely in adolescent, female, and sexually active patients and those with a history of genital-genital contact, unknown examination 1 findings, or drug-facilitated sexual assault. Although examination 2 was less likely to affect the interpretation of trauma likelihood and STIs in preadolescent patients, a change in interpretation of trauma likelihood was noted for 49 (15.5%) of these patients, and 16 (5.1%) were diagnosed with a new STI on examination 2. The level of clinician experience during examination 1 did affect the likelihood of changes in examination findings during examination 2. Follow-up examinations by specialists affected the interpretation of trauma and detection of STIs in ∼23% of pediatric patients undergoing sexual abuse assessments.
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DeCou, Christopher R; Skewes, Monica C
This study evaluated alcohol consumption as a moderator of the association between adolescent sexual assault and risk of sexual assault in college. It was hypothesized that sexual assault in adolescence would be associated with higher risk of college victimization and that this association would be moderated by alcohol consumption. Predominantly female and European-American university students ( N = 201) completed self-report measures of alcohol consumption and sexual assault victimization in adolescence and since enrolling in college at a medium-sized university in the Western United States. Controlling for effects of age and gender, there was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption variables (i.e., typical weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking) and adolescent sexual assault, such that the greatest risk for sexual assault in college was incurred by the heaviest drinkers with the greatest frequencies of adolescent sexual assault. This study highlights the importance of considering past victimization history in concert with alcohol consumption in efforts to prevent sexual victimization in college.
Zilkens, Renate R; Smith, Debbie A; Phillips, Maureen A; Mukhtar, S Aqif; Semmens, James B; Kelly, Maire C
To describe the frequency of genital and anal injury and associated demographic and assault characteristics in women alleging sexual assault. Cross-sectional study. Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC), Western Australia. Total of 1266 women attending SARC from Jan-2009 to Mar-2015. Women underwent a standardised data collection procedure by forensically trained doctors. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. (1) Frequency of genital and anal injuries by type of sexual assault. (2) Identification of independent factors associated with genital and anal injuries following, respectively, completed vaginal and anal penetration. Genital injury was observed in 24.5% of all women with reported completed vaginal penetration; in a subset with no prior sexual intercourse 52.1% had genital injury. Genital injury was more likely with no prior sexual intercourse (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR] 4.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 2.4-8.0), multiple types of penetrants (adj. OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.1), if general body injury present and less likely with sedative use and delayed examination. Anal injury, observed in 27.0% of reported completed anal penetrations, was more likely with multiple types of penetrants (adjusted OR 5.0, 95%CI 1.2-21.0), if general body injury present and less likely with delayed examination. This study separately quantifies the frequency of both genital and anal injuries in sexually assaulted women. Genital injuries were absent in a large proportion of women regardless of prior vaginal intercourse status. It is anticipated that findings will better inform the community, police and medico-legal evidence to the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Cong, Zhen; Hale, Thomas W
Women with a history of sexual assault are at increased risk for sleep difficulties and depression in their first year of motherhood. Breastfeeding improves sleep parameters and lowers risk of depression for women in general. However, it is unknown whether breastfeeding is related to maternal depression, sleep quality, and maternal well-being in sexual assault survivors. We examined the association between sexual assault and several indices of sleep, depression, and maternal well-being in a large sample of sexual assault survivors in the first year postpartum. We also explored whether feeding method was related to our outcome variables for both sexually assaulted and non-assaulted women. A sample of 6,410 mothers of infants 0-12 months old participated in the online Survey of Mothers' Sleep and Fatigue; 994 women had a history of sexual assault. As predicted, women with a history of sexual assault had a number of sleep difficulties, increased risk of depression, and overall poorer subjective well-being than their non-assaulted counterparts. However, sexual assault survivors who were breastfeeding were at lower risk on all of the sleep and depression parameters than sexual assault survivors who were mixed or formula feeding. Sexual assault has a pervasive negative effect on new mothers' sleep quality and risk of depression. However, these negative effects were less severe for the breastfeeding mothers than they were for the mixed- or formula-feeding mothers.
Gold, Sari D.; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Marx, Brian P.; Lexington, Jennifer M.
This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 72 lesbian sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both experiential avoidance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. In addition, experiential…
Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Raffle, Holly
The current study extends the development and evaluation of an existing and previously evaluated sexual assault risk reduction program with a self-defense component for college women (N = 300). The program protocol was revised to address psychological barriers to responding assertively to risky dating situations, and a placebo-control group was…
Gidycz, Christine A.; Rich, Cindy L.; Orchowski, Lindsay; King, Carrie; Miller, Audrey K.
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program that included a physical self-defense component for college women ("N"=500). Program group women significantly increased their protective behaviors over the 6-month follow-up period compared to the waiting-list control group. However, there were no significant…
Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T. K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of victim alcohol use and partner-perpetrator on interprofessional collaboration on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART). Telephone surveys with 78 medical, criminal justice, and victim advocacy professionals were conducted. When asked to identify case factors that pose challenges to…
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.
Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…
Suris, Alina; Lind, Lisa; Kashner, T. Michael; Borman, Patricia D.
The present study examined psychiatric, physical, and quality-of-life functioning in a sample of 270 women veterans receiving outpatient treatment at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants were interviewed regarding their civilian (CSA) and military sexual assault (MSA) histories, and data regarding quality of life and health outcomes…
Witte, Tricia H.; Casper, Deborah M.; Hackman, Christine L.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.
Objective: The present study investigated the well-being of bystanders who witness and intervene in sexual assault and dating violence situations on campus. Participants: Participants were 321 young men and women from a large university in the southeastern United States. Methods: Participants completed a survey at the end of the Spring semester of…
Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.
A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…
Ludes, B; Geraut, A; Väli, M; Cusack, D; Ferrara, D; Keller, E; Mangin, P; Vieira, D N
Sexual assault is a complex situation with medical, psychological, and legal aspects. Forensic experts play a major role in terms of forensic and gynecological medical examination and evidence collection in order to maintain the chain of custody. Victims should be examined by a specially trained medico-legal examiner in order to avoid multiple examinations in the surroundings that do not meet minimum health standards. The evolution and treatment of sexual assault victims are time-intensive and should optimally be provided by a team that includes a forensic medical doctor. These guidelines will be of interest to forensic medical doctors who will have responsibility for the examination and assessment of victims of sexual violence and can be used as a day-to-day service document and/or a guide to develop health service for victims of sexual violence.
In the context of objectification and violence, little attention has been paid to the perception neuroscience of how the human brain perceives bodies and objectifies them. Various studies point to how external cues such as appearance and attire could play a key role in encouraging objectification, dehumanization and the denial of agency. Reviewing new experimental findings across several areas of research, it seems that common threads run through issues of clothing, sexual objectification, body perception, dehumanization, and assault. Collating findings from several different lines of research, this article reviews additional evidence from cognitive and neural dynamics of person perception (body and face perception processes) that predict downstream social behavior. Specifically, new findings demonstrate cognitive processing of sexualized female bodies as object-like, a crucial aspect of dehumanized percept devoid of agency and personhood. Sexual violence is a consequence of a dehumanized perception of female bodies that aggressors acquire through their exposure and interpretation of objectified body images. Integrating these findings and identifying triggers for sexual violence may help develop remedial measures and inform law enforcement processes and policy makers alike.
Heffron, Laurie Cook; Busch-Armendariz, Noël Bridget; Vohra, Shetal S; Johnson, Regina Jones; Camp, Victoria
Forensic nurses, sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs), and victim advocates have long recognized the trauma of sexual assault crimes and the significance of survivors' decisions around reporting these crimes to law enforcement agencies. Until recently, survivors who didn't report the crime were not entitled to a free medical forensic examination. In a significant policy shift, the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 provided an additional decision option with regard to the medical examination for survivors of sexual assault. This provision, referred to here as the nonreport option, was established to offer survivors a full range of reporting options and to ensure exemplary health care, with evidence collection as an important secondary goal. This study sought to examine the implementation of the nonreport option in Texas; explore its impact on SANEs, survivors, and the criminal justice system; and identify strengths and challenges of the nonreport process. A mixed-method approach was used that included qualitative interviews with 79 professionals who regularly respond to sexual assault crimes, a Web-based survey questionnaire of such professionals that yielded 131 completed surveys, and a review of existing data. The step-by-step process involved in a nonreport case was described, and findings in three descriptive areas emerged: confidentiality processes, storage and shipment of evidence, and the use of the nonreport option. Beneficial effects of the nonreport option were identified in five areas: the role of SANEs, the impact on survivors, collaborative relationships, collateral crimes, and anonymous reporting strategies. Seven areas of remaining dilemmas were also identified. Findings indicate that the nonreport option has had a considerable positive impact on SANEs, survivors of sexual assault, and the criminal justice system. But challenges remain if this option is to be fully utilized in the future; further research
Shin, Kyoung Min; Chung, Young Ki; Shin, Yee Jin; Kim, Miran; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hanbyul; Chang, Hyoung Yoon
More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = -2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = -2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan; Patterson, Debra
Forensic nursing is multidisciplinary in nature, which can create tensions for practitioners between their responsibilities to patient care and collaborations with law enforcement and prosecutors. Because there are compelling reasons grounded in both nursing theory and legal precedent to maintain separation, there is a pressing need to understand how sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs successfully negotiate these potentially conflicting roles. The purpose of this study was to examine how SANEs define their work with their patients, how they collaborate with law enforcement, and how they negotiate roles differentiation. As part of a mixed methods evaluation of a community-based SANE program, qualitative interviews were conducted with forensic nurses regarding their interactions with patients and members of the legal community. Results indicated that a strong patient care practice had positive indirect effects on victims' participation in the criminal justice system. Implications for forensic nursing practice are discussed. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Westring, Christian Gustav; Wiuf, Morten; Nielsen, S Jock
Accurate microscopic identification of human spermatozoa is important in sexual assault cases. We have compared the results of examinations with (1) a fluorescent microscopy method, SPERM HY-LITER™, and (2) Baecchi's method for identification of human spermatozoa. In 35 artificial, forensic type......-LITER™ detected spermatozoa when Baecchi's method did not (ts=6.567, df=1, P=0.048). This trend was also seen in selected compromised or degraded samples and in selected adjudicative samples. The reactions with spermatozoa from dog, horse, pig and bull were negative with SPERM HY-LITER™, whereas Baecchi's method...... was non-selective. Data from forensic casework samples in Copenhagen from two years (2008 and 2009) are presented. The samples from 2008 were investigated using Baecchi's method, while those from 2009 were investigated using SPERM HY-LITER™. The frequencies of positive results were similar between the two...
Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, to assess the sexual assault victims considering sociodemographic and forensic psychiatry who were examined by our Board of Physical and Mental Health was aimed. Methods: The cases who were examined in Board of Physical and Mental Health in Forensic medicine Department of Dicle University, Faculty of Medicine were assessed retrospectively in terms of age, gender, marital status, education level, relation of the victim with the accused, presence of penetration and disruption of physical and mental health. Results: Among 258 cases, who referred to our board, 196 were female and 62 were male. The age range of the victims was 2 to 50 and average age was detected as 13.1 ± 5.9 years. It was determined that 227 (88% cases were under 18 years and 31 cases (12% were above 18 years. Vaginal and anal penetration was claimed in 48 and 61 cases, respectively; oral + anal penetration was claimed in 11 cases; both vaginal and oral penetration was claimed in two cases. Among 258 cases, 144 cases had no physical and mental disruption; 49 cases were diagnosed with mental and physical health disruption and 65 cases were followed by issuing a preliminary report. Conclusion: As a result of our study any significant relation is not found between impairment in psychological health and sex, marital status, educational level of the victim, age groups, the age difference between the victim and the defendant. Therefore, it is understood that either men or women, married or single, educated or uneducated people are affected emotionally as bad as from sexual assault. This supports the idea that, especially in cases that any findings cannot be obtained with genital and physical examination, psychological evaluation may be important.
Cross, Theodore P; Alderden, Megan; Wagner, Alex; Sampson, Lisa; Peters, Brittany; Lounsbury, Kaitlin
This study examined the timing of the crime laboratory report relative to arrests in sexual assault cases and explored the relationship between biological evidence and arrest in those cases in which the crime laboratory report came first and thus could have influenced the arrest decision. A random sample ( N = 528) of cases that occurred between 2008 and 2010 and included a report to police was drawn from a Massachusetts statewide database of medical reports on sexual assault cases. Data from medical providers were merged with data abstracted from crime laboratory reports and with data requested from police departments. The vast majority (91.5%) of arrests took place before crime laboratory analysis could be conducted. The crime laboratory report was available before or near in time to the arrest in 11 cases. These cases were significantly more likely than other cases to have DNA profiles of the assailant, DNA matches to the suspect, and a match to another investigation in the FBI's CODIS DNA database. Given that the probable cause needed to make an arrest in these cases was presumably established only after crime laboratory analysis was available, DNA may have helped lead to the arrest in these cases. However, these results should be interpreted very cautiously, because statistically significant results in early, small studies can have inflated effect sizes and often do not replicate in future studies. Because most arrests occur well before biological evidence is available, improvements in recovering biological evidence may have modest effects on arrest rates, though they may impact arrest rates by identifying more serial offenders. Future research on the relationship of biological evidence to arrest should use methods to increase sample size of relevant cases, such as oversampling cases with later arrests and using case control study designs. Future studies should also use case abstraction and interview methods to explore how police use biological evidence to
Mengeling, Michelle A; Booth, Brenda M; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G
Public and congressional attention to the Department of Defense's (DoD's) efforts to prevent and respond to sexual assault in the military (SAIM) is increasing. To promote reporting, the DoD offers (1) restricted reporting, allowing confidential reporting to designated military personnel without triggering an official investigation, and (2) unrestricted reporting, which initiates a criminal investigation. To identify factors associated with officially reporting SAIM by examining demographic, military, and sexual assault characteristics and survey reporting perceptions and experiences. Differences between active component (AC) (full-time active duty) and Reserve and National Guard (RNG) were explored. A Midwestern community sample of currently serving and veteran servicewomen (1,339) completed structured telephone interviews. RNG interviews were conducted March 2010 to September 2010 and AC interviews from October 2010 to December 2011. Data were analyzed in 2013. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic, military, and SA characteristics related to SAIM reporting. Bivariate statistics tested differences between AC and RNG. A total of 205 servicewomen experienced SAIM and 25% reported. More AC servicewomen experienced SAIM, but were no more likely to report than RNG servicewomen. Restricted reporting was rated more positively, but unrestricted reporting was used more often. Reporters' experiences corroborated non-reporters' concerns of lack of confidentiality, adverse treatment by peers, and beliefs that nothing would be done. Officers were less likely to report than enlisted servicewomen. Actual and perceived reporting consequences deter servicewomen from reporting. SAIM undermines trust in military units, mission readiness, and the health and safety of all service members. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah
Social reactions to disclosures of sexual assault have significant effects on women’s post-assault outcomes (see Ullman, 2010, for a review). The Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ; Ullman, 2000) measures these reactions (as reported by survivors) and aggregates them into positive and negative scales. However, studies indicate that only some “negative” reactions have a negative valence for survivors whereas others produce a mixed (positive and negative) valence. The current study compares a one-primary-factor model of “negative reactions” to a model with two primary factors that we have labeled “turning against” and “unsupportive acknowledgement.” Results showed that although one primary factor was plausible, two primary factors provided a better fit to the data. To assess the discriminant validity of the two factors, we performed regressions predicting social support, psychological adjustment, and coping behaviors. Analyses supported the hypotheses that reactions of being turned against were related to social withdrawal, increased self-blame, and decreased sexual assertiveness whereas reactions of unsupportive acknowledgment were related to both adaptive and maladaptive coping. Against predictions, depression and PTSD were more related to receiving unsupportive acknowledgment than to receiving turning against reactions. Implications for interventions and research are discussed. Importantly, almost all women (94%) in our sample received reactions that acknowledged that an assault occurred but failed to provide support, and this lack of support was associated with worse coping than even more hostile reactions such as being blamed or stigmatized. Therefore, there seems a great need for effective programs to train community members to respond to survivors with the kind of emotional and tangible support that promotes better outcomes. PMID:25750475
Hewitt, Ashley; Beauregard, Eric
Using data from qualitative interviews and police reports, latent class analysis is used on a sample of 54 repeat stranger sexual offenders who committed 204 sexual assaults to identify discrete contexts present at the time of victim encounter that influence these offenders' decision to use more than one location to commit their crimes. Five distinct classes are identified: residential outdoor common area, spontaneous/quiet outdoor site, residential home, active green space, and indoor/public gathering place. An investigation into the outcome(s) that most often result from the offender's decision to move the victim during the sexual assault indicates that those who move the victim from an active green space overwhelmingly engage in sexual penetration, as well as forcing their victims to commit sexual acts on them. Crimes where the victim is moved from a residential home show evidence of the offender physically harming the victim as well as using more force than necessary to complete the assault. Implications for situational crime prevention are discussed.
Russell, Brenda L; Oswald, Debra L; Kraus, Shane W
This study examines the extent to which verdict, guilt, and legal components associated with jury instructions of sexual assault differ as a function of aggressor gender, participant gender, and sexual strategy used (consensual, verbal coercion, alcohol, or physical aggression) to obtain sex. Participants (N = 423; 276 women and 147 men) read a vignette depicting either a couple having consensual sex (control), or a male or female aggressor who initiates sexual intercourse via verbal coercion, use of alcohol, or physical abuse. College students were provided with legal instructions of sexual assault then asked to provide a verdict, degree of guilt, and legal components. Female participants rated guilt and coercion higher than did male participants. Ratings of guilt were highest in the physical assault condition followed by the alcohol, verbal, and control conditions. Female aggressors were rated less guilty than male aggressors. Results are explained in relation to sexual scripts and legal decision making. Lack of significance in verdict decisions and interaction effects suggests male and female aggressors are evaluated similarly using coercive strategies; yet, consent for sex was assumed and attributions of guilt was lower when the aggressor was female. Implications for jury instructions and future research are discussed.
Pica, Emily; Sheahan, Chelsea; Pozzulo, Joanna
There have been several recent, high-profile cases in the media that have shed light on the perceived leniency in sentencing defendants in sexual assault cases. In a number of these cases, the defendant was well known within their community (e.g., Brock Turner; People v. Turner) or nationally (e.g., Ghomeshi; R v. Ghomeshi). The purpose of this study was to examine how the social status of the defendant (low vs. high), victim social status (low vs. high), victim gender (male vs. female), and the reason the victim was unconscious during the assault (consuming alcohol vs. consuming cold medicine) influenced mock jurors' decisions in a sexual assault case. Mock jurors ( N = 489) read a mock trial transcript depicting an alleged sexual assault. Mock jurors were asked to render a dichotomous verdict, continuous guilt rating, and rate their perceptions of the victim and defendant. There was no influence of the variables on mock jurors' dichotomous verdicts; however, social status influenced guilt ratings. There also was a combined influence of the defendant's social status and the reason the victim was unconscious such that when the defendant was described as low status, and the victim was unconscious due to alcohol consumption, the defendant received higher guilt ratings compared with when the victim was unconscious due to cold medicine. Moreover, the victim was perceived as having more control over the situation when the defendant was the star quarterback (i.e., high status), the victim was female, and she was unconscious due to alcohol consumption compared with cold medicine. These results suggest that victims may be blamed based on their perceived social status and other factors that may have influenced their control over the sexual assault, such as alcohol consumption.
Murphy, Jeanne; Samples, Julie; Morales, Mavel; Shadbeh, Nargess
In order to examine the experiences of sexual harassment and sexual assault among indigenous and non-indigenous Mexican immigrant farmworkers in Oregon's Willamette Valley, a community-academic participatory research partnership initiated a study, which included focus groups, conducted and analyzed by skilled practitioners and researchers. The themes that emerged from the focus groups included direct and indirect effects of sexual harassment and sexual assault on women and risk factors associated with the farmworker workplace environment, and the increased vulnerability of non-Spanish-speaking indigenous women due to low social status, poverty, cultural and linguistic issues, and isolation. Recommendations for prevention and improved services for vulnerable women will be discussed as well as limitations and future research directions. PMID:24514945
Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L
The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
On January 2, 2003, Dr. James G. Roche, the Secretary of the Air Force, received an e-mail directed initially to female cadets, which asserted that there was a significant sexual assault problem at the United States Air Force...
Farrell, Brenda S; Wasleski, Marilyn K; Chan, Joanna; Davis, Pawnee A; Harms, K. N; Johnson, Wesley A; La Due Lake, Ronald; Miller, Amanda K; Weissman, Cheryl A
.... Though not required to do so, the Coast Guard has established a similar policy. This statement addresses implementation and oversight of DoD's and the Coast Guard's programs to prevent and respond to sexual assault incidents...
Zinzow, Heidi M.; Thompson, Martie
Although verbally coerced and incapacitated sexual assaults are common, less is known about perpetrators of these incidents in comparison to perpetrators of forcible assaults. Furthermore, few studies have investigated factors that differentiate perpetrators who employ different forms of sexual assault tactics. The current study included 526 men who completed self-report inventories at the end of each of their four years in college. Measures assessed sexual assault tactics, demographics, incident characteristics, risky behavior, rape supportive beliefs and peer norms, antisocial traits, and childhood adversity. Perpetrators were grouped based on the most severe tactics reported over the course of 7 assessed time periods, with 13% in the verbal coercion group, 16% in the incapacitation group, and 5% in the forcible group. ANOVAs determined that the forcible group scored significantly higher than incapacitation and verbal coercion groups on risky behavior, rape supportive beliefs/norms, antisocial traits, and childhood adversity. The incapacitation group scored higher than the verbal coercion group on risky behavior. In a multinomial logistic regression analysis comparing tactic groups to non-perpetrators, all tactic groups scored significantly higher on risky behavior and rape supportive beliefs/norms, and the forcible group scored higher on antisocial traits and childhood adversity. Perpetrators in the forcible group had engaged in more repeat offenses, and perpetrators of both the incapacitated and forcible assaults were more likely to use alcohol before the incident. Findings highlight the need for interventions that are tailored to offense trajectories, alter rape supportive attitudes and peer norms, and decrease campus substance use. PMID:27539872
Rothman, Emily F; Exner, Deinera; Baughman, Allyson L
This article systematically reviews 75 studies that examine the prevalence of sexual assault victimization among gay or bisexual (GB) men, and lesbian or bisexual (LB) women, in the United States. All studies were published between 1989 and 2009 and report the results of quantitative research. The authors reviewed the reported prevalence of lifetime sexual assault victimization (LSA), and where available, childhood sexual assault (CSA), adult sexual assault (ASA), intimate partner sexual assault (IPSA), and hate crime-related sexual assault (HC). The studies were grouped into those that used a probability or census sampling technique (n=25) and those that used a non-probability or ''community-based'' sampling technique (n=50). A total of 139,635 gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) respondents participated in the underlying studies reviewed. Prevalence estimates of LSA ranged from 15.6-85.0% for LB women and 11.8-54.0% for GB men. Considering the median estimates derived from the collective set of studies reviewed, LB women were more likely to report CSA, ASA, LSA, and IPSA than GB men, whereas GB men were more likely to report HC than LB women. Across all studies, the highest estimates reported were for LSA of LB women (85.0%), CSA of LB women (76.0%), and CSA of GB men (59.2%). With some exceptions, studies using non-probability samples reported higher sexual assault prevalence rates than did population-based or census sample studies. The challenges of assessing sexual assault victimization with GLB populations are discussed, as well as the implications for practice, policy, and future research.
Rothman, Emily F.; Exner, Deinera; Baughman, Allyson
This article systematically reviews 75 studies that examine the prevalence of sexual assault victimization among gay or bisexual (GB) men, and lesbian or bisexual (LB) women, in the United States. All studies were published between 1989 and 2009 and report the results of quantitative research. The authors reviewed the reported prevalence of lifetime sexual assault victimization (LSA), and where available, childhood sexual assault (CSA), adult sexual assault (ASA), intimate partner sexual assault (IPSA), and hate crime-related sexual assault (HC). The studies were grouped into those that used a probability or census sampling technique (n=25) and those that used a non-probability or “community-based” sampling technique (n=50). A total of 139,635 GLB respondents participated in the underlying studies reviewed. Prevalence estimates of LSA ranged from 15.6–85.0% for LB women, and 11.8–54.0% for GB men. Considering the median estimates derived from the collective set of studies reviewed, LB women were more likely to report CSA, ASA, LSA and IPSA than GB men, whereas GB men were more likely to report HC than LB women. Across all studies, the highest estimates reported were for LSA of LB women (85%), CSA of LB women (76.0%), and CSA of GB men (59.2%). With some exceptions, studies using non-probability samples reported higher sexual assault prevalence rates than did population-based or census sample studies. The challenges of assessing sexual assault victimization with GLB populations are discussed, as well as the implications for practice, policy and future research. PMID:21247983
ABBEY, ANTONIA; ZAWACKI, TINA; BUCK, PHILIP O.
Theories about misperception of sexual intent, cognitive distortions among rapists, and alcohol’s effects on cognition describe processes that may contribute to acquaintance sexual assault. Drawing on these literatures, an experiment was conducted to examine hypotheses about the effects of past sexual assault perpetration and alcohol consumption on 153 college men’s reactions to a female confederate. As compared to nonperpetrators, self–acknowledged rapists and verbal coercers reported being more sexually attracted to the confederate. Trained coders were least certain that rapists noticed specific positive and negative cues that the confederate used and most certain that verbal coercers did. Intoxicated participants perceived themselves and their partner as acting more sexually than did sober or placebo participants. Suggestions are discussed for research and treatment programs with college sexual assault perpetrators. PMID:26500390
Sabina, Chiara; Ho, Lavina Y
After sexual assault or dating violence occurs, a college victim may disclose the event to formal and informal sources as well as seek services. The current review explores empirical research on formal disclosure, informal disclosure, service utilization, and service provision among college students. Forty-five empirical articles and reports that met certain criteria were reviewed. Overall, rates of informal disclosure were considerably higher than rates of formal disclosure. Characteristics of the incident, victim, and offender were associated with disclosure. Rates of service utilization were varied but appear to be low among those victimized in the past year. When services were used, physical and mental health services were most often utilized. Available services, policies for dating violence and sexual assault, and judicial processes varied according to the type of institution, and indicate several areas for improvement. A number of research, practice, and policy implications emerge from this critical review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gedney, Christine R; Wood, David S; Lundahl, Brad; Butters, Robert P
The issue of sexual assault in the U.S. military is problematic and prevalent. All military branches have undertaken an effort to develop and implement sexual assault prevention programs (SAPPs), yet these programs lack a rigorous and independent evaluation process, limiting an understanding of effectiveness. We examined the four official SAPPs that have been used within the U.S. Air Force (USAF) over the past decade by comparing their content and process with best practice suggestions for SAPPs. Content of the four USAF SAPPs was evaluated on 47 different criteria grouped into the following program elements: content, process, and outcome. Independent ratings of the criteria were reliable, and results indicated strengths and opportunities for improvement. Most notably, evidence of an objective program evaluation system is lacking. Recommendations for improving SAPPs are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rosellini, Anthony J; Street, Amy E; Ursano, Robert J; Chiu, Wai Tat; Heeringa, Steven G; Monahan, John; Naifeh, James A; Petukhova, Maria V; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Bliese, Paul D; Stein, Murray B; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C
To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk. We examined associations of this victimization measure with administratively recorded mental health treatment, suicide attempt, and Army career outcomes over the subsequent 12 months by using survival analysis for dichotomous outcomes and conditional generalized linear models for continuous outcomes. Women with administratively recorded sexual assault had significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of subsequent mental health treatment (any, OR = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 2.6; specialty, OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.9, 3.3; inpatient, OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.1), posttraumatic stress disorder treatment (any, OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 5.7, 6.9; specialty, OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 6.8, 8.6; inpatient, OR = 6.8; 95% CI = 5.4, 8.6), suicide attempt (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.6), demotion (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.9, 2.3), and attrition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2). Sexual assault victimization is associated with considerable suffering and likely decreased force readiness.
Antonio Villa; Alessia Fazio; Anna Esposito
Introduction: Alcohol is the most widely used substance among adolescents, exceeding the use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The study aims at investigating the prevalence of alcohol and drug use and prevalence and knowledge of Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA) among Italian adolescents. Methods: The study population was a sample of 512 students of secondary education (high school) from 3 public schools in Milan, Italy. Two hundred and fourty-nine boys and 263 girls aged 15 to 21 yea...
Full Text Available Could a church be held liable for the sexual assault of children by priests when the victims claim as adults only many years after the event? Complainants can claim damages on the basis that the church is either directly or vicariously liable for the alleged acts. If the victims rely on vicarious liability, they will have to prove that the wrongdoer was an employee of the defendant and will further have to prove that the assaults were committed within the course and scope of the wrongdoer's employment. The requirement that a priest must be an employee has in the past created a hurdle for victims, since courts in different countries have traditionally held that priests are not employees of the church as they are servants of God, subject to ecclesiastic law and not civil law. However, in John Doe v Bennet in Canada and JGE v Diocese of Portsmouth in the UK the courts have recently held that even a relationship akin to employment is sufficient to be a basis for vicarious liability. In Bazley v Curry the Canadian Supreme Court moreover extended the traditional meaning of the "course and scope of employment" by developing the "close connection" test. The court found that the acts of a warden of a children's home were so closely connected with his duties that it was fair that his employer (a charitable organisation should be held liable for his conduct. The close connection test was followed by the House of Lords in the United Kingdom and by the South African Constitutional Court in K v Minister of Safety and Security, although in another context. Adult complainants in cases such as these will further have to prove that their claim has not expired as a result of prescription. In Canada, the UK and South Africa courts have in different ways acknowledged the fact that victims of child sexual abuse are often not able to process their claims timeously, because of psychological factors. The victims are allowed to bring their claims often decades after
Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah; Tsong, Yuying; Anderson, Gera; Counts, Pamela; Tillman, Shaquita; Bhang, Cecile; Gray, Anthea
African American women are at a slightly increased risk for sexual assault (A. Abbey, A. Jacques-Tiaura, & M. Parkhill, 2010). However, because of stigma, experiences of racism, and historical oppression, African American women are less likely to seek help from formal agencies compared to White women (Lewis et al., 2005; S. E. Ullman & H. H. Filipas, 2001) and/or women of other ethnic backgrounds (C. Ahrens, S. Abeling, S. Ahmad, & J. Himman, 2010). Therefore, the provision of culturally appropriate services, such as the inclusion of religion and spiritual coping, may be necessary when working with African American women survivors of sexual assault. Controlling for age and education, the current study explores the impact of religious coping and social support over 1 year for 252 African American adult female sexual assault survivors recruited from the Chicago metropolitan area. Results from hierarchical linear regression analyses reveal that high endorsement of religious coping and social support at Time 1 does not predict a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at Time 2. However, high social support at Time 2 does predict lower PTSD at Time 2. Also, it is significant to note that survivors with high PTSD at Time 1 and Time 2 endorse greater use of social support and religious coping. Clinical and research implications are explored.
Möller, Anna; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti
Active resistance is considered to be the 'normal' reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault. Information about the assault and the victim characteristics were taken from the structured clinical data files. After 6 months, 189 women were assessed regarding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Of the 298 women, 70% reported significant tonic immobility and 48% reported extreme tonic immobility during the assault. Tonic immobility was associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.50-5.03, p = 0.001) and severe depression (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.51-7.72, p = 0.003) at 6 months. Further, previous trauma history (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.48-3.77, p depression. Knowledge of this reaction in sexual assault victims is important in legal matters and for healthcare follow up. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Unpublished Technical Report. Patrick AFB, FL, Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. Fayol , H. (1949). General and industrial management ...Antonio DEFENSE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH Directed by Dr. Daniel P. McDonald...sexual harassment and other unprofessional, gender-related behavior, recruiting and promoting women into positions of leadership , creating gender
Wood, Leila; Sulley, Caitlin; Kammer-Kerwick, Matt; Follingstad, Diane; Busch-Armendariz, Noël
Sexual assault, dating/domestic violence, sexual harassment, and stalking are complex crimes and have been a major focus of national attention at institutions of higher education (IHEs). To grasp the extent and nature of these crimes on campuses, institutionally specific climate surveys are being developed and endorsed by the federal government and conducted at IHEs. These climate surveys differ in content and length. This article describes 10 different climate surveys and outlines the variables measured in each tool. Next steps for assessing climate surveys are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Forensic medical examinations conducted on complainants of sexual assault in the Forensic Medicine Institute, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, between 2006 and 2013.
Engelgardt, P; Cychowska, M; Bloch-Bogusławska, E
A total of 46 cases of alleged sexual assault were analysed from the years 2006-2013 where forensic medical examinations were conducted. The material was compared with data from literature. All the victims were female. In 9 cases (20%) a sexual assault by sexual touching was alleged, 67% of complainants (31 cases) had alleged non-consensual sexual intercourse, 6 complainants (13%) had no recollection of events. Genital area injuries were reported in 26% of sexual assault victims. Injuries of other parts of the body were found in 73% of victims. None of the subjects were positive for severe injuries such as fractures, wounds, and head trauma with loss of consciousness. The majority of complainants (29 cases, 63%) were examined within 24 hours after the incident and 6 examinees (13%) were assessed between 24 and 48 hours after the alleged sexual assault. Eleven forensic medical examinations (24%) were conducted after the lapse of more than 48 hours since the alleged incident. Twenty nine complainants admitted that they had washed their genital area after the sexual assault. Forensic swabs were taken during all forensic medical examinations.
Dworkin, Emily R; Sessarego, Stephanie N; Pittenger, Samantha L; Edwards, Katie M; Banyard, Victoria L
High school students exposed to sexual assault (SA) are at risk for negative outcomes like depressed mood and high-risk drinking. Although evidence suggests that both social contexts and internalized stigma can affect recovery from SA, no research to date has directly examined the presence of stigma in social contexts such as high schools as a correlate of adjustment after SA. In this study, the self-reported rape myth acceptance (RMA) of 3080 students from 97 grade cohorts in 25 high schools was used to calculate grade-mean and school-mean RMA, which was entered into multilevel models predicting depressed mood and alcohol use among N = 263 SA survivors within those schools. Two forms of RMA were assessed (i.e., rape denial and traditional gender expectations). Results indicate that higher grade-mean rape denial was associated with higher risk for depressed mood among high school boys and girls exposed to SA, and higher grade-mean traditional gender expectations were associated with higher risk for alcohol use among girls exposed to SA. Survivors' own RMA and school-level RMA were not significantly associated with their depressed mood or alcohol use. Although causality cannot be concluded, these findings suggest that interventions that reduce stigma in social contexts should be explored further as a strategy to improve well-being among high-school-aged survivors of SA. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Full Text Available Following exposure to a trauma, people tend to experience intrusive thoughts and memories about the event. In order to investigate whether intrusive memories in the aftermath of trauma might be accounted for by an impaired ability to intentionally forget disturbing material, the present study used a modified Directed Forgetting (DF task to examine intentional forgetting and intrusive recall of words in sexual assault victims and controls. By including words related to the trauma in addition to neutral, positive and threat-related stimuli it was possible to test for trauma-specific effects. No difference between the Trauma and the Control group was found for correct recall of to-be-forgotten (F words or to-be-remembered (R words. However, when recalling words from R- list, the Trauma group mistakenly recalled significantly more trauma-specific words from F- list. Intrusive recall of F trauma words when asked to recall R-words was related to symptoms of intrusion reported on the IES.
Decker, Suzanne E; Rosenheck, Robert A; Tsai, Jack; Hoff, Rani; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan
Both homeless women and women who have experienced military sexual assault (MSA) are at high risk of serious psychological sequelae. However, little is known about the combined impact of MSA and current homelessness on psychological distress, or about distinctive treatment preferences among homeless female veterans affected by MSA. This observational study compared clinical symptoms, pre-military experiences, and treatment preferences among 509 female veterans with and without MSA who enrolled in 11 VA Homeless Women Veterans Programs. Over one third of participants (41.1%) reported MSA. In multivariate analyses, homeless female veterans who reported MSA endorsed greater severity of PTSD and other psychiatric symptoms. Those who had experienced MSA were more likely to report interest in treatment, and treatment focused on safety was reported as especially attractive. Among homeless female veterans, MSA is associated with greater mental health symptoms and greater interest in safety-focused treatment. Services targeting the needs of homeless MSA survivors should be encouraged. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tiet, Quyen Q; Leyva, Yani E; Blau, Kathy; Turchik, Jessica A; Rosen, Craig S
This study examined whether gender and military sexual assault (MSA) were associated with psychiatric severity differences at initiation of treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and whether MSA and gender predicted psychiatric treatment outcomes. Male (n = 726) and female (n = 111) patients were recruited from 7 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) PTSD specialty intensive treatment programs and completed an intake survey; 69% (n = 574) of the participants completed a 4-month postdischarge follow-up survey. Measures included current PTSD and depressive symptoms, aggressive/violent behaviors, alcohol and drug use severity, and quality of life. Multilevel multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the main and interaction effects of gender and MSA on psychiatric treatment outcomes at 4-month follow-up, including demographics, baseline severity, hostile fire, and treatment length of stay. Baseline PTSD severity did not differ by gender or MSA status, but women had more severe depressive symptoms (d = 0.40) and less aggressive/violent symptoms (d = -0.46) than men. Gender, MSA status, and the interaction between gender and MSA did not predict treatment outcomes as hypothesized. Male and female veterans with and without MSA responded equally well to treatment in VA PTSD intensive treatment programs. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Klein, Sonja B; Buoncristiani, Martin R
Analysis of sexual assault evidence, often a mixture of spermatozoa and victim epithelial cells, represents a significant portion of a forensic DNA laboratory's case load. Successful genotyping of sperm DNA from these mixed cell samples, particularly with low amounts of sperm, depends on maximizing sperm DNA recovery and minimizing non-sperm DNA carryover. For evaluating the efficacy of the differential extraction, we present a method which uses a Separation Potential Ratio (SPRED) to consider both sperm DNA recovery and non-sperm DNA removal as variables for determining separation efficiency. In addition, we describe how the ratio of male-to-female DNA in the sperm fraction may be estimated by using the SPRED of the differential extraction method in conjunction with the estimated ratio of male-to-female DNA initially present on the mixed swab. This approach may be useful for evaluating or modifying differential extraction methods, as we demonstrate by comparing experimental results obtained from the traditional differential extraction and the Erase Sperm Isolation Kit (PTC © ) procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah E
For women who disclose sexual assault, social reactions can affect post-assault adjustment (Ullman, 2000). Approximately half of sexual assaults of adult women involve alcohol use (Abbey et al., 2004). Experimental studies indicate that people put more blame on women who were drinking before the assault, yet no studies have assessed how often actual survivors receive social reactions specific to their alcohol use. This study presents a new measure to assess alcohol-specific social reactions for survivors of sexual assault (The Social Reactions Questionnaire –Alcohol, SRQ-A). Factor analyses of a large community sample indicated that women often receive both positive and negative alcohol-specific reactions when disclosing assault. Discriminant validity confirmed that such reactions are distinct from other types of assault-related social reactions. Against predictions, alcohol-specific reactions were not associated with depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms, binge drinking, or intoxication. However, in support of hypotheses, alcohol-specific reactions were related to increased characterological self-blame and alcohol problems. Notably, such reactions had both positive and negative relationships with self-blame, indicating a potential avenue for intervention. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:25253018
Mainey, Lydia; Taylor, Annabel; Baird, Kathleen; O'Mullan, Catherine
One third of women will have an abortion in their lifetime (Kerr, QUT Law Rev 14:15, 2014; Aston and Bewley, Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 11:163-8, 2009). These women are more likely to have experienced domestic violence or sexual assault than women who continue with their pregnancies. Frontline health personnel involved in the care of women seeking abortions are uniquely positioned to support patients who choose to disclose their violence. Yet, the disclosure of domestic violence or sexual assault within the context of abortion is not well understood. To enhance service provision, it is important to understand the disclosure experience, that is, how frontline health personnel manage such disclosures and how victims/survivors perceive this experience. This review aims to provide a systematic synthesis of qualitative literature to increase understanding of the phenomena and identify research gaps. A meta-ethnography of qualitative evidence following PRISMA-P recommendations for reporting systematic reviews will be performed to better understand the experiences of domestic violence and sexual assault disclosure from the perspective of frontline health personnel providing support and women seeking an abortion. A three-stage search strategy including database searching, citation searching and Traditional Pearl Growing will be applied starting with the terms "domestic violence", "sexual assault", "disclosure" and "abortion", their common synonyms and MeSH terms. The database search will include CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO. Published studies from 1970, written in English and from all countries will be included. Two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts and if suitable will then perform a full-text review. To attribute weight to each study, two reviewers will perform the critical appraisal using a modified version of the "Guidelines for Extracting Data and Quality Assessing Primary Studies in Educational Research". Data extraction and coding will occur using
Hoxmeier, Jill C; Flay, Brian R; Acock, Alan C
Sexual assault is a major concern on the U.S. college campus. Engaging students as pro-social bystanders has become more common as a potentially effective mechanism for reducing the incidence of sexual assault and mitigating the harm of assaults that have already occurred. Understanding the influences of pro-social bystander behavior is imperative to developing effective programs, and the use of an evidence-based theoretical framework can help identify the differences between students who intervene and those who do not when presented with the opportunity. A sample of 815 undergraduate university students completed the Sexual Assault Bystander Behavior Questionnaire, a survey based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) that investigates students' perceived behavioral control to intervene, subjective norms that support intervening, attitudes toward intervening, and intent to intervene in the future. Two-tailed t tests revealed interveners reported significantly greater perceived behavioral control than non-interveners for eight of the 12 intervention behaviors, more supportive subjective norms than non-interveners for seven of the 12 intervention behaviors, more positive attitudes than non-interveners for only one of the 12 intervention behaviors, and greater intent to intervene in the future for six of the 12 intervention behaviors. Differences in the four TPB variables were not consistent for the 12 intervention behaviors. The use of a theoretical framework found to be effective in explaining-and changing-other health-related behaviors, and the inquiry into students' opportunities to intervene to compare against their reported intervention behaviors, is new to this body of literature and contributes to the understanding of the influences of pro-social bystander behavior. © The Author(s) 2016.
Murdoch, Maureen; Polusny, Melissa A; Street, Amy; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Simon, Alisha B; Bangerter, Ann; Grill, Joseph; Voller, Emily
To estimate the cumulative incidence of sexual assault during the time of Gulf War I among male Gulf War I Veterans who later applied for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) post-traumatic stress disorder disability benefits and to identify potential risk and protective factors for sexual assault within the population. Mailed, national, cross-sectional survey supplemented with VA administrative and clinical data. Of 2,415 Veterans sampled, 1,700 (70%) responded. After adjusting for nonignorable missing data, the cumulative incidence of sexual assault during Gulf War I in this population ranged from 18% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 5.0%-51.9%] to 21% (95% CI: 20.0-22.0). Deployment was not associated with sexual assault [Odds Ratio (OR), 0.96; 95% CI: 0.75-1.23], but combat exposure was (OR, 1.80; 95% CI: 1.52-2.10). Other correlates of sexual assault within the population included working in a unit with greater tolerance of sexual harassment (OR, 1.80; 95% CI: 1.52-2.10) and being exposed to more sexual identity challenges (OR, 1.76; 95% CI: 1.55-2.00). The 9-month cumulative incidence of sexual assault in this particular population exceeded the lifetime cumulative incidence of sexual assault in U.S. civilian women. Although Persian Gulf deployment was not associated with sexual assault in this population, combat exposure was. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Patterson, Debra; Resko, Stella
Participant attrition is a major concern for online continuing education health care courses. The current study sought to understand what factors predicted health care professionals completing the online component of a sexual assault forensic examiner (SAFE) blended learning training program (12-week online course and 2-day in-person clinical skills workshop). The study used a Web-based survey to examine participant characteristics, motivation, and external barriers that may influence training completion. Hierarchical logistic regression was utilized to examine the predictors of training completion, while the Cox proportional hazards (Cox PH) regression model helped determine the factors associated with the timing of participant attrition. Results show that 79.3% of the enrolled professionals completed the online component. The study also found that clinicians who work in rural communities and those who were interested in a 2-day clinical skills workshop were more likely to complete the online course. In terms of when attrition occurred, we found that participants who were motivated by the 2-day clinical workshop, those who worked in a rural community, and participants interested in the training program because of its online nature were more likely to complete more of the online course. Blending an online course with a brief in-person clinical component may serve as a motivator for completing an online course because it provides the opportunity to develop clinical skills while receiving immediate feedback. Participant attrition appears to be less of a concern for rural clinicians because this modality can reduce their barriers to accessing continuing education. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are multidisciplinary teams that coordinate multiple systems (e.g., medical, law enforcement, prosecutors, and rape crisis center advocates) to provide comprehensive care to victims and to collect high-quality forensic evidence to facilitate investigation and prosecution. Relatively little guidance is provided about effective teamwork strategies in resources on forming SARTs. Using in-depth surveys with the SART coordinators and telephone surveys (including close-ended and open-ended questions) with 79 professionals involved in three active, formal SARTs in one state, this study examined structural, organizational, and interpersonal factors that influence interprofessional collaboration on SART. Study findings indicate that perceived structural factors and interpersonal factors were significantly associated with SART members'/responders' perceptions of the quality of interprofessional collaboration on their SART. Findings suggest that individuals' perceptions of professionalization and power disparities between professions pose challenges to perceived interprofessional collaboration on SART. Compared with criminal justice and medical professionals, victim advocacy rated the level of collaboration on their SART significantly lower. The overall picture from the data was that SART professionals perceived mutual respect, trust, and commitment to collaboration to be pervasive on their SARTs, even though recognition of professional conflicts was also prevalent, suggesting that professionals understood that interpersonal conflict was distinct from professional conflict. Initial SART trainings should address the benefits of the team response, professional roles, and communication and conflict resolution skills, and ongoing training should provide professionals the opportunity to raise positive and negative examples of their collaborative efforts to explore existing tensions and constraints on the team for conflict resolution. © The
Blanc, A; Savall, F; Dedouit, F; Telmon, N
Through a comprehensive review of the literature on sexual assault, the authors propose to clarify the different stages of the exam and help the practitioner to the forensic interpretation of lesions. The authors describe the basic principles that make consensus in how to interview victims in order to increase the reliability of the information collected. The various medical data that must be collected allowing to guide diagnosis (urogenital symptoms, sexual behaviour disorder) or facilitate the interpretation of lesions (age of puberty, use of tampons…) are specified as well as the different positions of examination and their association to other complementary techniques (Foley catheter, colposcopy, toluidine blue). The authors present a simple decision tree that can help the practitioner to interpret the laceration of the hymen. They detail the description and forensic interpretation of all genital lesions that may be encountered as a result of sexual assault, and the pitfalls to avoid. Finally, two main problems in the interpretation of lesions are described, the absence of injury after penetration and the accidental genital lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Krahé, Barbara; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L
Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor's invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depended on who offered the invitation for a drink (a friend or aggressor). RMA was more closely related to victim blame when she accepted (vs. rejected) the offer of a drink from the aggressor. In both studies, drink type (alcoholic vs. nonalcoholic) did not interact with the other variables.
Magnor, Marcus A
Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en
Mabry, Amanda; Turner, Monique Mitchell
The high prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses has led to the implementation of health communication programs to prevent sexual assault. A few novel programs focus on primary prevention by targeting social norms related to gender and masculinity among men through bystander intervention. Guided by the theory of normative social behavior, this study sought to examine the relative effect of campaigns communicating positive versus negative injunctive norms and the interaction between exposure to such campaign messages and perceived descriptive norms and relevant cognitive moderators (e.g., outcome expectations, injunctive norms, group identity, ego involvement) among men. A 2 (high/low descriptive norms) × 2 (high/low moderator) × 3 (public service announcement) independent groups quasi-experimental design (N = 332) was used. Results indicated that messages communicating positive injunctive norms were most effective among men who were least likely to engage in bystander intervention. Furthermore, descriptive norms played a significant role in behavioral intentions, such that those with stronger norms were more likely to report intentions to engage in bystander behaviors in the future. Similarly, the moderators of aspiration, injunctive norms, social approval, and ego involvement had a significant positive effect on behavioral intentions. These findings have important implications for future message design strategy and audience segmentation.
Full Text Available The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime", crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.
Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C.
The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a “hate crime”), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger. PMID:25419567
Rebecca M. Skhosana
Full Text Available
The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit of a community hospital in the Nkangala district in the Mpumalanga Province. A qualitative, phenomenological design was applied. Purposeful sampling was used to select participants from health care providers who were working in the emergency unit and had managed more than four sexual assault victims. Data were collected by means of individual interviews and analysed according to the Tesch method of data analysis by the researcher and the independent co-coder.
Main categories, subcategories and themes were identified. Participants expressed their emotions, challenges and police attitudes and behaviours as well as inconsistencies in guidelines and needs identification. It was recommended that members of the multidisciplinary team engage in community activities and that the community participate in matters pertaining to sexual assault. Government should develop clear guidelines that are applicable to rural and urban South Africa. Health care sciences should aim to train more forensic nurses. All relevant departments should work together to alleviate the complications caused by sexual assault incidents.
Die doel van hierdie studie was om die ervaringe van gesondheidsorgverskaffers wat slagoffers van seksuele aanranding in die
... Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) Kit; establishes the multidisciplinary Case Management Group (CMG) and... the multidisciplinary Case Management Group (CMG) (see Sec. 105.3) and provides guidance on how to... competency, not as a credential or privilege. (5) A psychologist, social worker or psychotherapist licensed...
Hust, Stacey J T; Adams, Paula M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Ren, Chunbo; Lei, Ming; Ran, Weina; Marett, Emily Garrigues
Among the existing sexual assault prevention efforts on college campuses, few use mass communication strategies designed to simultaneously entertain and educate. Although many entertainment-education efforts are guided by social cognitive theory, other theories may be useful in entertainment-education design. Previous research has found that social cognitive theory and social norms theory can successfully influence participants' perceived norms and efficacy related to sexual assault reduction; however, whether such results can be replicated in a naturalistic setting and the extent to which the guiding theoretical foundation may influence outcomes remain unknown. We used a pre- and posttest field experiment with college students in residence halls to assess how different theoretical foundations may influence effects. Over the course of a semester, the participants viewed eight mini-magazines developed using (1) social cognitive theory, (2) social norms theory, (3) a combination of both theoretical frameworks, or (4) a control condition with no sexual assault prevention messaging. Participants in the combined content condition had greater levels of self-efficacy related to sexual assault prevention and more accurate norm perceptions. There were also effects for the mini-magazines developed with only one theoretical framework. Overall, we found that multiple theories can effectively guide entertainment-education message development.
The Office for Civil Rights for the Department of Education received 9,989 complaints in 2014. 5,845 of those cases were Title IX complaints, 854 pertaining to sexual harassment or assault (United States Department of Education, 2015). This dissertation answers the question, "What patterns or anomalies develop among the institutional…
Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Ullman, Sarah E.
Prior research has demonstrated that self-blame is predictive of more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and poorer recovery (Frazier, 2003; Koss, Figueredo, & Prince, 2002), and perceived control over recovery is associated with less distress (Frazier, 2003) in adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors. A structural equation model was…
screening mammography ; diagnostic mammography ; pelvic examination; PAP smear; treatment of patients with abnormal PAP smear; treatment for...or administrative actions. In contrast , DOD’s unrestricted reporting option allows sexual assault victims to receive medical treatment and request an...include female-specific aspects such as pregnancy, pelvic examinations, and screening mammography . In certain instances, the services’ policies reflect
Canan, Sasha N; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Crawford, Brandon L
Colleges are rape-prone cultures with high rates of sexual victimization. Fraternities' and sororities' relationships with sexual assault are consistent themes in literature focusing on sexual violence among college students. Previous research suggests that fraternity men are more likely to endorse rape-supportive attitudes compared with non-Greek men or sorority women. The present study examines rape-supportive attitudes as well as rape and sexual assault victimization in college students with a focus on gender and Greek-life (i.e., involvement in fraternities or sororities) status variables. College students (N = 1,002) completed a survey including the Token Resistance to Sex Scale (TRSS), Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Short Form (IRMA-S), and items related to past experiences of nonconsensual sex. Two regression models tested predictors of token resistance and rape myth acceptance. Chi-square analyses tested between-group differences of experiencing rape and sexual assault. Gender (p myth acceptance than any other group. Chi-square analyses indicate women more frequently report experiences of rape (χ 2 = 25.57, df = 1, p myth acceptance and token resistance by Greeks, who influence college party culture, could be contributing to a culture conducive to rape. Findings demonstrate a continued need for interventions focused on shifting sociocultural dynamics (e.g., traditional roles and sexual scripting) on college campuses. © The Author(s) 2016.
no uniformed representative attended sessions in order to minimize the risk of making participants uncomfortable and potentially biasing their...you can’t call somebody ’that’s homosexual ,’ you can’t call them a ‘something something.’ So it’s just not good to espouse those different things and...Assault Response Coordinators (SARCs)/On-call SAPR Victim Advocates (VAs), civilian rape crisis centers or the Suicide Prevention Lifeline. ◦TEXT
Denis, Céline; Seyller, Marie; Chariot, Patrick
The role of health professionals is pivotal in providing support to victims of sexual assault. Our aim was to identify patient expectations of doctors after a sexual assault and to assess how they rated the doctors' responses. We conducted a prospective observational study (May 2010-December 2012) involving victims of sexual assault (age >10 years) in a Department of Forensic Medicine near Paris, France. The patients included were those who had first sought care from a doctor prior to arriving at the Department of Forensic Medicine. Victims were asked by questionnaire and interviewed by the forensic physician about medical consultations before arriving at the Department, their expectations about those consultations and their feelings about the quality of support provided. Each patient's feelings were rated on a five-point scale. Among 1112 victims reporting sexual assault, 232 previously had a consultation, and were included in the study. Patients expected trauma care in 44% of cases, and received it in 40% (p=0.42), psychological support in 31% of cases, and received it in 21% (p=0.02), gynaecological care in 28%, and received it in 31% (p=0.52) and forensic support in 21%, and received it in 54% (pforensic support and trauma care, psychological support or gynaecological care than when they only received trauma care, psychological support or gynaecological care (25% vs 3%, p=0.001). Physicians who are the first medical provider to see a patient after a sexual assault often fail to meet patients' expectations, particularly with regard to psychological support. Care received was perceived as best when physicians provided both forensic support and trauma care, psychological support or gynaecological care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Hawn, Sage E; Lind, Mackenzie J; Conley, Abigail; Overstreet, Cassie M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M; Amstadter, Ananda B
This study examined the moderating and mediating effects of perceived social support on the association between pre-college sexual assault (SA) and college-onset SA. A representative sample of 6,132 undergraduates. The PLUM procedure in SPSS was used to test the moderation model, with individual regressions conducted in a hierarchical fashion. A weighted least squared mean and variance adjusted (WLSMV) mediation model was used to examine the mediating effect of social support. Pre-college SA significantly predicted college-onset SA. Social support significantly mediated the relation between pre-college SA and college-onset SA. Social support was not a significant moderator of this relationship. Given the high prevalence of SA among college populations, as well as the high rates of SA revictimization, identification of factors that may be related to repeated SA (e.g., low social support) within this population are essential and may inform intervention, policy, and university student services.
Ahrens, Courtney E; Aldana, Erendira
A growing body of research suggests that the type of social reactions sexual assault survivors receive from others can have a profound impact on their health and well-being. Far less is known about the impact of social reactions on the ensuing relationship between survivors and the people to whom they disclose. The current study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the impact of disclosure on survivors' relationships with friends, family members, and romantic partners. A total of 76 rape survivors described 153 different disclosures to informal support providers. Qualitative analysis suggested that most relationships either were strengthened or remained strong following the disclosure, but a substantial number of survivors described relationships that deteriorated or remained poor following the disclosure. These outcomes were related to the quality of the relationship prior to the disclosure and to survivors' perceptions of the reactions they received during the disclosure. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.
Witte, Tricia H; Casper, Deborah M; Hackman, Christine L; Mulla, Mazheruddin M
The present study investigated the well-being of bystanders who witness and intervene in sexual assault and dating violence situations on campus. Participants were 321 young men and women from a large university in the southeastern United States. Participants completed a survey at the end of the Spring semester of 2015 about risky situations they had witnessed, with follow-up questions about their responses to the situations (eg, whether they intervened or not) and feelings about their responses. Participants also completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Over 90% of the participants reported witnessing at least 1 of the risky events presented to them, and approximately 50% reported intervening in events. Intervening was associated with positive feelings, but traumatic stress symptoms were related to witnessing events and intervening. Results have direct implications for developing appropriate training programs for bystander intervention programs on college campuses.
Dworkin, Emily R; Ullman, Sarah E; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Brill, Charlotte D; Kaysen, Debra
In cross-sectional studies, social support and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms appear related, in that higher severity of PTSD is associated with lower social support and vice versa. Theoretical models of the causal direction of this relationship differ. Most longitudinal studies suggest that PTSD symptoms erode social support over time, although some suggest that higher social support is prospectively associated with decrease in PTSD symptom severity. It is unclear, though, how social support and PTSD affect each other in the short term. The purpose of this study was to test day-to-day relationships between PTSD and social support to elucidate how PTSD and social support influence each other. Using 1173 daily observations from 75 college women who met screening criteria for lifetime sexual assault and past-month PTSD, this study tested same-day and next-day relationships between PTSD and social support using mixed models. Within-person analyses indicated that, when PTSD was higher than usual on a given day, social support was higher the next day. Between-person analyses suggested that people with generally higher social support tended to have lower PTSD symptoms on a given day, but average PTSD symptom severity was not associated with day-to-day fluctuations in social support. Rather than eroding in response to daily symptoms, social support might be sought out following increases in PTSD, and when received consistently, might reduce symptoms of PTSD in the short term. Interventions that increase college women's access to social support after sexual assault may thus be helpful in addressing PTSD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina
In recent years, there has been renewed interest among community psychologists in indigenous interventions, which are programs created by local practitioners (rather than researchers) already rooted in their communities. Indigenous interventions have strong ecological validity, but their effectiveness is often unknown because so few are rigorously evaluated. The goal of this project was to use Kelly and Trickett's ecological theory as a conceptual framework for evaluating an indigenous intervention and its mediating mechanisms of effectiveness. The focal intervention was a midwestern Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program, which provides post-assault medical care, crisis intervention, and medical forensic exams for sexual assault survivors. Prior studies of SANE programs have suggested that these interventions may help increase sexual assault prosecution rates. In this case example, we used a mixed methods design to determine if this program contributed to increased prosecution rates, and if so, why. Based on qualitative interviews with key stakeholders, we found substantial evidence for the Principle of Interdependence such that the SANE program strengthened the interconnections between the legal and medical systems, which contributed to increased prosecution. The intervention was effective in these outcomes because it promoted Cycling of Resources throughout the systems and fostered Adaptation of new roles for legal and medical personnel. Moving beyond this specific case example, this paper also examines cross-cutting advantages and struggles of using an ecological approach in the evaluation of indigenous community interventions.
requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or...or repeated unwelcome verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature in the workplace is also engaging in sexual harassment. The...The survey instrument describes its purpose as a means to provide all recruits a confidential way to report to leadership any incidents of bullying
Descripción de las agresiones sexuales atendidas en el servicio de urgencias de un centro hospitalario de referencia Description of sexual assaults treated in the emergency department of a referral hospital
Jaume Grau Cano
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los factores relacionados con las agresiones sexuales que se atienden en el hospital de referencia de la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de base individual de las agresiones sexuales atendidas en el servicio de urgencias entre los años 2005 y 2008. Resultados: Se atendieron 712 pacientes, con predominio femenino (95,5%. Las mujeres agredidas y atendidas presentan una edad mediana de 25 años, realizaron denuncia el 87,5% de los casos y fueron agredidas por un único agresor el 84,5%. El perfil de la agredida (pObjective: To describe the factors related to adult sexual assaults attended in a referral hospital in the city of Barcelona (Spain. Methods: We carried out an individual-based cross-sectional study of sexual assaults treated in the emergency department between 2005 and 2008. Results: A total of 712 patients (95.5% female were treated. The median age of assaulted women was 25 years. Complaints were made in 87.5% of cases and assaults were made by a single attacker in 84.5%. When the perpetrator was known, the profile of the victim (p<0.05 was as follows: the victim was assaulted at home (81.5%, the perpetrator acted alone (94.2%, the mechanism of aggression was penetration (89.3% and the attack took place during the week (63.3%. Conclusions: Analysis of sexual assaults allows for different risk groups to be established, which facilitates the development of specific protocols and guidelines for effective aid and full treatment.
Connecting Hispanic Women in Baltimore to the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program: A Preliminary Assessment of Service Utilization and Community Awareness.
Adams, Margaret; Fitzgerald, Sheila; Holbrook, Debra
Sexual violence and gender-based violence represent a major public health problem causing significant negative mental, physical, and social outcomes for victims. The rapidly growing population of Hispanic women in Baltimore are both more vulnerable to sexual assault and less able to access postassault services. In an effort to assess service utilization and community awareness of the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 2,322 women who were seen by the program between 2010 and 2013 and found that only 2.5% of the women were identified as Hispanic, about half of what Baltimore City demographic data would predict. This exploratory pilot project, augmented by key informant interviews, reveals that Hispanic women are underutilizing sexual assault services. Multiple barriers exist for Hispanic women in obtaining victim services, including lack of awareness within the community that the services exist, cultural factors, language barriers, lack of awareness of legal rights, and a fear of deportation.
... problems including chronic pain, stomach problems, and sexually transmitted diseases. It can also cause... recent study found that 18 percent of women in this country have been raped in their lifetime. In... women found that 13.7 percent of undergraduate women had been victims of at least one completed sexual...
Masculine Culture’s Role in Sexual Violence .” Research Report. Maxwell AFB, AL: School of Advanced Air and Space Studies, 2014, 6. 16. DoD, Report to...Military Cohort.” Women’s Health Issues 23, no. 4 (2013): 215-223. Lee, Peter J.S., “This Man’s Military: Masculine Culture’s Role in Sexual Violence ...efforts prior to any sexual violence to prevent initial perpetration,9 requires all service members once-a-year training regardless of rank or
Casey, David G; Domijan, Katarina; MacNeill, Sarah; Rizet, Damien; O'Connell, Declan; Ryan, Jennifer
The persistence of sperm using confirmatory microscopic analysis, the persistence of sperm with tails, time since intercourse (TSI) analysis, and results from the acid phosphatase (AP) reaction from approximately 5581 swabs taken from circa 1450 sexual assault cases are presented. The observed proportions of sperm in the vagina and anus declines significantly after 48 h TSI, and sperm on oral swabs were observed up to 15 h TSI. The AP reaction as a predictor of sperm on intimate swabs is questioned. All AP reaction times gave a low true positive rate; 23% of sperm-positive swabs gave a negative AP reaction time. We show the AP reaction is an unsafe and an unreliable predictor of sperm on intimate swabs. We propose that TSI not AP informs precase assessment and the evaluative approach for sexual assault cases. To help inform an evaluative approach, TSI guidelines are presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Bruenisholz, Eva; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi
Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction. This paper presents the findings from the second part of the Interfaces Project, an Australia-wide study designed to assess the extent of the justice silos. We interviewed 121 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians. The first paper published in 2013 presented two key findings: first investigative meetings were rare in adult sexual assault cases; second many medical practitioners were semi-invisible in case decision-making with this low level of visibility being due to lawyers, forensic scientists or police not being aware of the role/expertise medical practitioners offer. These findings led to the development of a flowchart model for adult sexual assault that highlights the range of agencies and practitioners typically involved in sexual assault. The rationale for the flowchart is to produce a visual representation of a typical sexual assault investigative process highlighting where and who plays a role in order to minimise the risk of justice silos. This is the second paper in a series of two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie
Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered.
Sadler, Anne G; Mengeling, Michelle A; Booth, Brenda M; O'Shea, Amy M J; Torner, James C
To determine if military leader behaviors are associated with active component and Reserve-National Guard servicewomen's risk of sexual assault in the military (SAIM) for nondeployed locations. A community sample of 1337 Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom-era Army and Air Force servicewomen completed telephone interviews (March 2010-December 2011) querying sociodemographic and military characteristics, sexual assault histories, and leader behaviors. We created 2 factor scores (commissioned and noncommissioned) to summarize behaviors by officer rank. A total of 177 servicewomen (13%) experienced SAIM in nondeployed locations. Negative leader behaviors were associated with increased assault risk, at least doubling servicewomen's odds of SAIM (e.g., noncommissioned officers allowed others in unit to make sexually demeaning comments; odds ratio = 2.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.8, 4.1). Leader behavior frequencies were similar, regardless of service type. Negative leadership behavior risk factors remained significantly associated with SAIM risk even after adjustment for competing risk. Noncommissioned and commissioned officer factor scores were highly correlated (r = 0.849). The association between leader behaviors and SAIM indicates that US military leaders have a critical role in influencing servicewomen's risk of and safety from SAIM.
Alboebadi, F; Afshari, P; Jamshidi, F; Poor, Rm; Cheraghi, M
We aimed to study the relationship of sexual assault with self-concept and the general health of the victims referred to forensics in Ahvaz city (Iran). It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study that was designed by two groups as case and control which has done on 128 subjects. Sixty-four rape victims who were referred to the forensic center, considered as case group and in control group, 64 people who were being referred to health clinics in Ahvaz city. The data were collected through Rogers's standard self-concept and general health questionnaires. Questionnaires were filled in self-completion way. Data had entered and analyzed by using SPSS software (version 22). A level of significance was less than 0.05. The average score of self-concept in the case group was 14.97 ±4.78 and in control group was 6.08 ±2.9. Average score of general health of the case and control groups, respectively, were 51.09 ±18.07 and 16.92 ±12.79. A significant statistical difference between the average score of self-concept, social functioning, physical and general health components in the groups was observed. More negative self-concept and vulnerable general health was observed in the rape victims group than in the control group. Providing counseling and health services and family and social support of these victims can be effective in their general health promotion.
Ponce-Garcia, Elisabeth; Madewell, Amy N; Brown, Marina E
The literature on sexual assault (SA) typically has been generalized to women and children. However, both men and women experience SA. Research shows that not all individuals experience the negative impacts of SA in the same way. The ability to buffer the negative effects of SA may lie in specific protective factors that determine resilience. Resilience scales used in adult populations have not been validated for use in SA samples. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the factor structure of a resilience scale, the Scale of Protective Factors (SPF), in a sample of emerging adults (n = 571) and to validate the replicated model on a subsample of the participants who reported SA (n = 173). Additionally, we sought to examine gender differences in mental health outcomes including depression and anxiety, and the availability of protective factors that determine resilience among those participants who reported experiencing SA (n = 173) as compared to other forms of traumatic stress (n = 132). The SPF achieved good model fit in the larger emerging adult sample and adequate model fit was achieved in the SA subsample. Results indicated significant gender differences in mental health outcomes with η2 ranging between .03 and .21. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra
Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Foubert, John D.; Garner, Dallas N.; Thaxter, Peter J.
Three focus group interviews with multiple men from every fraternity at a small to midsized public university were conducted to study the fraternal culture with regard to alcohol and consent in sexually intimate encounters. Specifically, fraternity men were asked to share their experiences with asking for consent after one or both parties have…
Allen, Kaylie T.; Meadows, Elizabeth A.
Objective: Women assertively resisting sexual aggression have the best chances of avoiding completed rape. Especially with acquaintances, there are significant social and psychological barriers to resistance. Novel vignettes depicting acquaintance rape were designed to enhance self-efficacy, reduce unrealistic optimism, and empower assertive…
Brandl, Bonnie; Heisler, Candace J; Stiegel, Lori A
The dynamics of undue influence (UI) have many similarities with domestic violence, stalking, and grooming behavior used by some sexual predators. This article will help practitioners-particularly law enforcement investigators and prosecutors-better recognize UI as a pattern of behaviors, not an isolated incident. Understanding the dynamics of UI will enhance professionals' appreciation of the responses of victims and the manipulative nature of exploiters. Strategies that have been used effectively with domestic violence, stalking, and some sexual abuse cases may provide remedies for victims of UI and criminal justice options for holding perpetrators accountable. Enhanced awareness of these dynamics should lead to improved investigations, more effective strategies when interviewing and working with victims, and more successful prosecutions of perpetrators who use UI to financially exploit an older person.
Untied, Amy S; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Mastroleo, Nadine; Gidycz, Christine A
College students' responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario involving alcohol use by the victim and/or perpetrator were examined (N = 295). Participants reported on victim/perpetrator responsibility, the extent to which the scenario would be considered rape, and their likelihood of providing positive or negative responses to the victim. Compared to women, men indicated that they would provide more negative and less positive social reactions to the victim, were less likely to identify the scenario as rape, and endorsed less perpetrator responsibility. When the victim was drinking, participants endorsed greater victim responsibility and lower perpetrator responsibility for the assault. Participants indicated that they would provide the victim with less emotional support when only the perpetrator was drinking, compared to when both the individuals were drinking.
coworkers to conform to gender role stereotypes.41 For example, one gender role for women is that they are loving and nurturing individuals at all times...42 If women fail to act as nurturing individuals in the workplace, then they may experience sexual harassment as a method to coerce them into...the policy is sound or that it is unsound because it fails to address homosexuality . Female respondents were more inclined to believe the XO’s
Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is the most widely used substance among adolescents, exceeding the use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The study aims at investigating the prevalence of alcohol and drug use and prevalence and knowledge of Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA among Italian adolescents. Methods: The study population was a sample of 512 students of secondary education (high school from 3 public schools in Milan, Italy. Two hundred and fourty-nine boys and 263 girls aged 15 to 21 years old (M = 16.2, SD = 2.1 answered a specially structured anonymous questionnaire. Results: Recent problem drinking (‘every day’ or ‘once a week’ was reported from 9% (‘wine’ up to 28% (‘beer’ of students. Cannabis and rave drugs usage (ranged from ‘every day’ to ‘once only in a while’ were reported by up to 38% (‘cannabis’ and 2% (‘rave drugs’ of students. Beer was the most popular type of alcoholic beverage (81% with respect to wine (62% and hard liquor (66%. Only a small percentage of participants stated that they were informed about the possible addiction to alcohol (5% and its negative social consequences (3%. Nevertheless, almost all the students (92% declared that alcohol consumption was less dangerous than other psychoactive substances. Finally, most students stated to know DFSA phenomenon (77% and were victims or witness (13% of a DFSA event. Conclusion: Psychoactive substances consumption remains a serious problem among Italian adolescents. For a successful alcohol strategy there is a need to implement preventive measures and counseling approaches in school. Increasing the knowledge of the negative effects of alcohol/drugs use might also lead to a better prevention of the DFSA phenomenon.
Full Text Available Benzodiazepines are detected in a significant number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA. Whilst blood and urine from the victim are routinely analysed, due to the delay in reporting DFSA cases and the short half lives of most of these drugs in blood and urine, drug detection in such samples is problematic. Consideration of the drinks involved and analysis for drugs may start to address this. Here we have reconstructed the 'spiking' of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, flunitrazepam and temazepam into five drinks, an alcopop (flavoured alcoholic drink, a beer, a white wine, a spirit, and a fruit based non-alcoholic drink (J2O chosen as representative of those drinks commonly used by women in 16-24 year old age group. Using a validated GC-MS method for the simultaneous detection of these drugs in the drinks we have studied the storage stability of the benzodiazepines under two different storage conditions, uncontrolled room temperature and refrigerator (4°C over a 25 day period. All drugs could be detected in all beverages over this time period. Diazepam was found to be stable in all of the beverages, except the J2O, under both storage conditions. Flunitrazepam and temazepam were found not to be stable but were detectable (97% loss of temazepam and 39% loss of flunitrazepam from J2O. The recommendations from this study are that there should be a policy change and that drinks thought to be involved in DFSA cases should be collected and analysed wherever possible to support other evidence types.
Gautam, Lata; Sharratt, Sarah D.; Cole, Michael D.
Benzodiazepines are detected in a significant number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA). Whilst blood and urine from the victim are routinely analysed, due to the delay in reporting DFSA cases and the short half lives of most of these drugs in blood and urine, drug detection in such samples is problematic. Consideration of the drinks involved and analysis for drugs may start to address this. Here we have reconstructed the ‘spiking’ of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, flunitrazepam and temazepam) into five drinks, an alcopop (flavoured alcoholic drink), a beer, a white wine, a spirit, and a fruit based non-alcoholic drink (J2O) chosen as representative of those drinks commonly used by women in 16–24 year old age group. Using a validated GC-MS method for the simultaneous detection of these drugs in the drinks we have studied the storage stability of the benzodiazepines under two different storage conditions, uncontrolled room temperature and refrigerator (4°C) over a 25 day period. All drugs could be detected in all beverages over this time period. Diazepam was found to be stable in all of the beverages, except the J2O, under both storage conditions. Flunitrazepam and temazepam were found not to be stable but were detectable (97% loss of temazepam and 39% loss of flunitrazepam from J2O). The recommendations from this study are that there should be a policy change and that drinks thought to be involved in DFSA cases should be collected and analysed wherever possible to support other evidence types. PMID:24586489
Garvin, Alex M; Fischer, Andrea; Schnee-Griese, Jutta; Jelinski, Andrea; Bottinelli, Michel; Soldati, Gianni; Tubio, Monica; Castella, Vincent; Monney, Nathalie; Malik, Naseem; Madrid, Michelle
Profiling sperm DNA present on vaginal swabs taken from rape victims often contributes to identifying and incarcerating rapists. Large amounts of the victim's epithelial cells contaminate the sperm present on swabs, however, and complicate this process. The standard method for obtaining relatively pure sperm DNA from a vaginal swab is to digest the epithelial cells with Proteinase K in order to solubilize the victim's DNA, and to then physically separate the soluble DNA from the intact sperm by pelleting the sperm, removing the victim's fraction, and repeatedly washing the sperm pellet. An alternative approach that does not require washing steps is to digest with Proteinase K, pellet the sperm, remove the victim's fraction, and then digest the residual victim's DNA with a nuclease. The nuclease approach has been commercialized in a product, the Erase Sperm Isolation Kit (PTC Labs, Columbia, MO, USA), and five crime laboratories have tested it on semen-spiked female buccal swabs in a direct comparison with their standard methods. Comparisons have also been performed on timed post-coital vaginal swabs and evidence collected from sexual assault cases. For the semen-spiked buccal swabs, Erase outperformed the standard methods in all five laboratories and in most cases was able to provide a clean male profile from buccal swabs spiked with only 1,500 sperm. The vaginal swabs taken after consensual sex and the evidence collected from rape victims showed a similar pattern of Erase providing superior profiles. In all samples tested, STR profiles of the male DNA fractions obtained with Erase were as good as or better than those obtained using the standard methods.
Examining Sexual Assault Victimization and Loneliness as Risk Factors Associated With Nonlethal Self-Harm Behaviors in Female College Students: Is It Important to Control for Concomitant Suicidal Behaviors (and Vice Versa)?
Chang, Edward C; Lee, Jerin; Wright, Kaitlin M; Najarian, Alexandria S-M; Yu, Tina; Chang, Olivia D; Hirsch, Jameson K
The present study examined sexual assault victimization and loneliness as predictors of self-harm behaviors in a sample of 224 female college students. Results from conducting regression analysis indicated that both sexual assault victimization and loneliness were unique and significant predictors of self-harm behaviors. This pattern remained even after controlling for concomitant suicidal behaviors. Interestingly, in a post hoc analysis predicting suicidal behaviors, it was found that loneliness, but not sexual assault victimization, was the only unique and significant predictor after controlling for self-harm behaviors. Some implications of the present findings for understanding self-harm behaviors in female college students and the importance of controlling for suicidal behaviors in studies of self-harm behaviors (and vice versa) are discussed.
Dworkin, Emily R; Ojalehto, Heidi; Bedard-Gilligan, Michele A; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Kaysen, Debra
After sexual assault, many college women develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and those who engage in substance use coping are at heightened risk for this outcome. Positively-perceived social support has been identified as an important protective factor against the development of PTSD, but received social support could involve problematic behaviors-like the encouragement of coping through use of alcohol and/or drugs-that could worsen symptoms. In the current study, 147 undergraduate women with a lifetime history of sexual assault completed two waves of self-report measures assessing their symptoms. We test main and interaction effects for social support and substance use coping at baseline on PTSD symptoms one month later. Results suggest that social support is longitudinally associated with decreases in PTSD. Although substance use coping did not evidence a direct association with PTSD, the relationship between social support and PTSD was significantly weaker as substance use coping increased. Only support from friends (but not family members or a "special person") was associated with later PTSD, and this relationship was moderated by substance use coping. Substance use coping was assessed via a brief measure, and peer encouragement of coping by using alcohol and/or drugs was not directly assessed. Clinicians should consider ways to increase access to social support from friends in patients with PTSD and evaluate ways that substance use coping may interfere with social support's benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with ... for a different reason, such as headaches, eating problems, pain, or sleep problems. Emotional reactions can vary ...
Bradshaw, Robert; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Blackledge, Robert D; Clench, Malcolm R; Ferguson, Leesa S; Francese, Simona
An increase in the use of condoms by sexual offenders has been observed. This is likely to be due both to the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and to prevent the transfer of DNA evidence. In this scenario the detection of condom lubricants at a crime scene could aid in proving corpus delicti. Here we show a novel application of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) for mapping the fingermark ridge pattern simultaneously to the detection of the condom lubricant within the fingermark itself. Two condom brands have been investigated to prove the concept. Condoms were handled producing lubricant-contaminated fingermarks. Images of the ridge pattern were obtained simultaneously to the detection of two lubricants, even several weeks after the fingermark deposition. The results therefore show the potential of MALDI MSI to link the suspect (identification through fingermark ridge pattern) to the crime (detection of condom lubricant) in one analysis. This would enable forensic scientists to provide evidence with stronger support in alleged cases of sexual assault. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This Accord designates 4 special female agents of the Mexican Public Ministry to deal with the sexual crimes of rape and indecent assault, with the objective, among others, of destroying the impunity with which these crimes are committed and strengthening the trust that necessarily must exist between the authorities constitutionally appointed to bring about justice and the women who require it. It also specifies that medical, psychological, gynecological, and other attention required by a victim will be provided by a woman with skill in the various areas. An Accord of 6 September 1989 (Diario Oficial, Vol. 432, No. 5, 7 September 1989, pp. 20-23), enlarges the responsibilities and competence of these female agents to cover all sexual offenses contained in the Criminal Code. It provides that the agents have the power to initiate, pursue, and bring to a conclusion inquiries relating to such crimes. Appended to the Accord are operative rules relating to the agents and a Technical Council that supervises them. The rules contain procedures to be followed in dealing with and attending to the victims of sexual crimes. Bases of collaboration between the Attorney General of the Federal District and the Secretary of Health with respect to the examination of women who have been the victims of sex crimes appear in the Diario Oficial, Vol. 433, No. 19, 27 October 1989, pp. 9-10).
Tuliao, Antover P; McChargue, Dennis
Extant research shows a strong relationship between alcohol use problems and sexual aggression. However, less is known about the effect of intermediary factors (eg, alcohol expectations) that may increase the likelihood of and/or explain sexual aggression during alcohol-related incidents. The present study examined alcohol outcome expectancies' (OE) mediating and/or moderating influence on the relationship between problematic alcohol use severity and sexual aggression among male college students. One hundred and forty eight (n = 148) male college students volunteered for the study. Seventy-seven males self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression in their lifetime. Among those who sexually aggressed, 74% also reported symptoms of problematic drinking. Results show that sexuality-related alcohol OE fully mediated the relationship between problematic alcohol use severity and sexual aggression. Results also showed that aggression-related alcohol OE moderated the relationship between problematic alcohol use severity and sexual aggression. Specifically, aggression-related alcohol OE only influenced the relationship between problematic alcohol use and sexual aggression when alcohol problems were less severe. Discussion implicates the possible role alcohol prevention may play in reducing sexual aggression on college campuses, particularly as it relates to adjusting alcohol OE among those most likely to perpetrate. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.
Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health…
Sexual assault in the US military: A comparison of risk in deployed and non-deployed locations among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom active component and Reserve/National Guard servicewomen.
Sadler, Anne G; Booth, Brenda M; Torner, James C; Mengeling, Michelle A
To determine whether sexual assault in the military (SAIM) among active component and Reserve/National Guard servicewomen is more likely to occur in deployed or non-deployed locations; and which location poses greater risk for SAIM when time spent in-location is considered. A total of 1337 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom era servicewomen completed telephone interviews eliciting socio-demographics, military and sexual assault histories, including attempted and completed sexual assault. Half of the sample had been deployed (58%). Overall 16% (N = 245) experienced SAIM; a higher proportion while not deployed (15%; n = 208) than while deployed (4%; n = 52). However, the incidence of SAIM per 100 person-years was higher in deployed than in non-deployed locations: 3.5 vs 2.4. Active component and Reserve/National Guard had similar deployment lengths, but Reserve/National Guard had higher SAIM incidence rates/100 person-years (2.8 vs 4.0). A higher proportion of servicewomen experienced SAIM while not deployed; however, adjusting for time in each location, servicewomen were at greater risk during deployment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dichter, Melissa E; Wagner, Clara; True, Gala
Women who have served in the military in the United States experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner sexual assault (SA). The military setting presents challenges and opportunities not experienced in other employment contexts that may compound the negative impacts of IPV/SA on women's lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the intersection of women's experiences of IPV/SA and military service through analysis of women veterans' narrative accounts. We conducted in-depth face-to-face qualitative interviews with 25 women veterans receiving primary care at a U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We draw upon Adler and Castro's (2013) Military Occupational Mental Health Model to frame our understanding of the impact of IPV/SA as a stressor in the military cultural context and to inform efforts to prevent, and support women service members who have experienced, these forms of violence. Our findings highlight the impact of IPV/SA on women's military careers, including options for entering and leaving military service, job performance, and opportunities for advancement. Women's narratives also reveal ways in which the military context constrains their options for responding to and coping with experiences of IPV/SA. These findings have implications for prevention of, and response to, intimate partner or sexual violence experienced by women serving in the military and underscore the need for both military and civilian communities to recognize and address the negative impact of such violence on women service members before, during, and after military service. © The Author(s) 2016.
fully integrate women into the combat arms, introducing women to sub-cultures that have, for years, equated martial virtues with masculine ones...create the conditions for some instances of objectification and violence ; therefore, commanders should be sensitive to striking the right balance...Victoria L. Banyard, Elizabethe G. Plante, and Mary M. Moynihan.18 The authors ar- gue that the most appropriate method for preventing sexual violence
Woman-to-woman rape and sexual assault globally remains largely unknown and unaddressed. Expectedly, victim/survivors often cope alone, or with limited support, in the traumatic aftermath of their sexual victimisation. Work is one occupation that is impacted upon at this time. The study explored the perceived impacts of woman-to-woman rape and sexual assault, the subsequent experience of disclosure, reaction, and support, and the consequences for victim/survivors' subjective experience of occupation. The study combined a sociological auto/biographical approach with an occupational science perspective. A web-based survey generated initial data, and was also used as a sampling tool; subsequently, 10 respondents were interviewed face-to-face, in various UK locations. An eleventh respondent shared her story through correspondence. Four key themes emerged: 1) Identity; 2) Emotion; 3) Survival; and 4) Occupation. The latter, occupation, incorporated study and work. For these victim/survivors, work or education can be experienced as either: disrupted (triggering) or as preservative (maintenance). Their life roles as worker or student were impacted by feelings that they could have performed better and achieved more. Occupational therapists and other relevant service providers could work with sexually victimised people in order to participate more satisfactorily and healthily in the occupation of work.
Dworkin, Emily R; Mota, Natalie P; Schumacher, Julie A; Vinci, Christine; Coffey, Scott F
There is a high occurrence of sexual assault (SA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) among people with substance use disorders and an established association between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no research has examined associations between combinations of these traumas and PTSD symptom profiles among people who abuse substances. Thus, this study aimed to examine how combinations of SA and IPV histories contribute to the severity of symptoms within PTSD symptom clusters above and beyond the impact of exposure to other traumas in a substance abusing population. Participants were men and women (N = 219) with trauma histories seeking treatment in a substance abuse facility. Multivariate analyses of covariance examined differences on Clinician Administrated PTSD Scale cluster scores in people with experiences of SA and/or IPV in comparison to people with other types of trauma, controlling for number of PTSD criterion A events. SA was associated with increased symptom severity across all 3 PTSD symptom clusters, whereas IPV was not associated with differences in cluster scores. In addition, survivors of IPV had consistent levels of avoidance symptoms regardless of whether they had also experienced SA, but people who had not experienced IPV only evidenced increased avoidance symptoms when they had experienced SA. Follow-up analyses testing gender differences indicated that these findings were largely similar for men and women. SA should be assessed in people in substance use treatment settings to conceptualize their unique presentations of PTSD symptoms and inform treatment planning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
82 8.6. Estimated Percentage of Reserve-Component Service Members Who Experienced a Sex -Based MEO Violation in the Past Year...fear that they would be perceived to be gay or bisexual. This suggests that men (as well as some women) might benefit from additional training to...would be wise to assess service members’ sexual orientation in future studies, as in some other contexts lesbian, gay , bisexual, and transgender
survey invi- tations to Marines who lacked military email addresses; Colonel Scott K. Jackson , who served as the J-6 liaison to the project, helping...estimates for sensitive behaviors than do other survey modes (e.g., telephone interviews; Hussain et al., 2013; Percy and Mayhew, 1997; Tourangeau...standards_stat_surveys.pdf Percy , A., and P. Mayhew, “Estimating Sexual Victimization in a National Crime Survey: A New Approach,” Studies on Crime & Crime
offenders Individual 57% 54% 63% Group 43% 46% 37% Gender of the offender( s ) Man or men only 75% 67% 87% Woman or women only 11% 16% 3% Mix of men and... Rights This document and trademark( s ) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for...to take effective actions. Sexual harassment and gender discrimination are forms of unlawful discrimi- nation that deprive service members of equal
Schry, Amie R; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.
Research in both civilian and military populations has demonstrated that females who experience childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely to experience sexual assault in adulthood than females who did not experience CSA. Among veteran samples, however, little research has examined previous sexual assault as a risk factor of military sexual assault and post-military sexual assault, and very little research has examined revictimization in male veterans. The purpose of this study was to exami...
Wouters, Pieter; Tabbers, Huib; Paas, Fred
textabstractIn this review we argue that interactivity can be effective in video-based models to engage learners in relevant cognitive processes. We do not treat modeling as an isolated instructional method but adopted the social cognitive model of sequential skill acquisition in which learners start with observation and finish with independent, self-regulated performance. Moreover, we concur with the notion that interactivity should emphasize the cognitive processes that learners engage in w...
Johansen, Sys Stybe
A drug rape facilitated with the sedative antipsychotic drug quetiapine is presented here. A teenage girl and her girlfriend went to the home of an adult couple they had met at a bar. Here, the teenage girl (victim) felt tired after consuming some alcoholic drinks and fell asleep. While she...... negative. The low level of quetiapine in the hair segment and its absence in the other segments indicate that the victim had only consumed one or a few doses of quetiapine within that period and was not a regular user. This study describes the first drug-facilitated assault involving a single dose...
Zijlstra, J.E.; Esselink, G.; Moors, M.L.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems with numerous negative health consequences. Assault centres, such as the Centre for Sexual and Family Violence (CSFV) in the Netherlands, have been set up to provide optimal care to victims. We wanted to gain insight into characteristics of
rape as a weapon of war. The ICC includes rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form...Nigeria, and South Sudan; providing urban planning and infrastructure expertise in Haiti and Mexico ; replacing evacuated staff in Yemen...slavery, enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity as a crime against
Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul; McGrath, Christine
This article examines the prevalence of sexual aggression and its association with alcohol and other forms of violence, such as physical abuse and psychological aggression, in a national sample of married and cohabiting couples. These couples were part of a longitudinal study conducted in 1995 and 2000. The analyses include 406 White, 232 Black, and 387 Hispanic couples interviewed in 2000. Male-to-female sexual aggression rates ranged from 11% to 23% and female-to-male aggression rates ranged from 5.5% to 13.5%. Insisting on having sex without use of physical force and having sex without a condom are the two most frequently reported types of sexual aggression across all ethnic groups. Male and female perpetrated sexual aggression rates among Black couples were over 2 times the rate of White couples. Male perpetrated severe psychological aggression is a significant predictor of male sexual aggression. Female perpetrated severe psychological aggression predicted female sexual aggression. The study findings underscore the importance of addressing alcohol use and the presence of psychological abuse in the light of preventing other forms of violence including sexual aggression among couples.
Video-based teaching material is a rich and powerful medium being used in computer assisted learning. This paper aimed to assess the learning outcomes and student nurses' acceptance and satisfaction with the video-based lectures versus the traditional method of teaching human anatomy and physiology courses.
Potter, Sharyn J.; Stapleton, Jane G.
One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a…
Stern, A. W; Smith-Blackmore, M
Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others...
demographics, prevalence rates of prior military sexual abuse or perpetration, military culture as a promoter, emphasis on violence and hyper... masculinity .22 While it is clear these factors do bare some relevance, it is not the full picture. A Systemic Lens is Required Research on the topic...affect areas of the brain that lead to violence . Alcohol related brain damage during adolescence further sets the stage for antisocial behavior and
Pérez, Zenen Jaimes; Hussey, Hannah
Recently, sexual assault on college campuses has received increased national attention. In its first report, the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault highlighted steps colleges and universities can take to curb the number of sexual assaults on campuses. For the first time, the U.S. Department of Education has released the…
Angehrn, Albert; Maxwell, Katrina
Angehrn, A. A., & Maxwell, K. (2008). TENTube: A video-based connection tool supporting competence development. In H. W. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and
Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Portelli, Francesca; Montana, Angelo; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pichini, Simona; Maresi, Emiliano
We here report a case involving a 21-year-old female, found dead in a central square of a city in the south of Italy. Initial evidences and circumstances were suggestive of a death associated with a sexual assault. Two peripheral blood and two vitreous humor samples were collected for the purpose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) testing from the dead body at two different post-mortem intervals (PMIs): approximately 2 (t0) and 36 (t1) hours. The obtained results showed that, between t0 and t1, there was an increase of GHB concentrations in peripheral blood and vitreous humor of 66.3% and 8.1%, respectively. This case was the first evidence of GHB post mortem production in a dead body and not in vitro, showing that vitreous humor is less affected than peripheral blood in GHB post-mortem production. The value detected at t1 in peripheral blood (53.4µg/mL) exceeded the proposed cut-off and if interpreted alone would have led to erroneous conclusions. This was not the case of vitreous humor GHB, whose post-mortem increase was minimal and it allowed to exclude a GHB exposure. Only after a broad forensic investigation including a complete autopsy, serological, histological, toxicological and haematology analyses, a diagnosis of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by persistent eosinophilia associated with damage to multiple organs, was made and the cause of death was due to a pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis responsible for an acute respiratory failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Derbyshire, Katherine; Grant, Jon E
Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening instrument, the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview), stress and mood states, and psychosocial functioning. The rate of response was 35.1% (n=2108). 109 (5.9%) participants reported that they had assaulted another person or destroyed property at some time in their lives. Compared with respondents without lifetime assaultive behavior, those with a history of assaultive or destructive behavior reported more depressive symptoms, more stress, and higher rates of a range of impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, and skin picking disorder). Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for young adults attending college who report problems with assaultive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Descripción de las agresiones sexuales atendidas en el servicio de urgencias de un centro hospitalario de referencia Description of sexual assaults treated in the emergency department of a referral hospital
Jaume Grau Cano; Manuel Santiñà Vila; José Ríos Guillermo; Ferran Céspedes Lacia; Begoña Martínez Galilea
Objetivo: Describir los factores relacionados con las agresiones sexuales que se atienden en el hospital de referencia de la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de base individual de las agresiones sexuales atendidas en el servicio de urgencias entre los años 2005 y 2008. Resultados: Se atendieron 712 pacientes, con predominio femenino (95,5%). Las mujeres agredidas y atendidas presentan una edad mediana de 25 años, realizaron denuncia el 87,5% de los casos y fueron agredidas po...
Ladois-Do Pilar Rei, A; Chraïbi, S
The psychiatric ward is a place where all forms of violence are treated. Occasionally, this violence involves acts of aggression between patients in emergency psychiatric units or hospital wards. Such events can lead to the development or worsening of posttraumatic stress disorder. To establish the context, we first examined the epidemiology data concerning posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatric patients who were frequently exposed to assaults. Secondly, we examined the issue of sexual and physical assaults between patients receiving treatment in a psychiatric ward. In this context, we studied possible occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder associated with exposure to assaults of this kind. In certain cases, potentially traumatic exposure to violence was unknown to the medical staff or not taken into consideration. This would induce a risk of later development of posttraumatic stress disorder that would not be treated during the stay in psychiatry. To date, few scientific studies have focused on the proportion of patients assaulted by other patients during treatment in a psychiatric ward and the subsequent development of peritraumatic reactions and/or posttraumatic stress disorder associated with these assaults. We know that an insufficient number of public and private health institutions report the existence of such facts to the competent authorities. Also, a minority of clinicians and caregivers are trained in screening and management of trauma victims. Yet, these issues are particularly relevant in the scope of public health and health promotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Sexual assault is common in Uganda and is one of the most dehumanizing human crimes against women. It is associated with adverse medical and social problems. There is urgent need to sensitize the community about reporting early for medical treatment after sexual assault. African Journal of Health ...
Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja
This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months. Depression and sexual self-esteem were measured at each wave. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel analyses, controlling for individual differences in depression and sexual self-esteem, showed that sexual assault at T1 predicted depression and lower sexual self-esteem at T2, and depression and lower self-esteem at T2 predicted sexual assault victimization at T3. In addition, significant paths were found from T1 depression to T2 sexual assault victimization and from T2 sexual assault victimization to depression at T3. Sexual victimization at T1 was indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3 via depression at T2. Both depression and sexual self-esteem at T1 were indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3. The paths did not differ significantly between men and women. Sexual assault victimization was shown to be a risk factor for both depression as a general mental health indicator and lowered sexual self-esteem as a specific outcome in the domain of sexuality. Moreover, depression and sexual self-esteem increased the vulnerability for sexual assault victimization, which has implications for prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Édgar Alonso Madrigal Ramírez; Jorge Mario Roldán Retana
Se ha considerado al Interrogatorio Médico Forense en casos de Delitos Sexuales en Niños como revictimizante. La Historia Médico Legal en Delitos Sexuales recoge la información necesaria para orientar el Examen Físico y para la recolección de evidencias en la víctima y en su contexto. Existen técnicas médico forenses para interrogar al niño con el afán de evitar la revictimización, entendida esta como el sufrimiento que experimentan las víctimas al promoverse una actualización del evento trau...
Bagley, Constance E.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Vayzman, Liena; Wexler, Laura; McCarthy, Shirley
Sexual assault and other forms of sexual misconduct are all too common on university campuses. The US Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights reports that 19 percent of female and 6.1 percent of male college students reported being victims of completed or attempted sexual assaults since entering college. The degree to which Penn State's…
White, Mark G.
A video-based format was used during a graduate seminar course designed to educate students on the nature of catalysis, to help transfer information among students working on similar problems, and to improve communication skills. The mechanics of and student reaction to this seminar course are discussed. (JN)
Hu, Yue-Yung; Mazer, Laura M; Yule, Steven J; Arriaga, Alexander F; Greenberg, Caprice C; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Gawande, Atul A; Smink, Douglas S
Surgical expertise demands technical and nontechnical skills. Traditionally, surgical trainees acquired these skills in the operating room; however, operative time for residents has decreased with duty hour restrictions. As in other professions, video analysis may help maximize the learning experience. To develop and evaluate a postoperative video-based coaching intervention for residents. In this mixed methods analysis, 10 senior (postgraduate year 4 and 5) residents were videorecorded operating with an attending surgeon at an academic tertiary care hospital. Each video formed the basis of a 1-hour one-on-one coaching session conducted by the operative attending; although a coaching framework was provided, participants determined the specific content collaboratively. Teaching points were identified in the operating room and the video-based coaching sessions; iterative inductive coding, followed by thematic analysis, was performed. Teaching points made in the operating room were compared with those in the video-based coaching sessions with respect to initiator, content, and teaching technique, adjusting for time. Among 10 cases, surgeons made more teaching points per unit time (63.0 vs 102.7 per hour) while coaching. Teaching in the video-based coaching sessions was more resident centered; attendings were more inquisitive about residents' learning needs (3.30 vs 0.28, P = .04), and residents took more initiative to direct their education (27% [198 of 729 teaching points] vs 17% [331 of 1977 teaching points], P coaching is a novel and feasible modality for supplementing intraoperative learning. Objective evaluation demonstrates that video-based coaching may be particularly useful for teaching higher-level concepts, such as decision making, and for individualizing instruction and feedback to each resident.
while the victim was “substantially inca - pacitated.” Anecdotally, substantial incapaci- tation is the most frequently charged type of aggravated...the new statute is that the accused will face a “knew or should have known” standard about whether the victim was inca - pacitated. Results from cases
Assistência multiprofissional à vítima de violência sexual: a experiência da Universidade Federal de São Paulo Multidisciplinary care for victims of sexual assault: the experience at the Federal University in São Paulo, Brazil
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a importância da assistência multiprofissional às vítimas da violência sexual para redução dos agravos físicos, psíquicos e sociais que podem advir desta violência. Para tanto se faz uma breve descrição das atividades realizadas pelos diferentes profissionais que prestam assistência na Casa de Saúde da Mulher Professor Domingos Deláscio da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, e são apresentados alguns dos resultados deste trabalho nos seus cinco anos de existência. O artigo traça o perfil sócio-demográfico das mulheres vítimas de estupros que foram atendidas desde o início do serviço, detalhando quantas engravidaram e fizeram o aborto e o número de processos judiciais que foram abertos.This article discusses the importance of multidisciplinary care for victims of sexual assault in order to mitigate the respective physical, psychological, and social harm. The article begins with a brief description of the activities by various professionals involved in the care of victims treated at the Women's Health Center of the Federal University in São Paulo, and presents the outcome of some cases treated at this institution in its five years of experience. The article provides the socio-demographic profile of female rape victims since the beginning of this women's health service, with the number of women who became pregnant, those who underwent abortion, and the number of court suits filed.
crimes military members experience. RAND developed this new measure of sexual assault that incorporates Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ...December 15, 2015 SURVEY NOTE Note No. 2015-17 1 Comparing Sexual Assault Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S...Colleges Executive Summary The Association of American Universities (AAU) Campus Survey of Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct was designed to assess the
Dagnaes-Hansen, Julia; Mahmood, Oria; Bube, Sarah
OBJECTIVE: Direct observation in assessment of clinical skills is prone to bias, demands the observer to be present at a certain location at a specific time, and is time-consuming. Video-based assessment could remove the risk of bias, increase flexibility, and reduce the time spent on assessment....... This study investigated if video-based assessment was a reliable tool for cystoscopy and if direct observers were prone to bias compared with video-raters. DESIGN: This study was a blinded observational trial. Twenty medical students and 9 urologists were recorded during 2 cystoscopies and rated by a direct...... observer and subsequently by 2 blinded video-raters on a global rating scale (GRS) for cystoscopy. Both intrarater and interrater reliability were explored. Furthermore, direct observer bias was explored by a paired samples t-test. RESULTS: Intrarater reliability calculated by Pearson's r was 0...
Ömer Faruk VURAL
Full Text Available Video-based learning has been extensively incorporated to enhance instruction. The advanced communication technology has greatly increased the possibilities and relative value of delivering instructional video content in onlineeducation applications. Simple watching instructional video often results in poor learning outcomes. Therefore, current video-based learning resources are used in combination with other teaching methods. Concept mapping, one of teaching methods, can provide another form of this type of interactivity and may enhance the active learning capacity. The new learning tool, which consisted of video viewer, supporting text, and interactive concept map, was developed to investigate the effect of time spent interacting with the learning tool by creating concept maps relate to student achievement. The study results showed that there was no relationship found between student achievement and time spent interacting with the learning tool
Winston, Karin; Grendarova, Petra; Rabi, Doreen
This study reviews the published literature on the use of video-based decision aids (DA) for patients. The authors describe the areas of medicine in which video-based patient DA have been evaluated, the medical decisions targeted, their reported impact, in which countries studies are being conducted, and publication trends. The literature review was conducted systematically using Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Pubmed databases from inception to 2016. References of identified studies were reviewed, and hand-searches of relevant journals were conducted. 488 studies were included and organized based on predefined study characteristics. The most common decisions addressed were cancer screening, risk reduction, advance care planning, and adherence to provider recommendations. Most studies had sample sizes of fewer than 300, and most were performed in the United States. Outcomes were generally reported as positive. This field of study was relatively unknown before 1990s but the number of studies published annually continues to increase. Videos are largely positive interventions but there are significant remaining knowledge gaps including generalizability across populations. Clinicians should consider incorporating video-based DA in their patient interactions. Future research should focus on less studied areas and the mechanisms underlying effective patient decision aids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adhikari, Sam; Stark, David E
This paper presents a video-based eye-tracking method, ideally deployed via a mobile device or laptop-based webcam, as a tool for measuring brain function. Eye movements and pupillary motility are tightly regulated by brain circuits, are subtly perturbed by many disease states, and are measurable using video-based methods. Quantitative measurement of eye movement by readily available webcams may enable early detection and diagnosis, as well as remote/serial monitoring, of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. We successfully extracted computational and semantic features for 14 testing sessions, comprising 42 individual video blocks and approximately 17,000 image frames generated across several days of testing. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of collecting video-based eye-tracking data from a standard webcam in order to assess psychomotor function. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate through systematic analysis of this data set that eye-tracking features (in particular, radial and tangential variance on a circular visual-tracking paradigm) predict performance on well-validated psychomotor tests. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
This paper discusses (1) how my own interest in the treatment of sexual assualt victims developed and how I view the scope of this problem; (2) myths and facts about sexual assault; (3) common reactions of those who work with rape victims; (4) the rape trauma syndrome; (5) an approach to immediate and short-term treatment; and (6) the long-term effects of sexual assault and related treatment issues.
Bao, Tianlong; Ding, Chunhui; Karmoshi, Saleem; Zhu, Ming
Face recognition has been widely studied recently while video-based face recognition still remains a challenging task because of the low quality and large intra-class variation of video captured face images. In this paper, we focus on two scenarios of video-based face recognition: 1)Still-to-Video(S2V) face recognition, i.e., querying a still face image against a gallery of video sequences; 2)Video-to-Still(V2S) face recognition, in contrast to S2V scenario. A novel method was proposed in this paper to transfer still and video face images to an Euclidean space by a carefully designed convolutional neural network, then Euclidean metrics are used to measure the distance between still and video images. Identities of still and video images that group as pairs are used as supervision. In the training stage, a joint loss function that measures the Euclidean distance between the predicted features of training pairs and expanding vectors of still images is optimized to minimize the intra-class variation while the inter-class variation is guaranteed due to the large margin of still images. Transferred features are finally learned via the designed convolutional neural network. Experiments are performed on COX face dataset. Experimental results show that our method achieves reliable performance compared with other state-of-the-art methods.
... of the Secretary Establishment of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Crimes Panel AGENCY: DoD... charter for the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (``the Response Systems Panel... adjudication of crimes involving adult sexual assault and related offenses, under 10 U.S.C. 920 (Article 120 of...
Crumpton, Stephanie M.
Sexual assault is prevalent, but many educators find themselves ill-prepared to address it in the classroom. This article conceptualizes a trauma sensitive pedagogy that engages the psychological, social, and theological implications of sexual assault for classroom conversations about sex and sexuality. First, the article examines the impact of…
Herbert, Carol P.
Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relation...
indicators and several points in time. American Sociological Review, 351, 101–111. Cronbach , L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal...original DEOCS and the DEOCS with follow-up questions. Reliability of scales is most typically measured using Cronbach’s Alpha . Statistics...Cronbach’s Alpha (reliability coefficient) is the most common estimate of internal consistency. Alpha measures the extent to which item responses obtained
Roberts, D. E. (Eds.) (2004). Women and the Law . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Thompson, University Casebook Series Gutek, B. A. (1985). Sex and the...4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a...4 Variable Construction
Van Bruggen, Lisa K; Runtz, Marsha G; Kadlec, Helena
Disproportionately high rates of sexual revictimization have been noted among former victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), yet researchers have yet to determine the source of this apparent vulnerability to reexperience sexual violence. This study explores this issue by examining sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and sexual behaviors among 402 university women. Compared to women without a history of CSA (n = 348), women with a history of CSA (n = 54) had lower sexual self-esteem, poorer sexual adjustment, and were 2 times more likely to have experienced sexual assault since the age of 14 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relationship between child abuse (i.e., CSA and child psychological maltreatment) and sexual revictimization was partially mediated by sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and high-risk sexual behaviors. This study emphasizes the need for further research on child maltreatment, revictimization, and women's sexual adjustment.
The video coding and distribution approach presented in this paper has two key characteristics that make it ideal for integration of video communication services over common broadband digital networks. The modular multi-resolution nature of the coding scheme provides the necessary flexibility to accommodate future advances in video technology as well as robust distribution over various network environments. This paper will present an efficient and scalable coding scheme for video communications. The scheme is capable of encoding and decoding video signals in a hierarchical, multilayer fashion to provide video at differing quality grades. Subsequently, the utilization of this approach to enable efficient bandwidth sharing and robust distribution of video signals in multipoint communications is presented. Coding and distribution architectures are discussed which include multi-party communications in a multi-window fashion within ATM environments. Furthermore, under the limited capabilities typical of wideband/broadband access networks, this architecture accommodates important video-based service applications such as Interactive Distance Learning.
Albert A Angehrn
Full Text Available The vast majority of knowledge management initiatives fail because they do not take sufficiently into account the emotional, psychological and social needs of individuals. Only if users see real value for themselves will they actively use and contribute their own knowledge to the system, and engage with other users. Connection dynamics can make this easier, and even enjoyable, by connecting people and bringing them closer through shared experiences such as playing a game together. A higher connectedness of people to other people, and to relevant knowledge assets, will motivate them to participate more actively and increase system usage. In this paper, we describe the design of TENTube, a video-based connection tool we are developing to support competence development. TENTube integrates rich profiling and network visualization and navigation with agent-enhanced game-like connection dynamics.
The human motion contains valuable information in many situations and people frequently perform an unconscious analysis of the motion of other people to understand their actions, intentions, and state of mind. An automatic analysis of human motion will facilitate many applications and thus has...... received great interest from both industry and research communities. The focus of this thesis is on video-based analysis of human motion and the thesis presents work within three overall topics, namely foreground segmentation, action recognition, and human pose estimation. Foreground segmentation is often...... the first important step in the analysis of human motion. By separating foreground from background the subsequent analysis can be focused and efficient. This thesis presents a robust background subtraction method that can be initialized with foreground objects in the scene and is capable of handling...
Snyder, Jamie A.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Daigle, Leah E.
Few studies have examined sexual victimization among cadets and midshipmen at the three U.S. Military Academies. Self-report data from the 2005 Service Academy Sexual Assault Survey of Cadets and Midshipmen (n = 5,220) were used to examine the extent of unwanted sexual attention, sexual harassment, unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and…
Wenzlaff, Frederike; Briken, Peer; Dekker, Arne
Although eye tracking has been used for decades, it has gained popularity in the area of sex research only recently. The aim of this article is to examine the potential merits of eye tracking for this field. We present a systematic review of the current use of video-based eye-tracking technology in this area, evaluate the findings, and identify future research opportunities. A total of 34 relevant studies published between 2006 and 2014 were identified for inclusion by means of online databases and other methods. We grouped them into three main areas of research: body perception and attractiveness, forensic research, and sexual orientation. Despite the methodological and theoretical differences across the studies, eye tracking has been shown to be a promising tool for sex research. The article suggests there is much potential for further studies to employ this technique because it is noninvasive and yet still allows for the assessment of both conscious and unconscious perceptional processes. Furthermore, eye tracking can be implemented in investigations of various theoretical backgrounds, ranging from biology to the social sciences.
Cisler, Josh M; Amstadter, Ananda B; Begle, Angela M; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Ben E; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Research demonstrates robust associations among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), exposure to assaultive violence (i.e., sexual assault, physical assault, and witnessed violence), and cigarette smoking among adults and adolescents. Whether exposure to assaultive violence confers risk for cigarette smoking over and above the effects of PTSD and non-assaultive traumatic events (e.g., motor vehicle accidents) is unclear. The current study prospectively measured PTSD, assaultive violence exposure, non-assaultive traumatic event exposure, and cigarette smoking three times over approximately three years among a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N=3614, age range 12-17 at Wave 1). Results revealed that multiple exposure to assaultive violence at Wave 1 was a consistent and robust prospective predictor of cigarette smoking at Waves 2 and 3. By contrast, PTSD diagnoses and non-assaultive traumatic event exposures at Wave 1 only predicted cigarette smoking at Wave 2, but not at Wave 3. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valdez, Connie A; Paulsen, Susan
To (1) describe the development of a Video-based Clinical Examination (VCE) as a formal testing format to evaluate student ability to make an accurate pharmaceutical assessment and recommendation, and (2) determine student perception of the VCE testing format. Descriptive study of first-year pharmacy students. One hundred and twenty-nine students were included in the study. Students perceived that the VCE testing format provided a real life/interactive environment but felt rushed as the video segments of the patient/pharmacist interaction occurred quickly. Based on the findings of this project, we will continue to pursue further research related to validity, reliability and application of VCEs. However, the University of Colorado will continue to incorporate VCEs in the performance based evaluations in the Professional Skills Development 1 course, as it appears to be an effective stepping-stone for first-year students to begin developing their active listening, higher level learning and problem-solving skills. Results of this project will be shared with the faculty and curriculum committee at the University of Colorado School of Pharmacy to encourage further use and research of VCEs in other courses.
Abdollahian, Golnaz; Delp, Edward J.
Although considerable work has been done in management of "structured" video such as movies, sports, and television programs that has known scene structures, "unstructured" video analysis is still a challenging problem due to its unrestricted nature. The purpose of this paper is to address issues in the analysis of unstructured video and in particular video shot by a typical unprofessional user (i.e home video). We describe how one can make use of camera motion information for unstructured video analysis. A new concept, "camera viewing direction," is introduced as the building block of home video analysis. Motion displacement vectors are employed to temporally segment the video based on this concept. We then find the correspondence between the camera behavior with respect to the subjective importance of the information in each segment and describe how different patterns in the camera motion can indicate levels of interest in a particular object or scene. By extracting these patterns, the most representative frames, keyframes, for the scenes are determined and aggregated to summarize the video sequence.
Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.
The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions.
Full Text Available In this report we describe an open fracture of trapezoid and break in anterior cortex of capitate due to assault in a young adult male. Direct impact force of a sharp object to the first web space caused the above fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of the trapezoid was carried out using Kirschner wires. Cut extensor tendons, extensor retaniculum, capsule, adductor pollicis muscle, first dorsal interosseous muscle, soft tissue and overlying skin were sutured primarily. Three months after the operation the patient has made a complete recovery. There is no similar case reported in the literature.
Noting that sexual harassment has more to do with making victims feel powerless than with sex, this book advises adolescents and their parents on how to identify, stop, and prevent sexual harassment. Chapter 1, "What is Sexual Harassment, Anyway?" defines sexual harassment and details how harassment becomes assault. Chapter 2, "Why is Reporting…
Heinskou, Marie Bruvik
Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...... such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby...
Parkhill, Michele R.; Norris, Jeanette; Cue Davi, Kelly
Research has demonstrated relationships among childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and sexual risk taking. This study proposes that one mechanism through which the victimization-sexual risk taking relationship works is through an increased likelihood of drinking during sexual situations. Using path analysis, the current study explores this hypothesis in a sample of 230 women. The model illustrates that women with a history of child and adult sexual victimization reported greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex and that this relationship is in part accounted for by an increased likelihood of drinking in sexual situations. The results suggest that sexual risk reduction programs and sexual assault treatment programs should educate women about the alcohol-involved sexual risk taking that often follows sexual assault victimization. PMID:25069152
.... A national sample of 558 women veterans completed a computer-assisted telephone interview assessing their experiences with in-military sexual harassment, unwanted sexual touching, physical assault and rape...
LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L
This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.
Lanza, Marilyn Lewis; Demaio, Jennifer; Benedict, Mary Anne
As violence increases in society at large, violence is also increasing in hospitals and other health care facilities. Assault is one of the most serious occupational hazards reported in both public and private hospitals and their outpatient clinics. Despite prevention and intervention measures, experts predict that assault in hospitals will continue to be a serious problem. This paper describes using a support group to decrease the negative consequences to staff that have been assaulted. This paper explores in detail the program content and reactions by member of the group.
Hyun, Dai-Kyung; Ryu, Seung-Jin; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Lee, Heung-Kyu
.... Nevertheless, there is little research being done on forgery of surveillance videos. This paper proposes a forensic technique to detect forgeries of surveillance video based on sensor pattern noise (SPN...
Vandiver, Donna M; Kercher, Glen
Victim and offender characteristic of all registered adult female sexual offenders in Texas (N = 471) were examined. The most common offenses the females were arrested for were indecency with a child--sexual contact, sexual assault on a child, and aggravated sexual assault on a child. The majority (88%) of the females were Caucasian and the ages ranged from 18 to 77 (M = 32). The results of Hierarchical Loglinear Modeling yielded a complex relationship between offender and victim characteristics; thus, identification of preferred victims is mitigated by more than one variable. Additionally, the employment of cluster analysis yielded 6 types of female sexual offenders. The most common group includes 146 offenders, heterosexual nurturers. They were the least likely to have an arrest for a sexual assault. The victims were males who averaged 12 years of age. The other types of offenders included, noncriminal homosexual offenders, female sexual predators, young adult child exploiters, homosexual criminals, and aggressive homosexual offenders.
Kylie A. Bailey
Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220 with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA and physical assault (PA. A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.
Fergusson, D M; Horwood, L J; Lynskey, M T
The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with increased rates of sexual risk taking behaviors and sexual revictimization during adolescence. A birth cohort of 520 New Zealand born young women was studied at regular intervals from birth to the age of 18. At age 18 retrospective reports of CSA were obtained from sample members. Over the course of the 18 year study information was gathered on: (a) childhood, family, and related circumstances; and (b) the young women's history of sexual experiences from 14 to 18 years. Young women reporting CSA, and particularly severe CSA involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault after the age of 16. Logistic regression analyses suggested that the associations between CSA and sexual outcomes in adolescence arose by two routes. First, exposure to CSA was associated with a series of childhood and family factors including social disadvantage, family instability, impaired parent child relationships, and parental adjustment difficulties that were also associated with increased sexual vulnerability in adolescence. Second, there appeared to be a causal chain relationship between CSA and sexual experiences in which CSA was associated with early onset sexual activity which, in turn, led to heightened risks of other adverse outcomes in adolescence. The findings of this study suggest that those exposed to CSA have greater sexual vulnerability during adolescence. This appears to arise because: (a) the childhood and family factors that are associated with CSA are also associated with increased sexual risks during adolescence; and (b) exposure to CSA may encourage early onset sexual activity which places those exposed to CSA at greater sexual risk over the period of adolescence.
Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Nelson, Robin G.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Hinde, Katie
Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites. PMID:25028932
Kathryn B H Clancy
Full Text Available Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666 to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.
Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nelson, Robin G; Rutherford, Julienne N; Hinde, Katie
Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.
de Heer, Brooke; Jones, Lynn
Since the 2014 "Not Alone" report on campus sexual assault, the use of climate surveys to measure sexual violence on campuses across the United States has increased considerably. The current study utilizes a quasi meta-analysis approach to examine the utility of general campus climate surveys, which include a measure of sexual violence,…
United Nations peacekeepers have been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct for many years. Such incidents of sexual assault perpetrated by peacekeepers have been documented over the years in a number of countries. The violation of codes of conduct, particularly regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, ...
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Duncan, Dustin; Johnson, Renee
The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel measure of environmental risk factors for bullying among sexual minority youths. Data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) assault hate crimes were obtained from police records, geocoded, and then linked to individual-level data on bullying and sexual orientation from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (N = 1,292; 108 sexual minorities). Results indicated that sexual minority youths who reported relational and electronic bullying were more likely to reside in neighborhoods with higher LGBT assault hate crime rates. There was no asso- ciation between LGBT assault hate crimes and bullying among heterosexual youths, pro- viding evidence for specificity to sexual minority youth. Moreover, no relationships were observed between sexual minority bullying and neighborhood-level violent and property crimes, indicating that the results were specific to LGBT assault hate crimes.
Hollander, Jocelyn A
Self-defense classes are offered across the nation as a strategy for reducing women's vulnerability to sexual assault. Yet there has been little systematic research assessing the effectiveness of these classes. In this article, I use data from a mixed methods study of a 10-week, university-based, feminist self-defense class to examine the effectiveness of self-defense training over a 1-year follow-up period. My analyses indicate that women who participate in self-defense training are less likely to experience sexual assault and are more confident in their ability to effectively resist assault than similar women who have not taken such a class.
Kylie A. Bailey
Full Text Available Although assault exposure is common in mental health and substance misusing populations, screening for assaults in treatment settings is frequently overlooked. This secondary analysis explored the effects of past sexual (SA and physical (PA assault on depression, alcohol misuse, global functioning and attrition in the Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single focussed Intervention (DAISI project, whose participants (N = 278 received cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT for their depression and/or alcohol misuse. Of the 278 DAISI participants, 220 consented to screening for past assault (either by a stranger or non-stranger at baseline. Depression, alcohol, and global functioning assessments were administered at baseline and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months post baseline. A between-group analysis was used to assess differences between SA and No SA, and PA and No PA groupings, on adjusted mean treatment outcomes across all assessment periods. SA and PA participants had similar mean symptom reductions compared to No SA and No PA participants except for lower depression and global functioning change scores at the 12-month follow-up. People with coexisting depression and alcohol misuse reporting SA or PA can respond well to CBT for depression and alcohol misuse. However, follow-up is recommended in order to monitor fluctuations in outcomes.
Luiz Affonso Guedes
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks typically consist of a great number of tiny low-cost electronic devices with limited sensing and computing capabilities which cooperatively communicate to collect some kind of information from an area of interest. When wireless nodes of such networks are equipped with a low-power camera, visual data can be retrieved, facilitating a new set of novel applications. The nature of video-based wireless sensor networks demands new algorithms and solutions, since traditional wireless sensor networks approaches are not feasible or even efficient for that specialized communication scenario. The coverage problem is a crucial issue of wireless sensor networks, requiring specific solutions when video-based sensors are employed. In this paper, it is surveyed the state of the art of this particular issue, regarding strategies, algorithms and general computational solutions. Open research areas are also discussed, envisaging promising investigation considering coverage in video-based wireless sensor networks.
Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso
Wireless sensor networks typically consist of a great number of tiny low-cost electronic devices with limited sensing and computing capabilities which cooperatively communicate to collect some kind of information from an area of interest. When wireless nodes of such networks are equipped with a low-power camera, visual data can be retrieved, facilitating a new set of novel applications. The nature of video-based wireless sensor networks demands new algorithms and solutions, since traditional wireless sensor networks approaches are not feasible or even efficient for that specialized communication scenario. The coverage problem is a crucial issue of wireless sensor networks, requiring specific solutions when video-based sensors are employed. In this paper, it is surveyed the state of the art of this particular issue, regarding strategies, algorithms and general computational solutions. Open research areas are also discussed, envisaging promising investigation considering coverage in video-based wireless sensor networks.
Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Ray-Letourneau, Diana; Ozuna, Sara M; Munch, Christopher; Xintarianos, Elizabeth; Hasson, Anthony M; Castro, Carl A
Sexual trauma remains a pervasive problem in the military. The deleterious mental health outcomes related to incidents of sexual assault have been well-documented in the literature, with particular attention given to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and utilization of mental health services. Much effort has focused on addressing issues of sexual trauma in the military. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidences of sexual assault in female veterans, the relationship to PTSD and mental health care utilization. The research explored differences in pre- and post-9/11 veterans. Data were collected using a 6-prong recruitment strategy to reach veterans living in Southern California. A total of 2,583 veterans completed online and in-person surveys, of which 325 female veterans were identified for inclusion in the analysis. Forty percent of the sample reported experiencing sexual assault during their military service. A history of military sexual trauma was found to be a substantial contributor to symptoms of PTSD. A majority of female veterans who indicated being sexually assaulted during their military service met the cutoff for a diagnosis of PTSD. Although only a minority of participants who indicated being a victim of sexual assault reported receiving immediate care after the incident, most had received mental health counseling within the past 12 months. Findings point to the need for additional prevention programs within the military and opportunities for care for victims of military sexual assault. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…
Lau, Marianne; Kristensen, Ellids
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk for adult sexual assault (ASA), and psychological vulnerability as well as aspects of CSA and upbringing might influence the risk. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate whether women who reported both CSA and ASA: 1...
Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.
Objectives: Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model…
Fergusson, David M.; And Others
Examined the frequency of wife assault among New Zealand mothers. Wife assault occurred at a rate of 2 percent to 3 percent per year. Rates of assault were related to length of marriage, type of marriage, planning of pregnancy, parental age, church attendance, and family socioeconomic status. (Author/BL)
Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter sexually abused children in their practice, both those who have been previously diagnosed and others who are undiagnosed and require identification by the PNP. This continuing education article will discuss the medical evaluation of children with concerns of suspected sexual abuse. Acute and non-acute sexual abuse/assault examinations will be discussed. Physical findings and sexually transmitted infections concerning for sexual abuse/assault will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Pavao, Joanne; Turchik, Jessica A.; Hyun, Jenny K.; Karpenko, Julie; Saweikis, Meghan; McCutcheon, Susan; Kane, Vincent; Kimerling, Rachel
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Military sexual trauma (MST) is the Veteran Health Administration?s (VHA) term for sexual assault and/or sexual harassment that occurs during military service. The experience of MST is associated with a variety of mental health conditions. Preliminary research suggests that MST may be associated with homelessness among female Veterans, although to date MST has not been examined in a national study of both female and male homeless Veterans. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevale...
Higgs, Tamsin; Carter, Adam J; Stefanska, Ewa B; Glorney, Emily
Establishing a model of sexual assault reflecting psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of perpetrators of sexual killing and rape is necessary for development in risk assessment and intervention. Methodological variations in defining sexual killing have amalgamated serial and non-serial offenders and perpetrators with direct and indirect associations between killing and sexual arousal. This study defined sexual killing specifying that killing should be directly linked to sexual arousal, and sampled 48 sexual killers, operationalized to include only those engaging in post-mortem sexual interference, with one or two known female victims (non-serial), from prison service national (England and Wales) databases. These sexual killers were compared with 48 non-homicide, life or indeterminately sentenced sexual aggressors on psychological and crime scene characteristics. Contrary to previous research, fatal outcomes were associated with neither stranger victims nor weapon presence; sexual killing was characterized by severity of violence less so than non-fatal assault. Sexual killers more often reported problems with emotional loneliness, empathic concern, and sexual entitlement than the sexual aggressors. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
Bennett, Kyle D.; Aljehany, Mashal Salman; Altaf, Enas Mohammednour
Video-based instruction (VBI) has a substantial amount of research supporting its use with individuals with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. However, it has typically been implemented as a treatment package containing multiple interventions. Additionally, there are procedural variations of VBI. Thus, it is difficult…
Golubovich, Juliya; Seybert, Jacob; Martin-Raugh, Michelle; Naemi, Bobby; Vega, Ronald P.; Roberts, Richard D.
Accurate appraisal of others' behavior is critical for the production of skilled interpersonal behavior. We used an ecologically valid methodology, a video-based situational judgment test with true-false items, to assess the accuracy with which students (N = 947) perceive the interpersonal behavior of actors involved in workplace situations.…
Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj; Trigg, Randal
on a fine-grained video-based analysis of a single prototyping session, and focuses on the effects of an open-ended style of interaction between users and designers around a prototype. An analysis of focus shifts, initiative and storytelling during the session is brought to bear on the question of whether...