Keenan, Daniel Stephen
In 2005, over 100,000 e-Learning courses were offered in over half of all U.S. postsecondary education institutions with nearly 90% of all community colleges and four year institutions offering online education. Streaming video is commonplace across the internet offering seamless video and sound anywhere connectivity is available effectively…
Dupagne, Michel; Stacks, Don W.; Giroux, Valerie Manno
This study examines whether video streaming can reduce trait and state communication apprehension, as well as improve communication competence, in public speaking classes. Video streaming technology has been touted as the next generation of video feedback for public speaking students because it is not limited by time or space and allows Internet…
Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky
Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…
Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu
Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…
This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...
Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin
The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…
Videos and DVDs give the teachers more flexibility than slide projectors, filmstrips, and 16mm films but teachers and students are excited about a new technology called streaming. Streaming allows the educators to view videos on demand via the Internet, which works through the transfer of digital media like video, and voice data that is received…
I Made Oka Widyantara
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views
Dev, P; Rindfleisch, T C; Kush, S J; Stringer, J R
Usage of streaming digital video of lectures in preclinical courses was measured by analysis of the data in the log file maintained on the web server. We observed that students use the video when it is available. They do not use it to replace classroom attendance but rather for review before examinations or when a class has been missed. Usage of video has not increased significantly for any course within the 18 month duration of this project.
Qin , Yan
This paper introduces the basic streaming media technology, the streaming media system structure, principles of streaming media technology; streaming media file formats and so on. After that, it discusses the use streaming media in distance education, broadband video on demand, Internet broadcasting, video conferences and a more detailed exposition in streaming media. As the existing technology has been unable to satisfy the increasing needs of the Internet users, the streaming media technol...
Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark.
Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yipeng; Chiu, Dah Ming
Bandwidth consumption is a significant concern for online video service providers. Practical video streaming systems usually use some form of HTTP streaming (progressive download) to let users download the video at a faster rate than the video bitrate. Since users may quit before viewing the complete video, however, much of the downloaded video will be "wasted". To the extent that users' departure behavior can be predicted, we develop smart streaming that can be used to improve user QoE with ...
Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Muhammad Audy Bazly
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views
Guruvadoo, Eranna K.
In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.
Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Ørngreen, Rikke; Buus, Lillian
The Bachelor's Degree Programme of Biomedical Laboratory Science at VIA Faculty of Health Sciences offers a combination of live video-streamed and traditional teaching. It is the student’s individual choice whether to attend classes on-site or to attend classes from home via live video-stream. Our...... previous studies revealed that the live-streamed sessions compared to on-site teaching reduced interaction and dialogue between attendants, and that the main reasons were technological issues and the teacher’s choice of teaching methods. One of our goals therefore became to develop methods and implement...... transparency in the live video-streamed teaching sessions during a 5-year period of continuous development of technological and pedagogical solutions for live-streamed teaching. Data describing student’s experiences were gathered in a longitudinal study of four sessions from 2012 to 2017 using a qualitative...
Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray
Digital fingerprinting is an emerging technology to protect multimedia content from illegal redistribution, where each distributed copy is labeled with unique identification information. In video streaming, huge amount of data have to be transmitted to a large number of users under stringent latency constraints, so the bandwidth-efficient distribution of uniquely fingerprinted copies is crucial. This paper investigates the secure multicast of anticollusion fingerprinted video in streaming applications and analyzes their performance. We first propose a general fingerprint multicast scheme that can be used with most spread spectrum embedding-based multimedia fingerprinting systems. To further improve the bandwidth efficiency, we explore the special structure of the fingerprint design and propose a joint fingerprint design and distribution scheme. From our simulations, the two proposed schemes can reduce the bandwidth requirement by 48% to 87%, depending on the number of users, the characteristics of video sequences, and the network and computation constraints. We also show that under the constraint that all colluders have the same probability of detection, the embedded fingerprints in the two schemes have approximately the same collusion resistance. Finally, we propose a fingerprint drift compensation scheme to improve the quality of the reconstructed sequences at the decoder's side without introducing extra communication overhead.
Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Garcia, Narciso
The usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology by content providers is increasing rapidly. Having available the video content in multiple qualities, using HAS allows to adapt the quality of downloaded video to the current network conditions providing smooth video-playback. However, the time-varying video quality by itself introduces a new type of impairment. The quality adaptation can be done in different ways. In order to find the best adaptation strategy maximizing users perceptual quality it is necessary to investigate about the subjective perception of adaptation-related impairments. However, the novelties of these impairments and their comparably long time duration make most of the standardized assessment methodologies fall less suited for studying HAS degradation. Furthermore, in traditional testing methodologies, the quality of the video in audiovisual services is often evaluated separated and not in the presence of audio. Nevertheless, the requirement of jointly evaluating the audio and the video within a subjective test is a relatively under-explored research field. In this work, we address the research question of determining the appropriate assessment methodology to evaluate the sequences with time-varying quality due to the adaptation. This was done by studying the influence of different adaptation related parameters through two different subjective experiments using a methodology developed to evaluate long test sequences. In order to study the impact of audio presence on quality assessment by the test subjects, one of the experiments was done in the presence of audio stimuli. The experimental results were subsequently compared with another experiment using the standardized single stimulus Absolute Category Rating (ACR) methodology.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A streaming video system was developed and implemented at SSC to support various propulsion projects at SSC. These projects included J-2X and AJ-26 rocket engine...
Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin
Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.
Full Text Available Many algorithms for temporal video partitioning rely on the analysis of uncompressed video features. Since the information relevant to the partitioning process can be extracted directly from the MPEG compressed stream, higher efficiency can be achieved utilizing information from the MPEG compressed domain. This paper introduces a real-time algorithm for scene change detection that analyses the statistics of the macroblock features extracted directly from the MPEG stream. A method for extraction of the continuous frame difference that transforms the 3D video stream into a 1D curve is presented. This transform is then further employed to extract temporal units within the analysed video sequence. Results of computer simulations are reported.
Sagatov, Evgeny S.; Sukhov, Andrei M.
In this paper technological solutions for improving the quality of video transfer along wireless networks are investigated. Tools have been developed to allow packets to be duplicated with key frames data. In the paper we tested video streams with duplication of all frames, with duplication of key frames, and without duplication. The experiments showed that the best results are obtained by duplication of packages which contain key frames. The paper also provides an overview of the coefficient...
With the development of wireless networks and intelligent terminals, video traffic has increased dramatically. Adaptive video streaming has become one of the most promising video transmission technologies. For this type of service, a good QoS (Quality of Service) of wireless network does not always guarantee that all customers have good experience. Thus, new quality metrics have been widely studies recently. Taking this into account, the objective of this paper is to investigate the quality metrics of wireless adaptive video streaming. In this paper, a wireless video streaming simulation platform with DASH mechanism and multi-rate video generator is established. Based on this platform, PSNR model, SSIM model and Quality Level model are implemented. Quality Level Model considers the QoE (Quality of Experience) factors such as image quality, stalling and switching frequency while PSNR Model and SSIM Model mainly consider the quality of the video. To evaluate the performance of these QoE models, three performance metrics (SROCC, PLCC and RMSE) which are used to make a comparison of subjective and predicted MOS (Mean Opinion Score) are calculated. From these performance metrics, the monotonicity, linearity and accuracy of these quality metrics can be observed.
Full Text Available Video-linked lectures allow healthcare students across multiple sites, and between university and hospital bases, to come together for the purposes of shared teaching. Recording and streaming video-linked lectures allows students to view them at a later date and provides an additional resource to support student learning. As part of a UK Higher Education Academy-funded Pathfinder project, this study explored medical students' perceptions of video-linked lectures and video-streaming, and their impact on learning. The methodology involved semi-structured interviews with 20 undergraduate medical students across four sites and five year groups. Several key themes emerged from the analysis. Students generally preferred live lectures at the home site and saw interaction between sites as a major challenge. Students reported that their attendance at live lectures was not affected by the availability of streamed lectures and tended to be influenced more by the topic and speaker than the technical arrangements. These findings will inform other educators interested in employing similar video technologies in their teaching.Keywords: video-linked lecture; video-streaming; student perceptions; decisionmaking; cross-campus teaching.
Lian Shiguo; Sun Jinsheng; Wang Jinwei; Wang Zhiquan
In this paper, a chaotic stream cipher is constructed and used to encrypt video data selectively. The stream cipher based on a discrete piecewise linear chaotic map satisfies the security requirement of cipher design. The video encryption scheme based on the stream cipher is secure in perception, efficient and format compliant, which is suitable for practical video protection. The video encryption scheme's performances prove the stream cipher's practicability
Duncan, Cheryl J
Creating a Streaming Video Collection for Your Library covers the main processes associated with streaming video, from licensing to access and evaluation, and will serve as a key reference and source of best practices for libraries adding streaming video titles to their collections.
Streaming audio and video present new challenges and opportunities for museums. Streaming media is easier to author and deliver to Internet audiences than ever before; digital video editing is commonplace now that the tools--computers, digital video cameras, and hard drives--are so affordable; the cost of serving video files across the Internet…
Bridge, Patrick D.; Jackson, Matt; Robinson, Leah
Information technology helps meet today’s medical students’ needs by providing multiple curriculum delivery methods. Video streaming is an e-learning technology that uses the Internet to deliver curriculum while giving the student control of the content’s delivery. There have been few studies conducted on the effectiveness of streaming video in medical schools. A 5-year retrospective study was conducted using three groups of students (n_1736) to determine if the availability of streaming vide...
Søgaard, Jacob; Shahid, Muhammad; Pokhrel, Jeevan
Video streaming services are offered over the Internet and since the service providers do not have full control over the network conditions all the way to the end user, streaming technologies have been developed to maintain the quality of service in these varying network conditions i.e. so called...... adaptive video streaming. In order to cater for users' Quality of Experience (QoE) requirements, HTTP based adaptive streaming solutions of video services have become popular. However, the keys to ensure the users a good QoE with this technology is still not completely understood. User QoE feedback...
Full Text Available Existing literature on education and technology has frequently highlighted the usefulness of online discussion forums for distance courses; however, the majority of such investigations have focused their attention only on text-based forums. The objective of this paper is to determine if the embedding of streamed videos in online discussion forums generates educational dialogue and consequently the feedback that students need in a Management Accounting Course. The findings suggest some interesting issues, such as: students prefer text answers except in complex questions, and videos never replace text commentaries and explanations, but rather complement them.
Tang, Ming; Pang, Haitian; Wang, Shou; Gao, Lin; Huang, Jianwei; Sun, Lifeng
Crowdsourced mobile video streaming enables nearby mobile video users to aggregate network resources to improve their video streaming performances. However, users are often selfish and may not be willing to cooperate without proper incentives. Designing an incentive mechanism for such a scenario is challenging due to the users' asynchronous downloading behaviors and their private valuations for multi-bitrate coded videos. In this work, we propose both single-object and multi-object multi-dime...
Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus
. From here a number of general principles and perspective were derived for the specific program which can be useful to contemplate in general for similar educations. It is concluded that the blended class model using live video stream represents a viable pedagogical solution for the Bachelor Programme......The Bachelor Programme in Biomedical Laboratory Analysis at VIA's healthcare university college in Aarhus has established a blended class which combines traditional and live broadcast teaching (via an innovative choice of video conferencing system). On the so-called net-days, students have...... sheds light on the pedagogical challenges, the educational designs possible, the opportunities and constrains associated with video conferencing as a pedagogical practice, as well as the technological, structural and organisational conditions involved. In this paper a participatory action research...
Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Rojas, Diego; McLauchlan, Lifford
Two synchronized cameras are utilized to obtain independent video streams to detect moving objects from two different viewing angles. The video frames are directly correlated in time. Moving objects in image frames from the two cameras are identified and tagged for tracking. One advantage of such a system involves overcoming effects of occlusions that could result in an object in partial or full view in one camera, when the same object is fully visible in another camera. Object registration is achieved by determining the location of common features in the moving object across simultaneous frames. Perspective differences are adjusted. Combining information from images from multiple cameras increases robustness of the tracking process. Motion tracking is achieved by determining anomalies caused by the objects' movement across frames in time in each and the combined video information. The path of each object is determined heuristically. Accuracy of detection is dependent on the speed of the object as well as variations in direction of motion. Fast cameras increase accuracy but limit the speed and complexity of the algorithm. Such an imaging system has applications in traffic analysis, surveillance and security, as well as object modeling from multi-view images. The system can easily be expanded by increasing the number of cameras such that there is an overlap between the scenes from at least two cameras in proximity. An object can then be tracked long distances or across multiple cameras continuously, applicable, for example, in wireless sensor networks for surveillance or navigation.
Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinheng; Zhao, Liqiang
In this paper, a video streaming system for education based on a wireless mesh network is proposed. A wireless mesh network is a self-organizing, self-managing and reliable intelligent network, which allows educators to deploy a network quickly. Video streaming plays an important role in this system for multimedia data transmission. This new…
Bridge, Patrick D; Jackson, Matt; Robinson, Leah
Information technology helps meet today's medical students' needs by providing multiple curriculum delivery methods. Video streaming is an e-learning technology that uses the Internet to deliver curriculum while giving the student control of the content's delivery. There have been few studies conducted on the effectiveness of streaming video in medical schools. A 5-year retrospective study was conducted using three groups of students (n = 1736) to determine if the availability of streaming video in Years 1-2 of the basic science curriculum affected overall Step 1 scores for first-time test-takers. The results demonstrated a positive effect on program outcomes as streaming video became more readily available to students. Based on these findings, streaming video technology seems to be a viable tool to complement in-class delivery methods, to accommodate the needs of medical students, and to provide options for meeting the challenges of delivering the undergraduate medical curriculum. Further studies need to be conducted to continue validating the effectiveness of streaming video technology.
The STREAMS Technology Programme addresses municipal waste. Municipal waste is composed of waste from households and small businesses. The programme focuses on five areas Waste prevention, Collection, transportation, and management of waste streams, Waste treatment technologies, Waste recycling into raw materials and new products, Landfill technologies. The development projects of the STREAMS Programme utilize a number of different technologies, such as biotechnology, information technology, materials technology, measurement and analysis, and automation technology. Finnish expertise in materials recycling technologies and related electronics and information technology is extremely high on a worldwide scale even though the companies represent SMEs. Started in 2001, the STREAMS programme has a total volume of 27 million euros, half of which is funded by Tekes. The programme runs through the end of 2004. (author)
Hiranaka, Takafumi; Nakanishi, Yuta; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Hida, Yuichi; Tsubosaka, Masanori; Shibata, Yosaku; Okimura, Kenjiro; Uemoto, Harunobu
Observation of surgical procedures performed by experts is extremely important for acquisition and improvement of surgical skills. Smart glasses are small computers, which comprise a head-mounted monitor and video camera, and can be connected to the internet. They can be used for remote observation of surgeries by video streaming. Although Google Glass is the most commonly used smart glasses for medical purposes, it is still unavailable commercially and has some limitations. This article reports the use of a different type of smart glasses, InfoLinker, for surgical video streaming. InfoLinker has been commercially available in Japan for industrial purposes for more than 2 years. It is connected to a video server via wireless internet directly, and streaming video can be seen anywhere an internet connection is available. We have attempted live video streaming of knee arthroplasty operations that were viewed at several different locations, including foreign countries, on a common web browser. Although the quality of video images depended on the resolution and dynamic range of the video camera, speed of internet connection, and the wearer's attention to minimize image shaking, video streaming could be easily performed throughout the procedure. The wearer could confirm the quality of the video as the video was being shot by the head-mounted display. The time and cost for observation of surgical procedures can be reduced by InfoLinker, and further improvement of hardware as well as the wearer's video shooting technique is expected. We believe that this can be used in other medical settings.
Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras; Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis
The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing "Fog Node-End Device" layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard.
Celandroni, Nedo; Davoli, Franco; Ferro, Erina; Gotta, Alberto
In the near future, transportation media are likely to become "smart spaces", where sophisticated services are offered to the passengers. Among such services, we concentrate on video streaming provided on buses that move in urban, suburban, or highway environments. A contents' source utilizes a satellite DVB-S2 link for transmitting video streams to a bus, which, in its turn, relays it to its passengers' devices. A bus works in a smart mode taking advantage of the knowledge of the exact point...
Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper
This paper presents a novel approach to fast motion detection in H.264/MPEG-4 advanced video coding (AVC) compressed video streams for IP video surveillance systems. The goal is to develop algorithms which may be useful in a real-life industrial perspective by facilitating the processing of large...... on motion vectors embedded in the video stream without requiring a full decoding and reconstruction of video frames. To improve the robustness to noise, a confidence measure based on temporal and spatial clues is introduced to increase the probability of correct detection. The algorithm was tested on indoor...
Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.
Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals
Full Text Available This paper presents effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The conventional network supporting quality of service generally allows a negotiation at a call setup. However, it is not efficient for the video application since the compressed video traffic is statistically nonstationary. Thus, we consider the network supporting quality-of-service renegotiations during the data transmission and study effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The token bucket model, whose parameters are token filling rate and token bucket size, is adopted for the video traffic model. The renegotiating time instants and the parameters are determined by analyzing the statistical information of compressed video traffic. In this paper, two renegotiating approaches, that is, fixed renegotiating interval case and variable renegotiating interval case, are examined. Finally, the experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed schemes.
Leijen, Ali; Lam, Ineke; Wildschut, Liesbeth; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; Admiraal, Wilfried
This paper presents an evaluation case study that describes the experiences of 15 students and 2 teachers using a video-based learning environment, DiViDU, to facilitate students' daily reflection activities in a composition course and a ballet course. To support dance students' reflection processes streaming video was applied as follows: video…
Stok, van der P.D.V.; Jarnikov, D.; Kozlov, S.; Hartskamp, van M.A.; Lukkien, J.J.
High quality video streaming puts high demands on network and processor resources. The bandwidth of the communication medium and the timely arrival of the frames necessitate a tight resource allocation. Given the dynamic environment where videos are started and stopped and electro-magnetic
Abdallah-Saleh, Saleh; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos
Recently, the concept of Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) has been proposed to offload the resource requirements in computational capabilities, storage and security from mobile devices into the cloud. Internet video applications such as real-time streaming are expected to be ubiquitously deployed and supported over the cloud for mobile users, who typically encounter a range of wireless networks of diverse radio access technologies during their roaming. However, real-time video streaming for mobile cloud users across heterogeneous wireless networks presents multiple challenges. The network-layer quality of service (QoS) provision to support high-quality mobile video delivery in this demanding scenario remains an open research question, and this in turn affects the application-level visual quality and impedes mobile users' perceived quality of experience (QoE). In this paper, we devise a framework to support real-time video streaming in this new mobile video networking paradigm and evaluate the performance of the proposed framework empirically through a lab-based yet realistic testing platform. One particular issue we focus on is the effect of users' mobility on the QoS of video streaming over the cloud. We design and implement a hybrid platform comprising of a test-bed and an emulator, on which our concept of mobile cloud computing, video streaming and heterogeneous wireless networks are implemented and integrated to allow the testing of our framework. As representative heterogeneous wireless networks, the popular WLAN (Wi-Fi) and MAN (WiMAX) networks are incorporated in order to evaluate effects of handovers between these different radio access technologies. The H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) standard is employed for real-time video streaming from a server to mobile users (client nodes) in the networks. Mobility support is introduced to enable continuous streaming experience for a mobile user across the heterogeneous wireless network. Real-time video stream packets
Shahid, M.; Søgaard, Jacob; Pokhrel, J.
In order to cater for user’s quality of experience (QoE) re- quirements, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) based solutions of video services have become popular recently. User QoE feedback can be instrumental in improving the capabilities of such services. Perceptual quality experiments that involve...... humans are considered to be the most valid method of the as- sessment of QoE. Besides lab-based subjective experiments, crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This paper presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual pref......- erences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment....
Gudumasu, Srinivas; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan
360° video is an emerging new format in the media industry enabled by the growing availability of virtual reality devices. It provides the viewer a new sense of presence and immersion. Compared to conventional rectilinear video (2D or 3D), 360° video poses a new and difficult set of engineering challenges on video processing and delivery. Enabling comfortable and immersive user experience requires very high video quality and very low latency, while the large video file size poses a challenge to delivering 360° video in a quality manner at scale. Conventionally, 360° video represented in equirectangular or other projection formats can be encoded as a single standards-compliant bitstream using existing video codecs such as H.264/AVC or H.265/HEVC. Such method usually needs very high bandwidth to provide an immersive user experience. While at the client side, much of such high bandwidth and the computational power used to decode the video are wasted because the user only watches a small portion (i.e., viewport) of the entire picture. Viewport dependent 360°video processing and delivery approaches spend more bandwidth on the viewport than on non-viewports and are therefore able to reduce the overall transmission bandwidth. This paper proposes a dual buffer segment scheduling algorithm for viewport adaptive streaming methods to reduce latency when switching between high quality viewports in 360° video streaming. The approach decouples the scheduling of viewport segments and non-viewport segments to ensure the viewport segment requested matches the latest user head orientation. A base layer buffer stores all lower quality segments, and a viewport buffer stores high quality viewport segments corresponding to the most recent viewer's head orientation. The scheduling scheme determines viewport requesting time based on the buffer status and the head orientation. This paper also discusses how to deploy the proposed scheduling design for various viewport adaptive video
Lebrun, P.; Swoboda, D.
The use of scientific visualization for HEP analysis is briefly reviewed. The applications are highly interactive and very dynamical in nature. At Fermilab, E687, in collaboration with Visual Media Services, has produced a 1/2 hour video tape demonstrating the capability of SGI-EXPLORER applied to a Dalitz Analysis of Charm decay. This short contribution describes the authors experience with visualization and video technologies
Kwon, Dongwoo; Je, Huigwang; Kim, Hyeonwoo; Ju, Hongtaek; An, Donghyeok
Recently, smart mobile devices and wireless communication technologies such as WiFi, third generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) have been rapidly deployed. Many smart mobile device users can access the Internet wirelessly, which has increased mobile traffic. In 2014, more than half of the mobile traffic around the world was devoted to satisfying the increased demand for the video streaming. In this paper, we propose a scalable video streaming relay scheme. Because many collisions degrade the scalability of video streaming, we first separate networks to prevent excessive contention between devices. In addition, the member device controls the video download rate in order to adapt to video playback. If the data are sufficiently buffered, the member device stops the download. If not, it requests additional video data. We implemented apps to evaluate the proposed scheme and conducted experiments with smart mobile devices. The results showed that our scheme improves the scalability of video streaming in a wireless local area network (WLAN).
Kwon, Dongwoo; Je, Huigwang; Kim, Hyeonwoo; Ju, Hongtaek; An, Donghyeok
Recently, smart mobile devices and wireless communication technologies such as WiFi, third generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) have been rapidly deployed. Many smart mobile device users can access the Internet wirelessly, which has increased mobile traffic. In 2014, more than half of the mobile traffic around the world was devoted to satisfying the increased demand for the video streaming. In this paper, we propose a scalable video streaming relay scheme. Because many collisions degrade the scalability of video streaming, we first separate networks to prevent excessive contention between devices. In addition, the member device controls the video download rate in order to adapt to video playback. If the data are sufficiently buffered, the member device stops the download. If not, it requests additional video data. We implemented apps to evaluate the proposed scheme and conducted experiments with smart mobile devices. The results showed that our scheme improves the scalability of video streaming in a wireless local area network (WLAN). PMID:27907113
Full Text Available The general movement towards streaming or playing videos on the web has grown exponentially in the last decade. The combination of new streaming technologies and faster Internet connections continue to provide enhanced and robust user experience for video content. For many organizations, adding videos on their websites has transitioned from a “cool” feature to a mission critical service. Some of the benefits in putting videos online include: to engage and convert visitors, to raise awareness or drive interest, to share inspirational stories or recent unique events, etc. Along with the growth in the use and need for video content on the web; delivering videos online also remains a messy activity for developers and web teams. Examples of existing challenges include creating more accessible videos with captions and delivering content (using adaptive streaming for the diverse range of mobile and tablet devices. In this article, we report on the decision-making and early results in using the Kaltura video platform in two popular library platforms: CONTENTdm and DSpace.
Full Text Available The consumer demand for retrieving and delivering visual content through consumer electronic devices has increased rapidly in recent years. The quality of video in packet networks is susceptible to certain traffic characteristics: average bandwidth availability, loss, delay and delay variation (jitter. This paper presents a scheduling algorithm that modifies the stream of scalable video to combat jitter. The algorithm provides unequal look-ahead by safeguarding the base layer (without the need for overhead of the scalable video. The results of the experiments show that our scheduling algorithm reduces the number of frames with a violated deadline and significantly improves the continuity of the video stream without compromising the average Y Peek Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR.
Full Text Available This study aims at overcoming difficulty in learning language, both in Indonesian Language and English at international elementary school, especially in creative writing. Creative writing as part of human activity is creativity with language medium as prose (narrative, description, poem (old, new and modern, as well as drama (dialogue, role play, and sosio drama. Specific target to be achieved is the design of Video Streaming for all kinds of creative writing in the language of Indonesian and English. This investigation is a continuation of the previos investigation that has managed to make a video leaning in English for Math and Science as integrated learning to early class at international elementary school. The method used follow the principles of developmental reasearch. The firts stage is script writing video streaming through brainstorming with teachers, lecturers, teams of investigators Indonesia (UPI and Malaysia (USM. The second stage manuscript, making finalization Video Streaming, make the Web, media experts and creative writing material team investigators. The third stage, testing the Video Streaming, Web and dissemination of results into all the international elementary school in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Huo, Hongwen; Feng, Jufu
We present a novel online face recognition approach for video stream in this paper. Our method includes two stages: pre-training and online training. In the pre-training phase, our method observes interactions, collects batches of input data, and attempts to estimate their distributions (Box-Cox transformation is adopted here to normalize rough estimates). In the online training phase, our method incrementally improves classifiers' knowledge of the face space and updates it continuously with incremental eigenspace analysis. The performance achieved by our method shows its great potential in video stream processing.
Lev, Avram; Lasry, Amir; Loants, Maoz; Hadar, Ofer
Ideally, video streaming systems should provide the best quality video a user's device can handle without compromising on downloading speed. In this article, an improved video transmission system is presented which dynamically enhances the video quality based on a user's current network state and repairs errors from data lost in the video transmission. The system incorporates three main components: Scalable Video Coding (SVC) with three layers, multicast based on Receiver Layered Multicast (RLM) and an UnEqual Forward Error Correction (FEC) algorithm. The SVC provides an efficient method for providing different levels of video quality, stored as enhancement layers. In the presented system, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was implemented to dynamically adjust the video quality, adding or subtracting quality layers as appropriate. In addition, an FEC algorithm was added to compensate for data lost in transmission. A two dimensional FEC was used. The FEC algorithm came from the Pro MPEG code of practice #3 release 2. Several bit errors scenarios were tested (step function, cosine wave) with different bandwidth size and error values were simulated. The suggested scheme which includes SVC video encoding with 3 layers over IP Multicast with Unequal FEC algorithm was investigated under different channel conditions, variable bandwidths and different bit error rates. The results indicate improvement of the video quality in terms of PSNR over previous transmission schemes.
Full Text Available In this paper, error resilience is achieved by adaptive, application-layer rateless channel coding, which is used to protect H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec data-partitioned videos. A packetization strategy is an effective tool to control error rates and, in the paper, source-coded data partitioning serves to allocate smaller packets to more important compressed video data. The scheme for doing this is applied to real-time streaming across a broadband wireless link. The advantages of rateless code rate adaptivity are then demonstrated in the paper. Because the data partitions of a video slice are each assigned to different network packets, in congestion-prone wireless networks the increased number of packets per slice and their size disparity may increase the packet loss rate from buffer overflows. As a form of congestion resilience, this paper recommends packet-size dependent scheduling as a relatively simple way of alleviating the buffer-overflow problem arising from data-partitioned packets. The paper also contributes an analysis of data partitioning and packet sizes as a prelude to considering scheduling regimes. The combination of adaptive channel coding and prioritized packetization for error resilience with packet-size dependent packet scheduling results in a robust streaming scheme specialized for broadband wireless and real-time streaming applications such as video conferencing, video telephony, and telemedicine.
Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C
Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.
Jason J. Quinlan
Full Text Available When we couple the rise in video streaming with the growing number of portable devices (smart phones, tablets, laptops, we see an ever-increasing demand for high-definition video online while on the move. Wireless networks are inherently characterised by restricted shared bandwidth and relatively high error loss rates, thus presenting a challenge for the efficient delivery of high quality video. Additionally, mobile devices can support/demand a range of video resolutions and qualities. This demand for mobile streaming highlights the need for adaptive video streaming schemes that can adjust to available bandwidth and heterogeneity, and can provide a graceful changes in video quality, all while respecting viewing satisfaction. In this context, the use of well-known scalable/layered media streaming techniques, commonly known as scalable video coding (SVC, is an attractive solution. SVC encodes a number of video quality levels within a single media stream. This has been shown to be an especially effective and efficient solution, but it fares badly in the presence of datagram losses. While multiple description coding (MDC can reduce the effects of packet loss on scalable video delivery, the increased delivery cost is counterproductive for constrained networks. This situation is accentuated in cases where only the lower quality level is required. In this paper, we assess these issues and propose a new approach called Streaming Classes (SC through which we can define a key set of quality levels, each of which can be delivered in a self-contained manner. This facilitates efficient delivery, yielding reduced transmission byte-cost for devices requiring lower quality, relative to MDC and Adaptive Layer Distribution (ALD (42% and 76% respective reduction for layer 2, while also maintaining high levels of consistent quality. We also illustrate how selective packetisation technique can further reduce the effects of packet loss on viewable quality by
Fuller, Maren Y; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Gardner, Jerad M
Periscope is a live video-streaming smartphone application (app) that allows any individual with a smartphone to broadcast live video simultaneously to multiple smartphone users around the world. The aim of this review is to describe the potential of this emerging technology for global pathology education. To our knowledge, since the launch of the Periscope app (2015), only a handful of educational presentations by pathologists have been streamed as live video via Periscope. This review includes links to these initial attempts, a step-by-step guide for those interested in using the app for pathology education, and a summary of the pros and cons, including ethical/legal issues. We hope that pathologists will appreciate the potential of Periscope for sharing their knowledge, expertise, and research with a live (and potentially large) audience without the barriers associated with traditional video equipment and standard classroom/conference settings.
Cappallo, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Wilson, R.C.; Hancock, E.R.; Smith, W.A.P.
Retrieval of live, user-broadcast video streams is an under-addressed and increasingly relevant challenge. The on-line nature of the problem requires temporal evaluation and the unforeseeable scope of potential queries motivates an approach which can accommodate arbitrary search queries. To account
The upcoming round of exemptions to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 anticircumvention provision and the questions raised by the copyright infringement lawsuit filed against the against University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) for its streaming video practices illustrate the problematic state of the law concerning the digitization…
Full Text Available This paper proposes an advanced video streaming system based on scalable video coding in order to optimize resource utilization in wireless networks with retransmission mechanisms at radio protocol level. The key component of this system is a packet scheduling algorithm which operates on the different substreams of a main scalable video stream and which is implemented in a so-called media aware network element. The concerned type of transport channel is a dedicated channel subject to parameters (bitrate, loss rate variations on the long run. Moreover, we propose a combined scalability approach in which common temporal and SNR scalability features can be used jointly with a partitioning of the image into regions of interest. Simulation results show that our approach provides substantial quality gain compared to classical packet transmission methods and they demonstrate how ROI coding combined with SNR scalability allows to improve again the visual quality.
Eirik Evert Elias Jungar
Full Text Available Streaming video games, that is, live broadcasting playing video games on the internet, is incredibly popular. Millions tune into twitch.tv daily to watch eSport tournaments, their favourite streamer, and chat with other viewers. But all is not rosy in the world of streaming games. Recently, some game developers have aggressively exercised their copyright to, firstly, claim part of the streamers’ revenue, and secondly, control the context in which their game is shown. The article analyzes whether game developers have, and should have, such rights under EU copyright law. Reaching the conclusion that video game streams infringe the game developer’s right to communicate their works to the public, I argue that freedom of expression can and should be used to rein in their rights in certain cases. Subjecting the lawfulness of streams to game developers’ good will risks stifling the expressions of streamers. The streamers, their audience, and even the copyright holders, would be worse off for it.
A HTTP based video transmission system has been built upon the p2p(peer to peer) network structure utilizing the Java technologies. This makes the video monitoring available to any host which has been connected to the World Wide Web in any method, including those hosts behind firewalls or in isolated sub-networking. In order to achieve this, a video source peer has been developed, together with the client video playback peer. The video source peer can respond to the video stream request in HTTP protocol. HTTP based pipe communication model is developed to speeding the transmission of video stream data, which has been encoded into fragments using the JPEG codec. To make the system feasible in conveying video streams between arbitrary peers on the web, a HTTP protocol based relay peer is implemented as well. This video monitoring system has been applied in a tele-robotic system as a visual feedback to the operator.
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Gross, Warren J; Kadoury, Samuel
Ultrasound is a viable imaging technology in remote and resources-limited areas. Ultrasonography is a user-dependent skill which depends on a high degree of training and hands-on experience. However, there is a limited number of skillful sonographers located in remote areas. In this work, we aim to develop a real-time video streaming platform which allows specialist physicians to remotely monitor ultrasound exams. To this end, an ultrasound stream is captured and transmitted through a wireless network into remote computers, smart-phones and tablets. In addition, the system is equipped with a camera to track the position of the ultrasound probe. The main advantage of our work is using an open source platform for video streaming which gives us more control over streaming parameters than the available commercial products. The transmission delays of the system are evaluated for several ultrasound video resolutions and the results show that ultrasound videos close to the high-definition (HD) resolution can be received and displayed on an Android tablet with the delay of 0.5 seconds which is acceptable for accurate real-time diagnosis.
problem can be addressed, near the network edge, by applying dynamic, in-network adaptation (e.g., transcoding of video streams to meet available connection bandwidth, machine characteristics, and client preferences. In this paper, we extrapolate from earlier work of Shorfuzzaman et al. 2006 in which we implemented and assessed an MPEG-1 transcoding system on the Intel IXP1200 network processor to consider the feasibility of in-network transcoding for other video formats and network processor architectures. The use of “on-the-fly” video adaptation near the edge of the network offers the promise of simpler support for a wide range of end devices with different display, and so forth, characteristics that can be used in different types of environments.
As Web-based courses using videos have become popular in recent years, the issue of managing audiovisual aids has become noteworthy. The contents of audiovisual aids may include a lecture, an interview, a featurette, an experiment, etc. The audiovisual aids of Web-based courses are transformed into the streaming format that can make the quality of…
satellite link for transmitting video streams to a bus, where they are relayed to passengers' devices. We say that a bus works in smart mode if it takes advantage of the knowledge of the exact points where fixed obstacles will prevent receiving the satellite signal for a certain time period. This information is sent to the hub via a return channel. The hub, in its turn, suspends the transmissions to that specific bus for the given time interval, thus avoiding information losses and unnecessary bandwidth occupation. Buffering video packets, without any quality of service (QoS degradation, seamlessly compensates channel blockages up to a given duration. We determine the most appropriate transmission parameters for video streaming with good video QoS in a mobile satellite environment; moreover, we evaluate how “smart” the system can be in terms of bandwidth saving, by comparing it with the situation where the bus does not exploit the description of its route, still maintaining the same QoS requirements.
Liotta, A.; Druda, L.; Exarchakos, G.; Menkovski, V.; Khalil, I.
With the widespread adoption of mobile Internet, the process of streaming video has become varied and complex. A diversity of factors affect the way we perceive quality in video streaming (also known as 'quality of experience', or QoE), involving far more than the individual video and network
Full Text Available The real time fire detection in video stream is one of the most interesting problems in computer vision. In fact, in most cases it would be nice to have fire detection algorithm implemented in usual industrial cameras and/or to have possibility to replace standard industrial cameras with one implementing the fire detection algorithm. In this paper, we present new algorithm for detecting fire in video. The algorithm is based on tracking suspicious regions in time with statistical analysis of their trajectory. False alarms are minimized by combining multiple detection criteria: pixel brightness, trajectories of suspicious regions for evaluating characteristic fire flickering and persistence of alarm state in sequence of frames. The resulting implementation is fast and therefore can run on wide range of affordable hardware.
Haan, Hubertus; Feuchter, Timo; Münzberg, Mario; Fritze, Jörg; Schlemmer, Harry
The video output of thermal imagers stayed constant over almost two decades. When the famous Common Modules were employed a thermal image at first was presented to the observer in the eye piece only. In the early 1990s TV cameras were attached and the standard output was CCIR. In the civil camera market output standards changed to digital formats a decade ago with digital video streaming being nowadays state-of-the-art. The reasons why the output technique in the thermal world stayed unchanged over such a long time are: the very conservative view of the military community, long planning and turn-around times of programs and a slower growth of pixel number of TIs in comparison to consumer cameras. With megapixel detectors the CCIR output format is not sufficient any longer. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art compression and streaming solutions for TIs.
Torres Vega, M.; Mocanu, D.C.; Liotta, A.
Evaluating quality of experience in video streaming services requires a quality metric that works in real time and for a broad range of video types and network conditions. This means that, subjective video quality assessment studies, or complex objective video quality assessment metrics, which would
Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos
In recent years video traffic has become the dominant application on the Internet with global year-on-year increases in video-oriented consumer services. Driven by improved bandwidth in both mobile and fixed networks, steadily reducing hardware costs and the development of new technologies, many existing and new classes of commercial and industrial video applications are now being upgraded or emerging. Some of the use cases for these applications include areas such as public and private security monitoring for loss prevention or intruder detection, industrial process monitoring and critical infrastructure monitoring. The use of video is becoming commonplace in defence, security, commercial, industrial, educational and health contexts. Towards optimal performances, the design or optimisation in each of these applications should be context aware and task oriented with the characteristics of the video stream (frame rate, spatial resolution, bandwidth etc.) chosen to match the use case requirements. For example, in the security domain, a task-oriented consideration may be that higher resolution video would be required to identify an intruder than to simply detect his presence. Whilst in the same case, contextual factors such as the requirement to transmit over a resource-limited wireless link, may impose constraints on the selection of optimum task-oriented parameters. This paper presents a novel, conceptually simple and easily implemented method of assessing video quality relative to its suitability for a particular task and dynamically adapting videos streams during transmission to ensure that the task can be successfully completed. Firstly we defined two principle classes of tasks: recognition tasks and event detection tasks. These task classes are further subdivided into a set of task-related profiles, each of which is associated with a set of taskoriented attributes (minimum spatial resolution, minimum frame rate etc.). For example, in the detection class
Gudumasu, Srinivas; Hamza, Ahmed; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan
This paper proposes a layer based buffer aware rate adaptation design which is able to avoid abrupt video quality fluctuation, reduce re-buffering latency and improve bandwidth utilization when compared to a conventional simulcast based adaptive streaming system. The proposed adaptation design schedules DASH segment requests based on the estimated bandwidth, dependencies among video layers and layer buffer fullness. Scalable HEVC video coding is the latest state-of-art video coding technique that can alleviate various issues caused by simulcast based adaptive video streaming. With scalable coded video streams, the video is encoded once into a number of layers representing different qualities and/or resolutions: a base layer (BL) and one or more enhancement layers (EL), each incrementally enhancing the quality of the lower layers. Such layer based coding structure allows fine granularity rate adaptation for the video streaming applications. Two video streaming use cases are presented in this paper. The first use case is to stream HD SHVC video over a wireless network where available bandwidth varies, and the performance comparison between proposed layer-based streaming approach and conventional simulcast streaming approach is provided. The second use case is to stream 4K/UHD SHVC video over a hybrid access network that consists of a 5G millimeter wave high-speed wireless link and a conventional wired or WiFi network. The simulation results verify that the proposed layer based rate adaptation approach is able to utilize the bandwidth more efficiently. As a result, a more consistent viewing experience with higher quality video content and minimal video quality fluctuations can be presented to the user.
From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated
Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4 .
Rik Van de Walle
Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4%.
Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren
interaktiv tjeneste baseret på realtidsfremvisning af videotrailere, såkaldt streaming video og audio, og hvor brugeren kan få information om en film der tænkes udbudt på en pay-per-view kanal. Der i arbejdets forløb blevet opbygget en demo, der implementerer en sådan tjeneste.......Som et led i Tele Danmark Kabel TV's markedsføring ønsker man at kunne præsentere filmtrailere og andet materiale i form af levende billeder til kunderne via Wold Wide Web (WWW). Dette projekts hovedformål er at undersøge eksisterende metoder og udvikle redskaber til at præsentere en tilsvarende...
Lee, Kyung-Jun; Suh, Doug-Young; Park, Gwang-Hoon; Huh, Jae-Doo
This letter proposes a QoS control method for video streaming service over wireless networks. Based on statistical analysis, the time-varying MAC parameters highly related to channel condition are selected to predict available bitrate. Adaptive bitrate control of scalably-encoded video guarantees continuity in streaming service even if the channel condition changes abruptly.
Søgaard, Jacob; Krasula, Lukás; Shahid, Muhammad
Objective video quality metrics are designed to estimate the quality of experience of the end user. However, these objective metrics are usually validated with video streams degraded under common distortion types. In the presented work, we analyze the performance of published and known full......-reference and noreference quality metrics in estimating the perceived quality of adaptive bit-rate video streams knowingly out of scope. Experimental results indicate not surprisingly that state of the art objective quality metrics overlook the perceived degradations in the adaptive video streams and perform poorly...
Steaming and Digital Media gives you a concise and direct analysis to understand a scalable, profitable venture, as well as the common and hidden pitfalls to avoid in your business. By focusing on both the business implications and technical differences between online video and traditional broadcast distribution, you will learn how to gain significant time-to-market and cost-saving advantages by effectively using streaming and digital media technologies. As part of the NAB Executive Technology Briefing series, the book is geared towards the manager or executive and no technical prerequisite is
Shehabi, Arman; Walker, Ben; Masanet, Eric
The rapid growth of streaming video entertainment has recently received attention as a possibly less energy intensive alternative to the manufacturing and transportation of digital video discs (DVDs). This study utilizes a life-cycle assessment approach to estimate the primary energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with video viewing through both traditional DVD methods and online video streaming. Base-case estimates for 2011 video viewing energy and CO 2 (e) emission intensities indicate video streaming can be more efficient than DVDs, depending on DVD viewing method. Video streaming benefits from relatively more efficient end-user devices than DVD viewing, though much of that savings is lost when accounting for the additional energy from network data transmission. Video streaming appears distinctly favorable when compared against any DVD viewing that includes consumer driving, which significantly increases the energy and CO 2 (e) emissions per viewing hour. Total US 2011 video viewing required about 192 PJ of primary energy and emitted about 10.5 billion kg of CO 2 (e). Shifting all 2011 DVD viewing to video streaming reduces the total primary energy use to about 162 PJ and the CO 2 (e) emissions to about 8.6 billion kg, representing a savings equivalent to the primary energy used to meet the electricity demand of nearly 200 000 US households each year. Sensitivity analysis indicates that results are most influenced by the end-user DVD player power demand, data transmission energy, and consumer travel for store DVDs. Data center energy use—both operational and embodied within the IT equipment—account for <1% of the total video streaming energy use. Results from this study indicate that designers and policy makers should focus on the efficiency of end-user devices and network transmission energy to curb future increases in energy use from the proliferation of video streaming. (letters)
Ozcelebi, T.; Sunay, M.O.; Tekalp, A.M.; Civanlar, M.R.
We present a cross-layer optimized video rate adaptation and user scheduling scheme for multi-user wireless video streaming aiming for maximum quality of service (QoS) for each user,, maximum system video throughput, and QoS fairness among users. These objectives are jointly optimized using a
Achmad Zakaria Azhar
Full Text Available Evolved High Speed Packet Access (HSPA+ is a mobile telecommunication system technology and the evolution of HSPA technology. This technology has a packet data based service with downlink speeds up to 21.1 Mbps and uplink speed up to 11.5 Mbps on the bandwidth 5MHz. This technology is expected to fulfill and support the needs for information that involves all aspects of multimedia such as video and audio, especially live video streaming. By utilizing this technology it will facilitate communicating the information, for example to monitoring the situation of the house, the news coverage at some certain area, and other events in real time. This thesis aims to identify and test the Quality of Service (QoS performance on the network that is used for live video streaming with the parameters of throughput, delay, jitter and packet loss. The software used for monitoring the data traffic of the live video streaming network is wireshark network analyzer. From the test results it is obtained that the average throughput of provider B is 5,295 Kbps bigger than the provider A, the average delay of provider B is 0.618 ms smaller than the provider A, the average jitter of provider B is 0.420 ms smaller than the provider A and the average packet loss of provider B is 0.451% smaller than the provider A.
M. Yu. Katayev
Full Text Available This article describes an approach to the assessment of motion activity of man in after-stroke period, allowing the doctor to get new information to give a more informed recommendations on rehabilitation treatment than in traditional approaches. Consider description of the hardware-software complex for determination and analysis of motion activity after-stroke patient for the video stream. The article provides a description of the complex, its algorithmic filling and the results of the work on the example of processing of the actual data. The algorithms and technology to significantly accelerate the gait analysis and improve the quality of diagnostics post-stroke patients.
Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Bendsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Jonas
Abstract: The bachelor programme in biomedical laboratory analysis at VIA University College in Aarhus has established a blended class concept which combines traditional and live broadcast teaching. 1-2 days a week students have the choice either to attend teaching sessions in the traditional way...... or to work from home via the Internet. In live video-streamed teaching classes teachers tend to choose one-way communication instead of dialogue. We know from our early findings that technology issues are one of the main reasons for this, since the same teachers use dialogue and discussions in traditional...
Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a quickly growing demand for the transmission of voice, video and data over an IP based network. Multimedia, whether we are talking about broadcast, audio and video transmission and others, from a global perspective is growing exponentially with time. With incoming requests from users, new technologies for data transfer are continually developing. Data must be delivered reliably and with the fewest losses at such high speed. Video quality as part of multimedia technology has a very important role nowadays. It is influenced by several factors, where each of them can have many forms and processing. Network performance is the major degradation effect that influences the quality of resulting image. Poor network performance (lack of link capacity, high network loadâ€¦ causes data packet losses or different delivery time for each packet. This work focuses exactly on these network phenomena. It examines the impact of different delays and packet losses on the quality parameters of triple play services, to evaluate the results using objective methods. The aim of this work is to bring a detailed view on the performance of video streaming over IP-based networks.
Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad
The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.
Ibrahimy, Abdullah Faruq Ibn; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibrahimy, Muhammad Ibn
The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper
Anggelina I Diwi
Full Text Available Streaming adalah salah satu bentuk teknologi yang memperkenankan file digunakan secara langsung tanpa menunggu selesainya unggahan (download dan berlangsung secara kontinyu tanpa interupsi. Untuk mengaplikasikan video streaming kedalam jaringan, diperlukan pertama-tama untuk mengkalkulasi bandwidth yang tersedia, untuk mendukung transmisi data. Bandwidth merupakan parameter penting untuk streaming di dalam jaringan. Makin besar bandwidth yang tersedia, makin baik kualitas video yang ditampilkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kebutuhan bandwidth untuk layanan video live streaming; metode yang digunakan di dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan mengadakan pengukuran unjuk kerja jaringan secara langsung di lapangan, yaitu LAN di lingkungan Universitas Telkom. Implementasi media streaming server-client di dalam penelitian ini menggunakan file video yang berbeda, berdasarkan jumlah frame yang dikirim (fps. Skenario video streaming ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan latar belakang trafik yang bervariasi, untuk melihat pengaruhnya terhadap parameter QoS jaringan. Pengujian performansi Quality of Service (QoS dalam implementasi video live streaming ini menggunakan software network analyzer Wireshark. Hasil penilitian menunjukkan, bahwa video dengan laju frame lebih besar dari 15 fps, memberikan jitter dan throughput yang besar pula.
A. O. Adeyemi-Ejeye
Full Text Available Ultrahigh definition video streaming has been explored in recent years. Most recently the possibility of 4kUHD video streaming over wireless 802.11n was presented, using preencoded video. Live encoding for streaming using x264 has proven to be very slow. The use of parallel encoding has been explored to speed up the process using CUDA. However there hasnot been a parallel implementation for video streaming. We therefore present for the first time a novel implementation of 4kUHD live encoding for streaming over a wireless network at low bitrate indoors, using CUDA for parallel H264 encoding. Our experimental results are used to verify our claim.
Ammar, M.; Mitrea, M.; Hasnaoui, M.; Le Callet, P.
Visual saliency maps already proved their efficiency in a large variety of image/video communication application fields, covering from selective compression and channel coding to watermarking. Such saliency maps are generally based on different visual characteristics (like color, intensity, orientation, motion,…) computed from the pixel representation of the visual content. This paper resumes and extends our previous work devoted to the definition of a saliency map solely extracted from the MPEG-4 AVC stream syntax elements. The MPEG-4 AVC saliency map thus defined is a fusion of static and dynamic map. The static saliency map is in its turn a combination of intensity, color and orientation features maps. Despite the particular way in which all these elementary maps are computed, the fusion techniques allowing their combination plays a critical role in the final result and makes the object of the proposed study. A total of 48 fusion formulas (6 for combining static features and, for each of them, 8 to combine static to dynamic features) are investigated. The performances of the obtained maps are evaluated on a public database organized at IRCCyN, by computing two objective metrics: the Kullback-Leibler divergence and the area under curve.
Chernov, Timofey S.; Razumnuy, Nikita P.; Kozharinov, Alexander S.; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Arlazarov, Vladimir V.
Recognition and machine vision systems have long been widely used in many disciplines to automate various processes of life and industry. Input images of optical recognition systems can be subjected to a large number of different distortions, especially in uncontrolled or natural shooting conditions, which leads to unpredictable results of recognition systems, making it impossible to assess their reliability. For this reason, it is necessary to perform quality control of the input data of recognition systems, which is facilitated by modern progress in the field of image quality evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the approach to designing optical recognition systems with built-in input image quality estimation modules and feedback, for which the necessary definitions are introduced and a model for describing such systems is constructed. The efficiency of this approach is illustrated by the example of solving the problem of selecting the best frames for recognition in a video stream for a system with limited resources. Experimental results are presented for the system for identity documents recognition, showing a significant increase in the accuracy and speed of the system under simulated conditions of automatic camera focusing, leading to blurring of frames.
Bampis, Christos G; Li, Zhi; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Bovik, Alan C
Streaming video services represent a very large fraction of global bandwidth consumption. Due to the exploding demands of mobile video streaming services, coupled with limited bandwidth availability, video streams are often transmitted through unreliable, low-bandwidth networks. This unavoidably leads to two types of major streaming-related impairments: compression artifacts and/or rebuffering events. In streaming video applications, the end-user is a human observer; hence being able to predict the subjective Quality of Experience (QoE) associated with streamed videos could lead to the creation of perceptually optimized resource allocation strategies driving higher quality video streaming services. We propose a variety of recurrent dynamic neural networks that conduct continuous-time subjective QoE prediction. By formulating the problem as one of time-series forecasting, we train a variety of recurrent neural networks and non-linear autoregressive models to predict QoE using several recently developed subjective QoE databases. These models combine multiple, diverse neural network inputs, such as predicted video quality scores, rebuffering measurements, and data related to memory and its effects on human behavioral responses, using them to predict QoE on video streams impaired by both compression artifacts and rebuffering events. Instead of finding a single time-series prediction model, we propose and evaluate ways of aggregating different models into a forecasting ensemble that delivers improved results with reduced forecasting variance. We also deploy appropriate new evaluation metrics for comparing time-series predictions in streaming applications. Our experimental results demonstrate improved prediction performance that approaches human performance. An implementation of this work can be found at https://github.com/christosbampis/NARX_QoE_release.
Lin, W Sabrina; Liu, K J Ray
Mobile phones are among the most popular consumer devices, and the recent developments of 3G networks and smart phones enable users to watch video programs by subscribing data plans from service providers. Due to the ubiquity of mobile phones and phone-to-phone communication technologies, data-plan subscribers can redistribute the video content to nonsubscribers. Such a redistribution mechanism is a potential competitor for the mobile service provider and is very difficult to trace given users' high mobility. The service provider has to set a reasonable price for the data plan to prevent such unauthorized redistribution behavior to protect or maximize his/her own profit. In this paper, we analyze the optimal price setting for the service provider by investigating the equilibrium between the subscribers and the secondary buyers in the content-redistribution network. We model the behavior between the subscribers and the secondary buyers as a noncooperative game and find the optimal price and quantity for both groups of users. Based on the behavior of users in the redistribution network, we investigate the evolutionarily stable ratio of mobile users who decide to subscribe to the data plan. Such an analysis can help the service provider preserve his/her profit under the threat of the redistribution networks and can improve the quality of service for end users.
Williams, Glenn L.
When video replaces film the digitized video data accumulates very rapidly, leading to a difficult and costly data storage problem. One solution exists for cases when the video images represent continuously repetitive 'static scenes' containing negligible activity, occasionally interrupted by short events of interest. Minutes or hours of redundant video frames can be ignored, and not stored, until activity begins. A new, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term or short term changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pretrigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable for archiving the digital stream from only the significant video images.
Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos
This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.
Liang, C.; Hu, S.
Recent advances in software-defined mobile networks (SDMNs), in-network caching, and mobile edge computing (MEC) can have great effects on video services in next generation mobile networks. In this paper, we jointly consider SDMNs, in-network caching, and MEC to enhance the video service in next generation mobile networks. With the objective of maximizing the mean measurement of video quality, an optimization problem is formulated. Due to the coupling of video data rate, computing resource, a...
Torres Vega, M.; Mocanu, D.C.; Famaey, J.; Stavrou, S.; Liotta, A.
Video content providers put stringent requirements on the quality assessment methods realized on their services. They need to be accurate, real-time, adaptable to new content, and scalable as the video set grows. In this letter, we introduce a novel automated and computationally efficient video
de Boer, Jelle; Kommers, Piet A. M.; de Brock, Bert
Improving the effectiveness of learning when students observe video lectures becomes urgent with the rising advent of (web-based) video materials. Vital questions are how students differ in their learning preferences and what patterns in viewing video can be detected in log files. Our experiments
Ballesteros, Luis Guillermo Martinez; Ickin, Selim; Fiedler, Markus
In this paper, we study the influence of video stalling on QoE. We provide QoE models that are obtained in realistic scenarios on the smartphone, and provide energy-saving approaches for smartphone by leveraging the proposed QoE models in relation to energy. Results show that approximately 5J...... is saved in a 3 minutes video clip with an acceptable Mean Opinion Score (MOS) level when the video frames are skipped. If the video frames are not skipped, then it is suggested to avoid freezes during a video stream as the freezes highly increase the energy waste on the smartphones....
Full Text Available High-quality real-time video streaming to users in mobile networks is challenging due to the dynamically changing nature of the network paths, particularly the limited bandwidth and varying end-to-end delay. In this paper, we empirically investigate the performance of multipath streaming in the context of multihomed mobile networks. Existing schemes that make use of the aggregated bandwidth of multiple paths can overcome bandwidth limitations on a single path but suffer an efficiency penalty caused by retransmission of lost packets in reliable transport schemes or path switching overheads in unreliable transport schemes. This work focuses on the evaluation of schemes to permit concurrent use of multiple paths to deliver video streams. A comprehensive streaming framework for concurrent multipath video streaming is proposed and experimentally evaluated, using current state-of-the-art H.264 Scalable Video Coding (H.264/SVC and the next generation High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC standards. It provides a valuable insight into the benefit of using such schemes in conjunction with encoder specific packet prioritisation mechanisms for quality-aware packet scheduling and scalable streaming. The remaining obstacles to deployment of concurrent multipath schemes are identified, and the challenges in realising HEVC based concurrent multipath streaming are highlighted.
Doulamis, Anastasios; Doulamis, Nikolaos; Bertini, Marco
.g., thematic parks, critical public infrastructures), crisis management in public service areas (e.g., train stations, airports), security (detection of abnormal behaviors in surveillance videos), semantic characterization, and annotation of video streams in various domains (e.g., broadcast or user...
Kaul, Manohar; Khosla, Rajiv; Mitsukura, Y
of this intelligent traffic-shaping algorithm on the underlying network real time packet traffic and the eradication of unwanted abruption in the streaming video qualiy. This paper concluded from the end results of the simulation that neural networks are a very superior means of modeling real-time traffic......This paper proposes a traffic shaping algorithm based on neural networks, which adapts to a network over which streaming video is being transmitted. The purpose of this intelligent shaper is to eradicate all traffic congestion and improve the end-user's video quality. It possesses the capability...
Ravattu, Radha; Balasetty, Prudhviraj
Online digital videos have made a revolutionary evolution since the social networking sites such as YouTube and Hulu have emerged. These websites facilitate video accessable and only a click away. Ever increasing internet traffic and a very significant increase in the use of videos in social networking has led to the problem of network congestion. Consequently, it becomes essential and imperative to analyze the traffic flow and comprehend how it is being delivered from the server. If the flow...
Kotevski, Zoran; Mitrevski, Pece
Peer to Peer (P2P) live streaming is relatively new paradigm that aims at streaming live video to large number of clients at low cost. Many such applications already exist in the market, but, prior to creating such system it is necessary to analyze its performance via representative model that can provide good insight in the system’s behavior. Modeling and performance analysis of P2P live video streaming systems is challenging task which requires addressing many properties and issues of P2P s...
Sowan, Azizeh K; Idhail, Jamila Abu
Nursing students should exhibit competence in nursing skills in order to provide safe and quality patient care. This study describes the design and students' response to an interactive web-based course using streaming video technology tailored to students' needs and the course objectives of the fundamentals of nursing skills clinical course. A mixed-methodology design was used to describe the experience of 102 first-year undergraduate nursing students at a school of nursing in Jordan who were enrolled in the course. A virtual course with streaming videos was designed to demonstrate medication administration fundamental skills. The videos recorded the ideal lab demonstration of the skills, and real-world practice performed by registered nurses for patients in a hospital setting. After course completion, students completed a 30-item satisfaction questionnaire, 8 self-efficacy scales, and a 4-item scale solicited their preferences of using the virtual course as a substitute or a replacement of the lab demonstration. Students' grades in the skill examination of the procedures were measured. Relationships between the main variables and predictors of satisfaction and self-efficacy were examined. Students were satisfied with the virtual course (3.9 ± 0.56, out of a 5-point scale) with a high-perceived overall self-efficacy (4.38 ± 0.42, out of a 5-point scale). Data showed a significant correlation between student satisfaction, self-efficacy and achievement in the virtual course (r = 0.45-0.49, p students accessed the course from home and some faced technical difficulties. Significant predictors of satisfaction were ease of access the course and gender (B = 0.35, 0.25, CI = 0.12-0.57, 0.02-0.48 respectively). The mean achievement score of students in the virtual class (7.5 ± 0.34) was significantly higher than that of a previous comparable cohort who was taught in the traditional method (6.0 ± 0.23) (p students believed that the virtual course is a sufficient
Full Text Available Video streaming over wireless networks faces challenges of time-varying packet loss rate and fluctuating bandwidth. In this paper, we focus on streaming precoded video that is both source and channel coded. Dynamic rate shaping has been proposed to shape the precompressed video to adapt to the fluctuating bandwidth. In our earlier work, rate shaping was extended to shape the channel coded precompressed video, and to take into account the time-varying packet loss rate as well as the fluctuating bandwidth of the wireless networks. However, prior work on rate shaping can only adjust the rate oarsely. In this paper, we propose fine-grained rate shaping (FGRS to allow for bandwidth adaptation over a wide range of bandwidth and packet loss rate in fine granularities. The video is precoded with fine granularity scalability (FGS followed by channel coding. Utilizing the fine granularity property of FGS and channel coding, FGRS selectively drops part of the precoded video and still yields decodable bit-stream at the decoder. Moreover, FGRS optimizes video streaming rather than achieves heuristic objectives as conventional methods. A two-stage rate-distortion (RD optimization algorithm is proposed for FGRS. Promising results of FGRS are shown.
Belyaev, Evgeny; Moreschini, Sergio; Vinel, Alexey
Real-time video delivery in Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) scenario enables a variety of multimedia vehicular services. We conduct experiments with Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) transceivers located in the mutual proximity and exchanging Skype video calls traffic. We demonstrate...
E. A. Pakulova
Full Text Available The paper deals with video data transmission in format H.264/SVC standard with QoS requirements satisfaction. The Sender-Side Path Scheduling (SSPS algorithm and Sender-Side Video Adaptation (SSVA algorithm were developed. SSPS algorithm gives the possibility to allocate video traffic among several interfaces while SSVA algorithm dynamically changes the quality of video sequence in relation to QoS requirements. It was shown that common usage of two developed algorithms enables to aggregate throughput of access networks, increase parameters of Quality of Experience and decrease losses in comparison with Round Robin algorithm. For evaluation of proposed solution, the set-up was made. The trace files with throughput of existing public networks were used in experiments. Based on this information the throughputs of networks were limited and losses for paths were set. The results of research may be used for study and transmission of video data in heterogeneous wireless networks.
Bouma, Henri; van der Mark, Wannes; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Landsmeer, Sander H.; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; ter Haar, Frank B.; Wieringa, F. Pieter; van Basten, Jean-Paul
Compared to open surgery, minimal invasive surgery offers reduced trauma and faster recovery. However, lack of direct view limits space perception. Stereo-endoscopy improves depth perception, but is still restricted to the direct endoscopic field-of-view. We describe a novel technology that reconstructs 3D-panoramas from endoscopic video streams providing a much wider cumulative overview. The method is compatible with any endoscope. We demonstrate that it is possible to generate photorealistic 3D-environments from mono- and stereoscopic endoscopy. The resulting 3D-reconstructions can be directly applied in simulators and e-learning. Extended to real-time processing, the method looks promising for telesurgery or other remote vision-guided tasks.
Alhaisoni, M.; Ghanbari, M.; Liotta, A.
Peer-to-Peer streaming has been increasingly deployed recently. This comes out from its ability to convey the stream over the IP network to a large number of end-users (or peers). However, due to the heterogeneous nature among the peers, some of them will not be capable to relay or upload the
Liu, Hao; Lu, Jiwen; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie
In this paper, we propose a two-stream transformer networks (TSTN) approach for video-based face alignment. Unlike conventional image-based face alignment approaches which cannot explicitly model the temporal dependency in videos and motivated by the fact that consistent movements of facial landmarks usually occur across consecutive frames, our TSTN aims to capture the complementary information of both the spatial appearance on still frames and the temporal consistency information across frames. To achieve this, we develop a two-stream architecture, which decomposes the video-based face alignment into spatial and temporal streams accordingly. Specifically, the spatial stream aims to transform the facial image to the landmark positions by preserving the holistic facial shape structure. Accordingly, the temporal stream encodes the video input as active appearance codes, where the temporal consistency information across frames is captured to help shape refinements. Experimental results on the benchmarking video-based face alignment datasets show very competitive performance of our method in comparisons to the state-of-the-arts.
Almowuena, Saleh Abdullah
The demand for multimedia streaming over mobile networks has been steadily increasing in the past several years. For instance, it has become common for mobile users to stream full TV episodes, sports events, and movies while on the go. Unfortunately, this growth in demand has strained the wireless networks despite the significant increase in their capacities with recent generations. It has also caused a significant increase in the energy consumption at mobile terminals. To overcome these chal...
This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.
Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins
With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.
Nestor Michael Caños Tiglao
Full Text Available In large scale IP Television (IPTV and Mobile TV distributions, the video signal is typically encoded and transmitted using several quality streams, over IP Multicast channels, to several groups of receivers, which are classified in terms of their reception rate. As the number of video streams is usually constrained by both the number of TV channels and the maximum capacity of the content distribution network, it is necessary to find the selection of video stream transmission rates that maximizes the overall user satisfaction. In order to efficiently solve this problem, this paper proposes the Dynamic Programming Multi-rate Optimization (DPMO algorithm. The latter was comparatively evaluated considering several user distributions, featuring different access rate patterns. The experimental results reveal that DPMO is significantly more efficient than exhaustive search, while presenting slightly higher execution times than the non-optimal Multi-rate Step Search (MSS algorithm.
Chen Homer H
Full Text Available The paradigm shift of network design from performance-centric to constraint-centric has called for new signal processing techniques to deal with various aspects of resource-constrained communication and networking. In this paper, we consider the computational constraints of a multimedia communication system and propose a video adaptation mechanism for live video streaming of multiple channels. The video adaptation mechanism includes three salient features. First, it adjusts the computational resource of the streaming server block by block to provide a fine control of the encoding complexity. Second, as far as we know, it is the first mechanism to allocate the computational resource to multiple channels. Third, it utilizes a complexity-distortion model to determine the optimal coding parameter values to achieve global optimization. These techniques constitute the basic building blocks for a successful application of wireless and Internet video to digital home, surveillance, IPTV, and online games.
Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of content-adaptive packetization scheme for streaming of 3D wavelet-based video content over lossy IP networks. The tradeoff between rate and distortion is controlled by jointly adapting scalable source coding rate and level of forward error correction (FEC protection. A content dependent packetization mechanism with data-interleaving and Reed-Solomon protection for wavelet-based video codecs is proposed to provide unequal error protection. This paper also tries to answer an important question for scalable video streaming systems: given extra bandwidth, should one increase the level of channel protection for the most important packets, or transmit more scalable source data? Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves good balance between quality of the received video and level of error protection under bandwidth-varying lossy IP networks.
Lu, Meng-Ting; Yao, Jason J.; Chen, Homer H.
The paradigm shift of network design from performance-centric to constraint-centric has called for new signal processing techniques to deal with various aspects of resource-constrained communication and networking. In this paper, we consider the computational constraints of a multimedia communication system and propose a video adaptation mechanism for live video streaming of multiple channels. The video adaptation mechanism includes three salient features. First, it adjusts the computational resource of the streaming server block by block to provide a fine control of the encoding complexity. Second, as far as we know, it is the first mechanism to allocate the computational resource to multiple channels. Third, it utilizes a complexity-distortion model to determine the optimal coding parameter values to achieve global optimization. These techniques constitute the basic building blocks for a successful application of wireless and Internet video to digital home, surveillance, IPTV, and online games.
Petrovic, Goran; Farin, Dirk; de With, Peter H. N.
3D-Video systems allow a user to perceive depth in the viewed scene and to display the scene from arbitrary viewpoints interactively and on-demand. This paper presents a prototype implementation of a 3D-video streaming system using an IP network. The architecture of our streaming system is layered, where each information layer conveys a single coded video signal or coded scene-description data. We demonstrate the benefits of a layered architecture with two examples: (a) stereoscopic video streaming, (b) monoscopic video streaming with remote multiple-perspective rendering. Our implementation experiments confirm that prototyping 3D-video streaming systems is possible with today's software and hardware. Furthermore, our current operational prototype demonstrates that highly heterogeneous clients can coexist in the system, ranging from auto-stereoscopic 3D displays to resource-constrained mobile devices.
Full Text Available With the proliferation of high-performance, large-screen mobile devices, users’ expectations of having access to high-resolution video content in smooth network environments are steadily growing. To guarantee such stable streaming, a high cellular network bandwidth is required; yet network providers often charge high prices for even limited data plans. Moreover, the costs of smoothly streaming high-resolution videos are not merely monetary; the device’s battery life must also be accounted for. To resolve these problems, we design an optimal multi-interface selection system for streaming video over HTTP/TCP. An optimization problem including battery life and LTE data constraints is derived and then solved using binary integer programming. Additionally, the system is designed with an adoption of split-layer scalable video coding, which provides direct adaptations of video quality and prevents out-of-order packet delivery problems. The proposed system is evaluated using a prototype application in a real, iOS-based device as well as through experiments conducted in heterogeneous mobile scenarios. Results show that the system not only guarantees the highest-possible video quality, but also prevents reckless consumption of LTE data and battery life.
Emoto, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yoshida, Masanobu; Nagayama, Yoshio; Hasegawa, Makoto
In order to accomplish smooth cooperation research, remote participation plays an important role. For this purpose, the authors have been developing various applications for remote participation for the LHD (Large Helical Device) experiments, such as Web interface for visualization of acquired data. The video streaming system is one of them. It is useful to grasp the status of the ongoing experiment remotely, and we provide the video images displayed in the control room to the remote users. However, usual streaming servers cannot send video images without delay. The delay changes depending on how to send the images, but even a little delay might become critical if the researchers use the images to adjust the diagnostic devices. One of the main causes of delay is the procedure of compressing and decompressing the images. Furthermore, commonly used video compression method is lossy; it removes less important information to reduce the size. However, lossy images cannot be used for physical analysis because the original information is lost. Therefore, video images for remote participation should be sent without compression in order to minimize the delay and to supply high quality images durable for physical analysis. However, sending uncompressed video images requires large network bandwidth. For example, sending 5 frames of 16bit color SXGA images a second requires 100Mbps. Furthermore, the video images must be sent to several remote sites simultaneously. It is hard for a server PC to handle such a large data. To cope with this problem, the authors adopted IP multicast to send video images to several remote sites at once. Because IP multicast packets are sent only to the network on which the clients want the data; the load of the server does not depend on the number of clients and the network load is reduced. In this paper, the authors discuss the feasibility of high bandwidth video streaming system using IP multicast. (author)
Radiation workers have to receive the radiation safety training every year. It is very hard for them to receive the training within a limited chance of training. Then, we developed the new training system using the video streaming technique and opened the web page for the training on our homepage. Every worker is available to receive the video lecture at any time and at any place by using his PC via internet. After watching the video, the worker should receive the completion examination. It he can pass the examination, he was registered as a radiation worker by the database system for radiation control. (author)
Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C.
Over-the-top mobile video streaming is invariably influenced by volatile network conditions which cause playback interruptions (stalling events), thereby impairing users' quality of experience (QoE). Developing models that can accurately predict users' QoE could enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for video streaming networks that reduce network operational costs while still delivering high-quality video content to the customers. Existing objective models that predict QoE are based on global video features, such as the number of stall events and their lengths, and are trained and validated on a small pool of ad hoc video datasets, most of which are not publicly available. The model we propose in this work goes beyond previous models as it also accounts for the fundamental effect that a viewer's recent level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction has on their overall viewing experience. In other words, the proposed model accounts for and adapts to the recency, or hysteresis effect caused by a stall event in addition to accounting for the lengths, frequency of occurrence, and the positions of stall events - factors that interact in a complex way to affect a user's QoE. On the recently introduced LIVE-Avvasi Mobile Video Database, which consists of 180 distorted videos of varied content that are afflicted solely with over 25 unique realistic stalling events, we trained and validated our model to accurately predict the QoE, attaining standout QoE prediction performance.
Full Text Available The Internet of Things is predicted to consist of over 50 billion devices aiming to solve problems in most areas of our digital society. A large part of the data communicated is expected to consist of various multimedia contents, such as live audio and video. This article presents a solution for the communication of high definition video in low-delay scenarios (<200 ms under the constraints of devices with limited hardware resources, such as the Raspberry Pi. We verify that it is possible to enable low delay video streaming between Raspberry Pi devices using a distributed Internet of Things system called the SensibleThings platform. Specifically, our implementation transfers a 6 Mbps H.264 video stream of 1280 × 720 pixels at 25 frames per second between devices with a total delay of 181 ms on the public Internet, of which the overhead of the distributed Internet of Things communication platform only accounts for 18 ms of this delay. We have found that the most significant bottleneck of video transfer on limited Internet of Things devices is the video coding and not the distributed communication platform, since the video coding accounts for 90% of the total delay.
an image descriptor and online nonlinear classification method. We introduce the covariance matrix of the optical flow and image intensity as a descriptor encoding moving information. The nonlinear online support vector machine (SVM firstly learns a limited set of the training frames to provide a basic reference model then updates the model and detects abnormal events in the current frame. We finally apply the method to detect abnormal events on a benchmark video surveillance dataset to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Full Text Available This paper envisions coding with side information to design a highly scalable video codec. To achieve fine-grained scalability in terms of resolution, quality, and spatial access as well as temporal access to individual frames, the JPEG 2000 coding algorithm has been considered as the reference algorithm to encode INTRA information, and coding with side information has been envisioned to refresh the blocks that change between two consecutive images of a video sequence. One advantage of coding with side information compared to conventional closed-loop hybrid video coding schemes lies in the fact that parity bits are designed to correct stochastic errors and not to encode deterministic prediction errors. This enables the codec to support some desynchronization between the encoder and the decoder, which is particularly helpful to adapt on the fly pre-encoded content to fluctuating network resources and/or user preferences in terms of regions of interest. Regarding the coding scheme itself, to preserve both quality scalability and compliance to the JPEG 2000 wavelet representation, a particular attention has been devoted to the definition of a practical coding framework able to exploit not only the temporal but also spatial correlation among wavelet subbands coefficients, while computing the parity bits on subsets of wavelet bit-planes. Simulations have shown that compared to pure INTRA-based conditional replenishment solutions, the addition of the parity bits option decreases the transmission cost in terms of bandwidth, while preserving access flexibility.
Taal, Jacco R.; Langendoen, Koen; van der Schaaf, Arjen; van Dijk, H.W.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.
Video streaming over wireless links is a non-trivial problem due to the large and frequent changes in the quality of the underlying radio channel combined with latency constraints. We believe that every layer in a mobile system must be prepared to adapt its behavior to its environment. Thus layers
Schot, Nick J.; Velthuis, Paul J.E.; Postema, Björn Frits; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Remke, A.K.I.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Haverkort, B.R.H.M.
Many new data centres have been built in recent years in order to keep up with the rising demand for server capacity. These data centres require a lot of electrical energy and cooling. Big data and video streaming are two heavily used applications in data centres. This paper experimentally
Harned, D. A.; Moorman, M.; Fitzpatrick, F. A.; McMahon, G.
The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film examining effects of urbanization on stream habitat. "Habitat Connections in Urban Streams" explores how urbanization changes some of the physical features that provide in-stream habitat and examines examples of stream restoration projects designed to improve stream form and function. The "connections" theme is emphasized, including the connection of in-stream habitats from the headwaters to the stream mouth; connections between stream habitat and the surrounding floodplains, wetlands and basin; and connections between streams and people-- resource managers, public officials, scientists, and the general public. Examples of innovative stream restoration projects in Baltimore Maryland; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Portland Oregon are shown with interviews of managers, engineers, scientists, and others describing the projects. The film is combined with a website with links to extended film versions of the stream-restoration project interviews. The website and films are an example of USGS efforts aimed at improving science communication to a general audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website: http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html. Additional films are
Marino, Desha; Myck-Wayne, Janice
The purpose of this investigation is to identify the technological barriers teachers encounter when attempting to implement video modeling in the classroom. Video modeling is an emerging evidence-based intervention method used with individuals with autism. Research has shown the positive effects video modeling can have on its recipients. Educators…
Full Text Available To enable clients to view real-time video of the involved instruments during a remote experiment, two real-time video streaming systems are devised. One is for the remote experiments which instruments locate in one geographic spot and the other is for those which instruments scatter over different places. By means of running concurrent streaming processes at a server, multiple instruments can be monitored simultaneously by different clients. The proposed systems possess excellent extensibility, that is, the systems can easily add new digital cameras for instruments without modifying any software. Also they are well-manageable, meaning that an administrator can conveniently adjust the quality of the real-time video depending on system load and visual requirements. Finally, some evaluation concerning CPU utilization and bandwidth consumption of the systems have been evaluated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.
Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C
Over-the-top adaptive video streaming services are frequently impacted by fluctuating network conditions that can lead to rebuffering events (stalling events) and sudden bitrate changes. These events visually impact video consumers' quality of experience (QoE) and can lead to consumer churn. The development of models that can accurately predict viewers' instantaneous subjective QoE under such volatile network conditions could potentially enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for media-driven services, such as YouTube, Amazon, Netflix, and so on. However, most existing models only predict a single overall QoE score on a given video and are based on simple global video features, without accounting for relevant aspects of human perception and behavior. We have created a QoE evaluator, called the time-varying QoE Indexer, that accounts for interactions between stalling events, analyzes the spatial and temporal content of a video, predicts the perceptual video quality, models the state of the client-side data buffer, and consequently predicts continuous-time quality scores that agree quite well with human opinion scores. The new QoE predictor also embeds the impact of relevant human cognitive factors, such as memory and recency, and their complex interactions with the video content being viewed. We evaluated the proposed model on three different video databases and attained standout QoE prediction performance.
Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos
The rapid growth in the use of video streaming over IP networks has outstripped the rate at which new network infrastructure has been deployed. These bandwidth-hungry applications now comprise a significant part of all Internet traffic and present major challenges for network service providers. The situation is more acute in mobile networks where the available bandwidth is often limited. Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently on track for completion in 2013. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC) for the same quality. However, there has been very little published research on HEVC streaming or the challenges of delivering HEVC streams in resource-constrained network environments. In this paper we consider the problem of adapting an HEVC encoded video stream to meet the bandwidth limitation in a mobile networks environment. Video sequences were encoded using the Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM6) for HEVC. Network abstraction layers (NAL) units were packetized, on a one NAL unit per RTP packet basis, and transmitted over a realistic hybrid wired/wireless testbed configured with dynamically changing network path conditions and multiple independent network paths from the streamer to the client. Two different schemes for the prioritisation of RTP packets, based on the NAL units they contain, have been implemented and empirically compared using a range of video sequences, encoder configurations, bandwidths and network topologies. In the first prioritisation method the importance of an RTP packet was determined by the type of picture and the temporal switching point information carried in the NAL unit header. Packets containing parameter set NAL units and video coding layer (VCL) NAL units of the instantaneous decoder refresh (IDR) and the clean random access (CRA) pictures were given the
Jullien, Graham A.; Li, QiuPing; Hajimowlana, S. Hossain; Morvay, J.; Conflitti, D.; Roberts, James W.; Doody, Brian C.
Automated machine vision systems are now widely used for industrial inspection tasks where video-stream data information is taken in by the camera and then sent out to the inspection system for future processing. In this paper we describe a prototype system for on-line programming of arbitrary real-time video data stream bandwidth reduction algorithms; the output of the camera only contains information that has to be further processed by a host computer. The processing system is built into a DALSA CCD camera and uses a microcontroller interface to download bit-stream data to a XILINXTM FPGA. The FPGA is directly connected to the video data-stream and outputs data to a low bandwidth output bus. The camera communicates to a host computer via an RS-232 link to the microcontroller. Static memory is used to both generate a FIFO interface for buffering defect burst data, and for off-line examination of defect detection data. In addition to providing arbitrary FPGA architectures, the internal program of the microcontroller can also be changed via the host computer and a ROM monitor. This paper describes a prototype system board, mounted inside a DALSA camera, and discusses some of the algorithms currently being implemented for web inspection applications.
This paper introduces a MAC-layer active dropping scheme to achieve effective resource utilization, which can satisfy the application-layer delay for real-time video streaming in time division multiple access based 4G broadband wireless access networks. When a video frame is not likely to be reconstructed within the application-layer delay bound at a receiver for the minimum decoding requirement, the MAC-layer protocol data units of such video frame will be proactively dropped before the transmission. An analytical model is developed to evaluate how confident a video frame can be delivered within its application-layer delay bound by jointly considering the effects of time-varying wireless channel, minimum decoding requirement of each video frame, data retransmission, and playback buffer. Extensive simulations with video traces are conducted to prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. When compared to conventional cross-layer schemes using prioritized-transmission/retransmission, the proposed scheme is practically implementable for more effective resource utilization, avoiding delay propagation, and achieving better video qualities under certain conditions.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.
Loudon, Marc; Sharp, Mark
We present an automated system that allows students to replay both audio and video from a large nonmajors' organic chemistry class as streaming RealMedia. Once established, this system requires no technical intervention and is virtually transparent to the instructor. This gives students access to online class review at any time. Assessment has…
Discussion of the delivery of multimedia using streaming technology focuses on its use in engineering education. Highlights include engineering education and instructional technology, including learning approaches based on cognitive development; differences between local and distance education; economic factors; and roles of Web-based streaming,…
Hiroshi Noborio; Hiroyuki Hisamatsu; Hiroki Oda
In recent years, video streaming services over TCP, such as YouTube, have become more and more popular. TCP NewReno, the current TCP standard, performs greedy congestion control, which increases the congestion window size until packet loss occurs. Therefore, because TCP transmits data at a much higher rate than the video playback rate, the probability of packet loss in the network increases, which in turn takes bandwidth from other network traffic. In this paper, we propose a new transport-la...
Møller, Janus Heide; Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Krigslund, Rasmus
Media content distribution constitutes a growing share of the services on the Internet. In recent years methods for cooperative media distribution has been a research area with high activity. Concurrently wireless internet connections have emerged. Wireless connection technologies, e.g. Wimax, have...
Chee Sern, Lai; ‘Ain Helan Nor, Nurul; Foong, Lee Ming; Hassan, Razali
Video technology has been widely used in education especially in teaching and learning. However, the use of video technology for evaluation purpose especially in teaching practicum is extremely scarce and the benefits of video technology in teaching practicum evaluation have not yet been fully discovered. For that reason, this quantitative research aimed at identifying the perceptions of trainee teachers towards teaching practicum evaluation via video technology. A total of 260 students of Teacher Certification Programme (Program Pensiswazahan Guru - PPG) from the Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education (FPTV) of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) had been randomly selected as respondents. A set of questionnaire was developed to assess the suitability, effectiveness and satisfaction of using video technology for teaching practicum. Conclusively, this research showed that the trainee teachers have positive perceptions in all three aspects related teaching practicum evaluation using video technology. Apart from that, no significant racial difference was found in the measured aspects. In addition, the trainee teachers also showed an understanding of the vast importance of teaching practicum evaluation via video. These research findings suggest that video technology can be a feasible and practical means of teaching practicum evaluation especially for distance learning program.
Boujut, H.; Benois-Pineau, J.; Hadar, O.; Ahmed, T.; Bonnet, P.
Human vision system is very complex and has been studied for many years specifically for purposes of efficient encoding of visual, e.g. video content from digital TV. There have been physiological and psychological evidences which indicate that viewers do not pay equal attention to all exposed visual information, but only focus on certain areas known as focus of attention (FOA) or saliency regions. In this work, we propose a novel based objective quality assessment metric, for assessing the perceptual quality of decoded video sequences affected by transmission errors and packed loses. The proposed method weights the Mean Square Error (MSE), Weighted-MSE (WMSE), according to the calculated saliency map at each pixel. Our method was validated trough subjective quality experiments.
Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Ørngreen, Rikke; Thorsen, Jonas
teaching. This paper describes a work-in-progress project focused on developing possibilities for a more dialogue-based approach to live video-streamed teaching. We present our new setup and argue for educational designs which this is believed to support, and we outline the research design for collecting...... and analysing data. The first analysis and interpretations will be discussed at the ECEL 2015 conference poster session....
Benmoussa , Yahia; Boukhobza , Jalil; Hadjadj-Aoul , Yassine; Lagadec , Loïc; Benazzouz , Djamel
National audience; Nowadays, the use of mobile applications and terminals faces fundamental challenges related to energy constraint. This is due to the limited battery lifetime as compared to the increasing hardware evolution. Video streaming is one of the most energy consuming applications in a mobile system because of its intensive use of bandwidth, memory and processing power. In this work, we aim to propose a methodology for building and validating a high level global power consumption mo...
In this thesis I investigate innovation processes on innovation platforms, and look at the role played by content release for innovation in digital distribution of home entertainment. I argue that innovation platforms rely on several aspects of innovation in order to succeed, and this thesis is concerned with one of these, namely release of digital entertainment content. I use the American video streaming service Netflix as a case and example of such an innovation platform. By using techno...
Poppe, Chris; Martens, Gaëtan; De Potter, Pieterjan; Van de Walle, Rik
Video surveillance systems are growing in size and complexity. Such systems typically consist of integrated modules of different vendors to cope with the increasing demands on network and storage capacity, intelligent video analytics, picture quality, and enhanced visual interfaces. Within a surveillance system, relevant information (like technical details on the video sequences, or analysis results of the monitored environment) is described using metadata standards. However, different module...
R. Arockia Xavier Annie
Full Text Available Recently, many video applications like video telephony, video conferencing, Video-on-Demand (VoD, and so forth have produced heterogeneous consumers in the Internet. In such a scenario, media servers play vital role when a large number of concurrent requests are sent by heterogeneous users. Moreover, the server and distributed client systems participating in the Internet communication have to provide suitable resources to heterogeneous users to meet their requirements satisfactorily. The challenges in providing suitable resources are to analyze the user service pattern, bandwidth and buffer availability, nature of applications used, and Quality of Service (QoS requirements for the heterogeneous users. Therefore, it is necessary to provide suitable techniques to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a framework for peer-to-peer- (P2P- based VoD service in order to provide effective video streaming. It consists of four functional modules, namely, Quality Preserving Multivariate Video Model (QPMVM for efficient server management, tracker for efficient peer management, heuristic-based content distribution, and light weight incentivized sharing mechanism. The first two of these modules are confined to a single entity of the framework while the other two are distributed across entities. Experimental results show that the proposed framework avoids overloading the server, increases the number of clients served, and does not compromise on QoS, irrespective of the fact that the expected framework is slightly reduced.
Full Text Available Cross-layer design has been used in streaming video over the wireless channels to optimize the overall system performance. In this paper, we extend our previous work on joint design of source rate control and congestion control for video streaming over the wired channel, and propose a cross-layer design approach for wireless video streaming. First, we extend the QoS-aware congestion control mechanism (TFRCC proposed in our previous work to the wireless scenario, and provide a detailed discussion about how to enhance the overall performance in terms of rate smoothness and responsiveness of the transport protocol. Then, we extend our previous joint design work to the wireless scenario, and a thorough performance evaluation is conducted to investigate its performance. Simulation results show that by cross-layer design of source rate control at application layer and congestion control at transport layer, and by taking advantage of the MAC layer information, our approach can avoid the throughput degradation caused by wireless link error, and better support the QoS requirements of the application. Thus, the playback quality is significantly improved, while good performance of the transport protocol is still preserved.
Full Text Available Abstract We consider the problem of packet scheduling for the transmission of multiple video streams over a wireless local area network (WLAN. A cross-layer optimization framework is proposed to minimize the wireless transceiver energy consumption while meeting the user required visual quality constraints. The framework relies on the IEEE 802.11 standard and on the embedded bitstream structure of the scalable video coding scheme. It integrates an application-level video quality metric as QoS constraint (instead of a communication layer quality metric with energy consumption optimization through link layer scaling and sleeping. Both energy minimization and min-max energy optimization strategies are discussed. Simulation results demonstrate significant energy gains compared to the state-of-the-art approaches.
Full Text Available This paper examines the threat to video streaming from slow and fast fading, traffic congestion, and channel packet drops. The proposed response is a combination of: rateless channel coding, which is adaptively applied; data-partitioned source coding to exploit prioritized packetization; and duplicate slice provision, which is the focus of the evaluation in this paper. The paper also considers the distribution of intra-refresh macroblocks as a means of avoiding sudden data rate increases. When error bursts occur, this paper shows that duplicate slices are certainly necessary but this provision is more effective for medium quality video than it is for high quality video. The percentage of intra-refresh macroblocks can be low and still reduce the impact of temporal error propagation.
Sowan, Azizeh K
Streaming videos (SVs) are commonly used multimedia applications in clinical health education. However, there are several negative aspects related to the production and delivery of SVs. Only a few published studies have included sufficient descriptions of the videos and the production process and design innovations. This paper describes the production of innovative SVs for medication administration skills for undergraduate nursing students at a public university in Jordan and focuses on the ethical and cultural issues in producing this type of learning resource. The curriculum development committee approved the modification of educational techniques for medication administration procedures to include SVs within an interactive web-based learning environment. The production process of the videos adhered to established principles for "protecting patients' rights when filming and recording" and included: preproduction, production and postproduction phases. Medication administration skills were videotaped in a skills laboratory where they are usually taught to students and also in a hospital setting with real patients. The lab videos included critical points and Do's and Don'ts and the hospital videos fostered real-world practices. The range of time of the videos was reasonable to eliminate technical difficulty in access. Eight SVs were produced that covered different types of the medication administration skills. The production of SVs required the collaborative efforts of experts in IT, multimedia, nursing and informatics educators, and nursing care providers. Results showed that the videos were well-perceived by students, and the instructors who taught the course. The process of producing the videos in this project can be used as a valuable framework for schools considering utilizing multimedia applications in teaching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wolf, Abraham W
The seven articles in this special section on the use of Internet and video technology represent the latest growth on one branch of the increasingly prolific and differentiated work in the technology of psychotherapy. In addition to the work presented here on video and the Internet applications to supervision and training, information technology is changing the field of psychotherapy through computer assisted therapies and virtual reality interventions.
Full Text Available The video recognition technology is applied to the landslide emergency remote monitoring system. The trajectories of the landslide are identified by this system in this paper. The system of geological disaster monitoring is applied synthetically to realize the analysis of landslide monitoring data and the combination of video recognition technology. Landslide video monitoring system will video image information, time point, network signal strength, power supply through the 4G network transmission to the server. The data is comprehensively analysed though the remote man-machine interface to conduct to achieve the threshold or manual control to determine the front-end video surveillance system. The system is used to identify the target landslide video for intelligent identification. The algorithm is embedded in the intelligent analysis module, and the video frame is identified, detected, analysed, filtered, and morphological treatment. The algorithm based on artificial intelligence and pattern recognition is used to mark the target landslide in the video screen and confirm whether the landslide is normal. The landslide video monitoring system realizes the remote monitoring and control of the mobile side, and provides a quick and easy monitoring technology.
Gao, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yanming; Wu, Xingyao; El-Khatib, Yehia; Edwards, Christopher
Most of the work on grid technology in video area has been generally restricted to aspects of resource scheduling and replica management. The traffic of such service has a lot of characteristics in common with that of the traditional video service. However the architecture and user behavior in Grid networks are quite different from those of traditional Internet. Considering the potential of grid networks and video sharing services, measuring and analyzing P2P IPTV traffic are important and fundamental works in the field grid networks.
Li, Jia; Tian, Yonghong; Gao, Wen
In recent years, the amount of streaming video has grown rapidly on the Web. Often, retrieving these streaming videos offers the challenge of indexing and analyzing the media in real time because the streams must be treated as effectively infinite in length, thus precluding offline processing. Generally speaking, captions are important semantic clues for video indexing and retrieval. However, existing caption detection methods often have difficulties to make real-time detection for streaming video, and few of them concern on the differentiation of captions from scene texts and scrolling texts. In general, these texts have different roles in streaming video retrieval. To overcome these difficulties, this paper proposes a novel approach which explores the inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video. In our approach, the inter-frame correlation information is used to distinguish caption texts from scene texts and scrolling texts. Moreover, wavelet-domain Generalized Gaussian Models (GGMs) are utilized to automatically remove non-text regions from each frame and only keep caption regions for further processing. Experiment results show that our approach is able to offer real-time caption detection with high recall and low false alarm rate, and also can effectively discern caption texts from the other texts even in low resolutions.
Kinsner, M; Capson, D; Spence, A
Multi-scale image processing techniques enable extraction of features where the size of a feature is either unknown or changing, but the requirement to process image data at multiple scale levels imposes a substantial computational load. This paper describes the architecture and emerging results from the implementation of a GPGPU-accelerated scale-space feature detection framework for video processing. A discrete scale-space representation is generated for image frames within a video stream, and multi-scale feature detection metrics are applied to detect ridges and Gaussian blobs at video frame rates. A modular structure is adopted, in which common feature extraction tasks such as non-maximum suppression and local extrema search may be reused across a variety of feature detectors. Extraction of ridge and blob features is achieved at faster than 15 frames per second on video sequences from a machine vision system, utilizing an NVIDIA GTX 480 graphics card. By design, the framework is easily extended to additional feature classes through the inclusion of feature metrics to be applied to the scale-space representation, and using common post-processing modules to reduce the required CPU workload. The framework is scalable across multiple and more capable GPUs, and enables previously intractable image processing at video frame rates using commodity computational hardware.
Dufaux, Frédéric; Ouaret, Mourad; Abdeljaoued, Yousri; Navarro, Alfonso; Vergnenègre, Fabrice; Ebrahimi, Touradj
In this paper, we address the problem privacy in video surveillance. We propose an efficient solution based on transformdomain scrambling of regions of interest in a video sequence. More specifically, the sign of selected transform coefficients is flipped during encoding. We address more specifically the case of Motion JPEG 2000. Simulation results show that the technique can be successfully applied to conceal information in regions of interest in the scene while providing with a good level of security. Furthermore, the scrambling is flexible and allows adjusting the amount of distortion introduced. This is achieved with a small impact on coding performance and negligible computational complexity increase. In the proposed video surveillance system, heterogeneous clients can remotely access the system through the Internet or 2G/3G mobile phone network. Thanks to the inherently scalable Motion JPEG 2000 codestream, the server is able to adapt the resolution and bandwidth of the delivered video depending on the usage environment of the client.
Full Text Available Nowdays, several streaming servers are available to provide a variety of multimedia applications such as Video on Demand in cloud computing environments. These environments have the business potential because of the pay-per-use model, as well as the advantages of easy scalability and, up-to-date of the packages and programs. This paper uses hierarchical modeling and different sensitivity analysis techniques to determine the parameters that cause the greatest impact on the availability of a Video on Demand. The results show that distinct approaches provide similar results regarding the sensitivity ranking, with specific exceptions. A combined evaluation indicates that system availability may be improved effectively by focusing on a reduced set of factors that produce large variation on the measure of interest.
Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D
Determining the role that social learning plays in construction behaviours, such as nest building or tool manufacture, could be improved if more experimental control could be gained over the exact public information that is provided by the demonstrator, to the observing individual. Using video playback allows the experimenter to choose what information is provided, but will only be useful in determining the role of social learning if observers attend to, and learn from, videos in a manner that is similar to live demonstration. The goal of the current experiment was to test whether live-streamed video presentations of nest building by zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata would lead observers to copy the material choice demonstrated to them. Here, males that had not previously built a nest were given an initial preference test between materials of two colours. Those observers then watched live-stream footage of a familiar demonstrator building a nest with material of the colour that the observer did not prefer. After this experience, observers were given the chance to build a nest with materials of the two colours. Although two-thirds of the observer males preferred material of the demonstrated colour after viewing the demonstrator build a nest with material of that colour more than they had previously, their preference for the demonstrated material was not as strong as that of observers that had viewed live demonstrator builders in a previous experiment. Our results suggest researchers should proceed with caution before using video demonstration in tests of social learning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Sevcik, L.; Uhrin, D.; Frnda, J.; Voznak, M.; Toral-Cruz, Homer; Mikulec, M.; Jakovlev, Sergej
Nowadays, the interest in real-time services, like audio and video, is growing. These services are mostly transmitted over packet networks, which are based on IP protocol. It leads to analyses of these services and their behavior in such networks which are becoming more frequent. Video has become the significant part of all data traffic sent via IP networks. In general, a video service is one-way service (except e.g. video calls) and network delay is not such an important factor as in a voice service. Dominant network factors that influence the final video quality are especially packet loss, delay variation and the capacity of the transmission links. Analysis of video quality concentrates on the resistance of video codecs to packet loss in the network, which causes artefacts in the video. IPsec provides confidentiality in terms of safety, integrity and non-repudiation (using HMAC-SHA1 and 3DES encryption for confidentiality and AES in CBC mode) with an authentication header and ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload). The paper brings a detailed view of the performance of video streaming over an IP-based network. We compared quality of video with packet loss and encryption as well. The measured results demonstrated the relation between the video codec type and bitrate to the final video quality.
E. G. Zaytseva
Full Text Available The method of determination of the sharpness depth borders was improved for contemporary video technology. The computer programme for determination of corresponding video recording parameters was created.
R. P. Tsang; H. Y. Chen; J. M. Brandt; J. A. Hutchins
Coded digital video signals are considered to be one of the most difficult data types to transport due to their real-time requirements and high bit rate variability. In this study, the authors discuss the coding mechanisms incorporated by the major compression standards bodies, i.e., JPEG and MPEG, as well as more advanced coding mechanisms such as wavelet and fractal techniques. The relationship between the applications which use these coding schemes and their network requirements are the major focus of this study. Specifically, the authors relate network latency, channel transmission reliability, random access speed, buffering and network bandwidth with the various coding techniques as a function of the applications which use them. Such applications include High-Definition Television, Video Conferencing, Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), and Medical Imaging.
Patti, Andrew; Tan, Wai-tian; Shen, Bo
Streaming video in consumer homes over wireless IEEE 802.11 networks is becoming commonplace. Wireless 802.11 networks pose unique difficulties for streaming high definition (HD), low latency video due to their error-prone physical layer and media access procedures which were not designed for real-time traffic. HD video streaming, even with sophisticated H.264 encoding, is particularly challenging due to the large number of packet fragments per slice. Cross-layer design strategies have been proposed to address the issues of video streaming over 802.11. These designs increase streaming robustness by imposing some degree of monitoring and control over 802.11 parameters from application level, or by making the 802.11 layer media-aware. Important contributions are made, but none of the existing approaches directly take the 802.11 queuing into account. In this paper we take a different approach and propose a cross-layer design allowing direct, expedient control over the wireless packet queue, while obtaining timely feedback on transmission status for each packet in a media flow. This method can be fully implemented on a media sender with no explicit support or changes required to the media client. We assume that due to congestion or deteriorating signal-to-noise levels, the available throughput may drop substantially for extended periods of time, and thus propose video source adaptation methods that allow matching the bit-rate to available throughput. A particular H.264 slice encoding is presented to enable seamless stream switching between streams at multiple bit-rates, and we explore using new computationally efficient transcoding methods when only a high bit-rate stream is available.
Full Text Available Real-time streaming media over wireless networks is a challenging proposition due to the characteristics of video data and wireless channels. In this paper, we propose a set of cross-layer techniques for adaptive real-time video streaming over wireless networks. The adaptation is done with respect to both channel and data. The proposed novel packetization scheme constructs the application layer packet in such a way that it is decomposed exactly into an integer number of equal-sized radio link protocol (RLP packets. FEC codes are applied within an application packet at the RLP packet level rather than across different application packets and thus reduce delay at the receiver. A priority-based ARQ, together with a scheduling algorithm, is applied at the application layer to retransmit only the corrupted RLP packets within an application layer packet. Our approach combines the flexibility and programmability of application layer adaptations, with low delay and bandwidth efficiency of link layer techniques. Socket-level simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of our approach.
Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of moving objects are essential to Earth Observation missions, such as tracking, modeling and predicting movement of clouds, dust, plumes and harmful algal blooms. Those missions involve high-volume, multi-source, and multi-modal imagery data analysis. Analytical models intend to reveal inner structure, dynamics, and relationship of things. However, they are not necessarily intuitive to humans. Conventional scientific visualization methods are intuitive but limited by manual operations, such as area marking, measurement and alignment of multi-source data, which are expensive and time-consuming. A new development of video analytics platform has been in progress, which integrates the video game engine with satellite and in-situ data streams. The system converts Earth Observation data into articulated objects that are mapped from a high-dimensional space to a 3D space. The object tracking and augmented reality algorithms highlight the objects' features in colors, shapes and trajectories, creating visual cues for observing dynamic patterns. The head and gesture tracker enable users to navigate the data space interactively. To validate our design, we have used NASA SeaWiFS satellite images of oceanographic remote sensing data and NOAA's in-situ cell count data. Our study demonstrates that the video game system can reduce the size and cost of traditional CAVE systems in two to three orders of magnitude. This system can also be used for satellite mission planning and public outreaching.
Leny, Marc; Prêteux, Françoise; Nicholson, Didier
Compressed video is the digital raw material provided by video-surveillance systems and used for archiving and indexing purposes. Multimedia standards have therefore a direct impact on such systems. If MPEG-2 used to be the coding standard, MPEG-4 (part 2) has now replaced it in most installations, and MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 solutions are now being released. Finely analysing the complex and rich MPEG-4 streams is a challenging issue addressed in that paper. The system we designed is based on five modules: low-resolution decoder, motion estimation generator, object motion filtering, low-resolution object segmentation, and cooperative decision. Our contributions refer to as the statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the motion vectors, the computation of DCT-based confidence maps, the automatic motion activity detection in the compressed file and a rough indexation by dedicated descriptors. The robustness and accuracy of the system are evaluated on a large corpus (hundreds of hours of in-and outdoor videos with pedestrians and vehicles). The objective benchmarking of the performances is achieved with respect to five metrics allowing to estimate the error part due to each module and for different implementations. This evaluation establishes that our system analyses up to 200 frames (720x288) per second (2.66 GHz CPU).
Full Text Available Video streaming service is one of the most popular applications for mobile users. However, mobile video streaming services consume a lot of energy, resulting in a reduced battery life. This is a critical problem that results in a degraded user’s quality of experience (QoE. Therefore, in this paper, a joint optimization scheme that controls both the central processing unit (CPU and wireless networking of the video streaming process for improved energy efficiency on mobile devices is proposed. For this purpose, the energy consumption of the network interface and CPU is analyzed, and based on the energy consumption profile a joint optimization problem is formulated to maximize the energy efficiency of the mobile device. The proposed algorithm adaptively adjusts the number of chunks to be downloaded and decoded in each packet. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the energy efficiency when compared with the existing algorithms.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne
Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.
Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming
This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…
Taubman, David; Thie, Johnson
This paper shows how the priority encoding transmission (PET) framework may be leveraged to exploit both unequal error protection and limited retransmission for RD-optimized delivery of streaming media. Previous work on scalable media protection with PET has largely ignored the possibility of retransmission. Conversely, the PET framework has not been harnessed by the substantial body of previous work on RD optimized hybrid forward error correction/automatic repeat request schemes. We limit our attention to sources which can be modeled as independently compressed frames (e.g., video frames), where each element in the scalable representation of each frame can be transmitted in one or both of two transmission slots. An optimization algorithm determines the level of protection which should be assigned to each element in each slot, subject to transmission bandwidth constraints. To balance the protection assigned to elements which are being transmitted for the first time with those which are being retransmitted, the proposed algorithm formulates a collection of hypotheses concerning its own behavior in future transmission slots. We show how the PET framework allows for a decoupled optimization algorithm with only modest complexity. Experimental results obtained with Motion JPEG2000 compressed video demonstrate that substantial performance benefits can be obtained using the proposed framework.
Mueller, M.; Groch, A.; Baumhauer, M.; Maier-Hein, L.; Teber, D.; Rassweiler, J.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wegner, In.
Augmented Reality (AR) is a convenient way of porting information from medical images into the surgical field of view and can deliver valuable assistance to the surgeon, especially in laparoscopic procedures. In addition, high definition (HD) laparoscopic video devices are a great improvement over the previously used low resolution equipment. However, in AR applications that rely on real-time detection of fiducials from video streams, the demand for efficient image processing has increased due to the introduction of HD devices. We present an algorithm based on the well-known Conditional Density Propagation (CONDENSATION) algorithm which can satisfy these new demands. By incorporating a prediction around an already existing and robust segmentation algorithm, we can speed up the whole procedure while leaving the robustness of the fiducial segmentation untouched. For evaluation purposes we tested the algorithm on recordings from real interventions, allowing for a meaningful interpretation of the results. Our results show that we can accelerate the segmentation by a factor of 3.5 on average. Moreover, the prediction information can be used to compensate for fiducials that are temporarily occluded or out of scope, providing greater stability.
Some of the most challenging multimedia applications have involved real- time conferencing, using audio and video to support interpersonal communication. Here we re-examine assumptions about the role, importance and implementation of video information in such systems. Rather than focussing on novel technologies, we present evaluation data relevant to both the classes of real-time multimedia applications we should develop and their design and implementation. Evaluations of videoconferencing systems show that previous work has overestimated the importance of video at the expense of audio. This has strong implications for the implementation of bandwidth allocation and synchronization. Furthermore our recent studies of workplace interaction show that prior work has neglected another potentially vital function of visual information: in assessing the communication availability of others. In this new class of application, rather than providing a supplement to audio information, visual information is used to promote the opportunistic communications that are prevalent in face-to-face settings. We discuss early experiments with such connection applications and identify outstanding design and implementation issues. Finally we examine a different class of application 'video-as-data', where the video image is used to transmit information about the work objects themselves, rather than information about interactants.
Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.
Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.
This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...... model supports a relatively diverse use of educational technologies and may also be used to transform teaching into completely online learning. So far both teachers and educational developers have positively received the model and the initial design experiences show promise....
Alinejad, Ali; Philip, Nada Y; Istepanian, Robert S H
It is well known that the evolution of 4G-based mobile multimedia network systems will contribute significantly to future mobile healthcare (m-health) applications that require high bandwidth and fast data rates. Central to the success of such emerging applications is the compatibility of broadband networks, such as mobile Worldwide Interoperability For Microwave Access (WiMAX) and High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), and especially their rate adaption issues combined with the acceptable real-time medical quality of service requirements. In this paper, we address the relevant challenges of cross-layer design requirements for real-time rate adaptation of ultrasound video streaming in mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks. A comparative performance analysis of such approach is validated in two experimental m-health test bed systems for both mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks. The experimental results have shown an improved performance of mobile WiMAX compared to the HSUPA using the same cross-layer optimization approach.
Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology - A Practical Engineering Guide' deals with all the most important digital television, sound radio and multimedia standards such as MPEG, DVB, DVD, DAB, ATSC, T-DMB, DMB-T, DRM and ISDB-T. The book provides an in-depth look at these subjects in terms of practical experience. In addition it contains chapters on the basics of technologies such as analog television, digital modulation, COFDM or mathematical transformations between time and frequency domains. The attention in the respective field under discussion is focussed on aspects of measuring t
Tan, Yow-Yiong Edwin; Philip, Nada; Istepanian, Robert H
This paper presents some of the fragility issues of a medical video streaming over 802.11e-WLAN in m-health applications. In particular, we present a medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) scheme for enhanced QoS support for IEEE 802.11 (WLAN), as a modification for the standard 802.11e enhanced distributed coordination function (EDCF) is proposed for enhanced medical data performance. The medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) proposed extends the EDCF, by halving the contention window (CW) after zeta consecutive successful transmissions to reduce the collision probability when channel is busy. Simulation results show that MCAFA outperforms EDCF in-terms of overall performance relevant to the requirements of high throughput of medical data and video streaming traffic in 3G/WLAN wireless environments.
Full Text Available Abstract Bluetooth enhanced data rate wireless channel can support higher-quality video streams compared to previous versions of Bluetooth. Packet loss when transmitting compressed data has an effect on the delivered video quality that endures over multiple frames. To reduce the impact of radio frequency noise and interference, this paper proposes adaptive modulation based on content type at the video frame level and content importance at the macroblock level. Because the bit rate of protected data is reduced, the paper proposes buffer management to reduce the risk of buffer overflow. A trizone buffer is introduced, with a varying unequal protection policy in each zone. Application of this policy together with adaptive modulation results in up to 4 dB improvement in objective video quality compared to fixed rate scheme for an additive white Gaussian noise channel and around 10 dB for a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The paper also reports a consistent improvement in video quality over a scheme that adapts to channel conditions by varying the data rate without accounting for the video frame packet type or buffer congestion.
Full Text Available Bluetooth enhanced data rate wireless channel can support higher-quality video streams compared to previous versions of Bluetooth. Packet loss when transmitting compressed data has an effect on the delivered video quality that endures over multiple frames. To reduce the impact of radio frequency noise and interference, this paper proposes adaptive modulation based on content type at the video frame level and content importance at the macroblock level. Because the bit rate of protected data is reduced, the paper proposes buffer management to reduce the risk of buffer overflow. A trizone buffer is introduced, with a varying unequal protection policy in each zone. Application of this policy together with adaptive modulation results in up to 4Ã¢Â€Â‰dB improvement in objective video quality compared to fixed rate scheme for an additive white Gaussian noise channel and around 10Ã¢Â€Â‰dB for a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The paper also reports a consistent improvement in video quality over a scheme that adapts to channel conditions by varying the data rate without accounting for the video frame packet type or buffer congestion.
DOE, through its contractor EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., has developed a state-of-the-art interactive-video system for use at the Department of Energy's Central Training Academy. Called the Security Training and Evaluation Shooting System (STRESS), the computer-driven decision shooting system employs the latest is laservideo-disk technology. STRESS is designed to provide realistic and stressful training for security inspectors employed by the DOE and its contractors. The system uses wide-screen video projection, sophisticated scenario-branching technology, and customized video scenarios especially designed for the DOE. Firing a weapon that has been modified to shoot ''laser bullets,'' and wearing a special vest that detects ''hits'': the security inspector encounters adversaries on the wide screen who can shoot or be shot by the inspector in scenarios that demand fast decisions. Based on those decisions, the computer provides instantaneous branching to different scenes, giving the inspector confrontational training with the realism and variability of real life
Liteplo, Andrew S; Noble, Vicki E; Attwood, Ben H C
As the use of point-of-care sonography spreads, so too does the need for remote expert over-reading via telesonogrpahy. We sought to assess the feasibility of using familiar, widespread, and cost-effective existent technology to allow remote over-reading of sonograms in real time and to compare 4 different methods of transmission and communication for both the feasibility of transmission and image quality. Sonographic video clips were transmitted using 2 different connections (WiFi and 3G) and via 2 different videoconferencing modalities (iChat [Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA] and Skype [Skype Software Sàrl, Luxembourg]), for a total of 4 different permutations. The clips were received at a remote location and recorded and then scored by expert reviewers for image quality, resolution, and detail. Wireless transmission of sonographic clips was feasible in all cases when WiFi was used and when Skype was used over a 3G connection. Images transmitted via a WiFi connection were statistically superior to those transmitted via 3G in all parameters of quality (average P = .031), and those sent by iChat were superior to those sent by Skype but not statistically so (average P = .057). Wireless transmission of sonographic video clips using inexpensive hardware, free videoconferencing software, and domestic Internet networks is feasible with retention of image quality sufficient for interpretation. WiFi transmission results in greater image quality than transmission by a 3G network.
Baldwin, Andrew C W; Mallidi, Hari R; Baldwin, John C; Sandoval, Elena; Cohn, William E; Frazier, O H; Singh, Steve K
In the setting of increasingly complex medical therapies and limited physician resources, the recent emergence of 'smart' technology offers tremendous potential for improved logistics, efficiency, and communication between medical team members. In an effort to harness these capabilities, we sought to evaluate the utility of this technology in surgical practice through the employment of a wearable camera device during cardiothoracic organ recovery. A single procurement surgeon was trained for use of an Explorer Edition Google Glass (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA) during the recovery process. Live video feed of each procedure was securely broadcast to allow for members of the home transplant team to remotely participate in organ assessment. Primary outcomes involved demonstration of technological feasibility and validation of quality assurance through group assessment. The device was employed for the recovery of four organs: a right single lung, a left single lung, and two bilateral lung harvests. Live video of the visualization process was remotely accessed by the home transplant team, and supplemented final verification of organ quality. In each case, the organs were accepted for transplant without disruption of standard procurement protocols. Media files generated during the procedures were stored in a secure drive for future documentation, evaluation, and education purposes without preservation of patient identifiers. Live video streaming can improve quality assurance measures by allowing off-site members of the transplant team to participate in the final assessment of donor organ quality. While further studies are needed, this project suggests that the application of mobile 'smart' technology offers not just immediate value, but the potential to transform our approach to the practice of medicine.
drs Maurice Schols
As multimedia gradually becomes more and more an integrated part of video conferencing systems, the use of multimedia integrated desktop video conferencing technology (MIDVCT) will open up new educational possibilities for synchronous learning. However, the possibilities and limitations of this
Skin color can be an important feature when tracking skin-colored objects. Particularly this is the case for computer-vision-based human-computer interfaces (HCI). Humans have a highly developed feeling of space and, therefore, it is reasonable to support this within intelligent HCI, where the importance of augmented reality can be foreseen. Joining human-like interaction techniques within multimodal HCI could, or will, gain a feature for modern mobile telecommunication devices. On the other hand, real-time processing plays an important role in achieving more natural and physically intuitive ways of human-machine interaction. The main scope of this work is the development of a stereoscopic computer-vision hardware-accelerated framework for real-time skin feature identification in the sense of a single-pass image segmentation process. The hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage is presented with the purpose of color and spatial filtering, where the skin color model within the hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space is given with a polyhedron of threshold values representing the basis of the filter model. An adaptive filter management unit is suggested to achieve better segmentation results. This enables the adoption of filter parameters to the current scene conditions in an adaptive way. Implementation of the suggested hardware structure is given at the level of filed programmable system level integrated circuit (FPSLIC) devices using an embedded microcontroller as their main feature. A stereoscopic clue is achieved using a time-sequential video stream, but this shows no difference for real-time processing requirements in terms of hardware complexity. The experimental results for the hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage are given by efficiency estimation of the presented hardware structure using a simple motion-detection algorithm based on a binary function.
My long-term goal is to enhance public understanding of complex systems that can be best demonstrated through richly detailed computer graphic animation displayed with full-dome video technology. My current focus is on health science advances that focus on regenerative medicine, which helps the body heal itself. Such topics facilitate science learning and health literacy. My team develops multi-media presentations that bring the scientific and medical advances to the public through immersive high-definition video animation. Implicit in treating the topics of regenerative medicine will be the need to address stem cell biology. The topics are clarified and presented from a platform of facts and balanced ethical consideration. The production process includes communicating scientific information about the excitement and importance of stem cell research. Principles of function are emphasized over specific facts or terminology by focusing on a limited, but fundamental set of concepts. To achieve this, visually rich, biologically accurate 3D computer graphic environments are created to illustrate the cells, tissues and organs of interest. A suite of films are produced, and evaluated in pre- post-surveys assessing attitudes, knowledge and learning. Each film uses engaging interactive demonstrations to illustrate biological functions, the things that go wrong due to disease and disability, and the remedy provided by regenerative medicine. While the images are rich and detailed, the language is accessible and appropriate to the audience. The digital, high-definition video is also re-edited for presentation in other ``flat screen'' formats, increasing our distribution potential. Show content is also presented in an interactive web space (www.sepa.duq.edu) with complementing teacher resource guides and student workbooks and companion video games.
Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño
In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.
Full Text Available In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.
She, James; Hou, Fen; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han
-transmission/retransmission, the proposed scheme is practically implementable for more effective resource utilization, avoiding delay propagation, and achieving better video qualities under certain conditions.
Full Text Available Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS to wireless clients is demonstrated.
Acevedo Clavijo Edwin Jovanny
Full Text Available Esta propuesta tiene como objetivo estudiar varias alternativas de servidores Streaming para determinar la mejor herramienta para el desarrollo de la publicación de material audiovisual educativo. Se evaluaron las plataformas más utilizadas teniendo en cuenta sus características y beneficios que tiene cada servidor entre las los cuales están: Hélix Universal Server, Windows Media Server de Microsoft, Peer Cast y Darwin Server. implementando un servidor con mayores capacidades y beneficios para la publicación de videos con fines académicos a través de la intranet de la Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia seccional Barrancabermeja This proposal has as an principal objective to study different alternatives for streaming servers to determine the best tool in the project’s development. Platforms most used were evaluated features and benefits in each served such as: Helix Universal Server, Microsoft Windows Media Server, Peer Cast and Darwin Server. Implementing a server with more capabilities and benefits for the publication of videos for academic purposes through the intranet of the Cooperative University of Colombia Barrancabermeja’s sectional
Full Text Available Research in the field of video quality assessment relies on the availability of subjective scores, collected by means of experiments in which groups of people are asked to rate the quality of video sequences. The availability of subjective scores is fundamental to enable validation and comparative benchmarking of the objective algorithms that try to predict human perception of video quality by automatically analyzing the video sequences, in a way to support reproducible and reliable research results. In this paper, a publicly available database of subjective quality scores and corrupted video sequences is described. The scores refer to 156 sequences at CIF and 4CIF spatial resolutions, encoded with H.264/AVC and corrupted by simulating the transmission over an error-prone network. The subjective evaluation has been performed by 40 subjects at the premises of two academic institutions, in standard-compliant controlled environments. In order to support reproducible research in the field of full-reference, reduced-reference, and no-reference video quality assessment algorithms, both the uncompressed files and the H.264/AVC bitstreams, as well as the packet loss patterns, have been made available to the research community.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The video data in this accession was captured during the Islands in the Stream mission of 2001. Islands in the Stream was a three-month scientific expedition to...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The video data in this accession was captured during the Islands in the Stream mission of 2001. Islands in the Stream was a three-month scientific expedition to...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The video data in this accession was captured during the Islands in the Stream mission of 2001. Islands in the Stream was a three-month scientific expedition to...
Gleue, Alan D.; Depcik, Chris; Peltier, Ted
Last school year, I had a web link emailed to me entitled "A Dashboard Physics Lesson." The link, created and posted by Dale Basier on his "Lab Out Loud" blog, illustrates video of a car's speedometer synchronized with video of the road. These two separate video streams are compiled into one video that students can watch and analyze. After seeing…
Russell, William D.; Newton, Mark
Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects of interactive video game exercise in young adults and whether…
Tai, Yaming; Ting, Yu-Liang
This study values the broad range of web videos produced by businesses to introduce new technologies while also promoting their products. When the promoted technology is related to the topic taught in a school course, it may be beneficial for students to watch such videos. However, most students view the web as a source for entertainment, and may…
Full Text Available an architecture which supports ubiquitous live streaming for university or campus networks using a modified bluetooth inquiry mechanism with extended ID, integrated end-user device usage and adaptation to heterogeneous networks. Riding on that architecture...
Gonzalez, Ray; Martinez, Jose M; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Iglesias, Alberto R; Ro, Charles Y; Madan, Atul K
The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skill (GOALS) is one validated metric utilized to grade laparoscopic skills and has been utilized to score recorded operative videos. To facilitate easier viewing of these recorded videos, we are developing novel techniques to enable surgeons to view these videos. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of utilizing widespread current consumer-based technology to assist in distributing appropriate videos for objective evaluation. Videos from residents were recorded via a direct connection from the camera processor via an S-video output via a cable into a hub to connect to a standard laptop computer via a universal serial bus (USB) port. A standard consumer-based video editing program was utilized to capture the video and record in appropriate format. We utilized mp4 format, and depending on the size of the file, the videos were scaled down (compressed), their format changed (using a standard video editing program), or sliced into multiple videos. Standard available consumer-based programs were utilized to convert the video into a more appropriate format for handheld personal digital assistants. In addition, the videos were uploaded to a social networking website and video sharing websites. Recorded cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a porcine model were utilized. Compression was required for all formats. All formats were accessed from home computers, work computers, and iPhones without difficulty. Qualitative analyses by four surgeons demonstrated appropriate quality to grade for these formats. Our preliminary results show promise that, utilizing consumer-based technology, videos can be easily distributed to surgeons to grade via GOALS via various methods. Easy accessibility may help make evaluation of resident videos less complicated and cumbersome.
Bhimani, Janak; 中村, 伊知哉
Nevermore has technology been more pervasive in people's daily lives. Children, by virtue of their age, are the earliest early-adopters of new technology. Digital video technology, especially with developments in the last decade, is now everywhere. However, there is a lack of education and training on how to use digital video technology in order to expand the creative possibilities of children and their imagination. The research in this thesis attempts to present some solutions on how to chal...
Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J
Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.
Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Jaffar, M. Arfan; Khan, Muhammad A.; Jan, Zahoor; Mirza, Anwar M.
With the advent of internet, every aspect of life is going online. From online working to watching videos, everything is now available on the internet. With the greater business benefits, increased availability and other online business advantages, there is a major challenge of security and ownership of data. Videos downloaded from an online store can easily be shared among non-intended or unauthorized users. Invisible watermarking is used to hide copyright protection information in the videos. The existing methods of watermarking are less robust and imperceptible and also the computational complexity of these methods does not suit low power devices. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to address the problem of robustness and imperceptibility. Experiments have shown that our method has better robustness and imperceptibility as well as our method is computationally efficient than previous approaches in practice. Hence our method can easily be applied on low power devices.
Razavi, Rouzbeh; Fleury, Martin; Ghanbari, Mohammed
Wireless communication of video, with Bluetooth as an example, represents a compromise between channel conditions, display and decode deadlines, and energy constraints. This paper proposes fuzzy logic control (FLC) of automatic repeat request (ARQ) as a way of reconciling these factors, with a 40% saving in power in the worst channel conditions from economizing on transmissions when channel errors occur. Whatever the channel conditions are, FLC is shown to outperform the default Bluetooth scheme and an alternative Bluetooth-adaptive ARQ scheme in terms of reduced packet loss and delay, as well as improved video quality.
Oddone Â Welcome Mark Ratner Â Nano 201: A Gentle Introduction to Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Marsha Physical Sciences Neil Kelleher Â How a Chemist Needs Computer Science, Biology, and Engineering to Push Incorporating Nanotechnology into the Curriculum (streamed session not available) Rich Marvin Â Using
Juan Antonio Juanes Méndez
Full Text Available Presentamos dos modalidades tecnológicas de enseñanza en red: la consolidada y ampliamente utilizada tecnología video-streaming, y el futuro de la comunicación a distancia, la teleinmersión. La primera permite la transmisión de audio/vídeo por la red para que puede ser vista por el usuario en su ordenador personal, desde cualquier lugar que disponga de una conexión a red. La información será recibida y decodificada por el usuario final utilizando cualquier reproductor de los que existen en el mercado. La teleinmersión, por su parte, permite crear espacios virtuales de colaboración entre profesionales, ofreciendo entornos muy cercanos a la realidad. Esta tecnología revolucionará, sin duda, nuestros sistemas de enseñanza en los próximos años, facilitando la interacción profesor-alumno. Es evidente que la formación e-learning aporta a los alumnos y a los docentes grandes ventajas como: menores tiempos de aprendizaje, flexibilidad de horarios y de ubicación geográfica, entre otras. We describe two technological modes of on-line teaching: the consolidated and widely used video-streaming mode and teleimmersion, the future of distance communications. The former mode allows the transmission of audio/video through the network so that it can be seen by the user on a PC from anywhere harbouring a network connection. The information is received and decoded by the final user using any reproducer available on the market. Teleimmersion allows the creation of virtual spaces for collaboration among professionals, offering venues that are very similar to reality. This technology will undoubtedly revolutionize our teaching systems in the near future, facilitating instructor-student interaction. It is clear that e-learning- instruction offers both students and instructors huge advantages, such as shorter learning times and schedule and geographic flexibility, among others.
Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Johnson, Austin H.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Delcampo, Marisa A.
Although widely recommended, evidence-based interventions are not regularly utilized by school practitioners. Video self-modeling is an effective and efficient evidence-based intervention for a variety of student problem behaviors. However, like many other evidence-based interventions, it is not frequently used in schools. As video creation…
Akrout, Nabil M.; Gordon, Howard; Palisson, Patrice M.; Prost, Remy; Goutte, Robert
Facing a world undergoing fundamental and rapid change, healthcare organizations are seeking ways to increase innovation, quality, productivity, and patient value, keys to more effective care. Individual clinics acting alone can respond in only a limited way, so re- engineering the process key which services are delivered demands real-time collaborative technology that provides immediate information sharing, improving the management and coordination of information in cross-functional teams. StreamWorks is a development stage architecture that uses a distribution technique to deliver an advanced information management system for telemedicine. The challenge of StreamWorks in telemedicine is to enable equity of the quality of Health Care of Telecommunications and Information Technology also to patients in less favored regions, like India or China, where the quality of medical care varies greatly by region, but where there are some very current communications facilities.
Nagy, Judit T.
The aim of the study was to examine the determining factors of students' video usage and their learning satisfaction relating to the supplementary application of educational videos, accessible in a Moodle environment in a Business Mathematics Course. The research model is based on the extension of "Technology Acceptance Model" (TAM), in…
Surgenor, Dawn; Hollywood, Lynsey; Furey, Sinéad; Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira
This study examines the role of video technology in the development of cooking skills. The study explored the views of 141 female participants on whether video technology can promote confidence in learning new cooking skills to assist in meal preparation. Prior to each focus group participants took part in a cooking experiment to assess the most effective method of learning for low-skilled cooks across four experimental conditions (recipe card only; recipe card plus video demonstration; recipe card plus video demonstration conducted in segmented stages; and recipe card plus video demonstration whereby participants freely accessed video demonstrations as and when needed). Focus group findings revealed that video technology was perceived to assist learning in the cooking process in the following ways: (1) improved comprehension of the cooking process; (2) real-time reassurance in the cooking process; (3) assisting the acquisition of new cooking skills; and (4) enhancing the enjoyment of the cooking process. These findings display the potential for video technology to promote motivation and confidence as well as enhancing cooking skills among low-skilled individuals wishing to cook from scratch using fresh ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hajduková jr., M.; Koten, Pavel; Kornoš, L.; Toth, J.
Roč. 143, SI (2017), s. 89-98 ISSN 0032-0633. [Meteoroids 2016. Nordwijk, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-25251S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteors * meteoroid orbits * meteoroid streams Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science ) Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2016
Full Text Available The performance of wireless local area networks supporting video streaming applications, based on MPEG-2 video codec, in the presence of interference is here dealt with. IEEE 802.11g standard wireless networks, that do not support QoS in according with IEEE 802.11e standard, are, in particular, accounted for and Bluetooth signals, additive white Gaussian noise, and competitive data traffic are considered as sources of interference. The goal is twofold: from one side, experimentally assessing and correlating the values that some performance metrics assume at the same time at different layers of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN delivering video streaming in the presence of in-channel interference; from the other side, deducing helpful and practical hints for designers and technicians, in order to efficiently assess and enhance the performance of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN supporting video streaming in some suitable setup conditions and in the presence of interference. To this purpose, an experimental analysis is planned following a cross-layer measurement approach, and a proper testbed within a semianechoic chamber is used. Valuable results are obtained in terms of signal-to-interference ratio, packet loss ratio, jitter, video quality, and interference data rate; helpful hints for designers and technicians are finally gained.
Ahn, J C; Lee, O
This study presents an empirical evidence of benefit of narrative video clips in embedded virtual reality websites of hotels for relieving travel anxiety. Even though it was proven that virtual reality functions do provide some relief in travel anxiety, a stronger virtual reality website can be built when narrative video clips that show video clips with narration about important aspects of the hotel. We posit that these important aspects are 1. Escape route and 2. Surrounding neighborhood information, which are derived from the existing research on anxiety disorder as well as travel anxiety. Thus we created a video clip that showed and narrated about the escape route from the hotel room, another video clip that showed and narrated about surrounding neighborhood. We then conducted experiments with this enhanced virtual reality website of a hotel by having human subjects play with the website and fill out a questionnaire. The result confirms our hypothesis that there is a statistically significant relationship between the degree of travel anxiety and psychological relief caused by the use of embedded virtual reality functions with narrative video clips of a hotel website (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 26).
ECT Team, Purdue
Akamai offers world-class streaming media services that enable Internet content providers and enterprises to succeed in today's Web-centric marketplace. They deliver live event Webcasts (complete with video production, encoding, and signal acquisition services), streaming media on demand, 24/7 Webcasts and a variety of streaming application services based upon their EdgeAdvantage.
This report presents the results of an evaluation of video technology as a possible solution to the problem of safely collecting objective condition data for prioritizing concrete pavement rehabilitation needs in Virginia. The study involved the eval...
Through continuous advancements in streaming and Web technologies over the past decade, the Web has become a platform for media delivery. Web standards like HTML5 have been designed accordingly, allowing for the delivery of applications, high-quality streaming video, and hooks for interoperable content protection. Efficient video encoding algorithms such as AVC/HEVC and streaming protocols such as MPEG-DASH have served as additional triggers for this evolution. Users now employ...
F. A. Kozlov
Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of distributed cluster system creation with streaming data replication. Ways of replication cluster implementation in CORBA-systems with ZeroMq technology are presented. Major advantages of ZeroMQ technology over similar technologies are considered in this type distributed systems creation.
Sah, Shagan; Shringi, Ameya; Ptucha, Raymond; Burry, Aaron; Loce, Robert
With the prevalence of video recordings from smart phones, dash cams, body cams, and conventional surveillance cameras, privacy protection has become a major concern, especially in light of legislation such as the Freedom of Information Act. Video redaction is used to obfuscate sensitive and personally identifiable information. Today's typical workflow involves simple detection, tracking, and manual intervention. Automated methods rely on accurate detection mechanisms being paired with robust tracking methods across the video sequence to ensure the redaction of all sensitive information while minimizing spurious obfuscations. Recent studies have explored the use of convolution neural networks and recurrent neural networks for object detection and tracking. The present paper reviews the redaction problem and compares a few state-of-the-art detection, tracking, and obfuscation methods as they relate to redaction. The comparison introduces an evaluation metric that is specific to video redaction performance. The metric can be evaluated in a manner that allows balancing the penalty for false negatives and false positives according to the needs of particular application, thereby assisting in the selection of component methods and their associated hyperparameters such that the redacted video has fewer frames that require manual review.
Chaves, Rafael Oliveira; de Oliveira, Pedro Armando Valente; Rocha, Luciano Chaves; David, Joacy Pedro Franco; Ferreira, Sanmari Costa; Santos, Alex de Assis Santos Dos; Melo, Rômulo Müller Dos Santos; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques
In order to engage medical students and residents from public health centers to utilize the telemedicine features of surgery on their own smartphones and tablets as an educational tool, an innovative streaming system was developed with the purpose of streaming live footage from open surgeries to smartphones and tablets, allowing the visualization of the surgical field from the surgeon's perspective. The current study aims to describe the results of an evaluation on level 1 of Kirkpatrick's Model for Evaluation of the streaming system usage during gynecological surgeries, based on the perception of medical students and gynecology residents. Consisted of a live video streaming (from the surgeon's point of view) of gynecological surgeries for smartphones and tablets, one for each volunteer. The volunteers were able to connect to the local wireless network, created by the streaming system, through an access password and watch the video transmission on a web browser on their smartphones. Then, they answered a Likert-type questionnaire containing 14 items about the educational applicability of the streaming system, as well as comparing it to watching an in loco procedure. This study is formally approved by the local ethics commission (Certificate No. 53175915.7.0000.5171/2016). Twenty-one volunteers participated, totalizing 294 items answered, in which 94.2% were in agreement with the items affirmative, 4.1% were neutral, and only 1.7% answers corresponded to negative impressions. Cronbach's α was .82, which represents a good reliability level. Spearman's coefficients were highly significant in 4 comparisons and moderately significant in the other 20 comparisons. This study presents a local streaming video system of live surgeries to smartphones and tablets and shows its educational utility, low cost, and simple usage, which offers convenience and satisfactory image resolution, thus being potentially applicable in surgical teaching.
Jones, Rachel; Hoover, Donald R; Lacroix, Lorraine J
Love, Sex, and Choices (LSC) is a soap opera video series created to reduce HIV sex risk in women. LSC was compared to text messages in a randomized trial in 238 high-risk mostly Black young urban women. 117 received 12-weekly LSC videos, 121 received 12-weekly HIV prevention messages on smartphones. Changes in unprotected sex with high risk partners were compared by mixed models. Unprotected sex with high risk men significantly declined over 6 months post-intervention for both arms, from 21-22 acts to 5-6 (p video over the text arm, though this difference was not statistically significant. However, the LSC was highly popular and viewers wanted the series to continue. This is the first study to report streaming soap opera video episodes to reduce HIV risk on smartphones. LSC holds promise as an Internet intervention that could be scaled-up and combined with HIV testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cady, Rhonda G; Finkelstein, Stanley M
Incorporating telehealth into outpatient care delivery supports management of consumer health between clinic visits. Task-technology fit is a framework for understanding how technology helps and/or hinders a person during work processes. Evaluating the task-technology fit of video telehealth for personnel working in a pediatric outpatient clinic and providing care between clinic visits ensures the information provided matches the information needed to support work processes. The workflow of advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) care coordination provided via telephone and video telehealth was described and measured using a mixed-methods workflow analysis protocol that incorporated cognitive ethnography and time-motion study. Qualitative and quantitative results were merged and analyzed within the task-technology fit framework to determine the workflow fit of video telehealth for APRN care coordination. Incorporating video telehealth into APRN care coordination workflow provided visual information unavailable during telephone interactions. Despite additional tasks and interactions needed to obtain the visual information, APRN workflow efficiency, as measured by time, was not significantly changed. Analyzed within the task-technology fit framework, the increased visual information afforded by video telehealth supported the assessment and diagnostic information needs of the APRN. Telehealth must provide the right information to the right clinician at the right time. Evaluating task-technology fit using a mixed-methods protocol ensured rigorous analysis of fit within work processes and identified workflows that benefit most from the technology.
Bargerhuff, Mary Ellen; Cowan, Heidi; Oliveira, Francisco; Quek, Francis; Fang, Bing
This article introduces a recently developed haptic glove system and describes how the participants used a video game that was purposely designed to train them in skills that are needed for the efficient use of the haptic glove. Assessed skills included speed, efficiency, embodied skill, and engagement. The findings and implications for future…
Bouma, H.; Mark, W. van der; Eendebak, P.T.; Landsmeer, S.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van der; Haar, F.B. ter; Wieringa, F.P.; Basten, J.P. van
Compared to open surgery, minimal invasive surgery offers reduced trauma and faster recovery. However, lack of direct view limits space perception. Stereo-endoscopy improves depth perception, but is still restricted to the direct endoscopic field-of-view. We describe a novel technology that
José Soto Vázquez
Full Text Available Resumen: La incorporación de las nuevas tecnologías en las aulas ha supuesto una nueva concepción del modelo educativo en el que el docente juega un papel determinante. No obstante, la diversidad de herramientas didácticas es tan amplia que necesita de trabajos parciales que enfoquen la utilidad de cada una de ellas. En este sentido, la enseñanza de las lenguas tiene en V Streaming una pieza fundamental que permite estudiar la lengua oral actual, a la vez que alienta el uso de las nuevas tecnologías.Summary: The incorporation of new technologies into the classroom has meant a new conception of the educational model where the teacher plays an important role. Nevertheless, the diversity of didactic tools is so wide that partial works are required to focus the utility of each of them. In this respect, the teaching of languages have in V Streaming a fundamental piece that allows studying current oral language, as well as encouraging the use of new technologies.
Purpose – Current drivers in higher education have led to the questioning of traditional placement support methods. Within many programmes, students undertaking practice-based learning experience structured, one-to-one support from an academic in the placement location. With the financial and environmental implications of this practice, the potential for using video-based communications as a replacement for face-to-face dialogue was explored. The paper aims to discuss the above issues. \\ud \\u...
Awadalla, F.T.; Kumar, A.
The membrane separation technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are suitable for treating many dilute streams and effluents generated in mining and mineral processing. Membrane technologies are capable of treating these dilute streams in order to produce clean permeate water for recycle and a concentrate that can potentially be used for valuable metals recovery. Membrane technologies can be utilized alone, or in combination with other techniques as a polishing step, in these separation processes. A review of potential applications of membranes for the treatment of different process streams and effluents for water recycling and pollution control is given here. Although membranes may not be optimum in all applications, these technologies are recognized in the mining sector for the many potential advantages they can provide. 59 refs
Skoretz, Yvonne M.; Cottle, Amy E.
Meeting International Society for Technology in Education competencies creates a challenge for teachers. The authors provide a problem-based video framework that guides teachers in enhancing 21st century skills to meet those competencies. To keep the focus on the content, the authors suggest teaching the technology skills only at the point the…
Fink, Edward J.
Opines that the study of video production is important in better understanding the aural/visual aspects of television, especially since television production is undergoing a digital revolution. Assesses the impact of new technologies by examining a "cutting-edge" program, "American Gothic." Finds that digital technology offers…
J.W.M. Kleinrouweler (Jan Willem); S. Cabrero Barros (Sergio); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)
textabstractHTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) has become the dominant technology for streaming video over the Internet. It gained popularity because of its ability to adapt the video quality to the current network conditions and other appealing properties such as usage of off-the-shelf HTTP servers and
Kleinrouweler, Jan Willem; Cabrero, Sergio; van der Mei, Rob; Cesar Garcia, P.S.
HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) has become the dominant technology for streaming video over the Internet. It gained popularity because of its ability to adapt the video quality to the current network conditions and other appealing properties such as usage of off-the-shelf HTTP servers and easy
Peterson, Courtney M; Apolzan, John W; Wright, Courtney; Martin, Corby K
We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone. For study 2, a twenty-two-item online survey was sent to a listserv with more than 20 000 unique email addresses of past and present study participants to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. For the dietary adherence tests, monitors detected 86 % of non-adherent events (sensitivity) in-person v. 78 % of events via video chat monitoring (P=0·12), with comparable inter-rater agreement (0·88 v. 0·85; P=0·62). However, for pill-taking, non-adherence trended towards being more easily detected in-person than by video chat (77 v. 60 %; P=0·08), with non-significantly higher inter-rater agreement (0·85 v. 0·69; P=0·21). Survey results from study 2 (n 1076 respondents; ≥5 % response rate) indicated that 86·4 % of study participants had video chatting hardware, 73·3 % were comfortable using the technology and 79·8 % were willing to use it for clinical research. Given the capability of video chat technology to reduce participant burden and outperform other adherence monitoring methods such as dietary self-report and pill counts, video chatting is a novel and promising platform to quantify dietary and pill-taking adherence.
Koekoek, Jeroen; van der Mars, Hans; van der Kamp, John; Walinga, Wytse; van Hilvoorde, Ivo
The rapid development of digital technology has expanded the prospects and promises for its application in physical education programs. Physical educators are becoming increasingly interested in technology but often remain inadequately equipped to effectively integrate these technological resources in their daily practice, and/or lack the…
Haydon, Todd; Musti-Rao, Shobana; McCune, Ashley; Clouse, Diane E.; McCoy, Dacia M.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Hawkins, Renee O.
There has been growing interest in the field of education regarding the use of technology in classrooms to improve student outcomes. Specifically, researchers have demonstrated positive outcomes for using mobile technology with students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fewer studies have used mobile technology with students with emotional and…
Cave, David R
Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the most recent major practical and conceptual development in the field of endoscopy. The video capsule endoscope-a small, pill-sized, passive imaging device-has been demonstrated to be the pre-eminent imaging device for disorders of the small intestine. The initial use for VCE was to detect the origin of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Several other indications have now been justified, or are in the process of evaluation. More than 200,000 of these disposable devices have been used worldwide, with an extraordinarily good safety record: indeed, the device has been approved for use in children as young as 10 years of age. In addition, a double-ended capsule has now been approved for the evaluation of mucosal disease in the esophagus. The now-widespread deployment of the device into gastrointestinal practice in the US and many other countries suggests that VCE has achieved mainstream utility. The development of similar competitor devices, and devices whose movement can be controlled, is in progress.
Tatla, Sandy K; Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, HF Machiel
Background The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians? perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. Objective The objective of our study was to explore therapists? perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these...
Czernik, Pawel; Olszyna, Jakub
As Air Traffic Control Systems move from a voice only environment to one in which clearances are issued via data link, there is a risk that an unauthorized entity may attempt to masquerade as either the pilot or controller. In order to protect against this and related attacks, air-ground communications must be secured. The challenge is to add security in an environment in which bandwidth is limited. The Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) is an enabling digital network communications technology that addresses capacity and efficiency issues associated with current aeronautical voice communication systems. Equally important, the ATN facilitates migration to free flight, where direct computer-to-computer communication will automate air traffic management, minimize controller and pilot workload, and improve overall aircraft routing efficiency. Protecting ATN communications is critical since safety-of-flight is seriously affected if an unauthorized entity, a hacker for example, is able to penetrate an otherwise reliable communications system and accidentally or maliciously introduce erroneous information that jeopardizes the overall safety and integrity of a given airspace. However, an ATN security implementation must address the challenges associated with aircraft mobility, limited bandwidth communication channels, and uninterrupted operation across organizational and geopolitical boundaries. This paper provides a brief overview of the ATN, the ATN security concept, and begins a basic introduction to the relevant security concepts of security threats, security services and security mechanisms. Security mechanisms are further examined by presenting the fundamental building blocks of symmetric encipherment, asymmetric encipherment, and hash functions. The second part of this paper presents the project of cryptographiclly secure wireless communication between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and the ground station in the ATM system, based on the ARM9 processor
Andreja B. Samčović
Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld standard DVB-H, as a part of the DVB Project. This standard is based on the previous standard DVB-T, which was developed for the terrestrial digital television. The ways of DVB-H signal transmission are also described. Development of advanced technology enabled the digital video broadcasting over wireless portable terminals. This paper discusses the key technological features of the DVB-H standard, such as: time slicing, forward error correction, 4K mode and in-depth interleavers.
Van Horn, Royal
Several years after the first audiovisual Macintosh computer appeared, most educators are still oblivious of this technology. Almost every other economic sector (including the porn industry) makes abundant use of digital and streaming video. Desktop movie production is so easy that primary grade students can do it. Tips are provided. (MLH)
A M Productions Inc., Vancouver (British Columbia).
This 57-minute videotape covers the "Florida Educators Using Information Technology" session of the "Eco-Informa '96" conference. Two speakers presented examples of environmental educators using information technology. The first speaker, Brenda Maxwell, is the Director and Developer of the Florida Science Institute based at…
Brunie, Lionel; Favory, Loic; Gelas, J. P.; Lefevre, Laurent; Mostefaoui, Ahmed; Nait-Abdesselam, F.
Video databases became an active field of research during the last decade. The main objective in such systems is to provide users with capabilities to friendly search, access and playback distributed stored video data in the same way as they do for traditional distributed databases. Hence, such systems need to deal with hard issues : (a) video documents generate huge volumes of data and are time sensitive (streams must be delivered at a specific bitrate), (b) contents of video data are very hard to be automatically extracted and need to be humanly annotated. To cope with these issues, many approaches have been proposed in the literature including data models, query languages, video indexing etc. In this paper, we present SIRSALE : a set of video databases management tools that allow users to manipulate video documents and streams stored in large distributed repositories. All the proposed tools are based on generic models that can be customized for specific applications using ad-hoc adaptation modules. More precisely, SIRSALE allows users to : (a) browse video documents by structures (sequences, scenes, shots) and (b) query the video database content by using a graphical tool, adapted to the nature of the target video documents. This paper also presents an annotating interface which allows archivists to describe the content of video documents. All these tools are coupled to a video player integrating remote VCR functionalities and are based on active network technology. So, we present how dedicated active services allow an optimized video transport for video streams (with Tamanoir active nodes). We then describe experiments of using SIRSALE on an archive of news video and soccer matches. The system has been demonstrated to professionals with a positive feedback. Finally, we discuss open issues and present some perspectives.
This final research report culminates a decade-long initiative to demonstrate and implement streaming media technologies at CONNDOT. This effort began in 2001 during an earlier related-study (SPR-2231) that concluded in 2006. This study (SPR-2254) re...
Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Chih Hung; Jeng, Ming Chang
The aim of this study is to design and develop a Physically Interactive Learning Environment, the PILE system, by integrating video-capture virtual reality technology into a classroom. The system is designed for elementary school level English classes where students can interact with the system through physical movements. The system is designed to…
Liu KJ Ray
Full Text Available A key enabling technology for the proliferation of multimedia PC's is the availability of fast video codecs, which are the basic building blocks of many new multimedia applications. Since most industrial video coding standards (e.g., MPEG1, MPEG2, H.261, H.263 only specify the decoder syntax, there are a lot of rooms for optimization in a practical implementation. When considering a specific hardware platform like the PC, the algorithmic optimization must be considered in tandem with the architecture of the PC. Specifically, an algorithm that is optimal in the sense of number of operations needed may not be the fastest implementation on the PC. This is because special instructions are available which can perform several operations at once under special circumstances. In this work, we describe a fast implementation of H.263 video encoder for the Pentium processor with MMX technology. The described codec is adopted for video mail and video phone softwares used in IBM ThinkPad.
Zerr, Daria M; Pulcher, Karen L
A pilot study was conducted to analyze the benefits of using interactive technology with external assessors and graduating senior nursing students during Senior Nurse Leadership Assessment Day at the University of Central Missouri. The primary aim was to determine whether videoconferencing technology would promote recruitment and retention of professional nurse external assessors without compromising student learning. Among the issues discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of using interactive videoconferencing technology in education and the influence of external assessors in nursing education. The study results indicate that interactive videoconferencing is an effective, accepted format for educational opportunities such as Senior Nurse Leadership Assessment Day, based on the lived experiences of the study participants. In addition, the results demonstrate that interactive videoconferencing does not compromise student learning or assessment by external assessors.
Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...
J.W.M. Kleinrouweler (Jan Willem); S. Cabrero Barros (Sergio); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)
textabstractDynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) is a simple, but effective, technology for video streaming over the Internet. It provides adaptive streaming while being highly scalable at the side of the content providers. However, the mismatch between TCP and the adaptive bursty nature of
Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Methods Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1) demographic characteristics; 2) differences between the two universities; 3) how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4) characteristics of students who play most frequently. Results 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%). Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%), felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%), and believed that video games can have educational value (80%). A majority (77%) would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%), and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%). However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Conclusions Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly favorable views about
Kron Frederick W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Methods Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1 demographic characteristics; 2 differences between the two universities; 3 how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4 characteristics of students who play most frequently. Results 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%. Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%, felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%, and believed that video games can have educational value (80%. A majority (77% would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%, and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%. However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Conclusions Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly
Kron, Frederick W; Gjerde, Craig L; Sen, Ananda; Fetters, Michael D
Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1) demographic characteristics; 2) differences between the two universities; 3) how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4) characteristics of students who play most frequently. 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%). Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%), felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%), and believed that video games can have educational value (80%). A majority (77%) would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%), and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%). However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly favorable views about the use of video games and related new
Santos-González, Iván; Rivero-García, Alexandra; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Caballero-Gil, Pino
Communication media have become the primary way of interaction thanks to the discovery and innovation of many new technologies. One of the most widely used communication systems today is video streaming, which is constantly evolving. Such communications are a good alternative to face-to-face meetings, and are therefore very useful for coping with many problems caused by distance. However, they suffer from different issues such as bandwidth limitation, network congestion, energy efficiency, cost, reliability and connectivity. Hence, the quality of service and the quality of experience are considered the two most important issues for this type of communication. This work presents a complete comparative study of two of the most used protocols of video streaming, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) and the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC). In addition, this paper proposes two new mobile applications that implement those protocols in Android whose objective is to know how they are influenced by the aspects that most affect the streaming quality of service, which are the connection establishment time and the stream reception time. The new video streaming applications are also compared with the most popular video streaming applications for Android, and the experimental results of the analysis show that the developed WebRTC implementation improves the performance of the most popular video streaming applications with respect to the stream packet delay.
Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Purk, John H; Williams, Brian Joseph; Van Ness, Christopher J
The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if tablet technology with accompanying instructional videos enhanced the teaching and learning outcomes in a preclinical dental laboratory setting. Two procedures deemed most challenging in Operative Dentistry II were chosen for the development of instructional videos. A random sample of thirty students was chosen to participate in the pilot. Comparison of faculty evaluations of the procedures between the experimental (tablet) and control (no tablet) groups resulted in no significant differences; however, there was a trend toward fewer failures in the experimental group. Examination of the ability to accurately self-assess was compared by exploring correlations between faculty and student evaluations. While correlations were stronger in the experimental group, the control group had significant correlations for all three procedures, while the experimental group had significant correlations on only two of the procedures. Students strongly perceived that the tablets and videos helped them perform better and more accurately self-assess their work products. Students did not support requiring that they purchase/obtain a specific brand of technology. As a result of this pilot study, further development of ideal and non-ideal videos are in progress, and the school will be implementing a "Bring Your Own Device" policy with incoming students.
Jennifer Lynn McLean
Full Text Available Recording lectures using video lecture capture software and making them available for students to watch anytime, from anywhere, has become a common practice in many universities across many disciplines. The software has become increasingly easy to use and is commonly provided and maintained by higher education institutions. Several studies have reported that students use lecture capture to enhance their learning and study for assessments, as well as to catch up on material they miss when they cannot attend class due to extenuating circumstances. Furthermore, students with disabilities and students from non-English Speaking Backgrounds (NESB may benefit from being able to watch the video lecture captures at their own pace. Yet, the effect of this technology on class attendance remains a controversial topic and largely unexplored in undergraduate microbiology education. Here, we show that when video lecture captures were available in our large enrollment general microbiology courses, attendance did not decrease. In fact, the majority of students reported that having the videos available did not encourage them to skip class, but rather they used them as a study tool. When we surveyed NESB students and nontraditional students about their attitudes toward this technology, they found it helpful for their learning and for keeping up with the material.
Metcalfe, Helene; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana; Saunders, Rosemary; Dugmore, Helen
The introduction of learning technologies into educational settings continues to grow alongside the emergence of innovative technologies into the healthcare arena. The challenge for health professionals such as medical, nursing, and allied health practitioners is to develop an improved understanding of these technologies and how they may influence practice and contribute to healthcare. For nurse educators to remain contemporary, there is a need to not only embrace current technologies in teaching and learning but to also ensure that students are able to adapt to this changing pedagogy. One recent technological innovation is the use of wearable computing technology, consisting of video recording with the capability of playback analysis. The authors of this article discuss the introduction of the use of wearable Point of View video glasses by a cohort of nursing students in a simulated clinical learning laboratory. Of particular interest was the ease of use of the glasses, also termed the usability of this technology, which is central to its success. Students' reflections were analyzed together with suggestions for future use.
Full Text Available With the development of educational technology, the concept of technology-enhanced multimedia instructions is using widely in the educational settings. Technology can be employed in teaching different skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing. Among these skills, reading comprehension is the skill in which EFL learners have some problems to master. Regarding this issue, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of video materials on improving reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. A Longman Placement Test was administered to 30 EFL learners to ensure that learners are at the same level of proficiency. The students were chosen from the state high schools in Chabahar. The participants were regarded as intermediate learners and were divided into two groups (one experimental group and one control group. Then, a pre-test of reading comprehension was administered to assess the participants’ reading comprehension. The participants of experimental group used video files to improve their reading comprehension while the control group received conventional approaches of teaching reading comprehension. Finally, all the participants were assigned a 40-item multiple-choice reading comprehension post-test. The results of the study indicated that video materials had a significant effect on promoting reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners (p = .000, <.05.
Paro, John A M; Nazareli, Rahim; Gurjala, Anadev; Berger, Aaron; Lee, Gordon K
Professionals in a variety of specialties use video-based review as a method of constant self-evaluation. We believe critical self-reflection will allow a surgical trainee to identify methods for improvement throughout residency and beyond. We have used 2 new popular technologies to evaluate their role in accomplishing the previously mentioned objectives. Our group investigated Google Glass and GoPro cameras. Medical students, residents, and faculty were invited to wear each of the devices during a scheduled operation. After the case, each participant was asked to comment on a number of features of the device including comfort, level of distraction/interference with operating, ease of video acquisition, and battery life. Software and hardware specifications were compiled and compared by the authors. A "proof-of-concept" was also performed using the video-conferencing abilities of Google Glass to perform a simulated flap check. The technical specifications of the 2 cameras favor GoPro over Google Glass. Glass records in 720p with 5-MP still shots, and the GoPro records in 1080p with 12-MP still shots. Our tests of battery life showed more than 2 hours of continuous video with GoPro, and less than 1 hour for Glass. Favorable features of Google Glass included comfort and relative ease of use; they could not comfortably wear loupes while operating, and would have preferred longer hands-free video recording. The GoPro was slightly more cumbersome and required a nonsterile team member to activate all pictures or video; however, loupes could be worn. Google Glass was successfully used in the hospital for a simulated flap check, with overall audio and video being transmitted--fine detail was lost, however. There are benefits and limitations to each of the devices tested. Google Glass is in its infancy and may gain a larger intraoperative role in the future. We plan to use Glass as a way for trainees to easily acquire intraoperative footage as a means to "review tape" and
Lee, Jae Cheol; Jun, Hyeong Seop; Choi, Yu Rak; Kim, Jae Hee
Recently, automatic identification and tracking of the object are actively studied according to the rapid development of signal processing and vision technology using improved hardware and software. The object tracking technology can be applied to various fields such as road watching of the vehicles, weather satellite, traffic observation, intelligent remote video-conferences and autonomous mobile robots. Object tracking system receives subsequent pictures from the camera and detects motions of the objects in these pictures. In this report, we investigate various object tracking techniques such as brightness change using histogram characteristic, differential image analysis, contour and feature extraction, and try to find proper methods that can be used to mobile robots actually
The primary purpose of this report is to present information that was gathered by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. (KEI) in order to help the Department of Energy (DOE) determine the merit of continued biosorption research funding. However, in the event that funding is continued, it is also intended to help the researchers in their efforts to develop a better uranium-removal process. This report (1) provides a comparison of DOE sites that may utilize aqueous-stream, uranium-removal biosorption technology, (2) presents a comparison of the biosorption and ion exchange processes, and (3) establishes performance criteria by which the project can be measured. It also attempts to provide focus for biosorbent ground-water-remediation research and to ask questions that need to be answered. This report is primarily a study of the US market for technologies that remove uranium from aqueous streams, but it also addresses the international market-particularly for Germany. Because KEI`s access to international market information is extremely limited, the material presented in this report represents a best effort to obtain this data. Although uranium-contaminated aqueous streams are a problem in other countries as well, the scope of this report is primarily limited to the US and Germany for two reasons: (1) Germany is the country of the biosorbent-CRADA partner and (2) time constraints.
The primary purpose of this report is to present information that was gathered by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. (KEI) in order to help the Department of Energy (DOE) determine the merit of continued biosorption research funding. However, in the event that funding is continued, it is also intended to help the researchers in their efforts to develop a better uranium-removal process. This report (1) provides a comparison of DOE sites that may utilize aqueous-stream, uranium-removal biosorption technology, (2) presents a comparison of the biosorption and ion exchange processes, and (3) establishes performance criteria by which the project can be measured. It also attempts to provide focus for biosorbent ground-water-remediation research and to ask questions that need to be answered. This report is primarily a study of the US market for technologies that remove uranium from aqueous streams, but it also addresses the international market-particularly for Germany. Because KEI's access to international market information is extremely limited, the material presented in this report represents a best effort to obtain this data. Although uranium-contaminated aqueous streams are a problem in other countries as well, the scope of this report is primarily limited to the US and Germany for two reasons: (1) Germany is the country of the biosorbent-CRADA partner and (2) time constraints
Reardon, Cillian; Tobin, Daniel P; Tierney, Peter; Delahunt, Eamonn
The aim of our study was to determine if there is a role for manipulation of g force thresholds acquired via micro-technology for accurately detecting collisions in rugby union. In total, 36 players were recruited from an elite Guinness Pro12 rugby union team. Player movement profiles and collisions were acquired via individual global positioning system (GPS) micro-technology units. Players were assigned to a sub-category of positions in order to determine positional collision demands. The coding of collisions by micro-technology at g force thresholds between 2 and 5.5 g (0.5 g increments) was compared with collision coding by an expert video analyst using Bland-Altman assessments. The most appropriate g force threshold (smallest mean difference compared with video analyst coding) was lower for all forwards positions (2.5 g) than for all backs positions (3.5 g). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement indicated that there may be a substantial over- or underestimation of collisions coded via GPS micro-technology when using expert video analyst coding as the reference comparator. The manipulation of the g force thresholds applied to data acquired by GPS micro-technology units based on incremental thresholds of 0.5 g does not provide a reliable tool for the accurate coding of collisions in rugby union. Future research should aim to investigate smaller g force threshold increments and determine the events that cause coding of false positives.
Tam, Joyce W; Van Son, Catherine; Dyck, Dennis; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen
Aging services technologies (ASTs), health technology that meets the needs of seniors, are being underutilized due to a lack of awareness. This study evaluated a video-based educational program to increase AST awareness. Two hundred and thirty-one older adults completed AST measures pre- and post-program. Participants endorsed significantly improved AST knowledge and attitude and a lower level of perceived stigma post-program. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a greater reduction in stigma post-program and a higher number of physical/cognitive needs supported by ASTs at baseline were significant predictors of a greater increase in expressed intention to use ASTs following the video program. Furthermore, individuals living in their own homes, with a lower level of education, fewer physical and/or cognitive needs supported by ASTs at baseline, and greater functional limitations were found to be more likely to report a significant reduction in perceived stigma post-program. Four-week follow-up data from 75 individuals showed stable program gains. Program feedback was positive. The current findings provide support for the utility of the AST videos. The educational materials used in this study can be used clinically or for public health education to increase awareness and adoption of ASTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nakanishi, Hideya; Kojima, Mamoru
For the LHD project a long-pulse plasma experiment of one-hour duration is planned. In this quasi steady-state operation, the data acquisition system will be required to continuously transfer the diagnostic data from the digitizer front-end and display them in real-time. The Compact PCI standard is used to replace the conventional CAMAC digitizers in LHD, because it provides good functionality for real-time data streaming and also a connectivity with modern PC technology. The digitizer scheme, interface to the host computer, adoption of data compression, and downstream applications are discussed in detail to design and implement this new real-time data streaming system for LHD plasma diagnostics. (author)
Weakley, Alyssa; Tam, Joyce W; Van Son, Catherine; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen
Health care professionals (HCPs) are a critical source of recommendations for older adults. Aging services technologies (ASTs), which include devices to support the health-care needs of older adults, are underutilized despite evidence for improving functional outcomes and safety and reducing caregiver burden and health costs. This study evaluated a video-based educational program aimed at improving HCP awareness of ASTs. Sixty-five HCPs viewed AST videos related to medication management, daily living, and memory. Following the program, participants' objective and perceived AST knowledge improved, as did self-efficacy and anticipated AST engagement. About 95% of participants stated they were more likely to recommend ASTs postprogram. Participants benefitted equally regardless of years of experience or previous AST familiarity. Furthermore, change in self-efficacy and perceived knowledge were significant predictors of engagement change. Overall, the educational program was effective in improving HCPs' awareness of ASTs and appeared to benefit all participants regardless of experience and prior knowledge.
Huang, Yun-Hsuan; Chuang, Tsung-Yen
Content-based instruction (CBI) has been widely adopted for decades. However, existing CBI models cannot always be effectively put into practice, especially for learners of lower English proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL) context. This study examined an animation design course adopting CBI to promote reading abilities of English…
Lynch-Sauer, Judith; Vandenbosch, Terry M; Kron, Frederick; Gjerde, Craig Livingston; Arato, Nora; Sen, Ananda; Fetters, Michael D
Little is known about Millennial nursing students' attitudes toward computer games and new media in nursing education and whether these attitudes differ between undergraduates and graduates. This study elicited nursing students' experience with computer games and new media, their attitudes toward various instructional styles and methods, and the role of computer games and new media technologies in nursing education. We e-mailed all nursing students enrolled in two universities to invite their participation in an anonymous cross-sectional online survey. The survey collected demographic data and participants' experience with and attitudes toward video gaming and multi-player online health care simulations. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to compare the differences between undergraduates and graduates. Two hundred eighteen nursing students participated. Many of the nursing students support using new media technologies in nursing education. Nurse educators should identify areas suitable for new media integration and further evaluate the effectiveness of these technologies. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...
Full Text Available This article describes the development of a non-contact dynamic displacement measurement system for railway bridges based on video technology. The system, consisting of a high speed video camera, an optical lens, lighting lamps and a precision target, can perform measurements with high precision for distances from the camera to the target up to 25 m, with acquisition frame rates ranging from 64 fps to 500 fps, and be articulated with other measurement systems, which promotes its integration in structural health monitoring systems. The system’s performance was evaluated based on two tests, one in the laboratory and other on the field. The laboratory test evaluated the performance of the system in measuring the displacement of a steel beam, subjected to a point load applied dynamically, for distances from the camera to the target between 3 m and 15 m. The field test allowed evaluating the system’s performance in the dynamic measurement of the displacement of a point on the deck of a railway bridge, induced by passing trains at speeds between 160 km/h and 180 km/h, for distances from the camera to the target up to 25 m. The results of both tests show a very good agreement between the displacement measurement obtained with the video system and with a LVDT.
Vignais, Nicolas; Kulpa, Richard; Brault, Sébastien; Presse, Damien; Bideau, Benoit
Visual information uptake is a fundamental element of sports involving interceptive tasks. Several methodologies, like video and methods based on virtual environments, are currently employed to analyze visual perception during sport situations. Both techniques have advantages and drawbacks. The goal of this study is to determine which of these technologies may be preferentially used to analyze visual information uptake during a sport situation. To this aim, we compared a handball goalkeeper's performance using two standardized methodologies: video clip and virtual environment. We examined this performance for two response tasks: an uncoupled task (goalkeepers show where the ball ends) and a coupled task (goalkeepers try to intercept the virtual ball). Variables investigated in this study were percentage of correct zones, percentage of correct responses, radial error and response time. The results showed that handball goalkeepers were more effective, more accurate and started to intercept earlier when facing a virtual handball thrower than when facing the video clip. These findings suggested that the analysis of visual information uptake for handball goalkeepers was better performed by using a 'virtual reality'-based methodology. Technical and methodological aspects of these findings are discussed further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest that case-based resources, which are used for assisting cognition during problem solving, can be structured around the work of narratives in social cultural psychology. Theories and other research methods have proposed structures within narratives and stories which may be useful to the design of case-based resources. Moreover, embedded within cases are stories which are contextually rich, supporting the epistemological groundings of situated cognition. Therefore the purposes of this paper are to discuss possible frameworks of case-stories; derive design principles as to what constitutes a good case story or narrative; and suggest how technology can support story-based learning. We adopt video-based Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL technology to support problem solving with case-stories learning scenarios. Our hypothesis in this paper is that well-designed case-based resources are able to aid in the cognitive processes undergirding problem solving and meaning making. We also suggest the use of an emerging video-based collaborative learning technology to support such an instructional strategy.
Young, Darrell L.
The advancement in video compression technology can result in more sensitivity to bit errors. Bit errors can propagate causing sustained loss of interpretability. In the worst case, the decoder "freezes" until it can re-synchronize with the stream. Detection of artifacts enables downstream processes to avoid corrupted frames. A simple template approach to detect block stripes and a more advanced cascade approach to detect compression artifacts was shown to correlate to the presence of artifacts and decoder messages.
Acevedo Clavijo Edwin Jovanny; Parra Toloza Dina Julieth; Winlker Hernadez Walter
Esta propuesta tiene como objetivo estudiar varias alternativas de servidores Streaming para determinar la mejor herramienta para el desarrollo de la publicación de material audiovisual educativo. Se evaluaron las plataformas más utilizadas teniendo en cuenta sus características y beneficios que tiene cada servidor entre las los cuales están: Hélix Universal Server, Windows Media Server de Microsoft, Peer Cast y Darwin Server. implementando un servidor con mayores capacidades y beneficios par...
Gupta, Sameer; Boehme, Jacqueline; Manser, Kelly; Dewar, Jannine; Miller, Amie; Siddiqui, Gina; Schwaitzberg, Steven D
Background Google Glass has been used in a variety of medical settings with promising results. We explored the use and potential value of an asynchronous, near-real time protocol-which avoids transmission issues associated with real-time applications-for recording, uploading, and viewing of high-definition (HD) visual media in the emergency department (ED) to facilitate remote surgical consults. Study Design First-responder physician assistants captured pertinent aspects of the physical examination and diagnostic imaging using Google Glass' HD video or high-resolution photographs. This visual media were then securely uploaded to the study website. The surgical consultation then proceeded over the phone in the usual fashion and a clinical decision was made. The surgeon then accessed the study website to review the uploaded video. This was followed by a questionnaire regarding how the additional data impacted the consultation. Results The management plan changed in 24% (11) of cases after surgeons viewed the video. Five of these plans involved decision making regarding operative intervention. Although surgeons were generally confident in their initial management plan, confidence scores increased further in 44% (20) of cases. In addition, we surveyed 276 ED patients on their opinions regarding concerning the practice of health care providers wearing and using recording devices in the ED. The survey results revealed that the majority of patients are amenable to the addition of wearable technology with video functionality to their care. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential value of a medically dedicated, hands-free, HD recording device with internet connectivity in facilitating remote surgical consultation. © The Author(s) 2016.
Tatla, Sandy K; Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, H F Machiel
The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians' perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. The objective of our study was to explore therapists' perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these technologies in rehabilitation. We conducted two focus groups comprised of ten occupational therapists/physiotherapists who provide neurorehabilitation to individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke or cerebral palsy. Data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The diffusion of innovations theory provided a framework to interpret emerging themes. Therapists were using technology in a limited capacity. They identified barriers to using social media and gaming technology with their clients, including a lack of age appropriateness, privacy issues with social media, limited transfer of training, and a lack of accessibility of current systems. Therapists also questioned their role in the context of technology-based interventions. The opportunity for social interaction was perceived as a major benefit of integrated gaming and social media. This study reveals the complexities associated with adopting new technologies in clinical practice, including the need to consider both client and clinician factors. Despite reporting several challenges with applying gaming and social media technology with clinical populations, therapists identified opportunities for increased social interactions and were willing to help shape the development of an upper limb training system that could more readily meet the needs of clients with hemiplegia. By considering the needs of both therapists and clients, technology developers may increase the likelihood that clinicians will adopt innovative technologies.
Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, HF Machiel
Background The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians’ perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. Objective The objective of our study was to explore therapists’ perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these technologies in rehabilitation. Methods We conducted two focus groups comprised of ten occupational therapists/physiotherapists who provide neurorehabilitation to individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke or cerebral palsy. Data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The diffusion of innovations theory provided a framework to interpret emerging themes. Results Therapists were using technology in a limited capacity. They identified barriers to using social media and gaming technology with their clients, including a lack of age appropriateness, privacy issues with social media, limited transfer of training, and a lack of accessibility of current systems. Therapists also questioned their role in the context of technology-based interventions. The opportunity for social interaction was perceived as a major benefit of integrated gaming and social media. Conclusions This study reveals the complexities associated with adopting new technologies in clinical practice, including the need to consider both client and clinician factors. Despite reporting several challenges with applying gaming and social media technology with clinical populations, therapists identified opportunities for increased social interactions and were willing to help shape the development of an upper limb training system that could more readily meet the needs of clients with hemiplegia. By considering the needs of both therapists and clients, technology developers may increase the likelihood that
Sharma, Shubhankar; Singh, K. John; Priya, M.
From the past two decades the extreme evolution of the Internet has lead a massive rise in video technology and significantly video consumption over the Internet which inhabits the bulk of data traffic in general. Clearly, video consumes that so much data size on the World Wide Web, to reduce the burden on the Internet and deduction of bandwidth consume by video so that the user can easily access the video data.For this, many video codecs are developed such as HEVC/H.265 and V9. Although after seeing codec like this one gets a dilemma of which would be improved technology in the manner of rate distortion and the coding standard.This paper gives a solution about the difficulty for getting low delay in video compression and video application e.g. ad-hoc video conferencing/streaming or observation by surveillance. Also this paper describes the benchmark of HEVC and V9 technique of video compression on subjective oral estimations of High Definition video content, playback on web browsers. Moreover, this gives the experimental ideology of dividing the video file into several segments for compression and putting back together to improve the efficiency of video compression on the web as well as on the offline mode.
Lv, Zhihan; Tek, Alex; Da Silva, Franck; Empereur-mot, Charly; Chavent, Matthieu; Baaden, Marc
The video games industry develops ever more advanced technologies to improve rendering, image quality, ergonomics and user experience of their creations providing very simple to use tools to design new games. In the molecular sciences, only a small number of experts with specialized know-how are able to design interactive visualization applications, typically static computer programs that cannot easily be modified. Are there lessons to be learned from video games? Could their technology help us explore new molecular graphics ideas and render graphics developments accessible to non-specialists? This approach points to an extension of open computer programs, not only providing access to the source code, but also delivering an easily modifiable and extensible scientific research tool. In this work, we will explore these questions using the Unity3D game engine to develop and prototype a biological network and molecular visualization application for subsequent use in research or education. We have compared several routines to represent spheres and links between them, using either built-in Unity3D features or our own implementation. These developments resulted in a stand-alone viewer capable of displaying molecular structures, surfaces, animated electrostatic field lines and biological networks with powerful, artistic and illustrative rendering methods. We consider this work as a proof of principle demonstrating that the functionalities of classical viewers and more advanced novel features could be implemented in substantially less time and with less development effort. Our prototype is easily modifiable and extensible and may serve others as starting point and platform for their developments. A webserver example, standalone versions for MacOS X, Linux and Windows, source code, screen shots, videos and documentation are available at the address: http://unitymol.sourceforge.net/.
Full Text Available The video games industry develops ever more advanced technologies to improve rendering, image quality, ergonomics and user experience of their creations providing very simple to use tools to design new games. In the molecular sciences, only a small number of experts with specialized know-how are able to design interactive visualization applications, typically static computer programs that cannot easily be modified. Are there lessons to be learned from video games? Could their technology help us explore new molecular graphics ideas and render graphics developments accessible to non-specialists? This approach points to an extension of open computer programs, not only providing access to the source code, but also delivering an easily modifiable and extensible scientific research tool. In this work, we will explore these questions using the Unity3D game engine to develop and prototype a biological network and molecular visualization application for subsequent use in research or education. We have compared several routines to represent spheres and links between them, using either built-in Unity3D features or our own implementation. These developments resulted in a stand-alone viewer capable of displaying molecular structures, surfaces, animated electrostatic field lines and biological networks with powerful, artistic and illustrative rendering methods. We consider this work as a proof of principle demonstrating that the functionalities of classical viewers and more advanced novel features could be implemented in substantially less time and with less development effort. Our prototype is easily modifiable and extensible and may serve others as starting point and platform for their developments. A webserver example, standalone versions for MacOS X, Linux and Windows, source code, screen shots, videos and documentation are available at the address: http://unitymol.sourceforge.net/.
Davidson, Christina; Given, Lisa M.; Danby, Susan; Thorpe, Karen
Much of what is written about digital technologies in preschool contexts focuses on young children's acquisition of skills rather than their meaning-making during use of technologies. In this paper, we consider how the viewing of a YouTube video was used by a teacher and children to produce shared understandings about it. Conversation analysis of…
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to section 3021(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). DOE has prepared this report for submission to EPA and the States in which DOE stores, generates, or treats mixed wastes. As required by the FFCA, this report contains: a national inventory of all mixed wastes in the DOE system that are currently stored or will be generated over the next five years, including waste stream name, description, EPA waste codes, basis for characterization (i.e., sampling and analysis or process knowledge), effect of radionuclides on treatment, quantity stored that is subject to the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) storage prohibition, quantity stored that is not subject to the LDRS, expected generation over the next five years, Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) used for developing the LDR requirements, and waste minimization activities; and a national inventory of mixed waste treatment capacities and technologies, including information such as the descriptions, capacities, and locations of all existing and proposed treatment facilities, explanations for not including certain existing facilities in capacity evaluations, information to support decisions on unavailability of treatment technologies for certain mixed wastes, and the planned technology development activities
Talnikar, Vivek Digambar; Mahajan, Yogesh Shankar
Chemical process industries convert raw materials into useful products. Acids, among other chemicals, are used in many industries as reactants, solvents and also as catalysts in a few instances as well. Resulting streams are dilute, from which the acids must be recovered. For recovery, many technologies can be used by which acids can be regained as such or can be converted into other value-added products like esters. Membrane processes and biological processes are being researched academically and practiced industrially. These have their own advantages and disadvantages in view of conversion, energy consumption etc. These are not always advantageous and hence an alternate process technology is necessary like reactive separation (RS). RS is advantageous especially when the acid is to be converted to other useful products by reaction, due to additional advantages or because no other technology is well suited or due to cost considerations alone. Conventional process technologies use the reactor configuration followed by the subsequent separation sequence. This approach can sometimes suffer from lesser conversion, difficulties in separation etc. To overcome these problems, RS has an edge over other processes in terms of the recovery of the useful compounds. Reactive distillation (RD), reactive extraction (RE) and reactive chromatography (RC) are the separation technologies that can be useful for acid recovery in an economically feasible way. This review covers the various processes of acid recovery along with the recent work in the field of reactive separations
Keiser, J. R.; Wang, D. [Gas Technology Institute; Bischoff, B.; Ciora, [Media and Process Technology; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S. B.
Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina
The developments in the last ten years in the form of DVD, streaming video, video on demand, interactive television and digital language laboratories call for an assessment of the research into language teaching and learning making use of these technologies and the learning paradigms underpinning them. This paper surveys research on language…
Full Text Available Modeling background and segmenting moving objects are significant techniques for computer vision applications. Mixture-of-Gaussians (MoG background model is commonly used in foreground extraction in video steam. However considering the case that the objects enter the scenery and stay for a while, the foreground extraction would fail as the objects stay still and gradually merge into the background. In this paper, we adopt a blob tracking method to cope with this situation. To construct the MoG model more quickly, we add frame difference method to the foreground extracted from MoG for very crowded situations. What is more, a new shadow removal method based on RGB color space is proposed.
Lin, Chen-Yi; Kao, Yuan-Hung; Lee, Wei-Bin; Chen, Rong-Chang
With the popularity of smart handheld devices and the emergence of cloud computing, users and companies can save various data, which may contain private data, to the cloud. Topics relating to data security have therefore received much attention. This study focuses on data stream environments and uses the concept of a sliding window to design a reversible privacy-preserving technology to process continuous data in real time, known as a continuous reversible privacy-preserving (CRP) algorithm. Data with CRP algorithm protection can be accurately recovered through a data recovery process. In addition, by using an embedded watermark, the integrity of the data can be verified. The results from the experiments show that, compared to existing algorithms, CRP is better at preserving knowledge and is more effective in terms of reducing information loss and privacy disclosure risk. In addition, it takes far less time for CRP to process continuous data than existing algorithms. As a result, CRP is confirmed as suitable for data stream environments and fulfills the requirements of being lightweight and energy-efficient for smart handheld devices.
Jun Steed Huang
Full Text Available This paper reports on the design of an OPNET simulation platform to test the performance of sending real-time safety video over VANET (Vehicular Adhoc NETwork using the WiMAX technology. To provide a more realistic environment for streaming real-time video, a video model was created based on the study of video traffic traces captured from a realistic vehicular camera, and different design considerations were taken into account. A practical controller over real-time streaming protocol is implemented to control data traffic congestion for future road safety development. Our driving video model was then integrated with the WiMAX OPNET model along with a mobility model based on real road maps. Using this simulation platform, different mobility cases have been studied and the performance evaluated in terms of end-to-end delay, jitter and visual experience.
Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.
Lemminger, Roy; Svendsen, Lars Limkilde; Zijdemans, Erik
stream is well established focuses on International New Ventures (INVs) or Born Global (BG) firms (Oviatt & McDougall, 1994; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996); the second one is in the process of emerging and deals with lean start-ups (Ries, 2011; Blank, 2013). It is our intention to show that the problems...... these two groups of firms face during the early stages of their existence are to a large extent identical and could, from a theoretical point of view, be analyzed in a unified way. Integrating the two research perspectives above gives rise to a number of interesting research questions that could...... be summarized as follows: a) How do new technology start-ups narrow down the scope of their business activities by effectuating the global dimensions of their businesses? What are the reasons for such firms to look for global resources, partnerships or markets right from inception? b) What makes it possible...
Wang, Xiaohui; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian
The current study systematically reviews and summarizes the existing literature of game acceptance, identifies the core determinants, and evaluates the strength of the relationships in the extended technology acceptance model. Moreover, this study segments video games into two categories: hedonic and utilitarian and examines player acceptance of these two types separately. Through a meta-analysis of 50 articles, we find that perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), and perceived enjoyment (PE) significantly associate with attitude and behavioral intention. PE is the dominant predictor of hedonic game acceptance, while PEOU and PU are the main determinants of utilitarian game acceptance. Furthermore, we find that respondent type and game platform are significant moderators. Findings of this study provide critical insights into the phenomenon of game acceptance and suggest directions for future research.
Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of the video database and the basic structure of the video database and several typical video data models, the segmentation-based multi-level data model is used to describe the landscape information video database, the network database model and the road network management database system. Landscape information management system detailed design and implementation of a detailed preparation.
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the integration of cloud technology functions into 3D IP video surveil-lance systems in order to conduct further video Analytics, incoming real-time data, as well as stored video materials on the server in the «cloud». The main attention is devoted to «cloud technologies» usage optimizing the process of recognition of the desired object by increasing the criteria of flexibility and scalability of the system. Transferring image load from the client to the cloud server, to the virtual part of the system. The development of the issues considered in the article in terms of data analysis, which will significantly improve the effectiveness of the implementation of special tasks facing special units.
Video content is an increasingly prevalent contributor of Internet traffic. The proliferation of available video content has been fuelled by both Internet expansion and the growing power and affordability of viewing devices. Such content can be consumed anywhere and anytime, using a variety of technologies. The high data rates required for streaming video content and the large volume of requests for such content degrade network performance when devices compete for finite network bandwidth. Th...
Ballard, Mary E.; Wiest, J. Rose
A study examined differences in cardiovascular (CV) reactions and hostility following non-violent play and violent video game play. Subjects were 30 male college undergraduate students. Only male subjects were used because most video games are male oriented, males frequent videogame arcades more often than females, and the gender gap in video game…
Van Mele, Paul; Wanvoeke, Jonas; Akakpo, Cyriaque; Dacko, Rosaline Maiga; Ceesay, Mustapha; Beavogui, Louis; Soumah, Malick; Anyang, Robert
Will African farmers watch and learn from videos featuring farmers in Bangladesh? Learning videos on rice seed management were made with rural women in Bangladesh. By using a new approach, called zooming-in, zooming-out, the videos were of regional relevance and locally appropriate. When the Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) introduced them to…
Frydenberg, Mark; Andone, Diana
Purpose: Short videos, also known as micro-videos, have emerged as a platform for sharing ideas, experiences and life events via online social networks. This paper aims to share preliminary results of a study, involving students from two universities who created six-second videos using the Vine mobile app to explain or illustrate technological…
Hutchings, Sam; Watts, Sarah; Kirkman, Emrys
We report a new microcirculatory assessment device, the Braedius Cytocam, an Incident Dark Field (IDF) video microscope, and compare it with a precursor device utilising side stream dark field (SDF) imaging. Time matched measurements were made with both devices from the sublingual microcirculation of pigs subjected to traumatic injury and hemorrhagic shock at baseline and during a shock phase. Images were analysed for vessel density, microcirculatory flow and image quality. There were no differences in density or flow data recorded from the two devices at baseline [TVD IDF 14.2 ± 2.4/TVD SDF 13.2 ± 2.0, p 0.17] [MFI IDF 3 (2.8-3.0)/MFI SDF 3 (2.9-3.0), p 0.36] or during the shock state [TVD IDF 11.64 ± 3.3/TVD SDF 11.4 ± 4.0 p = 0.98] [MFI IDF 1.9 (0.6-2.7)/MFI SDF 1.7 (0.3-2.6) p 0.55]. Bland and Altman analysis showed no evidence of significant bias. Vessel contrast was significantly better with the IDF device for both capillaries [17.1 ± 3.9 (IDF) v 3.4 ± 3.6 (SDF), p = 0.0006] and venules [36.1 ± 11.4 (IDF) v 26.4 ± 7.1 (SDF) p 0.014] The Braedius Cytocam showed comparable vessel detection to a precursor device during both baseline and low flow (shock) states.
Continuous media applications over packet-switched networks are becoming more and more popular. Radio stations, for example, already use streaming technology to disseminate their content to users on the Internet, and video streaming services are expected to experience similar popularity. In contrast to traditional television and radio broadcast systems, however, prevalent Internet streaming solutions are based on unicast communication and raise scalability and efficiency issues. Multicast com...
Science and technology (S & T) play an important role in society, because every citizen needs a certain basic understanding of S & T to participate in the public debate, for example, in discussions with regard to topics such as climate change and gene manipulation. This thesis describes how video
Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José
to passenger devices using Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology. Such a multimedia distribution system can be deployed incrementally, as it can function concurrently with Wi-Fi connections already available in a number of trains. This paper presents the results obtained by emulating multimedia streaming...
Verification of a video image has been a major problem for safeguards for several years. Various verification schemes have been tried on analog video signals ever since the mid-1970's. These schemes have provided a measure of protection but have never been widely adopted. The development of reasonably priced complex video processing integrated circuits makes it possible to digitize a video image and then compress the resulting digital file into a smaller file without noticeable loss of resolution. Authentication and/or encryption algorithms can be more easily applied to digital video files that have been compressed. The compressed video files require less time for algorithm processing and image transmission. An important safeguards application for authenticated, compressed, digital video images is in unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems. The use of digital images in the surveillance system makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems that send images over narrow bandwidth channels such as the common telephone line. This paper discusses the video compression process, authentication algorithm, and data format selected to transmit and store the authenticated images
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced rocket propulsion testing requires high-speed video recording that can capture essential information for NASA during rocket engine flight certification...
Hata, Toshihiko; Boh, Satoru; Tsukada, Akihiro; Ozaki, Minoru
These days fewer people, who must carry out their tasks quickly and precisely, are required in industrial surveillance and monitoring applications such as plant control or building security. Utilizing multimedia technology is a good approach to meet this need, and we previously developed Media Controller, which is designed for the applications and provides realtime recording and retrieval of digital video data in a distributed environment. In this paper, we propose a user interface for such a distributed video surveillance system in which 3D models of buildings and facilities are connected to the surveillance video. A novel method of synchronizing camera field data with each frame of a video stream is considered. This method records and reads the camera field data similarity to the video data and transmits it synchronously with the video stream. This enables the user interface to have such useful functions as comprehending the camera field immediately and providing clues when visibility is poor, for not only live video but also playback video. We have also implemented and evaluated the display function which makes surveillance video and 3D model work together using Media Controller with Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Language employed for multi-purpose and intranet use of 3D model.
Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz Calero, Jose Maria; Grecos, Christos
Software Defined Networks (SDN), when combined with Network Function Virtualization (NFV) represents a paradigm shift in how future networks will behave and be managed. SDN's are expected to provide the underpinning technologies for future innovations such as 5G mobile networks and the Internet of Everything. The SDN architecture offers features that facilitate an abstracted and centralized global network view in which packet forwarding or dropping decisions are based on application flows. Software Defined Networks facilitate a wide range of network management tasks, including the adaptation of real-time video streams as they traverse the network. SHVC, the scalable extension to the recent H.265 standard is a new video encoding standard that supports ultra-high definition video streams with spatial resolutions of up to 7680×4320 and frame rates of 60fps or more. The massive increase in bandwidth required to deliver these U-HD video streams dwarfs the bandwidth requirements of current high definition (HD) video. Such large bandwidth increases pose very significant challenges for network operators. In this paper we go substantially beyond the limited number of existing implementations and proposals for video streaming in SDN's all of which have primarily focused on traffic engineering solutions such as load balancing. By implementing and empirically evaluating an SDN enabled Media Adaptation Network Entity (MANE) we provide a valuable empirical insight into the benefits and limitations of SDN enabled video adaptation for real time video applications. The SDN-MANE is the video adaptation component of our Video Quality Assurance Manager (VQAM) SDN control plane application, which also includes an SDN monitoring component to acquire network metrics and a decision making engine using algorithms to determine the optimum adaptation strategy for any real time video application flow given the current network conditions. Our proposed VQAM application has been implemented and
Ferrie, Gina M; Sky, Christy; Schutz, Paul J; Quinones, Glorieli; Breeding, Shawnlei; Plasse, Chelle; Leighty, Katherine A; Bettinger, Tammie L
Incorporating technology with research is becoming increasingly important to enhance animal welfare in zoological settings. Video technology is used in the management of avian populations to facilitate efficient information collection on aspects of avian reproduction that are impractical or impossible to obtain through direct observation. Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) maintains a successful breeding colony of Northern carmine bee-eaters. This African species is a cavity nester, making their nesting behavior difficult to study and manage in an ex situ setting. After initial research focused on developing a suitable nesting environment, our goal was to continue developing methods to improve reproductive success and increase likelihood of chicks fledging. We installed infrared bullet cameras in five nest boxes and connected them to a digital video recording system, with data recorded continuously through the breeding season. We then scored and summarized nesting behaviors. Using remote video methods of observation provided much insight into the behavior of the birds in the colony's nest boxes. We observed aggression between birds during the egg-laying period, and therefore immediately removed all of the eggs for artificial incubation which completely eliminated egg breakage. We also used observations of adult feeding behavior to refine chick hand-rearing diet and practices. Although many video recording configurations have been summarized and evaluated in various reviews, we found success with the digital video recorder and infrared cameras described here. Applying emerging technologies to cavity nesting avian species is a necessary addition to improving management in and sustainability of zoo avian populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Hougaard, Rikke F.
examined using video, audio and questionnaires. The TAs reported a high level of outcomes and referred to the importance of the video as evidence supporting the discussions. The importance of the collaboration between peers and staff (educational developers) was emphasized: highlighting the benefit...
Poli, DorothyBelle; Berenotto, Christopher; Blankenship, Sara; Piatkowski, Bryan; Bader, Geoffrey A.; Poore, Mark
The video game SPORE was found to hold characteristics that stimulate higher-order thinking even though it rated poorly for accurate science. Interested in evaluating whether a scientifically inaccurate video game could be used effectively, we exposed students to SPORE during an evolution course. Students that played the game reported that they…
The educational potential of time-lapse video sequences and weather data obtained using a conventional microcomputer are considered in the light of recent advances in both fields. Illustrates how videos and microcomputers can be used to study clouds in meteorology classes. (RM)
This monograph combines an examination of theoretical issues raised by the introduction of two-way video and similar systems into distance education (DE) with practical advice on using compressed video systems in DE programs. Presented in the first half of the monograph are the following: analysis of the intrinsic links between DE and technology…
Klein, Gary L.
This paper describes the use of video to provide a screenplay depiction of a proposed artificial intelligence software system. Advantages of such use are identified: (1) the video can be used to provide a clear conceptualization of the proposed system; (2) it can illustrate abstract technical concepts; (3) it can simulate the functions of the…
Belonging to the wider academic field of computer vision, video analytics has aroused a phenomenal surge of interest since the current millennium. Video analytics is intended to solve the problem of the incapability of exploiting video streams in real time for the purpose of detection or anticipation. It involves analyzing the videos using algorithms that detect and track objects of interest over time and that indicate the presence of events or suspect behavior involving these objects.The aims of this book are to highlight the operational attempts of video analytics, to identify possi
Hei, Hu; Zhai, Yifei; Qin, Jianwu; Song, Yongping
Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) technology was applied in minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) to explore its safety and effectiveness. Data were collected retrospectively from October 2009 to August 2011. Inclusion criteria included the following: (1) benign thyroid nodule with maximum diameter less than 4.0 cm by preoperative ultrasound evaluation; (2) no previous thyroid surgeries; (3) no cervical radiation history; (4) normal function of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) examined by preoperative laryngoscopy; (5) patients who did not accept to take a "wait and see" follow-up strategy. Enrolled patients were randomly allocated into NIM group and control group. 46 patients were enrolled in NIM group, and 51 patients were enrolled in control group. All surgeries in NIM group were performed successfully, and majority of tracheal intubations were placed with one attempt. 47 RLNs in NIM group and 60 RLNs in control group were exposed. The time of RLN locating was 6.06 ± 1.48 min in NIM group and 6.92 ± 1.34 min in control group (p = .02). The time of RLN tracing and exposing was 28.96 ± 4.75 min in NIM group and 32.17 ± 5.56 min in control group (p = .02). 1 case of temporary RLN paralysis was observed in both groups, and no permanent RLN paralysis was reported. The application of intermittent IONM in MIVAT is feasible. Intermittent IONM can help reduce the time of RLN locating and the time of RLN tracing and exposing.
Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies are promising technologies for direct energy production from various wastewaters and waste streams. Beside electrical power production, more emphasis is recently devoted to alternative applications such as hydrogen production, bioremediation, seawater desalination, and biosensors. Although the technologies are promising, a number of hurdles need to be overcome before that field applications are economically feasible. The main purpose of this work was to improve the performance, reduce the construction cost, and expand the application scopes of MFC-based bio-electrochemical systems. To reduce the energy cost in nitrogen removal and during the same process achieve phosphorus elimination, a sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell was developed based on the cooperation between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria. The main removal mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus was algae biomass uptake, while nitrification and denitrification process contributed to part of nitrogen removal. The key factors such as algae concentration, COD/N ratios and photoperiod were systemically studied. A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate and buffer concentration. The hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and yield of 1.43 mol-H2/mol-acetate were achieved. Alternate exchanging the function between the two cell units was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens. A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell, was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Temperature, pH, conductivity and inorganic solid content were significantly affecting the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensor showed
Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system
The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the municipal solid and liquid waste streams. Many innovative programs for managing small sources of hazardous waste have been developed in response to the Plan. With the assistance of Urban Consortium grants, the City of Seattle has researched and developed a series of reports describing the planning, operation and evaluation of the plan's HHW collection programs. Three of the Plan's programs of particular interest to other jurisdictions are the fixed site and mobile HHW Collection Facilities, and the Business Waste Consultations provided to SQG's. In 1991, Seattle received an Urban Consortium grant to produce two videos showing how the HHW Collection Facilities and Business Consultations programs work. This report provides an overviews of the video development and production process and a discussion of the lessons learned by the staff directing the production.
Saunders, J; Gopalan, P; Puri, N; Azzam, P N; Zhou, L; Ghinassi, F; Jain, A; Travis, M; Ryan, N D
Psychiatric education for non-psychiatric residents varies between training programs, and may affect resident comfort with psychiatric topics. This study's goals were to identify non-psychiatric residents' comfort with psychiatric topics and to test the effectiveness of a video intervention. Residents in various departments were given a survey. They were asked to rank their comfort level with multiple psychiatric topics, answer questions about medical decision making capacity (MDMC), watch a 15-min video about MDMC, and answer a post-test section. In total, 91 Internal Medicine, General Surgery, and Obstetrics and Gynecology residents responded to the study. Of the 91 residents, 55 completed the pre- and post-test assessments. There was no significant difference in correct responses. Residents' comfort levels were assessed, and a significant improvement in comfort level with MDMC was found. This study highlights potential opportunities for psychiatric education, and suggests brief video interventions can increase resident physicians' comfort with a psychiatric topic.
George Nauck of ENCORE!!! invented and markets the Advanced Range Performance (ARPM) Video Golf System for measuring the result of a golf swing. After Nauck requested their assistance, Marshall Space Flight Center scientists suggested video and image processing/computing technology, and provided leads on commercial companies that dealt with the pertinent technologies. Nauck contracted with Applied Research Inc. to develop a prototype. The system employs an elevated camera, which sits behind the tee and follows the flight of the ball down range, catching the point of impact and subsequent roll. Instant replay of the video on a PC monitor at the tee allows measurement of the carry and roll. The unit measures distance and deviation from the target line, as well as distance from the target when one is selected. The information serves as an immediate basis for making adjustments or as a record of skill level progress for golfers.
Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Manning, James E.
conferencing techniques. This may be of benefit in diagnosing and treating patients in emergency situations where specialized medical expertise is not locally available. The experimental design and results concerning information behavior are presented in the article "Exploring the Potential of Video...
The Global Internet Video Classroom (GIVC) Project connected Chicago Civil Rights activists of the 1960s with Cape Town Anti-Apartheid activists of the 1960s in a classroom setting where learners from Cape Town and Chicago engaged activists in conversations about their motivation, principles, and strategies. The project was launched in order to…
Palao, Jose Manuel; Hastie, Peter Andrew; Guerrero Cruz, Prudencia; Ortega, Enrique
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of video feedback on student learning in physical education, while also examining the teacher's responses to the innovation. Three classes from one Spanish high school participated in different conditions for learning hurdles in a track and field unit. These conditions compared…
Snelson, Chareen; Rice, Kerry; Wyzard, Constance
Online video-sharing services, particularly YouTube, have gained an audience of billions of users including educators and scholars. While the academic literature provides some evidence that YouTube has been studied and written about, little is known about priorities for YouTube research. The study employed the Delphi method to obtain a consensus…
Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi informasi begitu cepat seperti sekarang telah banyak mengubah sudut pandang banyak orang, antara lain sudut pandang orang untuk mengubah dunia pendidikan menjadi lebih baik. Salah satu contohnya pembelajaran berbasis Information and Communication Technologies (ICT yaitu pembelajaran menggunakan video streaming. Dengan instalasi software open source Wirecast dan Desktop presenter digunakan untuk membuat video pembelajaran Streaming, disiarkan secara real time melalui media broadcast justin.tv (internet TV Channel, diharapkan dapat lebih mendukung konsep pembelajaran kapan dan dimana saja. Masalah terbesar dari teknologi ini adalah keterbatasan bandwidth. Bandwidth adalah parameter penting untuk melakukan streaming dalam jaringan. Sedangkan proses komunikasi menggunakan video digital ini menghabiskan resource yang cukup besar. Sehingga penggunaan wireshark di sini sangat diperlukan untuk menganalisis bandwidth pada paket yang diterima oleh client. Dari hasil pengukuran video dengan standar H.264 resolusi (720 x 540, dengan rata-rata 20 menit dalam pengambilan sampel, sebanyak 30 pengujian sampel streaming video menggunakan wireshark, diperoleh rata-rata throughput keseluruhan 0,343 Mbps, rata-rata throughput terendah 0,309 Mbps dan throughput tertinggi 0,372 Mbps. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa jika dihasilkan throughput yang lebih besar maka kualitas video streaming akan lebih baik, tetapi jika throughput dihasilkan semakin kecil maka kualitas video streaming akan menurun
Alshina, Elena; Zakharchenko, Vladyslav
Advances in display technologies both for head mounted devices and television panels demand resolution increase beyond 4K for source signal in virtual reality video streaming applications. This poses a problem of content delivery trough a bandwidth limited distribution networks. Considering a fact that source signal covers entire surrounding space investigation reviled that compression efficiency may fluctuate 40% in average depending on origin selection at the conversion stage from 3D space to 2D projection. Based on these knowledge the origin selection algorithm for video compression applications has been proposed. Using discontinuity entropy minimization function projection origin rotation may be defined to provide optimal compression results. Outcome of this research may be applied across various video compression solutions for omnidirectional content.
Yan, Ling; Hicks, Matt; Winslow, Korey; Comella, Cynthia; Ludlow, Christy; Jinnah, H A; Rosen, Ami R; Wright, Laura; Galpern, Wendy R; Perlmutter, Joel S
We developed a novel secured web-based dystonia video repository for the Dystonia Coalition, part of the Rare Disease Clinical Research network funded by the Office of Rare Diseases Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A critical component of phenotypic data collection for all projects of the Dystonia Coalition includes a standardized video of each participant. We now describe our method for collecting, serving and securing these videos that is widely applicable to other studies. Each recruiting site uploads standardized videos to a centralized secured server for processing to permit website posting. The streaming technology used to view the videos from the website does not allow downloading of video files. With appropriate institutional review board approval and agreement with the hosting institution, users can search and view selected videos on the website using customizable, permissions-based access that maintains security yet facilitates research and quality control. This approach provides a convenient platform for researchers across institutions to evaluate and analyze shared video data. We have applied this methodology for quality control, confirmation of diagnoses, validation of rating scales, and implementation of new research projects. We believe our system can be a model for similar projects that require access to common video resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV
This article is dealing with a practical method of hiding secret information in video stream. Method is dedicated for MPEG-2 stream. The algorithm takes to consider not only MPEG video coding scheme described in standard but also bits PES-packets encapsulation in MPEG-2 Program Stream (PS). This modification give higher capacity and more effective bit rate control for output stream than previously proposed methods.
Genberg, R.W.; Javitt, M.C.; Popky, G.L.; Parker, J.A.; Pinkney, M.N.
Interactive computer-assisted self-instruction is emerging as a recognized didactic modality and is now being introduced to teach physicians the physics of MR imaging. The interactive system consists of a PC-compatible computer, a 12-inch laser disk drive, and a high-resolution monitor. The laser disk, capable of storing 54,000 images, is pressed from a previously edited video tape of MR and video images. The interactive approach is achieved through the use of the computer and appropriate software. The software is written to include computer graphics overlays of the laser disk images, to select interactive branching paths (depending on the user's response to directives or questions), and to provide feedback to the user so that he can assess his performance. One of their systems is available for use in the scientific exhibit area
McLean, Jennifer L.; Suchman, Erica L.
Recording lectures using video lecture capture software and making them available for students to watch anytime, from anywhere, has become a common practice in many universities across many disciplines. The software has become increasingly easy to use and is commonly provided and maintained by higher education institutions. Several studies have reported that students use lecture capture to enhance their learning and study for assessments, as well as to catch up on material they miss when they...
This invention pertains to a system for continuous observation of rodents in home-cage environments with the specific aim to facilitate the quantification of activity levels and behavioral patterns for mice housed in a commercial ventilated cage rack. The National Cancer Institute’s Radiation Biology Branch seeks partners interested in collaborative research to co-develop a video monitoring system for laboratory animals.
Jia, Changxin; Sang, Xinzhu; Liu, Jing; Cheng, Mingsheng
As people's life quality have been improved significantly, the traditional 2D video technology can not meet people's urgent desire for a better video quality, which leads to the rapid development of 3D video technology. Simultaneously people want to watch 3D video in portable devices,. For achieving the above purpose, we set up a remote stereoscopic video play platform. The platform consists of a server and clients. The server is used for transmission of different formats of video and the client is responsible for receiving remote video for the next decoding and pixel restructuring. We utilize and improve Live555 as video transmission server. Live555 is a cross-platform open source project which provides solutions for streaming media such as RTSP protocol and supports transmission of multiple video formats. At the receiving end, we use our laboratory own player. The player for Android, which is with all the basic functions as the ordinary players do and able to play normal 2D video, is the basic structure for redevelopment. Also RTSP is implemented into this structure for telecommunication. In order to achieve stereoscopic display, we need to make pixel rearrangement in this player's decoding part. The decoding part is the local code which JNI interface calls so that we can extract video frames more effectively. The video formats that we process are left and right, up and down and nine grids. In the design and development, a large number of key technologies from Android application development have been employed, including a variety of wireless transmission, pixel restructuring and JNI call. By employing these key technologies, the design plan has been finally completed. After some updates and optimizations, the video player can play remote 3D video well anytime and anywhere and meet people's requirement.
Priyambudi, Henry Okta
Multimedia streaming menggunakanmedia video, sebagai cara penyampaian informasi yanglebih baik dibandingkan dengan teks atau suara. Salahsatu jenis multimedia streaming adalah Video OnDemand (VOD). Pada sistem video on demand, file videotelah disimpan terlebih dahulu di dalam server. Clientmerequest file video yang diinginkan dan prosesstreaming dapat dilakukan.. Salah satu kelemahan darivideo on demand adalah tidak ada sistem authentifikasipada client. Setiap client dapat melakukan streaming...
Niess, Margaret L.; Gillow-Wiles, Henry
This qualitative cross-case study explores the influence of a designed learning trajectory on transforming teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for teaching with digital image and video technologies. The TPACK Learning Trajectory embeds tasks with specific instructional strategies within a social metacognitive…
Mit Hilfe der IP-Technologie erbrachte Multimedia-Dienste wie IPTV oder Video-on-Demand sind zur Zeit ein gefragtes Thema. Technisch werden solche Dienste unter dem Begriff "Streaming" eingeordnet. Ein Server sendet Mediendaten kontinuierlich an Empfänger, welche die Daten sofort weiterverarbeiten und anzeigen. Über einen Rückkanal hat der Kunde die Möglichkeit der Einflussnahme auf die Wiedergabe. Eine Weiterentwicklung dieser Streaming-Dienste ist die Möglichkeit, gemeinsam mit anderen dens...
Cox, James R
This report describes the incorporation of digital learning elements in organic chemistry and biochemistry courses. The first example is the use of pen-based technology and a large-format PowerPoint slide to construct a map that integrates various metabolic pathways and control points. Students can use this map to visualize the integrated nature of metabolism and how various hormones impact metabolic regulation. The second example is the embedding of health-related YouTube videos directly into PowerPoint presentations. These videos become a part of the course notes and can be viewed within PowerPoint as long as students are online. The third example is the use of a webcam to show physical models during online sessions using web-conferencing software. Various molecular conformations can be shown through the webcam, and snapshots of important conformations can be incorporated into the notes for further discussion and annotation. Each of the digital learning elements discussed in this report is an attempt to use technology to improve the quality of educational resources available outside of the classroom to foster student engagement with ideas and concepts. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 4-9, 2011. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fisher, W. I.
The rise in cloud computing, coupled with the growth of "Big Data", has lead to a migration away from local scientific data storage. The increasing size of remote scientific data sets increase, however, makes it difficult for scientists to subject them to large-scale analysis and visualization. These large datasets can take an inordinate amount of time to download; subsetting is a potential solution, but subsetting services are not yet ubiquitous. Data providers may also pay steep prices, as many cloud providers meter data based on how much data leaves their cloud service. The solution to this problem is a deceptively simple one; move data analysis and visualization tools to the cloud, so that scientists may perform data-proximate analysis and visualization. This results in increased transfer speeds, while egress costs are lowered or completely eliminated. Moving standard desktop analysis and visualization tools to the cloud is enabled via a technique called "Application Streaming". This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily deploy legacy analysis and visualization software to the cloud whilst retaining access via a desktop, netbook, a smartphone, or the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be. Unidata has created a Docker-based solution for easily adapting legacy software for Application Streaming. This technology stack, dubbed Cloudstream, allows desktop software to run in the cloud with little-to-no effort. The docker container is configured by editing text files, and the legacy software does not need to be modified in any way. This work will discuss the underlying technologies used by Cloudstream, and outline how to use Cloudstream to run and access an existing desktop application to the cloud.
Goldfarb, Steven [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration
I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.
I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.
Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration
I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...
Bian, Jun; Fu, Huijian; Shang, Qian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Ma, Qingguo
This paper analyzes the outstanding problems in current industrial production by reviewing the three stages of the Industrial Engineering Development. Based on investigations and interviews in enterprises, we propose the new idea of applying "computer video analysis technology" to new industrial engineering management software, and add "loose-coefficient" of the working station to this software in order to arrange scientific and humanistic production. Meanwhile, we suggest utilizing Biofeedback Technology to promote further research on "the rules of workers' physiological, psychological and emotional changes in production". This new kind of combination will push forward industrial engineering theories and benefit enterprises in progressing towards flexible social production, thus it will be of great theory innovation value, social significance and application value.
Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M
Innovations in healthcare information systems promise to revolutionize and streamline healthcare processes worldwide. However, the complexity of these systems and the need to better understand issues related to human-computer interaction have slowed progress in this area. In this chapter the authors describe their work in using methods adapted from usability engineering, video ethnography and analysis of digital log files for improving our understanding of complex real-world healthcare interactions between humans and technology. The approaches taken are cost-effective and practical and can provide detailed ethnographic data on issues health professionals and consumers encounter while using systems as well as potential safety problems. The work is important in that it can be used in techno-anthropology to characterize complex user interactions with technologies and also to provide feedback into redesign and optimization of improved healthcare information systems.
Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration
I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...
This report is a compendium of facts related to chemical materials present in industrial waste process streams which have already been declared or are being evaluated as hazardous under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Since some 400 chemicals are presently covered by consensus standards, the substances reviewed are only those considered to be a major threat to public health and welfare by Federal and State regulatory agencies. For each hazardous material cited, the facts relate, where possible, to an identification of the stationary industrial sources, the kind of waste stream impacted, proposed regulations and established effluent standards, the volume of emissions produced each year, the volume of emissions per unit of industrial product produced, present clean-up capabilities, limitations, and costs. These data should be helpful in providing information for the assessment of potential problems, should be of use to the manufacturers of pollution control equipment or of chemicals for pollution control, should be of use to the operators or potential operators of processes which produce pollutants, and should help to define industry-wide emission practices and magnitudes.
OFarrell, Zachary L.
Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.
On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.
ZHAO Anjun; LU Xiangli; GUO Lei
A novel video data authentication model based on digital video watermarking and MAC (message authentication code) in multicast protocol is proposed in this paper. The digital watermarking which composes of the MAC of the significant video content, the key and instant authentication data is embedded into the insignificant video component by the MLUT (modified look-up table) video watermarking technology. We explain a method that does not require storage of each data packet for a time, thus making receiver not vulnerable to DOS (denial of service) attack. So the video packets can be authenticated instantly without large volume buffer in the receivers. TESLA(timed efficient stream loss-tolerant authentication) does not explain how to select the suitable value for d, which is an important parameter in multicast source authentication. So we give a method to calculate the key disclosure delay (number of intervals). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms improve the performance of data source authentication in multicast.
Agliullin, Arthur F.; Gusev, Valery F.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Samigullin, Rustem R.; Akul'shin, Alexander, Iv.; Bagapov, Nail N.
The program of courses is recommended for the experts working in endoscopy area, surgery, diagnostics, to developers of optical, optoelectronic and electronic equipment, and also for students and the post-graduate students of telecommunication high schools in addition trained on specializations of biomedical engineering. It urged to help the future researcher, engineer and doctor to understand mechanisms of images formation and display, to understand more deeply procedures of their processing and transfer on telecommunication channels of the various natures, to master modern reports of record and video and audio information reproduction. The separate section is devoted to questions of designing of surgical toolkit compatible with fiber-optical endoscopes.
Although digital technologies have become commonplace among people who grew up around them, little is known about the effect that such technology will have on learners or its impact on traditional methods of educational delivery. This dissertation examines how certain technologies affect digital natives and seeks to understand specific…
Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Gray, John R.; Davis, Broderick E.; Ellis, Chris; Johnson, Sara; Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.
A 3-month-long, large-scale flume experiment involving research and testing of selected conventional and surrogate bedload-monitoring technologies was conducted in the Main Channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory under the auspices of the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics. These experiments, dubbed StreamLab06, involved 25 researchers and volunteers from academia, government, and the private sector. The research channel was equipped with a sediment-recirculation system and a sediment-flux monitoring system that allowed continuous measurement of sediment flux in the flume and provided a data set by which samplers were evaluated. Selected bedload-measurement technologies were tested under a range of flow and sediment-transport conditions. The experiment was conducted in two phases. The bed material in phase I was well-sorted siliceous sand (0.6-1.8 mm median diameter). A gravel mixture (1-32 mm median diameter) composed the bed material in phase II. Four conventional bedload samplers – a standard Helley-Smith, Elwha, BLH-84, and Toutle River II (TR-2) sampler – were manually deployed as part of both experiment phases. Bedload traps were deployed in study Phase II. Two surrogate bedload samplers – stationarymounted down-looking 600 kHz and 1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers – were deployed in experiment phase II. This paper presents an overview of the experiment including the specific data-collection technologies used and the ambient hydraulic, sediment-transport and environmental conditions measured as part of the experiment. All data collected as part of the StreamLab06 experiments are, or will be available to the research community.
Sauer, Philip S.
The proliferation of emerging technologies offers opportunity but also presents challenges to defense acquisition decision makers seeking to incorporate those technologies as part of the acquisition process. Assessment frameworks and methodologies found in the literature typically address the primary focus of a sponsoring organization's interest…
When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this phase I program MicroCell Technologies, LLC (MCT) proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an electrochemically modulated phase separator for in situ...
Mat Kiah, M L; Al-Bakri, S H; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil
One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.
have large influence on their own teaching, learning and curriculum. The programme offers streamed videos in combination with other learning resources. It is a concept which offers video as pure presentation - video lectures - but also as an instructional tool which gives the students the possibility...... to construct their knowledge, collaboration and communication. In its first years the programme has used Skype video communication for collaboration and communication within and between groups, group members and their facilitators. Also exams have been mediated with the help of Skype and have for all students......, examiners and external examiners been a challenge and opportunity and has brought new knowledge and experience. This paper brings results from a questionnaire focusing on how the students experience the video examination....
van de Port, M.
Candombl´e is an Afro-Brazilian spirit-possession cult, whose splendid performance of "African tradition" and "secrecy" has long prohibited the reproduction of religious activity by modern media technology. Authoritative voices within candombl´e have explicitly stated that modern media technology is
As technology evolves it becomes increasingly accessible to the masses to own, develop for, and distribute global healthcare solutions with. In this paper the author presents a series of project case examples exemplifying current medical applications of new media and technology, with suggestions for potential areas of further research and development. The author encourages a multi-disciplinary approach for designing effective and engaging games to optimise delivery of medically useful content and therapeutic strategies.
Lee, Sunwoo; Shin, Sungrae
Diabetes in elderly adults is associated with an increased risk of fall. The aim of study was to determine whether a virtual reality exercise (VRE) program would improve balance, strength, gait, and falls efficacy in elderly adults with diabetes. Fifty-five subjects with diabetes mellitus over 65 years of age were randomly assigned to a VRE group (VREG) (n=27) and a control group (CG) (n=28). The VREG received the VRE program and diabetes education, whereas the CG received only the diabetes education. The VRE program used video gaming (PlayStation(®) 2; Sony, Tokyo, Japan) and was conducted for 50 min twice a week for 10 weeks. Balance, muscle strength, gait, and falls efficacy were measured at baseline and after intervention. Measurements were taken using a clinical tests (the one-leg-standing test, the Berg Balance Scale, the functional reach test, the timed up-and-go test, and the sit-to-stand test), and gait analysis. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure falls efficacy. After training, the VREG showed significantly improved balance, decreased sit-to-stand times, and increased gait speed, cadence, and falls efficacy. The VRE program was to maximize the effects of exercise by triggering players was to be fully immersed into the games and enhanced major influential factors on the falls of subject. This study suggests VRE programs are feasible and effective for reduced the risk of falls in elderly adults with type 2 diabetes.
Crotty, Yvonne; Kilboy, Laura
This paper demonstrates the value of embracing digital technology in order to effect positive change in a non-governmental (NGO) charity organisation, in this case the Irish Charity Crosscause. The outcome of the research was the creation of a charity video, Crosscause: Making a Difference, to showcase humanitarian work in Ireland and Romania with…
Forbes, Helen; Bucknall, Tracey K; Hutchinson, Alison M
Clinical decision-making is a complex activity that is critical to patient safety. Simulation, augmented by feedback, affords learners the opportunity to learn critical clinical decision-making skills. More detailed feedback following simulation exercises has the potential to further enhance student learning, particularly in relation to developing improved clinical decision-making skills. To investigate the feasibility of head-mounted video camera recordings, to augment feedback, following acute patient deterioration simulations. Pilot study using an observational design. Ten final-year nursing students participated in three simulation exercises, each focussed on detection and management of patient deterioration. Two observers collected behavioural data using an adapted version of Gaba's Clinical Simulation Tool, to provide verbal feedback to each participant, following each simulation exercise. Participants wore a head-mounted video camera during the second simulation exercise only. Video recordings were replayed to participants to augment feedback, following the second simulation exercise. Data were collected on: participant performance (observed and perceived); participant perceptions of feedback methods; and head-mounted video camera recording feasibility and capability for detailed audio-visual feedback. Management of patient deterioration improved for six participants (60%). Increased perceptions of confidence (70%) and competence (80%), were reported by the majority of participants. Few participants (20%) agreed that the video recording specifically enhanced their learning. The visual field of the head-mounted video camera was not always synchronised with the participant's field of vision, thus affecting the usefulness of some recordings. The usefulness of the video recordings, to enhance verbal feedback to participants on detection and management of simulated patient deterioration, was inconclusive. Modification of the video camera glasses, to improve
Higgins, John W.
Asserts that the education of students in the technology of video and audio production is a political act. Discusses the structure and style of production, and the ideologies and values contained therein. Offers alternative approaches to critical video pedagogy. (PRA)
Delikan, Mehmet Deniz
The rise of the streaming music services and the decreasing importance of physical distribution is an inevitable change that the industry has been facing, which is resulting from the so-called internet revolution over the past few years. Through years, the music business has already shifted to online platform with the birth of file sharing. Today, a generation who had grown up digital came to age. Members of this generation have different consumption habits than before, and have different mot...
The Emergency Medical Video Multiplexing Transport System (EMTS) is designed to support prehospital cares by delivering high quality live video streams of patients in an ambulance to emergency doctors in a remote hospital via satellite communications. The important feature is that EMTS divides a patient's live video scene into four pieces and transports the four video streams on four separate network channels. By multiplexing four video streams, EMTS is able to transport high quality videos through low data transmission rate networks such as satellite communications and cellular phone networks. In order to transport live video streams constantly, EMTS adopts Real-time Transport Protocol/Real-time Control Protocol as a network protocol and video stream data are compressed by Moving Picture Experts Group 4 format. As EMTS combines four video streams with checking video frame numbers, it uses a refresh packet that initializes server's frame numbers to synchronize the four video streams.
The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper
Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Söderholm, Hanna M.; Manning, James E.
videoconferencing techniques. This may be of benefit in diagnosing and treating patients in emergency situations where specialized medical expertise is not locally available. The 3D telepresence technology does not yet exist, and there is a need to understand its potential before resources are spent on its...
Mitchell, April Slayden; O'Hara, Kenton; Vorbau, Alex
Mobile video is now an everyday possibility with a wide array of commercially available devices, services, and content. These new technologies have created dramatic shifts in the way video-based media can be produced, consumed, and delivered by people beyond the familiar behaviors associated with fixed TV and video technologies. Such technology revolutions change the way users behave and change their expectations in regards to their mobile video experiences. Building upon earlier studies of mobile video, this paper reports on a study using diary techniques and ethnographic interviews to better understand how people are using commercially available mobile video technologies in their everyday lives. Drawing on reported episodes of mobile video behavior, the study identifies the social motivations and values underpinning these behaviors that help characterize mobile video consumption beyond the simplistic notion of viewing video only to kill time. This paper also discusses the significance of user-generated content and the usage of video in social communities through the description of two mobile video technology services that allow users to create and share content. Implications for adoption and design of mobile video technologies and services are discussed as well.
to the sediment. The proposed approach may broad the application of sediment MFC technology. A novel submersible microbial desalination cell was developed as an in situ and non-invasive approach for nitrate removal from groundwater. The system performance in terms of power generation and nitrate removal...... efficiency were investigated. The effects of hydraulic retention time, external resistance, other ionic species in the groundwater and external nitrification on the system performance were also elucidated. Over 90% of nitrate was removed from groundwater without energy input, water pressure, draw solution......-based bio-electrochemical systems. To reduce the energy cost in nitrogen removal and during the same process achieve phosphorus elimination, a sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell was developed based on the cooperation between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria. The main...
Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding
Due to the security and privacy-preserving requirements for cloud data management, it is sometimes desired that video content is accessible in an encrypted form. Reversible data hiding in the encrypted domain is an emerging technology, as it can perform data hiding in encrypted videos without decryption, which preserves the confidentiality of the content. Furthermore, the original cover can be losslessly restored after decryption and data extraction. An efficient reversible data hiding scheme for encrypted H.264/AVC videos is proposed. During H.264/AVC encoding, the intraprediction mode, motion vector difference, and the sign bits of the residue coefficients are encrypted using a standard stream cipher. Then, the data-hider who does not know the original video content, may reversibly embed secret data into the encrypted H.264/AVC video by using a modified version of the histogram shifting technique. A scale factor is utilized for selecting the embedding zone, which is scalable for different capacity requirements. With an encrypted video containing hidden data, data extraction can be carried out either in the encrypted or decrypted domain. In addition, real reversibility is realized so that data extraction and video recovery are free of any error. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.
Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Ahn, Jae Young; Kim, Seoksoo
Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker'should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.
Li, Zheng; Ng, Calvin S H
Uniportal VATS poses unique difficulties to the surgeon, mainly as a consequence of operating through a small single incision. The instruments in uniportal VATS have limited movement through the small incision. In addition, the approach to the surgical operating site is unidirectional, which may restrict vision and retraction, and unavoidably suffers from instrument fencing. Recent thoracoscopic technology in the form of a wide variable angled lens has to some extent improved these shortcomings. The development of an extendable flexible thoracoscope and wireless steerable endoscope (WSE) systems can further improve the visualization for surgery and reduce or even remove fencing between endoscope and instruments. New single incision access platforms both derived from Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and robotic surgery approaches are on the horizon. These may allow uniportal VATS to be performed through an even smaller ultra-minimally invasive incision, with improved vision, more freedom of movement of the instruments and greater precision. However, a number of problems remain to be resolved, including provision of a stable platform and payload, applied force limitations and equipment sterilization. Advances in uniportal VATS major lung resection techniques have not only challenged the surgeon to acquire new skills and knowledge, but at the same time have rekindled the collaborative spirit between industry and clinician in developing novel equipment and technology to push the boundaries of minimally invasive surgery. These technological improvements and innovations may improve operating efficiency and safety during uniportal VATS surgery.
Full Text Available Researches on Augmented Reality (AR have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.
Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline
While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th
Full Text Available Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN. With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture. This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.
Aghdasi, Hadi S; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Moghadam, Mohsen Ebrahimi; Samei, Yasaman
Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN). With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture). This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.
Parry, Ingrid; Carbullido, Clarissa; Kawada, Jason; Bagley, Anita; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David; Palmieri, Tina
Commercially available interactive video games are commonly used in rehabilitation to aide in physical recovery from a variety of conditions and injuries, including burns. Most video games were not originally designed for rehabilitation purposes and although some games have shown therapeutic potential in burn rehabilitation, the physical demands of more recently released video games, such as Microsoft Xbox Kinect™ (Kinect) and Sony PlayStation 3 Move™ (PS Move), have not been objectively evaluated. Video game technology is constantly evolving and demonstrating different immersive qualities and interactive demands that may or may not have therapeutic potential for patients recovering from burns. This study analyzed the upper extremity motion demands of Kinect and PS Move using three-dimensional motion analysis to determine their applicability in burn rehabilitation. Thirty normal children played each video game while real-time movement of their upper extremities was measured to determine maximal excursion and amount of elevation time. Maximal shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction and elbow flexion range of motion were significantly greater while playing Kinect than the PS Move (p≤0.01). Elevation time of the arms above 120° was also significantly longer with Kinect (p<0.05). The physical demands for shoulder and elbow range of motion while playing the Kinect, and to a lesser extent PS Move, are comparable to functional motion needed for daily tasks such as eating with a utensil and hair combing. Therefore, these more recently released commercially available video games show therapeutic potential in burn rehabilitation. Objectively quantifying the physical demands of video games commonly used in rehabilitation aides clinicians in the integration of them into practice and lays the framework for further research on their efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Jarvinen, G.D.
The use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) is a technology under development to selectively concentrate and recover valuable or regulated metal-ions from dilute process or waste waters. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular size that they can be separated and concentrated using commercially available UF technology. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal-ions, which are recovered in a concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Pilot-scale demonstrations have been completed for a variety of waste streams containing low concentrations of metal ions including electroplating wastes (zinc and nickel) and nuclear waste streams (plutonium and americium). Many other potential commercial applications exist including remediation of contaminated solids. An overview of both the pilot-scale demonstrated applications and small scale testing of this technology are presented
Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Jarvinen, G.D.
The use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) is a technology under development to selectively concentrate and recover valuable or regulated metal-ions from dilute process or waste waters. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular size that they can be separated and concentrated using commercially available UF technology. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal-ions, which are recovered in a concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Pilot-scale demonstrations have been completed for a variety of waste streams containing low concentrations of metal ions including electroplating wastes (zinc and nickel) and nuclear waste streams (plutonium and americium). Many other potential commercial applications exist including remediation of contaminated solids. An overview of both the pilot-scale demonstrated applications and small scale testing of this technology are presented.
With the economic development and the progress of science and technology, human society has entered a new era of information technology. The popularity of the Internet and multimedia technology in applications on the Internet has made people increasingly dependent on the network. Transmitting static images and text content through the network cannot meet the needs of modern life. Furthermore, people really want to take advantage of the increasing demand of network real-time transmission of vo...
Chang, Moo Been; Lee, How Ming; Wu, Feeling; Lai, Chi Ren
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are removed individually in traditional air pollution control technologies. This study proposes a combined plasma scrubbing (CPS) system for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. CPS consists of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and wet scrubbing in series. DBD is used to generate nonthermal plasmas for converting NO to NO2. The water-soluble NO2 then can be removed by wet scrubbing accompanied with SO2 removal. In this work, CPS was tested with simulated exhausts in the laboratory and with diesel-generator exhausts in the field. Experimental results indicate that DBD is very efficient in converting NO to NO2. More than 90% removal of NO, NOx, and SO2 can be simultaneously achieved with CPS. Both sodium sulfide (Na2S) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) scrubbing solutions are good for NO2 and SO2 absorption. Energy efficiencies for NOx and SO2 removal are 17 and 18 g/kWh, respectively. The technical feasibility of CPS for simultaneous removal of NO, NO2, and SO2 from gas streams is successfully demonstrated in this study. However, production of carbon monoxide as a side-product (approximately 100 ppm) is found and should be considered.
Locke, Austin; Uhrínová, Bianka
Technological innovation has changed business models across multiple industries – retail (Amazon), taxi (Uber), hotel (Airbnb). Through exploratory research, using secondary data, this thesis describes changes that have occurred in video gaming industry from its creation to the current, modern era that are connected to technological innovation. Based on the current research of business models, the authors created a “Value Creation-Revenue Stream Framework” that they use to anal...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...
Antonakos, James L
Covering a broad range of new topics in computer technology and programming, this volume discusses encryption techniques, SQL generation, Web 2.0 technologies, and visual sensor networks. It also examines reconfigurable computing, video streaming, animation techniques, and more. Readers will learn about an educational tool and game to help students learn computer programming. The book also explores a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs.
Full Text Available Pervasive advertising and marketing efforts promote consumer market digital video (DV format camcorders as the ideal acquisition technology for Internet video production. A shared digital nature and simple interconnections between cameras and computers using IEEE1394/FireWire/i.Link® format digital cabling do suggest a natural affinity between DV and Internet production. However, experience with Web delivery reveals numerous obstacles associated with consumer-friendly camcorder design and feature sets that can severely compromise Internet streaming video quality. This paper describes the various features in consumer and industrial grade DV camcorder designs that lead to unnecessary image quality loss, and what must be done to avoid such loss. Conventional video production techniques that can lead to quality loss regardless of the camera technology used are also identified. A number of recommendations are offered that will help the videographer in an educational or production environment adapt to Internet limitations.
Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.
Dańda, Jacek; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Loziak, Krzysztof; Papir, Zdzisław; Sikora, Marek; Watza, Rafal
The paper discusses two implementation options for a Digital Video Library, a repository used for archiving, accessing, and browsing of video medical records. Two crucial issues to be decided on are a video compression format and a video streaming platform. The paper presents numerous decision factors that have to be taken into account. The compression formats being compared are DICOM as a format representative for medical applications, both MPEGs, and several new formats targeted for an IP networking. The comparison includes transmission rates supported, compression rates, and at least options for controlling a compression process. The second part of the paper presents the ISDN technique as a solution for provisioning of tele-consultation services between medical parties that are accessing resources uploaded to a digital video library. There are several backbone techniques (like corporate LANs/WANs, leased lines or even radio/satellite links) available, however, the availability of network resources for hospitals was the prevailing choice criterion pointing to ISDN solutions. Another way to provide access to the Digital Video Library is based on radio frequency domain solutions. The paper describes possibilities of both, wireless and cellular network's data transmission service to be used as a medical video server transport layer. For the cellular net-work based solution two communication techniques are used: Circuit Switched Data and Packet Switched Data.
Strand, Haakan; Fox-Young, Stephanie; Long, Phil; Bogossian, Fiona
This paper reports on a pilot project aimed at exploring postgraduate distance students' experiences using personal video capture technology to complete competency assessments in physical examination. A pre-intervention survey gathered demographic data from nurse practitioner students (n=31) and measured their information communication technology fluency. Subsequently, thirteen (13) students were allocated a hand held video camera to use in their clinical setting. Those participating in the trial completed a post-intervention survey and further data were gathered using semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and deductive content analysis, and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (Venkatesh et al., 2003) were used to guide the project. Uptake of the intervention was high (93%) as students recognised the potential benefit. Students were video recorded while performing physical examinations. They described high level of stress and some anxiety, which decreased rapidly while assessment was underway. Barriers experienced were in the areas of facilitating conditions (technical character e.g. upload of files) and social influence (e.g. local ethical approval). Students valued the opportunity to reflect on their recorded performance with their clinical mentors and by themselves. This project highlights the demands and difficulties of introducing technology to support work-based learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Through a licensing agreement, Intergraph Government Solutions adapted a technology originally developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for enhanced video imaging by developing its Video Analyst(TM) System. Marshall's scientists developed the Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) technology to help FBI agents analyze video footage of the deadly 1996 Olympic Summer Games bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. VISAR technology enhanced nighttime videotapes made with hand-held camcorders, revealing important details about the explosion. Intergraph's Video Analyst System is a simple, effective, and affordable tool for video enhancement and analysis. The benefits associated with the Video Analyst System include support of full-resolution digital video, frame-by-frame analysis, and the ability to store analog video in digital format. Up to 12 hours of digital video can be stored and maintained for reliable footage analysis. The system also includes state-of-the-art features such as stabilization, image enhancement, and convolution to help improve the visibility of subjects in the video without altering underlying footage. Adaptable to many uses, Intergraph#s Video Analyst System meets the stringent demands of the law enforcement industry in the areas of surveillance, crime scene footage, sting operations, and dash-mounted video cameras.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the research on decision-making in health care has focused on consultation outcomes. Less is known about the process by which clinicians and patients come to a treatment decision. This study aimed to quantitatively describe the behaviour shown by doctors and patients during primary care consultations when three types of decision aids were used to promote treatment decision-making in a randomised controlled trial. Methods A video-based study set in an efficacy trial which compared the use of paper-based guidelines (control with two forms of computer-based decision aids (implicit and explicit versions of DARTS II. Treatment decision concerned warfarin anti-coagulation to reduce the risk of stroke in older patients with atrial fibrillation. Twenty nine consultations were video-recorded. A ten-minute 'slice' of the consultation was sampled for detailed content analysis using existing interaction analysis protocols for verbal behaviour and ethological techniques for non-verbal behaviour. Results Median consultation times (quartiles differed significantly depending on the technology used. Paper-based guidelines took 21 (19–26 minutes to work through compared to 31 (16–41 minutes for the implicit tool; and 44 (39–55 minutes for the explicit tool. In the ten minutes immediately preceding the decision point, GPs dominated the conversation, accounting for 64% (58–66% of all utterances and this trend was similar across all three arms of the trial. Information-giving was the most frequent activity for both GPs and patients, although GPs did this at twice the rate compared to patients and at higher rates in consultations involving computerised decision aids. GPs' language was highly technically focused and just 7% of their conversation was socio-emotional in content; this was half the socio-emotional content shown by patients (15%. However, frequent head nodding and a close mirroring in the direction of eye-gaze suggested
In Brazil, IndigoVision's complete IP video security technology is being used to remotely monitor automated gas facilities in the Amazon rainforest. Twelve compounds containing millions of dollars of process automation, telemetry, and telecom equipment are spread across many thousands of miles of forest and centrally monitored in Rio de Janeiro using Control Center, the company's Security Management software. The security surveillance project uses a hybrid IP network comprising satellite, fibre optic, and wireless links. In addition to advanced compression technology and bandwidth tuning tools, the IP video system uses Activity Controlled Framerate (ACF), which controls the frame rate of the camera video stream based on the amount of motion in a scene. In the absence of activity, the video is streamed at a minimum framerate, but the moment activity is detected the framerate jumps to the configured maximum. This significantly reduces the amount of bandwidth needed. At each remote facility, fixed analog cameras are connected to transmitter nodules that convert the feed to high-quality digital video for transmission over the IP network. The system also integrates alarms with video surveillance. PIR intruder detectors are connected to the system via digital inputs on the transmitters. Advanced alarm-handling features in the Control Center software process the PIR detector alarms and alert operators to potential intrusions. This improves operator efficiency and incident response. 1 fig.
Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin
pedagogical innovativeness, including collaborative and technological issues. The research is based on the Global Classroom Model as it is implemented and used at an adult learning center in Denmark (VUC Storstrøm). VUC Storstrøms (VUC) Global Classroom Model is an approach to video conferencing and e......Learning using campus-based teaching combined with laptop solutions for students at home. After a couple of years of campus-to-campus video streaming, VUC started a fulltime day program in 2011 with the support of a hybrid campus and videoconference model. In this model the teachers and some of the students......This paper presents and discusses findings about how students, teachers, and the organization experience a start-up-project applying video conferences between campus and home. This is new territory for adult learning centers. The paper discusses the transition to this eLearning form and discusses...
Søgaard, Jacob; Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell
The HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology allows video service providers to improve the network utilization and thereby increasing the end-users’ Quality of Experience (QoE).This has made HAS a widely used approach for audiovisual delivery. There are several previous studies aiming to identify...... the factors influencing on subjective QoE of adaptation events.However, adapting the video quality typically lasts in a time scale much longer than what current standardized subjective testing methods are designed for, thus making the full matrix design of the experiment on an event level hard to achieve....... In this study, we investigated the overall subjective QoE of 6 minutes long video sequences containing different sequential adaptation events. This was compared to a data set from our previous work performed to evaluate the individual adaptation events. We could then derive a relationship between the overall...
For better or worse, video technologies have made their way into many domains of social life, for example in the domain of therapeutics. Techniques such as Marte Meo, Video Interaction Guidance (ViG), Video-Enhanced Reflection on Communication, Video Home Training and Video intervention....../prevention (VIP) all promote the use of video as a therapeutic tool. This paper focuses on media therapeutics and the various in situ uses of video technologies in the mass media for therapeutic purposes. Reality TV parenting programmes such as Supernanny, Little Angels, The House of Tiny Tearaways, Honey, We...... observation and instruction (directives) relayed across different spaces; 2) the use of recorded video by participants to visualise, spatialise and localise talk and action that is distant in time and/or space; 3) the translating, stretching and cutting of social experience in and through the situated use...
Yu, Yiqing; Liu, Huayong; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Dongru
In this paper, we propose content-based video retrieval, which is a kind of retrieval by its semantical contents. Because video data is composed of multimodal information streams such as video, auditory and textual streams, we describe a strategy of using multimodal analysis for automatic parsing sports video. The paper first defines the basic structure of sports video database system, and then introduces a new approach that integrates visual stream analysis, speech recognition, speech signal processing and text extraction to realize video retrieval. The experimental results for TV sports video of football games indicate that the multimodal analysis is effective for video retrieval by quickly browsing tree-like video clips or inputting keywords within predefined domain.
Hashimoto, Daniel A; Phitayakorn, Roy; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Meireles, Ozanan
The goal of telementoring is to recreate face-to-face encounters with a digital presence. Open-surgery telementoring is limited by lack of surgeon's point-of-view cameras. Google Glass is a wearable computer that looks like a pair of glasses but is equipped with wireless connectivity, a camera, and viewing screen for video conferencing. This study aimed to assess the safety of using Google Glass by assessing the video quality of a telementoring session. Thirty-four (n = 34) surgeons at a single institution were surveyed and blindly compared via video captured with Google Glass versus an Apple iPhone 5 during the open cholecystectomy portion of a Whipple. Surgeons were asked to evaluate the quality of the video and its adequacy for safe use in telementoring. Thirty-four of 107 invited surgical attendings (32%) responded to the anonymous survey. A total of 50% rated the Google Glass video as fair with the other 50% rating it as bad to poor. A total of 52.9% of respondents rated the Apple iPhone video as good. A significantly greater proportion of respondents felt Google Glass video quality was inadequate for telementoring versus the Apple iPhone's (82.4 vs 26.5%, p safe telementoring. As the device is still in initial phases of development, future iterations or competitor devices may provide a better telementoring application for wearable devices.
Jaydeep Mukherje; Mukti Mishra
A major problem in delivering quality management education to working executives in India has been the inability of the candidates to leave their job for a prolonged period of time to attend the on-campus management programs. With the proliferation of two way Video Conferencing (VC) facilities across the country, as well as the use of Internet technology, this limitations could quite effectively be overcome for both students and management educators.
Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise
Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....
Sun, Huifang; Chen, Xuemin
Professionals in the video and multimedia industries need a book that explains industry standards for video coding and how to convert the compressed information between standards. Digital Video Transcoding for Transmission and Storage answers this demand while also supplying the theories and principles of video compression and transcoding technologies. Emphasizing digital video transcoding techniques, this book summarizes its content via examples of practical methods for transcoder implementation. It relates almost all of its featured transcoding technologies to practical applications.This vol
scenario. Known as remix or video remix, the produced video may have new and different meanings with respect to the source material. Unfortunately, when managing audiovisual objects, the technological aspect can be a burden for many creative users. Motivated by the large success of the gaming market, we propose a novel game and an architecture to make the remix process a pleasant and stimulating gaming experience. MovieRemix allows people to act like a movie director, but instead of dealing with cast and cameras, the player has to create a remixed video starting from a given screenplay and from video shots retrieved from the provided catalog. MovieRemix is not a simple video editing tool nor is a simple game: it is a challenging environment that stimulates creativity. To temp to play the game, players can access different levels of screenplay (original, outline, derived and can also challenge other players. Computational and storage issues are kept at the server side, whereas the client device just needs to have the capability of playing streaming videos.
Macpherson, Kevin; Charlop, Marjorie H; Miltenberger, Catherine A
A multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the effects of a portable video modeling intervention delivered in the natural environment on the verbal compliments and compliment gestures demonstrated by five children with autism. Participants were observed playing kickball with peers and adults. In baseline, participants demonstrated few compliment behaviors. During intervention, an iPad(®) was used to implement the video modeling treatment during the course of the athletic game. Viewing the video rapidly increased the verbal compliments participants gave to peers. Participants also demonstrated more response variation after watching the videos. Some generalization to an untrained activity occurred and compliment gestures also occurred. Results are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature.
Rawle, Marnie; Oliver, Tanya; Pighills, Alison; Lindsay, Daniel
X-ray Operator (XO) supervision in Queensland is performed by radiographers in a site removed from the XO site. This has historically been performed by telephone when the XO requires immediate help, as well as post-examination through radiographer review and the provision of written feedback on images produced. This project aimed to improve image quality through the provision of real-time support of XOs by the introduction of video conference (VC) supervision. A 6-month pilot project compared image quality with and without VC supervision. VC equipment was installed in the X-ray room at two rural sites, as well as at the radiographer site, to enable visual and oral supervision. The VC unit enabled visualisation of the X-ray examination technique as it was being undertaken, as well as the images produced prior to transmission to the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Statistically significant improvement in image quality criteria measures were seen for patient positioning (P = 0.008), image quality (P < 0.001) and diagnostic value (P < 0.001) of images taken during this project. No statistically significant differences were seen during case level assessment in the inclusion of only appropriate imaging (P = 0.06), and the inclusion of unacceptable imaging (P = 0.06), however improvements were seen in both of these criteria. The survey revealed 24.6% of examinations performed would normally have involved the XO contacting the radiographer for assistance, although, assistance was actually provided in 88.3% of examinations. This project has demonstrated that significant improvement in image quality is achievable with VC supervision. A larger study with a control arm that did not receive direct supervision should be used to validate the findings of this study. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand
Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Yingqiu; Yang, Hongsheng
The assessment of population structure and abundance of fish assemblages associated with artificial reefs (ARs) is an important aspect of AR management. In the present study, we used a Dive-Operated Stereo Video (stereo-DOV) technique to assess the population structure and abundance of Sebastes schlegeli associated with two metallic, and three wooden, vessel reefs in Haizhou Bay during 2012 and 2013. The study used video systems to obtain length measurements and estimates of abundance. The size composition of S. schlegeli differed among reefs and individuals around vessel reefs were all adults, with total lengths (TL) of >20 cm. Juvenile fish were encountered by divers in a rocky area near the island away from the vessel reefs. The largest individual S. schlegeli (with the highest TL) among five reefs were found around a metallic vessel reef in both 2012 and 2013. TL of S. s chlegeli from all reefs increased by an average of 3.2 cm ( P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013, with an estimated mean weight increase of 250.4 g ( P<0.05). The video survey also indicated a decrease in the biomass of schools near two metallic vessels between the years. Stereo-video technology was found to be suitable for rockfish surveys around the reefs.
MacGillivray, Andrew; Jeffrey, Henry; Wallace, Robin
The technological trajectory is the pathway through which an innovative technology develops as it matures. In this paper we model the technological trajectory for a number of energy technologies by analysing technological change (characterised by unit-level capacity up-scaling) and diffusion (characterised by growth in cumulative deployed capacity) using sigmoidal 5 Parameter Logistic (5PL) functions, observed and reported as a function of unit deployment. Application of 5PL functions allows inference of technology development milestones, such as initiation of unit-level up-scaling or industry growth, with respect to the number of unit deployments. This paper compares the technological trajectory followed by mature energy technologies to that being attempted by those in the nascent wave and tidal energy sectors, particularly with regards to unit deployment within a formative phase of development. We identify that the wave and tidal energy sectors are attempting to bypass a formative phase of technological development, which is not in line with technological trajectories experienced by historic energy technologies that have successfully diffused into widespread commercial application, suggesting that demand-pull support mechanisms are premature, and a need for technology push focused policy support mechanisms is vital for stimulating economically sustainable development and deployment of wave and tidal stream energy. - Highlights: • Technology up-scaling should take place after a formative phase of development. • Ocean energy technologies are attempting to bypass a formative phase. • Unit up-scaling has taken place prior to successful technology demonstration. • The cost of the formative phase may be insurmountable using MW-scale technology. • A shift in the research, development and innovation environment is necessary.
Tate, Deborah F; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Valle, Carmina G
IN BRIEF The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes are not active at recommended levels, and many do not have access to behavior change programs to support lifestyle change. Thus, tools and programs designed to promote the adoption and maintenance of physical activity using technology may be helpful. This article reviews the evidence regarding the use of technology tools such as the Internet, mobile applications, social media, and video games and provides suggestions for evaluating the potential benefit of such tools for behavior change.
Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Valle, Carmina G.
IN BRIEF The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes are not active at recommended levels, and many do not have access to behavior change programs to support lifestyle change. Thus, tools and programs designed to promote the adoption and maintenance of physical activity using technology may be helpful. This article reviews the evidence regarding the use of technology tools such as the Internet, mobile applications, social media, and video games and provides suggestions for evaluating the potential benefit of such tools for behavior change. PMID:25717278
Davila, Silvije; Ilić, Jadranka Pečar; Bešlić, Ivan
This article presents a new, original application of modern information and communication technology to provide effective real-time dissemination of air quality information and related health risks to the general public. Our on-line subsystem for urban real-time air quality monitoring is a crucial component of a more comprehensive integrated information system, which has been developed by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. It relies on a StreamInsight data stream management system and service-oriented architecture to process data streamed from seven monitoring stations across Zagreb. Parameters that are monitored include gases (NO, NO2, CO, O3, H2S, SO2, benzene, NH3), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and meteorological data (wind speed and direction, temperature and pressure). Streamed data are processed in real-time using complex continuous queries. They first go through automated validation, then hourly air quality index is calculated for every station, and a report sent to the Croatian Environment Agency. If the parameter values exceed the corresponding regulation limits for three consecutive hours, the web service generates an alert for population groups at risk. Coupled with the Common Air Quality Index model, our web application brings air pollution information closer to the general population and raises awareness about environmental and health issues. Soon we intend to expand the service to a mobile application that is being developed.
Khan, Kashif A.; Wang, Qi; Luo, Chunbo; Wang, Xinheng; Grecos, Christos
The latest trend to access mobile cloud services through wireless network connectivity has amplified globally among both entrepreneurs and home end users. Although existing public cloud service vendors such as Google, Microsoft Azure etc. are providing on-demand cloud services with affordable cost for mobile users, there are still a number of challenges to achieve high-quality mobile cloud based video applications, especially due to the bandwidth-constrained and errorprone mobile network connectivity, which is the communication bottleneck for end-to-end video delivery. In addition, existing accessible clouds networking architectures are different in term of their implementation, services, resources, storage, pricing, support and so on, and these differences have varied impact on the performance of cloud-based real-time video applications. Nevertheless, these challenges and impacts have not been thoroughly investigated in the literature. In our previous work, we have implemented a mobile cloud network model that integrates localized and decentralized cloudlets (mini-clouds) and wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we deploy a real-time framework consisting of various existing Internet cloud networking architectures (Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure and Eucalyptus Cloud) and a cloudlet based on Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud over wireless mesh networking technology for mobile cloud end users. It is noted that the increasing trend to access real-time video streaming over HTTP/HTTPS is gaining popularity among both research and industrial communities to leverage the existing web services and HTTP infrastructure in the Internet. To study the performance under different deployments using different public and private cloud service providers, we employ real-time video streaming over the HTTP/HTTPS standard, and conduct experimental evaluation and in-depth comparative analysis of the impact of different deployments on the quality of service for mobile video cloud users. Empirical
Länsitie, Janne; Stevenson, Blair; Männistö, Riku; Karjalainen, Tommi; Karjalainen, Asko
The short film is an introduction to the concept of video pedagogy. The five categories of video pedagogy further elaborate how videos can be used as a part of instruction and learning process. Most pedagogical videos represent more than one category. A video itself doesn’t necessarily define the category – the ways in which the video is used as a part of pedagogical script are more defining factors. What five categories did you find? Did you agree with the categories, or are more...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...
A program is currently in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste streams. By concentrating radioactive waste streams, disposal costs can be significantly reduced. To effectively reduce the volume of waste, the evaporator must achieve high decontamination factors so that the distillate is sufficiently free of radioactive material. One technology that shows a great deal of potential for this application is being developed by LICON, Inc. In this program, Argonne plans to apply LICON's evaporator designs to the processing of radioactive solutions. Concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of the evaporator include, criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. To design an effective process for concentrating waste streams, both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed. The key issue, however, is the high decontamination factors that have been demonstrated by this equipment. Two major contributions were made to this project. First, a literature survey was completed to obtain available solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data. Some vapor-liquid data necessary for the project but not available in the literature was obtained experimentally. Second, the decontamination factor for the evaporator was determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA)
In-vehicle feedback technologies, including some that use video, help parents monitor and mentor their young drivers. While different feedback technologies have been shown to reduce some risky driving behaviors, teens and parents cite privacy concern...
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the value of embracing digital technology in order to effect positive change in a non-governmental (NGO charity organisation, in this case the Irish Charity Crosscause. The outcome of the research was the creation of a charity video, Crosscause: Making a Difference, to showcase humanitarian work in Ireland and Romania with a view to inspiring others to contribute in some capacity to this cause. Video is an important medium to provide connections with a wider audience, as it gives humanitarian workers and marginalised communities an opportunity to tell their story by making a compelling and evocative case to others. Visual media not only makes connections with an audience, but can also positively challenge people to consider what is happening in the world around them.
.... Recent operations demonstrate the requirement for video PSYOP in media-austere environments where the target audience lacks access to television, due to poverty, or lack of supporting infrastructure...
D. R. Marković
Full Text Available From the perspective of average viewer, high definition video streams such as HD (High Definition and UHD (Ultra HD are increasing their internet presence year over year. This is not surprising, having in mind expansion of HD streaming services, such as YouTube, Netflix etc. Therefore, high definition video streams are starting to challenge network resource allocation with their bandwidth requirements and statistical characteristics. Need for analysis and modeling of this demanding video traffic has essential importance for better quality of service and experience support. In this paper we use an easy-to-apply statistical model for prediction of 4K video traffic. Namely, seasonal autoregressive modeling is applied in prediction of 4K video traffic, encoded with HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding. Analysis and modeling were performed within R programming environment using over 17.000 high definition video frames. It is shown that the proposed methodology provides good accuracy in high definition video traffic modeling.
Mortensen, Mark; Schlieve, Paul; Young, Jon
Describes streaming media, an audio/video presentation that is delivered across a network so that it is viewed while being downloaded onto the user's computer, including a continuous stream of video that can be pre-recorded or live. Discusses its use for nontraditional students in higher education and reports on implementation experiences. (LRW)
Kratzwald, Bernhard; Huang, Zhiwu; Paudel, Danda Pani; Dinesh, Acharya; Van Gool, Luc
In this paper, we aim to improve the state-of-the-art video generative adversarial networks (GANs) with a view towards multi-functional applications. Our improved video GAN model does not separate foreground from background nor dynamic from static patterns, but learns to generate the entire video clip conjointly. Our model can thus be trained to generate - and learn from - a broad set of videos with no restriction. This is achieved by designing a robust one-stream video generation architectur...
Full Text Available Owing to the growth of high performance network technologies, multimedia applications over the Internet are increasing exponentially. Applications like video conferencing, video-on-demand, and pay-per-view depend upon encryption algorithms for providing confidentiality. Video communication is characterized by distinct features such as large volume, high redundancy between adjacent frames, video codec compliance, syntax compliance, and application specific requirements. Naive approaches for video encryption encrypt the entire video stream with conventional text based cryptographic algorithms. Although naive approaches are the most secure for video encryption, the computational cost associated with them is very high. This research work aims at enhancing the speed of naive approaches through chaos based S-box design. Chaotic equations are popularly known for randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, and ergodicity. The proposed methodology employs two-dimensional discrete Henon map for (i generation of dynamic and key-dependent S-box that could be integrated with symmetric algorithms like Blowfish and Data Encryption Standard (DES and (ii generation of one-time keys for simple substitution ciphers. The proposed design is tested for randomness, nonlinearity, avalanche effect, bit independence criterion, and key sensitivity. Experimental results confirm that chaos based S-box design and key generation significantly reduce the computational cost of video encryption with no compromise in security.
Discusses the use of minimum levels of technology, or technological minimalism, for Web-based multimedia course content. Highlights include cost effectiveness; problems with video streaming, the use of XML for Web pages, and Flash and Java applets; listservs instead of proprietary software; and proper faculty training. (LRW)
Van Hoorebeek, Mark; Marson, James
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial and intellectual issues facing the university sector as many institutions in the UK pursue alternative revenue streams. As a consequence to the increasing financial pressures, university departments are increasingly exposed to new forms of potential litigation and also face the risk to…
Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin
Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.
Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren
MPEG coded video may be processed for quality assessment or postprocessed to reduce coding artifacts or transcoded. Utilizing information about the MPEG stream may be useful for these tasks. This paper deals with estimating MPEG parameter information from the decoded video stream without access t...
Wang, J.; Ravikumar, A. P.; McGuire, M.; Bell, C.; Tchapmi, L. P.; Brandt, A. R.
Methane, a key component of natural gas, has a 25x higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide on a 100-year basis. Accurately monitoring and mitigating methane emissions require cost-effective detection and quantification technologies. Optical gas imaging, one of the most commonly used leak detection technology, adopted by Environmental Protection Agency, cannot estimate leak-sizes. In this work, we harness advances in computer science to allow for rapid and automatic leak quantification. Particularly, we utilize two-stream deep Convolutional Networks (ConvNets) to estimate leak-size by capturing complementary spatial information from still plume frames, and temporal information from plume motion between frames. We build large leak datasets for training and evaluating purposes by collecting about 20 videos (i.e. 397,400 frames) of leaks. The videos were recorded at six distances from the source, covering 10 -60 ft. Leak sources included natural gas well-heads, separators, and tanks. All frames were labeled with a true leak size, which has eight levels ranging from 0 to 140 MCFH. Preliminary analysis shows that two-stream ConvNets provides significant accuracy advantage over single steam ConvNets. Spatial stream ConvNet can achieve an accuracy of 65.2%, by extracting important features, including texture, plume area, and pattern. Temporal stream, fed by the results of optical flow analysis, results in an accuracy of 58.3%. The integration of the two-stream ConvNets gives a combined accuracy of 77.6%. For future work, we will split the training and testing datasets in distinct ways in order to test the generalization of the algorithm for different leak sources. Several analytic metrics, including confusion matrix and visualization of key features, will be used to understand accuracy rates and occurrences of false positives. The quantification algorithm can help to find and fix super-emitters, and improve the cost-effectiveness of leak detection and repair
Exarchakos, G.; Menkovski, V.; Liotta, A.
Skype nodes generate a substantial part of real-time bi-directional video traffic nowadays. Employing a range of adaptive mechanisms, the application configures video streaming to meet the requirements of the communication and constraints of the underlying network. While other related works focus on
Fung, Fun Man
Currently there are two primary methods of recording flipped classroom videos: (1) using the white board and (2) screencasting a PowerPoint presentation. Both methods have several disadvantages. In the former, the presenter's body obscures the content. Both methods lack an element of human interaction between the viewers and presenter and require…
Can we learn socially and academically valuable concepts and skills from video games? How can we best teach the "gamer generation?" This accessible book describes how educators and curriculum designers can harness the participatory nature of digital media and play. The author presents a comprehensive model of games and learning that integrates…
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Shinaberry, Megan
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the…
Macpherson, Kevin; Charlop, Marjorie H.; Miltenberger, Catherine A.
A multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the effects of a portable video modeling intervention delivered in the natural environment on the verbal compliments and compliment gestures demonstrated by five children with autism. Participants were observed playing kickball with peers and adults. In baseline, participants…
Szajowski, Paul F.; Rigas, A. J.; Robinson, J. W.; Nykolak, Gerald; Paulson, Bruce D.; Tourgee, G. E.; Auborn, James J.
12 Terrestrial 1550 nm WDM free-space optical communication systems have been demonstrated to provide a viable means to transport data, voice and video channels for point-to-point applications without the use of optical fiber. Key features of free-space optical transmission systems are their ability to utilize present day telecommunication components such as: laser diode transmitters, high-power optical amplifiers operating within the 1550 nm optical transmission window and high-sensitivity optical receivers designed for multi-Giga- bit data rates. In this paper, we report on details of the world's first field test, demonstrating real time video transmission of eight uncompressed standard-definition (SD) video channels operating at an aggregate data rate of 1.485 Gb/s over a 0.89 km terrestrial free-space link. This data link was used in support of the 2000 Olympic games held recently in Sydney, Australia. Results from this eight- channel SD terrestrial free-space laser communications systems are presented. The transmission system operated error-free continuously from September 14, 2000 until October 1, 2000, twenty-four hours a day, throughout the coverage of the games. Modeling results predict that free- space SD video transmission systems can be designed and operated over significant link distances under nominal visibility conditions.
Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Foster, Ashley L.; Bryant, Kathryn J.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of four high school-aged students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disability to generalize performance of skills when using materials different from those presented through video models. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate student…
The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company
Lobato, Ramon; Meese, James; Rasch, Mirjam
How do global audiences use streaming platforms like YouTube, Netflix and iPlayer? How does the experience of digital video change according to location? What strategies do people use to access out-of-region content? What are the commercial and governmental motivations behind geoblocking?
Lobato, Ramon; Meese, James; Rasch, Mirjam
How do global audiences use streaming platforms like YouTube, Netflix and iPlayer? How does the experience of digital video change according to location? What strategies do people use to access out-of-region content? What are the commercial and governmental motivations behind geoblocking?
van Hoorebeek, Mark; Marson, James
Abstract: \\ud Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial and intellectual issues facing the university sector as many institutions in the United Kingdom (UK) pursue alternative revenue streams. As a consequence to the increasing financial pressures, university departments are increasingly exposed to new forms of potential litigation and also face the risk to the prestige of their university and departmental brand.\\ud Design: A theoretical and analytical approach is adopted ...
Amador, Julie M.
The incorporation of video technology in teacher education programmes is increasingly prevalent, with teacher educators commonly using three traditional forms of videos: published video, preservice teachers' own videos and colleagues' videos. This study explored a fourth type of video, self-created scripted video simulations in which preservice…
Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil
Armellino, Donna; Hussain, Erfan; Schilling, Mary Ellen; Senicola, William; Eichorn, Ann; Dlugacz, Yosef; Farber, Bruce F
Hand hygiene is a key measure in preventing infections. We evaluated healthcare worker (HCW) hand hygiene with the use of remote video auditing with and without feedback. The study was conducted in an 17-bed intensive care unit from June 2008 through June 2010. We placed cameras with views of every sink and hand sanitizer dispenser to record hand hygiene of HCWs. Sensors in doorways identified when an individual(s) entered/exited. When video auditors observed a HCW performing hand hygiene upon entering/exiting, they assigned a pass; if not, a fail was assigned. Hand hygiene was measured during a 16-week period of remote video auditing without feedback and a 91-week period with feedback of data. Performance feedback was continuously displayed on electronic boards mounted within the hallways, and summary reports were delivered to supervisors by electronic mail. During the 16-week prefeedback period, hand hygiene rates were less than 10% (3933/60 542) and in the 16-week postfeedback period it was 81.6% (59 627/73 080). The increase was maintained through 75 weeks at 87.9% (262 826/298 860). The data suggest that remote video auditing combined with feedback produced a significant and sustained improvement in hand hygiene.
Full Text Available This paper presents about the transmission of Digital Video Broadcasting system with streaming video resolution 640x480 on different IQ rate and modulation. In the video transmission, distortion often occurs, so the received video has bad quality. Key frames selection algorithm is flexibel on a change of video, but on these methods, the temporal information of a video sequence is omitted. To minimize distortion between the original video and received video, we aimed at adding methodology using sequential distortion minimization algorithm. Its aim was to create a new video, better than original video without significant loss of content between the original video and received video, fixed sequentially. The reliability of video transmission was observed based on a constellation diagram, with the best result on IQ rate 2 Mhz and modulation 8 QAM. The best video transmission was also investigated using SEDIM (Sequential Distortion Minimization Method and without SEDIM. The experimental result showed that the PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio average of video transmission using SEDIM was an increase from 19,855 dB to 48,386 dB and SSIM (Structural Similarity average increase 10,49%. The experimental results and comparison of proposed method obtained a good performance. USRP board was used as RF front-end on 2,2 GHz.
This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...
The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provide site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: eight California facilities which are Energy Technology engineering Center, General Atomics, General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and Sandia national Laboratories; Grand Junction Project Office; Rocky Flats Plant; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory-Windsor Site; Pinellas Plant; Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard; Argonne National Laboratory-West; and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory
Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves
Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...
This volume contains Appendix A--Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992, Appendix B--Technology Development, and Appendix C--Other Materials. Appendix B supplies details concerning the technology development activities supported by DOE in the area of mixed waste management. Two parts of this appendix are important. The more important of the two is the collection of technology development summaries. There are 267 summaries collected from several sources, which are described. The second important part consists of tables which group technologies by one several attributes such as target site and cross-complex applicability as well as relationship to Resource Conservation Recovery Act Best Demonstrated Available Technologies (RCRA BDATs)
Gehringer, P.; Szinovatz, W.; Eschweiler, H.; Haberl, R.
The discoloration of a biologically pretreated waste water stream from a molasses processing by ozonation and two advanced oxidation processes (O 3 /H 2 O 2 and O 3 /γ-irradiation, respectively) was studied. Colour removal occurred with all three processes with almost the same efficiency. The main difference of the methods applied was reflected by the BOD increase during the discoloration period. By ozonation it was much higher than by AOPs but it also appeared with AOPs. AOPs were, therefore, not apt for an effective BOD control during discoloration. (authors)
Mainhart, Robert; Gerraughty, James; Anderson, Kristine M.
Concisely defined, "streaming media" is moving video and/or audio transmitted over the Internet for immediate viewing/listening by an end user. However, at Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas (CERMUSA), streaming media is approached from a broader perspective. The working definition includes…
Baker, O.J.; Cooley, J.N.; Hewgley, W.A.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.
The applicability, availability, and effectiveness of gas flow meters are assessed as a means for verifying the mass flows of pure UF 6 streams diluted with a carrier gas. The initial survey identified the orifice, pitot tube, thermal, vortex shedding, and vortex precession (swirl) meters as promising for the intended use. Subsequent assessments of these flow meters revealed that two - the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter - are the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high velocity gas, large diameter piping. Final selection of the gas flow meters should be based on test loop evaluations in which the proposed meters are subjected to gas flows, temperatures, and pressures representative of those expected in service. Known instruments are evaluated that may be applicable to the measurement of uranium or UF 6 concentration in a UF 6 - H 2 process stream at an aerodynamic enrichment plant. Of the six procedures evaluated, four have been used for process monitoring in a UF 6 environment: gas mass spectrometry, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and acoustic gas analysis. The remaining two procedures, laser fluorimetry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, would require significant development work before they could be used for process monitoring. Infrared-ultravioloet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement
Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet ...
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M; Shinaberry, Megan
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on the acquisition and maintenance of addition, subtraction, and number comparison skills for four elementary school students with ASD. Findings supported the effectiveness of the intervention in improving skill acquisition and maintenance at a 3-week follow-up. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
The utilization of educational technologies in class applications and their reflections on the education have not reached to desired levels today; in other words, there are problems in the integration of technology into teaching and using technology in conjunction with the knowledge of subject field and pedagogy. The aim of this research is to…
The amount of digital video content available to users is rapidly increasing. Developments in computer, digital network, and storage technologies all contribute to broaden the offer of digital video. Only users’ attention and time remain scarce resources. Users face the problem of choosing the right
A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended
Asif Ali Laghari
Full Text Available Video sharing on social clouds is popular among the users around the world. High-Definition (HD videos have big file size so the storing in cloud storage and streaming of videos with high quality from cloud to the client are a big problem for service providers. Social clouds compress the videos to save storage and stream over slow networks to provide quality of service (QoS. Compression of video decreases the quality compared to original video and parameters are changed during the online play as well as after download. Degradation of video quality due to compression decreases the quality of experience (QoE level of end users. To assess the QoE of video compression, we conducted subjective (QoE experiments by uploading, sharing, and playing videos from social clouds. Three popular social clouds, Facebook, Tumblr, and Twitter, were selected to upload and play videos online for users. The QoE was recorded by using questionnaire given to users to provide their experience about the video quality they perceive. Results show that Facebook and Twitter compressed HD videos more as compared to other clouds. However, Facebook gives a better quality of compressed videos compared to Twitter. Therefore, users assigned low ratings for Twitter for online video quality compared to Tumblr that provided high-quality online play of videos with less compression.
... description services for television are provided on a secondary audio stream, and typically a consumer can... box. The Commission recently adopted rules requiring apparatus that is designed to receive, play back, or record video programming transmitted simultaneously with sound to make secondary audio streams...
When discussing the art of video games, three different contexts need to be considered: the 'high' art (video games and the art); commercial video games (video games as the art) and the fan art. Video games are a legitimate artistic medium subject to modifications and recontextualisations in the process of creating a specific experience of the player/user/audience and political action by referring to particular social problems. They represent a high technological medium that increases, with p...
Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin
, for one week in 2014, and collected and analyzed visual data to learn about scientists’ practices. The visual material that was collected represented the agreed on material artifacts that should aid the students' reflective process to make sense of science technology practices. It was up to the student...... video, nature of the interactional space, and material and spatial semiotics....
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...
Evensen, Kristian; Kupka, Tomas; Riiser, Haakon; Ni, Pengpeng; Eg, Ragnhild; Griwodz, Carsten; Halvorsen, Pål
Video streaming is predicted to become the dominating traffic in mobile broadband networks. At the same time, adaptive HTTP streaming is developing into the preferred way of streaming media over the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate how different components of a streaming system can be optimized when serving content to mobile devices in particular. We first analyze the media traffic from a Norwegian network and media provider. Based on our findings, we outline benefits and chal...
Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...
Funk, Jeanne B
The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.
Kreitmair, Thomas; Coman, Cristian
This paper presents the results of a study of the impact of network transmission channel parameters on the quality of streaming video data. A common practice for estimating the interpretability of video information is to use the Motion Imagery Quality Equation (MIQE). MIQE combines a few technical features of video images (such as: ground sampling distance, relative edge response, modulation transfer function, gain and signal-to-noise ratio) to estimate the interpretability level. One observation of this study is that the MIQE does not fully account for video-specific parameters such as spatial and temporal encoding, which are relevant to appreciating degradations caused by the streaming process. In streaming applications the main artifacts impacting the interpretability level are related to distortions in the image caused by lossy decompression of video data (due to loss of information and in some cases lossy re-encoding by the streaming server). One parameter in MIQE that is influenced by network transmission errors is the Relative Edge Response (RER). The automated calculation of RER includes the selection of the best edge in the frame, which in case of network errors may be incorrectly associated with a blocked region (e.g. low resolution areas caused by loss of information). A solution is discussed in this document to address this inconsistency by removing corrupted regions from the image analysis process. Furthermore, a recommendation is made on how to account for network impairments in the MIQE, such that a more realistic interpretability level is estimated in case of streaming applications.
Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.
This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: Argonne National Laboratory-East; Site A/plot M in Palos Forest Preserve, Illinois; Ames Laboratory; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Portsmouth Naval Shipyard; Kansas City Plant; University of Missouri; Weldon Springs Site, St. Charles, Missouri; Nevada Test Site; Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; LANL; Sandia national laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Colonie Interim Storage Site, Colonie, New York; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory-Kesselring Site; and West Valley Demonstration Project
Shen, Chen; Wang, Man Ping; Chu, Joanna Tw; Wan, Alice; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai Hing
The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for information sharing among family members is increasing dramatically. However, little is known about the associated factors and the influence on family well-being. The authors investigated the pattern and social determinants of family life information sharing with family and the associations of different methods of sharing with perceived family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs) in Hong Kong, where mobile phone ownership and Internet access are among the most prevalent, easiest, and fastest in the world. A territory-wide population-based telephone survey was conducted from January to August 2016 on different methods of family life information (ie, information related to family communication, relationships with family members, emotion and stress management) sharing with family members, including face-to-face, phone, instant messaging (IM), social media sites, video calls, and email. Family well-being was assessed by three single items on perceived family health, happiness, and harmony, with higher scores indicating better family well-being. Adjusted prevalence ratios were used to assess the associations of sociodemographic factors with family life information sharing, and adjusted beta coefficients for family well-being. Of 2017 respondents, face-to-face was the most common method to share family life information (74.45%, 1502/2017), followed by IM (40.86%, 824/2017), phone (28.10%, 567/2017), social media sites (11.91%, 240/2017), video calls (5.89%, 119/2017), and email (5.48%, 111/2017). Younger age and higher education were associated with the use of any (at least one) method, face-to-face, IM, and social media sites for sharing family life information (all P for trend face-to-face, and IM (all P for trend face-to-face (beta=0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.80) and video calls (beta=0.34, 95% CI 0.04-0.65). The combination of face-to-face and video calls was most strongly associated with a higher level of
Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima
Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. Copyright 2015, NMJI.
Situmeang, F.B.; Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.; Leenders, M.A.A.M.
This study focuses on what drives technology-driven companies to engage in risk-taking behavior by serving new markets. Building on the behavioral theory of the firm and prospect theory, this study suggests that technology-driven organizations tend to respond to past performance rather than future
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Islands in the Stream is a three-month scientific expedition to marine protected areas and other habitats being considered for protection from offshore of Belize in...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Islands in the Stream is a three-month scientific expedition to marine protected areas and other habitats being considered for protection from offshore of Belize in...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Islands in the Stream is a three-month scientific expedition to marine protected areas and other habitats being considered for protection from offshore of Belize in...
Dirnwoeber, Markus; Machan, Rudolf; Herler, Juergen
Direct field observations of fine-scaled biological processes and interactions of the benthic community of corals and associated reef organisms (e.g., feeding, reproduction, mutualistic or agonistic behavior, behavioral responses to changing abiotic factors) usually involve a disturbing intervention. Modern digital camcorders (without inflexible land-or ship-based cable connection) such as the GoPro camera enable undisturbed and unmanned, stationary close-up observations. Such observations, however, are also very time-limited (~3 h) and full 24 h-recordings throughout day and night, including nocturnal observations without artificial daylight illumination, are not possible. Herein we introduce the application of modern standard video surveillance technology with the main objective of providing a tool for monitoring coral reef or other sessile and mobile organisms for periods of 24 h and longer. This system includes nocturnal close-up observations with miniature infrared (IR)-sensitive cameras and separate high-power IR-LEDs. Integrating this easy-to-set up and portable remote-sensing equipment into coral reef research is expected to significantly advance our understanding of fine-scaled biotic processes on coral reefs. Rare events and long-lasting processes can easily be recorded, in situ -experiments can be monitored live on land, and nocturnal IR-observations reveal undisturbed behavior. The options and equipment choices in IR-sensitive surveillance technology are numerous and subject to a steadily increasing technical supply and quality at decreasing prices. Accompanied by short video examples, this report introduces a radio-transmission system for simultaneous recordings and real-time monitoring of multiple cameras with synchronized timestamps, and a surface-independent underwater-recording system.
Full Text Available Direct field observations of fine-scaled biological processes and interactions of the benthic community of corals and associated reef organisms (e.g., feeding, reproduction, mutualistic or agonistic behavior, behavioral responses to changing abiotic factors usually involve a disturbing intervention. Modern digital camcorders (without inflexible land-or ship-based cable connection such as the GoPro camera enable undisturbed and unmanned, stationary close-up observations. Such observations, however, are also very time-limited (~3 h and full 24 h-recordings throughout day and night, including nocturnal observations without artificial daylight illumination, are not possible. Herein we introduce the application of modern standard video surveillance technology with the main objective of providing a tool for monitoring coral reef or other sessile and mobile organisms for periods of 24 h and longer. This system includes nocturnal close-up observations with miniature infrared (IR-sensitive cameras and separate high-power IR-LEDs. Integrating this easy-to-set up and portable remote-sensing equipment into coral reef research is expected to significantly advance our understanding of fine-scaled biotic processes on coral reefs. Rare events and long-lasting processes can easily be recorded, in situ-experiments can be monitored live on land, and nocturnal IR-observations reveal undisturbed behavior. The options and equipment choices in IR-sensitive surveillance technology are numerous and subject to a steadily increasing technical supply and quality at decreasing prices. Accompanied by short video examples, this report introduces a radio-transmission system for simultaneous recordings and real-time monitoring of multiple cameras with synchronized timestamps, and a surface-independent underwater-recording system.
Boris Fernando Candela
Full Text Available This article described how trainee teachers identified and developed some elements of the Technological and Pedagogical Knowledge of Chemistry Content (CTPC, along the course of educational and pedagogical context by "reflective orientation". The methodological perspective was qualitative by case study, which was configured by two interwoven areas of reflection, namely: (a reflecting on the opinions of experts about the teaching of a content, through the readings proposed in the training programs; and (b reflecting on the teaching carried out by experienced teachers through case videos and the Repertoire of Professional and Pedagogical Experiences (PaP-eRs. This heuristic reduced the complexity of teaching in a manageable story located in a specific context, so that teachers could identify and reflect on their theories about the teaching and learning of chemistry. This study showed that teachers in training identified and developed the following elements of the CTPC of chemistry: general pedagogy, language as a learning tool, difficulties and alternative conceptions, knowledge of technology as an instrument to represent the contents and manage the chemistry classroom, and the formative evaluation. Definitely, the reflection of the critical events of the PaP-eRs and videos of cases was considered an appropriate heuristic that allowed the future teachers to articulate the knowledge coming from the literature in education in chemistry, with the virtual experiences of teaching-learning of a real context. Of course, this reflection was mediated by reading, discussing and reflecting on the intelligent actions of an exemplary teacher when guiding singular students from a sociocultural perspective, with the purpose of beginning to refine their theories of teaching and learning chemistry.
Kuehl, C. Stephen
Video signal system performance can be compromised in a military aircraft cockpit management system (CMS) with the tailoring of vintage Electronics Industries Association (EIA) RS170 and RS343A video interface standards. Video analog interfaces degrade when induced system noise is present. Further signal degradation has been traditionally associated with signal data conversions between avionics sensor outputs and the cockpit display system. If the CMS engineering process is not carefully applied during the avionics video and computing architecture development, extensive and costly redesign will occur when visual sensor technology upgrades are incorporated. Close monitoring and technical involvement in video standards groups provides the knowledge-base necessary for avionic systems engineering organizations to architect adaptable and extendible cockpit management systems. With the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the process of adopting the Digital HDTV Grand Alliance System standard proposed by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC), the entertainment and telecommunications industries are adopting and supporting the emergence of new serial/parallel digital video interfaces and data compression standards that will drastically alter present NTSC-M video processing architectures. The re-engineering of the U.S. Broadcasting system must initially preserve the electronic equipment wiring networks within broadcast facilities to make the transition to HDTV affordable. International committee activities in technical forums like ITU-R (former CCIR), ANSI/SMPTE, IEEE, and ISO/IEC are establishing global consensus on video signal parameterizations that support a smooth transition from existing analog based broadcasting facilities to fully digital computerized systems. An opportunity exists for implementing these new video interface standards over existing video coax/triax cabling in military aircraft cockpit management systems. Reductions in signal
The Video Comparator is a comparative gage that uses electronic images from two sources, a standard and an unknown. Two matched video cameras are used to obtain the electronic images. The video signals are mixed and displayed on a single video receiver (CRT). The video system is manufactured by ITP of Chatsworth, CA and is a Tele-Microscope II, Model 148. One of the cameras is mounted on a toolmaker's microscope stand and produces a 250X image of a cast. The other camera is mounted on a stand and produces an image of a 250X template. The two video images are mixed in a control box provided by ITP and displayed on a CRT. The template or the cast can be moved to align the desired features. Vertical reference lines are provided on the CRT, and a feature on the cast can be aligned with a line on the CRT screen. The stage containing the casts can be moved using a Boeckleler micrometer equipped with a digital readout, and a second feature aligned with the reference line and the distance moved obtained from the digital display
Full Text Available Recent major political uprisings are indicating the extent to which social learning Web 2.0 technologies, can infl uence change in informal learning settings. Recognition and a discussion of the potential of that infl uence in formal learning settings have only just begun. This article describes a study of an international distance learning project in 2004, using a variety of Web 2.0 technologies, including video-based web conferencing, that sought to initiate and respond to this urgent need for dialogue in the research. Self-selected participants took part in a 5-week English as a foreign language (EFL program, a joint NATO sponsored Canadian and Romanian Ministry of Defense-supported initiative. Clear evidence of linguistic knowledge construction and of important changes to participants’ learner identities, indicates the power of these technologies to support the kind of learning that can lead to the development of global citizens and the skills they will increasingly require in the 21st century.
Full Text Available Designing an effective and high performance network requires an accurate characterization and modeling of network traffic. The modeling of video frame sizes is normally applied in simulation studies and mathematical analysis and generating streams for testing and compliance purposes. Besides, video traffic assumed as a major source of multimedia traffic in future heterogeneous network. Therefore, the statistical distribution of video data can be used as the inputs for performance modeling of networks. The finding of this paper comprises the theoretical definition of distribution which seems to be relevant to the video trace in terms of its statistical properties and finds the best distribution using both the graphical method and the hypothesis test. The data set used in this article consists of layered video traces generating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC video compression technique of three different movies.
Williams, Glenn L.
Long-duration, on-orbit microgravity experiments require a combination of high resolution and high frame rate video data acquisition. The digitized high-rate video stream presents a difficult data storage problem. Data produced at rates of several hundred million bytes per second may require a total mission video data storage requirement exceeding one terabyte. A NASA-designed, VLSI-based, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term (DC-like) or short term (AC-like) changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pre-trigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable to archiving only the significant video images.
Ismail Amin Ali
Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.
Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report
Wang, Wei; Wang, Chunqiu; Zhao, Min
To ease the burdens on the hospitalization capacity, an emerging swallowable-capsule technology has evolved to serve as a remote gastrointestinal (GI) disease examination technique with the aid of the wireless body sensor network (WBSN). Secure multimedia transmission in such a swallowable-capsule-based WBSN faces critical challenges including energy efficiency and content quality guarantee. In this paper, we propose a joint resource allocation and stream authentication scheme to maintain the best possible video quality while ensuring security and energy efficiency in GI-WBSNs. The contribution of this research is twofold. First, we establish a unique signature-hash (S-H) diversity approach in the authentication domain to optimize video authentication robustness and the authentication bit rate overhead over a wireless channel. Based on the full exploration of S-H authentication diversity, we propose a new two-tier signature-hash (TTSH) stream authentication scheme to improve the video quality by reducing authentication dependence overhead while protecting its integrity. Second, we propose to combine this authentication scheme with a unique S-H oriented unequal resource allocation (URA) scheme to improve the energy-distortion-authentication performance of wireless video delivery in GI-WBSN. Our analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed TTSH with URA scheme achieves considerable gain in both authenticated video quality and energy efficiency.
Hafner, Christoph A.; Miller, Lindsay
This paper reports on the syllabus design and implementation of an English for Science and Technology (EST) course at an English-medium university in Hong Kong. The course combined elements of project-based learning and a "pedagogy for multiliteracies" (New London Group, 1996) to produce a strong learner autonomy focus. A major component…
Chen, Wei; Shih, Chien-Chou
Due to increasing occurrence of accidents and illness during business trips, travel, or overseas studies, the requirement for portable EMR (Electronic Medical Records) has increased. This study proposes integrating streaming media technology into the EMR system to facilitate referrals, contracted laboratories, and disease notification among hospitals. The current study encoded static and dynamic medical images of patients into a streaming video format and stored them in a Flash Media Server (FMS). Based on the Taiwan Electronic Medical Record Template (TMT) standard, EMR records can be converted into XML documents and used to integrate description fields with embedded streaming videos. This investigation implemented a web-based portable EMR interchanging system using streaming media techniques to expedite exchanging medical image information among hospitals. The proposed architecture of the portable EMR retrieval system not only provides local hospital users the ability to acquire EMR text files from a previous hospital, but also helps access static and dynamic medical images as reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed method protects property rights of medical images through information security mechanisms of the Medical Record Interchange Service Center and Health Certificate Authorization to facilitate proper, efficient, and continuous treatment of patients.
Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José María; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Pedrero Aguilar, Jara; Morales Alonso, Sara; Puerta García, Carmen
Use/abuse of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) has in recent years become a topic of great interest. Current discussion addresses whether it must be considered addictive behaviour and if it is a problem that primarily affects adolescents and youth. This study aims to understand the problems that affect people of all ages in controlling the use of these ICTs and whether they are related to mental health problems, stress and difficulties in executive control of behaviour. A survey was administered through social networks and email, using the MULTICAGE-ICT, a questionnaire that explores problems in the use of Internet, mobile phones, video games, instant messaging and social networks. Additionally, the Prefrontal Symptom Inventory, General Health Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale were administered. The sample was comprised of 1,276 individuals of all ages from different Spanish-speaking countries. The results indicate that about 50% of the sample, regardless of age or other variables, presents significant problems with the use of these technologies, and that these problems are directly related to symptoms of poor prefrontal functioning, stress and mental health problems. The results reveal the need for reconsidering whether we are facing an addictive behaviour or a new problem demanding environmental, psychological, sociological and sociopolitical explanations; therefore, it is necessary to reformulate actions to be implemented to address and refocus our understanding of the problem.
This article investigates the distribution of Italian horror cinema in the age of video streaming, analyzing its presence and categorization on the platform Lovefilm Instant UK, in order to investigate the importance of ‘niche’ in what is known as the long tail of online distribution and the online availability of exploitation films. I argue that looking at the streaming presence of Italian horror and comparing it to its prior distribution on home video formats (in particular VHS and DVD) we ...
Boudier, T; Shotton, D M
In this paper, we seek to provide an introduction to the fast-moving field of digital video on the Internet, from the viewpoint of the biological microscopist who might wish to store or access videos, for instance in image databases such as the BioImage Database (http://www.bioimage.org). We describe and evaluate the principal methods used for encoding and compressing moving image data for digital storage and transmission over the Internet, which involve compromises between compression efficiency and retention of image fidelity, and describe the existing alternate software technologies for downloading or streaming compressed digitized videos using a Web browser. We report the results of experiments on video microscopy recordings and three-dimensional confocal animations of biological specimens to evaluate the compression efficiencies of the principal video compression-decompression algorithms (codecs) and to document the artefacts associated with each of them. Because MPEG-1 gives very high compression while yet retaining reasonable image quality, these studies lead us to recommend that video databases should store both a high-resolution original version of each video, ideally either uncompressed or losslessly compressed, and a separate edited and highly compressed MPEG-1 preview version that can be rapidly downloaded for interactive viewing by the database user. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Guo, Shiyi; Mai, Ying; Zhao, Hongying; Gao, Pengqi
The airborne video streams of small-UAVs are commonly plagued with distractive jittery and shaking motions, disorienting rotations, noisy and distorted images and other unwanted movements. These problems collectively make it very difficult for observers to obtain useful information from the video. Due to the small payload of small-UAVs, it is a priority to improve the image quality by means of electronic image stabilization. But when small-UAV makes a turn, affected by the flight characteristics of it, the video is easy to become oblique. This brings a lot of difficulties to electronic image stabilization technology. Homography model performed well in the oblique image motion estimation, while bringing great challenges to intentional motion estimation. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on solve the problem of the video stabilized when small-UAVs banking and turning. We attend to the small-UAVs fly along with an arc of a fixed turning radius. For this reason, after a series of experimental analysis on the flight characteristics and the path how small-UAVs turned, we presented a new method to estimate the intentional motion in which the path of the frame center was used to fit the video moving track. Meanwhile, the image sequences dynamic mosaic was done to make up for the limited field of view. At last, the proposed algorithm was carried out and validated by actual airborne videos. The results show that the proposed method is effective to stabilize the oblique video of small-UAVs.
Fiscal 2000 project for promoting international cooperation. Survey report on preparation of technological information in APEC region (Upstream area: preparation of video for training); 2000 nendo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo chosa hokokusho. APEC iki nai ni okeru gijutsu joho seibi ni kakawaru chosa (Joryu bunya - kenshu you video sakusei)
With the purpose of spreading and promoting clean coal technology (CCT) in coal producing countries in the APEC region, videos for training use were prepared so as to contribute to the reduction in environmental problems through the introduction of the coal cleaning and wastewater treatment technologies used in Japanese mines. In the video, comparison is made between the untreated wastewater and cleaned water flowing in and out of a present coal-cleaning plant, with the purification ratio determined, recognisably showing the effect by the cleaning facilities, and introducing the type of equipment required to satisfy the standard under the regulation. Also introduced is a technology for utilizing sludge collected in a sedimentation pond and fly ash scavenged in a private power plant. The videotape was prepared for 40 reels in English, 40 in Chinese, and 20 in Indonesian. The video title is 'Environmental safeguard of coal cleaning plant', and the contents are the importance of wastewater treatment and measures against water pollution, wastewater treatment technology in Taiheiyo coal mines, and wastewater treatment technology in Ikeshima coal mines. (NEDO)
Choi, Jae Bong; Hur, Nam Su; Moon, Seong In; Seo, Hyeong Won; Park, Bo Kyu; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyung Geun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired world widely. This wide spread damage has been caused by diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. Regarding domestic nuclear power plants, also, the increase of number of operating nuclear power plants and operating periods may result in the increase of steam generator tube failure. So, it is important to carry out the integrity evaluation process to prevent the steam generator tube damage. There are two objectives of this research. The one is to make database for the research of steam generator at domestic research institution. It will increase the efficiency and capability of limited domestic research resources by sharing data and information through network organization. Also, it will enhance the current standard of integrity evaluation procedure that is considerably conservative but can be more reasonable. The second objective is to establish the standard integrity evaluation procedure for steam generator tube by reviewing state of the art technology. The research resources related to steam generator tubes are managed by the established web-based database system. The following topics are covered in this project: development of web-based network for research on steam generator tubes review of state of the art technology.
Choi, Jae Bong; Hur, Nam Su; Moon, Seong In; Seo, Hyeong Won; Park, Bo Kyu; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyung Geun
A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired world widely. This wide spread damage has been caused by diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. Regarding domestic nuclear power plants, also, the increase of number of operating nuclear power plants and operating periods may result in the increase of steam generator tube failure. So, it is important to carry out the integrity evaluation process to prevent the steam generator tube damage. There are two objectives of this research. The one is to make database for the research of steam generator at domestic research institution. It will increase the efficiency and capability of limited domestic research resources by sharing data and information through network organization. Also, it will enhance the current standard of integrity evaluation procedure that is considerably conservative but can be more reasonable. The second objective is to establish the standard integrity evaluation procedure for steam generator tube by reviewing state of the art technology. The research resources related to steam generator tubes are managed by the established web-based database system. The following topics are covered in this project: development of web-based network for research on steam generator tubes review of state of the art technology
Sotnik, A. V.; Yarishev, S. N.; Korotaev, V. V.
Video data require a very large memory capacity. Optimal ratio quality / volume video encoding method is one of the most actual problem due to the urgent need to transfer large amounts of video over various networks. The technology of digital TV signal compression reduces the amount of data used for video stream representation. Video compression allows effective reduce the stream required for transmission and storage. It is important to take into account the uncertainties caused by compression of the video signal in the case of television measuring systems using. There are a lot digital compression methods. The aim of proposed work is research of video compression influence on the measurement error in television systems. Measurement error of the object parameter is the main characteristic of television measuring systems. Accuracy characterizes the difference between the measured value abd the actual parameter value. Errors caused by the optical system can be selected as a source of error in the television systems measurements. Method of the received video signal processing is also a source of error. Presence of error leads to large distortions in case of compression with constant data stream rate. Presence of errors increases the amount of data required to transmit or record an image frame in case of constant quality. The purpose of the intra-coding is reducing of the spatial redundancy within a frame (or field) of television image. This redundancy caused by the strong correlation between the elements of the image. It is possible to convert an array of image samples into a matrix of coefficients that are not correlated with each other, if one can find corresponding orthogonal transformation. It is possible to apply entropy coding to these uncorrelated coefficients and achieve a reduction in the digital stream. One can select such transformation that most of the matrix coefficients will be almost zero for typical images . Excluding these zero coefficients also
Lao, So-An; Furlonger, Brett E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Busacca, Margherita
Although many adults who cannot swim are primarily interested in learning by direct coaching there are options that have a focus on self-directed learning. As an alternative a self-management program combined with video modelling, video feedback and high quality and affordable video technology was used to assess its effectiveness to assisting an…
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Full Text Available Recent growth in popularity of mobile video services raises a demand for one of the most popular and convenient methods of delivering multimedia data, video streaming. However, heterogeneity of currently existing mobile devices involves an issue of separate video transcoding for each type of mobile devices such as smartphones, tablet PCs, and smart TVs. As a result additional burden comes to media servers, which pretranscode multimedia data for number of clients. Regarding even higher increase of video data in the Internet in the future, the problem of media servers overload is impending. To struggle against the problem an offloading method is introduced in this paper. By the use of SorTube offloading framework video transcoding process is shifted from the centralized media server to the local offloading server. Thus, clients can receive personally customized video stream; meanwhile the overload of centralized servers is reduced.
Alhaisoni, M.; Liotta, A.; Ghanbari, M.
P2P TV has emerged as a powerful alternative solution for multimedia streaming over the traditional client-server paradigm. It has proven to be a valid substitute for online applications which offer video-on-demand and real-time video. This is mainly due to the scalability and resiliency that P2P
Executive Summary \\ud \\ud A range of technological innovations (e.g. smart phones and digital cameras), infrastructural advances (e.g. broadband and 3G/4G wireless networks) and platform developments (e.g. YouTube, Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram, Amazon, and Netflix) are collectively transforming the way video is produced, distributed, consumed, archived – and importantly, monetised. Changes have been observed well beyond the mainstream TV and film industries, and these changes are increasingl...
Slater, Dan; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric
Long range telescopic video imagery of distant terrestrial scenes, aircraft, rockets and other aerospace vehicles can be a powerful observational tool. But what about the associated acoustic activity? A new technology, Remote Acoustic Sensing (RAS), may provide a method to remotely listen to the acoustic activity near these distant objects. Local acoustic activity sometimes weakly modulates the ambient illumination in a way that can be remotely sensed. RAS is a new type of microphone that separates an acoustic transducer into two spatially separated components: 1) a naturally formed in situ acousto-optic modulator (AOM) located within the distant scene and 2) a remote sensing readout device that recovers the distant audio. These two elements are passively coupled over long distances at the speed of light by naturally occurring ambient light energy or other electromagnetic fields. Stereophonic, multichannel and acoustic beam forming are all possible using RAS techniques and when combined with high-definition video imagery it can help to provide a more cinema like immersive viewing experience. A practical implementation of a remote acousto-optic readout device can be a challenging engineering problem. The acoustic influence on the optical signal is generally weak and often with a strong bias term. The optical signal is further degraded by atmospheric seeing turbulence. In this paper, we consider two fundamentally different optical readout approaches: 1) a low pixel count photodiode based RAS photoreceiver and 2) audio extraction directly from a video stream. Most of our RAS experiments to date have used the first method for reasons of performance and simplicity. But there are potential advantages to extracting audio directly from a video stream. These advantages include the straight forward ability to work with multiple AOMs (useful for acoustic beam forming), simpler optical configurations, and a potential ability to use certain preexisting video recordings. However