WorldWideScience

Sample records for video semantic content

  1. Deriving video content type from HEVC bitstream semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos; Goma, Sergio R.

    2014-05-01

    As network service providers seek to improve customer satisfaction and retention levels, they are increasingly moving from traditional quality of service (QoS) driven delivery models to customer-centred quality of experience (QoE) delivery models. QoS models only consider metrics derived from the network however, QoE models also consider metrics derived from within the video sequence itself. Various spatial and temporal characteristics of a video sequence have been proposed, both individually and in combination, to derive methods of classifying video content either on a continuous scale or as a set of discrete classes. QoE models can be divided into three broad categories, full reference, reduced reference and no-reference models. Due to the need to have the original video available at the client for comparison, full reference metrics are of limited practical value in adaptive real-time video applications. Reduced reference metrics often require metadata to be transmitted with the bitstream, while no-reference metrics typically operate in the decompressed domain at the client side and require significant processing to extract spatial and temporal features. This paper proposes a heuristic, no-reference approach to video content classification which is specific to HEVC encoded bitstreams. The HEVC encoder already makes use of spatial characteristics to determine partitioning of coding units and temporal characteristics to determine the splitting of prediction units. We derive a function which approximates the spatio-temporal characteristics of the video sequence by using the weighted averages of the depth at which the coding unit quadtree is split and the prediction mode decision made by the encoder to estimate spatial and temporal characteristics respectively. Since the video content type of a sequence is determined by using high level information parsed from the video stream, spatio-temporal characteristics are identified without the need for full decoding and can

  2. In search of video event semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazloom, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we aim to represent an event in a video using semantic features. We start from a bank of concept detectors for representing events in video. At first we considered the relevance of concepts to the event inside the video representation. We address the problem of video event

  3. Web Video Event Recognition by Semantic Analysis From Ubiquitous Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Litao; Yang, Yang; Huang, Zi; Wang, Peng; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng Tao

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the task of event recognition from videos has attracted increasing interest in multimedia area. While most of the existing research was mainly focused on exploring visual cues to handle relatively small-granular events, it is difficult to directly analyze video content without any prior knowledge. Therefore, synthesizing both the visual and semantic analysis is a natural way for video event understanding. In this paper, we study the problem of Web video event recognition, where Web videos often describe large-granular events and carry limited textual information. Key challenges include how to accurately represent event semantics from incomplete textual information and how to effectively explore the correlation between visual and textual cues for video event understanding. We propose a novel framework to perform complex event recognition from Web videos. In order to compensate the insufficient expressive power of visual cues, we construct an event knowledge base by deeply mining semantic information from ubiquitous Web documents. This event knowledge base is capable of describing each event with comprehensive semantics. By utilizing this base, the textual cues for a video can be significantly enriched. Furthermore, we introduce a two-view adaptive regression model, which explores the intrinsic correlation between the visual and textual cues of the videos to learn reliable classifiers. Extensive experiments on two real-world video data sets show the effectiveness of our proposed framework and prove that the event knowledge base indeed helps improve the performance of Web video event recognition.

  4. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  5. Genre-Specific Semantic Video Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, we find large video collections from different genres where the user is often only interested in one or two specific video genres. So, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept, they are likely aiming a genre specific instantiation of this concept.

  6. Video Content Foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Ynze; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Enser, Peter; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Smeulders, Arnold W.M.

    2004-01-01

    With information systems, the real design problem is not increased access to information, but greater efficiency in finding useful information. In our approach to video content browsing, we try to match the browsing environment with human information processing structures by applying ideas from

  7. Multimodal Semantics Extraction from User-Generated Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cricri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available User-generated video content has grown tremendously fast to the point of outpacing professional content creation. In this work we develop methods that analyze contextual information of multiple user-generated videos in order to obtain semantic information about public happenings (e.g., sport and live music events being recorded in these videos. One of the key contributions of this work is a joint utilization of different data modalities, including such captured by auxiliary sensors during the video recording performed by each user. In particular, we analyze GPS data, magnetometer data, accelerometer data, video- and audio-content data. We use these data modalities to infer information about the event being recorded, in terms of layout (e.g., stadium, genre, indoor versus outdoor scene, and the main area of interest of the event. Furthermore we propose a method that automatically identifies the optimal set of cameras to be used in a multicamera video production. Finally, we detect the camera users which fall within the field of view of other cameras recording at the same public happening. We show that the proposed multimodal analysis methods perform well on various recordings obtained in real sport events and live music performances.

  8. A Novel Mobile Video Community Discovery Scheme Using Ontology-Based Semantical Interest Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiling Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leveraging network virtualization technologies, the community-based video systems rely on the measurement of common interests to define and steady relationship between community members, which promotes video sharing performance and improves scalability community structure. In this paper, we propose a novel mobile Video Community discovery scheme using ontology-based semantical interest capture (VCOSI. An ontology-based semantical extension approach is proposed, which describes video content and measures video similarity according to video key word selection methods. In order to reduce the calculation load of video similarity, VCOSI designs a prefix-filtering-based estimation algorithm to decrease energy consumption of mobile nodes. VCOSI further proposes a member relationship estimate method to construct scalable and resilient node communities, which promotes video sharing capacity of video systems with the flexible and economic community maintenance. Extensive tests show how VCOSI obtains better performance results in comparison with other state-of-the-art solutions.

  9. Content-based TV sports video retrieval using multimodal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqing; Liu, Huayong; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Dongru

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, we propose content-based video retrieval, which is a kind of retrieval by its semantical contents. Because video data is composed of multimodal information streams such as video, auditory and textual streams, we describe a strategy of using multimodal analysis for automatic parsing sports video. The paper first defines the basic structure of sports video database system, and then introduces a new approach that integrates visual stream analysis, speech recognition, speech signal processing and text extraction to realize video retrieval. The experimental results for TV sports video of football games indicate that the multimodal analysis is effective for video retrieval by quickly browsing tree-like video clips or inputting keywords within predefined domain.

  10. Obtaining video descriptors for a content-based video information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescos, Jesus; Martinez, Jose M.; Cabrera, Julian M.; Cisneros, Guillermo

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes the first stages of a research project that is currently being developed in the Image Processing Group of the UPM. The aim of this effort is to add video capabilities to the Storage and Retrieval Information System already working at our premises. Here we will focus on the early design steps of a Video Information System. For this purpose, we present a review of most of the reported techniques for video temporal segmentation and semantic segmentation, previous steps to afford the content extraction task, and we discuss them to select the more suitable ones. We then outline a block design of a temporal segmentation module, and present guidelines to the design of the semantic segmentation one. All these operations trend to facilitate automation in the extraction of low level features and semantic features that will finally take part of the video descriptors.

  11. Optimizing Training Set Construction for Video Semantic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Wu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We exploit the criteria to optimize training set construction for the large-scale video semantic classification. Due to the large gap between low-level features and higher-level semantics, as well as the high diversity of video data, it is difficult to represent the prototypes of semantic concepts by a training set of limited size. In video semantic classification, most of the learning-based approaches require a large training set to achieve good generalization capacity, in which large amounts of labor-intensive manual labeling are ineluctable. However, it is observed that the generalization capacity of a classifier highly depends on the geometrical distribution of the training data rather than the size. We argue that a training set which includes most temporal and spatial distribution information of the whole data will achieve a good performance even if the size of training set is limited. In order to capture the geometrical distribution characteristics of a given video collection, we propose four metrics for constructing/selecting an optimal training set, including salience, temporal dispersiveness, spatial dispersiveness, and diversity. Furthermore, based on these metrics, we propose a set of optimization rules to capture the most distribution information of the whole data using a training set with a given size. Experimental results demonstrate these rules are effective for training set construction in video semantic classification, and significantly outperform random training set selection.

  12. Reliable Adaptive Video Streaming Driven by Perceptual Semantics for Situational Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel-Niño, M A; Saxena, Paresh; Vazquez-Castro, M A

    2015-01-01

    A novel cross-layer optimized video adaptation driven by perceptual semantics is presented. The design target is streamed live video to enhance situational awareness in challenging communications conditions. Conventional solutions for recreational applications are inadequate and novel quality of experience (QoE) framework is proposed which allows fully controlled adaptation and enables perceptual semantic feedback. The framework relies on temporal/spatial abstraction for video applications serving beyond recreational purposes. An underlying cross-layer optimization technique takes into account feedback on network congestion (time) and erasures (space) to best distribute available (scarce) bandwidth. Systematic random linear network coding (SRNC) adds reliability while preserving perceptual semantics. Objective metrics of the perceptual features in QoE show homogeneous high performance when using the proposed scheme. Finally, the proposed scheme is in line with content-aware trends, by complying with information-centric-networking philosophy and architecture.

  13. Reliable Adaptive Video Streaming Driven by Perceptual Semantics for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel-Niño, M. A.; Saxena, Paresh; Vazquez-Castro, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel cross-layer optimized video adaptation driven by perceptual semantics is presented. The design target is streamed live video to enhance situational awareness in challenging communications conditions. Conventional solutions for recreational applications are inadequate and novel quality of experience (QoE) framework is proposed which allows fully controlled adaptation and enables perceptual semantic feedback. The framework relies on temporal/spatial abstraction for video applications serving beyond recreational purposes. An underlying cross-layer optimization technique takes into account feedback on network congestion (time) and erasures (space) to best distribute available (scarce) bandwidth. Systematic random linear network coding (SRNC) adds reliability while preserving perceptual semantics. Objective metrics of the perceptual features in QoE show homogeneous high performance when using the proposed scheme. Finally, the proposed scheme is in line with content-aware trends, by complying with information-centric-networking philosophy and architecture. PMID:26247057

  14. Semisupervised feature selection via spline regression for video semantic recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yahong; Yang, Yi; Yan, Yan; Ma, Zhigang; Sebe, Nicu; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2015-02-01

    To improve both the efficiency and accuracy of video semantic recognition, we can perform feature selection on the extracted video features to select a subset of features from the high-dimensional feature set for a compact and accurate video data representation. Provided the number of labeled videos is small, supervised feature selection could fail to identify the relevant features that are discriminative to target classes. In many applications, abundant unlabeled videos are easily accessible. This motivates us to develop semisupervised feature selection algorithms to better identify the relevant video features, which are discriminative to target classes by effectively exploiting the information underlying the huge amount of unlabeled video data. In this paper, we propose a framework of video semantic recognition by semisupervised feature selection via spline regression (S(2)FS(2)R) . Two scatter matrices are combined to capture both the discriminative information and the local geometry structure of labeled and unlabeled training videos: A within-class scatter matrix encoding discriminative information of labeled training videos and a spline scatter output from a local spline regression encoding data distribution. An l2,1 -norm is imposed as a regularization term on the transformation matrix to ensure it is sparse in rows, making it particularly suitable for feature selection. To efficiently solve S(2)FS(2)R , we develop an iterative algorithm and prove its convergency. In the experiments, three typical tasks of video semantic recognition, such as video concept detection, video classification, and human action recognition, are used to demonstrate that the proposed S(2)FS(2)R achieves better performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Adding Semantics to Detectors for Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.; Huurnink, B.; Hollink, L.; de Rijke, M.; Schreiber, A.T.; Worring, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automatic video retrieval method based on high-level concept detectors. Research in video analysis has reached the point where over 100 concept detectors can be learned in a generic fashion, albeit with mixed performance. Such a set of detectors is very small still

  16. The MediaMill TRECVID 2011 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Li, X.; Mazloom, M.; Jiang, Y.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2011 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: semantic indexing and multimedia event detection. The starting point for the MediaMill detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID 2010, which uses

  17. The MediaMill TRECVID 2012 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Habibian, A.; Kordumova, S.; Li, Z.; Mazloom, M.; Pintea, S.L.; Tao, R.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2012 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in four tasks: semantic indexing, multimedia event detection, multimedia event recounting and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill detection approach is our top-performing

  18. The MediaMill TRECVID 2010 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; de Rooij, O.; Huurnink, B.; Gavves, E.; Odijk, D.; de Rijke, M.; Gevers, T.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2010 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in three tasks: semantic indexing, known-item search, and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill concept detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID

  19. Semantic-Aware Automatic Video Editing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bocconi

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOne of the challenges of multimedia applications is to provide user-tailored access to information encoded in different media. Particularly, previous research has not yet fully explored how to automatically compose different video segments according to a communicative goal. We propose a

  20. Video databases: automatic retrieval based on content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, R. M.; Yeo, B.-L.; Yeung, M.

    Digital video databases are becoming more and more pervasive and finding video of interest in large databases is rapidly becoming a problem. Intelligent means of quick content-based video retrieval and content-based rapid video viewing is, therefore, an important topic of research. Video is a rich source of data, it contains visual and audio information, and in many cases, there is text associated with the video. Content-based video retrieval should use all this information in an efficient and effective way. From a human perspective, a video query can be viewed as an iterated sequence of navigating, searching, browsing, and viewing. This paper addresses video search in terms of these phases.

  1. Video quality assessment for web content mirroring

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Fei, Kevin; Fernandez, Gustavo A.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Due to the increasing user expectation on watching experience, moving web high quality video streaming content from the small screen in mobile devices to the larger TV screen has become popular. It is crucial to develop video quality metrics to measure the quality change for various devices or network conditions. In this paper, we propose an automated scoring system to quantify user satisfaction. We compare the quality of local videos with the videos transmitted to a TV. Four video quality metrics, namely Image Quality, Rendering Quality, Freeze Time Ratio and Rate of Freeze Events are used to measure video quality change during web content mirroring. To measure image quality and rendering quality, we compare the matched frames between the source video and the destination video using barcode tools. Freeze time ratio and rate of freeze events are measured after extracting video timestamps. Several user studies are conducted to evaluate the impact of each objective video quality metric on the subjective user watching experience.

  2. Verbal communication of semantic content in products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2005-01-01

    the increasing need to communicate soft qualities in all stages of complex product design processes: From retrieving initial information, developing design briefs and specifications to negotiations, tests and trade-offs during the iterative design process and - at the end - a final evaluation. If all......The purpose of the present research work is to explore how precise verbal communication can capture the semantic content of physical products. The paper presents an overview of the background and work done so far. Furthermore are ideas for future work discussed. The background includes...... participants have a good mutual understanding of these qualities and a vocabulary to match, it is more likely that the resulting products will reflect the intentions and requirements better. Research carried out so far includes 3 investigations with a combination of questionnaires and an experiment where...

  3. Exemplar-Based Image and Video Stylization Using Fully Convolutional Semantic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feida; Yan, Zhicheng; Bu, Jiajun; Yu, Yizhou

    2017-05-10

    Color and tone stylization in images and videos strives to enhance unique themes with artistic color and tone adjustments. It has a broad range of applications from professional image postprocessing to photo sharing over social networks. Mainstream photo enhancement softwares, such as Adobe Lightroom and Instagram, provide users with predefined styles, which are often hand-crafted through a trial-and-error process. Such photo adjustment tools lack a semantic understanding of image contents and the resulting global color transform limits the range of artistic styles it can represent. On the other hand, stylistic enhancement needs to apply distinct adjustments to various semantic regions. Such an ability enables a broader range of visual styles. In this paper, we first propose a novel deep learning architecture for exemplar-based image stylization, which learns local enhancement styles from image pairs. Our deep learning architecture consists of fully convolutional networks (FCNs) for automatic semantics-aware feature extraction and fully connected neural layers for adjustment prediction. Image stylization can be efficiently accomplished with a single forward pass through our deep network. To extend our deep network from image stylization to video stylization, we exploit temporal superpixels (TSPs) to facilitate the transfer of artistic styles from image exemplars to videos. Experiments on a number of datasets for image stylization as well as a diverse set of video clips demonstrate the effectiveness of our deep learning architecture.

  4. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  5. Content-based image and video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xun; Li, Honglin; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    2002-08-01

    The term Content-Based appears often in applications for which MPEG-7 is expected to play a significant role. MPEG-7 standardizes descriptors of multimedia content, and while compression is not the primary focus of MPEG-7, the descriptors defined by MPEG-7 can be used to reconstruct a rough representation of an original multimedia source. In contrast, current image and video compression standards such as JPEG and MPEG are not designed to encode at the very low bit-rates that could be accomplished with MPEG-7 using descriptors. In this paper we show that content-based mechanisms can be introduced into compression algorithms to improve the scalability and functionality of current compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG. This is the fundamental idea behind Content-Based Compression (CBC). Our definition of CBC is a compression method that effectively encodes a sufficient description of the content of an image or a video in order to ensure that the recipient is able to reconstruct the image or video to some degree of accuracy. The degree of accuracy can be, for example, the classification error rate of the encoded objects, since in MPEG-7 the classification error rate measures the performance of the content descriptors. We argue that the major difference between a content-based compression algorithm and conventional block-based or object-based compression algorithms is that content-based compression replaces the quantizer with a more sophisticated classifier, or with a quantizer which minimizes classification error. Compared to conventional image and video compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, our results show that content-based compression is able to achieve more efficient image and video coding by suppressing the background while leaving the objects of interest nearly intact.

  6. BDVC (Bimodal Database of Violent Content): A database of violent audio and video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Martínez, Jose Luis; Mijes Cruz, Mario Humberto; Rodríguez Vázqu, Manuel Antonio; Rodríguez Espejo, Luis; Montoya Obeso, Abraham; García Vázquez, Mireya Saraí; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro Álvaro

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays there is a trend towards the use of unimodal databases for multimedia content description, organization and retrieval applications of a single type of content like text, voice and images, instead bimodal databases allow to associate semantically two different types of content like audio-video, image-text, among others. The generation of a bimodal database of audio-video implies the creation of a connection between the multimedia content through the semantic relation that associates the actions of both types of information. This paper describes in detail the used characteristics and methodology for the creation of the bimodal database of violent content; the semantic relationship is stablished by the proposed concepts that describe the audiovisual information. The use of bimodal databases in applications related to the audiovisual content processing allows an increase in the semantic performance only and only if these applications process both type of content. This bimodal database counts with 580 audiovisual annotated segments, with a duration of 28 minutes, divided in 41 classes. Bimodal databases are a tool in the generation of applications for the semantic web.

  7. Enhancing e-Learning Content by Using Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Herminio; Gayo, José Emilio Labra; del Puerto Paule-Ruiz, María

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new educational tool that relies on Semantic Web technologies to enhance lessons content. We conducted an experiment with 32 students whose results demonstrate better performance when exposed to our tool in comparison with a plain native tool. Consequently, this prototype opens new possibilities in lessons content enhancement.

  8. Semantic sparse recoding of visual content for image applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwu; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Wen, Ji-Rong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new semantic sparse recoding method to generate more descriptive and robust representation of visual content for image applications. Although the visual bag-of-words (BOW) representation has been reported to achieve promising results in different image applications, its visual codebook is completely learnt from low-level visual features using quantization techniques and thus the so-called semantic gap remains unbridgeable. To handle such challenging issue, we utilize the annotations (predicted by algorithms or shared by users) of all the images to improve the original visual BOW representation. This is further formulated as a sparse coding problem so that the noise issue induced by the inaccurate quantization of visual features can also be handled to some extent. By developing an efficient sparse coding algorithm, we successfully generate a new visual BOW representation for image applications. Since such sparse coding has actually incorporated the high-level semantic information into the original visual codebook, we thus consider it as semantic sparse recoding of the visual content. Finally, we apply our semantic sparse recoding method to automatic image annotation and social image classification. The experimental results on several benchmark datasets show the promising performance of our semantic sparse recoding method in these two image applications.

  9. Classifying patents based on their semantic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we extend some usual techniques of classification resulting from a large-scale data-mining and network approach. This new technology, which in particular is designed to be suitable to big data, is used to construct an open consolidated database from raw data on 4 million patents taken from the US patent office from 1976 onward. To build the pattern network, not only do we look at each patent title, but we also examine their full abstract and extract the relevant keywords accordingly. We refer to this classification as semantic approach in contrast with the more common technological approach which consists in taking the topology when considering US Patent office technological classes. Moreover, we document that both approaches have highly different topological measures and strong statistical evidence that they feature a different model. This suggests that our method is a useful tool to extract endogenous information. PMID:28445550

  10. Contagious Content: Viral Video Ads Identification of Content Characteristics that Help Online Video Advertisements Go Viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yentl Knossenburg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do some online video advertisements go viral while others remain unnoticed? What kind of video content keeps the viewer interested and motivated to share? Many companies have realized the need to innovate their marketing strategies and have embraced the newest ways of using technology, as the Internet, to their advantage as in the example of virality. Yet few marketers actually understand how, and academic literature on this topic is still in development. This study investigated which content characteristics distinguish successful from non-successful online viral video advertisements by analyzing 641 cases using Structural Equation Modeling. Results show that Engagement and Surprise are two main content characteristics that significantly increase the chance of online video advertisements to go viral.  

  11. Interaction between High-Level and Low-Level Image Analysis for Semantic Video Object Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Touradj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of extracting a semantic video object is split into two subproblems, namely, object segmentation and region segmentation. Object segmentation relies on a priori assumptions, whereas region segmentation is data-driven and can be solved in an automatic manner. These two subproblems are not mutually independent, and they can benefit from interactions with each other. In this paper, a framework for such interaction is formulated. This representation scheme based on region segmentation and semantic segmentation is compatible with the view that image analysis and scene understanding problems can be decomposed into low-level and high-level tasks. Low-level tasks pertain to region-oriented processing, whereas the high-level tasks are closely related to object-level processing. This approach emulates the human visual system: what one “sees” in a scene depends on the scene itself (region segmentation as well as on the cognitive task (semantic segmentation at hand. The higher-level segmentation results in a partition corresponding to semantic video objects. Semantic video objects do not usually have invariant physical properties and the definition depends on the application. Hence, the definition incorporates complex domain-specific knowledge and is not easy to generalize. For the specific implementation used in this paper, motion is used as a clue to semantic information. In this framework, an automatic algorithm is presented for computing the semantic partition based on color change detection. The change detection strategy is designed to be immune to the sensor noise and local illumination variations. The lower-level segmentation identifies the partition corresponding to perceptually uniform regions. These regions are derived by clustering in an -dimensional feature space, composed of static as well as dynamic image attributes. We propose an interaction mechanism between the semantic and the region partitions which allows to cope with multiple

  12. Video Quality Prediction Models Based on Video Content Dynamics for H.264 Video over UMTS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiya Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.

  13. Wireless capsule endoscopy video segmentation using an unsupervised learning approach based on probabilistic latent semantic analysis with scale invariant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Guturu, Parthasarathy Partha; Buckles, Bill P

    2012-01-01

    Since wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a novel technology for recording the videos of the digestive tract of a patient, the problem of segmenting the WCE video of the digestive tract into subvideos corresponding to the entrance, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine regions is not well addressed in the literature. A selected few papers addressing this problem follow supervised leaning approaches that presume availability of a large database of correctly labeled training samples. Considering the difficulties in procuring sizable WCE training data sets needed for achieving high classification accuracy, we introduce in this paper an unsupervised learning approach that employs Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) for extraction of local image features and the probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) model used in the linguistic content analysis for data clustering. Results of experimentation indicate that this method compares well in classification accuracy with the state-of-the-art supervised classification approaches to WCE video segmentation.

  14. Cobra: A Content-Based Video Retrieval System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem

    An increasing number of large publicly available video libraries results in a demand for techniques that can manipulate the video data based on content. In this paper, we present a content-based video retrieval system called Cobra. The system supports automatic extraction and retrieval of high-level

  15. A Learning Content Authoring Approach Based on Semantic Technologies and Social Networking: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesic, Sasa; Gasevic, Dragan; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Landoni, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Semantic web technologies have been applied to many aspects of learning content authoring including semantic annotation, semantic search, dynamic assembly, and personalization of learning content. At the same time, social networking services have started to play an important role in the authoring process by supporting authors' collaborative…

  16. Incorporating Semantics into Data Driven Workflows for Content Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, M.; Fernandez-Prieto, M. J.

    Finding meaningful associations between text elements and knowledge structures within clinical narratives in a highly verbal domain, such as psychiatry, is a challenging goal. The research presented here uses a small corpus of case histories and brings into play pre-existing knowledge, and therefore, complements other approaches that use large corpus (millions of words) and no pre-existing knowledge. The paper describes a variety of experiments for content-based analysis: Linguistic Analysis using NLP-oriented approaches, Sentiment Analysis, and Semantically Meaningful Analysis. Although it is not standard practice, the paper advocates providing automatic support to annotate the functionality as well as the data for each experiment by performing semantic annotation that uses OWL and OWL-S. Lessons learnt can be transmitted to legacy clinical databases facing the conversion of clinical narratives according to prominent Electronic Health Records standards.

  17. Semantic Based Cluster Content Discovery in Description First Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WASEEM KHAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of data analytics grouping of like documents in textual data is a serious problem. A lot of work has been done in this field and many algorithms have purposed. One of them is a category of algorithms which firstly group the documents on the basis of similarity and then assign the meaningful labels to those groups. Description first clustering algorithm belong to the category in which the meaningful description is deduced first and then relevant documents are assigned to that description. LINGO (Label Induction Grouping Algorithm is the algorithm of description first clustering category which is used for the automatic grouping of documents obtained from search results. It uses LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing; an IR (Information Retrieval technique for induction of meaningful labels for clusters and VSM (Vector Space Model for cluster content discovery. In this paper we present the LINGO while it is using LSI during cluster label induction and cluster content discovery phase. Finally, we compare results obtained from the said algorithm while it uses VSM and Latent semantic analysis during cluster content discovery phase.

  18. Accessing multimedia content from mobile applications using semantic web technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutel, Jörn; Gerlach, Andrea; Klekamp, Stefanie; Schulz, Kristin

    2014-02-01

    We describe the ideas and results of an applied research project that aims at leveraging the expressive power of semantic web technologies as a server-side backend for mobile applications that provide access to location and multimedia data and allow for a rich user experience in mobile scenarios, ranging from city and museum guides to multimedia enhancements of any kind of narrative content, including e-book applications. In particular, we will outline a reusable software architecture for both server-side functionality and native mobile platforms that is aimed at significantly decreasing the effort required for developing particular applications of that kind.

  19. WYSIWYM - Integrated visualization, exploration and authoring of semantically enriched un-structured content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalili, Ali; Auer, Soren

    2015-01-01

    The Semantic Web and Linked Data gained traction in the last years. However, the majority of information still is contained in unstructured documents. This can also not be expected to change, since text, images and videos are the natural way how humans interact with information. Semantic structuring

  20. Semantic-Based Requirements Content Management for Cloud Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Software is a software complex system whose topology and behavior can evolve dynamically in Cloud-computing environments. Given the unpredictable, dynamic, elasticity, and on-demand nature of the Cloud, it would be unrealistic to assume that traditional software engineering can “cleanly” satisfy the behavioral requirements of Cloud Software. In particular, the majority of traditional requirements managements take document-centric approaches, which have low degree of automation, coarse-grained management, and limited support for requirements modeling activities. Facing the challenges, based on metamodeling frame called RGPS (Role-Goal-Process-Service international standard, this paper firstly presents a hierarchical framework of semantic-based requirements content management for Cloud Software. And then, it focuses on some of the important management techniques in this framework, such as the native storage scheme, an ordered index with keywords, requirements instances classification based linear conditional random fields (CRFs, and breadth-first search algorithm for associated instances. Finally, a prototype tool called RGPS-RM for semantic-based requirements content management is implemented to provide supporting services for open requirements process of Cloud Software. The proposed framework applied to the Cloud Software development is demonstrated to show the validity and applicability. RGPS-RM also displays effect of fine-grained retrieval and breadth-first search algorithm for associated instance in visualization.

  1. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 Semantic Video Search Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, Th.; Huurnink, B.; Koelma, D.C.; van Liempt, M.; de Rooij, O.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only,

  2. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Gemert, J.C. van; Gevers, T.; Huurnink, B.; Koelma, D.C.; Liempt, M. van; Rooij, O. de; Sande, K.E.A. van de; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.H.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only,

  3. A System for the Semantic Multimodal Analysis of News Audio-Visual Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Strintzis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available News-related content is nowadays among the most popular types of content for users in everyday applications. Although the generation and distribution of news content has become commonplace, due to the availability of inexpensive media capturing devices and the development of media sharing services targeting both professional and user-generated news content, the automatic analysis and annotation that is required for supporting intelligent search and delivery of this content remains an open issue. In this paper, a complete architecture for knowledge-assisted multimodal analysis of news-related multimedia content is presented, along with its constituent components. The proposed analysis architecture employs state-of-the-art methods for the analysis of each individual modality (visual, audio, text separately and proposes a novel fusion technique based on the particular characteristics of news-related content for the combination of the individual modality analysis results. Experimental results on news broadcast video illustrate the usefulness of the proposed techniques in the automatic generation of semantic annotations.

  4. Effective Educational Videos: Principles and Guidelines for Maximizing Student Learning from Video Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Educational videos have become an important part of higher education, providing an important content-delivery tool in many flipped, blended, and online classes. Effective use of video as an educational tool is enhanced when instructors consider three elements: how to manage cognitive load of the video; how to maximize student engagement with the…

  5. The role of taxonomies in social media and the semantic web for health education. A study of SNOMED CT terms in YouTube health video tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, S; Fernandez-Luque, L; Bamidis, P; Karlsen, R

    2013-01-01

    An increasing amount of health education resources for patients and professionals are distributed via social media channels. For example, thousands of health education videos are disseminated via YouTube. Often, tags are assigned by the disseminator. However, the lack of use of standardized terminologies in those tags and the presence of misleading videos make it particularly hard to retrieve relevant videos. i) Identify the use of standardized medical thesauri (SNOMED CT) in YouTube Health videos tags from preselected YouTube Channels and demonstrate an information technology (IT) architecture for treating the tags of these health (video) resources. ii) Investigate the relative percentage of the tags used that relate to SNOMED CT terms. As such resources may play a key role in educating professionals and patients, the use of standardized vocabularies may facilitate the sharing of such resources. iii) Demonstrate how such resources may be properly exploited within the new generation of semantically enriched content or learning management systems that allow for knowledge expansion through the use of linked medical data and numerous literature resources also described through the same vocabularies. We implemented a video portal integrating videos from 500 US Hospital channels. The portal integrated 4,307 YouTube videos regarding surgery as described by 64,367 tags. BioPortal REST services were used within our portal to match SNOMED CT terms with YouTube tags by both exact match and non-exact match. The whole architecture was complemented with a mechanism to enrich the retrieved video resources with other educational material residing in other repositories by following contemporary semantic web advances, in the form of Linked Open Data (LOD) principles. The average percentage of YouTube tags that were expressed using SNOMED CT terms was about 22.5%, while one third of YouTube tags per video contained a SNOMED CT term in a loose search; this analogy became one tenth in

  6. Content-based management service for medical videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendi, Engin; Bayrak, Coskun; Cecen, Songul; Ermisoglu, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Development of health information technology has had a dramatic impact to improve the efficiency and quality of medical care. Developing interoperable health information systems for healthcare providers has the potential to improve the quality and equitability of patient-centered healthcare. In this article, we describe an automated content-based medical video analysis and management service that provides convenience and ease in accessing the relevant medical video content without sequential scanning. The system facilitates effective temporal video segmentation and content-based visual information retrieval that enable a more reliable understanding of medical video content. The system is implemented as a Web- and mobile-based service and has the potential to offer a knowledge-sharing platform for the purpose of efficient medical video content access.

  7. Blind summarization: content-adaptive video summarization using time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Peker, Kadir A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe complexity constraints on consumer electronic devices motivate us to investigate general-purpose video summarization techniques that are able to apply a common hardware setup to multiple content genres. On the other hand, we know that high quality summaries can only be produced with domain-specific processing. In this paper, we present a time-series analysis based video summarization technique that provides a general core to which we are able to add small content-specific extensions for each genre. The proposed time-series analysis technique consists of unsupervised clustering of samples taken through sliding windows from the time series of features obtained from the content. We classify content into two broad categories, scripted content such as news and drama, and unscripted content such as sports and surveillance. The summarization problem then reduces to finding either finding semantic boundaries of the scripted content or detecting highlights in the unscripted content. The proposed technique is essentially an event detection technique and is thus best suited to unscripted content, however, we also find applications to scripted content. We thoroughly examine the trade-off between content-neutral and content-specific processing for effective summarization for a number of genres, and find that our core technique enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing and to postpone it to the final stage. We achieve the best results with unscripted content such as sports and surveillance video in terms of quality of summaries and minimizing content-specific processing. For other genres such as drama, we find that more content-specific processing is required. We also find that judicious choice of key audio-visual object detectors enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing while maintaining its applicability to a broad range of genres. We will present a demonstration of our proposed technique at the conference.

  8. Content and ratings of mature-rated video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Tepichin, Karen; Haninger, Kevin

    2006-04-01

    To quantify the depiction of violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in video games rated M (for "mature") and to measure agreement between the content observed and the rating information provided to consumers on the game box by the Entertainment Software Rating Board. We created a database of M-rated video game titles, selected a random sample, recorded at least 1 hour of game play, quantitatively assessed the content, performed statistical analyses to describe the content, and compared our observations with the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors and results of our prior studies. Harvard University, Boston, Mass. Authors and 1 hired game player. M-rated video games. Percentages of game play depicting violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; use of profanity in dialogue, song lyrics, or gestures. Although the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors for violence and blood provide a good indication of such content in the game, we identified 45 observations of content that could warrant a content descriptor in 29 games (81%) that lacked these content descriptors. M-rated video games are significantly more likely to contain blood, profanity, and substances; depict more severe injuries to human and nonhuman characters; and have a higher rate of human deaths than video games rated T (for "teen"). Parents and physicians should recognize that popular M-rated video games contain a wide range of unlabeled content and may expose children and adolescents to messages that may negatively influence their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.

  9. Highlight detection for video content analysis through double filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghua; Chen, Hexin; Chen, Mianshu

    2005-07-01

    Highlight detection is a form of video summarization techniques aiming at including the most expressive or attracting parts in the video. Most video highlights selection research work has been performed on sports video, detecting certain objects or events such as goals in soccer video, touch down in football and others. In this paper, we present a highlight detection method for film video. Highlight section in a film video is not like that in sports video that usually has certain objects or events. The methods to determine a highlight part in a film video can exhibit as three aspects: (a) locating obvious audio event, (b) detecting expressive visual content around the obvious audio location, (c) selecting the preferred portion of the extracted audio-visual highlight segments. We define a double filters model to detect the potential highlights in video. First obvious audio location is determined through filtering the obvious audio features, and then we perform the potential visual salience detection around the potential audio highlight location. Finally the production from the audio-visual double filters is compared with a preference threshold to determine the final highlights. The user study results indicate that the double filters detection approach is an effective method for highlight detection for video content analysis.

  10. Using content models to build audio-video summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Janne; Merialdo, Bernard

    1998-12-01

    The amount of digitized video in archives is becoming so huge, that easier access and content browsing tools are desperately needed. Also, video is no longer one big piece of data, but a collection of useful smaller building blocks, which can be accessed and used independently from the original context of presentation. In this paper, we demonstrate a content model for audio video sequences, with the purpose of enabling the automatic generation of video summaries. The model is based on descriptors, which indicate various properties and relations of audio and video segments. In practice, these descriptors could either be generated automatically by methods of analysis, or produced manually (or computer-assisted) by the content provider. We analyze the requirements and characteristics of the different data segments, with respect to the problem of summarization, and we define our model as a set of constraints, which allow to produce good quality summaries.

  11. Semantic-driven Generation of Hyperlapse from 360[Formula: see text] Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Sheng; Huang, Yujia; Joshi, Neel; Buehler, Christopher; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Kang, Sing Bing

    2017-09-11

    We present a system for converting a fully panoramic (360[Formula: see text]) video into a normal field-of-view (NFOV) hyperlapse for an optimal viewing experience. Our system exploits visual saliency and semantics to non-uniformly sample in space and time for generating hyperlapses. In addition, users can optionally choose objects of interest for customizing the hyperlapses. We first stabilize an input 360[Formula: see text] video by smoothing the rotation between adjacent frames and then compute regions of interest and saliency scores. An initial hyperlapse is generated by optimizing the saliency and motion smoothness followed by the saliency-aware frame selection. We further smooth the result using an efficient 2D video stabilization approach that adaptively selects the motion model to generate the final hyperlapse. We validate the design of our system by showing results for a variety of scenes and comparing against the state-of-the-art method through a large-scale user study.

  12. Patterns of semantic relations to improve image content search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, L.; Schreiber, A.T.; Wielinga, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to explore how semantic relations can be used to expand a query for objects in an image. The study is part of a project with the overall objective to provide semantic annotation and search facilities for a virtual collection of art resources. In this study we used

  13. Semantic attributes for people's appearance description: an appearance modality for video surveillance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha, Mayssa; Fendri, Emna; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Using semantic attributes such as gender, clothes, and accessories to describe people's appearance is an appealing modeling method for video surveillance applications. We proposed a midlevel appearance signature based on extracting a list of nameable semantic attributes describing the body in uncontrolled acquisition conditions. Conventional approaches extract the same set of low-level features to learn the semantic classifiers uniformly. Their critical limitation is the inability to capture the dominant visual characteristics for each trait separately. The proposed approach consists of extracting low-level features in an attribute-adaptive way by automatically selecting the most relevant features for each attribute separately. Furthermore, relying on a small training-dataset would easily lead to poor performance due to the large intraclass and interclass variations. We annotated large scale people images collected from different person reidentification benchmarks covering a large attribute sample and reflecting the challenges of uncontrolled acquisition conditions. These annotations were gathered into an appearance semantic attribute dataset that contains 3590 images annotated with 14 attributes. Various experiments prove that carefully designed features for learning the visual characteristics for an attribute provide an improvement of the correct classification accuracy and a reduction of both spatial and temporal complexities against state-of-the-art approaches.

  14. Visualizing the semantic content of large text databases using text maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Nathan

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for generating text map representations of the semantic content of text databases is presented. Text maps provide a graphical metaphor for conceptualizing and visualizing the contents and data interrelationships of large text databases. Described are a set of experiments conducted against the TIPSTER corpora of Wall Street Journal articles. These experiments provide an introduction to current work in the representation and visualization of documents by way of their semantic content.

  15. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations.

  16. Effective Educational Videos: Principles and Guidelines for Maximizing Student Learning from Video Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Cynthia J

    Educational videos have become an important part of higher education, providing an important content-delivery tool in many flipped, blended, and online classes. Effective use of video as an educational tool is enhanced when instructors consider three elements: how to manage cognitive load of the video; how to maximize student engagement with the video; and how to promote active learning from the video. This essay reviews literature relevant to each of these principles and suggests practical ways instructors can use these principles when using video as an educational tool. © 2016 C. J. Brame. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Arcade Video Games: Proxemic, Cognitive and Content Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Claude M. J.; Giroux, Josette

    1989-01-01

    A study was designed to determine psychological complexity and reinforcement characteristics of popular arcade video games, including sex differences in game content, clientele social structure, human-to-human interaction contingencies, and value content. Results suggest a need for public control of children's access to the games and the video…

  18. Quality-aware Content Adaptation in Digital Video Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    User-generated video has attracted a lot of attention due to the success of Video Sharing Sites such as YouTube and Online Social Networks. Recently, a shift towards live consumption of these videos is observable. The content is captured and instantly shared over the Internet using smart mobile devices such as smartphones. Large-scale platforms arise such as YouTube.Live, YouNow or Facebook.Live which enable the smartphones of users to livestream to the public. These platforms achieve the dis...

  19. Investigation on effectiveness of mid-level feature representation for semantic boundary detection in news video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou; Divakaran, Ajay; Raj, Bhiksha

    2003-11-01

    In our past work, we have attempted to use a mid-level feature namely the state population histogram obtained from the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) of a general sound class, for speaker change detection so as to extract semantic boundaries in broadcast news. In this paper, we compare the performance of our previous approach with another approach based on video shot detection and speaker change detection using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Our experiments show that the latter approach performs significantly better than the former. This motivated us to examine the mid-level feature closely. We found that the component population histogram enabled discovery of broad phonetic categories such as vowels, nasals, fricatives etc, regardless of the number of distinct speakers in the test utterance. In order for it to be useful for speaker change detection, the individual components should model the phonetic sounds of each speaker separately. From our experiments, we conclude that state/component population histograms can only be useful for further clustering or semantic class discovery if the features are chosen carefully so that the individual states represent the semantic categories of interest.

  20. Automated processing of massive audio/video content using FFmpeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Siang Hock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio and video content forms an integral, important and expanding part of the digital collections in libraries and archives world-wide. While these memory institutions are familiar and well-versed in the management of more conventional materials such as books, periodicals, ephemera and images, the handling of audio (e.g., oral history recordings and video content (e.g., audio-visual recordings, broadcast content requires additional toolkits. In particular, a robust and comprehensive tool that provides a programmable interface is indispensable when dealing with tens of thousands of hours of audio and video content. FFmpeg is comprehensive and well-established open source software that is capable of the full-range of audio/video processing tasks (such as encode, decode, transcode, mux, demux, stream and filter. It is also capable of handling a wide-range of audio and video formats, a unique challenge in memory institutions. It comes with a command line interface, as well as a set of developer libraries that can be incorporated into applications.

  1. Content and ratings of teen-rated video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haninger, Kevin; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2004-02-18

    Children's exposure to violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in the media remains a source of public health concern. However, content in video games played by older children and adolescents has not been quantified or compared with the rating information provided to consumers by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB). To quantify and characterize the content in video games rated T (for "Teen") and to measure the agreement between the content observed in game play and the ESRB-assigned content descriptors displayed on the game box. We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001, to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of ESRB-assigned content descriptors. We randomly sampled 80 video game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, quantitatively assessed the content, and compared the content we observed with the content descriptors assigned by the ESRB. Depictions of violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, and alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; whether injuring or killing characters is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; characterization of gender associated with sexual themes; and use of profanity in dialogue, lyrics, or gestures. Analysis of all content descriptors assigned to the 396 T-rated video game titles showed 373 (94%) received content descriptors for violence, 102 (26%) for blood, 60 (15%) for sexual themes, 57 (14%) for profanity, 26 (7%) for comic mischief, 6 (2%) for substances, and none for gambling. In the random sample of 81 games we played, we found that 79 (98%) involved intentional violence for an average of 36% of game play, 73 (90%) rewarded or required the player to injure characters, 56 (69%) rewarded or required the player to kill, 34 (42%) depicted blood, 22 (27%) depicted sexual themes

  2. Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

  3. Semantic-JSON: a lightweight web service interface for Semantic Web contents integrating multiple life science databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Norio; Ishii, Manabu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Matsushima, Akihiro; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-07-01

    Global cloud frameworks for bioinformatics research databases become huge and heterogeneous; solutions face various diametric challenges comprising cross-integration, retrieval, security and openness. To address this, as of March 2011 organizations including RIKEN published 192 mammalian, plant and protein life sciences databases having 8.2 million data records, integrated as Linked Open or Private Data (LOD/LPD) using SciNetS.org, the Scientists' Networking System. The huge quantity of linked data this database integration framework covers is based on the Semantic Web, where researchers collaborate by managing metadata across public and private databases in a secured data space. This outstripped the data query capacity of existing interface tools like SPARQL. Actual research also requires specialized tools for data analysis using raw original data. To solve these challenges, in December 2009 we developed the lightweight Semantic-JSON interface to access each fragment of linked and raw life sciences data securely under the control of programming languages popularly used by bioinformaticians such as Perl and Ruby. Researchers successfully used the interface across 28 million semantic relationships for biological applications including genome design, sequence processing, inference over phenotype databases, full-text search indexing and human-readable contents like ontology and LOD tree viewers. Semantic-JSON services of SciNetS.org are provided at http://semanticjson.org.

  4. Content-Aware Video Adaptation under Low-Bitrate Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Ming-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless network and the improvement of mobile device capability, video streaming is more and more widespread in such an environment. Under the condition of limited resource and inherent constraints, appropriate video adaptations have become one of the most important and challenging issues in wireless multimedia applications. In this paper, we propose a novel content-aware video adaptation in order to effectively utilize resource and improve visual perceptual quality. First, the attention model is derived from analyzing the characteristics of brightness, location, motion vector, and energy features in compressed domain to reduce computation complexity. Then, through the integration of attention model, capability of client device and correlational statistic model, attractive regions of video scenes are derived. The information object- (IOB- weighted rate distortion model is used for adjusting the bit allocation. Finally, the video adaptation scheme dynamically adjusts video bitstream in frame level and object level. Experimental results validate that the proposed scheme achieves better visual quality effectively and efficiently.

  5. Content validation of an interprofessional learning video peer assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Gillian; Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Gordon, Christopher J; Chen, Timothy F

    2017-12-16

    Large scale models of interprofessional learning (IPL) where outcomes are assessed are rare within health professional curricula. To date, there is sparse research describing robust assessment strategies to support such activities. We describe the development of an IPL assessment task based on peer rating of a student generated video evidencing collaborative interprofessional practice. We provide content validation evidence of an assessment rubric in the context of large scale IPL. Two established approaches to scale development in an educational setting were combined. A literature review was undertaken to develop a conceptual model of the relevant domains and issues pertaining to assessment of student generated videos within IPL. Starting with a prototype rubric developed from the literature, a series of staff and student workshops were undertaken to integrate expert opinion and user perspectives. Participants assessed five-minute videos produced in a prior pilot IPL activity. Outcomes from each workshop informed the next version of the rubric until agreement was reached on anchoring statements and criteria. At this point the rubric was declared fit to be used in the upcoming mandatory large scale IPL activity. The assessment rubric consisted of four domains: patient issues, interprofessional negotiation; interprofessional management plan in action; and effective use of video medium to engage audience. The first three domains reflected topic content relevant to the underlying construct of interprofessional collaborative practice. The fourth domain was consistent with the broader video assessment literature calling for greater emphasis on creativity in education. We have provided evidence for the content validity of a video-based peer assessment task portraying interprofessional collaborative practice in the context of large-scale IPL activities for healthcare professional students. Further research is needed to establish the reliability of such a scale.

  6. Reading while Watching Video: The Effect of Video Content on Reading Comprehension and Media Multitasking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Lee, Jennifer; Robertson, Tip

    2011-01-01

    Media multitasking, or engaging in multiple media and tasks simultaneously, is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon with the development and engagement in social media. This study examines to what extent video content affects students' reading comprehension in media multitasking environments. One hundred and thirty university students were…

  7. Does the semantic content of verbal categories influence categorical perception? An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin; Glage, Philipp; Hohlfeld, Annette; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2014-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that visual perception and, in particular, visual discrimination, can be influenced by verbal category boundaries. One issue that still awaits systematic investigation is the specific influence of semantic contents of verbal categories on categorical perception (CP). We tackled this issue with a learning paradigm in which initially unfamiliar, yet realistic objects were associated with either bare labels lacking explicit semantic content or labels that were accompanied by enriched semantic information about the specific meaning of the label. Two to three days after learning, the EEG was recorded while participants performed a lateralized oddball task. Newly acquired verbal category boundaries modulated low-level aspects of visual perception as early as 100-150 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting a genuine influence of language on perception. Importantly, this effect was not further influenced by enriched semantic category information, suggesting that bare labels and the associated minimal and predominantly perceptual information are sufficient for CP. Distinct effects of semantic knowledge independent of category boundaries were found subsequently, starting at about 200 ms, possibly reflecting selective attention to semantically meaningful visual features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Video Browsing Tool for Content Management in Postproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bailer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an interactive video browsing tool for supporting content management and selection in postproduction. The approach is based on a process model for multimedia content abstraction. A software framework based on this process model and desktop and Web-based client applications are presented. For evaluation, we apply two TRECVID style fact finding approaches (retrieval and question answering tasks and a user survey to the evaluation of the video browsing tool. We analyze the correlation between the results of the different methods, whether different aspects can be evaluated independently with the survey, and if a learning effect can be measured with the different methods, and we also compare the full-featured desktop and the limited Web-based user interface. The results show that the retrieval task correlates better with the user experience according to the survey. The survey rather measures the general user experience while different aspects of the usability cannot be analyzed independently.

  9. Reliability in content analysis: The case of semantic feature norms classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Marianna; Pilgram, Roosmaryn; van den Heerik, Romy

    2017-12-01

    Semantic feature norms (e.g., STIMULUS: car → RESPONSE: ) are commonly used in cognitive psychology to look into salient aspects of given concepts. Semantic features are typically collected in experimental settings and then manually annotated by the researchers into feature types (e.g., perceptual features, taxonomic features, etc.) by means of content analyses-that is, by using taxonomies of feature types and having independent coders perform the annotation task. However, the ways in which such content analyses are typically performed and reported are not consistent across the literature. This constitutes a serious methodological problem that might undermine the theoretical claims based on such annotations. In this study, we first offer a review of some of the released datasets of annotated semantic feature norms and the related taxonomies used for content analysis. We then provide theoretical and methodological insights in relation to the content analysis methodology. Finally, we apply content analysis to a new dataset of semantic features and show how the method should be applied in order to deliver reliable annotations and replicable coding schemes. We tackle the following issues: (1) taxonomy structure, (2) the description of categories, (3) coder training, and (4) sustainability of the coding scheme-that is, comparison of the annotations provided by trained versus novice coders. The outcomes of the project are threefold: We provide methodological guidelines for semantic feature classification; we provide a revised and adapted taxonomy that can (arguably) be applied to both concrete and abstract concepts; and we provide a dataset of annotated semantic feature norms.

  10. Techniques for creating video content for radiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Sarah; Otjen, Jeffrey; Thapa, Mahesh M

    2014-01-01

    Video podcasts, or vodcasts, are an innovative tool for teaching and learning that allow the efficient distribution of tutorials, lectures, and other educational content. Certain types of content lend themselves to presentation in a video format. For example, vodcasts are well suited to teaching radiologic procedures. Vodcasts might also be quite useful in demonstrating the use of an audience response system and how one system differs from another, providing background content before an active-learning session, comparing magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences, and teaching valuable interpersonal skills such as how to deliver bad news to a patient or how to maintain professionalism in the work environment. The authors present a step-by-step text-and-video tutorial on how to create, edit, and export vodcasts using a variety of software tools, describing both the "how" and the "why" of creating vodcasts. Interested readers are encouraged to examine both the print and online versions of this article to gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the ideas presented by the authors. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.

  11. Bridging semantic gap between high-level and low-level features in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Content-based video retrieval system aims at assisting a user to retrieve targeted video sequence in a large database. Most of the search engines use textual annotations to retrieve videos. These types of engines offer a low-level abstraction while the user seeks high-level semantics. Bridging this type of semantic gap in ...

  12. Architecture and protocol of a semantic system designed for video tagging with sensor data in mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Lloret, Jaime; Suarez, Alvaro; Garcia, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Current mobile phones come with several sensors and powerful video cameras. These video cameras can be used to capture good quality scenes, which can be complemented with the information gathered by the sensors also embedded in the phones. For example, the surroundings of a beach recorded by the camera of the mobile phone, jointly with the temperature of the site can let users know via the Internet if the weather is nice enough to swim. In this paper, we present a system that tags the video frames of the video recorded from mobile phones with the data collected by the embedded sensors. The tagged video is uploaded to a video server, which is placed on the Internet and is accessible by any user. The proposed system uses a semantic approach with the stored information in order to make easy and efficient video searches. Our experimental results show that it is possible to tag video frames in real time and send the tagged video to the server with very low packet delay variations. As far as we know there is not any other application developed as the one presented in this paper.

  13. Architecture and Protocol of a Semantic System Designed for Video Tagging with Sensor Data in Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Lloret, Jaime; Suarez, Alvaro; Garcia, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Current mobile phones come with several sensors and powerful video cameras. These video cameras can be used to capture good quality scenes, which can be complemented with the information gathered by the sensors also embedded in the phones. For example, the surroundings of a beach recorded by the camera of the mobile phone, jointly with the temperature of the site can let users know via the Internet if the weather is nice enough to swim. In this paper, we present a system that tags the video frames of the video recorded from mobile phones with the data collected by the embedded sensors. The tagged video is uploaded to a video server, which is placed on the Internet and is accessible by any user. The proposed system uses a semantic approach with the stored information in order to make easy and efficient video searches. Our experimental results show that it is possible to tag video frames in real time and send the tagged video to the server with very low packet delay variations. As far as we know there is not any other application developed as the one presented in this paper. PMID:22438753

  14. Architecture and Protocol of a Semantic System Designed for Video Tagging with Sensor Data in Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Suarez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Current mobile phones come with several sensors and powerful video cameras. These video cameras can be used to capture good quality scenes, which can be complemented with the information gathered by the sensors also embedded in the phones. For example, the surroundings of a beach recorded by the camera of the mobile phone, jointly with the temperature of the site can let users know via the Internet if the weather is nice enough to swim. In this paper, we present a system that tags the video frames of the video recorded from mobile phones with the data collected by the embedded sensors. The tagged video is uploaded to a video server, which is placed on the Internet and is accessible by any user. The proposed system uses a semantic approach with the stored information in order to make easy and efficient video searches. Our experimental results show that it is possible to tag video frames in real time and send the tagged video to the server with very low packet delay variations. As far as we know there is not any other application developed as the one presented in this paper.

  15. Multiple Moving Object Detection for Fast Video Content Description in Compressed Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Mansencal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Indexing deals with the automatic extraction of information with the objective of automatically describing and organizing the content. Thinking of a video stream, different types of information can be considered semantically important. Since we can assume that the most relevant one is linked to the presence of moving foreground objects, their number, their shape, and their appearance can constitute a good mean for content description. For this reason, we propose to combine both motion information and region-based color segmentation to extract moving objects from an MPEG2 compressed video stream starting only considering low-resolution data. This approach, which we refer to as “rough indexing,” consists in processing P-frame motion information first, and then in performing I-frame color segmentation. Next, since many details can be lost due to the low-resolution data, to improve the object detection results, a novel spatiotemporal filtering has been developed which is constituted by a quadric surface modeling the object trace along time. This method enables to effectively correct possible former detection errors without heavily increasing the computational effort.

  16. Lexically Allusive Content of Semantic Frames (Based on the Works of John Fowles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Akatova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The semantic frame is a cognitive model, some mental structure that unites the world map and the thesaurus of a person, the hierarchy of meanings and values of the linguistic model of the world. Conceptual-cognitive content of a semantic frame includes three constituents: the reader, the author, and culture. The postmodernistic metatext, a vivid example of which is the metatext of John Fowles, is made of lexical-semantic frames, filled with allusions, general cultural precedent phenomena, cross-references, leitmotif lexemes. The frames of "freedom" and "game" exemplify integrated leitmotif of enclosed space, sea, theater, meta-theatre, god, god's imitations, magician (wizard, and fool. The application of a semantic frames method for the analysis of lexical-allusive elements in the works of John Fowles (The Aristos, The Magus, The Ebony Tower, Daniel Martin, French Lieutenant's Woman, A Maggot, Wormholes allowed to identify the net of allusive inclusions and arrange them into lexical-semantic frames, which helped to decode linguocultural metatext of the society and the individual (author. The interpretation of linguistic and cultural items in the text has lead to distinguishing the dominant frame of the metatext, that is "freedom". It is stated that creativity is freedom in action, responsibility is the condition for complete freedom, the path from the Fool to the Magician is the way from blindness of the stereotypes in the society to the intrinsic vision of internal freedom and unifying meaning of existence.

  17. Trends In Academic Content for Mobile Devices [video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan D'Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This presentation by Sarah Forbes and Dan D'Agostino was given at the Ontario Library Association's Super Conference in Toronto, Ontario, on February 3, 2012. Session Abstract from the Super Conference Program: As ownership of mobile devices continues to proliferate, libraries are finding it difficult to provide academic content that works well in the mobile world. Discover how various e-book and e-journal formats can be made to work with mobile devices of all kinds, and will explore the next generation of digital content designed for mobile devices – new formats that may re-invent how information is used by readers. Partnership would like to thank the authors and the Ontario Library Association for their generous permission to publish an Open Access version of this conference session. This is one of several Super Conference 2012 video presentations available for purchase from Super Conference: the Virtual Experience - http://ola.scholarlab.ca/.

  18. Visual analytics for semantic queries of TerraSAR-X image content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Alonso, Kevin; Datcu, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous image product acquisition of satellite missions, the size of the image archives is considerably increasing every day as well as the variety and complexity of their content, surpassing the end-user capacity to analyse and exploit them. Advances in the image retrieval field have contributed to the development of tools for interactive exploration and extraction of the images from huge archives using different parameters like metadata, key-words, and basic image descriptors. Even though we count on more powerful tools for automated image retrieval and data analysis, we still face the problem of understanding and analyzing the results. Thus, a systematic computational analysis of these results is required in order to provide to the end-user a summary of the archive content in comprehensible terms. In this context, visual analytics combines automated analysis with interactive visualizations analysis techniques for an effective understanding, reasoning and decision making on the basis of very large and complex datasets. Moreover, currently several researches are focused on associating the content of the images with semantic definitions for describing the data in a format to be easily understood by the end-user. In this paper, we present our approach for computing visual analytics and semantically querying the TerraSAR-X archive. Our approach is mainly composed of four steps: 1) the generation of a data model that explains the information contained in a TerraSAR-X product. The model is formed by primitive descriptors and metadata entries, 2) the storage of this model in a database system, 3) the semantic definition of the image content based on machine learning algorithms and relevance feedback, and 4) querying the image archive using semantic descriptors as query parameters and computing the statistical analysis of the query results. The experimental results shows that with the help of visual analytics and semantic definitions we are able to explain

  19. Evolution-based Virtual Content Insertion with Visually Virtual Interactions in Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Hu; Wu, Ja-Ling

    With the development of content-based multimedia analysis, virtual content insertion has been widely used and studied for video enrichment and multimedia advertising. However, how to automatically insert a user-selected virtual content into personal videos in a less-intrusive manner, with an attractive representation, is a challenging problem. In this chapter, we present an evolution-based virtual content insertion system which can insert virtual contents into videos with evolved animations according to predefined behaviors emulating the characteristics of evolutionary biology. The videos are considered not only as carriers of message conveyed by the virtual content but also as the environment in which the lifelike virtual contents live. Thus, the inserted virtual content will be affected by the videos to trigger a series of artificial evolutions and evolve its appearances and behaviors while interacting with video contents. By inserting virtual contents into videos through the system, users can easily create entertaining storylines and turn their personal videos into visually appealing ones. In addition, it would bring a new opportunity to increase the advertising revenue for video assets of the media industry and online video-sharing websites.

  20. Content relatedness in the social web based on social explicit semantic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntalianis, Klimis; Otterbacher, Jahna; Mastorakis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a novel content relatedness algorithm for social media content is proposed, based on the Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA) technique. The proposed scheme takes into consideration social interactions. In particular starting from the vector space representation model, similarity is expressed by a summation of term weight products. In this paper, term weights are estimated by a social computing method, where the strength of each term is calculated by the attention the terms receives. For this reason each post is split into two parts, title and comments area, while attention is defined by the number of social interactions such as likes and shares. The overall approach is named Social Explicit Semantic Analysis. Experimental results on real data show the advantages and limitations of the proposed approach, while an initial comparison between ESA and S-ESA is very promising.

  1. Correlating Information Contents of Gene Ontology Terms to Infer Semantic Similarity of Gene Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Gan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful applications of the gene ontology to the inference of functional relationships between gene products in recent years have raised the need for computational methods to automatically calculate semantic similarity between gene products based on semantic similarity of gene ontology terms. Nevertheless, existing methods, though having been widely used in a variety of applications, may significantly overestimate semantic similarity between genes that are actually not functionally related, thereby yielding misleading results in applications. To overcome this limitation, we propose to represent a gene product as a vector that is composed of information contents of gene ontology terms annotated for the gene product, and we suggest calculating similarity between two gene products as the relatedness of their corresponding vectors using three measures: Pearson’s correlation coefficient, cosine similarity, and the Jaccard index. We focus on the biological process domain of the gene ontology and annotations of yeast proteins to study the effectiveness of the proposed measures. Results show that semantic similarity scores calculated using the proposed measures are more consistent with known biological knowledge than those derived using a list of existing methods, suggesting the effectiveness of our method in characterizing functional relationships between gene products.

  2. Virtual muscularity: a content analysis of male video game characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Nicole; Williams, Dmitri C; Ratan, Rabindra A; Harrison, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The 150 top-selling video games were content analyzed to study representations of male bodies. Human males in the games were captured via screenshot and body parts measured. These measurements were then compared to anthropometric data drawn from a representative sample of 1120 North American men. Characters at high levels of photorealism were larger than the average American male, but these characters did not mirror the V-shaped ideal found in mainstream media. Characters at low levels of photorealism were also larger than the average American male, but these characters were so much larger that they appeared cartoonish. Idealized male characters were more likely to be found in games for children than in games for adults. Implications for cultivation theory are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Video retargeting for stereoscopic content under 3D viewing constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, C.; Boisson, G.; Chevance, C.

    2012-03-01

    The imminent deployment of new devices such as TV, tablet, smart phone supporting stereoscopic display creates a need for retargeting the content. New devices bring their own aspect ratio and potential small screen size. Aspect ratio conversion becomes mandatory and an automatic solution will be of high value especially if it maximizes the visual comfort. Some issues inherent to 3D domain are considered in this paper: no vertical disparity, no object having negative disparity (outward perception) on the border of the cropping window. A visual attention model is applied on each view and provides saliency maps with most attractive pixels. Dedicated 3D retargeting correlates the 2D attention maps for each view as well as additional computed information to ensure the best cropping window. Specific constraints induced by 3D experience influence the retargeted window through the map computation presenting objects that should not be cropped. The comparison with original content of 2:35 ratio having black stripes provide limited 3D experience on TV screen, while the automatic cropping and exploitation of full screen show more immersive experience. The proposed system is fully automatic, ensures a good final quality without missing fundamental parts for the global understanding of the scene. Eye-tracking data recorded on stereoscopic content have been confronted to retargeted window in order to ensure that the most attractive areas are inside the final video.

  4. Matching Jobs, People, and Instructional Content: An Innovative Application of a Latent Semantic Analysis-Based Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laham, Darrell; Bennett, Winston, Jr; Landauer, Thomas K

    2003-01-01

    ..., pinpoint needed retraining content, and maximize training and retraining efficiency. The LSA-based technology extracts semantic information about people, occupations, and task-experience contained in a natural-text database...

  5. Study of the effects of video content on quality of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Pradip; Battisti, Federica; Carli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this article the effects of video content on Quality of Experience (QoE) have been presented. Delivery of the video content with high level of QoE from bandwidth-limited and error-prone network is of crucial importance for the service providers. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to analyse the impact of the network impairments and video content on perceived quality during the QoE metric design. The major contributions of the article are in the study of i)the impact of network impairments together with video content, ii) impact of the video content and ii) the impact of video content related parameters: spatial-temporal perceptual information, video content, and frame size on QoE has been presented. The results show that when the impact of impairments on perceived quality is low, the quality is significantly influenced by video content, and video content itself also has a significant impact on QoE. Finally, the results strengthen the need for new parameter characterization, for better QoE metric design.

  6. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances in music videos: a content analysis of prevalence and genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Enid L; Thau, Helaine M; Hill, Douglas L; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W

    2005-07-01

    Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances.

  7. An Automatic Multimedia Content Summarization System for Video Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Huang, Yi Ting; Tsai, Chi Cheng; Chung, Ching I.; Wu, Yu Chieh

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, using video as a learning resource has received a lot of attention and has been successfully applied to many learning activities. In comparison with text-based learning, video learning integrates more multimedia resources, which usually motivate learners more than texts. However, one of the major limitations of video learning is…

  8. Combining semantic technologies with a content-based image retrieval system - Preliminary considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, P.; Ganzha, M.; Jaworska, T.; Paprzycki, M.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, as a part of systematic growth of volume, and variety, of information that can be found on the Internet, we observe also dramatic increase in sizes of available image collections. There are many ways to help users browsing / selecting images of interest. One of popular approaches are Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems, which allow users to search for images that match their interests, expressed in the form of images (query by example). However, we believe that image search and retrieval could take advantage of semantic technologies. We have decided to test this hypothesis. Specifically, on the basis of knowledge captured in the CBIR, we have developed a domain ontology of residential real estate (detached houses, in particular). This allows us to semantically represent each image (and its constitutive architectural elements) represented within the CBIR. The proposed ontology was extended to capture not only the elements resulting from image segmentation, but also "spatial relations" between them. As a result, a new approach to querying the image database (semantic querying) has materialized, thus extending capabilities of the developed system.

  9. An Ontological Framework for Retrieving Environmental Sounds Using Semantics and Acoustic Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichern Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizing a database of user-contributed environmental sound recordings allows sound files to be linked not only by the semantic tags and labels applied to them, but also to other sounds with similar acoustic characteristics. Of paramount importance in navigating these databases are the problems of retrieving similar sounds using text- or sound-based queries, and automatically annotating unlabeled sounds. We propose an integrated system, which can be used for text-based retrieval of unlabeled audio, content-based query-by-example, and automatic annotation of unlabeled sound files. To this end, we introduce an ontological framework where sounds are connected to each other based on the similarity between acoustic features specifically adapted to environmental sounds, while semantic tags and sounds are connected through link weights that are optimized based on user-provided tags. Furthermore, tags are linked to each other through a measure of semantic similarity, which allows for efficient incorporation of out-of-vocabulary tags, that is, tags that do not yet exist in the database. Results on two freely available databases of environmental sounds contributed and labeled by nonexpert users demonstrate effective recall, precision, and average precision scores for both the text-based retrieval and annotation tasks.

  10. Performance evaluation of real-time video content analysis systems in the CANDELA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desurmont, Xavier; Wijnhoven, Rob; Jaspers, Egbert; Caignart, Olivier; Barais, Mike; Favoreel, Wouter; Delaigle, Jean-Francois

    2005-02-01

    The CANDELA project aims at realizing a system for real-time image processing in traffic and surveillance applications. The system performs segmentation, labels the extracted blobs and tracks their movements in the scene. Performance evaluation of such a system is a major challenge since no standard methods exist and the criteria for evaluation are highly subjective. This paper proposes a performance evaluation approach for video content analysis (VCA) systems and identifies the involved research areas. For these areas we give an overview of the state-of-the-art in performance evaluation and introduce a classification into different semantic levels. The proposed evaluation approach compares the results of the VCA algorithm with a ground-truth (GT) counterpart, which contains the desired results. Both the VCA results and the ground truth comprise description files that are formatted in MPEG-7. The evaluation is required to provide an objective performance measure and a mean to choose between competitive methods. In addition, it enables algorithm developers to measure the progress of their work at the different levels in the design process. From these requirements and the state-of-the-art overview we conclude that standardization is highly desirable for which many research topics still need to be addressed.

  11. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kornfield, Rachel; Emery, Sherry L

    2016-03-18

    The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos' overall presence on the platform. To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform's impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. YouTube is a major information-sharing platform for electronic cigarettes

  12. Automatic Annotation of Formula 1 Races for Content-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Petkovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Content-based video retrieval is emerging as an important part in the process of utilization of various multimedia documents. In this report we present a novel system for the automatic indexing and content-based retrieval of multimedia documents. We chose the domain of Formula 1 sport videos because

  13. Celebrity over science? An analysis of Lyme disease video content on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, N; Tooby, R; Sturrock, S L

    2017-10-01

    Lyme disease has been a subject of medical controversy for several decades. In this study we looked at the availability and type of content represented in a (n = 700) selection of YouTube videos on the subject of Lyme disease. We classified video content into a small number of content areas, and studied the relationship between these content areas and 1) video views and 2) video likeability. We found very little content uploaded by government or academic institutions; the vast majority of content was uploaded by independent users. The most viewed videos tend to contain celebrity content and personal stories; videos with prevention information tend to be of less interest, and videos with science and medical information tend to be less liked. Our results suggest that important public health information on YouTube is very likely to be ignored unless it is made more appealing to modern consumers of online video content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Future-saving audiovisual content for Data Science: Preservation of geoinformatics video heritage with the TIB|AV-Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Plank, Margret; Ziedorn, Frauke

    2015-04-01

    of Science and Technology. The web-based portal allows for extended search capabilities based on enhanced metadata derived by automated video analysis. By combining state-of-the-art multimedia retrieval techniques such as speech-, text-, and image recognition with semantic analysis, content-based access to videos at the segment level is provided. Further, by using the open standard Media Fragment Identifier (MFID), a citable Digital Object Identifier is displayed for each video segment. In addition to the continuously growing footprint of contemporary content, the importance of vintage audiovisual information needs to be considered: This paper showcases the successful application of the TIB|AV-Portal in the preservation and provision of a newly discovered version of a GRASS GIS promotional video produced by US Army -Corps of Enginers Laboratory (US-CERL) in 1987. The video is provides insight into the constraints of the very early days of the GRASS GIS project, which is the oldest active Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) GIS project which has been active for over thirty years. GRASS itself has turned into a collaborative scientific platform and a repository of scientific peer-reviewed code and algorithm/knowledge hub for future generation of scientists [1]. This is a reference case for future preservation activities regarding semantic-enhanced Web 2.0 content from geospatial software projects within Academia and beyond. References: [1] Chemin, Y., Petras V., Petrasova, A., Landa, M., Gebbert, S., Zambelli, P., Neteler, M., Löwe, P.: GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research Repository, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, EGU2015-8314-1, 2015 (submitted)

  15. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos’ overall presence on the platform. Objective To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform’s impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Methods Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. Results As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. Conclusions YouTube is a major

  16. Tobacco Content in Video Games: Categorization of Tobacco Typologies and Gamer Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-11-15

    Tobacco content has been identified in popular video games played by adolescents. To date, there are no established instruments for categorizing tobacco content. We describe development and demonstrate the use of an instrument to categorize types of tobacco content. Interviews were conducted with 61 participants: 20 adolescents (mean age 17.7), and 41 adults (mean age 23.9), who discussed favorite games and recalled tobacco content. All games mentioned were examined for tobacco content by watching movies of game play on YouTube, examining individual game Wiki sites, and reviewing content descriptors provided by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), Common Sense Media and the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). A typology of tobacco content was created and correlated with gamer recall of tobacco content. Participants together mentioned 366 games, of which 152 were unique. Tobacco content was verified in 39.5% (60/152) of games. Six categories of content were identified, including "no tobacco content." Of games containing tobacco, 88% (53/60) contained at least two categories of content. Games with more categories were associated with greater gamer recall of tobacco content. Tobacco content is present in video games and consciously recalled by players, with higher accuracy of recall associated with games featuring multiple types of tobacco content and more engaging, player-active content. Playing video games is now a daily part of most adolescents' lives. Tobacco content is present in many popular games. Currently there are no published instruments to assist in categorizing tobacco content in video games. This study describes a systematic approach to categorizing tobacco content in video games and demonstrates that games featuring more categories of tobacco content are associated with more accurate gamer recall of the presence of tobacco content when compared with games with fewer categories of content. Understanding the extent of such content will be essential

  17. Content Area Vocabulary Videos in Multiple Contexts: A Pedagogical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C. Lorraine; Kapavik, Robin Robinson

    2015-01-01

    The authors challenged pre-service teachers to digitally define a social studies or mathematical vocabulary term in multiple contexts using a digital video camera. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. How will creating a video for instruction affect pre-service teachers' attitudes about teaching with technology, if at all?…

  18. The most widely viewed YouTube videos with content related to multivitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey H. Basch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of multivitamin/multimineral (MVM and other dietary supplements is common among American adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the source and content of the most widely viewed YouTube videos associated with MVM supplements. Methods: Videos were filtered by number of views and the source of the video upload was recorded. A comparison of video characteristics and differences in video content was conducted. Results: Cumulatively, the videos in this sample were viewed 25 573 055 times. The majority of videos found in this sample were uploaded by a nutrition, wellness, or fitness channels. Most videos mentioned benefits (80.4%, 95% CI:72.5%, 88.3% and advocated for use of the supplement (72.2%, 95% CI: 63.3%, 81.1%. Over 84% (84.5%, 95% CI: 77.3, 91.7% of the videos did not mention risks associated with taking a particular vitamin or supplement. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that MVMs are often promoted and encouraged, yet risks associated with MVMs were infrequently mentioned. Health professionals should be aware of the extent to which MVM related content appears on social media and, more importantly, be attuned to the content, which can be misleading, or missing information regarding risks and/or evidence of possible benefits.

  19. Revisiting video game ratings: Shift from content-centric to parent-centric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiow Hee Jhee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid adoption of video gaming among children has placed tremendous strain on parents’ ability to manage their children’s consumption. While parents refer online to video games ratings (VGR information to support their mediation efforts, there are many difficulties associated with such practice. This paper explores the popular VGR sites, and highlights the inadequacies of VGRs to capture the parents’ concerns, such as time displacement, social interactions, financial spending and various video game effects, beyond the widespread panics over content issues, that is subjective, ever-changing and irrelevant. As such, this paper argues for a shift from content-centric to a parent-centric approach in VGRs, that captures the evolving nature of video gaming, and support parents, the main users of VGRs, in their management of their young video gaming children. This paper proposes a Video Games Repository for Parents to represent that shift.

  20. Semantic Annotation of Video Fragments as Learning Objects: A Case Study with "YouTube" Videos and the Gene Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barriocanal, Elena; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Lytras, Miltiadis

    2011-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies can be considered a loosely defined set of Web application styles that foster a kind of media consumer more engaged, and usually active in creating and maintaining Internet contents. Thus, Web 2.0 applications have resulted in increased user participation and massive user-generated (or user-published) open multimedia content,…

  1. Age and violent-content labels make video games forbidden fruits for youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nije Bijvank, M.; Konijn, E.A.; Bushman, B.J.; Roelofsma, P.H.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To protect minors from exposure to video games with objectionable content (eg, violence and sex), the Pan European Game Information developed a classification system for video games (eg, 18+). We tested the hypothesis that this classification system may actually increase the

  2. Making it Real: Faculty Collaboration to Create Video Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Jennifer Dold

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in integrative health care is a growing area of health practice, combining conventional medical treatments with safe and effective complementary and alternative medicine. These modalities relate to both improving physical and psychological well-being, and enhancing conventional talk therapy. In an interdisciplinary collaboration, teaching and library faculty have created a series of sixteen on-line video interviews that introduce practitioner-relevant experiences to students as supplemental course material. These videos are available through the department web-pages to students in other related disciplines as well, including Social Work, Counselor Education, Psychology, and the Colleges of Public Health, Nursing, and Medicine. The video series was undertaken as part of the educational mission of the library, bringing to the classroom new material that is essential to the professional development of future counselors.

  3. Sources and content of popular online videos about autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollia, Betty; Kamowski-Shakibai, Margaret T; Basch, Corey H; Clark, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Background: Our study aimed to determine source of upload and content portrayed in the100 most-viewed videos on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) on the video sharing public forum, YouTube. ASDs have become highly prevalent in the last decade, arousing a significant response from the media and psycho-educational health professions. Utilization of and reliance on social media for information on health matters has also proliferated. Some suggest that online videos could promote early detection (and intervention) of ASD by prompting caregivers to seek guidance. However, the usefulness of the available videos is unclear. Methods: The 100 most popular YouTube videos were examined for source of upload and information provided. Popularity was determined by number of views, using the filter tool. Results: The videos had more than 121 million views combined. Only one video had been uploaded by a professional (a clinical psychologist). The 99 (non-professional) videos provided minimal data and research into known ASD risk factors. Interestingly, discredited vaccine-associated risks were promoted in 16% (95% CI = 09%-25%) of the 100 videos analyzed. Many videos featured a child with ASD exhibiting some characteristic patterns, such as engaging in a repetitive behavior (73%, 95% CI = 63%-81%); about as many videos referenced various therapies (75%, 95% CI = 65%-83%); and 54% (95% CI = 44%-64%) and 61% (95% CI =51%-71%) of the videos mentioned the economic and emotional toll of ASD on the family,respectively. Additional variables are discussed. Conclusion: The most popular online videos were primarily uploaded by non-professionals and provided limited content regarding ASD. Given the wide reach of social media and its potential for providing valuable information and guidance to the public on matters pertaining to ASD, we wish to underscore the necessity for a professional presence in this medium.

  4. Alzheimer's Disease in Social Media: Content Analysis of YouTube Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weizhou; Olscamp, Kate; Choi, Seul Ki; Friedman, Daniela B

    2017-10-19

    Approximately 5.5 million Americans are living with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 2017. YouTube is a popular platform for disseminating health information; however, little is known about messages specifically regarding AD that are being communicated through YouTube. This study aims to examine video characteristics, content, speaker characteristics, and mobilizing information (cues to action) of YouTube videos focused on AD. Videos uploaded to YouTube from 2013 to 2015 were searched with the term "Alzheimer's disease" on April 30th, 2016. Two coders viewed the videos and coded video characteristics (the date when a video was posted, Uniform Resource Locator, video length, audience engagement, format, author), content, speaker characteristics (sex, race, age), and mobilizing information. Descriptive statistics were used to examine video characteristics, content, audience engagement (number of views), speaker appearances in the video, and mobilizing information. Associations between variables were examined using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Among the 271 videos retrieved, 25.5% (69/271) were posted by nonprofit organizations or universities. Informal presentations comprised 25.8% (70/271) of all videos. Although AD symptoms (83/271, 30.6%), causes of AD (80/271, 29.5%), and treatment (76/271, 28.0%) were commonly addressed, quality of life of people with AD (34/271, 12.5%) had more views than those more commonly-covered content areas. Most videos featured white speakers (168/187, 89.8%) who were adults aged 20 years to their early 60s (164/187, 87.7%). Only 36.9% (100/271) of videos included mobilizing information. Videos about AD symptoms were significantly less likely to include mobilizing information compared to videos without AD symptoms (23/83, 27.7% vs 77/188, 41.0% respectively; P=.03). This study contributes new knowledge regarding AD messages delivered through YouTube. Findings of the current study highlight a potential gap between available information

  5. Perceptual quality of 4K-resolution video content compared to HD

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wallendael, Glenn; Coppens, Paulien; Paridaens, Tom; Van Kets, Niels; Van den Broeck, Wendy; Lambert, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of 4K UHD video and display resolution, questions arise on the perceptual differences between 4K UHD and upsampled HD video content. In this paper, a striped pair comparison has been performed on a diverse set of 4K UHD video sources. The goal was to subjectively assess the perceived sharpness of 4K UHD and downscaled/upscaled HD video. A striped pair comparison has been applied in order to make the test as straightforward as possible for a non-expert participant populat...

  6. AViTExt: Automatic Video Text Extraction, A new Approach for video content indexing Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bouaziz, Baseem; Zlitni, Tarek; Walid MAHDI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a spatial temporal video-text detection technique which proceed in two principal steps:potential text region detection and a filtering process. In the first step we divide dynamically each pair of consecutive video frames into sub block in order to detect change. A significant difference between homologous blocks implies the appearance of an important object which may be a text region. The temporal redundancy is then used to filter these regions and forms an effectiv...

  7. Enhancing Secondary Science Content Accessibility with Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Matthew T.; Becht, Kathleen M.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III; Gallup, Jennifer L.; Basham, James D.; Gallegos, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices, including iPads, tablets, and so on, are common in high schools across the country. Unfortunately, many secondary teachers see these devices as distractions rather than tools for scaffolding instruction. This article highlights current research related to the use of video games as a means to increase the cognitive and social…

  8. Lyme Disease and YouTubeTM: A Cross-Sectional Study of Video Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Mullican, Lindsay A; Boone, Kwanza D; Yin, Jingjing; Berdnik, Alyssa; Eremeeva, Marina E; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2017-08-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease. People seek health information on Lyme disease from YouTubeTM videos. In this study, we investigated if the contents of Lyme disease-related YouTubeTM videos varied by their sources. Most viewed English YouTubeTM videos (n = 100) were identified and manually coded for contents and sources. Within the sample, 40 videos were consumer-generated, 31 were internet-based news, 16 were professional, and 13 were TV news. Compared with consumer-generated videos, TV news videos were more likely to mention celebrities (odds ratio [OR], 10.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.13-52.58), prevention of Lyme disease through wearing protective clothing (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.23-25.76), and spraying insecticides (OR, 7.71; 95% CI, 1.52-39.05). A majority of the most popular Lyme disease-related YouTubeTM videos were not created by public health professionals. Responsible reporting and creative video-making facilitate Lyme disease education. Partnership with YouTubeTM celebrities to co-develop educational videos may be a future direction.

  9. Youth access, creation, and content of smokeless tobacco ("dip") videos in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Rodgers, Elizabeth J; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2012-04-01

    Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use among white adolescent males has increased in recent years, and prevalence of SLT use among adolescent males exceeds that for smoking in several U.S. states. Recent reports have described the presence of cigarette-related content on social media Web sites popular among youth; however, little has been reported on SLT content. The YouTube video search engine was searched for the popular SLT brand Skoal, and the first 50 search results were downloaded. Video statistics data were collected for and content analysis was performed on all videos featuring smokeless use (82%). Access to SLT YouTube videos by youth was also determined by assessing whether YouTube permits youth viewing and creation of SLT videos. Mean number of views for videos analyzed was 15,422, and the most watched video had 124,276 views. Descriptions of SLT flavor/smell and social references/interactions were found in 48.8% and 63.4% of videos, respectively. By contrast, references to drug (nicotine) effects (12.2%) and public health messaging (9.8%) were less common. None of the SLT videos in the sample had restrictions that would block youth viewing. In addition, evidence of self-identified youth creating SLT videos was found for 13% of unique users in the sample. YouTube does not restrict youth from creating or viewing "dip videos." Proactive efforts are needed to ensure that YouTube and other online media do not become influential vehicles for tobacco promotion to youth. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social cognition in schizophrenic patients: the effect of semantic content and emotional prosody in the comprehension of emotional discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazo, Perrine; Beaucousin, Virginie; Lecardeur, Laurent; Razafimandimby, Annick; Dollfus, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the emotion expressed during conversation relies on the integration of both semantic processing and decoding of emotional prosody. The integration of both types of elements is necessary for social interaction. No study has investigated how these processes are impaired in patients with schizophrenia during the comprehension of an emotional speech. Since patients with schizophrenia have difficulty in daily interactions, it would be of great interest to investigate how these processes are impaired. We tested the hypothesis that patients present lesser performances regarding both semantic and emotional prosodic processes during emotional speech comprehension compared with healthy participants. The paradigm is based on sentences built with emotional (anger, happiness, or sadness) semantic content uttered with or without congruent emotional prosody. The study participants had to decide with which of the emotional categories each sentence corresponded. Patients performed significantly worse than their matched controls, even in the presence of emotional prosody, showing that their ability to understand emotional semantic content was impaired. Although prosody improved performances in both groups, it benefited the patients more than the controls. Patients exhibited both impaired semantic and emotional prosodic comprehensions. However, they took greater advantage of emotional prosody adjunction than healthy participants. Consequently, focusing on emotional prosody during carrying may improve social communication.

  11. Zika Virus on YouTube: An Analysis of English-language Video Content by Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey H. Basch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe the source, length, number of views, and content of the most widely viewed Zika virus (ZIKV-related YouTube videos. We hypothesized that ZIKV-related videos uploaded by different sources contained different content. Methods The 100 most viewed English ZIKV-related videos were manually coded and analyzed statistically. Results Among the 100 videos, there were 43 consumer-generated videos, 38 Internet-based news videos, 15 TV-based news videos, and 4 professional videos. Internet news sources captured over two-thirds of the total of 8 894 505 views. Compared with consumer-generated videos, Internet-based news videos were more likely to mention the impact of ZIKV on babies (odds ratio [OR], 6.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 23.76, the number of cases in Latin America (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.47 to 21.52; and ZIKV in Africa (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.04 to 6.31. Compared with consumer-generated videos, TV-based news videos were more likely to express anxiety or fear of catching ZIKV (OR, 6.67; 95% CI, 1.36 to 32.70; to highlight fear of ZIKV among members of the public (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.20 to 46.16; and to discuss avoiding pregnancy (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.13 to 13.25. Conclusions Public health agencies should establish a larger presence on YouTube to reach more people with evidence-based information about ZIKV.

  12. Zika Virus on YouTube: An Analysis of English-language Video Content by Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Hammond, Rodney N; Blankenship, Elizabeth B; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa; Ip, Patrick; Basch, Charles E

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the source, length, number of views, and content of the most widely viewed Zika virus (ZIKV)-related YouTube videos. We hypothesized that ZIKV-related videos uploaded by different sources contained different content. The 100 most viewed English ZIKV-related videos were manually coded and analyzed statistically. Among the 100 videos, there were 43 consumer-generated videos, 38 Internet-based news videos, 15 TV-based news videos, and 4 professional videos. Internet news sources captured over two-thirds of the total of 8 894 505 views. Compared with consumer-generated videos, Internet-based news videos were more likely to mention the impact of ZIKV on babies (odds ratio [OR], 6.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 23.76), the number of cases in Latin America (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.47 to 21.52); and ZIKV in Africa (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.04 to 6.31). Compared with consumer-generated videos, TV-based news videos were more likely to express anxiety or fear of catching ZIKV (OR, 6.67; 95% CI, 1.36 to 32.70); to highlight fear of ZIKV among members of the public (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.20 to 46.16); and to discuss avoiding pregnancy (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.13 to 13.25). Public health agencies should establish a larger presence on YouTube to reach more people with evidence-based information about ZIKV.

  13. Classification of dual language audio-visual content: Introduction to the VideoCLEF 2008 pilot benchmark evaluation task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.J.F.; Köhler, J.; Larson, M.; de Jong, F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Ordelman, R.J.F.

    2008-01-01

    VideoCLEF is a new track for the CLEF 2008 campaign. This track aims to develop and evaluate tasks in analyzing multilingual video content. A pilot of a Vid2RSS task involving assigning thematic class labels to video kicks off the VideoCLEF track in 2008. Task participants deliver classification

  14. Content-Adaptive Packetization and Streaming of Wavelet Video over IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Peng Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of content-adaptive packetization scheme for streaming of 3D wavelet-based video content over lossy IP networks. The tradeoff between rate and distortion is controlled by jointly adapting scalable source coding rate and level of forward error correction (FEC protection. A content dependent packetization mechanism with data-interleaving and Reed-Solomon protection for wavelet-based video codecs is proposed to provide unequal error protection. This paper also tries to answer an important question for scalable video streaming systems: given extra bandwidth, should one increase the level of channel protection for the most important packets, or transmit more scalable source data? Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves good balance between quality of the received video and level of error protection under bandwidth-varying lossy IP networks.

  15. Content-Adaptive Packetization and Streaming of Wavelet Video over IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chien-Peng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of content-adaptive packetization scheme for streaming of 3D wavelet-based video content over lossy IP networks. The tradeoff between rate and distortion is controlled by jointly adapting scalable source coding rate and level of forward error correction (FEC protection. A content dependent packetization mechanism with data-interleaving and Reed-Solomon protection for wavelet-based video codecs is proposed to provide unequal error protection. This paper also tries to answer an important question for scalable video streaming systems: given extra bandwidth, should one increase the level of channel protection for the most important packets, or transmit more scalable source data? Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves good balance between quality of the received video and level of error protection under bandwidth-varying lossy IP networks.

  16. Overview of VideoCLEF 2008: Automatic Generation of Topic-based Feeds for Dual Language Audio-Visual Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The VideoCLEF track, introduced in 2008, aims to develop and evaluate tasks related to analysis of and access to multilingual multimedia content. In its first year, VideoCLEF piloted the Vid2RSS task, whose main subtask was the classification of dual language video (Dutch-language television content

  17. Overview of VideoCLEF 2008: Automatic generation of topic-based feeds for dual language audio-visual content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.

    2008-01-01

    The VideoCLEF track, introduced in 2008, aims to develop and evaluate tasks related to analysis of and access to multilingual multimedia content. In its first year, VideoCLEF piloted the Vid2RSS task, whose main subtask was the classification of dual language video (Dutch-language television content

  18. Adolescents' exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, Jo; Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John

    2015-04-01

    To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Ten-second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12-week period in 2013/14; on-line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high-content videos. Great Britain. A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11-18 years who completed an on-line survey. Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33-51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13-27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0-4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2-11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0-7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0-3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E-Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re-watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re-watch the videos than boys, P YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Improving video event retrieval by user feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M. de; Pingen, G.; Knook, D.; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2017-01-01

    In content based video retrieval videos are often indexed with semantic labels (concepts) using pre-trained classifiers. These pre-trained classifiers (concept detectors), are not perfect, and thus the labels are noisy. Additionally, the amount of pre-trained classifiers is limited. Often automatic

  20. Augmenting a TV Broadcast with Synchronised User Generated Video and Relevant Social Network Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Veenhuizen, A.T.; Kaptein, A.M.; Niamut, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    As TNO, we have developed an Augmented Live Broadcast use case, using components from the FP7 STEER project. In this use case, a television broadcast of a live event is augmented with user generated content. This user generated content consists of videos made by users at the event, and also of

  1. The Impact of Rock Videos and Music with Suicidal Content on Thoughts and Attitudes about Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Robin A.; Small, Jacob E.; Jobes, David A.; Safer, Martin A.; Peterson, Rebecca J.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments exposed college student volunteers to rock music with or without suicidal content. Music and videos with suicide content appeared to prime implicit cognitions related to suicide but did not affect variables associated with increased suicide risk. (Contains 60 references and 3 tables.) (Author/JBJ)

  2. Automated analysis and annotation of basketball video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Drew D.; Tan, Yap-Peng; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Ramadge, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    Automated analysis and annotation of video sequences are important for digital video libraries, content-based video browsing and data mining projects. A successful video annotation system should provide users with useful video content summary in a reasonable processing time. Given the wide variety of video genres available today, automatically extracting meaningful video content for annotation still remains hard by using current available techniques. However, a wide range video has inherent structure such that some prior knowledge about the video content can be exploited to improve our understanding of the high-level video semantic content. In this paper, we develop tools and techniques for analyzing structured video by using the low-level information available directly from MPEG compressed video. Being able to work directly in the video compressed domain can greatly reduce the processing time and enhance storage efficiency. As a testbed, we have developed a basketball annotation system which combines the low-level information extracted from MPEG stream with the prior knowledge of basketball video structure to provide high level content analysis, annotation and browsing for events such as wide- angle and close-up views, fast breaks, steals, potential shots, number of possessions and possession times. We expect our approach can also be extended to structured video in other domains.

  3. Legal drug content in music video programs shown on Australian television on saturday mornings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.

  4. Augmenting a TV Broadcast with Synchronised User Generated Video and Relevant Social Network Content

    OpenAIRE

    Stokking, H.M.; Veenhuizen, A.T.; Kaptein, A.M.; Niamut, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    As TNO, we have developed an Augmented Live Broadcast use case, using components from the FP7 STEER project. In this use case, a television broadcast of a live event is augmented with user generated content. This user generated content consists of videos made by users at the event, and also of relevant social network content. The current implementation uses timestamps inserted in the media streams to synchronise related media streams. Social networks are searched using EPG information as a st...

  5. Efficient Semisupervised MEDLINE Document Clustering With MeSH-Semantic and Global-Content Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun; Feng, Wei; Zeng, Jia; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2013-08-01

    For clustering biomedical documents, we can consider three different types of information: the local-content (LC) information from documents, the global-content (GC) information from the whole MEDLINE collections, and the medical subject heading (MeSH)-semantic (MS) information. Previous methods for clustering biomedical documents are not necessarily effective for integrating different types of information, by which only one or two types of information have been used. Recently, the performance of MEDLINE document clustering has been enhanced by linearly combining both the LC and MS information. However, the simple linear combination could be ineffective because of the limitation of the representation space for combining different types of information (similarities) with different reliability. To overcome the limitation, we propose a new semisupervised spectral clustering method, i.e., SSNCut, for clustering over the LC similarities, with two types of constraints: must-link (ML) constraints on document pairs with high MS (or GC) similarities and cannot-link (CL) constraints on those with low similarities. We empirically demonstrate the performance of SSNCut on MEDLINE document clustering, by using 100 data sets of MEDLINE records. Experimental results show that SSNCut outperformed a linear combination method and several well-known semisupervised clustering methods, being statistically significant. Furthermore, the performance of SSNCut with constraints from both MS and GC similarities outperformed that from only one type of similarities. Another interesting finding was that ML constraints more effectively worked than CL constraints, since CL constraints include around 10% incorrect ones, whereas this number was only 1% for ML constraints.

  6. Age and violent-content labels make video games forbidden fruits for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvank, Marije Nije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J; Roelofsma, Peter H M P

    2009-03-01

    To protect minors from exposure to video games with objectionable content (eg, violence and sex), the Pan European Game Information developed a classification system for video games (eg, 18+). We tested the hypothesis that this classification system may actually increase the attractiveness of games for children younger than the age rating. Participants were 310 Dutch youth. The design was a 3 (age group: 7-8, 12-13, and 16-17 years) x 2 (participant gender) x 7 (label: 7+, 12+, 16+, 18+, violence, no violence, or no label control) x 2 (game description: violent or nonviolent) mixed factorial. The first 2 factors were between subjects, whereas the last 2 factors were within subjects. Three personality traits (ie, reactance, trait aggressiveness, and sensation seeking) were also included in the analyses. Participants read fictitious video game descriptions and rated how much they wanted to play each game. Results revealed that restrictive age labels and violent-content labels increased the attractiveness of video games for all of the age groups (even 7- to 8-year-olds and girls). Although the Pan European Game Information system was developed to protect youth from objectionable content, this system actually makes such games forbidden fruits. Pediatricians should be aware of this forbidden-fruit effect, because video games with objectionable content can have harmful effects on children and adolescents.

  7. Sexual content in video games: an analysis of the Entertainment Software Rating Board classification from 1994 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaña-Pérez, Dèsirée; Braverman-Bronstein, Ariela; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Hilscher, Rainer; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-11

    Background: Video games are widely used by children and adolescents and have become a significant source of exposure to sexual content. Despite evidence of the important role of media in the development of sexual attitudes and behaviours, little attention has been paid to monitor sexual content in video games. Methods: Data was obtained about sexual content and rating for 23722 video games from 1994 to 2013 from the Entertainment Software Rating Board database; release dates and information on the top 100 selling video games was also obtained. A yearly prevalence of sexual content according to rating categories was calculated. Trends and comparisons were estimated using Joinpoint regression. Results: Sexual content was present in 13% of the video games. Games rated 'Mature' had the highest prevalence of sexual content (34.5%) followed by 'Teen' (30.7%) and 'E10+' (21.3%). Over time, sexual content decreased in the 'Everyone' category, 'E10+' maintained a low prevalence and 'Teen' and 'Mature' showed a marked increase. Both top and non-top video games showed constant increases, with top selling video games having 10.1% more sexual content across the period of study. Conclusion: Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of sexual content has increased in video games with a 'Teen' or 'Mature' rating. Further studies are needed to quantify the potential association between sexual content in video games and sexual behaviour in children and adolescents.

  8. Content-Aware Scalability-Type Selection for Rate Adaptation of Scalable Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekalp A Murat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalable video coders provide different scaling options, such as temporal, spatial, and SNR scalabilities, where rate reduction by discarding enhancement layers of different scalability-type results in different kinds and/or levels of visual distortion depend on the content and bitrate. This dependency between scalability type, video content, and bitrate is not well investigated in the literature. To this effect, we first propose an objective function that quantifies flatness, blockiness, blurriness, and temporal jerkiness artifacts caused by rate reduction by spatial size, frame rate, and quantization parameter scaling. Next, the weights of this objective function are determined for different content (shot types and different bitrates using a training procedure with subjective evaluation. Finally, a method is proposed for choosing the best scaling type for each temporal segment that results in minimum visual distortion according to this objective function given the content type of temporal segments. Two subjective tests have been performed to validate the proposed procedure for content-aware selection of the best scalability type on soccer videos. Soccer videos scaled from 600 kbps to 100 kbps by the proposed content-aware selection of scalability type have been found visually superior to those that are scaled using a single scalability option over the whole sequence.

  9. Know your data: understanding implicit usage versus explicit action in video content classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Jude; Shamma, David A.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we present a method for video category classification using only social metadata from websites like YouTube. In place of content analysis, we utilize communicative and social contexts surrounding videos as a means to determine a categorical genre, e.g. Comedy, Music. We hypothesize that video clips belonging to different genre categories would have distinct signatures and patterns that are reflected in their collected metadata. In particular, we define and describe social metadata as usage or action to aid in classification. We trained a Naive Bayes classifier to predict categories from a sample of 1,740 YouTube videos representing the top five genre categories. Using just a small number of the available metadata features, we compare the classifications produced by our Naive Bayes classifier with those provided by the uploader of that particular video. Compared to random predictions with the YouTube data (21% accurate), our classifier attained a mediocre 33% accuracy in predicting video genres. However, we found that the accuracy of our classifier significantly improves by nominal factoring of the explicit data features. By factoring the ratings of the videos in the dataset, the classifier was able to accurately predict the genres of 75% of the videos. We argue that the patterns of social activity found in the metadata are not just meaningful in their own right, but are indicative of the meaning of the shared video content. The results presented by this project represents a first step in investigating the potential meaning and significance of social metadata and its relation to the media experience.

  10. Video Pulses: User-Based Modeling of Interesting Video Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Avlonitis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a user-based method that detects regions of interest within a video in order to provide video skims and video summaries. Previous research in video retrieval has focused on content-based techniques, such as pattern recognition algorithms that attempt to understand the low-level features of a video. We are proposing a pulse modeling method, which makes sense of a web video by analyzing users' Replay interactions with the video player. In particular, we have modeled the user information seeking behavior as a time series and the semantic regions as a discrete pulse of fixed width. Then, we have calculated the correlation coefficient between the dynamically detected pulses at the local maximums of the user activity signal and the pulse of reference. We have found that users' Replay activity significantly matches the important segments in information-rich and visually complex videos, such as lecture, how-to, and documentary. The proposed signal processing of user activity is complementary to previous work in content-based video retrieval and provides an additional user-based dimension for modeling the semantics of a social video on the web.

  11. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  12. Attitudes towards schizophrenia on YouTube: A content analysis of Finnish and Greek videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, Christina; Suni, Sanna; Hätönen, Heli; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Lionis, Christos; Välimäki, Maritta

    2016-01-01

    To investigate attitudes towards schizophrenia and people with schizophrenia presented in YouTube videos. We searched YouTube using the search terms "schizophrenia" and "psychosis" in Finnish and Greek language on April 3rd, 2013. The first 20 videos from each search (N = 80) were retrieved. Deductive content analysis was first applied for coding and data interpretation and it was followed by descriptive statistical analysis. A total of 52 videos were analyzed (65%). The majority of the videos were in the "Music" category (50%, n = 26). Most of the videos (83%, n = 43) tended to present schizophrenia in a negative way, while less than a fifth (17%, n = 9) presented schizophrenia in a positive or neutral way. Specifically, the most common negative attitude towards schizophrenia was dangerousness (29%, n = 15), while the most often identified positive attitude was objective, medically appropriate beliefs (21%, n = 11). All attitudes identified were similarly present in the Finnish and Greek videos, without any statistically significant difference. Negative presentations of schizophrenia are most likely to be accessed when searching YouTube for schizophrenia in Finnish and Greek language. More research is needed to investigate to what extent, if any, YouTube viewers' attitudes are affected by the videos they watch.

  13. A Joint Compression Scheme of Video Feature Descriptors and Visual Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Siwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhang, Xinfeng; Sun, Huifang; Gao, Wen

    2017-02-01

    High-efficiency compression of visual feature descriptors has recently emerged as an active topic due to the rapidly increasing demand in mobile visual retrieval over bandwidth-limited networks. However, transmitting only those feature descriptors may largely restrict its application scale due to the lack of necessary visual content. To facilitate the wide spread of feature descriptors, a hybrid framework of jointly compressing the feature descriptors and visual content is highly desirable. In this paper, such a content-plus-feature coding scheme is investigated, aiming to shape the next generation of video compression system toward visual retrieval, where the high-efficiency coding of both feature descriptors and visual content can be achieved by exploiting the interactions between each other. On the one hand, visual feature descriptors can achieve compact and efficient representation by taking advantages of the structure and motion information in the compressed video stream. To optimize the retrieval performance, a novel rate-accuracy optimization technique is proposed to accurately estimate the retrieval performance degradation in feature coding. On the other hand, the already compressed feature data can be utilized to further improve the video coding efficiency by applying feature matching-based affine motion compensation. Extensive simulations have shown that the proposed joint compression framework can offer significant bitrate reduction in representing both feature descriptors and video frames, while simultaneously maintaining the state-of-the-art visual retrieval performance.

  14. Automating the construction of scene classifiers for content-based video retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, L.; Israël, Menno; Petrushin, V.A.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a real time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification consists of a

  15. Control and Innovation on Digital Platforms : the case of Netflix and streaming of video content

    OpenAIRE

    Vigeland, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate innovation processes on innovation platforms, and look at the role played by content release for innovation in digital distribution of home entertainment. I argue that innovation platforms rely on several aspects of innovation in order to succeed, and this thesis is concerned with one of these, namely release of digital entertainment content. I use the American video streaming service Netflix as a case and example of such an innovation platform. By using techno...

  16. Adaptive Content Management for UGC Video Delivery in Mobile Internet Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilin Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of storing and transferring user generated content (UGC has been rapidly growing with the popularization of mobile devices equipped with video recording and playback capabilities. As a typical application of software-defined networks/network functions virtualization-based pervasive communications infrastructure, content delivery networks (CDNs have been widely leveraged to distribute contents across different geographical locations. Nevertheless, the content delivery for UGC is inefficient with the existing “pull-based” caching mechanism in traditional CDNs, because there exists a huge volume of lukewarm or cold UGC which results in a low cache hit ratio. In this paper, we propose a “push-based” caching mechanism to efficiently and economically deliver UGC videos. Different from traditional CDNs which separate the original content storage and caching, we directly store UGC videos into selective servers which serve as both reliable storages and user-facing uploading servers. By carefully and dynamically selecting the storage locations of each UGC object based on its popularity and locality, we not only guarantee the data availability but also remarkably improve the content distribution performance and reduce the distribution cost.

  17. Linguistic contributions to speech-on-speech masking for native and non-native listeners: Language familiarity and semantic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Susanne; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Calandruccio, Lauren; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether speech-on-speech masking is sensitive to variation in the degree of similarity between the target and the masker speech. Three experiments investigated whether speech-in-speech recognition varies across different background speech languages (English vs Dutch) for both English and Dutch targets, as well as across variation in the semantic content of the background speech (meaningful vs semantically anomalous sentences), and across variation in listener status vis-à-vis the target and masker languages (native, non-native, or unfamiliar). The results showed that the more similar the target speech is to the masker speech (e.g., same vs different language, same vs different levels of semantic content), the greater the interference on speech recognition accuracy. Moreover, the listener’s knowledge of the target and the background language modulate the size of the release from masking. These factors had an especially strong effect on masking effectiveness in highly unfavorable listening conditions. Overall this research provided evidence that that the degree of target-masker similarity plays a significant role in speech-in-speech recognition. The results also give insight into how listeners assign their resources differently depending on whether they are listening to their first or second language. PMID:22352516

  18. iPixel: a visual content-based and semantic search engine for retrieving digitized mammograms by using collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alor-Hernández, Giner; Pérez-Gallardo, Yuliana; Posada-Gómez, Rubén; Cortes-Robles, Guillermo; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Aguilar-Laserre, Alberto A

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays, traditional search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Bing facilitate the retrieval of information in the format of images, but the results are not always useful for the users. This is mainly due to two problems: (1) the semantic keywords are not taken into consideration and (2) it is not always possible to establish a query using the image features. This issue has been covered in different domains in order to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. The expert community has focussed their attention on the healthcare domain, where a lot of visual information for medical analysis is available. This paper provides a solution called iPixel Visual Search Engine, which involves semantics and content issues in order to search for digitized mammograms. iPixel offers the possibility of retrieving mammogram features using collective intelligence and implementing a CBIR algorithm. Our proposal compares not only features with similar semantic meaning, but also visual features. In this sense, the comparisons are made in different ways: by the number of regions per image, by maximum and minimum size of regions per image and by average intensity level of each region. iPixel Visual Search Engine supports the medical community in differential diagnoses related to the diseases of the breast. The iPixel Visual Search Engine has been validated by experts in the healthcare domain, such as radiologists, in addition to experts in digital image analysis.

  19. Video content analysis on body-worn cameras for retrospective investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; ter Haar, Frank B.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Wijn, Remco; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.

    2015-10-01

    In the security domain, cameras are important to assess critical situations. Apart from fixed surveillance cameras we observe an increasing number of sensors on mobile platforms, such as drones, vehicles and persons. Mobile cameras allow rapid and local deployment, enabling many novel applications and effects, such as the reduction of violence between police and citizens. However, the increased use of bodycams also creates potential challenges. For example: how can end-users extract information from the abundance of video, how can the information be presented, and how can an officer retrieve information efficiently? Nevertheless, such video gives the opportunity to stimulate the professionals' memory, and support complete and accurate reporting. In this paper, we show how video content analysis (VCA) can address these challenges and seize these opportunities. To this end, we focus on methods for creating a complete summary of the video, which allows quick retrieval of relevant fragments. The content analysis for summarization consists of several components, such as stabilization, scene selection, motion estimation, localization, pedestrian tracking and action recognition in the video from a bodycam. The different components and visual representations of summaries are presented for retrospective investigation.

  20. Automatic Synthesis of Background Music Track Data by Analysis of Video Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modegi, Toshio

    This paper describes an automatic creation technique of background music track data for given video file. Our proposed system is based on a novel BGM synthesizer, called “Matrix Music Player”, which can produce 3125 kinds of high-quality BGM contents by dynamically mixing 5 audio files, which are freely selected from total 25 audio waveform files. In order to retrieve appropriate BGM mixing patterns, we have constructed an acoustic analysis database, which records acoustic features of total 3125 synthesized patterns. Developing a video analyzer which generates image parameters of given video data and converts them to acoustic parameters, we will access the acoustic analysis database and retrieve an appropriate synthesized BGM signal, which can be included in the audio track of the source video file. Based on our proposed method, we have tried BGM synthesis experiments using several around 20-second video clips. The automatically inserted BGM audio streams for all of our given video clips have been objectively acceptable. In this paper, we describe briefly our proposed BGM synthesized method and its experimental results.

  1. Assessing the Content of YouTube Videos in Educating Patients Regarding Common Imaging Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Won, Eugene; Doshi, Ankur M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the content of currently available YouTube videos seeking to educate patients regarding commonly performed imaging examinations. After initial testing of possible search terms, the first two pages of YouTube search results for "CT scan," "MRI," "ultrasound patient," "PET scan," and "mammogram" were reviewed to identify educational patient videos created by health organizations. Sixty-three included videos were viewed and assessed for a range of features. Average views per video were highest for MRI (293,362) and mammography (151,664). Twenty-seven percent of videos used a nontraditional format (eg, animation, song, humor). All videos (100.0%) depicted a patient undergoing the examination, 84.1% a technologist, and 20.6% a radiologist; 69.8% mentioned examination lengths, 65.1% potential pain/discomfort, 41.3% potential radiation, 36.5% a radiology report/results, 27.0% the radiologist's role in interpretation, and 13.3% laboratory work. For CT, 68.8% mentioned intravenous contrast and 37.5% mentioned contrast safety. For MRI, 93.8% mentioned claustrophobia, 87.5% noise, 75.0% need to sit still, 68.8% metal safety, 50.0% intravenous contrast, and 0.0% contrast safety. For ultrasound, 85.7% mentioned use of gel. For PET, 92.3% mentioned radiotracer injection, 61.5% fasting, and 46.2% diabetic precautions. For mammography, unrobing, avoiding deodorant, and possible additional images were all mentioned by 63.6%; dense breasts were mentioned by 0.0%. Educational patient videos on YouTube regarding common imaging examinations received high public interest and may provide a valuable patient resource. Videos most consistently provided information detailing the examination experience and less consistently provided safety information or described the presence and role of the radiologist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards semantic-driven high-content image analysis: an operational instantiation for mitosis detection in digital histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoceanu, D; Capron, F

    2015-06-01

    This study concerns a novel symbolic cognitive vision framework emerged from the Cognitive Microscopy (MICO(1)) initiative. MICO aims at supporting the evolution towards digital pathology, by studying cognitive clinical-compliant protocols involving routine virtual microscopy. We instantiate this paradigm in the case of mitotic count as a component of breast cancer grading in histopathology. The key concept of our approach is the role of the semantics as driver of the whole slide image analysis protocol. All the decisions being taken into a semantic and formal world, MICO represents a knowledge-driven platform for digital histopathology. Therefore, the core of this initiative is the knowledge representation and the reasoning. Pathologists' knowledge and strategies are used to efficiently guide image analysis algorithms. In this sense, hard-coded knowledge, semantic and usability gaps are to be reduced by a leading, active role of reasoning and of semantic approaches. Integrating ontologies and reasoning in confluence with modular imaging algorithms, allows the emergence of new clinical-compliant protocols for digital pathology. This represents a promising way to solve decision reproducibility and traceability issues in digital histopathology, while increasing the flexibility of the platform and pathologists' acceptance, the one always having the legal responsibility in the diagnosis process. The proposed protocols open the way to increasingly reliable cancer assessment (i.e. multiple slides per sample analysis), quantifiable and traceable second opinion for cancer grading, and modern capabilities for cancer research support in histopathology (i.e. content and context-based indexing and retrieval). Last, but not least, the generic approach introduced here is applicable for number of additional challenges, related to molecular imaging and, in general, to high-content image exploration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control.

  4. Gestures convey content: an exploration of the semantic functions of physicians' gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwing, Jennifer; Dalby, Anne Marie Landmark

    2014-09-01

    Gestures' semiotic role in clinical interactions is unexplored. Using theoretical underpinnings from basic research on gesture, our objective was to investigate the semantic contributions of physicians' gestures during interactions with patients with a different native language. We analyzed gestures-speech composites in eight videotaped interactions between physicians and patients during treatment plan discussions. Using microanalysis of face-to-face dialogue and conversation analysis, we identified physicians' gestures, decided whether they served semantic functions, and explored their relationship with the accompanying speech. Using the operational definitions developed here resulted in high reliability. Physicians gestured at a mean rate of 6.5 gestures per 100 words. Approximately half of the gestures served semantic functions, with referents that were concrete (e.g., actions, body parts) and abstract (e.g., regularity, timelines). Gestures conveyed topic information, but speech conveyed information about that topic and context for interpreting gestures' meaning. Analyzing the semantic functions of gestures in clinical interactions is feasible. Physicians' gestures and speech formed integrated messages; the two modalities conveyed mutually dependent meanings. Physicians could become aware of the semiotic potential of gestures. However, conversational gestures lack conventional meanings and rely on the accompanying speech to provide necessary context for interpreting their meaning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Latent Semantic Analysis as a Method of Content-Based Image Retrieval in Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovoz, Gennadiy

    2010-01-01

    The research investigated whether a Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA)-based approach to image retrieval can map pixel intensity into a smaller concept space with good accuracy and reasonable computational cost. From a large set of M computed tomography (CT) images, a retrieval query found all images for a particular patient based on semantic…

  6. Using term clouds to represent segment-level semantic content of podcasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, M.; Tsagkias, E.; Newman, E.; Besser, J.; Larson, M.; Jones, G.J.F.; de Rijke, M.; Köhler, J.; Larson, M.; de Jong, F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Ordelman, R.J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spoken audio, like any time-continuous medium, is notoriously difficult to browse or skim without support of an interface providing semantically annotated jump points to signal the user where to listen in. Creation of time-aligned metadata by human annotators is prohibitively expensive, motivating

  7. Axiological and educational analysis of video-games with violence contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio ORTEGA CARRILLO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of video-games now in the market have contents related with physical and psychological violence. There are investigations that show that this kind of games is mainly used by children and adolescents. This fact reinitiates the polemic of the possible influence in the formation of their personality and, very specially, in the construction of the value scale that will direct their present and future behaviour as citizens. This paper shows the partial results of a recent research in which adult players related with the education area (future teachers analyzed critically the axiological component of a very important group of video-games which are important in the sales lists. For that purpose, a very specific scale has been used, with indicators related to the argument, the initial and final videos, the protagonist’s behaviour, the stenography, clothes, actions and partial and final results obtained by players.

  8. Headless, hungry, and unhealthy: a video content analysis of obese persons portrayed in online news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Peterson, Jamie Lee; DePierre, Jenny A; Luedicke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The news media has substantial influence on public perceptions of social and health issues. This study conducted a video content analysis to examine portrayals of obese persons in online news reports about obesity. The authors downloaded online news videos about obesity (N = 371) from 5 major news websites and systematically coded visual portrayals of obese and nonobese adults and youth in these videos. The authors found that 65% of overweight/obese adults and 77% of overweight/obese youth were portrayed in a negative, stigmatizing manner across multiple obesity-related topics covered in online news videos. In particular, overweight/obese individuals were significantly more likely than were nonoverweight individuals to be portrayed as headless, with an unflattering emphasis on isolated body parts, from an unflattering rear view of their excess weight, eating unhealthy foods, engaging in sedentary behavior, and dressed in inappropriately fitting clothing. Nonoverweight individuals were significantly more likely to be portrayed positively. In conclusion, obese children and adults are frequently stigmatized in online news videos about obesity. These findings have important implications for public perceptions of obesity and obese persons and may reinforce negative societal weight bias.

  9. Legacy2Drupal - Conversion of an existing oceanographic relational database to a semantically enabled Drupal content management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Work, T.; Allen, J.; Groman, R. C.; Fox, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Content Management Systems (CMSs) provide powerful features that can be of use to oceanographic (and other geo-science) data managers. However, in many instances, geo-science data management offices have previously designed customized schemas for their metadata. The WHOI Ocean Informatics initiative and the NSF funded Biological Chemical and Biological Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) have jointly sponsored a project to port an existing, relational database containing oceanographic metadata, along with an existing interface coded in Cold Fusion middleware, to a Drupal6 Content Management System. The goal was to translate all the existing database tables, input forms, website reports, and other features present in the existing system to employ Drupal CMS features. The replacement features include Drupal content types, CCK node-reference fields, themes, RDB, SPARQL, workflow, and a number of other supporting modules. Strategic use of some Drupal6 CMS features enables three separate but complementary interfaces that provide access to oceanographic research metadata via the MySQL database: 1) a Drupal6-powered front-end; 2) a standard SQL port (used to provide a Mapserver interface to the metadata and data; and 3) a SPARQL port (feeding a new faceted search capability being developed). Future plans include the creation of science ontologies, by scientist/technologist teams, that will drive semantically-enabled faceted search capabilities planned for the site. Incorporation of semantic technologies included in the future Drupal 7 core release is also anticipated. Using a public domain CMS as opposed to proprietary middleware, and taking advantage of the many features of Drupal 6 that are designed to support semantically-enabled interfaces will help prepare the BCO-DMO database for interoperability with other ecosystem databases.

  10. Organ donation on Web 2.0: content and audience analysis of organ donation videos on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the content of and audience response to organ donation videos on YouTube, a Web 2.0 platform, with framing theory. Positive frames were identified in both video content and audience comments. Analysis revealed a reciprocity relationship between media frames and audience frames. Videos covered content categories such as kidney, liver, organ donation registration process, and youth. Videos were favorably rated. No significant differences were found between videos produced by organizations and individuals in the United States and those produced in other countries. The findings provide insight into how new communication technologies are shaping health communication in ways that differ from traditional media. The implications of Web 2.0, characterized by user-generated content and interactivity, for health communication and health campaign practice are discussed.

  11. Fast repurposing of high-resolution stereo video content for mobile use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglu, Ali; Lee, Bong Ho; Boev, Atanas; Cheong, Won-Sik; Gotchev, Atanas

    2012-06-01

    3D video content is captured and created mainly in high resolution targeting big cinema or home TV screens. For 3D mobile devices, equipped with small-size auto-stereoscopic displays, such content has to be properly repurposed, preferably in real-time. The repurposing requires not only spatial resizing but also properly maintaining the output stereo disparity, as it should deliver realistic, pleasant and harmless 3D perception. In this paper, we propose an approach to adapt the disparity range of the source video to the comfort disparity zone of the target display. To achieve this, we adapt the scale and the aspect ratio of the source video. We aim at maximizing the disparity range of the retargeted content within the comfort zone, and minimizing the letterboxing of the cropped content. The proposed algorithm consists of five stages. First, we analyse the display profile, which characterises what 3D content can be comfortably observed in the target display. Then, we perform fast disparity analysis of the input stereoscopic content. Instead of returning the dense disparity map, it returns an estimate of the disparity statistics (min, max, meanand variance) per frame. Additionally, we detect scene cuts, where sharp transitions in disparities occur. Based on the estimated input, and desired output disparity ranges, we derive the optimal cropping parameters and scale of the cropping window, which would yield the targeted disparity range and minimize the area of cropped and letterboxed content. Once the rescaling and cropping parameters are known, we perform resampling procedure using spline-based and perceptually optimized resampling (anti-aliasing) kernels, which have also a very efficient computational structure. Perceptual optimization is achieved through adjusting the cut-off frequency of the anti-aliasing filter with the throughput of the target display.

  12. Is Content Really King? An Objective Analysis of the Public's Response to Medical Videos on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Shariff, Afreen; Dhingra, Vibhu; Minhas, Deeba; Eure, Megan; Kats, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Medical educators and patients are turning to YouTube to teach and learn about medical conditions. These videos are from authors whose credibility cannot be verified & are not peer reviewed. As a result, studies that have analyzed the educational content of YouTube have reported dismal results. These studies have been unable to exclude videos created by questionable sources and for non-educational purposes. We hypothesize that medical education YouTube videos, authored by credible sources, are of high educational value and appropriately suited to educate the public. Credible videos about cardiovascular diseases were identified using the Mayo Clinic's Center for Social Media Health network. Content in each video was assessed by the presence/absence of 7 factors. Each video was also evaluated for understandability using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). User engagement measurements were obtained for each video. A total of 607 videos (35 hours) were analyzed. Half of all videos contained 3 educational factors: treatment, screening, or prevention. There was no difference between the number of educational factors present & any user engagement measurement (p NS). SAM scores were higher in videos whose content discussed more educational factors (pYouTube. PMID:24367517

  13. Dry facts are not always inviting: a content analysis of Korean videos regarding Parkinson's disease on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryul; Park, Hye-Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Aryun; Jang, Mi-Hee; Jeon, Beomseok

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of Korean videos regarding Parkinson's disease (PD) on YouTube and viewers' responses to them. YouTube search was performed using the search term "Parkinson disease" in Korean language on March 28, 2017. Two independent neurologists categorized the videos into "reliable", "misleading" or "patient experiences". The number of views, days since upload, video length, number of "likes" and "dislikes", and upload source were collected for each video. A total of 138 videos were included in this study. Of these, 91 videos (65.9%) were reliable; 31 (22.5%) were misleading, and 16 (11.6%) were of patient experiences. The videos with patient experiences had the highest number of mean views with 9710.4±3686.9, followed by misleading videos with 5075.0±1198.6, and reliable videos with 2146.8±353.4 (ANOVA, pYouTube provide reliable information. More importantly, the videos with reliable contents were less popular than videos with misleading contents. Further efforts are warranted to effectively increase the dissemination of accurate and scientifically proven PD information to YouTube users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Cranwell, J.C.; Whitamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11?17 years were included as participants. Reported...

  15. Axiological and educational analysis of video-games with violence contents

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio ORTEGA CARRILLO; Mª Carmen ROBLES VILCHEZ

    2017-01-01

    A high percentage of video-games now in the market have contents related with physical and psychological violence. There are investigations that show that this kind of games is mainly used by children and adolescents. This fact reinitiates the polemic of the possible influence in the formation of their personality and, very specially, in the construction of the value scale that will direct their present and future behaviour as citizens. This paper shows the partial results of a recent researc...

  16. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect...... already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 X 20 emotion, face, and hand related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using...... versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing...

  17. An Ontological Framework for Retrieving Environmental Sounds Using Semantics and Acoustic Content

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Wichern; Brandon Mechtley; Alex Fink; Harvey Thornburg; Andreas Spanias

    2010-01-01

    Organizing a database of user-contributed environmental sound recordings allows sound files to be linked not only by the semantic tags and labels applied to them, but also to other sounds with similar acoustic characteristics. Of paramount importance in navigating these databases are the problems of retrieving similar sounds using text- or sound-based queries, and automatically annotating unlabeled sounds. We propose an integrated system, which can be used for text-based retrieval of unlabel...

  18. Latent Semantics of Action Verbs Reflect Phonetic Parameters of Intensity and Emotional Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  19. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  20. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kai Petersen

    Full Text Available Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  1. Enabling Seamless Access to Digital Graphical Contents for Visually Impaired Individuals via Semantic-Aware Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zheshen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision is one of the main sources through which people obtain information from the world, but unfortunately, visually-impaired people are partially or completely deprived of this type of information. With the help of computer technologies, people with visual impairment can independently access digital textual information by using text-to-speech and text-to-Braille software. However, in general, there still exists a major barrier for people who are blind to access the graphical information independently in real-time without the help of sighted people. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-level and multi-modal approach aiming at addressing this challenging and practical problem, with the key idea being semantic-aware visual-to-tactile conversion through semantic image categorization and segmentation, and semantic-driven image simplification. An end-to-end prototype system was built based on the approach. We present the details of the approach and the system, report sample experimental results with realistic data, and compare our approach with current typical practice.

  2. Enabling Seamless Access to Digital Graphical Contents for Visually Impaired Individuals via Semantic-Aware Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoxin Li

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Vision is one of the main sources through which people obtain information from the world, but unfortunately, visually-impaired people are partially or completely deprived of this type of information. With the help of computer technologies, people with visual impairment can independently access digital textual information by using text-to-speech and text-to-Braille software. However, in general, there still exists a major barrier for people who are blind to access the graphical information independently in real-time without the help of sighted people. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-level and multi-modal approach aiming at addressing this challenging and practical problem, with the key idea being semantic-aware visual-to-tactile conversion through semantic image categorization and segmentation, and semantic-driven image simplification. An end-to-end prototype system was built based on the approach. We present the details of the approach and the system, report sample experimental results with realistic data, and compare our approach with current typical practice.

  3. HATE BENEATH THE COUNTER SPEECH? A QUALITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS OF USER COMMENTS ON YOUTUBE RELATED TO COUNTER SPEECH VIDEOS

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Ernst; Schmitt, Josephine B.; Diana Rieger; Ann Kristin Beier; Peter Vorderer; Gary Bente; Hans Joachim Roth

    2017-01-01

    The odds in stumbling over extremist material in the internet are high. Counter speech videos, such as those of the German campaign Begriffswelten Islam (Concepts of Islam; Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2015a) published on YouTube, offer alternative perspectives and democratic ideas to counteract extremist content. YouTube users may discuss these videos in the comment sections below the video. Yet, it remains open which topics these users bring up in their comments. Moreover, it is u...

  4. The influence of sexual music videos on adolescents' misogynistic beliefs: the role of video content, gender, and affective engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on how sexual music videos affect beliefs related to sexual aggression is rare and has not differentiated between the effects of music videos by male and female artists. Moreover, little is known about the affective processes that underlie the effects of sexual music videos. Using data from

  5. 2D/3D video content adaptation decision engine based on content classification and user assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M. T.

    2017-07-01

    Multimedia adaptation depends on several factors, such as the content itself, the consumption device and its characteristics, the transport and access networks and the user. An adaptation decision engine, in order to provide the best possible Quality of Experience to a user, needs to have information about all variables that may influence its decision. For the aforementioned factors, we implement content classification, define device classes, consider limited bandwidth scenarios and categorize user preferences based on a subjective quality evaluation test. The results of these actions generate vital information to pass to the adaptation decision engine so that its operation may provide the indication of the most suitable adaptation to perform that delivers the best possible outcome for the user under the existing constraints.

  6. Content analysis of antismoking videos on YouTube: message sensation value, message appeals, and their relationships with viewer responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Kyongseok; Hove, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on several message features that are prominent in antismoking campaign literature, this content-analytic study examines 934 antismoking video clips on YouTube for the following characteristics...

  7. Building biomedical web communities using a semantically aware content management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; Girard, Lisa; Green, Tom; Weitzman, Louis; Lewis-Bowen, Alister; Clark, Tim

    2009-03-01

    Web-based biomedical communities are becoming an increasingly popular vehicle for sharing information amongst researchers and are fast gaining an online presence. However, information organization and exchange in such communities is usually unstructured, rendering interoperability between communities difficult. Furthermore, specialized software to create such communities at low cost-targeted at the specific common information requirements of biomedical researchers-has been largely lacking. At the same time, a growing number of biological knowledge bases and biomedical resources are being structured for the Semantic Web. Several groups are creating reference ontologies for the biomedical domain, actively publishing controlled vocabularies and making data available in Resource Description Framework (RDF) language. We have developed the Science Collaboration Framework (SCF) as a reusable platform for advanced structured online collaboration in biomedical research that leverages these ontologies and RDF resources. SCF supports structured 'Web 2.0' style community discourse amongst researchers, makes heterogeneous data resources available to the collaborating scientist, captures the semantics of the relationship among the resources and structures discourse around the resources. The first instance of the SCF framework is being used to create an open-access online community for stem cell research-StemBook (http://www.stembook.org). We believe that such a framework is required to achieve optimal productivity and leveraging of resources in interdisciplinary scientific research. We expect it to be particularly beneficial in highly interdisciplinary areas, such as neurodegenerative disease and neurorepair research, as well as having broad utility across the natural sciences.

  8. Practical, Real-Time, and Robust Watermarking on the Spatial Domain for High-Definition Video Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Su; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Im, Dong-Hyuck; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    Commercial markets employ digital right management (DRM) systems to protect valuable high-definition (HD) quality videos. DRM system uses watermarking to provide copyright protection and ownership authentication of multimedia contents. We propose a real-time video watermarking scheme for HD video in the uncompressed domain. Especially, our approach is in aspect of practical perspectives to satisfy perceptual quality, real-time processing, and robustness requirements. We simplify and optimize human visual system mask for real-time performance and also apply dithering technique for invisibility. Extensive experiments are performed to prove that the proposed scheme satisfies the invisibility, real-time processing, and robustness requirements against video processing attacks. We concentrate upon video processing attacks that commonly occur in HD quality videos to display on portable devices. These attacks include not only scaling and low bit-rate encoding, but also malicious attacks such as format conversion and frame rate change.

  9. Direct ophthalmoscopy on YouTube: analysis of instructional YouTube videos' content and approach to visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgersen, Nanna Jo; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Konge, Lars; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Subhi, Yousif

    2016-01-01

    Direct ophthalmoscopy is well-suited for video-based instruction, particularly if the videos enable the student to see what the examiner sees when performing direct ophthalmoscopy. We evaluated the pedagogical effectiveness of instructional YouTube videos on direct ophthalmoscopy by evaluating their content and approach to visualization. In order to synthesize main themes and points for direct ophthalmoscopy, we formed a broad panel consisting of a medical student, junior and senior physicians, and took into consideration book chapters targeting medical students and physicians in general. We then systematically searched YouTube. Two authors reviewed eligible videos to assess eligibility and extract data on video statistics, content, and approach to visualization. Correlations between video statistics and contents were investigated using two-tailed Spearman's correlation. We screened 7,640 videos, of which 27 were found eligible for this study. Overall, a median of 12 out of 18 points (interquartile range: 8-14 key points) were covered; no videos covered all of the 18 points assessed. We found the most difficulties in the approach to visualization of how to approach the patient and how to examine the fundus. Time spent on fundus examination correlated with the number of views per week (Spearman's ρ=0.53; P=0.029). Videos may help overcome the pedagogical issues in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy; however, the few available videos on YouTube fail to address this particular issue adequately. There is a need for high-quality videos that include relevant points, provide realistic visualization of the examiner's view, and give particular emphasis on fundus examination.

  10. Semantic Brokering of Multimedia Contents for Smart Delivery of Ubiquitous Services in Pervasive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Amato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of modern mobile devices having the capability to interact each other and with the environment in a transparent manner, there is an increase in the development of those applications that are specifically designed for pervasive and ubiquitous environments. Those applications are able to provide a service of interest for the user that depends on context information, such as the user's position, his preferences, the capability of the device and its available resources. Services have to respond in a rational way in manydifferent situations choosing the actions with the best expected result by the user, so making environment not only more connected and efficient, but smarter. Here we present a semantic framework that provides the technology for the development of intelligent, context aware service.

  11. Through the looking glass of a chemistry video game: Evaluating the effects of different MLEs presenting identical content material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Dustin S.

    The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of different media-based learning environments (MLEs) that present identical chemistry content material. This is done with four different MLEs that utilize some or all components of a chemistry-based media-based prototype video game. Examination of general chemistry student volunteers purposefully randomized to one of four different MLEs did not provide evidence that the higher the level of interactivity resulted in a more effective MLE for the chemistry content. Data suggested that the cognitive load to play the chemistry-based video game may impaired the chemistry content being presented and recalled by the students while the students watching the movie of the chemistry-based video game were able to recall the chemistry content more efficiently. Further studies in this area need to address the overall cognitive load of the different MLEs to potentially better determine what the most effective MLE may be for this chemistry content.

  12. Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.

  13. Towards a Video Passive Content Fingerprinting Method for Partial-Copy Detection Robust against Non-Simulated Attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobeida Jezabel Guzman-Zavaleta

    Full Text Available Passive content fingerprinting is widely used for video content identification and monitoring. However, many challenges remain unsolved especially for partial-copies detection. The main challenge is to find the right balance between the computational cost of fingerprint extraction and fingerprint dimension, without compromising detection performance against various attacks (robustness. Fast video detection performance is desirable in several modern applications, for instance, in those where video detection involves the use of large video databases or in applications requiring real-time video detection of partial copies, a process whose difficulty increases when videos suffer severe transformations. In this context, conventional fingerprinting methods are not fully suitable to cope with the attacks and transformations mentioned before, either because the robustness of these methods is not enough or because their execution time is very high, where the time bottleneck is commonly found in the fingerprint extraction and matching operations. Motivated by these issues, in this work we propose a content fingerprinting method based on the extraction of a set of independent binary global and local fingerprints. Although these features are robust against common video transformations, their combination is more discriminant against severe video transformations such as signal processing attacks, geometric transformations and temporal and spatial desynchronization. Additionally, we use an efficient multilevel filtering system accelerating the processes of fingerprint extraction and matching. This multilevel filtering system helps to rapidly identify potential similar video copies upon which the fingerprint process is carried out only, thus saving computational time. We tested with datasets of real copied videos, and the results show how our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods regarding detection scores. Furthermore, the granularity of our method makes

  14. Celiac disease on YouTube - a study of the Polish content available on the popular video-sharing website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowski, Mirosław; Mróz, Andrzej; Gajewska, Danuta; Nurzyński, Paweł; Deptała, Andrzej

    2017-10-23

    Celiac disease affects about 1% of the population. Since most Polish households have a broadband Internet connection, a lot of people use web resources to learn about health and disease. YouTube service (www.youtube.com) offers a lot of videos concerning celiac disease. However, the credibility of the Polish videos available on YouTube and concerning celiac disease has never been analyzed. The aim of the study was to determine whether the YouTube service offers valuable content for Polish people affected by celiac disease. One hundred and fifty-four unique videos devoted to celiac disease and available in the Polish language were identified and critically assessed. Each video was categorized due to its topic(s), and evaluated for its credibility by two independent researchers. In general, 127 (82.5%) videos were found to be credible. The most credible categories of content presented organizations and events related to celiac disease/celiac society, followed by culinary recipes (100.0, 100.0, and 95.6% of credible videos, respectively). The least trustworthy categories were devoted to pathobiology and advertisements (55.6 and 54.3% of credible videos, respectively). YouTube service can serve as a supplementary source of knowledge for people affected by celiac disease, after careful selection of trustworthy content.

  15. Gender (In)equality in Internet Pornography: A Content Analysis of Popular Pornographic Internet Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Marleen J E; Peter, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Although Internet pornography is widely consumed and researchers have started to investigate its effects, we still know little about its content. This has resulted in contrasting claims about whether Internet pornography depicts gender (in)equality and whether this depiction differs between amateur and professional pornography. We conducted a content analysis of three main dimensions of gender (in)equality (i.e., objectification, power, and violence) in 400 popular pornographic Internet videos from the most visited pornographic Web sites. Objectification was depicted more often for women through instrumentality, but men were more frequently objectified through dehumanization. Regarding power, men and women did not differ in social or professional status, but men were more often shown as dominant and women as submissive during sexual activities. Except for spanking and gagging, violence occurred rather infrequently. Nonconsensual sex was also relatively rare. Overall, amateur pornography contained more gender inequality at the expense of women than professional pornography did.

  16. Preschoolers' Recall of Science Content From Educational Videos Presented With and Without Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Rachel L.

    This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and its parts) and their use of the precise scientific terms presented in the episode. A total of 91 preschoolers were included (3-5 years old). Clusters of children were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three video groups: (a) Dialogue Only, which did not include a song; (b) Dialogue Plus Lyrics, which included a song; or (c) Lyrics Only, which consisted of a song, played twice. Results from interviews suggested that children from all video groups (lyrics and/or dialogue) were able to explain the form and function of a pulley better than the control group. The data suggested that children from the Lyrics Only group understood the science content because of the visual imagery, not through the information provided in the lyrics. In terms of precise vocabulary terms, significantly more children in the Dialogue Only group recalled at least one precise term from the program compared to the Lyrics Only group. Looking at the interview as a whole, the children's responses suggested different levels of scientific understanding. Children would require additional teacher-led instruction to deepen their scientific understanding and to clarify any misconceptions. This paper discusses implications of these findings for teachers using multi-media tools in the science classroom and producers creating new educational programming for television and other platforms.

  17. Online scene change detection of multicast (MBone) video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Ye; Vellaikal, Asha; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-10-01

    Many multimedia applications, such as multimedia data management systems and communication systems, require efficient representation of multimedia content. Thus semantic interpretation of video content has been a popular research area. Currently, most content-based video representation involves the segmentation of video based on key frames which are generated using scene change detection techniques as well as camera/object motion. Then, video features can be extracted from key frames. However most of such research performs off-line video processing in which the whole video scope is known as a priori which allows multiple scans of the stored video files during video processing. In comparison, relatively not much research has been done in the area of on-line video processing, which is crucial in video communication applications such as on-line collaboration, news broadcasts and so on. Our research investigates on-line real-time scene change detection of multicast video over the Internet. Our on-line processing system are designed to meet the requirements of real-time video multicasting over the Internet and to utilize the successful video parsing techniques available today. The proposed algorithms extract key frames from video bitstreams sent through the MBone network, and the extracted key frames are multicasted as annotations or metadata over a separate channel to assist in content filtering such as those anticipated to be in use by on-line filtering proxies in the Internet. The performance of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated and discussed in this paper.

  18. A content analysis of the portrayal of alcohol in televised music videos in New Zealand: changes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Kate; Wilson, Nick; Imlach Gunasekara, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to: (i) document the extent and nature of alcohol portrayal in televised music videos in New Zealand in 2010; and (ii) assess trends over time by comparing with a similar 2005 sample. We undertook a content analysis for references to alcohol in 861 music videos shown on a youth-orientated television channel in New Zealand. This was compared with a sample in 2005 (564 music videos on the same channel plus sampling from two other channels). The proportion of alcohol content in the music videos was slightly higher in 2010 than for the same channel in the 2005 sample (19.5% vs. 15.7%) but this difference was not statistically significant. Only in the genre 'Rhythm and Blues' was the increase over time significant (P = 0.015). In both studies, the portrayal of alcohol was significantly more common in music videos where the main artist was international (not from New Zealand). Furthermore, in the music videos with alcohol content, at least a third of the time, alcohol was shown being consumed and the main artist was involved with alcohol. In only 2% (in 2005) and 4% (in 2010) of these videos was the tone explicitly negative towards alcohol. In both these studies, the portrayal of alcohol was relatively common in music videos. Nevertheless, there are various ways that policy makers can denormalise alcohol in youth-orientated media such as music videos or to compensate via other alcohol control measures such as higher alcohol taxes. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Concept indexing and expansion for social multimedia websites based on semantic processing and graph analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Chuan; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chang, Hangbae

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a human-centric technique for social video expansion based on semantic processing and graph analysis. The objective is to increase metadata of an online video and to explore related information, thereby facilitating user browsing activities. To analyze the semantic meaning of a video, shots and scenes are firstly extracted from the video on the server side. Subsequently, this study uses annotations along with ConceptNet to establish the underlying framework. Detailed metadata, including visual objects and audio events among the predefined categories, are indexed by using the proposed method. Furthermore, relevant online media associated with each category are also analyzed to enrich the existing content. With the above-mentioned information, users can easily browse and search the content according to the link analysis and its complementary knowledge. Experiments on a video dataset are conducted for evaluation. The results show that our system can achieve satisfactory performance, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed idea.

  20. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, Jo; Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-07-01

    To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11-17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75-4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70-3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol.

  1. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11–17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75–4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70–3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27428030

  2. Prevalence of Behavior Changing Strategies in Fitness Video Games: Theory-Based Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatkevich, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background Fitness video games are popular, but little is known about their content. Because many contain interactive tools that mimic behavioral strategies from weight loss intervention programs, it is possible that differences in content could affect player physical activity and/or weight outcomes. There is a need for a better understanding of what behavioral strategies are currently available in fitness games and how they are implemented. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of evidence-based behavioral strategies across fitness video games available for home use. Games available for consoles that used camera-based controllers were also contrasted with games available for a console that used handheld motion controllers. Methods Fitness games (N=18) available for three home consoles were systematically identified and play-tested by 2 trained coders for at least 3 hours each. In cases of multiple games from one series, only the most recently released game was included. The Sony PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Xbox360 were the two camera-based consoles, and the Nintendo Wii was the handheld motion controller console. A coding list based on a taxonomy of behavioral strategies was used to begin coding. Codes were refined in an iterative process based on data found during play-testing. Results The most prevalent behavioral strategies were modeling (17/18), specific performance feedback (17/18), reinforcement (16/18), caloric expenditure feedback (15/18), and guided practice (15/18). All games included some kind of feedback on performance accuracy, exercise frequency, and/or fitness progress. Action planning (scheduling future workouts) was the least prevalent of the included strategies (4/18). Twelve games included some kind of social integration, with nine of them providing options for real-time multiplayer sessions. Only two games did not feature any kind of reward. Games for the camera-based consoles (mean 12.89, SD 2.71) included a

  3. Prevalence of behavior changing strategies in fitness video games: theory-based content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth Jane; Hatkevich, Claire

    2013-05-07

    Fitness video games are popular, but little is known about their content. Because many contain interactive tools that mimic behavioral strategies from weight loss intervention programs, it is possible that differences in content could affect player physical activity and/or weight outcomes. There is a need for a better understanding of what behavioral strategies are currently available in fitness games and how they are implemented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of evidence-based behavioral strategies across fitness video games available for home use. Games available for consoles that used camera-based controllers were also contrasted with games available for a console that used handheld motion controllers. Fitness games (N=18) available for three home consoles were systematically identified and play-tested by 2 trained coders for at least 3 hours each. In cases of multiple games from one series, only the most recently released game was included. The Sony PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Xbox360 were the two camera-based consoles, and the Nintendo Wii was the handheld motion controller console. A coding list based on a taxonomy of behavioral strategies was used to begin coding. Codes were refined in an iterative process based on data found during play-testing. The most prevalent behavioral strategies were modeling (17/18), specific performance feedback (17/18), reinforcement (16/18), caloric expenditure feedback (15/18), and guided practice (15/18). All games included some kind of feedback on performance accuracy, exercise frequency, and/or fitness progress. Action planning (scheduling future workouts) was the least prevalent of the included strategies (4/18). Twelve games included some kind of social integration, with nine of them providing options for real-time multiplayer sessions. Only two games did not feature any kind of reward. Games for the camera-based consoles (mean 12.89, SD 2.71) included a greater number of strategies than those

  4. HATE BENEATH THE COUNTER SPEECH? A QUALITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS OF USER COMMENTS ON YOUTUBE RELATED TO COUNTER SPEECH VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Ernst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The odds in stumbling over extremist material in the internet are high. Counter speech videos, such as those of the German campaign Begriffswelten Islam (Concepts of Islam; Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2015a published on YouTube, offer alternative perspectives and democratic ideas to counteract extremist content. YouTube users may discuss these videos in the comment sections below the video. Yet, it remains open which topics these users bring up in their comments. Moreover, it is unknown how far user comments in this context may promote hate speech—the very opposite of what counter speeches intent to evoke. By applying a qualitative content analysis on a randomly selected sample of user comments, which appeared beneath the counter speech videos of Concepts of Islam, we found that comments dominated, which dealt with devaluating prejudices and stereotypes towards Muslims and/or Islam. However, we also discovered that users in a large scale discussed the content of the videos. Moreover, we identified user comments, which hint at hateful speech either in comments themselves or the discourse the comments are embedded in. Based on these results, we discuss implications for researchers, practitioners and security agencies.

  5. Videography-Based Unconstrained Video Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Li, Sheng; Oh, Sangmin; Fu, Yun

    2017-05-01

    Video analysis and understanding play a central role in visual intelligence. In this paper, we aim to analyze unconstrained videos, by designing features and approaches to represent and analyze videography styles in the videos. Videography denotes the process of making videos. The unconstrained videos are defined as the long duration consumer videos that usually have diverse editing artifacts and significant complexity of contents. We propose to construct a videography dictionary, which can be utilized to represent every video clip as a sequence of videography words. In addition to semantic features, such as foreground object motion and camera motion, we also incorporate two novel interpretable features to characterize videography, including the scale information and the motion correlations. We then demonstrate that, by using statistical analysis methods, the unique videography signatures extracted from different events can be automatically identified. For real-world applications, we explore the use of videography analysis for three types of applications, including content-based video retrieval, video summarization (both visual and textual), and videography-based feature pooling. In the experiments, we evaluate the performance of our approach and other methods on a large-scale unconstrained video dataset, and show that the proposed approach significantly benefits video analysis in various ways.

  6. A New Tool for Collaborative Video Search via Content-based Retrieval and Visual Inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hürst, W.O.; Ip Vai Ching, Algernon; Hudelist, Marco A.; Primus, Manfred J.; Schoeffmann, Klaus; Beecks, Chrisitan

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach for collaborative video search and video browsing relying on a combination of traditional, indexbased video retrieval complemented with large-scale human-based visual inspection. In particular, a traditional PC interface is used for query-based search using advanced

  7. Comprehensive depth estimation algorithm for efficient stereoscopic content creation in three-dimensional video systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huihui; Jiang, Mingyan

    2015-07-01

    Two-dimensional to three-dimensional (3-D) conversion in 3-D video applications has attracted great attention as it can alleviate the problem of stereoscopic content shortage. Depth estimation is an essential part of this conversion since the depth accuracy directly affects the quality of a stereoscopic image. In order to generate a perceptually reasonable depth map, a comprehensive depth estimation algorithm that considers the scenario type is presented. Based on the human visual system mechanism, which is sensitive to a change in the scenario, this study classifies the type of scenario into four classes according to the relationship between the movements of the camera and the object, and then leverages different strategies on the basis of the scenario type. The proposed strategies efficiently extract the depth information from different scenarios. In addition, the depth generation method for a scenario in which there is no motion, neither of the object nor the camera, is also suitable for the single image. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed depth estimation algorithm is very effective for generating stereoscopic content and providing a realistic visual experience.

  8. Good clean fun? A content analysis of profanity in video games and its prevalence across game systems and ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, James D; Williams, Dmitri; Martins, Nicole; Consalvo, Mia

    2009-08-01

    Although violent video game content and its effects have been examined extensively by empirical research, verbal aggression in the form of profanity has received less attention. Building on preliminary findings from previous studies, an extensive content analysis of profanity in video games was conducted using a sample of the 150 top-selling video games across all popular game platforms (including home consoles, portable consoles, and personal computers). The frequency of profanity, both in general and across three profanity categories, was measured and compared to games' ratings, sales, and platforms. Generally, profanity was found in about one in five games and appeared primarily in games rated for teenagers or above. Games containing profanity, however, tended to contain it frequently. Profanity was not found to be related to games' sales or platforms.

  9. Dreams in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an analysis of semantic and emotional content compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauteraud, A; Menny, J C; Philip, P; Peyré, F; Bonnin, J M

    2001-08-01

    We sought to investigate the content of the dreams of obsessive-compulsive outpatients in the light of the following postulate: if dreams play a role in the processing of information and mental storage of events of the day, the dream recollections of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients should present evidence of diurnal obsessive or ritual themes. On seven successive mornings, immediately after awakening in their home environment, 10 nondepressed OCD patients and 11 controls recorded their recollections of the night's dreams on an audiotape. After randomization of dreams, two judges were asked to carry out a blind evaluation of the emotional characteristics perceptible in these dreams and the presence of obsessive or ritual themes. 47 dreams were collected in the OCD group and 55 in the control group. No differences were found between the two groups regarding anxiety, sadness, the theme of failure, or the presence of obsessive or ritual themes. About 60% of OCD patients and 73% of the control group recounted dreams expressing anxiety, sadness, or failure. Most surprisingly, in the control group as well as in the OCD group, about one-third of subjects presented obsessive or ritual themes in their dreams. These data suggest that there is no evident link between diurnal mental activity and the morning recollection of nocturnal dreams regarding anxiety, failure, sadness, and obsessive-compulsive themes.

  10. Shedding light on emotional perception: Interaction of brightness and semantic content in extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Keil, Andreas; Porcu, Emanuele; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-06-01

    The rapid extraction of affective cues from the visual environment is crucial for flexible behavior. Previous studies have reported emotion-dependent amplitude modulations of two event-related potential (ERP) components - the N1 and EPN - reflecting sensory gain control mechanisms in extrastriate visual areas. However, it is unclear whether both components are selective electrophysiological markers of attentional orienting toward emotional material or are also influenced by physical features of the visual stimuli. To address this question, electrical brain activity was recorded from seventeen male participants while viewing original and bright versions of neutral and erotic pictures. Bright neutral scenes were rated as more pleasant compared to their original counterpart, whereas erotic scenes were judged more positively when presented in their original version. Classical and mass univariate ERP analysis showed larger N1 amplitude for original relative to bright erotic pictures, with no differences for original and bright neutral scenes. Conversely, the EPN was only modulated by picture content and not by brightness, substantiating the idea that this component is a unique electrophysiological marker of attention allocation toward emotional material. Complementary topographic analysis revealed the early selective expression of a centro-parietal positivity following the presentation of original erotic scenes only, reflecting the recruitment of neural networks associated with sustained attention and facilitated memory encoding for motivationally relevant material. Overall, these results indicate that neural networks subtending the extraction of emotional information are differentially recruited depending on low-level perceptual features, which ultimately influence affective evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Use of Eye Tracking in Research on Video-Based Second Language (L2) Listening Assessment: A Comparison of Context Videos and Content Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Investigating how visuals affect test takers' performance on video-based L2 listening tests has been the focus of many recent studies. While most existing research has been based on test scores and self-reported verbal data, few studies have examined test takers' viewing behavior (Ockey, 2007; Wagner, 2007, 2010a). To address this gap, in the…

  12. Sexually Explicit Media on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Sexual Behaviors, Risk, and Media Characteristics in Gay Male Adult Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex perfor...

  13. Channel Allocation Based on Content Characteristics for Video Transmission in Time-Domain-Based Multichannel Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jalil Piran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for channel allocation based on video content requirements and the quality of the available channels in cognitive radio networks (CRNs. Our objective is to save network bandwidth and achieve high-quality video delivery. In this method, the content is divided into clusters based on scene complexity and PSNR. To allocate channel to the clusters over multichannel CRNs, we first need to identify the licensee’s activity and then maximize the opportunistic usage accordingly. Therefore, we classify short and long time transmission opportunities based on the licensee’s activities using a Bayesian nonparametric inference model. Furthermore, to prevent transmission interruption, we consider the underlay mode for transmission of the clusters with a lower bitrate. Next, we map the available spectrum opportunities to the content clusters according to both the quality of the channels and the requirements of the clusters. Then, a distortion optimization model is constructed according to the network transmission mechanism. Finally, to maximize the average quality of the delivered video, an optimization problem is defined to determine the best bitrate for each cluster by maximizing the sum of the logarithms of the frame rates. Our extensive simulation results prove the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of spectrum efficiency and the quality of delivered video.

  14. Semantic Web Primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Grigoris; Harmelen, Frank van

    2004-01-01

    The development of the Semantic Web, with machine-readable content, has the potential to revolutionize the World Wide Web and its use. A Semantic Web Primer provides an introduction and guide to this still emerging field, describing its key ideas, languages, and technologies. Suitable for use as a

  15. Content analysis of antismoking videos on YouTube: message sensation value, message appeals, and their relationships with viewer responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Kyongseok; Hove, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Focusing on several message features that are prominent in antismoking campaign literature, this content-analytic study examines 934 antismoking video clips on YouTube for the following characteristics: message sensation value (MSV) and three types of message appeal (threat, social and humor). These four characteristics are then linked to YouTube's interactive audience response mechanisms (number of viewers, viewer ratings and number of comments) to capture message reach, viewer preference and viewer engagement. The findings suggest the following: (i) antismoking messages are prevalent on YouTube, (ii) MSV levels of online antismoking videos are relatively low compared with MSV levels of televised antismoking messages, (iii) threat appeals are the videos' predominant message strategy and (iv) message characteristics are related to viewer reach and viewer preference.

  16. Content-Based Indexing and Teaching Focus Mining for Lecture Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tzu; Yen, Bai-Jang; Chang, Chia-Hu; Lee, Greg C.; Lin, Yu-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an indexing and teaching focus mining system for lecture videos recorded in an unconstrained environment. Design/methodology/approach: By applying the proposed algorithms in this paper, the slide structure can be reconstructed by extracting slide images from the video. Instead of applying…

  17. Movie Ratings and the Content of Adult Videos: The Sex-Violence Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ni; Linz, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Quantifies sexual, violent, sexually violent, and prosocial behaviors in a sample of R-rated and X-rated videocassettes. Finds the predominant behavior in both X- and XXX-rated videos is sexual. Finds the predominant behavior in R-rated videos was violence followed by prosocial behavior. (RS)

  18. What arguments on vaccinations run through YouTube videos in Italy? A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covolo, Loredana; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Passeri, Chiara; Boletti, Michela; Gelatti, Umberto

    2017-07-03

    The suspension of compulsory scheduling of some pediatric vaccines has been discussed for a long time by health authorities in Italy but the current decrease of vaccination rates is a matter of concern. YouTube is the most popular video-based social media website. Considering the demonstrated impact of internet on vaccination decision-making and the increasing use of social media to share and disseminate health information, the aim of this study was to explore the message available on YouTube videos about vaccination. An observational study was conducted searching for YouTube videos in September 2015 and updated in January 2016, by using the keyword "vaccinations." We included recently posted videos in Italian on child vaccination (2014-2015). Videos were classified according to the message tone. A total of 123 videos were selected. Pro-vaccination videos were 62 (50%), anti-vaccination 28 (23%), neutral or without a clear position in favor or against vaccination 33 (27%). Focusing on the first 2 groups, pro-vaccination videos had a higher number of views compared with those unfavorable (1602 ± 6544 vs 1482 ± 2735) (p viewers (17.8 ± 31.3) than positive ones (13.2 ± 44.7) (p viewers, it is important to monitor the web to understand audience characteristics and what influences public opinions to use communication strategies more effectively.

  19. How violent video games communicate violence: A literature review and content analysis of moral disengagement factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Krakowiak, M.; Tsay-Vogel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of moral disengagement in violent video game play have recently received considerable attention among communication scholars. To date, however, no study has analyzed the prevalence of moral disengagement factors in violent video games. To fill this research gap, the present approach

  20. Obesity in the new media: a content analysis of obesity videos on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jina H; Kim, Junghyun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines (1) how the topics of obesity are framed and (2) how obese persons are portrayed on YouTube video clips. The analysis of 417 obesity videos revealed that a newer medium like YouTube, similar to traditional media, appeared to assign responsibility and solutions for obesity mainly to individuals and their behaviors, although there was a tendency that some video categories have started to show other causal claims or solutions. However, due to the prevailing emphasis on personal causes and solutions, numerous YouTube videos had a theme of weight-based teasing, or showed obese persons engaging in stereotypical eating behaviors. We discuss a potential impact of YouTube videos on shaping viewers' perceptions about obesity and further reinforcing stigmatization of obese persons.

  1. The Effects of Profanity in Violent Video Game Content on Players' Hostile Expectations, Accessibility of Aggressive Thoughts, Aggressive Feelings, and Other Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ivory, Adrienne Holz

    2010-01-01

    Although the effects of violent video games on aggression in users have been researched extensively and the resulting body of research shows that violent video games can increase aggressive behaviors, aggression-related feelings and thoughts, and physiological arousal, no empirical studies to date have examined whether there are similar and parallel effects of verbal aggression (e.g., profanity) in video game content. A 2 X 2 between-subjects factorial experiment (N = 321) tested the effects ...

  2. Evaluation of stereoscopic medical video content on an autostereoscopic display for undergraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgner, Justus F. R.; Kawai, Takashi; Shibata, Takashi; Yamazoe, Takashi; Westhofen, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: An increasing number of surgical procedures are performed in a microsurgical and minimally-invasive fashion. However, the performance of surgery, its possibilities and limitations become difficult to teach. Stereoscopic video has evolved from a complex production process and expensive hardware towards rapid editing of video streams with standard and HDTV resolution which can be displayed on portable equipment. This study evaluates the usefulness of stereoscopic video in teaching undergraduate medical students. Material and methods: From an earlier study we chose two clips each of three different microsurgical operations (tympanoplasty type III of the ear, endonasal operation of the paranasal sinuses and laser chordectomy for carcinoma of the larynx). This material was added by 23 clips of a cochlear implantation, which was specifically edited for a portable computer with an autostereoscopic display (PC-RD1-3D, SHARP Corp., Japan). The recording and synchronization of left and right image was performed at the University Hospital Aachen. The footage was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University by means of our original software for non-linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. Then the material was converted into the streaming 3-D video format. The purpose of the conversion was to present the video clips by a file type that does not depend on a television signal such as PAL or NTSC. 25 4th year medical students who participated in the general ENT course at Aachen University Hospital were asked to estimate depth clues within the six video clips plus cochlear implantation clips. Another 25 4th year students who were shown the material monoscopically on a conventional laptop served as control. Results: All participants noted that the additional depth information helped with understanding the relation of anatomical structures, even though none had hands-on experience with Ear, Nose and Throat operations before or during the course. The monoscopic

  3. Use of Semantic Web technologies on the BBC Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimond, Yves; Scott, Tom; Oliver, Silver; Sinclair, Patrick; Smethurst, Michael

    The BBC publishes large amounts of content online, as text, audio and video. As the amount of content grows, we need to make it easy for users to locate items of interest and to draw coherent journeys across them. In this chapter, we describe our use of Semantic Web technologies for achieving this goal. We focus in particular on three BBC Web sites: BBC Programmes, BBC Music and BBC Wildlife Finder, and how those Web sites effectively use the wider Web as their Content Management System.

  4. Digital Media Platforms and the Use of TV Content: Binge Watching and Video-on-Demand in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Mikos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancing digitalization and media convergence demands TV broadcasting companies to adjust their content to various platforms and distribution channels. The internet, as convergent carrier medium, is increasingly taking on a central role for additional media. Classical linear TV is still important, but for some audiences it has been developing from a primary medium to a secondary medium. Owing to the growing melding of classical-linear TV contents with online offerings (e.g. video-on-demand platforms or Web–TV, a great dynamic can be seen which has triggered numerous discussions about the future of TV for some time now. This article will summarize the results of two different audience studies. Film and television shows are meanwhile distributed online via Video-on-Demand platforms such as Netflix or Amazon Prime Video. The first audience study has dealt with the use of VoD-platforms in Germany investigating user rituals, user motivation to watch films and TV shows on these platforms, and the meaning of VoD in everyday life. Most of the participants in this study reported that they mainly watch TV drama series at Netflix or Amazon Prime. Therefore, the second audience study focused the online use of television drama series of individuals and couples elaborating the phenomenon of binge watching. In relating the audience practice to the new structures of the television market the article will shed light on the future of television.

  5. The Design and Use of Planetary Science Video Games to Teach Content while Enhancing Spatial Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nadirli, Orkhan; Rudnick, Benjamin; Pinkham, Sunny; Montgomery, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    Traditional teaching of Planetary Science requires students to possess well developed spatial reasoning skills (SRS). Recent research has demonstrated that SRS, long known to be crucial to math and science success, can be improved among students who lack these skills (Sorby et al., 2009). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their abilities (Hill et al., 2010). To address SRS deficiencies, our team is developing video games that embed SRS training into Planetary Science content. Our first game, on Moon Phases, addresses the two primary challenges faced by students trying to understand the Sun-Earth-Moon system: 1) visualizing the system (specifically the difference between the Sun-Earth orbital plane and the Earth-Moon orbital plane) and 2) comprehending the relationship between time and the position-phase of the Moon. In our second video game, the student varies an asteroid's rotational speed, shape, and orientation to the light source while observing how these changes effect the resulting light curve. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students use spatial reasoning skills to imagine how light scattering off a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a sensor plane and is then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. These two games represent the first of our developing suite of high-interest video games designed to teach content while increasing the student's competence in spatial reasoning.

  6. Pushing the Quality Level in Networked News Business: Semantic-Based Content Retrieval and Composition in International News Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Schranz, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Electronic publishing exploits numerous possibilities to present or exchange information and to communicate via most current media like the Internet. By utilizing modern Web technologies like Web Services, loosely coupled services, and peer-to-peer networks we describe the integration of an intelligent business news presentation and distribution network. Employing semantics technologies enables the coupling of multinational and multilingual business news data on a scaleable international leve...

  7. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  8. Content Validation and Semantic Evaluation of a Check-List Elaborated for the Prevention of Gluten Cross-Contamination in Food Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Farage

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions associated to the consumption of gluten have emerged as a major health care concern and the treatment consists on a lifelong gluten-free diet. Providing safe food for these individuals includes adapting to safety procedures within the food chain and preventing gluten cross-contamination in gluten-free food. However, a gluten cross-contamination prevention protocol or check-list has not yet been validated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform the content validation and semantic evaluation of a check-list elaborated for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination in food services. The preliminary version of the check-list was elaborated based on the Brazilian resolution for food safety Collegiate Board Resolution 216 (RDC 216 and Collegiate Board Resolution 275 (RDC 275, the standard 22000 from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 22000 and the Canadian Celiac Association Gluten-Free Certification Program documents. Seven experts with experience in the area participated in the check-list validation and semantic evaluation. The criteria used for the approval of the items, as to their importance for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination and clarity of the wording, was the achievement of a minimal of 80% of agreement between the experts (W-values ≥ 0.8. Moreover, items should have a mean ≥4 in the evaluation of importance (Likert scale from 1 to 5 and clarity (Likert scale from 0 to 5 in order to be maintained in the instrument. The final version of the check-list was composed of 84 items, divided into 12 sections. After being redesigned and re-evaluated, the items were considered important and comprehensive by the experts (both with W-values ≥ 0.89. The check-list developed was validated with respect to content and approved in the semantic evaluation.

  9. Content Validation and Semantic Evaluation of a Check-List Elaborated for the Prevention of Gluten Cross-Contamination in Food Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Priscila; Puppin Zandonadi, Renata; Cortez Ginani, Verônica; Gandolfi, Lenora; Pratesi, Riccardo; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla

    2017-01-06

    Conditions associated to the consumption of gluten have emerged as a major health care concern and the treatment consists on a lifelong gluten-free diet. Providing safe food for these individuals includes adapting to safety procedures within the food chain and preventing gluten cross-contamination in gluten-free food. However, a gluten cross-contamination prevention protocol or check-list has not yet been validated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform the content validation and semantic evaluation of a check-list elaborated for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination in food services. The preliminary version of the check-list was elaborated based on the Brazilian resolution for food safety Collegiate Board Resolution 216 (RDC 216) and Collegiate Board Resolution 275 (RDC 275), the standard 22000 from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 22000) and the Canadian Celiac Association Gluten-Free Certification Program documents. Seven experts with experience in the area participated in the check-list validation and semantic evaluation. The criteria used for the approval of the items, as to their importance for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination and clarity of the wording, was the achievement of a minimal of 80% of agreement between the experts (W-values ≥ 0.8). Moreover, items should have a mean ≥4 in the evaluation of importance (Likert scale from 1 to 5) and clarity (Likert scale from 0 to 5) in order to be maintained in the instrument. The final version of the check-list was composed of 84 items, divided into 12 sections. After being redesigned and re-evaluated, the items were considered important and comprehensive by the experts (both with W-values ≥ 0.89). The check-list developed was validated with respect to content and approved in the semantic evaluation.

  10. "Get Lucky!" Sexual Content in Music Lyrics, Videos and Social Media and Sexual Cognitions and Risk among Emerging Adults in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chrysalis L.; Rubin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and risk among emerging adults in the USA and Australia. Music content was examined via lyrics, videos and social media. It was hypothesised that there would be a positive association between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and risk. Sexual…

  11. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    .http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017575313451Dekker, Paul. 2004. ‘Grounding Dynamic Semantics’. In Anne Bezuidenhout & Marga Reimer (eds. ‘Descriptions and Beyond: An Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays on Definite and Indefinite Descriptions and other Related Phenomena’, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Dekker, Paul. 2007. ‘Optimal Inquisitive Discourse’. In Maria Aloni, Alastair Butler & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Questions in Dynamic Semantics’, CRiSPI 17, pp. 83–101. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Frege, Gottlob. 1892. ‘Über Sinn und Bedeutung’. Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik NF 100: pp. 25–50.Ginzburg, Jonathan. 1995. ‘Resolving Questions, I & II’. Linguistics and Philosophy 18, no. 5,6: pp. 459–527 and 567–609.Ginzburg, Jonathan. To appear. The Interactive Stance: Meaning for Conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen. 1999. ‘The Logic of Interrogation’. In T. Matthews & D. Strolovitch (eds. ‘Proceedings of SALT IX’, Also appeared in Aloni, M., Butler, A., and Dekker, P., 2007, Questions in Dynamic Semantics, CRiSPI, Elsevier.: CLC Publications.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Roelofsen, Floris. 2009. ‘Inquisitive Semantics and Pragmatics’. In Jesus M. Larrazabal & Larraitz Zubeldia (eds. ‘Meaning, Content, and Argument: Proceedings of the ILCLI International Workshop on Semantics, Pragmatics, and Rhetoric’, Bilbao: University of the Basque Country Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Stokhof, Martin. 1991. ‘Dynamic Predicate Logic’. Linguistics and Philosophy 14, no. 1: pp. 39–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628304Hulstijn, Joris. 1997. ‘Structured Information States. Raising and Resolving Issues’. In Anton Benz & Gerhard Jäger (eds. ‘Proceedings of MunDial97’, pp. 99–117. University of Munich.Jäger, Gerhard. 1996. ‘Only Updates. On the Dynamics of the Focus Particle only’. In Martin Stokhof & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Tenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, pp. 387–405

  12. The Role of Violent Video Game Content in Adolescent Development: Boys' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Warner, Dorothy E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous policies have been proposed at the local, state, and national level to restrict youth access to violent video and computer games. Although studies are cited to support policies, there is no published research on how children perceive the uses and influence of violent interactive games. The authors conduct focus groups with 42 boys ages 12…

  13. Learning from video modeling examples : Content kept equal, adults are more effective models than peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Loyens, Sofie M M; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Learning from (video) modeling examples in which a model demonstrates how to perform a task is an effective instructional strategy. The model-observer similarity (MOS) hypothesis postulates that (perceived) similarity between learners and the model in terms of age or expertise moderates the

  14. Semantic Mapping in Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de

    2017-01-01

    In the modern world, networked sensor technology makes it possible to capture the world around us in real-time. In the security domain cameras are an important source of information. Cameras in public places, bodycams, drones and recordings with smart phones are used for real time monitoring of the

  15. Lottery semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galliani, P.; Mann, A.L.; Kontinen, J.; Väänänen, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a compositional semantics for a logic of imperfect information and prove its equivalence to equilibrium semantics ([10]), thus extending to mixed (rather than just behavioural) strategies part of the work of ([2], [3]).

  16. Hi YouTube! Personality Impressions and Verbal Content in Social Video

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, Joan-Isaac; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Dines, John; Tsminiaki, Vagia

    2013-01-01

    Despite the evidence that social video conveys rich human personality information, research investigating the automatic prediction of personality impressions in vlogging has shown that, amongst the Big-Five traits, automatic nonverbal be- havioral cues are useful to predict mainly the Extraversion trait. This finding, also reported in other conversational settings, indicates that personality information may be coded in other behavioral dimensions like the verbal channel, which has been less s...

  17. Can Clinical Scenario Videos Improve Dental Students' Perceptions of the Basic Sciences and Ability to Apply Content Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James

    2015-12-01

    Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to

  18. Quantitative analysis of Internet television and video (WebTV: A study of formats, content, and source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Borja ARJONA MARTÍN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the last five years of audiovisual content distribution over the web, this paper is focused on a study aimed at the description and classification of a wide sample of audiovisual initiatives whose access is carried out by means of the World Wide Web. The purpose of this study is to promote the debate concerning the different names of these incipient media, as well as their categorization and description so that an organised universe of the WebTV phenomenon could be provided. An analysis of formats and content is carried out on the basis of quantitative techniques in order to propose a categorization typology. These formats and content will be studied under three key variables: "Content", "Origin" and "Domain .tv". "Content" will help us define the programmatic lines of our study sample; “Source” refers to the source of a particular item of study (“Native WebTV or WebTV representative of a conventional media and "Domain.tv" will specify the proportion of case studies hosted with domain .tv. The results obtained in this study will offer the researchers and the professionals a comprehensive description of the models currently adopted in the field of video and television on the net.

  19. Cool, callous and in control: superior inhibitory control in frequent players of video games with violent content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura; Morrison, Robert G; Palumbo, Robert; Garbarino, James; Silton, Rebecca L

    2017-12-01

    Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or nonplayers, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content. Participants completed a self-report measure of empathy as well as an affective stop-signal task that measured implicit attention to emotion and response inhibition during electroencephalography. Frequent players had lower levels of empathy as well as a reduction in brain activity as indicated by P100 and N200/P300 event related potentials. Reduced P100 amplitude evoked by happy facial expressions was observed in frequent players compared to infrequent players, and this effect was moderated by empathy, such that low levels of empathy further reduced P100 amplitudes for happy facial expressions for frequent players compared to infrequent players. Compared to infrequent players, frequent players had reduced N200/P300 amplitude during response inhibition, indicating less neural resources were recruited to inhibit behavior. Results from the present study illustrate that chronic exposure to violent video games modulates empathy and related neural correlates associated with affect and cognition. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Cool, callous and in control: superior inhibitory control in frequent players of video games with violent content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Robert G; Palumbo, Robert; Garbarino, James; Silton, Rebecca L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or nonplayers, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content. Participants completed a self-report measure of empathy as well as an affective stop-signal task that measured implicit attention to emotion and response inhibition during electroencephalography. Frequent players had lower levels of empathy as well as a reduction in brain activity as indicated by P100 and N200/P300 event related potentials. Reduced P100 amplitude evoked by happy facial expressions was observed in frequent players compared to infrequent players, and this effect was moderated by empathy, such that low levels of empathy further reduced P100 amplitudes for happy facial expressions for frequent players compared to infrequent players. Compared to infrequent players, frequent players had reduced N200/P300 amplitude during response inhibition, indicating less neural resources were recruited to inhibit behavior. Results from the present study illustrate that chronic exposure to violent video games modulates empathy and related neural correlates associated with affect and cognition. PMID:29040750

  1. Adult and adolescent exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in contemporary YouTube music videos in Great Britain: a population estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, Jo; Opazo-Breton, Magdalena; Britton, John

    2016-05-01

    We estimate exposure of British adults and adolescents to tobacco and alcohol content from a sample of popular YouTube music videos. British viewing figures were generated from 2 representative online national surveys of adult and adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular videos containing content. 2068 adolescents aged 11-18 years (1010 boys, 1058 girls), and 2232 adults aged 19+years (1052 male, 1180 female) completed the surveys. We used the number of 10 s intervals in the 32 most popular videos containing content to estimate the number of impressions. We extrapolated gross and per capita impressions for the British population from census data and estimated numbers of adults and adolescents who had ever watched the sampled videos. From video release to the point of survey, the videos delivered an estimated 1006 million gross impressions of alcohol (95% CI 748 to 1264 million), and 203 million of tobacco (95% CI 151 to 255 million), to the British population. Per capita exposure was around 5 times higher for alcohol than for tobacco, and nearly 4 times higher in adolescents, who were exposed to an average of 52.1 (95% CI 43.4 to 60.9) and 10.5 (95% CI 8.8 to 12.3) alcohol and tobacco impressions, respectively, than in adults (14.1 (95% CI 10.2 to 18.1) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 3.6)). Exposure rates were higher in girls than in boys. YouTube music videos deliver millions of gross impressions of alcohol and tobacco content. Adolescents are exposed much more than adults. Music videos are a major global medium of exposure to such content. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Content-aware video quality assessment: predicting human perception of quality using peak signal to noise ratio and spatial/temporal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Jaramillo, B.; Niño-Castañeda, J.; Platiša, L.; Philips, W.

    2015-03-01

    Since the end-user of video-based systems is often a human observer, prediction of human perception of quality (HPoQ) is an important task for increasing the user satisfaction. Despite the large variety of objective video quality measures, one problem is the lack of generalizability. This is mainly due to the strong dependency between HPoQ and video content. Although this problem is well-known, few existing methods directly account for the influence of video content on HPoQ. This paper propose a new method to predict HPoQ by using simple distortion measures and introducing video content features in their computation. Our methodology is based on analyzing the level of spatio-temporal activity and combining HPoQ content related parameters with simple distortion measures. Our results show that even very simple distortion measures such as PSNR and simple spatio-temporal activity measures lead to good results. Results over four different public video quality databases show that the proposed methodology, while faster and simpler, is competitive with current state-of-the-art methods, i.e., correlations between objective and subjective assessment higher than 80% and it is only two times slower than PSNR.

  3. "F*ck It! Let's Get to Drinking-Poison our Livers!": a Thematic Analysis of Alcohol Content in Contemporary YouTube MusicVideos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, Jo; Britton, John; Bains, Manpreet

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe the portrayal of alcohol content in popular YouTube music videos. We used inductive thematic analysis to explore the lyrics and visual imagery in 49 UK Top 40 songs and music videos previously found to contain alcohol content and watched by many British adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years and to examine if branded content contravened alcohol industry advertising codes of practice. The analysis generated three themes. First, alcohol content was associated with sexualised imagery or lyrics and the objectification of women. Second, alcohol was associated with image, lifestyle and sociability. Finally, some videos showed alcohol overtly encouraging excessive drinking and drunkenness, including those containing branding, with no negative consequences to the drinker. Our results suggest that YouTube music videos promote positive associations with alcohol use. Further, several alcohol companies adopt marketing strategies in the video medium that are entirely inconsistent with their own or others agreed advertising codes of practice. We conclude that, as a harm reduction measure, policies should change to prevent adolescent exposure to the positive promotion of alcohol and alcohol branding in music videos.

  4. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory…

  5. [Viewing of horror and violence videos by adolescence. A study of speech samples of video consumers with the Gottschalk-Gleser Speech Content analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, H; Weiss, R H

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 pupils of different schools in Württemberg were interviewed about their television and video consumption. It turned out that a high percentage of mainly male pupils of Hauptschulen (upper division of elementary schools) and special schools excessively and regularly consumed films which were on the index (X-rated) or seized depicting horror and violence. Subsequent to the inquiry through questionnaires and different personality tests, speech samples of 51 test persons were recorded on tape. 5 speech samples had to be excluded from further investigation since they contained less than 70 words. The transcribed and anonymized records were examined according to the Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis of verbal behavior, and two groups of so-called seldom lookers (n = 22) and frequent lookers (n = 24) were compared to each other. The frequent lookers significantly often reported about film contents which presumably means that their imagination is more restricted and less productive than that of the other group. In addition, this group of frequent lookers had significantly higher scores concerning death anxiety and guilt anxiety. With regard to hostility affects, their scores were also significantly raised concerning outward-overt hostility, outward-covert hostility, and ambivalent hostility. Probably the group of frequent lookers comprised more test persons with relationship disorders, with borderline risks, dissocial personality features, and problems to cope with their aggressiveness. So they show on the one hand a raised affinity to watch such films, but simultaneously unconscious and conscious learning processes take place which stimulate further aggressive fantasies (and possibly also actions).

  6. The effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and toolkits onuser participation in User-generated content for video games: : A quantitative study of product development in online communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lundmark, Joakim; Sandström Lindberg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we will discuss the subject of user participation in the development process of products, specifically video games, through a concept called User-generated content. Product development demands speed and flexibility in the development process and it has been suggested that managers should revise the process of product development to become more flexible and integrate the consumer in increasingly more steps of the process. Video games will often be modified after its release. In ...

  7. Sexually explicit media on the internet: a content analysis of sexual behaviors, risk, and media characteristics in gay male adult videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy.

  8. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  9. Development of a Coding Instrument to Assess the Quality and Content of Anti-Tobacco Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M; Watson, Anna M; Barnett, Tracey E; Mercado, Rebeccah; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown the use of electronic video games as an effective method for increasing content knowledge about the risks of drugs and alcohol use for adolescents. Although best practice suggests that theory, health communication strategies, and game appeal are important characteristics for developing games, no instruments are currently available to examine the quality and content of tobacco prevention and cessation electronic games. This study presents the systematic development of a coding instrument to measure the quality, use of theory, and health communication strategies of tobacco cessation and prevention electronic games. Using previous research and expert review, a content analysis coding instrument measuring 67 characteristics was developed with three overarching categories: type and quality of games, theory and approach, and type and format of messages. Two trained coders applied the instrument to 88 games on four platforms (personal computer, Nintendo DS, iPhone, and Android phone) to field test the instrument. Cohen's kappa for each item ranged from 0.66 to 1.00, with an average kappa value of 0.97. Future research can adapt this coding instrument to games addressing other health issues. In addition, the instrument questions can serve as a useful guide for evidence-based game development.

  10. Development of a Coding Instrument to Assess the Quality and Content of Anti-Tobacco Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M.; Watson, Anna M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Mercado, Rebeccah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has shown the use of electronic video games as an effective method for increasing content knowledge about the risks of drugs and alcohol use for adolescents. Although best practice suggests that theory, health communication strategies, and game appeal are important characteristics for developing games, no instruments are currently available to examine the quality and content of tobacco prevention and cessation electronic games. This study presents the systematic development of a coding instrument to measure the quality, use of theory, and health communication strategies of tobacco cessation and prevention electronic games. Using previous research and expert review, a content analysis coding instrument measuring 67 characteristics was developed with three overarching categories: type and quality of games, theory and approach, and type and format of messages. Two trained coders applied the instrument to 88 games on four platforms (personal computer, Nintendo DS, iPhone, and Android phone) to field test the instrument. Cohen's kappa for each item ranged from 0.66 to 1.00, with an average kappa value of 0.97. Future research can adapt this coding instrument to games addressing other health issues. In addition, the instrument questions can serve as a useful guide for evidence-based game development. PMID:26167842

  11. Gender (in)equality in internet pornography: a content analysis of popular pornographic internet videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.J.E.; Peter, J.

    2015-01-01

    Although Internet pornography is widely consumed and researchers have started to investigate its effects, we still know little about its content. This has resulted in contrasting claims about whether Internet pornography depicts gender (in)equality and whether this depiction differs between amateur

  12. Research-Based Strategies for Teaching Content to Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Adapted Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evmenova, Anna S.; Behrmann, Michael M.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are always seeking any visual and/or auditory supports to facilitate students' comprehension and acquisition of difficult concepts associated with academic content. Such supports are even more important for students with intellectual disabilities who regardless of their abilities and needs are required to have access and active…

  13. Complex event processing for content-based text, image, and video retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, E.K.; Broome, B.D.; Holland, V.M.; Summers-Stay, D.; Rao, R.M.; Duselis, J.; Howe, J.; Madahar, B.K.; Boury-Brisset, A.C.; Forrester, B.; Kwantes, P.; Burghouts, G.; Huis, J. van; Mulayim, A.Y.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of an exploratory team of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Information Systems Technology panel into Content-Based Analytics (CBA). The team carried out a technical review into the current status of theoretical and practical developments of methods,

  14. Improving student learning via mobile phone video content: Evidence from the BridgeIT India project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennersten, Matthew; Quraishy, Zubeeda Banu; Velamuri, Malathi

    2015-08-01

    Past efforts invested in computer-based education technology interventions have generated little evidence of affordable success at scale. This paper presents the results of a mobile phone-based intervention conducted in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in 2012-13. The BridgeIT project provided a pool of audio-visual learning materials organised in accordance with a system of syllabi pacing charts. Teachers of Standard 5 and 6 English and Science classes were notified of the availability of new videos via text messages (SMS), which they downloaded onto their phones using an open-source application and showed, with suggested activities, to students on a TV screen using a TV-out cable. In their evaluation of this project, the authors of this paper found that the test scores of children who experienced the intervention improved by 0.36 standard deviations in English and 0.98 standard deviations in Science in Andhra Pradesh, relative to students in similar classrooms who did not experience the intervention. Differences between treatment and control schools in Tamil Nadu were less marked. The intervention was also cost-effective, relative to other computer-based interventions. Based on these results, the authors argue that is possible to use mobile phones to produce a strong positive and statistically significant effect in terms of teaching and learning quality across a large number of classrooms in India at a lower cost per student than past computer-based interventions.

  15. Secure Sensor Semantic Web and Information Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-25

    Matrix Anal. Appl ., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1812–1834, Mar. 2010. 5 K. Hoffman, D. Zage, and C. Nita-Rotaru, “A survey of attack and defense techniques...published FBI reports. This research significantly expanded semantic analysis of free text by 1) quantifying semantic content and semantic context, 2

  16. SEMANTIC CONTENT OF PRONOUNS IN TURKEY TURKISH TÜRKİYE TÜRKÇESİNDE ZAMİRLERİN ANLAM YÜKÜ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet AKÇATAŞ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine the semantic content of pronouns in Turkey Turkish. The definition of the term “pronouns” was reconsidered in this sense, and it was revealed that a new classification should be made. Furthermore, the term “substitution” was re-examined, and it was concluded that “all words denote an aspect of pronouns since they correspond to concepts of the real world”. Bearing a paradigmatic structure, pronouns attain the real world knowledge by using other glossemes, thereby creating semantic content, which is named concretization. The meaning of a pronoun is determined by the context in the process of such concretion. The intention referred to in the text shapes the semantic content of pronouns. The distance between a pronoun and its target also plays a role in assuming a meaning. Demonstrative and interrogative pronouns summarizes the information in one or more sentences, thus enabling them to be used for different aims. The incorporation of such usage of pronouns in Turkey Turkish into curriculum will yield many benefits with respect to reading, comprehension, and education. Türkiye Türkçesinde zamirlerin anlam yükünün incelendiği bu çalışmada zamir teriminin tanımı yeniden ele alınmış ve buna göre bir sınıflama yapılmasının gerekliliği belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca “yerine geçme” tabiri yeniden ele alınarak, “gerçek dünyadaki kavramların karşılığı olduğu için bütün kelimelerin zamir yönü olduğu” sonucuna varılmıştır. Paradigmatik bir yapıya sahip olan zamirlerin, başka dilbirimlerini kullanarak gerçek dünya bilgisine ulaştıkları ve anlam yüklerini oluşturdukları belirlenmiştir. Buna da somutlaştırma denilmektedir. Zamirin anlamını, bu somutlaşma sırasında metnin bağlamı belirler. Metinde kastedilen niyet, zamirin anlam yükünü belirler. Gönderimle ise zamirlerin anlamları düzenlenir. Zamirin hedefiyle arasındaki mesafesi de onun anlamı y

  17. Fusion in computer vision understanding complex visual content

    CERN Document Server

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Piatrik, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a thorough overview of fusion in computer vision, from an interdisciplinary and multi-application viewpoint, describing successful approaches, evaluated in the context of international benchmarks that model realistic use cases. Features: examines late fusion approaches for concept recognition in images and videos; describes the interpretation of visual content by incorporating models of the human visual system with content understanding methods; investigates the fusion of multi-modal features of different semantic levels, as well as results of semantic concept detections, fo

  18. Examining the Use of Video Study Groups for Developing Literacy Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction with Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Lynn E.; Tochelli, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    This collective case study explored what nine elementary teachers' video study group discussions revealed about their understanding of pedagogical content knowledge for an explicit reading strategy instruction framework, Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction (CESI). Qualitative methods were used to inductively and deductively analyze…

  19. Scalable gastroscopic video summarization via similar-inhibition dictionary selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Cong, Yang; Cao, Jun; Yang, Yunsheng; Tang, Yandong; Zhao, Huaici; Yu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at developing an automated gastroscopic video summarization algorithm to assist clinicians to more effectively go through the abnormal contents of the video. To select the most representative frames from the original video sequence, we formulate the problem of gastroscopic video summarization as a dictionary selection issue. Different from the traditional dictionary selection methods, which take into account only the number and reconstruction ability of selected key frames, our model introduces the similar-inhibition constraint to reinforce the diversity of selected key frames. We calculate the attention cost by merging both gaze and content change into a prior cue to help select the frames with more high-level semantic information. Moreover, we adopt an image quality evaluation process to eliminate the interference of the poor quality images and a segmentation process to reduce the computational complexity. For experiments, we build a new gastroscopic video dataset captured from 30 volunteers with more than 400k images and compare our method with the state-of-the-arts using the content consistency, index consistency and content-index consistency with the ground truth. Compared with all competitors, our method obtains the best results in 23 of 30 videos evaluated based on content consistency, 24 of 30 videos evaluated based on index consistency and all videos evaluated based on content-index consistency. For gastroscopic video summarization, we propose an automated annotation method via similar-inhibition dictionary selection. Our model can achieve better performance compared with other state-of-the-art models and supplies more suitable key frames for diagnosis. The developed algorithm can be automatically adapted to various real applications, such as the training of young clinicians, computer-aided diagnosis or medical report generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  1. Encoding Concept Prototypes for Video Event Detection and Summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazloom, M.; Habibian, A.; Liu, D.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Chang, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new semantic video representation for few and zero example event detection and unsupervised video event summarization. Different from existing works, which obtain a semantic representation by training concepts over images or entire video clips, we propose an algorithm that

  2. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types.......Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  3. Automatic Person Identification in Camera Video by Motion Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingbo Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Person identification plays an important role in semantic analysis of video content. This paper presents a novel method to automatically label persons in video sequence captured from fixed camera. Instead of leveraging traditional face recognition approaches, we deal with the task of person identification by fusing information from motion sensor platforms, like smart phones, carried on human bodies and extracted from camera video. More specifically, a sequence of motion features extracted from camera video are compared with each of those collected from accelerometers of smart phones. When strong correlation is detected, identity information transmitted from the corresponding smart phone is used to identify the phone wearer. To test the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method, extensive experiments are conducted which achieved impressive performance.

  4. Scalable Video Streaming for Single-Hop Wireless Networks Using a Contention-Based Access MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Lertsutthiwong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited bandwidth and high packet loss rate pose a serious challenge for video streaming applications over wireless networks. Even when packet loss is not present, the bandwidth fluctuation, as a result of an arbitrary number of active flows in an IEEE 802.11 network, can significantly degrade the video quality. This paper aims to enhance the quality of video streaming applications in wireless home networks via a joint optimization of video layer-allocation technique, admission control algorithm, and medium access control (MAC protocol. Using an Aloha-like MAC protocol, we propose a novel admission control framework, which can be viewed as an optimization problem that maximizes the average quality of admitted videos, given a specified minimum video quality for each flow. We present some hardness results for the optimization problem under various conditions and propose some heuristic algorithms for finding a good solution. In particular, we show that a simple greedy layer-allocation algorithm can perform reasonably well, although it is typically not optimal. Consequently, we present a more expensive heuristic algorithm that guarantees to approximate the optimal solution within a constant factor. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed framework can improve the video quality up to 26% as compared to those of the existing approaches.

  5. You can't take it with you? Effects of handheld portable media consoles on physiological and psychological responses to video game and movie content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, James D; Magee, Robert G

    2009-06-01

    Portable media consoles are becoming extremely popular devices for viewing a number of different types of media content, both for entertainment and for educational purposes. Given the increasingly heavy use of portable consoles as an alternative to traditional television-style monitors, it is important to investigate how physiological and psychological effects of portable consoles may differ from those of television-based consoles, because such differences in physiological and psychological responses may precipitate differences in the delivered content's effectiveness. Because portable consoles are popular as a delivery system for multiple types of media content, such as movies and video games, it is also important to investigate whether differences between the effects of portable and television-based consoles are consistent across multiple types of media. This article reports a 2 x 2 (console: portable or television-based x medium: video game or movie) mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent across different media. Results indicate that portable media consoles evoke lower levels of physiological arousal and flow experience and that this effect is consistent for both video games and movies. These findings suggest that even though portable media consoles are often convenient compared to television-based consoles, the convenience may come at a cost in terms of the user experience.

  6. Characterization of social video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jeffrey R.; Sarhan, Nabil J.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of social media has grown dramatically over the World Wide Web. In this paper, we analyze the video popularity distribution of well-known social video websites (YouTube, Google Video, and the AOL Truveo Video Search engine) and characterize their workload. We identify trends in the categories, lengths, and formats of those videos, as well as characterize the evolution of those videos over time. We further provide an extensive analysis and comparison of video content amongst the main regions of the world.

  7. Semantic-Based Crossmodal Processing During Visual Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin eCox

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the mechanisms underpinning the influence of auditory input on visual awareness, we examine, 1 whether purely semantic-based multisensory integration facilitates the access to visual awareness for familiar visual events, and 2 whether crossmodal semantic priming is the mechanism responsible for the semantic auditory influence on visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS, we rendered dynamic and familiar visual events (e.g., a video clip of an approaching train inaccessible to visual awareness. We manipulated the semantic auditory context of the videos by concurrently pairing them with a semantically matching soundtrack (congruent audiovisual condition, a semantically non-matching soundtrack (incongruent audiovisual condition, or with no soundtrack (neutral video-only condition. We found that participants identified the suppressed visual events significantly faster (an earlier breakup of suppression in the congruent audiovisual condition compared to the incongruent audiovisual condition and video-only condition. However, this facilitatory influence of semantic auditory input was only observed when audiovisual stimulation co-occurred. Our results suggest that the enhanced visual processing with a semantically congruent auditory input occurs due to audiovisual crossmodal processing rather than semantic priming, which may occur even when visual information is not available to visual awareness.

  8. Semantic-based crossmodal processing during visual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dustin; Hong, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the mechanisms underpinning the influence of auditory input on visual awareness, we examine, (1) whether purely semantic-based multisensory integration facilitates the access to visual awareness for familiar visual events, and (2) whether crossmodal semantic priming is the mechanism responsible for the semantic auditory influence on visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression, we rendered dynamic and familiar visual events (e.g., a video clip of an approaching train) inaccessible to visual awareness. We manipulated the semantic auditory context of the videos by concurrently pairing them with a semantically matching soundtrack (congruent audiovisual condition), a semantically non-matching soundtrack (incongruent audiovisual condition), or with no soundtrack (neutral video-only condition). We found that participants identified the suppressed visual events significantly faster (an earlier breakup of suppression) in the congruent audiovisual condition compared to the incongruent audiovisual condition and video-only condition. However, this facilitatory influence of semantic auditory input was only observed when audiovisual stimulation co-occurred. Our results suggest that the enhanced visual processing with a semantically congruent auditory input occurs due to audiovisual crossmodal processing rather than semantic priming, which may occur even when visual information is not available to visual awareness.

  9. A new visual navigation system for exploring biomedical Open Educational Resource (OER) videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baoquan; Xu, Songhua; Lin, Shujin; Luo, Xiaonan; Duan, Lian

    2016-04-01

    Biomedical videos as open educational resources (OERs) are increasingly proliferating on the Internet. Unfortunately, seeking personally valuable content from among the vast corpus of quality yet diverse OER videos is nontrivial due to limitations of today's keyword- and content-based video retrieval techniques. To address this need, this study introduces a novel visual navigation system that facilitates users' information seeking from biomedical OER videos in mass quantity by interactively offering visual and textual navigational clues that are both semantically revealing and user-friendly. The authors collected and processed around 25 000 YouTube videos, which collectively last for a total length of about 4000 h, in the broad field of biomedical sciences for our experiment. For each video, its semantic clues are first extracted automatically through computationally analyzing audio and visual signals, as well as text either accompanying or embedded in the video. These extracted clues are subsequently stored in a metadata database and indexed by a high-performance text search engine. During the online retrieval stage, the system renders video search results as dynamic web pages using a JavaScript library that allows users to interactively and intuitively explore video content both efficiently and effectively.ResultsThe authors produced a prototype implementation of the proposed system, which is publicly accessible athttps://patentq.njit.edu/oer To examine the overall advantage of the proposed system for exploring biomedical OER videos, the authors further conducted a user study of a modest scale. The study results encouragingly demonstrate the functional effectiveness and user-friendliness of the new system for facilitating information seeking from and content exploration among massive biomedical OER videos. Using the proposed tool, users can efficiently and effectively find videos of interest, precisely locate video segments delivering personally valuable

  10. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  11. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  12. Content, Interaction, or Both? Synthesizing Two German Traditions in a Video Study on Learning to Explain in Mathematics Classroom Microcultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Susanne; Erath, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    How do students learn to explain? We take this exemplary research question for presenting two antagonist traditions in German mathematics education research and their synthesis in an ongoing video study. These two traditions are (1) the German Didaktik approach that can be characterized by its epistemologically sensitive analyses and…

  13. Supported eText in Captioned Videos: A Comparison of Expanded versus Standard Captions on Student Comprehension of Educational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.

    2009-01-01

    Expanded captions are designed to enhance the educational value by linking unfamiliar words to one of three types of information: vocabulary definitions, labeled illustrations, or concept maps. This study investigated the effects of expanded captions versus standard captions on the comprehension of educational video materials on DVD by secondary…

  14. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  15. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  16. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach......: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content...

  17. MediaMill: Advanced Browsing in News Video Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worring, M.; Snoek, C.G.M.; de Rooij, O.; Nguyen, G.P.; van Balen, R.; Koelma, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present our Mediamill video search engine. The basis for the engine is a semantic indexing process which derives a lexicon of 101 concepts. To support the user in navigating the collection, the system defines a visual similarity space, a semantic similarity space, a semantic thread

  18. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

  20. Making good physics videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-05-01

    Online videos are an increasingly important way technology is contributing to the improvement of physics teaching. Students and teachers have begun to rely on online videos to provide them with content knowledge and instructional strategies. Online audiences are expecting greater production value, and departments are sometimes requesting educators to post video pre-labs or to flip our classrooms. In this article, I share my advice on creating engaging physics videos.

  1. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  2. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  3. Search the Audio, Browse the Video—A Generic Paradigm for Video Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat Alon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of digital video being shot, captured, and stored is growing at a rate faster than ever before. The large amount of stored video is not penetrable without efficient video indexing, retrieval, and browsing technology. Most prior work in the field can be roughly categorized into two classes. One class is based on image processing techniques, often called content-based image and video retrieval, in which video frames are indexed and searched for visual content. The other class is based on spoken document retrieval, which relies on automatic speech recognition and text queries. Both approaches have major limitations. In the first approach, semantic queries pose a great challenge, while the second, speech-based approach, does not support efficient video browsing. This paper describes a system where speech is used for efficient searching and visual data for efficient browsing, a combination that takes advantage of both approaches. A fully automatic indexing and retrieval system has been developed and tested. Automated speech recognition and phonetic speech indexing support text-to-speech queries. New browsable views are generated from the original video. A special synchronized browser allows instantaneous, context-preserving switching from one view to another. The system was successfully used to produce searchable-browsable video proceedings for three local conferences.

  4. Search the Audio, Browse the Video—A Generic Paradigm for Video Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Arnon; Srinivasan, Savitha; Efrat, Alon

    2003-12-01

    The amount of digital video being shot, captured, and stored is growing at a rate faster than ever before. The large amount of stored video is not penetrable without efficient video indexing, retrieval, and browsing technology. Most prior work in the field can be roughly categorized into two classes. One class is based on image processing techniques, often called content-based image and video retrieval, in which video frames are indexed and searched for visual content. The other class is based on spoken document retrieval, which relies on automatic speech recognition and text queries. Both approaches have major limitations. In the first approach, semantic queries pose a great challenge, while the second, speech-based approach, does not support efficient video browsing. This paper describes a system where speech is used for efficient searching and visual data for efficient browsing, a combination that takes advantage of both approaches. A fully automatic indexing and retrieval system has been developed and tested. Automated speech recognition and phonetic speech indexing support text-to-speech queries. New browsable views are generated from the original video. A special synchronized browser allows instantaneous, context-preserving switching from one view to another. The system was successfully used to produce searchable-browsable video proceedings for three local conferences.

  5. Learned Lexicon-driven Interactive Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    We combine in this paper automatic learning of a large lexicon of semantic concepts with traditional video retrieval methods into a novel approach to narrow the semantic gap. The core of the proposed solution is formed by the automatic detection of an unprecedented lexicon of 101 concepts. From

  6. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  7. SEMANTIC IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING MULTIPLE FEATURES

    OpenAIRE

    Nishant Singh; Shiv Ram Dubey; Pushkar Dixit; Jay Prakash Gupta

    2012-01-01

    In Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) some problem such as recognizing the similar images, the need for databases, the semantic gap, and retrieving the desired images from huge collections are the keys to improve. CBIR system analyzes the image content for indexing, management, extraction and retrieval via low-level features such as color, texture and shape. To achieve higher semantic performance, recent system seeks to combine the low-level features of images with high-level...

  8. Enhancing student interactions with the instructor and content using pen-based technology, YouTube videos, and virtual conferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James R

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the incorporation of digital learning elements in organic chemistry and biochemistry courses. The first example is the use of pen-based technology and a large-format PowerPoint slide to construct a map that integrates various metabolic pathways and control points. Students can use this map to visualize the integrated nature of metabolism and how various hormones impact metabolic regulation. The second example is the embedding of health-related YouTube videos directly into PowerPoint presentations. These videos become a part of the course notes and can be viewed within PowerPoint as long as students are online. The third example is the use of a webcam to show physical models during online sessions using web-conferencing software. Various molecular conformations can be shown through the webcam, and snapshots of important conformations can be incorporated into the notes for further discussion and annotation. Each of the digital learning elements discussed in this report is an attempt to use technology to improve the quality of educational resources available outside of the classroom to foster student engagement with ideas and concepts. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 4-9, 2011. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Preserved musical semantic memory in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2011-02-01

    To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Case study. Academic medical center. A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music.

  10. Inquisitive semantics and pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.; Roelofsen, F.; Larrazabal, J.M.; Zubeldia, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an informal introduction to inquisitive semantics. After that, we present a formal definition of the semantics, and introduce the basic semantic notions of inquisitiveness and informativeness, in terms of wich we define the semantic categories of questions, assertions, and

  11. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  12. Development of Technological and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of the Chemistry by Teachers in Training Through the Reflection of PaP-eRs and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Fernando Candela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article described how trainee teachers identified and developed some elements of the Technological and Pedagogical Knowledge of Chemistry Content (CTPC, along the course of educational and pedagogical context by "reflective orientation". The methodological perspective was qualitative by case study, which was configured by two interwoven areas of reflection, namely: (a reflecting on the opinions of experts about the teaching of a content, through the readings proposed in the training programs; and (b reflecting on the teaching carried out by experienced teachers through case videos and the Repertoire of Professional and Pedagogical Experiences (PaP-eRs. This heuristic reduced the complexity of teaching in a manageable story located in a specific context, so that teachers could identify and reflect on their theories about the teaching and learning of chemistry. This study showed that teachers in training identified and developed the following elements of the CTPC of chemistry: general pedagogy, language as a learning tool, difficulties and alternative conceptions, knowledge of technology as an instrument to represent the contents and manage the chemistry classroom, and the formative evaluation. Definitely, the reflection of the critical events of the PaP-eRs and videos of cases was considered an appropriate heuristic that allowed the future teachers to articulate the knowledge coming from the literature in education in chemistry, with the virtual experiences of teaching-learning of a real context. Of course, this reflection was mediated by reading, discussing and reflecting on the intelligent actions of an exemplary teacher when guiding singular students from a sociocultural perspective, with the purpose of beginning to refine their theories of teaching and learning chemistry.

  13. Michezo Video: Nairobi’s gamers and the developers who are promoting local content\\ud Michezo Vidéo: Les joueurs et les développeurs de Nairobi promouvant le contenu local

    OpenAIRE

    Callus, Paula; Potter, C.

    2017-01-01

    In Kenya, the rise of digital technologies and related new media, and an infrastructure able to support them, has seen the emergence of a growing local video games industry and a new generation of Kenyan video game developers, players and promoters. This article focuses upon the particular design strategies employed by young producers of creative digital content for games and the current networks of practice, play and support unfolding around these new gaming technologies. Interviewees for th...

  14. A Semantic Navigation Model for Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Leonard; Bidarra, Rafael

    Navigational performance of artificial intelligence (AI) characters in computer games is gaining an increasingly important role in the perception of their behavior. While recent games successfully solve some complex navigation problems, there is little known or documented on the underlying approaches, often resembling a primitive conglomerate of ad-hoc algorithms for specific situations.

  15. Semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Louise

    2013-05-01

    The fields of semantics and pragmatics are devoted to the study of conventionalized and context- or use-dependent aspects of natural language meaning, respectively. The complexity of human language as a semiotic system has led to considerable debate about how the semantics/pragmatics distinction should be drawn, if at all. This debate largely reflects contrasting views of meaning as a property of linguistic expressions versus something that speakers do. The fact that both views of meaning are essential to a complete understanding of language has led to a variety of efforts over the last 40 years to develop better integrated and more comprehensive theories of language use and interpretation. The most important advances have included the adaptation of propositional analyses of declarative sentences to interrogative, imperative and exclamative forms; the emergence of dynamic, game theoretic, and multi-dimensional theories of meaning; and the development of various techniques for incorporating context-dependent aspects of content into representations of context-invariant content with the goal of handling phenomena such as vagueness resolution, metaphor, and metonymy. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:285-297. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1227 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Automatically assessing properties of dynamic cameras for camera selection and rapid deployment of video content analysis tasks in large-scale ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; ter Haar, Frank B.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.

    2017-10-01

    Video analytics is essential for managing large quantities of raw data that are produced by video surveillance systems (VSS) for the prevention, repression and investigation of crime and terrorism. Analytics is highly sensitive to changes in the scene, and for changes in the optical chain so a VSS with analytics needs careful configuration and prompt maintenance to avoid false alarms. However, there is a trend from static VSS consisting of fixed CCTV cameras towards more dynamic VSS deployments over public/private multi-organization networks, consisting of a wider variety of visual sensors, including pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, body-worn cameras and cameras on moving platforms. This trend will lead to more dynamic scenes and more frequent changes in the optical chain, creating structural problems for analytics. If these problems are not adequately addressed, analytics will not be able to continue to meet end users' developing needs. In this paper, we present a three-part solution for managing the performance of complex analytics deployments. The first part is a register containing meta data describing relevant properties of the optical chain, such as intrinsic and extrinsic calibration, and parameters of the scene such as lighting conditions or measures for scene complexity (e.g. number of people). A second part frequently assesses these parameters in the deployed VSS, stores changes in the register, and signals relevant changes in the setup to the VSS administrator. A third part uses the information in the register to dynamically configure analytics tasks based on VSS operator input. In order to support the feasibility of this solution, we give an overview of related state-of-the-art technologies for autocalibration (self-calibration), scene recognition and lighting estimation in relation to person detection. The presented solution allows for rapid and robust deployment of Video Content Analysis (VCA) tasks in large scale ad-hoc networks.

  17. SnapVideo: Personalized Video Generation for a Sightseeing Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.

  18. Extracting Semantic Information from Visual Data: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional environment maps built by mobile robots include both metric ones and topological ones. These maps are navigation-oriented and not adequate for service robots to interact with or serve human users who normally rely on the conceptual knowledge or semantic contents of the environment. Therefore, the construction of semantic maps becomes necessary for building an effective human-robot interface for service robots. This paper reviews recent research and development in the field of visual-based semantic mapping. The main focus is placed on how to extract semantic information from visual data in terms of feature extraction, object/place recognition and semantic representation methods.

  19. A Novel Key-Frame Extraction Approach for Both Video Summary and Video Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shaoshuai; Xie, Gang; Yan, Gaowei

    2014-01-01

    Existing key-frame extraction methods are basically video summary oriented; yet the index task of key-frames is ignored. This paper presents a novel key-frame extraction approach which can be available for both video summary and video index. First a dynamic distance separability algorithm is advanced to divide a shot into subshots based on semantic structure, and then appropriate key-frames are extracted in each subshot by SVD decomposition. Finally, three evaluation indicators are proposed to evaluate the performance of the new approach. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves good semantic structure for semantics-based video index and meanwhile produces video summary consistent with human perception. PMID:24757431

  20. Semantic mashups intelligent reuse of web resources

    CERN Document Server

    Endres-Niggemeyer, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mashups are mostly lightweight Web applications that offer new functionalities by combining, aggregating and transforming resources and services available on the Web. Popular examples include a map in their main offer, for instance for real estate, hotel recommendations, or navigation tools.  Mashups may contain and mix client-side and server-side activity. Obviously, understanding the incoming resources (services, statistical figures, text, videos, etc.) is a precondition for optimally combining them, so that there is always some undercover semantics being used.  By using semantic annotations

  1. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  2. The semantic structure of gratitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern social and economic environment of Russia, gratitude might be considered an ambiguous phenomenon. It can have different meaning for a person in different contexts and can manifest itself differently as well (that is, as an expression of sincere feelings or as an element of corruption. In this respect it is topical to investigate the system of meanings and relationships that define the semantic space of gratitude. The goal of the study was the investigation and description of the content and structure of the semantic space of the gratitude phenomenon as well as the determination of male, female, age, and ethnic peculiarities of the expression of gratitude. The objective was achieved by using the semantic differential designed by the authors to investigate attitudes toward gratitude. This investigation was carried out with the participation of 184 respondents (Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Jews living in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Israel, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom and identifying themselves as representatives of one of these nationalities. The structural components of gratitude were singled out by means of exploratory factor analysis of the empirical data from the designed semantic differential. Gender, age, and ethnic differences were differentiated by means of Student’s t-test. Gratitude can be represented by material and nonmaterial forms as well as by actions in response to help given. The empirical data allowed us to design the ethnically nonspecified semantic structure of gratitude. During the elaboration of the differential, semantic universals of gratitude, which constitute its psychosemantic content, were distinguished. Peculiarities of attitudes toward gratitude by those in different age and gender groups were revealed. Differences in the degree of manifestation of components of the psychosemantic structure of gratitude related to ethnic characteristics were not discovered

  3. A Semantic and Pragmatic Analyses of Igbo Names | Onumajuru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated the semantic and pragmatic contents of personal names and naming in the Igbo language and culture. The objective of the paper was to examine the structure of Igbo names and analyse their semantic and pragmatic contents. The data were sourced from Igbo language speakers in the South Eastern ...

  4. Video temporal alignment for object viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Papazoglou, Anestis; Del Pero, Luca; Ferrari, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    We address the problem of temporally aligning semantically similar videos, for example two videos of cars on different tracks. We present an alignment method that establishes frame-to-frame correspondences such that the two cars are seen from a similar viewpoint (e.g. facing right), while also being temporally smooth and visually pleasing. Unlike previous works, we do not assume that the videos show the same scripted sequence of events. We compare against three alternative methods, including ...

  5. LAIR: A Language for Automated Semantics-Aware Text Sanitization based on Frame Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Houen, Søren; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2009-01-01

    We present \\lair{}: A domain-specific language that enables users to specify actions to be taken upon meeting specific semantic frames in a text, in particular to rephrase and redact the textual content. While \\lair{} presupposes superficial knowledge of frames and frame semantics, it requires on...... with automated redaction of web pages for subjectively undesirable content; initial experiments suggest that using a small language based on semantic recognition of undesirable terms can be highly useful as a supplement to traditional methods of text sanitization....

  6. Handbook of video databases design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONIntroduction to Video DatabasesOge Marques and Borko FurhtVIDEO MODELING AND REPRESENTATIONModeling Video Using Input/Output Markov Models with Application to Multi-Modal Event DetectionAshutosh Garg, Milind R. Naphade, and Thomas S. HuangStatistical Models of Video Structure and SemanticsNuno VasconcelosFlavor: A Language for Media RepresentationAlexandros Eleftheriadis and Danny HongIntegrating Domain Knowledge and Visual Evidence to Support Highlight Detection in Sports VideosJuergen Assfalg, Marco Bertini, Carlo Colombo, and Alberto Del BimboA Generic Event Model and Sports Vid

  7. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  8. Making Good Physics Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-01-01

    Online videos are an increasingly important way technology is contributing to the improvement of physics teaching. Students and teachers have begun to rely on online videos to provide them with content knowledge and instructional strategies. Online audiences are expecting greater production value, and departments are sometimes requesting educators…

  9. The Video Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Video games are neither neutral nor harmless but represent very specific social and symbolic constructs. Research on the social content of today's video games reveals that sex bias and gender stereotyping are widely evident throughout the Nintendo games. Violence and aggression also pervade the great majority of the games. (MLF)

  10. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Semantic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such semantically-meaningful parameters.

  11. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  12. Thalamic semantic paralexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hoffmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexia may be divided into different subtypes, with semantic paralexia being particularly rare. A 57 year old woman with a discreet left thalamic stroke and semantic paralexia is described. Language evalution with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Battery confirmed the semantic paralexia (deep alexia. Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning excluded other cerebral lesions. A good recovery ensued.

  13. The Semantic Distance Task: Quantifying Semantic Distance with Semantic Network Path Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Yoed N.; Levi, Effi; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Semantic distance is a determining factor in cognitive processes, such as semantic priming, operating upon semantic memory. The main computational approach to compute semantic distance is through latent semantic analysis (LSA). However, objections have been raised against this approach, mainly in its failure at predicting semantic priming. We…

  14. An overview of semantic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2010-08-01

    approaches are considered, ranging from low-level semantic compression for text and database compaction, to high-level semantic analysis of images or video in which objects of interest have been detected, segmented, and represented compactly to facilitate indexing. In particular, we overview previous work in semantic pattern recognition, and how this has been applied to object-based compression. Discussion centers on lossless versus lossy transformations, quality of service in lossy compression, and computational efficiency.

  15. SCC: Semantic Context Cascade for Efficient Action Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2017-11-09

    Despite the recent advances in large-scale video analysis, action detection remains as one of the most challenging unsolved problems in computer vision. This snag is in part due to the large volume of data that needs to be analyzed to detect actions in videos. Existing approaches have mitigated the computational cost, but still, these methods lack rich high-level semantics that helps them to localize the actions quickly. In this paper, we introduce a Semantic Cascade Context (SCC) model that aims to detect action in long video sequences. By embracing semantic priors associated with human activities, SCC produces high-quality class-specific action proposals and prune unrelated activities in a cascade fashion. Experimental results in ActivityNet unveils that SCC achieves state-of-the-art performance for action detection while operating at real time.

  16. Semantic structure tree with application to remote sensing image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangrong; Pan, Xian; Hou, Biao; Jiao, Licheng

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new method based on Semantic Structure Tree (SST) for remote sensing image segmentation, in which, the semantic image analysis is used to construct the SST of the image. The leaves of the SST represent the semantics of the image and serve as human semantic understanding of the image. The root of the tree is the whole image. The SST uses grammar rules to construct a hierarchy structure of the image and gives a complete high-level semantics contents description of the image. Experimental results show that the tree can give efficient description of the semantic content of the remote sensing image, and can be well used in remote sensing image segmentation.

  17. The Semantic Web: opportunities and challenges for next-generation Web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a growing interest in the investigation and development of the next generation web - the Semantic Web. While most of the current forms of web content are designed to be presented to humans, but are barely understandable by computers, the content of the Semantic Web is structured in a semantic way so that it is meaningful to computers as well as to humans. In this paper, we report a survey of recent research on the Semantic Web. In particular, we present the opportunities that this revolution will bring to us: web-services, agent-based distributed computing, semantics-based web search engines, and semantics-based digital libraries. We also discuss the technical and cultural challenges of realizing the Semantic Web: the development of ontologies, formal semantics of Semantic Web languages, and trust and proof models. We hope that this will shed some light on the direction of future work on this field.

  18. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  19. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups.

  20. Video-Based Big Data Analytics in Cyberlearning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangbao; Kelly, William

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel system, inVideo, for video data analytics, and its use in transforming linear videos into interactive learning objects. InVideo is able to analyze video content automatically without the need for initial viewing by a human. Using a highly efficient video indexing engine we developed, the system is able to analyze…

  1. What Do Social Media Say About Makeovers? A Content Analysis of Cosmetic Surgery Videos and Viewers' Responses on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Nainan; Chia, Stella C; Hao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This study examines portrayals of cosmetic surgery on YouTube, where we found a substantial number of cosmetic surgery videos. Most of the videos came from cosmetic surgeons who appeared to be aggressively using social media in their practices. Except for videos that explained cosmetic surgery procedures, most videos in our sample emphasized the benefits of cosmetic surgery, and only a small number of the videos addressed the involved risks. We also found that tactics of persuasive communication-namely, related to message source and message sensation value (MSV)-have been used in Web-based social media to attract viewers' attention and interests. Expert sources were used predominantly, although typical-consumer sources tended to generate greater viewer interest in cosmetic surgery than other types of message sources. High MSV, moreover, was found to increase a video's popularity.

  2. Social Properties of Mobile Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, April Slayden; O'Hara, Kenton; Vorbau, Alex

    Mobile video is now an everyday possibility with a wide array of commercially available devices, services, and content. These new technologies have created dramatic shifts in the way video-based media can be produced, consumed, and delivered by people beyond the familiar behaviors associated with fixed TV and video technologies. Such technology revolutions change the way users behave and change their expectations in regards to their mobile video experiences. Building upon earlier studies of mobile video, this paper reports on a study using diary techniques and ethnographic interviews to better understand how people are using commercially available mobile video technologies in their everyday lives. Drawing on reported episodes of mobile video behavior, the study identifies the social motivations and values underpinning these behaviors that help characterize mobile video consumption beyond the simplistic notion of viewing video only to kill time. This paper also discusses the significance of user-generated content and the usage of video in social communities through the description of two mobile video technology services that allow users to create and share content. Implications for adoption and design of mobile video technologies and services are discussed as well.

  3. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  4. When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

  5. COMPOSITIONAL AND CONTENT-RELATED PARTICULARITIES OF POLITICAL MEDIA TEXTS (THROUGH THE EXAMPLE OF THE TEXTS OF POLITICAL VIDEO CLIPS ISSUED BY THE CANDIDATES FOR PRESIDENCY IN FRANCE IN 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrieva, A.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the texts of political advertising video clips issued by the candidates for presidency in France during the campaign before the first round of elections in 2017. The mentioned examples of media texts are analysed from the compositional point of view as well as from that of the content particularities which are directly connected to the text structure. In general, the majority of the studied clips have a similar structure and consist of three parts: introduction, main part and conclusion. However, as a result of the research, a range of advantages marking well-structured videos was revealed. These include: addressing the voters and stating the speech topic clearly at the beginning of the clip, a relevant attention-grabbing opening phrase, consistency and clarity of the information presentation, appropriate use of additional video plots, conclusion at the end of the clip.

  6. Principal semantic components of language and the measurement of meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonovich, Alexei V; Samsonovic, Alexei V; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2010-06-11

    Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construct a low-dimensional, context-independent semantic map of natural language that represents simultaneously synonymy and antonymy. Emergent semantics of the map principal components are clearly identifiable: the first three correspond to the meanings of "good/bad" (valence), "calm/excited" (arousal), and "open/closed" (freedom), respectively. The semantic map is sufficiently robust to allow the automated extraction of synonyms and antonyms not originally in the dictionaries used to construct the map and to predict connotation from their coordinates. The map geometric characteristics include a limited number ( approximately 4) of statistically significant dimensions, a bimodal distribution of the first component, increasing kurtosis of subsequent (unimodal) components, and a U-shaped maximum-spread planar projection. Both the semantic content and the main geometric features of the map are consistent between dictionaries (Microsoft Word and Princeton's WordNet), among Western languages (English, French, German, and Spanish), and with previously established psychometric measures. By defining the semantics of its dimensions, the constructed map provides a foundational metric system for the quantitative analysis of word meaning. Language can be viewed as a cumulative product of human experiences. Therefore, the extracted principal semantic dimensions may be useful to characterize the general semantic dimensions of the content of mental states. This is a fundamental step toward a

  7. Principal semantic components of language and the measurement of meaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V Samsonovich

    Full Text Available Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construct a low-dimensional, context-independent semantic map of natural language that represents simultaneously synonymy and antonymy. Emergent semantics of the map principal components are clearly identifiable: the first three correspond to the meanings of "good/bad" (valence, "calm/excited" (arousal, and "open/closed" (freedom, respectively. The semantic map is sufficiently robust to allow the automated extraction of synonyms and antonyms not originally in the dictionaries used to construct the map and to predict connotation from their coordinates. The map geometric characteristics include a limited number ( approximately 4 of statistically significant dimensions, a bimodal distribution of the first component, increasing kurtosis of subsequent (unimodal components, and a U-shaped maximum-spread planar projection. Both the semantic content and the main geometric features of the map are consistent between dictionaries (Microsoft Word and Princeton's WordNet, among Western languages (English, French, German, and Spanish, and with previously established psychometric measures. By defining the semantics of its dimensions, the constructed map provides a foundational metric system for the quantitative analysis of word meaning. Language can be viewed as a cumulative product of human experiences. Therefore, the extracted principal semantic dimensions may be useful to characterize the general semantic dimensions of the content of mental states. This is a fundamental step

  8. The Effect of Normalization in Violence Video Classification Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ashikin; Senan, Norhalina

    2017-08-01

    Basically, data pre-processing is an important part of data mining. Normalization is a pre-processing stage for any type of problem statement, especially in video classification. Challenging problems that arises in video classification is because of the heterogeneous content, large variations in video quality and complex semantic meanings of the concepts involved. Therefore, to regularize this problem, it is thoughtful to ensure normalization or basically involvement of thorough pre-processing stage aids the robustness of classification performance. This process is to scale all the numeric variables into certain range to make it more meaningful for further phases in available data mining techniques. Thus, this paper attempts to examine the effect of 2 normalization techniques namely Min-max normalization and Z-score in violence video classifications towards the performance of classification rate using Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) classifier. Using Min-Max Normalization range of [0,1] the result shows almost 98% of accuracy, meanwhile Min-Max Normalization range of [-1,1] accuracy is 59% and for Z-score the accuracy is 50%.

  9. A Multilevel Analysis of Diverse Learners Playing Life Science Video Games: Interactions between Game Content, Learning Disability Status, Reading Proficiency, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Maya; Wang, Shuai; Marino, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Extant research reports differential effects related to the efficacy of video games as a means to enhance science instruction. However, there are very few studies examining differences in learning outcomes across student-level independent variables. This study used multilevel modeling to examine the effects of three video game-enhanced life…

  10. Visible semantics: an algebraic semantics for automatic verification of algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Palasí Lallana, Vicent Ramon

    1996-01-01

    A new semantics for algebraic specifications, called visible semantics, is defined. Its most notable property is that it is specially suitable for dealing with the problem of program correctness. Some properties of this semantics are proved and some conclusions described.

  11. Query-by-Emoji Video Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappallo, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    This technical demo presents Emoji2Video, a query-by-emoji interface for exploring video collections. Ideogram-based video search and representation presents an opportunity for an intuitive, visual interface and concise non-textual summary of video contents, in a form factor that is ideal for small

  12. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  14. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  15. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  16. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  17. Representing videos in tangible products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageth, Reiner; Weiting, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    Videos can be taken with nearly every camera, digital point and shoot cameras, DSLRs as well as smartphones and more and more with so-called action cameras mounted on sports devices. The implementation of videos while generating QR codes and relevant pictures out of the video stream via a software implementation was contents in last years' paper. This year we present first data about what contents is displayed and how the users represent their videos in printed products, e.g. CEWE PHOTOBOOKS and greeting cards. We report the share of the different video formats used, the number of images extracted out of the video in order to represent the video, the positions in the book and different design strategies compared to regular books.

  18. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Damian D G; Schiltz, Gary S; May, Greg D; Avraham, Shulamit; Town, Christopher D; Grant, David; Nelson, Rex T

    2009-09-23

    confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

  19. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Town Christopher D

    2009-09-01

    subsumption hierarchies, and iii the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

  20. Co-clustering for Weblogs in Semantic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yu; Xu, Guandong; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    -cluster corresponding to each semantic factor in the latent semantic space via probability inference. The proposed approach is evaluated by experiments performed on real datasets in terms of precision and recall metrics. Experimental results have demonstrated the proposed method can effectively reveal the co......Web clustering is an approach for aggregating web objects into various groups according to underlying relationships among them. Finding co-clusters of web objects in semantic space is an interesting topic in the context of web usage mining, which is able to capture the underlying user navigational...... interest and content preference simultaneously. In this paper we will present a novel web co-clustering algorithm named Co-Clustering in Semantic space (COCS) to simultaneously partition web users and pages via a latent semantic analysis approach. In COCS, we first, train the latent semantic space...

  1. Help-Giving Robot Behaviors in Child-Robot Games : Exploring Semantic Free Utterances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaga, Cristina; De Vries, Roelof A.J.; Spenkelink, Sem J.; Truong, Khiet P.; Evers, Vanessa

    We present initial findings from an experiment where we used Semantic Free Utterances vocalizations and sounds without semantic content as an alternative to Natural Language in a child-robot collaborative game. We tested (i) if two types of Semantic Free Utterances could be accurately recognized by

  2. Model Driven Development of Semantic Web Enabled Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazoglou, M.P.; Kardas, G.; Huhns, M.N.; Göknil, Arda; Dikenelli, O.; Topaloglu, N.Y.

    Semantic Web evolution brought a new vision into agent research. The interpretation of this second generation web will be realized by autonomous computational entities, called agents, to handle the semantic content on behalf of their human users. Surely, Semantic Web environment has specific

  3. Geoscience Challenges and Semantic Web Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.

    2009-12-01

    Nowadays geosciences face a triple of major challenges. These challenges are the study and understanding of complex systems, like e.g. climate change, further the exponential growing of raw and unstructured data, information and knowledge and finally the necessity of an inter-domain group-based collaboration of geoscientists. In addition to this triple of issues, new Web 2.0 techniques, like the mash-up of data content and context or the inclusion of user feedback data and information wait to be used for enhanced geoscientific research. The semantic web approach for the semantic integration of data, information and knowledge seems to be a promising way for geoscientists. It should be used in order to find the right language and common vocabularies for the inter-domain joint study of earth system processes. This approach enables both, first the right semantic preparation of domain specific data and information in a certain context and second -based on this preparation- the interdisciplinary use of world-wide distributed and semantic augmented data, information especially in a different context. This paper shows the impact of a semantic based thinking and the usage of semantic web-based techniques on the example of specific geophysical and geodetic data and information for the improvement of geoscience research in a much broader context.

  4. Bi-Level Semantic Representation Analysis for Multimedia Event Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaojun; Ma, Zhigang; Yang, Yi; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Hauptmann, Alexander G

    2017-05-01

    Multimedia event detection has been one of the major endeavors in video event analysis. A variety of approaches have been proposed recently to tackle this problem. Among others, using semantic representation has been accredited for its promising performance and desirable ability for human-understandable reasoning. To generate semantic representation, we usually utilize several external image/video archives and apply the concept detectors trained on them to the event videos. Due to the intrinsic difference of these archives, the resulted representation is presumable to have different predicting capabilities for a certain event. Notwithstanding, not much work is available for assessing the efficacy of semantic representation from the source-level. On the other hand, it is plausible to perceive that some concepts are noisy for detecting a specific event. Motivated by these two shortcomings, we propose a bi-level semantic representation analyzing method. Regarding source-level, our method learns weights of semantic representation attained from different multimedia archives. Meanwhile, it restrains the negative influence of noisy or irrelevant concepts in the overall concept-level. In addition, we particularly focus on efficient multimedia event detection with few positive examples, which is highly appreciated in the real-world scenario. We perform extensive experiments on the challenging TRECVID MED 2013 and 2014 datasets with encouraging results that validate the efficacy of our proposed approach.

  5. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  6. About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel Corpora The semantic notation analyzed in this works is contained in the second stream of semantic theories presented here – in the direct approach semantics. We used this stream in our work on the Bulgarian-Polish Contrastive Grammar. Our semantic notation distinguishes quantificational meanings of names and predicates, and indicates aspectual and temporal meanings of verbs. It relies on logical scope-based quantification and on the contemporary theory of processes, known as “Petri nets”. Thanks to it, we can distinguish precisely between a language form and its contents, e.g. a perfective verb form has two meanings: an event or a sequence of events and states, finally ended with an event. An imperfective verb form also has two meanings: a state or a sequence of states and events, finally ended with a state. In turn, names are quantified universally or existentially when they are “undefined”, and uniquely (using the iota operator when they are “defined”. A fact worth emphasizing is the possibility of quantifying not only names, but also the predicate, and then quantification concerns time and aspect.  This is a novum in elaborating sentence-level semantics in parallel corpora. For this reason, our semantic notation is manual. We are hoping that it will raise the interest of computer scientists working on automatic methods for processing the given natural languages. Semantic annotation defined like in this work will facilitate contrastive studies of natural languages, and this in turn will verify the results of those studies, and will certainly facilitate human and machine translations.

  7. Improving Peer-to-Peer Video Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrocco, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    Video Streaming is nowadays the Internet’s biggest source of consumer traffic. Traditional content providers rely on centralised client-server model for distributing their video streaming content. The current generation is moving from being passive viewers, or content consumers, to active content

  8. A Relation Routing Scheme for Distributed Semantic Media Query

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhuhua; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yi, Aiping; Zhang, Guoqing; Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Performing complex semantic queries over large-scale distributed media contents is a challenging task for rich media applications. The dynamics and openness of data sources make it uneasy to realize a query scheme that simultaneously achieves precision, scalability, and reliability. In this paper, a novel relation routing scheme (RRS) is proposed by renovating the routing model of Content Centric Network (CCN) for directly querying large-scale semantic media content. By using proper query model and routing mechanism, semantic queries with complex relation constrains from users can be guided towards potential media sources through semantic guider nodes. The scattered and fragmented query results can be integrated on their way back for semantic needs or to avoid duplication. Several new techniques, such as semantic-based naming, incomplete response avoidance, timeout checking, and semantic integration, are developed in this paper to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and practicality of the proposed approach. Both analytical and experimental results show that the proposed scheme is a promising and effective solution for complex semantic queries and integration over large-scale networks. PMID:24319383

  9. Semantics of Statebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj Lervad

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp.......Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp....

  10. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...

  11. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  12. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-12-01

    . In S. Peters & E. Saarinen (eds. ‘Processes, beliefs, and questions’, 87–106. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, B. H. 1988. ‘Possible worlds in model-theoretic semantics: a linguistic perspective’. In S. Allén (ed. ‘Possible Worlds in Humanities, Arts, and Sciences. Proceedings of Nobel Symposium 65’, 93–123. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.http://semanticsarchive.net/Archive/TA4MTYxZ/.Partee, B. H. 1996. ‘The development of formal semantics in linguistic theory’. In S. Lappin (ed. ‘The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory’, 11–38. Oxford: Blackwell.http://bhpartee.narod.ru/Partee_1996DevelofFormalSemantics.pdf.Partee, B. H. 2004. ‘Reflections of a formal semanticist’. In S. Lappin (ed. ‘Compositionality in Formal Semantics: Selected Papers by Barbara H. Partee’, 1–25. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Partee, B. H. 2005. ‘Reflections of a formal semanticist as of Feb 2005’.http://people.umass.edu/partee/docs/BHP_Essay_Feb05.pdf.Partee, B. H. 2009. ‘Perspectives on Semantics: How philosophy and syntax have shaped the development of formal semantics, and vice versa’. In Conference “Russian in Contrast”, Special guest lecture. University of Oslo, Oslo. Video and Poster: http://folk.uio.no/atleg/russian_in_contrast/; Power Point presentation: https://udrive.oit.umass.edu/partee/Partee2009Oslo.ppt.pdf. Partee, B. H. & Hendriks, H. L. W. 1997. ‘Montague grammar’. In J. van Benthem & A. ter Meulen (eds. ‘Handbook of Logic and Language’, 5–91. Amsterdam / Cambridge, MA: Elsevier / MIT Press. https://udrive.oit.umass.edu/partee/LOLA01Partee.PDF.Partee, B. H., ter Meulen, A. & Wall, R. (eds.. 1990. Mathematical Methods in Linguistics. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Pelletier, F. J. 1982. ‘X’. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 23: 316–326.http://dx.doi.org/10.1305/ndjfl/1093870091Pelletier, F. J. 2001. ‘Did Frege believe Frege’s principle?’ Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10: 87–114.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A

  13. Semantic Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  14. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  15. Video2Sentence and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    which outperforms a low-level audiovisual representation. Our novelty is to demonstrate the capabilities of semantic representations for translating ...demonstrate the translations using arbi- trary web videos and sentences related to everyday events. What is more, we will provide an automatically generated...explanation, in terms of concept detectors, on why a partic- ular video or sentence has been retrieved as the most likely translation . Categories and

  16. Internet video-on-demand e-commerce system based on multilevel video metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiali; Jin, Jesse S.

    2000-10-01

    Video-On-Demand is a new development on the Internet. In order to manage the rich multimedia information and the large number of users, we present an Internet Video-On-Demand system with some E- Commerce flavors. This paper presents the system architecture and technologies required in the implementation. It provides interactive Video-On-Demand services in which the user has a complete control over the session presentation. It allows the user to select and receive specific video information by retrieving the database. For improving the performance of video information retrieval and management, the video information is represented by hierarchical video metadata in XML format. Video metadatabase stored the video information in this hierarchical structure and allows user to search the video shots at different semantic levels in the database. To browse the searched video, the user not only has full-function VCR capabilities as the traditional Video-On-Demand, but also can browse the video in a hierarchical method to view different shots. In order to perform management of large number of users over the Internet, a membership database designed and managed in an E-Commerce environment, which allows the user to access the video database based on different access levels.

  17. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  18. Digital video transcoding for transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Huifang; Chen, Xuemin

    2004-01-01

    Professionals in the video and multimedia industries need a book that explains industry standards for video coding and how to convert the compressed information between standards. Digital Video Transcoding for Transmission and Storage answers this demand while also supplying the theories and principles of video compression and transcoding technologies. Emphasizing digital video transcoding techniques, this book summarizes its content via examples of practical methods for transcoder implementation. It relates almost all of its featured transcoding technologies to practical applications.This vol

  19. Intelligent Analysis for Georeferenced Video Using Context-Based Random Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangfan Feng; Hu Song

    2013-01-01

    Video sensor networks are formed by the joining of heterogeneous sensor nodes, which is frequently reported as video of communication functionally bound to geographical locations. Decomposition of georeferenced video stream presents the expression of video from spatial feature set. Although it has been studied extensively, spatial relations underlying the scenario are not well understood, which are important to understand the semantics of georeferenced video and behavior of elements. Here we ...

  20. Twofold Video Hashing with Automatic Synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mu; Monga, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Video hashing finds a wide array of applications in content authentication, robust retrieval and anti-piracy search. While much of the existing research has focused on extracting robust and secure content descriptors, a significant open challenge still remains: Most existing video hashing methods are fallible to temporal desynchronization. That is, when the query video results by deleting or inserting some frames from the reference video, most existing methods assume the positions of the dele...

  1. Semantic Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements engineering (RE) techniques play a crucial role in information systems development processes. There are many excellent techniques of RE to assist requirements analysts and stakeholders in producing requirements specification of higher quality, and some of them are put into practice in industry. However, one of the issues of these RE techniques is that they do not handle semantic aspects of requirements. If we can deal with the meaning of requirements by using automated techniques, we can get more effective RE techniques to produce requirements specifications of higher quality. In this chapter, we consider an ontology as a semantic domain so as to provide the meaning for requirements, and discuss the potentials of the RE techniques using an ontology as a semantic basis. Especially, we illustrate an extension of goal-oriented requirements analysis where this idea is embedded, i.e. we provide the semantics for goal descriptions written in natural language using a mapping from them to an ontology. The inference mechanisms of the ontology allow us to decompose a goal into sub-goals and to find missing goals. Furthermore, in this chapter we discuss the possibilities of the techniques to support the other activities of RE processes using this ontological technique, e.g. measuring quality metrics and controlling versions of requirements from a semantic view. Due to similarity to Semantic Web techniques, we call a family of these engineering techniques Semantic Requirements Engineering in this chapter.

  2. Efficient data replication for the delivery of high-quality video content over P2P VoD advertising networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chien-Peng; Yu, Jen-Yu; Lee, Suh-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in modern television systems have had profound consequences for the scalability, stability, and quality of transmitted digital data signals. This is of particular significance for peer-to-peer (P2P) video-on-demand (VoD) related platforms, faced with an immediate and growing demand for reliable service delivery. In response to demands for high-quality video, the key objectives in the construction of the proposed framework were user satisfaction with perceived video quality and the effective utilization of available resources on P2P VoD networks. This study developed a peer-based promoter to support online advertising in P2P VoD networks based on an estimation of video distortion prior to the replication of data stream chunks. The proposed technology enables the recovery of lost video using replicated stream chunks in real time. Load balance is achieved by adjusting the replication level of each candidate group according to the degree-of-distortion, thereby enabling a significant reduction in server load and increased scalability in the P2P VoD system. This approach also promotes the use of advertising as an efficient tool for commercial promotion. Results indicate that the proposed system efficiently satisfies the given fault tolerances.

  3. Founded Semantics and Constraint Semantics of Logic Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanhong A.; Stoller, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple new semantics for logic rules, founded semantics, and its straightforward extension to another simple new semantics, constraint semantics. The new semantics support unrestricted negation, as well as unrestricted existential and universal quantifications. They are uniquely expressive and intuitive by allowing assumptions about the predicates and rules to be specified explicitly. They are completely declarative and easy to understand and relate cleanly to prior sem...

  4. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  5. ELN in the semantic era

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Jeremy G.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of semantics in human-computer and computer-computer communications Capturing the laboratory processes and data in a semantically rich form at source. Implementing semantics - The use of the semantic web & grid The importance of context in the use of ELNs Publication and dissemination - Using the information obtained with ELNs

  6. Arabic web pages clustering and annotation using semantic class features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Alghamdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage the great amount of data on Arabic web pages and to enable the classification of relevant information are very important research problems. Studies on sentiment text mining have been very limited in the Arabic language because they need to involve deep semantic processing. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to retrieve machine-understandable data with the help of a Web content mining technique to detect covert knowledge within these data. We propose an approach to achieve clustering with semantic similarities. This approach comprises integrating k-means document clustering with semantic feature extraction and document vectorization to group Arabic web pages according to semantic similarities and then show the semantic annotation. The document vectorization helps to transform text documents into a semantic class probability distribution or semantic class density. To reach semantic similarities, the approach extracts the semantic class features and integrates them into the similarity weighting schema. The quality of the clustering result has evaluated the use of the purity and the mean intra-cluster distance (MICD evaluation measures. We have evaluated the proposed approach on a set of common Arabic news web pages. We have acquired favorable clustering results that are effective in minimizing the MICD, expanding the purity and lowering the runtime.

  7. Indexed Captioned Searchable Videos: A Learning Companion for STEM Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Tayfun; Subhlok, Jaspal; Barker, Lecia; Shah, Shishir; Johnson, Olin; Hovey, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Videos of classroom lectures have proven to be a popular and versatile learning resource. A key shortcoming of the lecture video format is accessing the content of interest hidden in a video. This work meets this challenge with an advanced video framework featuring topical indexing, search, and captioning (ICS videos). Standard optical character…

  8. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

  9. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  10. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  11. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  12. Characteristics of "Music Education" Videos Posted on Youtube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Jennifer A.; Orman, Evelyn K.; Yarbrough, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    This content analysis sought to determine information related to users uploading, general content, and specific characteristics of music education videos on YouTube. A total of 1,761 videos from a keyword search of "music education" were viewed and categorized. Results for relevant videos indicated users posted videos under 698 different…

  13. Women as Video Game Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Thesis is to study women as video game consumers through the games that they play. This was done by case studies on the content of five video games from genres that statistically are popular amongst women. To introduce the topic and to build the theoretical framework, the key terms and the video game industry are introduced. The reader is acquainted with theories on consumer behaviour, buying processes and factors that influence our consuming habits. These aspects are...

  14. Digital video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike

    2004-04-01

    The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.

  15. Organizational Semantic Web based Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Necula, Sabina-Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to treat organizational semantic web based portals. The first part of the paper focuses on concepts regarding semantic web based portals. After discussing some concepts we treat the basic functionalities that a semantic web based portal must have and we finish by presenting these functionalities by actual examples. We present semantic web based portals after studying the necessary implementations from literature and practice. We develop some examples that use semantic web ...

  16. Video and image retrieval beyond the cognitive level: the needs and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjalic, Alan

    2001-01-01

    The worldwide research efforts in the are of image and video retrieval have concentrated so far on increasing the efficiency and reliability of extracting the elements of image and video semantics and so on improving the search and retrieval performance at the cognitive level of content abstraction. At this abstraction level, the user is searching for 'factual' or 'objective' content such as image showing a panorama of San Francisco, an outdoor or an indoor image, a broadcast news report on a defined topic, a movie dialog between the actors A and B or the parts of a basketball game showing fast breaks, steals and scores. These efforts, however, do not address the retrieval applications at the so-called affective level of content abstraction where the 'ground truth' is not strictly defined. Such applications are, for instance, those where subjectivity of the user plays the major role, e.g. the task of retrieving all images that the user 'likes most', and those that are based on 'recognizing emotions' in audiovisual data. Typical examples are searching for all images that 'radiate happiness', identifying all 'sad' movie fragments and looking for the 'romantic landscapes', 'sentimental' movie segments, 'movie highlights' or 'most exciting' moments of a sport event. This paper discusses the needs and possibilities for widening the current scope of research in the area of image and video search and retrieval in order to enable applications at the affective level of content abstraction.

  17. Semantic Web Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Swick, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    ...) project between 2002 and 2005 provided key steps in the research in the Semantic Web technology, and also played an essential role in delivering the technology to industry and government in the form...

  18. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  19. Surveillance Video Synopsis in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Xie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance videos contain a considerable amount of data, wherein interesting information to the user is sparsely distributed. Researchers construct video synopsis that contain key information extracted from a surveillance video for efficient browsing and analysis. Geospatial–temporal information of a surveillance video plays an important role in the efficient description of video content. Meanwhile, current approaches of video synopsis lack the introduction and analysis of geospatial-temporal information. Owing to the preceding problems mentioned, this paper proposes an approach called “surveillance video synopsis in GIS”. Based on an integration model of video moving objects and GIS, the virtual visual field and the expression model of the moving object are constructed by spatially locating and clustering the trajectory of the moving object. The subgraphs of the moving object are reconstructed frame by frame in a virtual scene. Results show that the approach described in this paper comprehensively analyzed and created fusion expression patterns between video dynamic information and geospatial–temporal information in GIS and reduced the playback time of video content.

  20. Deep Aesthetic Quality Assessment With Semantic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yueying; He, Ran; Huang, Kaiqi

    2017-03-01

    Human beings often assess the aesthetic quality of an image coupled with the identification of the image's semantic content. This paper addresses the correlation issue between automatic aesthetic quality assessment and semantic recognition. We cast the assessment problem as the main task among a multi-task deep model, and argue that semantic recognition task offers the key to address this problem. Based on convolutional neural networks, we employ a single and simple multi-task framework to efficiently utilize the supervision of aesthetic and semantic labels. A correlation item between these two tasks is further introduced to the framework by incorporating the inter-task relationship learning. This item not only provides some useful insight about the correlation but also improves assessment accuracy of the aesthetic task. In particular, an effective strategy is developed to keep a balance between the two tasks, which facilitates to optimize the parameters of the framework. Extensive experiments on the challenging Aesthetic Visual Analysis dataset and Photo.net dataset validate the importance of semantic recognition in aesthetic quality assessment, and demonstrate that multitask deep models can discover an effective aesthetic representation to achieve the state-of-the-art results.

  1. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Content Analysis. A Study of Television Shows and Commercials, Movies, Music Videos, and Teen Magazine Articles and Ads. An Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorielli, Nancy

    This document presents an executive summary of a study that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender roles--primarily…

  2. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Content Analysis. A Study of Television Shows and Commercials, Movies, Music Videos, and Teen Magazine Articles and Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorielli, Nancy

    A study examined kinds of messages prevalent in the media used by preteen and teenage girls, asking what messages are sent about goals, dating, careers, behavior, and appearance and its relationship to well being. Four media were the subject of the study, which comprised 12 samples from television programs, theatrical films, music videos, and teen…

  3. Self-evaluation and peer-feedback of medical students' communication skills using a web-based video annotation system. Exploring content and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, Robert L.; van der Vloodt, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Self-evaluation and peer-feedback are important strategies within the reflective practice paradigm for the development and maintenance of professional competencies like medical communication. Characteristics of the self-evaluation and peer-feedback annotations of medical students' video

  4. Violence-related content in video game may lead to functional connectivity changes in brain networks as revealed by fMRI-ICA in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagintsev, M; Klasen, M; Weber, R; Sarkheil, P; Esposito, F; Mathiak, K A; Schwenzer, M; Mathiak, K

    2016-04-21

    In violent video games, players engage in virtual aggressive behaviors. Exposure to virtual aggressive behavior induces short-term changes in players' behavior. In a previous study, a violence-related version of the racing game "Carmageddon TDR2000" increased aggressive affects, cognitions, and behaviors compared to its non-violence-related version. This study investigates the differences in neural network activity during the playing of both versions of the video game. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recorded ongoing brain activity of 18 young men playing the violence-related and the non-violence-related version of the video game Carmageddon. Image time series were decomposed into functional connectivity (FC) patterns using independent component analysis (ICA) and template-matching yielded a mapping to established functional brain networks. The FC patterns revealed a decrease in connectivity within 6 brain networks during the violence-related compared to the non-violence-related condition: three sensory-motor networks, the reward network, the default mode network (DMN), and the right-lateralized frontoparietal network. Playing violent racing games may change functional brain connectivity, in particular and even after controlling for event frequency, in the reward network and the DMN. These changes may underlie the short-term increase of aggressive affects, cognitions, and behaviors as observed after playing violent video games. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge-based understanding of aerial surveillance video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui; Butler, Darren

    2006-05-01

    Aerial surveillance has long been used by the military to locate, monitor and track the enemy. Recently, its scope has expanded to include law enforcement activities, disaster management and commercial applications. With the ever-growing amount of aerial surveillance video acquired daily, there is an urgent need for extracting actionable intelligence in a timely manner. Furthermore, to support high-level video understanding, this analysis needs to go beyond current approaches and consider the relationships, motivations and intentions of the objects in the scene. In this paper we propose a system for interpreting aerial surveillance videos that automatically generates a succinct but meaningful description of the observed regions, objects and events. For a given video, the semantics of important regions and objects, and the relationships between them, are summarised into a semantic concept graph. From this, a textual description is derived that provides new search and indexing options for aerial video and enables the fusion of aerial video with other information modalities, such as human intelligence, reports and signal intelligence. Using a Mixture-of-Experts video segmentation algorithm an aerial video is first decomposed into regions and objects with predefined semantic meanings. The objects are then tracked and coerced into a semantic concept graph and the graph is summarized spatially, temporally and semantically using ontology guided sub-graph matching and re-writing. The system exploits domain specific knowledge and uses a reasoning engine to verify and correct the classes, identities and semantic relationships between the objects. This approach is advantageous because misclassifications lead to knowledge contradictions and hence they can be easily detected and intelligently corrected. In addition, the graph representation highlights events and anomalies that a low-level analysis would overlook.

  6. Estimation of Web video multiplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, SenChing S.; Zakhor, Avideh

    1999-12-01

    With ever more popularity of video web-publishing, many popular contents are being mirrored, reformatted, modified and republished, resulting in excessive content duplication. While such redundancy provides fault tolerance for continuous availability of information, it could potentially create problems for multimedia search engines in that the search results for a given query might become repetitious, and cluttered with a large number of duplicates. As such, developing techniques for detecting similarity and duplication is important to multimedia search engines. In addition, content providers might be interested in identifying duplicates of their content for legal, contractual or other business related reasons. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm called video signature to detect similar video sequences for large databases such as the web. The idea is to first form a 'signature' for each video sequence by selection a small number of its frames that are most similar to a number of randomly chosen seed images. Then the similarity between any tow video sequences can be reliably estimated by comparing their respective signatures. Using this method, we achieve 85 percent recall and precision ratios on a test database of 377 video sequences. As a proof of concept, we have applied our proposed algorithm to a collection of 1800 hours of video corresponding to around 45000 clips from the web. Our results indicate that, on average, every video in our collection from the web has around five similar copies.

  7. Immersive video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  8. A unified and efficient framework for court-net sports video analysis using 3D camera modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jungong; de With, Peter H. N.

    2007-01-01

    The extensive amount of video data stored on available media (hard and optical disks) necessitates video content analysis, which is a cornerstone for different user-friendly applications, such as, smart video retrieval and intelligent video summarization. This paper aims at finding a unified and efficient framework for court-net sports video analysis. We concentrate on techniques that are generally applicable for more than one sports type to come to a unified approach. To this end, our framework employs the concept of multi-level analysis, where a novel 3-D camera modeling is utilized to bridge the gap between the object-level and the scene-level analysis. The new 3-D camera modeling is based on collecting features points from two planes, which are perpendicular to each other, so that a true 3-D reference is obtained. Another important contribution is a new tracking algorithm for the objects (i.e. players). The algorithm can track up to four players simultaneously. The complete system contributes to summarization by various forms of information, of which the most important are the moving trajectory and real-speed of each player, as well as 3-D height information of objects and the semantic event segments in a game. We illustrate the performance of the proposed system by evaluating it for a variety of court-net sports videos containing badminton, tennis and volleyball, and we show that the feature detection performance is above 92% and events detection about 90%.

  9. Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit “Citations in Context”, and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research

  10. Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancements of a research article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shotton

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/. The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own

  11. Video games

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  12. CHARACTER RECOGNITION OF VIDEO SUBTITLES\\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S Hiremath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An important task in content based video indexing is to extract text information from videos. The challenges involved in text extraction and recognition are variation of illumination on each video frame with text, the text present on the complex background and different font size of the text. Using various image processing algorithms like morphological operations, blob detection and histogram of oriented gradients the character recognition of video subtitles is implemented. Segmentation, feature extraction and classification are the major steps of character recognition. Several experimental results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm

  13. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  14. Scaffolding With and Through Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Khoo, Elaine; Cowie, Bronwen

    2012-01-01

    to consider must be expanded. This article explicates theoretical and practical ideas related to teachers’ application of their ICT technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) in science. The article unpacks the social and technological dimensions of teachers’ use of TPACK when they use digital videos...... to scaffold learning. It showcases the intricate interplay between teachers’ knowledge about content, digital video technology, and students’ learning needs based on a qualitative study of two science teachers and their students in a New Zealand primary school....

  15. Self-evaluation and peer-feedback of medical students' communication skills using a web-based video annotation system. Exploring content and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, Robert L; van der Vloodt, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Self-evaluation and peer-feedback are important strategies within the reflective practice paradigm for the development and maintenance of professional competencies like medical communication. Characteristics of the self-evaluation and peer-feedback annotations of medical students' video recorded communication skills were analyzed. Twenty-five year 4 medical students recorded history-taking consultations with a simulated patient, uploaded the video to a web-based platform, marked and annotated positive and negative events. Peers reviewed the video and self-evaluations and provided feedback. Analyzed were the number of marked positive and negative annotations and the amount of text entered. Topics and specificity of the annotations were coded and analyzed qualitatively. Students annotated on average more negative than positive events. Additional peer-feedback was more often positive. Topics most often related to structuring the consultation. Students were most critical about their biomedical topics. Negative annotations were more specific than positive annotations. Self-evaluations were more specific than peer-feedback and both show a significant correlation. Four response patterns were detected that negatively bias specificity assessment ratings. Teaching students to be more specific in their self-evaluations may be effective for receiving more specific peer-feedback. Videofragmentrating is a convenient tool to implement reflective practice activities like self-evaluation and peer-feedback to the classroom in the teaching of clinical skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic content-based analysis of georeferenced image data: Detection of Beggiatoa mats in seafloor video mosaics from the HÅkon Mosby Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, K.; Lüdtke, A.; Schlüter, M.; Ioannidis, G. T.

    2007-02-01

    The combination of new underwater technology as remotely operating vehicles (ROVs), high-resolution video imagery, and software to compute georeferenced mosaics of the seafloor provides new opportunities for marine geological or biological studies and applications in offshore industry. Even during single surveys by ROVs or towed systems large amounts of images are compiled. While these underwater techniques are now well-engineered, there is still a lack of methods for the automatic analysis of the acquired image data. During ROV dives more than 4200 georeferenced video mosaics were compiled for the HÅkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV). Mud volcanoes as HMMV are considered as significant source locations for methane characterised by unique chemoautotrophic communities as Beggiatoa mats. For the detection and quantification of the spatial distribution of Beggiatoa mats an automated image analysis technique was developed, which applies watershed transformation and relaxation-based labelling of pre-segmented regions. Comparison of the data derived by visual inspection of 2840 video images with the automated image analysis revealed similarities with a precision better than 90%. We consider this as a step towards a time-efficient and accurate analysis of seafloor images for computation of geochemical budgets and identification of habitats at the seafloor.

  17. The Semantic SPASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  18. Crowdsourcing visual detectors for video search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freiburg, B.; Kamps, J.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study social tagging at the video fragment-level using a combination of automated content understanding and the wisdom of the crowds. We are interested in the question whether crowdsourcing can be beneficial to a video search engine that automatically recognizes video fragments on a

  19. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  20. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  1. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between decorated traces systems. There

  2. Semantic Changes of Gerund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, semantic models of gerund in the Lithuanian language are being investigated. Their productivity and the reasons of their change in the Lithuanian language are identified. The tendency to use gerund semantic structure in noun constructions is typical not only in Greek or Latin languages but also in English, Russian, etc. Regular polysemy is regarded as semantic derivation, i. e. shifting from main meanings to derivative ones. The object of this investigation is the usage patterns of gerunds which bear both the meaning of a verb and a noun. The examples for the present study have been gathered from the language of different Lithuanian dialects as well as from the Dictionary of the Lithuanian language (different volumes, etc. The research results reveal that semantic changes of object and result are the most productive, whereas mood or time semantic model proved to be not so productive. The productivity of regular models depends on the fact that there are suffix derivatives which have the meaning of a result. The research shows that scientific style and language of different dialects are rich in the use of gerund.

  3. The Semantic Web: From Representation to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn R.; Spivack, Nova; Wissner, James M.

    A semantically-linked web of electronic information - the Semantic Web - promises numerous benefits including increased precision in automated information sorting, searching, organizing and summarizing. Realizing this requires significantly more reliable meta-information than is readily available today. It also requires a better way to represent information that supports unified management of diverse data and diverse Manipulation methods: from basic keywords to various types of artificial intelligence, to the highest level of intelligent manipulation - the human mind. How this is best done is far from obvious. Relying solely on hand-crafted annotation and ontologies, or solely on artificial intelligence techniques, seems less likely for success than a combination of the two. In this paper describe an integrated, complete solution to these challenges that has already been implemented and tested with hundreds of thousands of users. It is based on an ontological representational level we call SemCards that combines ontological rigour with flexible user interface constructs. SemCards are machine- and human-readable digital entities that allow non-experts to create and use semantic content, while empowering machines to better assist and participate in the process. SemCards enable users to easily create semantically-grounded data that in turn acts as examples for automation processes, creating a positive iterative feedback loop of metadata creation and refinement between user and machine. They provide a holistic solution to the Semantic Web, supporting powerful management of the full lifecycle of data, including its creation, retrieval, classification, sorting and sharing. We have implemented the SemCard technology on the semantic Web site Twine.com, showing that the technology is indeed versatile and scalable. Here we present the key ideas behind SemCards and describe the initial implementation of the technology.

  4. The effect of concurrent semantic categorization on delayed serial recall

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, D.; Postle, B.; Macdonald, M

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Subjects engaged in two picture judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments 2 and 3). Picture judgments varied in the extent to which they required accessing visual...

  5. User aware video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerofsky, Louis; Jagannath, Abhijith; Reznik, Yuriy

    2015-03-01

    We describe the design of a video streaming system using adaptation to viewing conditions to reduce the bitrate needed for delivery of video content. A visual model is used to determine sufficient resolution needed under various viewing conditions. Sensors on a mobile device estimate properties of the viewing conditions, particularly the distance to the viewer. We leverage the framework of existing adaptive bitrate streaming systems such as HLS, Smooth Streaming or MPEG-DASH. The client rate selection logic is modified to include a sufficient resolution computed using the visual model and the estimated viewing conditions. Our experiments demonstrate significant bitrate savings compare to conventional streaming methods which do not exploit viewing conditions.

  6. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  7. Simpler TAG semantics through synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Shieber, Stuart; Nesson, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    In recent years Laura Kallmeyer, Maribel Romero, and their collaborators have led research on TAG semantics through a series of papers refining a system of TAG semantics computation. Kallmeyer and Romero bring together the lessons of these attempts with a set of desirable properties that such a system should have. First, computation of the semantics of a sentence should rely only on the relationships expressed in the TAG derivation tree. Second, the generated semantics should compactl...

  8. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  9. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  10. Hippocampal activation during retrieval of spatial context from episodic and semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Nadel, Lynn; Payne, Jessica; Ryan, Lee

    2010-10-15

    The hippocampus, a region implicated in the processing of spatial information and episodic memory, is central to the debate concerning the relationship between episodic and semantic memory. Studies of medial temporal lobe amnesic patients provide evidence that the hippocampus is critical for the retrieval of episodic but not semantic memory. On the other hand, recent neuroimaging studies of intact individuals report hippocampal activation during retrieval of both autobiographical memories and semantic information that includes historical facts, famous faces, and categorical information, suggesting that episodic and semantic memory may engage the hippocampus during memory retrieval in similar ways. Few studies have matched episodic and semantic tasks for the degree to which they include spatial content, even though spatial content may be what drives hippocampal activation during semantic retrieval. To examine this issue, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which retrieval of spatial and nonspatial information was compared during an episodic and semantic recognition task. Results show that the hippocampus (1) participates preferentially in the retrieval of episodic memories; (2) is also engaged by retrieval of semantic memories, particularly those that include spatial information. These data suggest that sharp dissociations between episodic and semantic memory may be overly simplistic and that the hippocampus plays a role in the retrieval of spatial content whether drawn from a memory of one's own life experiences or real-world semantic knowledge. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Apples to Oranges: Comparing Streaming Video Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Milewski, Steven; Threatt, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Librarians rely on an ever-increasing variety of platforms to deliver streaming video content to our patrons. These two presentations will examine different aspects of video streaming platforms to gain guidance from the comparison of platforms. The first will examine the accessibility compliance of the various video streaming platforms for users with disabilities by examining accessibility features of the platforms. The second will be a comparison of subject usage of two of the larger video s...

  12. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  13. Incremental semantics for propositional texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.F.M.

    In this paper we are concerned with the special requirements that a semantics of texts should meet. It is argued that a semantics of texts should be incremental and should satisfy the break in principle. We develop a semantics for propositional texts that satisfies these constraints. We will see

  14. A Timed Semantics for SDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1996-01-01

    An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics...

  15. Biotea: semantics for Pubmed Central.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander; Lopez, Federico; Garcia, Leyla; Giraldo, Olga; Bucheli, Victor; Dumontier, Michel

    2018-01-01

    A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. We expose our models, services, software and datasets. Our infrastructure enables manual and semi-automatic annotation, resulting data are represented as RDF-based linked data and can be readily queried using the SPARQL query language. We illustrate the utility of our system with several use cases. Our datasets, methods and techniques are available at http://biotea.github.io.

  16. Biotea: semantics for Pubmed Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. We expose our models, services, software and datasets. Our infrastructure enables manual and semi-automatic annotation, resulting data are represented as RDF-based linked data and can be readily queried using the SPARQL query language. We illustrate the utility of our system with several use cases. Our datasets, methods and techniques are available at http://biotea.github.io.

  17. Discovering Mobile Social Networks by Semantic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jason J.; Choi, Kwang Sun; Park, Sung Hyuk

    It has been important for telecommunication companies to discover social networks from mobile subscribers. They have attempted to provide a number of recommendation services, but they realized that the services were not successful. In this chapter, we present semantic technologies for discovering social networks. The process is mainly composed of two steps; (1) profile identification and (2) context understanding. Through developing a Next generation Contents dElivery (NICE) platform, we were able to generate various services based on the discovered social networks.

  18. Perception of conversations: the importance of semantics and intonation in children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang; Friederici, Angela D; von Hofsten, Claes; Daum, Moritz M

    2013-10-01

    In conversations, adults readily detect and anticipate the end of a speaker's turn. However, little is known about the development of this ability. We addressed two important aspects involved in the perception of conversational turn taking: semantic content and intonational form. The influence of semantics was investigated by testing prelinguistic and linguistic children. The influence of intonation was tested by presenting participants with videos of two dyadic conversations: one with normal intonation and one with flattened (removed) intonation. Children of four different age groups--two prelinguistic groups (6- and 12-month-olds) and two linguistic groups (24- and 36-month-olds)--and an adult group participated. Their eye movements were recorded, and the frequency of anticipated turns was analyzed. Our results show that (a) the anticipation of turns was reliable only in 3-year-olds and adults, with younger children shifting their gaze between speakers regardless of the turn taking, and (b) only 3-year-olds anticipated turns better if intonation was normal. These results indicate that children anticipate turns in conversations in a manner comparable (but not identical) to adults only after they have developed a sophisticated understanding of language. In contrast to adults, 3-year-olds rely more strongly on prosodic information during the perception of conversational turn taking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Framework for Advanced Video Traces: Evaluating Visual Quality for Video Transmission Over Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisslein Martin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional video traces (which characterize the video encoding frame sizes in bits and frame quality in PSNR are limited to evaluating loss-free video transmission. To evaluate robust video transmission schemes for lossy network transport, generally experiments with actual video are required. To circumvent the need for experiments with actual videos, we propose in this paper an advanced video trace framework. The two main components of this framework are (i advanced video traces which combine the conventional video traces with a parsimonious set of visual content descriptors, and (ii quality prediction schemes that based on the visual content descriptors provide an accurate prediction of the quality of the reconstructed video after lossy network transport. We conduct extensive evaluations using a perceptual video quality metric as well as the PSNR in which we compare the visual quality predicted based on the advanced video traces with the visual quality determined from experiments with actual video. We find that the advanced video trace methodology accurately predicts the quality of the reconstructed video after frame losses.

  20. Video Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2016-01-01

    This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...

  1. MediaMill: Video Search using a Thesaurus of 500 Machine Learned Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Huurnink, B.; van Gemert, J.C.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Koelma, D.C.; de Rooij, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this technical demonstration we showcase the current version of the MediaMill system, a search engine that facilitates access to news video archives at a semantic level. The core of the system is a thesaurus of 500 automatically detected semantic concepts. To handle such a large thesaurus in

  2. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material...

  3. Formal fault tree semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Schellhorn, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Formal fault tree semantics / G. Schellhorn, A. Thums, and W. Reif. - In: IDPT : Proceedings of the Sixth World Conference on Integrated Design and Process Technology : June 23 - 27, 2003, Pasadena, California / SDPS, Society for Design & Process Science. - 2002. - 1CD-ROM

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION. Rudolf P. Botha. Introduction ... The morphological representation assigned to a complex word must provide the formal structure required ..... It has been argued in the literature that "markedness" claims such as. (16)(a) and (b) are unacceptable ...

  5. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...

  6. TRUSTING CROWDSOURCED GEOSPATIAL SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goodhue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature’s intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  7. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  8. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  9. Lexicology, Semantics and Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Volume 194 of the series Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, entitled Lexicology,. Semantics and Lexicography ... the theoretical and methodological fundamentals of the Cognitive Linguistics enterprise, more specifically .... database was rather small (100 folk-etymologies taken from Palmer's Dictionary of Folk-etymology).

  10. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...... based on denotational semantics and we identify the need for extending the semantic universe with low constructs whose sole purpose is to facilitate the proof. For dealing with partial correctness it suffices to consider approximations that are less defined than the desired fixed points; for dealing...

  11. Advanced real-time manipulation of video streams

    CERN Document Server

    Herling, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.

  12. Neural Substrates of Processing Anger in Language: Contributions of Prosody and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelluccio, Brian C; Myers, Emily B; Schuh, Jillian M; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2016-12-01

    Emotions are conveyed primarily through two channels in language: semantics and prosody. While many studies confirm the role of a left hemisphere network in processing semantic emotion, there has been debate over the role of the right hemisphere in processing prosodic emotion. Some evidence suggests a preferential role for the right hemisphere, and other evidence supports a bilateral model. The relative contributions of semantics and prosody to the overall processing of affect in language are largely unexplored. The present work used functional magnetic resonance imaging to elucidate the neural bases of processing anger conveyed by prosody or semantic content. Results showed a robust, distributed, bilateral network for processing angry prosody and a more modest left hemisphere network for processing angry semantics when compared to emotionally neutral stimuli. Findings suggest the nervous system may be more responsive to prosodic cues in speech than to the semantic content of speech.

  13. Video-assisted segmentation of speech and audio track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Medha; Yusoff, Yusseri; Kittler, Josef; Christmas, William J.; Chilton, E. H. S.

    1999-08-01

    Video database research is commonly concerned with the storage and retrieval of visual information invovling sequence segmentation, shot representation and video clip retrieval. In multimedia applications, video sequences are usually accompanied by a sound track. The sound track contains potential cues to aid shot segmentation such as different speakers, background music, singing and distinctive sounds. These different acoustic categories can be modeled to allow for an effective database retrieval. In this paper, we address the problem of automatic segmentation of audio track of multimedia material. This audio based segmentation can be combined with video scene shot detection in order to achieve partitioning of the multimedia material into semantically significant segments.

  14. Generic Film Forms for Dynamic Virtual Video Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Lindley

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe FRAMES project within the RDN CRC (Cooperative Research Centre for Research Data Networks) is developing an experimental environment for video content-based retrieval and dynamic virtual video synthesis from archives of video data. The FRAMES research prototype is a video synthesis

  15. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Subjects engaged in two picture judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments 2 and 3). Picture judgments varied in the extent to which they required accessing visual semantic information (i.e., semantic categorization and line orientation judgments). Results showed that, relative to line orientation judgments, engaging in semantic categorization judgments increased the proportion of item ordering errors for concrete lists but did not affect error proportions for nonword lists. Furthermore, although more ordering errors were observed for phonologically similar relative to dissimilar lists, no interactions were observed between the phonological overlap and picture judgment task manipulations. These results thus demonstrate that lexical-semantic representations can affect the serial ordering of items in short-term memory. Furthermore, the dual-task paradigm provides a new method for examining when and how semantic representations affect memory performance. PMID:21058880

  16. Mobile Video in Everyday Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Erika; Lehikoinen, Jaakko; Impiö, Jussi

    Video recording has become a spontaneous everyday activity for many people, thanks to the video capabilities of modern mobile phones. Internet connectivity of mobile phones enables fluent sharing of captured material even real-time, which makes video an up-and-coming everyday interaction medium. In this article we discuss the effect of the video camera in the social environment, everyday life situations, mainly based on a study where four groups of people used digital video cameras in their normal settings. We also reflect on another study of ours, relating to real-time mobile video communication and discuss future views. The aim of our research is to understand the possibilities in the domain of mobile video. Live and delayed sharing seem to have their special characteristics, live video being used as a virtual window between places whereas delayed video usage has more scope for good-quality content. While this novel way of interacting via mobile video enables new social patterns, it also raises new concerns for privacy and trust between participating persons in all roles, largely due to the widely spreading possibilities of videos. Video in a social situation affects cameramen (who record), targets (who are recorded), passers-by (who are unintentionally in the situation), and the audience (who follow the videos or recording situations) but also the other way around, the participants affect the video by their varying and evolving personal and communicational motivations for recording.

  17. Bridging the Gap: Enriching YouTube Videos with Jazz Music Annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Balke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Web services allow permanent access to music from all over the world. Especially in the case of web services with user-supplied content, e.g., YouTube™, the available metadata is often incomplete or erroneous. On the other hand, a vast amount of high-quality and musically relevant metadata has been annotated in research areas such as Music Information Retrieval (MIR. Although they have great potential, these musical annotations are often inaccessible to users outside the academic world. With our contribution, we want to bridge this gap by enriching publicly available multimedia content with musical annotations available in research corpora, while maintaining easy access to the underlying data. Our web-based tools offer researchers and music lovers novel possibilities to interact with and navigate through the content. In this paper, we consider a research corpus called the Weimar Jazz Database (WJD as an illustrating example scenario. The WJD contains various annotations related to famous jazz solos. First, we establish a link between the WJD annotations and corresponding YouTube videos employing existing retrieval techniques. With these techniques, we were able to identify 988 corresponding YouTube videos for 329 solos out of 456 solos contained in the WJD. We then embed the retrieved videos in a recently developed web-based platform and enrich the videos with solo transcriptions that are part of the WJD. Furthermore, we integrate publicly available data resources from the Semantic Web in order to extend the presented information, for example, with a detailed discography or artists-related information. Our contribution illustrates the potential of modern web-based technologies for the digital humanities, and novel ways for improving access and interaction with digitized multimedia content.

  18. Grammatical markers switch roles and elicit different electrophysiological responses under shallow and deep semantic requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Soshi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Static knowledge about the grammar of a natural language is represented in the cortico-subcortical system. However, the differences in dynamic verbal processing under different cognitive conditions are unclear. To clarify this, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment involving a semantic priming paradigm in which semantically congruent or incongruent word sequences (prime nouns–target verbs were randomly presented. We examined the event-related brain potentials that occurred in response to congruent and incongruent target words that were preceded by primes with or without grammatical case markers. The two participant groups performed either the shallow (lexical judgment or deep (direct semantic judgment semantic tasks. We hypothesized that, irrespective of the case markers, the congruent targets would reduce centro-posterior N400 activities under the deep semantic condition, which induces selective attention to the semantic relatedness of content words. However, the same congruent targets with correct case markers would reduce lateralized negativity under the shallow semantic condition because grammatical case markers are related to automatic structural integration under semantically unattended conditions. We observed that congruent targets (e.g., ‘open' that were preceded by primes with congruent case markers (e.g., ‘shutter-object case' reduced lateralized negativity under the shallow semantic condition. In contrast, congruent targets, irrespective of case markers, consistently yielded N400 reductions under the deep semantic condition. To summarize, human neural verbal processing differed in response to the same grammatical markers in the same verbal expressions under semantically attended or unattended conditions.

  19. The use of web ontology languages and other semantic web tools in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huajun; Xie, Guotong

    2010-05-01

    To optimize drug development processes, pharmaceutical companies require principled approaches to integrate disparate data on a unified infrastructure, such as the web. The semantic web, developed on the web technology, provides a common, open framework capable of harmonizing diversified resources to enable networked and collaborative drug discovery. We survey the state of art of utilizing web ontologies and other semantic web technologies to interlink both data and people to support integrated drug discovery across domains and multiple disciplines. Particularly, the survey covers three major application categories including: i) semantic integration and open data linking; ii) semantic web service and scientific collaboration and iii) semantic data mining and integrative network analysis. The reader will gain: i) basic knowledge of the semantic web technologies; ii) an overview of the web ontology landscape for drug discovery and iii) a basic understanding of the values and benefits of utilizing the web ontologies in drug discovery. i) The semantic web enables a network effect for linking open data for integrated drug discovery; ii) The semantic web service technology can support instant ad hoc collaboration to improve pipeline productivity and iii) The semantic web encourages publishing data in a semantic way such as resource description framework attributes and thus helps move away from a reliance on pure textual content analysis toward more efficient semantic data mining.

  20. Using SemanticScuttle for managing lists of recommended resources on a library website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Neugebauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concordia University Libraries has adopted SemanticScuttle, an open source and locally-hosted PHP/MySQL application for social bookmarking, as an alternative to Delicious for managing lists of recommended resources on the library’s website. Two implementations for displaying feed content from SemanticScuttle were developed: (1 using the Google Feed API and (2 using direct SQL access to SemanticScuttle’s database.

  1. Ontology and Formal Semantics - Integration Overdue

    OpenAIRE

    Saba, Walid S.

    2007-01-01

    In this note we suggest that difficulties encountered in natural language semantics are, for the most part, due to the use of mere symbol manipulation systems that are devoid of any content. In such systems, where there is hardly any link with our common-sense view of the world, and it is quite difficult to envision how one can formally account for the considerable amount of content that is often implicit, but almost never explicitly stated in our everyday discourse. The solution, in our ...

  2. Building a Semantic Framework for eScience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Li, X.

    2009-12-01

    The e-Science vision focuses on the use of advanced computing technologies to support scientists. Recent research efforts in this area have focused primarily on “enabling” use of infrastructure resources for both data and computational access especially in Geosciences. One of the existing gaps in the existing e-Science efforts has been the failure to incorporate stable semantic technologies within the design process itself. In this presentation, we describe our effort in designing a framework for e-Science built using Service Oriented Architecture. Our framework provides users capabilities to create science workflows and mine distributed data. Our e-Science framework is being designed around a mass market tool to promote reusability across many projects. Semantics is an integral part of this framework and our design goal is to leverage the latest stable semantic technologies. The use of these stable semantic technologies will provide the users of our framework the useful features such as: allow search engines to find their content with RDFa tags; create RDF triple data store for their content; create RDF end points to share with others; and semantically mash their content with other online content available as RDF end point.

  3. Automatic Representation and Segmentation of Video Sequences via a Novel Framework Based on the nD-EVM and Kohonen Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Yovany Luis-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently in the Computer Vision field, a subject of interest, at least in almost every video application based on scene content, is video segmentation. Some of these applications are indexing, surveillance, medical imaging, event analysis, and computer-guided surgery, for naming some of them. To achieve their goals, these applications need meaningful information about a video sequence, in order to understand the events in its corresponding scene. Therefore, we need semantic information which can be obtained from objects of interest that are present in the scene. In order to recognize objects we need to compute features which aid the finding of similarities and dissimilarities, among other characteristics. For this reason, one of the most important tasks for video and image processing is segmentation. The segmentation process consists in separating data into groups that share similar features. Based on this, in this work we propose a novel framework for video representation and segmentation. The main workflow of this framework is given by the processing of an input frame sequence in order to obtain, as output, a segmented version. For video representation we use the Extreme Vertices Model in the n-Dimensional Space while we use the Discrete Compactness descriptor as feature and Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps for segmentation purposes.

  4. User-oriented summary extraction for soccer video based on multimodal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huayong; Jiang, Shanshan; He, Tingting

    2011-11-01

    An advanced user-oriented summary extraction method for soccer video is proposed in this work. Firstly, an algorithm of user-oriented summary extraction for soccer video is introduced. A novel approach that integrates multimodal analysis, such as extraction and analysis of the stadium features, moving object features, audio features and text features is introduced. By these features the semantic of the soccer video and the highlight mode are obtained. Then we can find the highlight position and put them together by highlight degrees to obtain the video summary. The experimental results for sports video of world cup soccer games indicate that multimodal analysis is effective for soccer video browsing and retrieval.

  5. Reaping the Benefits of Interactive Syntax and Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahesh, K

    1994-01-01

    Semantic feedback is an important source of information that a parser could use to deal with local ambiguities in syntax. However, it is difficult to devise a systematic communication mechanism for interactive syntax and semantics. In this article, I propose a variant of left-corner parsing to define the points at which syntax and semantics should interact, an account of grammatical relations and thematic roles to define the content of the communication, and a conflict resolution strategy based on independent preferences from syntax and semantics. The resulting interactive model has been implemented in a program called COMPERE and shown to account for a wide variety of psycholinguistic data on structural and lexical ambiguities.

  6. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  7. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...... ‘violence against children’. Semantic explications of “violence/vaeolens”, kilim and faetem will be provided and based on these explications, two different culturalmodels will be articulated, based on two radically different ways of co-conceptualizing the humanbody, personhood, sociality, and power......This paper presents a semantic analysis of “violence” – a word around which Anglo-internationaldiscourses revolve. Many ethnolinguistic communities around the world are currently adapting thisEnglish lexical concept into their linguistic systems, and, presumably also, the view of the worldembodied...

  8. Living With Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  9. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  10. A Conceptual Characterization of Online Videos Explaining Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Gustav; Göransson, Andreas; Höst, Gunnar E.; Tibell, Lena A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Educational videos on the Internet comprise a vast and highly diverse source of information. Online search engines facilitate access to numerous videos claiming to explain natural selection, but little is known about the degree to which the video content match key evolutionary content identified as important in evolution education research. In…

  11. Trigger Videos on the Web: Impact of Audiovisual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…

  12. Semantic Web Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Datamining Initiative (TAMI [TAMI])), implementing these ideas much more fully. 4.0 Language development 4.1 OWL development DAML and OIL languages...Swick (for DIG),Transparent Accountable Datamining Initiative, 2005. http://dig.csail.mit.edu/TAMI/ to.Ical: Dan Connolly and Tim Berners-Lee...open and unbounded Semantic Web which was delivered as N3 (Notation3). TAMI: (Transparent Accountable Datamining Initiative), technical, legal, and

  13. Semantically-Sensitive Macroprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-15

    mechanism u sed by the language translator: computation over the syntactic domain of the langu age at translation time. We propose, however, that...any syntactic class , i.e. they may comput e (meta)values of any (meta)type in the syntactic domain, and furthermore may accept arguments of any such... class . The term syntactic domain is in- tended to include what is usually referred to as static semantics as well as more patently structural

  14. Syntax, Semantics, and Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    for many applications) or what one really wants the semantic selectional restrictions to test , A major practical difficulty with incorporating...context is tne type ^ at trie ielt -nanu gie nonterrainai nonempty string pe 3 grammars, more restricted u in generative cnaracterized by 1...words the passi tne sp s ence. gra la nary th c imul t o deca msky ntex ules nera siti test he ana si ve t "su true mmar

  15. Effects of Mathematics Content Knowledge on Pre-School Teachers' Performance: A Video-Based Assessment of Perception and Planning Abilities in Informal Learning Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation of pre-school teachers' mathematics content knowledge and their performance--how they perceive mathematical learning situations and whether they are able to plan adequate actions that foster children's learning--in the informal settings of pre-schools. It thus addresses a serious gap in teacher research that has…

  16. Developing an accessible video player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Rodríguez Soler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Online Channels in financial institutions allows customers with disabilities to access services in a convenient way for them.However, one of the current challenges of this sector is to improve web accessibility and to incorporate technological resources to provide access to multimedia and video content, which has become a new form of internet communication.The present work shows in detail the strategy followed when designing and developing the new video player used by Bankinter for these purposes.

  17. A general schema for generating argumentation semantics from logic programming semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Osorio Galindo, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by considering the idea that argumentation semantics can be viewed as a special form of logic programming semantics with negation as failure, we show that any logic programming semantics as the stable model semantics, the minimal models, etc., can define candidate argumentation semantics. These new argumentation semantics will overcome some of the problems of the Dung's argumentation semantics that have been discussed in the literature. The new argumentation semantics are based...

  18. Performance Analysis of Video Transmission Using Sequential Distortion Minimization Method for Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Astin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents about the transmission of Digital Video Broadcasting system with streaming video resolution 640x480 on different IQ rate and modulation. In the video transmission, distortion often occurs, so the received video has bad quality. Key frames selection algorithm is flexibel on a change of video, but on these methods, the temporal information of a video sequence is omitted. To minimize distortion between the original video and received video, we aimed at adding methodology using sequential distortion minimization algorithm. Its aim was to create a new video, better than original video without significant loss of content between the original video and received video, fixed sequentially. The reliability of video transmission was observed based on a constellation diagram, with the best result on IQ rate 2 Mhz and modulation 8 QAM. The best video transmission was also investigated using SEDIM (Sequential Distortion Minimization Method and without SEDIM. The experimental result showed that the PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio average of video transmission using SEDIM was an increase from 19,855 dB to 48,386 dB and SSIM (Structural Similarity average increase 10,49%. The experimental results and comparison of proposed method obtained a good performance. USRP board was used as RF front-end on 2,2 GHz.

  19. Akademisk video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet er...... der dog opstået nye muligheder og udfordringer i forhold til at formidle og distribuere forskningsresultater til forskellige målgrupper via video. Samtidig er klassiske metodologiske problematikker som forskerens positionering i forhold til det undersøgte stadig aktuelle. Både klassiske og nye...... problemstillinger diskuteres i kapitlet, som rammesætter diskussionen ud fra forskellige positioneringsmuligheder: formidler, historiefortæller, eller dialogist. Disse positioner relaterer sig til genrer inden for ’akademisk video’. Afslutningsvis præsenteres en metodisk værktøjskasse med redskaber til planlægning...

  20. Rule-based support system for multiple UMLS semantic type assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James; He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Morrey, C Paul; Xu, Julia

    2013-02-01

    When new concepts are inserted into the UMLS, they are assigned one or several semantic types from the UMLS Semantic Network by the UMLS editors. However, not every combination of semantic types is permissible. It was observed that many concepts with rare combinations of semantic types have erroneous semantic type assignments or prohibited combinations of semantic types. The correction of such errors is resource-intensive. We design a computational system to inform UMLS editors as to whether a specific combination of two, three, four, or five semantic types is permissible or prohibited or questionable. We identify a set of inclusion and exclusion instructions in the UMLS Semantic Network documentation and derive corresponding rule-categories as well as rule-categories from the UMLS concept content. We then design an algorithm adviseEditor based on these rule-categories. The algorithm specifies rules for an editor how to proceed when considering a tuple (pair, triple, quadruple, quintuple) of semantic types to be assigned to a concept. Eight rule-categories were identified. A Web-based system was developed to implement the adviseEditor algorithm, which returns for an input combination of semantic types whether it is permitted, prohibited or (in a few cases) requires more research. The numbers of semantic type pairs assigned to each rule-category are reported. Interesting examples for each rule-category are illustrated. Cases of semantic type assignments that contradict rules are listed, including recently introduced ones. The adviseEditor system implements explicit and implicit knowledge available in the UMLS in a system that informs UMLS editors about the permissibility of a desired combination of semantic types. Using adviseEditor might help accelerate the work of the UMLS editors and prevent erroneous semantic type assignments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subliminal semantic priming in speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Daltrozzo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT. Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets. This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

  2. SEMANTIC METADATA FOR HETEROGENEOUS SPATIAL PLANNING DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Iwaniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa. The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  3. Semantic Metadata for Heterogeneous Spatial Planning Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniak, A.; Kaczmarek, I.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Coetzee, S.; Paluszyński, W.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa). The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  4. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... audiodescription.html Question: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Audio description of videos helps make the content of videos accessible to ...

  5. Semi-Supervised Image-to-Video Adaptation for Video Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguang; Han, Yahong; Tang, Jinhui; Hu, Qinghua; Jiang, Jianmin

    2017-04-01

    Human action recognition has been well explored in applications of computer vision. Many successful action recognition methods have shown that action knowledge can be effectively learned from motion videos or still images. For the same action, the appropriate action knowledge learned from different types of media, e.g., videos or images, may be related. However, less effort has been made to improve the performance of action recognition in videos by adapting the action knowledge conveyed from images to videos. Most of the existing video action recognition methods suffer from the problem of lacking sufficient labeled training videos. In such cases, over-fitting would be a potential problem and the performance of action recognition is restrained. In this paper, we propose an adaptation method to enhance action recognition in videos by adapting knowledge from images. The adapted knowledge is utilized to learn the correlated action semantics by exploring the common components of both labeled videos and images. Meanwhile, we extend the adaptation method to a semi-supervised framework which can leverage both labeled and unlabeled videos. Thus, the over-fitting can be alleviated and the performance of action recognition is improved. Experiments on public benchmark datasets and real-world datasets show that our method outperforms several other state-of-the-art action recognition methods.

  6. High-Level Event Recognition in Unconstrained Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    et al. [93] adopted random forest , a collection of binary decision trees, for fast quantization. Shotton et al. [124] proposed semantic texton forests ...detection for sports video. In: Proceedings of international conference on image and video retrieval, Urbana -Champaign, IL 8. Ballan L, Bertini M, Bimbo AD...Proceedings of AAAI con- ference 93. Moosmann F, Nowak E, Jurie F (2008) Randomized clustering forests for image classification. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal

  7. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  8. Improving EFL Writing through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew D.; Choi, Wonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to…

  9. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  10. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  11. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Crisis Line Skip to Main Content SuicidePreventionLifeline.org Get Help Materials Get Involved Crisis Centers About Be There ... see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Veterans Crisis Line -- After the Call see more videos from ...

  12. A unified computational account of cumulative semantic, semantic blocking, and semantic distractor effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2018-03-01

    Computational models of lexical selection in spoken word production have been applied to semantic interference effects in picture naming response times obtained with continuous naming, blocked-cyclic naming, and picture-word interference paradigms. However, a unified computational account of the effects in the three paradigms is lacking. Here, I show that the inclusion of conceptual bias in the WEAVER++model (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) explains cumulative semantic and semantic blocking effects while preserving the model's account of semantic distractor effects. The key assumptions of the account are (1) lexical selection by competition, and (2) a conceptual origin and lexical locus of the semantic effects. I provide a proof of concept of the account by reporting computer simulation results, addressing behavioral and neuroimaging evidence. The assumptions are sufficient for a unified account of semantic effects in the three paradigms, contrary to pessimistic views of this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real W...

  14. Using Semantic Web Technologies to Collaboratively Collect and Share User-Generated Content in Order to Enrich the Presentation of Bibliographic Records–Development of a Prototype Based on RDF, D2RQ, Jena, SPARQL and WorldCat’s FRBRization Web Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Holgersen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a prototype of a semantic web-based framework for collecting and sharing user-generated content (reviews, ratings, tags, etc. across different libraries in order to enrich the presentation of bibliographic records. The user-generated data is remodeled into RDF, utilizing established linked data ontologies. This is done in a semi-automatic manner utilizing the Jena and the D2RQ-toolkits. For the remodeling, a SPARQL-construct statement is tailored for each data source. In the data source used in our prototype, user-generated content is linked to the relevant books via their ISBN. By remodeling the data according to the FRBR model, and expanding the RDF graph with data returned by WorldCat's FRBRization web service, we are able to greatly increase the number of entry points to each book. We make the social content available through a RESTful web service with ISBN as a parameter. The web service returns a graph of all user-generated data registered to any edition of the book in question in the RDF/XML format. Libraries using our framework would thus be able to present relevant social content in association with bibliographic records, even if they hold a different version of a book than the one that was originally accessed by users. Finally, we connect our RDF graph to the linked open data cloud through the use of Talis’ openlibrary.org SPARQL endpoint.

  15. Action semantics for defining dynamic semantics of modeling languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, Gijs; Ivanov, Ivan

    Most languages in Model Driven Engineering (MDE) are defined by metamodels. Metamodels specify the structural aspects of models but do not capture the computational meaning of the modeling constructs (the dynamic semantics). There are several semantic definition frameworks used for programming

  16. Fragile watermarking scheme for H.264 video authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuen-Ching; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2010-02-01

    A novel H.264 advanced video coding fragile watermarking method is proposed that enables the authenticity and integrity of the video streams to be verified. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by way of experimental simulations. The results show that by embedding the watermark information in the last nonzero-quantized coefficient in each discrete cosine transform block, the proposed scheme induces no more than a minor distortion of the video content. In addition, we show that the proposed scheme is able to detect unauthorized changes in the watermarked video content without the original video. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed video authentication system.

  17. Fully Abstract Game Semantics for Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Along the way paved by the recent concurrent game semantics for process algebra CCS and $\\pi$-calculus, based on the basic characteristics of the actor computational model and the very reductive semantics for actors, we establish a fully abstract concurrent game semantics for actors by borrowing the algebraic structure from CCS. This semantics can both be seen as an innocent presheaf semantics, and a concurrent game semantics.

  18. Semantic Segmentation of Indoor Point Clouds Using Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, K.; Chen, L.; Sohn, G.

    2017-11-01

    As Building Information Modelling (BIM) thrives, geometry becomes no longer sufficient; an ever increasing variety of semantic information is needed to express an indoor model adequately. On the other hand, for the existing buildings, automatically generating semantically enriched BIM from point cloud data is in its infancy. The previous research to enhance the semantic content rely on frameworks in which some specific rules and/or features that are hand coded by specialists. These methods immanently lack generalization and easily break in different circumstances. On this account, a generalized framework is urgently needed to automatically and accurately generate semantic information. Therefore we propose to employ deep learning techniques for the semantic segmentation of point clouds into meaningful parts. More specifically, we build a volumetric data representation in order to efficiently generate the high number of training samples needed to initiate a convolutional neural network architecture. The feedforward propagation is used in such a way to perform the classification in voxel level for achieving semantic segmentation. The method is tested both for a mobile laser scanner point cloud, and a larger scale synthetically generated data. We also demonstrate a case study, in which our method can be effectively used to leverage the extraction of planar surfaces in challenging cluttered indoor environments.

  19. The UMLS® Semantic Network and the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vipul

    2003-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) , an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies on the Semantic Web, for representing the knowledge contained in the Semantic Network. Requirements specific to the Semantic Network, such as polymorphic relationships and blocking relationship inheritance are discussed and approaches to represent these in DAML+OIL are presented. Finally, conclusions are presented along with a discussion of ongoing and future work. PMID:14728193

  20. The Educational Efficacy of Distinct Information Delivery Systems in Modified Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirnia, Andrew; Israel, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of many commercial video games, this popularity is not shared by educational video games. Modified video games, however, can bridge the gap in quality between commercial and education video games by embedding educational content into popular commercial video games. This study examined how different information…

  1. A Schema for Generating Update Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Jos´e Luis Carballido Carranza; Claudia Zepeda; Guillermo Flores

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general schema for dening new update semantics. This schema takes as input any basic logic programming semantics, such as the stable semantics, the p-stable semantics or the MMr semantics, and gives as output a new update semantics. The schema proposed is based on a concept called minimal generalized S models, where S is any of the logic programming semantics. Each update semantics is associated to an update operator. We also present some properties of these update...

  2. Lexicon-based Browsers for Searching in News Video Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worring, M.; Snoek, C.G.M.; de Rooij, O.; Nguyen, G.P.; Koelma, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the methods and visualizations used in the MediaMill video search engine. The basis for the engine is a semantic indexing process which derives a lexicon of 101 concepts. To support the user in navigating the collection, the system defines a visual similarity space, a

  3. Recommendations for recognizing video events by concept vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    detectors using the human annotated training data from two publicly available resources : the TRECVID 2012 Semantic Indexing task [47,3] and the...complex events in video. Acknowledgments This research is supported by the STW STORY project, the Dutch national program COMMIT, and by the

  4. Balancing thread based navigation for targeted video search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, O.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.

    2008-01-01

    Various query methods for video search exist. Because of the semantic gap each method has its limitations. We argue that for effective retrieval query methods need to be combined at retrieval time. However, switching query methods often involves a change in query and browsing interface, which puts a

  5. The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    AUG 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Semantics of Ontology Alignment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1 The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

  6. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  7. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  8. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  9. Performance evaluation software moving object detection and tracking in videos

    CERN Document Server

    Karasulu, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Performance Evaluation Software: Moving Object Detection and Tracking in Videos introduces a software approach for the real-time evaluation and performance comparison of the methods specializing in moving object detection and/or tracking (D&T) in video processing. Digital video content analysis is an important item for multimedia content-based indexing (MCBI), content-based video retrieval (CBVR) and visual surveillance systems. There are some frequently-used generic algorithms for video object D&T in the literature, such as Background Subtraction (BS), Continuously Adaptive Mean-shift (CMS),

  10. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  11. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  12. Semantic control of feature extraction from natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Peter

    2014-02-05

    In the early stages of image analysis, visual cortex represents scenes as spatially organized maps of locally defined features (e.g., edge orientation). As image reconstruction unfolds and features are assembled into larger constructs, cortex attempts to recover semantic content for object recognition. It is conceivable that higher level representations may feed back onto early processes and retune their properties to align with the semantic structure projected by the scene; however, there is no clear evidence to either support or discard the applicability of this notion to the human visual system. Obtaining such evidence is challenging because low and higher level processes must be probed simultaneously within the same experimental paradigm. We developed a methodology that targets both levels of analysis by embedding low-level probes within natural scenes. Human observers were required to discriminate probe orientation while semantic interpretation of the scene was selectively disrupted via stimulus inversion or reversed playback. We characterized the orientation tuning properties of the perceptual process supporting probe discrimination; tuning was substantially reshaped by semantic manipulation, demonstrating that low-level feature detectors operate under partial control from higher level modules. The manner in which such control was exerted may be interpreted as a top-down predictive strategy whereby global semantic content guides and refines local image reconstruction. We exploit the novel information gained from data to develop mechanistic accounts of unexplained phenomena such as the classic face inversion effect.

  13. Study on the Detection of Moving Target in the Mining Method Based on Hybrid Algorithm for Sports Video Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Moving object detection and tracking is the computer vision and image processing is a hot research direction, based on the analysis of the moving target detection and tracking algorithm in common use, focus on the sports video target tracking non rigid body. In sports video, non rigid athletes often have physical deformation in the process of movement, and may be associated with the occurrence of moving target under cover. Media data is surging to fast search and query causes more difficulties in data. However, the majority of users want to be able to quickly from the multimedia data to extract the interested content and implicit knowledge (concepts, rules, rules, models and correlation, retrieval and query quickly to take advantage of them, but also can provide the decision support problem solving hierarchy. Based on the motion in sport video object as the object of study, conducts the system research from the theoretical level and technical framework and so on, from the layer by layer mining between low level motion features to high-level semantic motion video, not only provides support for users to find information quickly, but also can provide decision support for the user to solve the problem.

  14. Feature representation and compression for content-based retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Ortega, Antonio

    2000-12-01

    In semantic content-based image/video browsing and navigation systems, efficient mechanisms to represent and manage a large collection of digital images/videos are needed. Traditional keyword-based indexing describes the content of multimedia data through annotations such as text or keywords extracted manually by the user from a controlled vocabulary. This textual indexing technique lacks the flexibility of satisfying various kinds of queries requested by database users and also requires huge amount of work for updating the information. Current content-based retrieval systems often extract a set of features such as color, texture, shape motion, speed, and position from the raw multimedia data automatically and store them as content descriptors. This content-based metadata differs from text-based metadata in that it supports wider varieties of queries and can be extracted automatically, thus providing a promising approach for efficient database access and management. When the raw data volume grows very large, explicitly extracting the content-information and storing it as metadata along with the images will improve querying performance since metadata requires much less storage than the raw image data and thus will be easier to manipulate. In this paper we maintain that storing metadata together with images will enable effective information management and efficient remote query. We also show, using a texture classification example, that this side information can be compressed while guaranteeing that the desired query accuracy is satisfied. We argue that the compact representation of the image contents not only reduces significantly the storage and transmission rate requirement, but also facilitates certain types of queries. Algorithms are developed for optimized compression of this texture feature metadata given that the goal is to maximize the classification performance for a given rate budget.

  15. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...

  16. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...

  17. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  18. Advances in semantic authoring and publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Groza, T

    2012-01-01

    Dissemination can be seen as a communication process between scientists. Over the course of several publications, they expose and support their findings, while discussing stated claims. Such discourse structures are trapped within the content of the publications, thus making the semantics discoverable only by humans. In addition, the lack of advances in scientific publishing, where electronic publications are still used as simple projections of paper documents, combined with the current growth in the amount of scientific research being published, transforms the process of finding relevant lite

  19. A Review of Ontologies with the Semantic Web in View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the movement of the World Wide Web from the first generation to the second, called the Semantic Web. Provides an overview of ontology, a philosophical theory about the nature of existence being applied to artificial intelligence that will have a crucial role in enabling content-based access, interoperability, and communication across the…

  20. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

  1. Image Retrieval by Color Semantics with Incomplete Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corridoni, Jacopo M.; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Vicario, Enrico

    1998-01-01

    Presents a system which supports image retrieval by high-level chromatic contents, the sensations that color accordances generate on the observer. Surveys Itten's theory of color semantics and discusses image description and query specification. Presents examples of visual querying. (AEF)

  2. Automated Speech and Audio Analysis for Semantic Access to Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.M.G. de; Ordelman, R.; Huijbregts, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  3. Automated speech and audio analysis for semantic access to multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Avrithis, Y.; Kompatsiaris, Y.; Staab, S.; O' Connor, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  4. Bing-SF-IDF+: Semantics-driven news recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P. Hogenboom (Frederik); M. Capelle (Michel); M. Moerland (Marnix); F. Frasincar (Flavius)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContent-based news recommendation is traditionally performed using the cosine similarity and TF-IDF weighting scheme for terms occurring in news messages and user pro- files. Semantics-driven variants such as SF-IDF additionally take into account term meaning by exploiting synsets from

  5. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  6. Violent video games affecting our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J A; Lee, J E

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is associated with increased aggression and its sequelae. Unfortunately, the majority of entertainment video games contain violence. Moreover, children of both genders prefer games with violent content. As there is no compulsory legislative standards to limit the type and amount of violence in video games, concerned adults must assume an oversight role.

  7. Multimodal Emotion Recognition in Response to Videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani, Mohammad; Pantic, Maja; Pun, Thierry

    This paper presents a user-independent emotion recognition method with the goal of recovering affective tags for videos using electroencephalogram (EEG), pupillary response and gaze distance. We first selected 20 video clips with extrinsic emotional content from movies and online resources. Then,

  8. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  9. Indexed Captioned Searchable Videos: A Learning Companion for STEM Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Tayfun; Subhlok, Jaspal; Barker, Lecia; Shah, Shishir; Johnson, Olin; Hovey, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Videos of classroom lectures have proven to be a popular and versatile learning resource. A key shortcoming of the lecture video format is accessing the content of interest hidden in a video. This work meets this challenge with an advanced video framework featuring topical indexing, search, and captioning (ICS videos). Standard optical character recognition (OCR) technology was enhanced with image transformations for extraction of text from video frames to support indexing and search. The images and text on video frames is analyzed to divide lecture videos into topical segments. The ICS video player integrates indexing, search, and captioning in video playback providing instant access to the content of interest. This video framework has been used by more than 70 courses in a variety of STEM disciplines and assessed by more than 4000 students. Results presented from the surveys demonstrate the value of the videos as a learning resource and the role played by videos in a students learning process. Survey results also establish the value of indexing and search features in a video platform for education. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of ICS videos framework and over 5 years of usage experience in several STEM courses.

  10. Video streaming into the mainstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, W

    2001-12-01

    Changes in Internet technology are making possible the delivery of a richer mixture of media through data streaming. High-quality, dynamic content, such as video and audio, can be incorporated into Websites simply, flexibly and interactively. Technologies such as G3 mobile communication, ADSL, cable and satellites enable new ways of delivering medical services, information and learning. Systems such as Quicktime, Windows Media and Real Video provide reliable data streams as video-on-demand and users can tailor the experience to their own interests. The Learning Development Centre at the University of Portsmouth have used streaming technologies together with e-learning tools such as dynamic HTML, Flash, 3D objects and online assessment successfully to deliver on-line course content in economics and earth science. The Lifesign project--to develop, catalogue and stream health sciences media for teaching--is described and future medical applications are discussed.

  11. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert.

  12. Life, Information, Entropy, and Time: Vehicles for Semantic Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, Antony R

    2007-01-01

    Attempts to understand how information content can be included in an accounting of the energy flux of the biosphere have led to the conclusion that, in information transmission, one component, the semantic content, or "the meaning of the message," adds no thermodynamic burden over and above costs arising from coding, transmission and translation. In biology, semantic content has two major roles. For all life forms, the message of the genotype encoded in DNA specifies the phenotype, and hence the organism that is tested against the real world through the mechanisms of Darwinian evolution. For human beings, communication through language and similar abstractions provides an additional supra-phenotypic vehicle for semantic inheritance, which supports the cultural heritages around which civilizations revolve. The following three postulates provide the basis for discussion of a number of themes that demonstrate some important consequences. (i) Information transmission through either pathway has thermodynamic components associated with data storage and transmission. (ii) The semantic content adds no additional thermodynamic cost. (iii) For all semantic exchange, meaning is accessible only through translation and interpretation, and has a value only in context. (1) For both pathways of semantic inheritance, translational and copying machineries are imperfect. As a consequence both pathways are subject to mutation and to evolutionary pressure by selection. Recognition of semantic content as a common component allows an understanding of the relationship between genes and memes, and a reformulation of Universal Darwinism. (2) The emergent properties of life are dependent on a processing of semantic content. The translational steps allow amplification in complexity through combinatorial possibilities in space and time. Amplification depends on the increased potential for complexity opened by 3D interaction specificity of proteins, and on the selection of useful variants by

  13. Neural Semantic Encoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    We present a memory augmented neural network for natural language understanding: Neural Semantic Encoders. NSE is equipped with a novel memory update rule and has a variable sized encoding memory that evolves over time and maintains the understanding of input sequences through read, compose and write operations. NSE can also access multiple and shared memories. In this paper, we demonstrated the effectiveness and the flexibility of NSE on five different natural language tasks: natural language inference, question answering, sentence classification, document sentiment analysis and machine translation where NSE achieved state-of-the-art performance when evaluated on publically available benchmarks. For example, our shared-memory model showed an encouraging result on neural machine translation, improving an attention-based baseline by approximately 1.0 BLEU.

  14. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  15. Sequence Semantics for Dynamic Predicate Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.F.M.

    In this paper a semantics for dynamic predicate logic is developed that uses sequence valued assignments. This semantics is compared with the usual relational semantics for dynamic predicate logic: it is shown that the most important intuitions of the usual semantics are preserved. Then it is shown

  16. Requirements Level Semantics for UML Statecharts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.F.; Eshuis, H.; Talcott, C.L.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    We propose a formal real-time semantics for UML statecharts aimed at the requirements level. A requirements-level model assumes perfect technology and has a considerably simpler semantics than an implementation level model. Our semantics is an adaptation of the Statemate statechart semantics, with

  17. A Joint Investigation of Semantic Facilitation and Semantic Interference in Continuous Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaltritti, Michele; Peressotti, Francesca; Navarrete, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    When speakers name multiple semantically related items, opposing effects can be found. Semantic facilitation is found when naming 2 semantically related items in a row. In contrast, semantic interference is found when speakers name semantically related items separated by 1 or more intervening unrelated items. This latter form of interference is…

  18. Wikipedia information flow analysis reveals the scale-free architecture of the semantic space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution.

  19. Wikipedia information flow analysis reveals the scale-free architecture of the semantic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, Adolfo Paolo; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Eguíluz, Victor Martínez; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution.

  20. Image and Its Semantic Role in Search Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touheed, Nasir; Saeed, Muhammad; Qureshi, M. Atif; Younus, Arjumand

    The world has now shrunk and information today exists in many forms ranging from text to videos. An overloaded World Wide Web, full of data makes it difficult to extract information from that data and this has given birth to a new phenomenon in the computer industry which is the search engine technology. Image that contains dense information has not yet found its real interpretation over search engines. In this paper we practice application of Semantic Web concepts and propose a standard dimension in image structures in order to improve searching ability in image search engines. An image annotation tool, called "SemImage", was developed which allows users to annotate an image with various ontologies and JPEG was taken as a case-study. This work describes our initial research efforts in semantics-based searching driven by ontological standards for images which we refer to as Image SemSearch.