WorldWideScience

Sample records for video privacy modeling

  1. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video....... There is a need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction...... of investigating the existing legal infrastructure for ensuring privacy in video surveillance and suggest guidelines in order to help those who want to deploy video surveillance while least compromising the privacy of people and complying with legal infrastructure....

  2. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  3. Security and Privacy in Video Surveillance: Requirements and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    Use of video surveillance has substantially increased in the last few decades. Modern video surveillance systems are equipped with techniques that allow traversal of data in an effective and efficient manner, giving massive powers to operators and potentially compromising the privacy of anyone...... observed by the system. Several techniques to protect the privacy of individuals have therefore been proposed, but very little research work has focused on the specific security requirements of video surveillance data (in transit or in storage) and on authorizing access to this data. In this paper, we...... present a general model of video surveillance systems that will help identify the major security and privacy requirements for a video surveillance system and we use this model to identify practical challenges in ensuring the security of video surveillance data in all stages (in transit and at rest). Our...

  4. Privacy information management for video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2013-05-01

    The widespread deployment of surveillance cameras has raised serious privacy concerns. Many privacy-enhancing schemes have been proposed to automatically redact images of trusted individuals in the surveillance video. To identify these individuals for protection, the most reliable approach is to use biometric signals such as iris patterns as they are immutable and highly discriminative. In this paper, we propose a privacy data management system to be used in a privacy-aware video surveillance system. The privacy status of a subject is anonymously determined based on her iris pattern. For a trusted subject, the surveillance video is redacted and the original imagery is considered to be the privacy information. Our proposed system allows a subject to access her privacy information via the same biometric signal for privacy status determination. Two secure protocols, one for privacy information encryption and the other for privacy information retrieval are proposed. Error control coding is used to cope with the variability in iris patterns and efficient implementation is achieved using surrogate data records. Experimental results on a public iris biometric database demonstrate the validity of our framework.

  5. Adaptive Transformation for Robust Privacy Protection in Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Saini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Privacy is a big concern in current video surveillance systems. Due to privacy issues, many strategic places remain unmonitored leading to security threats. The main problem with existing privacy protection methods is that they assume availability of accurate region of interest (RoI detectors that can detect and hide the privacy sensitive regions such as faces. However, the current detectors are not fully reliable, leading to breaches in privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a privacy protection method that adopts adaptive data transformation involving the use of selective obfuscation and global operations to provide robust privacy even with unreliable detectors. Further, there are many implicit privacy leakage channels that have not been considered by researchers for privacy protection. We block both implicit and explicit channels of privacy leakage. Experimental results show that the proposed method incurs 38% less distortion of the information needed for surveillance in comparison to earlier methods of global transformation; while still providing near-zero privacy loss.

  6. Tools for Protecting the Privacy of Specific Individuals in Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Datong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for protecting the privacy of specific individuals in video recordings. We address the following two problems: automatic people identification with limited labeled data, and human body obscuring with preserved structure and motion information. In order to address the first problem, we propose a new discriminative learning algorithm to improve people identification accuracy using limited training data labeled from the original video and imperfect pairwise constraints labeled from face obscured video data. We employ a robust face detection and tracking algorithm to obscure human faces in the video. Our experiments in a nursing home environment show that the system can obtain a high accuracy of people identification using limited labeled data and noisy pairwise constraints. The study result indicates that human subjects can perform reasonably well in labeling pairwise constraints with the face masked data. For the second problem, we propose a novel method of body obscuring, which removes the appearance information of the people while preserving rich structure and motion information. The proposed approach provides a way to minimize the risk of exposing the identities of the protected people while maximizing the use of the captured data for activity/behavior analysis.

  7. Video Self-Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…

  8. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  9. Privacy Factors in Video-Based Media Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael; Neustaedter, Carman; Greenberg, Saul

    Media space research is accompanied by a long-standing debate on the value of awareness leading to casual interaction versus its potential for intended or unintended privacy invasion. This is not just a matter of technology: the trade-off between the two depends very much on the social makeup of the people using the space, how cameras are actually situated, the kinds of activities that typically happen in the space, and so on. This chapter offers a framework — a descriptive theory — that defines how one can think of privacy while analyzing media spaces and their expected or actual use. The framework outlines existing perspectives on privacy and then decomposes privacy into three normative controls for regula ting interpersonal boundaries in an embodied dialectic: solitude, confidentiality, and autonomy. By considering the nuances of these controls, this theory yields a powerful vocabulary of terms that disambiguate the many interrelated and subtle meanings of “privacy.”

  10. A Model Privacy Statement for Ohio Library Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Michael J.

    The purpose of this research was to develop a model privacy policy statement for library World Wide Web sites. First, standards of privacy protection were identified. These standards were culled from the privacy and confidentiality policies of the American Library Association, the Federal Trade Commission's online privacy reports, the guidelines…

  11. A Privacy Model for RFID Tag Ownership Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ownership of RFID tag is often transferred from one owner to another in its life cycle. To address the privacy problem caused by tag ownership transfer, we propose a tag privacy model which captures the adversary’s abilities to get secret information inside readers, to corrupt tags, to authenticate tags, and to observe tag ownership transfer processes. This model gives formal definitions for tag forward privacy and backward privacy and can be used to measure the privacy property of tag ownership transfer scheme. We also present a tag ownership transfer scheme, which is privacy-preserving under the proposed model and satisfies the other common security requirements, in addition to achieving better performance.

  12. SPACE PARTITIONING FOR PRIVACY ENABLED 3D CITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Filippovska

    2016-10-01

    For the purpose of privacy enabled visualizations of 3D city models, we propose to partition the (living spaces into privacy regions, each featuring its own level of anonymity. Within each region, the depicted 2D and 3D geometry and imagery is anonymized with cartographic generalization techniques. The underlying spatial partitioning is realized as a 2D map generated as a straight skeleton of the open space between buildings. The resulting privacy cells are then merged according to the privacy requirements associated with each building to form larger regions, their borderlines smoothed, and transition zones established between privacy regions to have a harmonious visual appearance. It is exemplarily demonstrated how the proposed method generates privacy enabled 3D city models.

  13. Modelling information dissemination under privacy concerns in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Rongxing; Li, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Social media has recently become an important platform for users to share news, express views, and post messages. However, due to user privacy preservation in social media, many privacy setting tools are employed, which inevitably change the patterns and dynamics of information dissemination. In this study, a general stochastic model using dynamic evolution equations was introduced to illustrate how privacy concerns impact the process of information dissemination. Extensive simulations and analyzes involving the privacy settings of general users, privileged users, and pure observers were conducted on real-world networks, and the results demonstrated that user privacy settings affect information differently. Finally, we also studied the process of information diffusion analytically and numerically with different privacy settings using two classic networks.

  14. Privacy versus autonomy: a tradeoff model for smart home monitoring technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Daphne; Knoefel, Frank; Goubran, Rafik

    2011-01-01

    Smart homes are proposed as a new location for the delivery of healthcare services. They provide healthcare monitoring and communication services, by using integrated sensor network technologies. We validate a hypothesis regarding older adults' adoption of home monitoring technologies by conducting a literature review of articles studying older adults' attitudes and perceptions of sensor technologies. Using current literature to support the hypothesis, this paper applies the tradeoff model to decisions about sensor acceptance. Older adults are willing to trade privacy (by accepting a monitoring technology), for autonomy. As the information captured by the sensor becomes more intrusive and the infringement on privacy increases, sensors are accepted if the loss in privacy is traded for autonomy. Even video cameras, the most intrusive sensor type were accepted in exchange for the height of autonomy which is to remain in the home.

  15. Video Pulses: User-Based Modeling of Interesting Video Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Avlonitis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a user-based method that detects regions of interest within a video in order to provide video skims and video summaries. Previous research in video retrieval has focused on content-based techniques, such as pattern recognition algorithms that attempt to understand the low-level features of a video. We are proposing a pulse modeling method, which makes sense of a web video by analyzing users' Replay interactions with the video player. In particular, we have modeled the user information seeking behavior as a time series and the semantic regions as a discrete pulse of fixed width. Then, we have calculated the correlation coefficient between the dynamically detected pulses at the local maximums of the user activity signal and the pulse of reference. We have found that users' Replay activity significantly matches the important segments in information-rich and visually complex videos, such as lecture, how-to, and documentary. The proposed signal processing of user activity is complementary to previous work in content-based video retrieval and provides an additional user-based dimension for modeling the semantics of a social video on the web.

  16. Decentralised and Privacy-Aware Learning of Traversal Time Models

    OpenAIRE

    Le Van, Thanh; Bellet, Aurélien; Ramon, Jan

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Estimating traversal time is an essential problem in urban computing. Traditional methods learn a predictive model from user traces collected in a central server, which potentially threatens the privacy of the users, and which may be hard to realize in an online setting where communication with large amounts of cars is needed. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solve these problems by proposing a a privacy-friendly algorithm requiring only local communication....

  17. Video Quality Prediction Models Based on Video Content Dynamics for H.264 Video over UMTS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiya Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.

  18. Intelligent Model for Video Survillance Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vidhya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance system senses and trails out all the threatening issues in the real time environment. It prevents from security threats with the help of visual devices which gather the information related to videos like CCTV’S and IP (Internet Protocol cameras. Video surveillance system has become a key for addressing problems in the public security. They are mostly deployed on the IP based network. So, all the possible security threats exist in the IP based application might also be the threats available for the reliable application which is available for video surveillance. In result, it may increase cybercrime, illegal video access, mishandling videos and so on. Hence, in this paper an intelligent model is used to propose security for video surveillance system which ensures safety and it provides secured access on video.

  19. Model-driven Privacy Assessment in the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Fabian [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Engel, Dominik [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Neureiter, Christian [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-02-09

    In a smart grid, data and information are transported, transmitted, stored, and processed with various stakeholders having to cooperate effectively. Furthermore, personal data is the key to many smart grid applications and therefore privacy impacts have to be taken into account. For an effective smart grid, well integrated solutions are crucial and for achieving a high degree of customer acceptance, privacy should already be considered at design time of the system. To assist system engineers in early design phase, frameworks for the automated privacy evaluation of use cases are important. For evaluation, use cases for services and software architectures need to be formally captured in a standardized and commonly understood manner. In order to ensure this common understanding for all kinds of stakeholders, reference models have recently been developed. In this paper we present a model-driven approach for the automated assessment of such services and software architectures in the smart grid that builds on the standardized reference models. The focus of qualitative and quantitative evaluation is on privacy. For evaluation, the framework draws on use cases from the University of Southern California microgrid.

  20. MODEL REGULATION FOR DATA PRIVACY IN THE APPLICATION OF BIOMETRIC SMART CARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinta Dewi

    2017-03-01

    This article will explore data privacy model regulation which is intended to regulate and protect  data privacy. This  regulatory model  combining several approaches in managing data privacy, especially in using biometric smardcard. Firstly, through laws that enforces the principles and international standards. Secondly, through the market approach (market-based solution which is derived through industry associations to help protect consumer data privacy by applying privacy policy in the form of a statement that the industry will protect consumers' privacy by implementing fair information principles. Third, through technological approach such as PET's (privacy enchasing technology,  i.e the techniques for anonymous and pseudo-anonymous payment, communication, and web access. Fourthly, through corporate privacy rules.

  1. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco R. Taal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.

  2. Attention modeling for video quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to evaluate video quality by balancing two quality components: global quality and local quality. The global quality is a result from subjects allocating their ttention equally to all regions in a frame and all frames n a video. It is evaluated by image quality metrics (IQM) ith...... quality modeling algorithm can improve the performance of image quality metrics on video quality assessment compared to the normal averaged spatiotemporal pooling scheme....... averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in modeling visual attention, which is then integrated into IQMs to calculate the local quality of a video frame...

  3. Enhanced P-Sensitive K-Anonymity Models for Privacy Preserving Data Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxun Sun; Hua Wang; Jiuyong Li; Traian Marius Truta

    2008-01-01

    Publishing data for analysis from a micro data table containing sensitive attributes, while maintaining individual privacy, is a problem of increasing significance today. The k-anonymity model was proposed for privacy preserving data publication. While focusing on identity disclosure, k-anonymity model fails to protect attribute disclosure to some extent. Many efforts are made to enhance the k-anonymity model recently. In this paper, we propose two new privacy protection models called (p, a)-...

  4. TRANSFoRm: a flexible zone model of a data privacy framework for Primary Care research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchinke, W.; Veen, E.B. van; Delaney, B.C.; Verheij, R.; Taweel, A.; Ohmann, C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the TRANSFoRm project a flexible zone model for data privacy in Primary Care research was developed. The model applies different privacy generating methods to different aspects of the research data flow and allows in this way for only minimal hindrance of research activities. This is

  5. A model-driven privacy compliance decision support for medical data sharing in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussi Rahmouni, H; Solomonides, T; Casassa Mont, M; Shiu, S; Rahmouni, M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical practitioners and medical researchers often have to share health data with other colleagues across Europe. Privacy compliance in this context is very important but challenging. Automated privacy guidelines are a practical way of increasing users' awareness of privacy obligations and help eliminating unintentional breaches of privacy. In this paper we present an ontology-plus-rules based approach to privacy decision support for the sharing of patient data across European platforms. We use ontologies to model the required domain and context information about data sharing and privacy requirements. In addition, we use a set of Semantic Web Rule Language rules to reason about legal privacy requirements that are applicable to a specific context of data disclosure. We make the complete set invocable through the use of a semantic web application acting as an interactive privacy guideline system can then invoke the full model in order to provide decision support. When asked, the system will generate privacy reports applicable to a specific case of data disclosure described by the user. Also reports showing guidelines per Member State may be obtained. The advantage of this approach lies in the expressiveness and extensibility of the modelling and inference languages adopted and the ability they confer to reason with complex requirements interpreted from high level regulations. However, the system cannot at this stage fully simulate the role of an ethics committee or review board.

  6. Player behavioural modelling for video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In

  7. Interactivity in video-based models

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Pieter; Tabbers, Huib; Paas, Fred

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this review we argue that interactivity can be effective in video-based models to engage learners in relevant cognitive processes. We do not treat modeling as an isolated instructional method but adopted the social cognitive model of sequential skill acquisition in which learners start with observation and finish with independent, self-regulated performance. Moreover, we concur with the notion that interactivity should emphasize the cognitive processes that learners engage in w...

  8. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari......This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach......, the model is established by first considering the social function of privacy in everyday life, which in turn lets us determine which different domains will be considered as private, and finally identify the different types of privacy invasion. This underlying model (function – domain – invasion) then serves...

  9. Video distribution system cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkoff, I.; Haspert, J. K.; Morgenstern, B.

    1980-01-01

    A cost model that can be used to systematically identify the costs of procuring and operating satellite linked communications systems is described. The user defines a network configuration by specifying the location of each participating site, the interconnection requirements, and the transmission paths available for the uplink (studio to satellite), downlink (satellite to audience), and voice talkback (between audience and studio) segments of the network. The model uses this information to calculate the least expensive signal distribution path for each participating site. Cost estimates are broken downy by capital, installation, lease, operations and maintenance. The design of the model permits flexibility in specifying network and cost structure.

  10. The Structures of Centralized Governmental Privacy Protection: Approaches, Models, and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; McClure, Charles R.; Fraser, Bruce T.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the federal government should adopt a centralized governmental structure for the privacy protection of personal information and data. Discusses the roles of federal law, federal agencies, and the judiciary; the concept of information privacy; the impact of current technologies; and models of centralized government structures for…

  11. 4K Video Traffic Prediction using Seasonal Autoregressive Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Marković

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of average viewer, high definition video streams such as HD (High Definition and UHD (Ultra HD are increasing their internet presence year over year. This is not surprising, having in mind expansion of HD streaming services, such as YouTube, Netflix etc. Therefore, high definition video streams are starting to challenge network resource allocation with their bandwidth requirements and statistical characteristics. Need for analysis and modeling of this demanding video traffic has essential importance for better quality of service and experience support. In this paper we use an easy-to-apply statistical model for prediction of 4K video traffic. Namely, seasonal autoregressive modeling is applied in prediction of 4K video traffic, encoded with HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding. Analysis and modeling were performed within R programming environment using over 17.000 high definition video frames. It is shown that the proposed methodology provides good accuracy in high definition video traffic modeling.

  12. Physical therapists' perceptions of telephone- and internet video-mediated service models for exercise management of people with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Belinda J; Bennell, Kim L; Kasza, Jessica; Hinman, Rana S

    2017-04-24

    Investigate physical therapists' perceptions of, and willingness to use, telephone- and internet-mediated service models for exercise therapy for people with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis. An internet-based survey of Australian physical therapists comprising three sections: i) demographic information; and 16 positively-framed perception statements about delivering exercise via ii) telephone and; iii) video over the internet, for people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis. Levels of agreement with each statement were evaluated. Logistic regression models were used to determine therapist characteristics influencing interest in delivering telerehabilitation. 217 therapists spanning metropolitan, regional, rural and remote Australia completed the survey. For telephone-delivered care, there was consensus agreement it would not violate patient privacy (81% agreed/strongly agreed) and would save patient's time (76%), however there was less than majority agreement for 10 statements. There was consensus agreement video-delivered care would save a patient's time (82%), be convenient for patients (80%), and not violate patient privacy (75%). Most agreed with all other perception statements about video-delivered care, except for liking no physical contact (14%). Low confidence using internet video technologies, and inexperience with telerehabilitation, were significantly associated with reduced interest in delivering telephone and/or video-based services. Physical therapists agree telerehabilitation offers time-saving and privacy advantages for people with osteoarthritis, and perceive video-delivered care more favorably than telephone-delivered services. However, most do not like the lack of physical contact with either service model. These findings may inform the implementation of telerehabilitation osteoarthritis services, and the training needs of clinicians involved in delivering care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College

  13. Managed Video as a Service for a Video Surveillance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Benta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for security systems hasresulted in rapid development of video surveillance and videosurveillance has turned into a major area of interest andmanagement challenge. Personal experience in specializedcompanies helped me to adapt demands of users of videosecurity systems to system performance. It is known thatpeople wish to obtain maximum profit with minimum effort,but security is not neglected. Surveillance systems and videomonitoring should provide only necessary information and torecord only when there is activity. Via IP video surveillanceservices provides more safety in this sector, being able torecord information on servers located in other locations thanthe IP cameras. Also, these systems allow real timemonitoring of goods or activities that take place in supervisedperimeters. View live and recording can be done via theInternet from any computer, using a web browser. Access tothe surveillance system is granted after a user and passwordauthentication.

  14. Review of the model of technological pragmatism considering privacy and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of technological pragmatism assumes awareness that technological development involves both benefits and dangers. Most modern security technologies represent citizens' mass surveillance tools, which can lead to compromising a significant amount of personal data due to the lack of institutional monitoring and control. On the other hand, people are interested in improving crime control and reducing the fear of potential victimization which this framework provides as a rational justification for the apparent loss of privacy, personal rights and freedoms. Citizens' perception on the categories of security and privacy, and their balancing, can provide the necessary guidelines to regulate the application of security technologies in the actual context. The aim of this paper is to analyze the attitudes of students at the University of Belgrade (N = 269 toward the application of security technology and identification of the key dimensions. On the basis of the relevant research the authors have formed assumptions about the following dimensions: security, privacy, trust in institutions and concern about the misuse of security technology. The Prise Questionnaire on Security Technology and Privacy was used for data collection. Factor analysis abstracted eight factors which together account for 58% of variance, with the highest loading of the four factors that are identified as security, privacy, trust and concern. The authors propose a model of technological pragmatism considering security and privacy. The data also showed that students are willing to change their privacy for the purpose of improving security and vice versa.

  15. A Comparison of the Acquisition of Play Skills Using Instructor-Created Video Models and Commercially Available Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palechka, Gail; MacDonald, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    We compared the effects of a commercially-available children's video relative to an instructor-created video model on the acquisition of play skills with three children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Each participant was exposed to one commercially-available video model for one play scenario and one instructor-created video for a…

  16. A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingquan

    2015-07-08

    The increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) in health care has resulted in a growing number of individuals posting personal health information online. These sites may disclose users' health information to many different individuals and organizations and mine it for a variety of commercial and research purposes, yet the revelation of personal health information to unauthorized individuals or entities brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among users. Many users join multiple social networks for different purposes and enter personal and other specific information covering social, professional, and health domains into other websites. Integration of multiple online and real social networks makes the users vulnerable to unintentional and intentional security threats and misuse. This paper analyzes the privacy and security characteristics of leading health-related SNS. It presents a threat model and identifies the most important threats to users and SNS providers. Building on threat analysis and modeling, this paper presents a privacy preservation model that incorporates individual self-protection and privacy-by-design approaches and uses the model to develop principles and countermeasures to protect user privacy. This study paves the way for analysis and design of privacy-preserving mechanisms on health-related SNS.

  17. A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) in health care has resulted in a growing number of individuals posting personal health information online. These sites may disclose users' health information to many different individuals and organizations and mine it for a variety of commercial and research purposes, yet the revelation of personal health information to unauthorized individuals or entities brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among users. Many users join multiple social networks for different purposes and enter personal and other specific information covering social, professional, and health domains into other websites. Integration of multiple online and real social networks makes the users vulnerable to unintentional and intentional security threats and misuse. This paper analyzes the privacy and security characteristics of leading health-related SNS. It presents a threat model and identifies the most important threats to users and SNS providers. Building on threat analysis and modeling, this paper presents a privacy preservation model that incorporates individual self-protection and privacy-by-design approaches and uses the model to develop principles and countermeasures to protect user privacy. This study paves the way for analysis and design of privacy-preserving mechanisms on health-related SNS. PMID:26155953

  18. Learning from video modeling examples: Does gender matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, V.; Loyens, S.M.M.; van Gog, T.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the model-observer

  19. A standardised graphic method for describing data privacy frameworks in primary care research using a flexible zone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Ohmann, Christian; Verheij, Robert A; van Veen, Evert-Ben; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan C

    2014-12-01

    To develop a model describing core concepts and principles of data flow, data privacy and confidentiality, in a simple and flexible way, using concise process descriptions and a diagrammatic notation applied to research workflow processes. The model should help to generate robust data privacy frameworks for research done with patient data. Based on an exploration of EU legal requirements for data protection and privacy, data access policies, and existing privacy frameworks of research projects, basic concepts and common processes were extracted, described and incorporated into a model with a formal graphical representation and a standardised notation. The Unified Modelling Language (UML) notation was enriched by workflow and own symbols to enable the representation of extended data flow requirements, data privacy and data security requirements, privacy enhancing techniques (PET) and to allow privacy threat analysis for research scenarios. Our model is built upon the concept of three privacy zones (Care Zone, Non-care Zone and Research Zone) containing databases, data transformation operators, such as data linkers and privacy filters. Using these model components, a risk gradient for moving data from a zone of high risk for patient identification to a zone of low risk can be described. The model was applied to the analysis of data flows in several general clinical research use cases and two research scenarios from the TRANSFoRm project (e.g., finding patients for clinical research and linkage of databases). The model was validated by representing research done with the NIVEL Primary Care Database in the Netherlands. The model allows analysis of data privacy and confidentiality issues for research with patient data in a structured way and provides a framework to specify a privacy compliant data flow, to communicate privacy requirements and to identify weak points for an adequate implementation of data privacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  20. A Framework For Enhancing Privacy In Location Based Services Using K-Anonymity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mugi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a framework for enhancing privacy in Location Based Services using K-anonymity model. Users of location based services have to reveal their location information in order to use these services however this has threatened the user privacy. K-anonymity approach has been studied extensively in various forms. However it is only effective when the user location is fixed. When a user moves and continuously sends their location information the location service provider can approximate user trajectory which poses a threat to the trajectory privacy of the user. This framework will ensure that user privacy is enhanced for both snapshot and continuous queries. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed framework was evaluated the results indicate that the proposed framework has high success rate and good run time performance.

  1. A Game Theoretic Approach for Modeling Privacy Settings of an Online Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundong Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Users of online social networks often adjust their privacy settings to control how much information on their profiles is accessible to other users of the networks. While a variety of factors have been shown to affect the privacy strategies of these users, very little work has been done in analyzing how these factors influence each other and collectively contribute towards the users’ privacy strategies. In this paper, we analyze the influence of attribute importance, benefit, risk and network topology on the users’ attribute disclosure behavior by introducing a weighted evolutionary game model. Results show that: irrespective of risk, users aremore likely to reveal theirmost important attributes than their least important attributes; when the users’ range of influence is increased, the risk factor plays a smaller role in attribute disclosure; the network topology exhibits a considerable effect on the privacy in an environment with risk.

  2. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 313 - Model Privacy Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER... provide a “Yes” or “No” response that accurately reflects its information sharing policies and practices... paragraphs C.2(d)(2) or C.2(d)(3) of these Instructions. (2) For our marketing purposes. This reason...

  3. Risk-Based Models for Managing Data Privacy in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL Faresi, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Current research in health care lacks a systematic investigation to identify and classify various sources of threats to information privacy when sharing health data. Identifying and classifying such threats would enable the development of effective information security risk monitoring and management policies. In this research I put the first step…

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 716 - Model Privacy Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personal information to market to me.” (4) Nonaffiliate opt-out. If the financial institution shares... not share my personal information with other financial institutions to jointly market to me.” (h... institution, including a group of financial institutions that use a common privacy notice, to meet the content...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 573 - Model Privacy Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personal information to market to me.” (4) Nonaffiliate opt-out. If the financial institution shares... not share my personal information with other financial institutions to jointly market to me.” (h... institution, including a group of financial institutions that use a common privacy notice, to meet the content...

  6. Occupational Therapy and Video Modeling for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Emily Ann; Watry-Christian, Meghan; Simmons, Amanda; Van Eperen, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    This review explores the evidence in support of using video modeling for teaching children with autism. The process of implementing video modeling, the use of various perspectives, and a wide range of target skills are addressed. Additionally, several helpful clinician resources including handheld device applications, books, and websites are…

  7. Web-video-mining-supported workflow modeling for laparoscopic surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hao

    2016-11-01

    As quality assurance is of strong concern in advanced surgeries, intelligent surgical systems are expected to have knowledge such as the knowledge of the surgical workflow model (SWM) to support their intuitive cooperation with surgeons. For generating a robust and reliable SWM, a large amount of training data is required. However, training data collected by physically recording surgery operations is often limited and data collection is time-consuming and labor-intensive, severely influencing knowledge scalability of the surgical systems. The objective of this research is to solve the knowledge scalability problem in surgical workflow modeling with a low cost and labor efficient way. A novel web-video-mining-supported surgical workflow modeling (webSWM) method is developed. A novel video quality analysis method based on topic analysis and sentiment analysis techniques is developed to select high-quality videos from abundant and noisy web videos. A statistical learning method is then used to build the workflow model based on the selected videos. To test the effectiveness of the webSWM method, 250 web videos were mined to generate a surgical workflow for the robotic cholecystectomy surgery. The generated workflow was evaluated by 4 web-retrieved videos and 4 operation-room-recorded videos, respectively. The evaluation results (video selection consistency n-index ≥0.60; surgical workflow matching degree ≥0.84) proved the effectiveness of the webSWM method in generating robust and reliable SWM knowledge by mining web videos. With the webSWM method, abundant web videos were selected and a reliable SWM was modeled in a short time with low labor cost. Satisfied performances in mining web videos and learning surgery-related knowledge show that the webSWM method is promising in scaling knowledge for intelligent surgical systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. VIDEO '78: International Experience and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prix Jeunesse Foundation, Munich (Germany).

    The use of video technology as an alternative form of communications media for artists, teachers, students, and community groups in the United States, Europe, and Third World nations is described. Specific examples of video use in the various countries are outlined and individual characteristics of program organization, production, and…

  9. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal, J.R.; Chen, Z.; He, Y.; Lagendijk, R.I.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression

  10. Comparing Video Modeling and Graduated Guidance Together and Video Modeling Alone for Teaching Role Playing Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmanoglu, Nurgul; Yanardag, Mehmet; Batu, E. Sema

    2014-01-01

    Teaching play skills is important for children with autism. The purpose of the present study was to compare effectiveness and efficiency of providing video modeling and graduated guidance together and video modeling alone for teaching role playing skills to children with autism. The study was conducted with four students. The study was conducted…

  11. Development and Analyses of Privacy Management Models in Online Social Networks Based on Communication Privacy Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Jung

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks (OSNs), while serving as an emerging means of communication, promote various issues of privacy. Users of OSNs encounter diverse occasions that lead to invasion of their privacy, e.g., published conversation, public revelation of their personally identifiable information, and open boundary of distinct social groups within…

  12. Privacy-by-Design: Understanding Data Access Models for Secondary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Ahalt, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Today there is a constant flow of data into, out of, and between ever-larger and ever-more complex databases about people. Together, these digital traces collectively capture our social genome , the footprints of our society. The burgeoning field of population informatics is the systematic study of populations via secondary analysis of such massive data collections (termed "big data") about people. In particular, health informatics analyzes electronic health records to improve health outcomes for a population. Privacy protection in such secondary data analysis research is complex and requires a holistic approach which combines technology, statistics, policy and a shift in culture of information accountability through transparency rather than secrecy. We review state of the art in privacy protection technology and policy frameworks from widely different fields, and synthesize the findings to present a comprehensive system of privacy protection in population informatics research using the privacy-by-design approach. Based on common activities in the workflow, we describe the pros and cons of four different data access models - restricted access, controlled access, monitored access, and open access - that minimize risk and maximize usability of data. We then evaluate the system by analyzing the risk and usability of data through a realistic example. We conclude that deployed together the four data access models can provide a comprehensive system for privacy protection, balancing the risk and usability of secondary data in population informatics research.

  13. Role-task conditional-purpose policy model for privacy preserving data publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Elgendy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy becomes a major concern for both consumers and enterprises; therefore many research efforts have been devoted to the development of privacy preserving technology. The challenge in data privacy is to share the data while assuring the protection of personal information. Data privacy includes assuring protection for both insider ad outsider threats even if the data is published. Access control can help to protect the data from outsider threats. Access control is defined as the process of mediating every request to resources and data maintained by a system and determining whether the request should be granted or denied. This can be enforced by a mechanism implementing regulations established by a security policy. In this paper, we present privacy preserving data publishing model based on integration of CPBAC, MD-TRBAC, PBFW, protection against database administrator technique inspired from oracle vault technique and benefits of anonymization technique to protect data when being published using k-anonymity. The proposed model meets the requirements of workflow and non-workflow system in enterprise environment. It is based on the characteristics of the conditional purposes, conditional roles, tasks, and policies. It guarantees the protection against insider threats such as database administrator. Finally it assures needed protection in case of publishing the data. Keywords: Database security, Access control, Data publishing, Anonymization

  14. Using content models to build audio-video summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Janne; Merialdo, Bernard

    1998-12-01

    The amount of digitized video in archives is becoming so huge, that easier access and content browsing tools are desperately needed. Also, video is no longer one big piece of data, but a collection of useful smaller building blocks, which can be accessed and used independently from the original context of presentation. In this paper, we demonstrate a content model for audio video sequences, with the purpose of enabling the automatic generation of video summaries. The model is based on descriptors, which indicate various properties and relations of audio and video segments. In practice, these descriptors could either be generated automatically by methods of analysis, or produced manually (or computer-assisted) by the content provider. We analyze the requirements and characteristics of the different data segments, with respect to the problem of summarization, and we define our model as a set of constraints, which allow to produce good quality summaries.

  15. Constructing Self-Modeling Videos: Procedures and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Johnson, Austin H.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Delcampo, Marisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Although widely recommended, evidence-based interventions are not regularly utilized by school practitioners. Video self-modeling is an effective and efficient evidence-based intervention for a variety of student problem behaviors. However, like many other evidence-based interventions, it is not frequently used in schools. As video creation…

  16. Recognizing Strokes in Tennis Videos Using Hidden Markov Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem; Zivkovic, Z.

    This paper addresses content-based video retrieval with an emphasis on recognizing events in tennis game videos. In particular, we aim at recognizing different classes of tennis strokes using automatic learning capability of Hidden Markov Models. Driven by our domain knowledge, a robust player

  17. Common and Innovative Visuals: A sparsity modeling framework for video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolhosseini Moghadam, Abdolreza; Kumar, Mrityunjay; Radha, Hayder

    2014-05-02

    Efficient video representation models are critical for many video analysis and processing tasks. In this paper, we present a framework based on the concept of finding the sparsest solution to model video frames. To model the spatio-temporal information, frames from one scene are decomposed into two components: (i) a common frame, which describes the visual information common to all the frames in the scene/segment, and (ii) a set of innovative frames, which depicts the dynamic behaviour of the scene. The proposed approach exploits and builds on recent results in the field of compressed sensing to jointly estimate the common frame and the innovative frames for each video segment. We refer to the proposed modeling framework by CIV (Common and Innovative Visuals). We show how the proposed model can be utilized to find scene change boundaries and extend CIV to videos from multiple scenes. Furthermore, the proposed model is robust to noise and can be used for various video processing applications without relying on motion estimation and detection or image segmentation. Results for object tracking, video editing (object removal, inpainting) and scene change detection are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and the performance of the proposed model.

  18. Model-based Assessment for Balancing Privacy Requirements and Operational Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Fabian [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Engel, Dominik [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    The smart grid changes the way energy is produced and distributed. In addition both, energy and information is exchanged bidirectionally among participating parties. Therefore heterogeneous systems have to cooperate effectively in order to achieve a common high-level use case, such as smart metering for billing or demand response for load curtailment. Furthermore, a substantial amount of personal data is often needed for achieving that goal. Capturing and processing personal data in the smart grid increases customer concerns about privacy and in addition, certain statutory and operational requirements regarding privacy aware data processing and storage have to be met. An increase of privacy constraints, however, often limits the operational capabilities of the system. In this paper, we present an approach that automates the process of finding an optimal balance between privacy requirements and operational requirements in a smart grid use case and application scenario. This is achieved by formally describing use cases in an abstract model and by finding an algorithm that determines the optimum balance by forward mapping privacy and operational impacts. For this optimal balancing algorithm both, a numeric approximation and – if feasible – an analytic assessment are presented and investigated. The system is evaluated by applying the tool to a real-world use case from the University of Southern California (USC) microgrid.

  19. Modelling retinal pulsatile blood flow from video data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Hazelton, Martin L; Morgan, William H

    2016-09-01

    Modern day datasets continue to increase in both size and diversity. One example of such 'big data' is video data. Within the medical arena, more disciplines are using video as a diagnostic tool. Given the large amount of data stored within a video image, it is one of most time consuming types of data to process and analyse. Therefore, it is desirable to have automated techniques to extract, process and analyse data from video images. While many methods have been developed for extracting and processing video data, statistical modelling to analyse the outputted data has rarely been employed. We develop a method to take a video sequence of periodic nature, extract the RGB data and model the changes occurring across the contiguous images. We employ harmonic regression to model periodicity with autoregressive terms accounting for the error process associated with the time series nature of the data. A linear spline is included to account for movement between frames. We apply this model to video sequences of retinal vessel pulsation, which is the pulsatile component of blood flow. Slope and amplitude are calculated for the curves generated from the application of the harmonic model, providing clinical insight into the location of obstruction within the retinal vessels. The method can be applied to individual vessels, or to smaller segments such as 2 × 2 pixels which can then be interpreted easily as a heat map. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Building trusted national identity management systems: Presenting the privacy concern-trust (PCT) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    This paper discusses the effect of trust and information privacy concerns on citizens’ attitude towards national identity management systems. We introduce the privacyconcerns- trust model, which shows the role of trust in mediating and moderating citizens’ attitude towards identity management...... systems. We adopted a qualitative research approach in our analysis of data that was gathered through a series of interviews and a stakeholder workshop in Ghana. Our findings indicate that, beyond the threshold level of trust, societal information privacy concern is low; hence, trust is high, thereby...... encouraging further institutional collaboration and acceptance of citizens’ informational self-determination....

  1. 3D modelling of cultural heritage objects using video technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Deliś

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the process of creating 3D models of St. Anne’s Church’s facades is described. Some examples of architectural structures inside of St. Anne’s Church’s are presented. Video data were acquired with the fixed focal length lens f = 16 mm. It allowed to determine interior orientation parameters in a calibration process and to remove an influence of distortion. 3D models of heritage objects were generated using the Topcon Image Master software. The process of 3D model creating from video data involved the following steps: video frames selection for the orientation process, orientation of video frames using points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning, wireframe and TIN model generation. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed 3D models, points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning were used. The accuracy analysis showed that the accuracy of 3D models generated from video images is ±0.05 m.[b]Keywords[/b]: terrestrial photogrammetry, video, terrestrial laser scanning, 3D model, heritage objects

  2. Effects of video modeling with video feedback on vocational skills of adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Derek L; Gounden, Sadhana; Dagher, Richard E; Chan, Shu Fen; Furlonger, Brett E; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W

    2017-02-16

    To examine the effectiveness of a video modeling (VM) with video feedback (VFB) intervention to teach vocational gardening skills to three adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple probe design across skills was used to assess the effects of the intervention on the three participants' ability to perform skills accurately. The use of VM with VFB led to improvements across skills for two of the participants. The third participant required video prompting (VP) for successful skill acquisition. Skill performance generalized across personnel and settings for two of the participants, but it was not assessed for the third. Skill performance maintained at follow-up for all three participants. Social validity data gathered from participants, parents, and co-workers were positive. These findings suggest that VM with VFB and VP with VFB were effective and socially acceptable interventions for teaching vocational gardening skills to young adults with ASD.

  3. Dynamic Textures Modeling via Joint Video Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xian; Li, Yuanxiang; Shen, Hao; Chen, Fang; Kleinsteuber, Martin; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2017-04-06

    Video representation is an important and challenging task in the computer vision community. In this paper, we consider the problem of modeling and classifying video sequences of dynamic scenes which could be modeled in a dynamic textures (DT) framework. At first, we assume that image frames of a moving scene can be modeled as a Markov random process. We propose a sparse coding framework, named joint video dictionary learning (JVDL), to model a video adaptively. By treating the sparse coefficients of image frames over a learned dictionary as the underlying "states", we learn an efficient and robust linear transition matrix between two adjacent frames of sparse events in time series. Hence, a dynamic scene sequence is represented by an appropriate transition matrix associated with a dictionary. In order to ensure the stability of JVDL, we impose several constraints on such transition matrix and dictionary. The developed framework is able to capture the dynamics of a moving scene by exploring both sparse properties and the temporal correlations of consecutive video frames. Moreover, such learned JVDL parameters can be used for various DT applications, such as DT synthesis and recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the strong competitiveness of the proposed JVDL approach in comparison with state-of-the-art video representation methods. Especially, it performs significantly better in dealing with DT synthesis and recognition on heavily corrupted data.

  4. Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-07-01

    Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.

  5. Query Monitoring and Analysis for Database Privacy - A Security Automata Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Ligatti, Jay; Tu, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Privacy and usage restriction issues are important when valuable data are exchanged or acquired by different organizations. Standard access control mechanisms either restrict or completely grant access to valuable data. On the other hand, data obfuscation limits the overall usability and may result in loss of total value. There are no standard policy enforcement mechanisms for data acquired through mutual and copyright agreements. In practice, many different types of policies can be enforced in protecting data privacy. Hence there is the need for an unified framework that encapsulates multiple suites of policies to protect the data. We present our vision of an architecture named security automata model (SAM) to enforce privacy-preserving policies and usage restrictions. SAM analyzes the input queries and their outputs to enforce various policies, liberating data owners from the burden of monitoring data access. SAM allows administrators to specify various policies and enforces them to monitor queries and control the data access. Our goal is to address the problems of data usage control and protection through privacy policies that can be defined, enforced, and integrated with the existing access control mechanisms using SAM. In this paper, we lay out the theoretical foundation of SAM, which is based on an automata named Mandatory Result Automata. We also discuss the major challenges of implementing SAM in a real-world database environment as well as ideas to meet such challenges.

  6. Estimation of Modelling Parameters for H.263-Quantized Video Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drigas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose methods for selecting the modelling parameters of H.263-quantized video traffic under two different encoding scenarios. For videos encoded with a constant quantization step (unconstrained, we conclude that a two-parameter power relation holds between the exhibited video bit rate and the quantizer value and that the autocorrelation decay rate remains constant for all cases. On the basis of these results, we propose a generic method for estimating the modelling parameters of unconstrained traffic by means of measuring the statistics of the single “raw” video trace. For rate-controlled video (constrained, we propose an approximate method based on the adjustment of the “shape” parameter of the counterpart—with respect to rate—unconstrained video trace. The convergence of the constructed models is assessed via q-q plots and queuing simulations. On the assumption that the popular MPEG-4 encoders like XVID, DIVX usually employ identical H.263 quantization and rate control schemes, it is expected that the results of this paper also hold for the MPEG-4 part 2 family.

  7. Building a Privacy Model in the Business Processes of the Enterprise: An Information Systems Design Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Majdalawieh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Privacy has not been researched or investigated from business process management perspective and the current literature has shown lack of a well-defined methodology for integrating privacy into business processes. This paper proposes an integrated privacy model. Such model is an integral part of the organization’s enterprise to ensure that personal data protection is impeded in the business processes of any system that is involved in collecting, disseminating, and accessing an individual’s data. Passing privacy laws is very essential and requires some cooperation and partnership between nations based on some privacy principles. The proposed framework is built on these principles and will help organizations to develop data protection in their business processes, assess the privacy issues in their organization, protect the interest of their clients, advance their value proposition, and make it easier to identify the impact of privacy on their business. The study follows the design science research process and the information systems design science research (ISDSR methodologies by identifying relevant problems from the current literature, defining the objectives of the study, designing and developing the ABC-PDMS model, and evaluating the model.

  8. Fast Appearance Modeling for Automatic Primary Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiong; Price, Brian; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-02-01

    Automatic segmentation of the primary object in a video clip is a challenging problem as there is no prior knowledge of the primary object. Most existing techniques thus adapt an iterative approach for foreground and background appearance modeling, i.e., fix the appearance model while optimizing the segmentation and fix the segmentation while optimizing the appearance model. However, these approaches may rely on good initialization and can be easily trapped in local optimal. In addition, they are usually time consuming for analyzing videos. To address these limitations, we propose a novel and efficient appearance modeling technique for automatic primary video object segmentation in the Markov random field (MRF) framework. It embeds the appearance constraint as auxiliary nodes and edges in the MRF structure, and can optimize both the segmentation and appearance model parameters simultaneously in one graph cut. The extensive experimental evaluations validate the superiority of the proposed approach over the state-of-the-art methods, in both efficiency and effectiveness.

  9. Privacy and social network applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roig, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Privacy technological threatens are no limited to data protection. Social Network Applications (SNA) and ubiquitous computing or Ambient Intelligence face other privacy risks. The business model of SNA and the improvement of data mining allow social computation. SNA regulation should favor privacy-by-design and Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET). Default friendly-privacy policies should also be adopted. The data portability of the applications shifts SNA into a new field of ubiquitous compu...

  10. Geometrical modelling and calibration of video cameras for underwater navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melen, T.

    1994-11-01

    Video cameras and other visual sensors can provide valuable navigation information for underwater remotely operated vehicles. The thesis relates to the geometric modelling and calibration of video cameras. To exploit the accuracy potential of a video camera, all systematic errors must be modelled and compensated for. This dissertation proposes a new geometric camera model, where linear image plane distortion (difference in scale and lack of orthogonality between the image axes) is compensated for after, and separately from, lens distortion. The new model can be viewed as an extension of the linear or DLT (Direct Linear Transformation) model and as a modification of the model traditionally used in photogrammetry. The new model can be calibrated from both planar and nonplanar calibration objects. The feasibility of the model is demonstrated in a typical camera calibration experiment, which indicates that the new model is more accurate than the traditional one. It also gives a simple solution to the problem of computing undistorted image coordinates from distorted ones. Further, the dissertation suggests how to get initial estimates for all the camera model parameters, how to select the number of parameters modelling lens distortion and how to reduce the dimension of the search space in the nonlinear optimization. There is also a discussion on the use of analytical partial derivates. The new model is particularly well suited for video images with non-square pixels, but it may also advantagely be used with professional photogrammetric equipment. 63 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. A Knowledge-Constrained Access Control Model for Protecting Patient Privacy in Hospital Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runtong; Chen, Donghua; Shang, Xiaopu; Zhu, Xiaomin; Liu, Kecheng

    2017-04-24

    Current access control mechanisms of the hospital information system can hardly identify the real access intention of system users. A relaxed access control increases the risk of compromise of patient privacy. To reduce unnecessary access of patient information by hospital staff, this paper proposes a Knowledge-Constrained Role-Based Access Control (KC-RBAC) model in which a variety of medical domain knowledge is considered in access control. Based on the proposed Purpose Tree and knowledge-involved algorithms, the model can dynamically define the boundary of access to the patient information according to the context, which helps protect patient privacy by controlling access. Compared with the Role-Based Access Control model, KC-RBAC can effectively protect patient information according to the results of the experiments.

  12. Privacy protection on the internet: The European model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltezarević Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has a huge impact on all areas of social activity. Everyday life, social interaction and economics are directed to new information and communication technologies. A positive aspect of the new technology is reflected in the fact that it has created a virtual space that has led to the elimination of the various barriers, which has enabled interaction and information exchange across the world. Inclusion in the virtual social network provides connectivity for communicators who are looking for space that allows them freedom of expression and connect them with new ' friends'. Because of the feeling of complete freedom and the absence of censorship on the network communicators leave many personal details and photos, without thinking about the possible abuses of privacy. Recording of the different incidents on the network has resulted in the need to take precaution measures, in order to protect the users and the rule of law, given that freedom on the network is only possible with the existence of an adequate system of safety and security. In this paper we deal with the problem of the protection of personal data of users of virtual social networks against malicious activity and abuse, with special reference to the activities of the European Union in an effort to regulate this area. The European Commission has concentrated on finding the best solutions to protect the user's virtual space for more than two decades, starting from 1995 until a directive on security of networks and information systems, which was adopted in the first half of 2016.

  13. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  14. Video Editing and Medication to Produce a Therapeutic Self Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowrick, Peter W.; Raeburn, John M.

    1977-01-01

    Self-modeling requires the production of a videotape in which the subject is seen to perform in a model way. A 4-year-old "hyperactive" boy, initially under psychotropic medication, was unable to role play suitable behaviors. Video editing was used to produce a videotape that when watched by the subject, had therapeutic effects as compared with an…

  15. When Video Games Tell Stories: A Model of Video Game Narrative Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Arnaldo Picucci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a model is proposed offering a comprehensive categorization of video game narrative structures intended as the methods and techniques used by game designers and allowed by the medium to deliver the story content throughout the gameplay in collaboration with the players. A case is first made for the presence of narrative in video games and its growth of importance as a central component in game design. An in-depth analysis ensues focusing on how games tell stories, guided by the criteria of linearity/nonlinearity, interactivity and randomness. Light is shed upon the fundamental architectures through which stories are told as well as the essential boundaries posed by the close link between narrative and game AI.

  16. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  17. Learning from video modeling examples : Effects of seeing the human model's face

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Verveer, Ilse; Verveer, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Video modeling examples in which a human(-like) model shows learners how to perform a task are increasingly used in education, as they have become very easy to create and distribute in e-learning environments. However, little is known about design guidelines to optimize learning from video modeling

  18. The Video Role Model as an Enterprise Teaching Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the need to develop a more enterprising approach to learning by adopting an experiential approach. It specifically examines the use of video case studies of entrepreneurial role models within an enterprise module at Leeds Metropolitan University. The exercise enables students to act as a consultant or counsellor and apply…

  19. Modeling, clustering, and segmenting video with mixtures of dynamic textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Antoni B; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2008-05-01

    A dynamic texture is a spatio-temporal generative model for video, which represents video sequences as observations from a linear dynamical system. This work studies the mixture of dynamic textures, a statistical model for an ensemble of video sequences that is sampled from a finite collection of visual processes, each of which is a dynamic texture. An expectationmaximization (EM) algorithm is derived for learning the parameters of the model, and the model is related to previous works in linear systems, machine learning, time-series clustering, control theory, and computer vision. Through experimentation, it is shown that the mixture of dynamic textures is a suitable representation for both the appearance and dynamics of a variety of visual processes that have traditionally been challenging for computer vision (e.g. fire, steam, water, vehicle and pedestrian traffic, etc.). When compared with state-of-the-art methods in motion segmentation, including both temporal texture methods and traditional representations (e.g. optical flow or other localized motion representations), the mixture of dynamic textures achieves superior performance in the problems of clustering and segmenting video of such processes.

  20. Video Analysis of the Flight of a Model Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Fazio, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    A video-analysis software tool has been employed in order to measure the steady-state values of the kinematics variables describing the longitudinal behaviour of a radio-controlled model aircraft during take-off, climbing and gliding. These experimental results have been compared with the theoretical steady-state configurations predicted by the…

  1. Incremental principal component pursuit for video background modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez-Valderrama, Paul A.; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-03-14

    An incremental Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) algorithm for video background modeling that is able to process one frame at a time while adapting to changes in background, with a computational complexity that allows for real-time processing, having a low memory footprint and is robust to translational and rotational jitter.

  2. Digital Video as a Personalized Learning Assignment: A Qualitative Study of Student Authored Video Using the ICSDR Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurie O.; Cox, Thomas D.

    2018-01-01

    Students within this study followed the ICSDR (Identify, Conceptualize/Connect, Storyboard, Develop, Review/Reflect/Revise) development model to create digital video, as a personalized and active learning assignment. The participants, graduate students in education, indicated that following the ICSDR framework for student-authored video guided…

  3. Data privacy for the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Herold, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid and PrivacyWhat Is the Smart Grid? Changes from Traditional Energy Delivery Smart Grid Possibilities Business Model Transformations Emerging Privacy Risks The Need for Privacy PoliciesPrivacy Laws, Regulations, and Standards Privacy-Enhancing Technologies New Privacy Challenges IOT Big Data What Is the Smart Grid?Market and Regulatory OverviewTraditional Electricity Business SectorThe Electricity Open Market Classifications of Utilities Rate-Making ProcessesElectricity Consumer

  4. Video analysis of the flight of a model aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Fazio, Claudio, E-mail: giovanni.tarantino19@unipa.it, E-mail: claudio.fazio@unipa.it [UOP-PERG (University of Palermo Physics Education Research Group), Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    A video-analysis software tool has been employed in order to measure the steady-state values of the kinematics variables describing the longitudinal behaviour of a radio-controlled model aircraft during take-off, climbing and gliding. These experimental results have been compared with the theoretical steady-state configurations predicted by the phugoid model for longitudinal flight. A comparison with the parameters and performance of the full-size aircraft has also been outlined.

  5. Video Modeling and Word Identification in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Fisher, Sycarah; Comer, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Video modeling involves the learner viewing videos of a model demonstrating a target skill. According to the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (2011), video modeling is an evidenced-based intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in elementary through middle school. Little research exists…

  6. Perception Games and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Gradwohl, Ronen; Smorodinsky, Rann

    2014-01-01

    Players (people, firms, states, etc.) have privacy concerns that may affect their choice of actions in strategic settings. We use a variant of signaling games to model this effect and study its relation to pooling behavior, misrepresentation of information, and inefficiency. We discuss these issues and show that common intuitions may lead to inaccurate conclusions about the implications of privacy concerns.

  7. Operation quality assessment model for video conference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bangshi; Qi, Feng; Shao, Sujie; Wang, Ying; Li, Weijian

    2018-01-01

    Video conference system has become an important support platform for smart grid operation and management, its operation quality is gradually concerning grid enterprise. First, the evaluation indicator system covering network, business and operation maintenance aspects was established on basis of video conference system's operation statistics. Then, the operation quality assessment model combining genetic algorithm with regularized BP neural network was proposed, which outputs operation quality level of the system within a time period and provides company manager with some optimization advice. The simulation results show that the proposed evaluation model offers the advantages of fast convergence and high prediction accuracy in contrast with regularized BP neural network, and its generalization ability is superior to LM-BP neural network and Bayesian BP neural network.

  8. Moderating Factors of Video-Modeling with Other as Model: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rose A.; Ganz, Jennifer B.; Parker, Richard I.; Burke, Mack D.; Camargo, Siglia P.

    2012-01-01

    Video modeling with other as model (VMO) is a more practical method for implementing video-based modeling techniques, such as video self-modeling, which requires significantly more editing. Despite this, identification of contextual factors such as participant characteristics and targeted outcomes that moderate the effectiveness of VMO has not…

  9. Video Modeling and Observational Learning to Teach Gaming Access to Students with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Amy D.; Gast, David L.; Knight, Victoria F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate both video modeling and observational learning to teach age-appropriate recreation and leisure skills (i.e., accessing video games) to students with autism spectrum disorder. Effects of video modeling were evaluated via a multiple probe design across participants and criteria for mastery were based on…

  10. Effectiveness of Video Modeling Provided by Mothers in Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besler, Fatma; Kurt, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Video modeling is an evidence-based practice that can be used to provide instruction to individuals with autism. Studies show that this instructional practice is effective in teaching many types of skills such as self-help skills, social skills, and academic skills. However, in previous studies, videos used in the video modeling process were…

  11. A standardised graphic method for describing data privacy frameworks in primary care research using a flexible zone model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchinke, W.; Ohmann, C.; Verheij, R.A.; Veen, E.B. van; Arvanitis, T.N.; Taweel, A.; Delaney, B.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model describing core concepts and principles of data flow, data privacy and confidentiality, in a simple and flexible way, using concise process descriptions and a diagrammatic notation applied to research workflow processes. The model should help to generate robust data

  12. Examining the Effects of Video Modeling and Prompts to Teach Activities of Daily Living Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.

  13. Subjective quality assessment of an adaptive video streaming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Shahid, Muhammad; Garcia, Narciso

    2014-01-01

    With the recent increased popularity and high usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) techniques, various studies have been carried out in this area which generally focused on the technical enhancement of HAS technology and applications. However, a lack of common HAS standard led to multiple proprietary approaches which have been developed by major Internet companies. In the emerging MPEG-DASH standard the packagings of the video content and HTTP syntax have been standardized; but all the details of the adaptation behavior are left to the client implementation. Nevertheless, to design an adaptation algorithm which optimizes the viewing experience of the enduser, the multimedia service providers need to know about the Quality of Experience (QoE) of different adaptation schemes. Taking this into account, the objective of this experiment was to study the QoE of a HAS-based video broadcast model. The experiment has been carried out through a subjective study of the end user response to various possible clients' behavior for changing the video quality taking different QoE-influence factors into account. The experimental conclusions have made a good insight into the QoE of different adaptation schemes which can be exploited by HAS clients for designing the adaptation algorithms.

  14. Privacy in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis lecture provides a survey of work on privacy in online social networks (OSNs). This work encompasses concerns of users as well as service providers and third parties. Our goal is to approach such concerns from a computer-science perspective, and building upon existing work on privacy, security, statistical modeling and databases to provide an overview of the technical and algorithmic issues related to privacy in OSNs. We start our survey by introducing a simple OSN data model and describe common statistical-inference techniques that can be used to infer potentially sensitive inf

  15. Energy saving approaches for video streaming on smartphone based on QoE modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Luis Guillermo Martinez; Ickin, Selim; Fiedler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of video stalling on QoE. We provide QoE models that are obtained in realistic scenarios on the smartphone, and provide energy-saving approaches for smartphone by leveraging the proposed QoE models in relation to energy. Results show that approximately 5J...... is saved in a 3 minutes video clip with an acceptable Mean Opinion Score (MOS) level when the video frames are skipped. If the video frames are not skipped, then it is suggested to avoid freezes during a video stream as the freezes highly increase the energy waste on the smartphones....

  16. A linear programming model for preserving privacy when disclosing patient spatial information for secondary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Won; El Emam, Khaled

    2014-05-29

    A linear programming (LP) model was proposed to create de-identified data sets that maximally include spatial detail (e.g., geocodes such as ZIP or postal codes, census blocks, and locations on maps) while complying with the HIPAA Privacy Rule's Expert Determination method, i.e., ensuring that the risk of re-identification is very small. The LP model determines the transition probability from an original location of a patient to a new randomized location. However, it has a limitation for the cases of areas with a small population (e.g., median of 10 people in a ZIP code). We extend the previous LP model to accommodate the cases of a smaller population in some locations, while creating de-identified patient spatial data sets which ensure the risk of re-identification is very small. Our LP model was applied to a data set of 11,740 postal codes in the City of Ottawa, Canada. On this data set we demonstrated the limitations of the previous LP model, in that it produces improbable results, and showed how our extensions to deal with small areas allows the de-identification of the whole data set. The LP model described in this study can be used to de-identify geospatial information for areas with small populations with minimal distortion to postal codes. Our LP model can be extended to include other information, such as age and gender.

  17. Learning from video modeling examples : Content kept equal, adults are more effective models than peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Loyens, Sofie M M; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Learning from (video) modeling examples in which a model demonstrates how to perform a task is an effective instructional strategy. The model-observer similarity (MOS) hypothesis postulates that (perceived) similarity between learners and the model in terms of age or expertise moderates the

  18. 'Privacy lost - and found?' : the information value chain as a model to meet citizens' concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pas, John; van Bussel, Geert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the extent to which privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) could be effective in providing privacy to citizens. Rapid development of ubiquitous computing and ‘the internet of things’ are leading to Big Data and the application of Predictive Analytics, effectively merging the

  19. The Kinematic Learning Model using Video and Interfaces Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, T.; Setiawan, W.; Hamidah, I.

    2017-09-01

    An educator currently in demand to apply the learning to not be separated from the development of technology. Educators often experience difficulties when explaining kinematics material, this is because kinematics is one of the lessons that often relate the concept to real life. Kinematics is one of the courses of physics that explains the cause of motion of an object, Therefore it takes the thinking skills and analytical skills in understanding these symptoms. Technology is one that can bridge between conceptual relationship with real life. A framework of technology-based learning models has been developed using video and interfaces analysis on kinematics concept. By using this learning model, learners will be better able to understand the concept that is taught by the teacher. This learning model is able to improve the ability of creative thinking, analytical skills, and problem-solving skills on the concept of kinematics.

  20. The psychology of privacy: Analyzing processes of media use and interpersonal communication

    OpenAIRE

    Dienlin, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    What is the psychology of privacy? How do people perceive privacy? Why do people disclose personal information on the Internet, and what does this reveal about our their personalities? With four studies, this cumulative dissertation discusses potential answers to these questions. Study 1 (“The Privacy Process Model”) proposes a new privacy theory, the so-called Privacy Process Model (PPM). The PPM states that privacy consists of three major elements: the privacy context, the privacy perce...

  1. Cross-band noise model refinement for transform domain Wyner–Ziv video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    TDWZ video coding trails that of conventional video coding solutions, mainly due to the quality of side information, inaccurate noise modeling and loss in the final coding step. The major goal of this paper is to enhance the accuracy of the noise modeling, which is one of the most important aspects...... that the proposed noise model and noise residue refinement scheme can improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of TDWZ video coding significantly. The quality of the side information modeling is also evaluated by a measure of the ideal code length.......Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm, which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of decoder side information. One approach to DVC is feedback channel based Transform Domain Wyner–Ziv (TDWZ) video coding. The efficiency of current...

  2. Use of Video Modeling to Teach Adolescents with an Intellectual Disability to Film Their Own Video Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepley, Sally B.; Smith, Katie A.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Alexander, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Self-instruction for individuals with an intellectual disability can be viewed as a pivotal skill in that once learned this skill has collateral effects on future behaviors in various environments. This study used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate video modeling to teach high school students with an intellectual disability to…

  3. Video Analysis and Modeling Tool for Physics Education: A workshop for Redesigning Pedagogy

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    This workshop aims to demonstrate how the Tracker Video Analysis and Modeling Tool engages, enables and empowers teachers to be learners so that we can be leaders in our teaching practice. Through this workshop, the kinematics of a falling ball and a projectile motion are explored using video analysis and in the later video modeling. We hope to lead and inspire other teachers by facilitating their experiences with this ICT-enabled video modeling pedagogy (Brown, 2008) and free tool for facilitating students-centered active learning, thus motivate students to be more self-directed.

  4. Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Sohail; Bhanu, Bir

    2004-08-01

    Current moving object detection systems typically detect shadows cast by the moving object as part of the moving object. In this paper, the problem of separating moving cast shadows from the moving objects in an outdoor environment is addressed. Unlike previous work, we present an approach that does not rely on any geometrical assumptions such as camera location and ground surface/object geometry. The approach is based on a new spatio-temporal albedo test and dichromatic reflection model and accounts for both the sun and the sky illuminations. Results are presented for several video sequences representing a variety of ground materials when the shadows are cast on different surface types. These results show that our approach is robust to widely different background and foreground materials, and illuminations.

  5. Visual fatigue modeling and analysis for stereoscopic video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaeseob; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Sunghwan; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a visual fatigue prediction method for stereoscopic video. We select visual fatigue factor candidates and determine the equations for each. The candidates are then classified into their principal components, and the validity of each is confirmed using principal component analysis. Visual fatigue is predicted using multiple regression with subjective visual fatigue. In order to determine the best model, we select the visual fatigue factors that have sufficient significance in terms of subjective fatigue according to the stepwise method. The predicted visual fatigue score is presented as a linear combination of the selected visual fatigue factors. Consequently, the proposed algorithm provides more reliable performance in terms of correlation with the subjective test results compared with a conventional algorithm.

  6. Noise Residual Learning for Noise Modeling in Distributed Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The noise model is one of the inherently difficult challenges in DVC. This paper considers Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes...... noise residual learning techniques that take residues from previously decoded frames into account to estimate the decoding residue more precisely. Moreover, the techniques calculate a number of candidate noise residual distributions within a frame to adaptively optimize the soft side information during...... decoding. A residual refinement step is also introduced to take advantage of correlation of DCT coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed techniques robustly improve the coding efficiency of TDWZ DVC and for GOP=2 bit-rate savings up to 35% on WZ frames are achieved compared with DISCOVER....

  7. A Heuristic Model for Supporting Users’ Decision-Making in Privacy Disclosure for Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchen Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Privacy issues have become a major concern in the web of resource sharing, and users often have difficulty managing their information disclosure in the context of high-quality experiences from social media and Internet of Things. Recent studies have shown that users’ disclosure decisions may be influenced by heuristics from the crowds, leading to inconsistency in the disclosure volumes and reduction of the prediction accuracy. Therefore, an analysis of why this influence occurs and how to optimize the user experience is highly important. We propose a novel heuristic model that defines the data structures of items and participants in social media, utilizes a modified decision-tree classifier that can predict participants’ disclosures, and puts forward a correlation analysis for detecting disclosure inconsistences. The heuristic model is applied to real-time dataset to evaluate the behavioral effects. Decision-tree classifier and correlation analysis indeed prove that some participants’ behaviors in information disclosures became decreasingly correlated during item requesting. Participants can be “persuaded” to change their disclosure behaviors, and the users’ answers to the mildly sensitive items tend to be more variable and less predictable. Using this approach, recommender systems in social media can thus know the users better and provide service with higher prediction accuracy.

  8. EFFICIENT USE OF VIDEO FOR 3D MODELLING OF CULTURAL HERITAGE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alsadik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a rapid development in the techniques of the automated image based modelling (IBM, especially in advanced structure-from-motion (SFM and dense image matching methods, and camera technology. One possibility is to use video imaging to create 3D reality based models of cultural heritage architectures and monuments. Practically, video imaging is much easier to apply when compared to still image shooting in IBM techniques because the latter needs a thorough planning and proficiency. However, one is faced with mainly three problems when video image sequences are used for highly detailed modelling and dimensional survey of cultural heritage objects. These problems are: the low resolution of video images, the need to process a large number of short baseline video images and blur effects due to camera shake on a significant number of images. In this research, the feasibility of using video images for efficient 3D modelling is investigated. A method is developed to find the minimal significant number of video images in terms of object coverage and blur effect. This reduction in video images is convenient to decrease the processing time and to create a reliable textured 3D model compared with models produced by still imaging. Two experiments for modelling a building and a monument are tested using a video image resolution of 1920×1080 pixels. Internal and external validations of the produced models are applied to find out the final predicted accuracy and the model level of details. Related to the object complexity and video imaging resolution, the tests show an achievable average accuracy between 1 – 5 cm when using video imaging, which is suitable for visualization, virtual museums and low detailed documentation.

  9. Incorporating Video Modeling into a School-Based Intervention for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlyn P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Video modeling is an intervention strategy that has been shown to be effective in improving the social and communication skills of students with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline empirically supported, step-by-step instructions for the use of video modeling by school-based speech-language…

  10. Video Self-Modeling as an Intervention Strategy for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Anderson, Candace; McCarthy, Scott; Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling demonstrates promise as an intervention strategy to improve outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This article summarizes the empirical evidence supporting the use of video self-modeling with individuals with autism spectrum disorders to increase language and communication, increase social skills, modify…

  11. Comparison of Video and Live Modeling in Teaching Response Chains to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenekon, Yasemin; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kapan, Alper; Akmanoglu, Nurgul

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that video and live modeling are both effective in teaching new skills to children with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of video and live modeling in teaching response chains to three children with autism. Each child was taught two chained skills; one skill…

  12. Variability in the Effectiveness of a Video Modeling Intervention Package for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; MacFarland, Mari C.; Ferreri, Summer J.

    2015-01-01

    Video modeling is an evidence-based instructional strategy for teaching a variety of skills to individuals with autism. Despite the effectiveness of this strategy, there is some uncertainty regarding the conditions under which video modeling is likely to be effective. The present investigation examined the differential effectiveness of video…

  13. Reviewing Instructional Studies Conducted Using Video Modeling to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Cimen; Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored 31 instructional research articles written using video modeling to children with autism and published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies in this research have been reached by searching EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, ERIC and other Anadolu University online search engines and using keywords such as "autism, video modeling,…

  14. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  15. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  16. Watch This! A Guide to Implementing Video Modeling in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynkoop, Kaylee Stahr

    2016-01-01

    The video modeling (VM) teaching strategy is one in which a student watches a video of someone performing a specific behavior, skill, or task and is then expected to complete the behavior, skill, or task. This column discusses the variety of ways in which VM has been documented within the literature and supports teacher interest in the strategy by…

  17. Video Self-Modelling: An Intervention for Children with Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Helen; Howe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    There has recently been a growth in interest in the use of video technology in the practice of educational psychologists. This research explores the effects of a video self-modelling (VSM) intervention on the behaviours of a child in mainstream education using a single case study design set within a behaviourist paradigm. VSM is a behavioural…

  18. Learning a Continuous-Time Streaming Video QoE Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C

    2018-05-01

    Over-the-top adaptive video streaming services are frequently impacted by fluctuating network conditions that can lead to rebuffering events (stalling events) and sudden bitrate changes. These events visually impact video consumers' quality of experience (QoE) and can lead to consumer churn. The development of models that can accurately predict viewers' instantaneous subjective QoE under such volatile network conditions could potentially enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for media-driven services, such as YouTube, Amazon, Netflix, and so on. However, most existing models only predict a single overall QoE score on a given video and are based on simple global video features, without accounting for relevant aspects of human perception and behavior. We have created a QoE evaluator, called the time-varying QoE Indexer, that accounts for interactions between stalling events, analyzes the spatial and temporal content of a video, predicts the perceptual video quality, models the state of the client-side data buffer, and consequently predicts continuous-time quality scores that agree quite well with human opinion scores. The new QoE predictor also embeds the impact of relevant human cognitive factors, such as memory and recency, and their complex interactions with the video content being viewed. We evaluated the proposed model on three different video databases and attained standout QoE prediction performance.

  19. Facilitating Social Initiations of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Video Self-Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggey, Tom; Hoomes, Grace; Sherberger, Mary Elizabeth; Williams, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Video self-modeling (VSM) has accumulated a relatively impressive track record in the research literature across behaviors, ages, and types of disabilities. Using only positive imagery, VSM gives individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task just beyond their present functioning level via creative editing of videos using VCRs or…

  20. Modeling the video distribution link in the Next Generation Optical Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya, F.; Cárdenas, A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a model for the design and optimization of the video distribution link in the next generation optical access network. We analyze the video distribution performance in a SCM-WDM link, including the noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities. Additionally, we c...

  1. Model-free 3D face shape reconstruction from video sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    In forensic comparison of facial video data, often only the best quality frontal face frames are selected, and hence much video data is ignored. To improve 2D facial comparison for law enforcement and forensic investigation, we introduce a model-free 3D shape reconstruction algorithm based on 2D

  2. Landmark-based model-free 3D face shape reconstruction from video sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Broemme, A.; Busch, C.

    2013-01-01

    In forensic comparison of facial video data, often only the best quality frontal face frames are selected, and hence potentially useful video data is ignored. To improve 2D facial comparison for law enforcement and forensic investigation, we introduce a model-free 3D shape reconstruction algorithm

  3. Playing with Process: Video Game Choice as a Model of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelchli, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Popular culture experience in video games creates avenues to practice information literacy skills and model research in a real-world setting. Video games create a unique popular culture experience where players can invest dozens of hours on one game, create characters to identify with, organize skill sets and plot points, collaborate with people…

  4. Two Variations of Video Modeling Interventions for Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Kimberly; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Sidener, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed an adapted alternating treatments design with reversal and multiple probe across participants components to compare the effects of traditional video priming and simultaneous video modeling on the acquisition of play skills in two children diagnosed with autism. Generalization was programmed across play sets, instructors,…

  5. Using of Video Modeling in Teaching a Simple Meal Preparation Skill for Pupils of Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Salahat, Mohammad Mousa

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the impact of video modeling upon teaching three pupils with Down syndrome the skill of preparing a simple meal (sandwich), where the training was conducted in a separate classroom in schools of normal students. The training consisted of (i) watching the video of an intellectually disabled pupil, who is…

  6. Context-Aware Generative Adversarial Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chong; Kairouz, Peter; Chen, Xiao; Sankar, Lalitha; Rajagopal, Ram

    2017-12-01

    Preserving the utility of published datasets while simultaneously providing provable privacy guarantees is a well-known challenge. On the one hand, context-free privacy solutions, such as differential privacy, provide strong privacy guarantees, but often lead to a significant reduction in utility. On the other hand, context-aware privacy solutions, such as information theoretic privacy, achieve an improved privacy-utility tradeoff, but assume that the data holder has access to dataset statistics. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a novel context-aware privacy framework called generative adversarial privacy (GAP). GAP leverages recent advancements in generative adversarial networks (GANs) to allow the data holder to learn privatization schemes from the dataset itself. Under GAP, learning the privacy mechanism is formulated as a constrained minimax game between two players: a privatizer that sanitizes the dataset in a way that limits the risk of inference attacks on the individuals' private variables, and an adversary that tries to infer the private variables from the sanitized dataset. To evaluate GAP's performance, we investigate two simple (yet canonical) statistical dataset models: (a) the binary data model, and (b) the binary Gaussian mixture model. For both models, we derive game-theoretically optimal minimax privacy mechanisms, and show that the privacy mechanisms learned from data (in a generative adversarial fashion) match the theoretically optimal ones. This demonstrates that our framework can be easily applied in practice, even in the absence of dataset statistics.

  7. Context-Aware Generative Adversarial Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preserving the utility of published datasets while simultaneously providing provable privacy guarantees is a well-known challenge. On the one hand, context-free privacy solutions, such as differential privacy, provide strong privacy guarantees, but often lead to a significant reduction in utility. On the other hand, context-aware privacy solutions, such as information theoretic privacy, achieve an improved privacy-utility tradeoff, but assume that the data holder has access to dataset statistics. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a novel context-aware privacy framework called generative adversarial privacy (GAP. GAP leverages recent advancements in generative adversarial networks (GANs to allow the data holder to learn privatization schemes from the dataset itself. Under GAP, learning the privacy mechanism is formulated as a constrained minimax game between two players: a privatizer that sanitizes the dataset in a way that limits the risk of inference attacks on the individuals’ private variables, and an adversary that tries to infer the private variables from the sanitized dataset. To evaluate GAP’s performance, we investigate two simple (yet canonical statistical dataset models: (a the binary data model; and (b the binary Gaussian mixture model. For both models, we derive game-theoretically optimal minimax privacy mechanisms, and show that the privacy mechanisms learned from data (in a generative adversarial fashion match the theoretically optimal ones. This demonstrates that our framework can be easily applied in practice, even in the absence of dataset statistics.

  8. A model of face selection in viewing video stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yuki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    When typical adults watch TV programs, they show surprisingly stereo-typed gaze behaviours, as indicated by the almost simultaneous shifts of their gazes from one face to another. However, a standard saliency model based on low-level physical features alone failed to explain such typical gaze behaviours. To find rules that explain the typical gaze behaviours, we examined temporo-spatial gaze patterns in adults while they viewed video clips with human characters that were played with or without sound, and in the forward or reverse direction. We here show the following: 1) the “peak” face scanpath, which followed the face that attracted the largest number of views but ignored other objects in the scene, still retained the key features of actual scanpaths, 2) gaze behaviours remained unchanged whether the sound was provided or not, 3) the gaze behaviours were sensitive to time reversal, and 4) nearly 60% of the variance of gaze behaviours was explained by the face saliency that was defined as a function of its size, novelty, head movements, and mouth movements. These results suggest that humans share a face-oriented network that integrates several visual features of multiple faces, and directs our eyes to the most salient face at each moment. PMID:25597621

  9. A time-varying subjective quality model for mobile streaming videos with stalling events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C.

    2015-09-01

    Over-the-top mobile video streaming is invariably influenced by volatile network conditions which cause playback interruptions (stalling events), thereby impairing users' quality of experience (QoE). Developing models that can accurately predict users' QoE could enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for video streaming networks that reduce network operational costs while still delivering high-quality video content to the customers. Existing objective models that predict QoE are based on global video features, such as the number of stall events and their lengths, and are trained and validated on a small pool of ad hoc video datasets, most of which are not publicly available. The model we propose in this work goes beyond previous models as it also accounts for the fundamental effect that a viewer's recent level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction has on their overall viewing experience. In other words, the proposed model accounts for and adapts to the recency, or hysteresis effect caused by a stall event in addition to accounting for the lengths, frequency of occurrence, and the positions of stall events - factors that interact in a complex way to affect a user's QoE. On the recently introduced LIVE-Avvasi Mobile Video Database, which consists of 180 distorted videos of varied content that are afflicted solely with over 25 unique realistic stalling events, we trained and validated our model to accurately predict the QoE, attaining standout QoE prediction performance.

  10. Adaptive Noise Model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video using Clustering of DCT Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The noise model is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of Distributed Video Coding. This paper proposes a novel noise model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding by using clustering of DCT blocks. The clustering algorithm takes advantage of the residual...... information of all frequency bands, iteratively classifies blocks into different categories and estimates the noise parameter in each category. The experimental results show that the coding performance of the proposed cluster level noise model is competitive with state-ofthe- art coefficient level noise...... modelling. Furthermore, the proposed cluster level noise model is adaptively combined with a coefficient level noise model in this paper to robustly improve coding performance of TDWZ video codec up to 1.24 dB (by Bjøntegaard metric) compared to the DISCOVER TDWZ video codec....

  11. Improved virtual channel noise model for transform domain Wyner-Ziv video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) has been proposed as a new video coding paradigm to deal with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. A virtual channel noise model is utilized at the decoder to estimate...... the noise distribution between the side information frame and the original frame. This is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of DVC. Noise models with different granularity have been proposed. In this paper, an improved noise model for transform domain Wyner-Ziv video...

  12. Live streaming video for medical education: a laboratory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandsas, Alejandro; McIntire, Katherine; Palli, Guillermo; Park, Adrian

    2002-10-01

    At the University of Kentucky (UK), we applied streaming video technology to develop a webcast model that will allow institutions to broadcast live and prerecorded surgeries, conferences, and courses in real time over networks (the Internet or an intranet). We successfully broadcast a prerecorded laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair to domestic and international clients by using desktop computers equipped with off-the-shelf, streaming-enabled software and standard hardware and operating systems. A web-based user interface made accessing the educational material as simple as a mouse click and allowed clients to participate in the broadcast event via an embedded e-mail/chat module. Three client computers (two connected to the Internet and a third connected to the UK intranet) requested and displayed the surgical film by means of seven common network connection configurations. Significantly, no difference in image resolution was detected with the use of a connection speed faster than 128 kilobytes per second (kbps). At this connection speed, an average bandwidth of 32.7 kbps was used, and although a 15-second delay was experienced from the time of data request to data display, the surgical film streamed continuously from beginning to end at a mean rate of 14.4 frames per second (fps). The clients easily identified all anatomic structures in full color motion, clearly followed all steps of the surgical procedure, and successfully asked questions and made comments by using the e-mail/chat module while viewing the surgery. With minimal financial investment, we have created an interactive virtual classroom with the potential to attract a global audience. Our webcast model represents a simple and practical method for institutions to supplement undergraduate and graduate surgical education and offer continuing medical education credits in a way that is convenient for clients (surgeons, students, residents, others). In the future, physicians may access streaming webcast

  13. Examining human behavior in video games: The development of a computational model to measure aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard; Hoston, Douglas; Shapiro, Marina; Matthews, Benjamin

    2017-04-24

    Video games with violent content have raised considerable concern in popular media and within academia. Recently, there has been considerable attention regarding the claim of the relationship between aggression and video game play. The authors of this study propose the use of a new class of tools developed via computational models to allow examination of the question of whether there is a relationship between violent video games and aggression. The purpose of this study is to computationally model and compare the General Aggression Model with the Diathesis Mode of Aggression related to the play of violent content in video games. A secondary purpose is to provide a method of measuring and examining individual aggression arising from video game play. Total participants examined for this study are N = 1065. This study occurs in three phases. Phase 1 is the development and quantification of the profile combination of traits via latent class profile analysis. Phase 2 is the training of the artificial neural network. Phase 3 is the comparison of each model as a computational model with and without the presence of video game violence. Results suggest that a combination of environmental factors and genetic predispositions trigger aggression related to video games.

  14. Using video modeling with substitutable loops to teach varied play to children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Sally; MacDonald, Rebecca P F; Ahearn, William H

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism often engage in repetitive play with little variation in the actions performed or items used. This study examined the use of video modeling with scripted substitutable loops on children's pretend play with trained and untrained characters. Three young children with autism were shown a video model of scripted toy play that included a substitutable loop that allowed various characters to perform the same actions and vocalizations. Three characters were modeled with the substitutable loop during training sessions, and 3 additional characters were present in the video but never modeled. Following video modeling, all the participants incorporated untrained characters into their play, but the extent to which they did so varied. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Partitioning-based mechanisms under personalized differential privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Xiong, Li; Ji, Zhanglong; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    Differential privacy has recently emerged in private statistical aggregate analysis as one of the strongest privacy guarantees. A limitation of the model is that it provides the same privacy protection for all individuals in the database. However, it is common that data owners may have different privacy preferences for their data. Consequently, a global differential privacy parameter may provide excessive privacy protection for some users, while insufficient for others. In this paper, we propose two partitioning-based mechanisms, privacy-aware and utility-based partitioning, to handle personalized differential privacy parameters for each individual in a dataset while maximizing utility of the differentially private computation. The privacy-aware partitioning is to minimize the privacy budget waste, while utility-based partitioning is to maximize the utility for a given aggregate analysis. We also develop a t-round partitioning to take full advantage of remaining privacy budgets. Extensive experiments using real datasets show the effectiveness of our partitioning mechanisms.

  16. Modeling the time--varying subjective quality of HTTP video streams with rate adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C

    2014-05-01

    Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.

  17. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment Model for Distortion Caused by Packet Loss in the Real-Time Mobile Video Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet loss will make severe errors due to the corruption of related video data. For most video streams, because the predictive coding structures are employed, the transmission errors in one frame will not only cause decoding failure of itself at the receiver side, but also propagate to its subsequent frames along the motion prediction path, which will bring a significant degradation of end-to-end video quality. To quantify the effects of packet loss on video quality, a no-reference objective quality assessment model is presented in this paper. Considering the fact that the degradation of video quality significantly relies on the video content, the temporal complexity is estimated to reflect the varying characteristic of video content, using the macroblocks with different motion activities in each frame. Then, the quality of the frame affected by the reference frame loss, by error propagation, or by both of them is evaluated, respectively. Utilizing a two-level temporal pooling scheme, the video quality is finally obtained. Extensive experimental results show that the video quality estimated by the proposed method matches well with the subjective quality.

  18. Bayesian Modeling of Temporal Coherence in Videos for Entity Discovery and Summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Adway; Biswas, Soma; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib

    2017-03-01

    A video is understood by users in terms of entities present in it. Entity Discovery is the task of building appearance model for each entity (e.g., a person), and finding all its occurrences in the video. We represent a video as a sequence of tracklets, each spanning 10-20 frames, and associated with one entity. We pose Entity Discovery as tracklet clustering, and approach it by leveraging Temporal Coherence (TC): the property that temporally neighboring tracklets are likely to be associated with the same entity. Our major contributions are the first Bayesian nonparametric models for TC at tracklet-level. We extend Chinese Restaurant Process (CRP) to TC-CRP, and further to Temporally Coherent Chinese Restaurant Franchise (TC-CRF) to jointly model entities and temporal segments using mixture components and sparse distributions. For discovering persons in TV serial videos without meta-data like scripts, these methods show considerable improvement over state-of-the-art approaches to tracklet clustering in terms of clustering accuracy, cluster purity and entity coverage. The proposed methods can perform online tracklet clustering on streaming videos unlike existing approaches, and can automatically reject false tracklets. Finally we discuss entity-driven video summarization- where temporal segments of the video are selected based on the discovered entities, to create a semantically meaningful summary.

  19. A Collaborative Video Sketching Model in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Ørngreen, Rikke; Hautopp, Heidi

    The literature on design research emphasizes working in iterative cycles that investigate and explore many ideas and alternative designs. However, these cycles are seldom applied or documented in educational research papers. In this paper, we illustrate the development process of a video sketchin...... developing educational theories....

  20. Visual privacy by context: proposal and evaluation of a level-based visualisation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-López, José Ramón; Chaaraoui, Alexandros Andre; Gu, Feng; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2015-06-04

    Privacy in image and video data has become an important subject since cameras are being installed in an increasing number of public and private spaces. Specifically, in assisted living, intelligent monitoring based on computer vision can allow one to provide risk detection and support services that increase people's autonomy at home. In the present work, a level-based visualisation scheme is proposed to provide visual privacy when human intervention is necessary, such as at telerehabilitation and safety assessment applications. Visualisation levels are dynamically selected based on the previously modelled context. In this way, different levels of protection can be provided, maintaining the necessary intelligibility required for the applications. Furthermore, a case study of a living room, where a top-view camera is installed, is presented. Finally, the performed survey-based evaluation indicates the degree of protection provided by the different visualisation models, as well as the personal privacy preferences and valuations of the users.

  1. Developing model-making and model-breaking skills using direct measurement video-based activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Matthew; Bohacek, Peter; Militello, Cheryl; Iverson, Ellen

    2017-12-01

    This study focuses on student development of two important laboratory skills in the context of introductory college-level physics. The first skill, which we call model making, is the ability to analyze a phenomenon in a way that produces a quantitative multimodal model. The second skill, which we call model breaking, is the ability to critically evaluate if the behavior of a system is consistent with a given model. This study involved 116 introductory physics students in four different sections, each taught by a different instructor. All of the students within a given class section participated in the same instruction (including labs) with the exception of five activities performed throughout the semester. For those five activities, each class section was split into two groups; one group was scaffolded to focus on model-making skills and the other was scaffolded to focus on model-breaking skills. Both conditions involved direct measurement videos. In some cases, students could vary important experimental parameters within the video like mass, frequency, and tension. Data collected at the end of the semester indicate that students in the model-making treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-making skill despite the fact that both groups shared a common physical lab experience. Likewise, the model-breaking treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-breaking skill. This is important because it shows that direct measurement video-based instruction can help students acquire science-process skills, which are critical for scientists, and which are a key part of current science education approaches such as the Next Generation Science Standards and the Advanced Placement Physics 1 course.

  2. Awareness and Control of Personal Data Based on the Cyber-I Privacy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-Individual (Cyber-I), is a counterpart of Real-Individual (Real-I) in cyberspace. It will gradually approximate to its Real-I and be able to provide better personalized digital services. The accuracy of this approximation is successively improved by continuously acquiring and utilizing personal data or information related to a person. However, the collection, processing and access of sensitive personal data may bring a great privacy problem since people may not like their personal data ...

  3. Public Auditing with Privacy Protection in a Multi-User Model of Cloud-Assisted Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Cui, Jie; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Lu

    2017-05-05

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) are gaining importance in the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). The modern medical system is a particular area where the WBSN techniques are being increasingly adopted for various fundamental operations. Despite such increasing deployments of WBSNs, issues such as the infancy in the size, capabilities and limited data processing capacities of the sensor devices restrain their adoption in resource-demanding applications. Though providing computing and storage supplements from cloud servers can potentially enrich the capabilities of the WBSNs devices, data security is one of the prevailing issues that affects the reliability of cloud-assisted services. Sensitive applications such as modern medical systems demand assurance of the privacy of the users' medical records stored in distant cloud servers. Since it is economically impossible to set up private cloud servers for every client, auditing data security managed in the remote servers has necessarily become an integral requirement of WBSNs' applications relying on public cloud servers. To this end, this paper proposes a novel certificateless public auditing scheme with integrated privacy protection. The multi-user model in our scheme supports groups of users to store and share data, thus exhibiting the potential for WBSNs' deployments within community environments. Furthermore, our scheme enriches user experiences by offering public verifiability, forward security mechanisms and revocation of illegal group members. Experimental evaluations demonstrate the security effectiveness of our proposed scheme under the Random Oracle Model (ROM) by outperforming existing cloud-assisted WBSN models.

  4. Public Auditing with Privacy Protection in a Multi-User Model of Cloud-Assisted Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Cui, Jie; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) are gaining importance in the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). The modern medical system is a particular area where the WBSN techniques are being increasingly adopted for various fundamental operations. Despite such increasing deployments of WBSNs, issues such as the infancy in the size, capabilities and limited data processing capacities of the sensor devices restrain their adoption in resource-demanding applications. Though providing computing and storage supplements from cloud servers can potentially enrich the capabilities of the WBSNs devices, data security is one of the prevailing issues that affects the reliability of cloud-assisted services. Sensitive applications such as modern medical systems demand assurance of the privacy of the users’ medical records stored in distant cloud servers. Since it is economically impossible to set up private cloud servers for every client, auditing data security managed in the remote servers has necessarily become an integral requirement of WBSNs’ applications relying on public cloud servers. To this end, this paper proposes a novel certificateless public auditing scheme with integrated privacy protection. The multi-user model in our scheme supports groups of users to store and share data, thus exhibiting the potential for WBSNs’ deployments within community environments. Furthermore, our scheme enriches user experiences by offering public verifiability, forward security mechanisms and revocation of illegal group members. Experimental evaluations demonstrate the security effectiveness of our proposed scheme under the Random Oracle Model (ROM) by outperforming existing cloud-assisted WBSN models. PMID:28475110

  5. Data privacy foundations, new developments and the big data challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a broad, cohesive overview of the field of data privacy. It discusses, from a technological perspective, the problems and solutions of the three main communities working on data privacy: statistical disclosure control (those with a statistical background), privacy-preserving data mining (those working with data bases and data mining), and privacy-enhancing technologies (those involved in communications and security) communities. Presenting different approaches, the book describes alternative privacy models and disclosure risk measures as well as data protection procedures for respondent, holder and user privacy. It also discusses specific data privacy problems and solutions for readers who need to deal with big data.

  6. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  7. Online Video Business Models: YouTube vs. Hulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Artero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los orígenes y el desarrollo de dos de los servicios de vídeo en línea con más éxito en los Estados Unidos: YouTube y Hulu se examinan en este documento. Al mirar ambas historias de negocios, este estudio de caso analiza los diferentes modelos comerciales aplicados, los resultados en términos de tráfico web e ingresos y la perspectiva estratégica para cada una. YouTube desarrolla un modelo que ofrece vídeos gratis a una escala global, pero con peculiaridades locales en los mercados más importantes. Tiene una gran cantidad de videos; sin embargo, en general, son de corta duración y de baja calidad. En la mayoría de los casos, presentados y producidos por los propios usuarios. Esto tiene el potencial para crear problemas tecnológicos (la capacidad de video streaming tendrá que ser de alto rendimiento, dificultades de orden jurídico (posibles infracciones con respecto a contenido protegido o inadecuado y los problemas comerciales (reticencia entre los anunciantes a insertar publicidad en los vídeos de baja calidad. Hulu se concentra en la oferta gratuita de contenido profesional y sólo a escala nacional en los Estados Unidos. La cantidad de videos es menor y, por lo general, de mayor duración y mejor calidad. Los videos son puestos a disposición por los canales y las productoras que posee los derechos. En consecuencia, Hulu enfrenta menos problemas de carácter tecnológico, legal y comercial, pero su marca no es tan conocida, ni tiene el poder de convocatoria de YouTube

  8. Using Video Modeling Delivered through iPods to Teach Vocational Tasks to Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellems, Ryan O.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using video modeling delivered through a Portable media player (video iPod) as a means of teaching three job-related tasks to four young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a community-based employment setting. The videos used in the study were enhanced by adding written…

  9. Deep Learning with Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, Martín; Chu, Andy; Goodfellow, Ian; McMahan, H. Brendan; Mironov, Ilya; Talwar, Kunal; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning techniques based on neural networks are achieving remarkable results in a wide variety of domains. Often, the training of models requires large, representative datasets, which may be crowdsourced and contain sensitive information. The models should not expose private information in these datasets. Addressing this goal, we develop new algorithmic techniques for learning and a refined analysis of privacy costs within the framework of differential privacy. Our implementation and...

  10. Cryptographic framework for analyzing the privacy of recommender algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Recommender algorithms are widely used, ranging from traditional Video on Demand to a wide variety of Web 2.0 services. Unfortunately, the related privacy concerns have not received much attention. In this paper, we study the privacy concerns associated with recommender algorithms and present a

  11. Modeling stepped leaders using a time-dependent multidipole model and high-speed video data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Marshall, Thomas C.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Karunarathna, Nadeeka; Orville, Richard E.

    2015-03-01

    A full negative stepped leader and portions of four negative stepped leaders preceding negative cloud-to-ground lightning return strokes were modeled; each model was constrained to match electric field change measurements recorded at three or four sites located within 30 km of the leader. The time evolution and 2-D locations of stepped leaders were obtained from data collected with a high-speed video camera operated at 50,000 frames/s. The Lu et al. (Charge transfer during intracloud lightning from a time-dependent multidipole model, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2011) time-dependent multidipole model was used with some modifications. The model used a time step equal to one video frame, 20μs. At each time step, negative charges were deposited at stepped leader tips based on measured light intensity, and an equivalent positive charge was deposited at one of the locations of the initial breakdown pulses that preceded the stepped leaders. The method has the unique advantage of obtaining locations of CG stepped leaders including its branches all the way to the ground. Three main quantities were obtained from the model: total charge transfer of -1.50 to -7.51 C, average line charge density of -0.113 to -0.413 mC/m (mean =- 0.196 mC/m), and average current of -0.084 to -0.456 kA (mean =- 0.31 kA). From the video data, the estimated 2-D speeds were 2.43-4.95×105 m/s (mean 3.34 × 105 m/s), and the cumulative lengths of the all branches were 3.5-9.2 times the vertical distance traveled by the visible stepped leader.

  12. Implications of the law on video recording in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henken, K.R.; Jansen, F.W.; Klein, J.; Stassen, L.P.S.; Dankelman, J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear

  13. A Realistic Coverage Model with Backup Set Computation for Wireless Video Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay S Ukani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Video Sensor Network (WVSN are gaining increasing popularity due availability of low cost CMOS camera and miniaturization of hardware. For many applications it is difficult to have pre-engineered deployment of video camera sensors which leads to redundancy. Due to sectored coverage and random deployment, it becomes challenging to model video sensor coverage to identify redundancy and suppress redundant video transmission. Several efforts have been made to model coverage redundancy considering 2-dimensional coverage. Field of View (FoV of the camera sensor is in 3-dimensions, thus it is very difficult to model the coverage and identify overlap area for realistic camera. 3-dimensional coverage is largely an unexplored problem. In this paper, a realistic 3-dimensional pyramid camera coverage is assumed and backup set of nodes are computed. Backup set of a node is a set of video sensor nodes which collectively covers coverage area of the node under consideration. The approach presented in the paper identifies minimal sized set of backup nodes which can be used to adaptively duty cycle the video capture and transmission. The result shows that number of nodes required to remain active to cover the sensor field is reduced and in turn average energy consumption of the network also reduces.

  14. Learning Computational Models of Video Memorability from fMRI Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junwei; Chen, Changyuan; Shao, Ling; Hu, Xintao; Han, Jungong; Liu, Tianming

    2015-08-01

    Generally, various visual media are unequally memorable by the human brain. This paper looks into a new direction of modeling the memorability of video clips and automatically predicting how memorable they are by learning from brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We propose a novel computational framework by integrating the power of low-level audiovisual features and brain activity decoding via fMRI. Initially, a user study experiment is performed to create a ground truth database for measuring video memorability and a set of effective low-level audiovisual features is examined in this database. Then, human subjects' brain fMRI data are obtained when they are watching the video clips. The fMRI-derived features that convey the brain activity of memorizing videos are extracted using a universal brain reference system. Finally, due to the fact that fMRI scanning is expensive and time-consuming, a computational model is learned on our benchmark dataset with the objective of maximizing the correlation between the low-level audiovisual features and the fMRI-derived features using joint subspace learning. The learned model can then automatically predict the memorability of videos without fMRI scans. Evaluations on publically available image and video databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  15. Video modelling and reducing anxiety related to dental injections - a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Namankany, A; Petrie, A; Ashley, P

    2014-06-01

    This study was part of a successfully completed PhD and was presented at the IADR/AADR General Session (2013) in Seattle, Washington, USA. The report of this clinical trial conforms to the CONSORT statement. A randomised controlled trial to investigate if video modelling can influence a child's anxiety before the administration of local anaesthesia (LA). A sample of 180 (6- to 12-year-old) children due to have dental treatments under LA were randomly allocated to the modelling video or the control video (oral hygiene instruction). The level of anxiety was recorded before and after watching the video on the Abeer Children Dental Anxiety Scale (ACDAS) and the child's ability to cope with the subsequent procedure was assessed on the visual analogue scale (VAS). A two group chi-square test was used as the basis for the sample size calculation; a significance level of 0.025 was chosen rather than the conventional 0.05 to avoid spurious results arising from multiple testing. Children in the test group had significantly less anxiety after watching the video than children in the control group throughout the subsequent dental procedure; in particular at the time of the LA administration (p Video modelling appeared to be effective at reducing dental anxiety and has a significant impact on needle phobia in children.

  16. Protecting Children's Online Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresses, Mamie

    2001-01-01

    Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

  17. Immersive video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  18. Operational prediction of rip currents using numerical model and nearshore bathymetry from video images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, L.; Van Ormondt, M.; Van Dongeren, A. R.; Roelvink, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    Rip currents are one of the most dangerous coastal hazards for swimmers. In order to minimize the risk, a coastal operational-process based-model system can be utilized in order to provide forecast of nearshore waves and currents that may endanger beach goers. In this paper, an operational model for rip current prediction by utilizing nearshore bathymetry obtained from video image technique is demonstrated. For the nearshore scale model, XBeach1 is used with which tidal currents, wave induced currents (including the effect of the wave groups) can be simulated simultaneously. Up-to-date bathymetry will be obtained using video images technique, cBathy 2. The system will be tested for the Egmond aan Zee beach, located in the northern part of the Dutch coastline. This paper will test the applicability of bathymetry obtained from video technique to be used as input for the numerical modelling system by comparing simulation results using surveyed bathymetry and model results using video bathymetry. Results show that the video technique is able to produce bathymetry converging towards the ground truth observations. This bathymetry validation will be followed by an example of operational forecasting type of simulation on predicting rip currents. Rip currents flow fields simulated over measured and modeled bathymetries are compared in order to assess the performance of the proposed forecast system.

  19. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  20. Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure...

  1. Big data privacy: The datafication of personal information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the age of big data we need to think differently about privacy. We need to shift our thinking from definitions of privacy (characteristics of privacy) to models of privacy (how privacy works). Moreover, in addition to the existing models of privacy—the surveillance model and capture model....... This broadened approach will take our thinking beyond current preoccupation with whether or not individuals’ consent was secured for data collection to privacy issues arising from the development of new information on individuals' likely behavior through analysis of already collected data—this new information......—we need to also consider a new model: the datafication model presented in this article, wherein new personal information is deduced by employing predictive analytics on already-gathered data. These three models of privacy supplement each other; they are not competing understandings of privacy...

  2. Quantifying Differential Privacy under Temporal Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Xiao, Yonghui; Xiong, Li

    2017-01-01

    Differential Privacy (DP) has received increasing attention as a rigorous privacy framework. Many existing studies employ traditional DP mechanisms (e.g., the Laplace mechanism) as primitives, which assume that the data are independent, or that adversaries do not have knowledge of the data correlations. However, continuous generated data in the real world tend to be temporally correlated, and such correlations can be acquired by adversaries. In this paper, we investigate the potential privacy loss of a traditional DP mechanism under temporal correlations in the context of continuous data release. First, we model the temporal correlations using Markov model and analyze the privacy leakage of a DP mechanism when adversaries have knowledge of such temporal correlations. Our analysis reveals that the privacy loss of a DP mechanism may accumulate and increase over time. We call it temporal privacy leakage. Second, to measure such privacy loss, we design an efficient algorithm for calculating it in polynomial time. Although the temporal privacy leakage may increase over time, we also show that its supremum may exist in some cases. Third, to bound the privacy loss, we propose mechanisms that convert any existing DP mechanism into one against temporal privacy leakage. Experiments with synthetic data confirm that our approach is efficient and effective. PMID:28883711

  3. Quantifying Differential Privacy under Temporal Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Xiao, Yonghui; Xiong, Li

    2017-04-01

    Differential Privacy (DP) has received increasing attention as a rigorous privacy framework. Many existing studies employ traditional DP mechanisms (e.g., the Laplace mechanism) as primitives, which assume that the data are independent, or that adversaries do not have knowledge of the data correlations. However, continuous generated data in the real world tend to be temporally correlated, and such correlations can be acquired by adversaries. In this paper, we investigate the potential privacy loss of a traditional DP mechanism under temporal correlations in the context of continuous data release. First, we model the temporal correlations using Markov model and analyze the privacy leakage of a DP mechanism when adversaries have knowledge of such temporal correlations. Our analysis reveals that the privacy loss of a DP mechanism may accumulate and increase over time. We call it temporal privacy leakage. Second, to measure such privacy loss, we design an efficient algorithm for calculating it in polynomial time. Although the temporal privacy leakage may increase over time, we also show that its supremum may exist in some cases. Third, to bound the privacy loss, we propose mechanisms that convert any existing DP mechanism into one against temporal privacy leakage. Experiments with synthetic data confirm that our approach is efficient and effective.

  4. Integrating Illumination, Motion, and Shape Models for Robust Face Recognition in Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyur Patel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of video sequences for face recognition has been relatively less studied compared to image-based approaches. In this paper, we present an analysis-by-synthesis framework for face recognition from video sequences that is robust to large changes in facial pose and lighting conditions. This requires tracking the video sequence, as well as recognition algorithms that are able to integrate information over the entire video; we address both these problems. Our method is based on a recently obtained theoretical result that can integrate the effects of motion, lighting, and shape in generating an image using a perspective camera. This result can be used to estimate the pose and structure of the face and the illumination conditions for each frame in a video sequence in the presence of multiple point and extended light sources. We propose a new inverse compositional estimation approach for this purpose. We then synthesize images using the face model estimated from the training data corresponding to the conditions in the probe sequences. Similarity between the synthesized and the probe images is computed using suitable distance measurements. The method can handle situations where the pose and lighting conditions in the training and testing data are completely disjoint. We show detailed performance analysis results and recognition scores on a large video dataset.

  5. Attention to the model's face when learning from video modeling examples in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wermeskerken (Margot); Grimmius, B. (Bianca); T. van Gog (Tamara)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the effects of seeing the instructor's (i.e., the model's) face in video modeling examples on students' attention and their learning outcomes. Research with university students suggested that the model's face attracts students' attention away from what the model is doing,

  6. A model linking video gaming, sleep quality, sweet drinks consumption and obesity among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, O; Romashkin, A; Morrison, K M

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing need to curb paediatric obesity. The aim of this study is to untangle associations between video-game-use attributes and obesity as a first step towards identifying and examining possible interventions. Cross-sectional time-lagged cohort study was employed using parent-child surveys (t1) and objective physical activity and physiological measures (t2) from 125 children/adolescents (mean age = 13.06, 9-17-year-olds) who play video games, recruited from two clinics at a Canadian academic children's hospital. Structural equation modelling and analysis of covariance were employed for inference. The results of the study are as follows: (i) self-reported video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime is related to greater abdominal adiposity (waist-to-height ratio) and this association may be mediated through reduced sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index); and (ii) self-reported average video-game session duration is associated with greater abdominal adiposity and this association may be mediated through higher self-reported sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and reduced sleep quality. Video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime, typical video-game session duration, sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and poor sleep quality have aversive associations with abdominal adiposity. Paediatricians and researchers should further explore how these factors can be altered through behavioural or pharmacological interventions as a means to reduce paediatric obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Does a video displaying a stair climbing model increase stair use in a worksite setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, L; Van Hoecke, A-S; Octaef, A; Boen, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. Intervention study. Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator. The interventions took place in two buildings. The implementation of the interventions varied between these buildings and the sequence was reversed. Improving the visibility of the stairs increased both stair climbing (+6%) and descending stair use (+7%) compared with baseline. Sending the video by email yielded no additional effect on stair use. By contrast, displaying the video at the POC increased stair climbing in both buildings by 12.5% on average. One week after the intervention, the positive effects on stair climbing remained in one of the buildings, but not in the other. These findings suggest that improving the visibility of the stairwell and displaying a stair climbing model on a screen at the POC can result in a short-term increase in both climbing and descending stair use. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Use of Video Modeling via a Video iPod and a System of Least Prompts to Improve Transitional Behaviors for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David; Fahrenkrog, Cynthia; Ayres, Kevin M.; Smith, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of video modeling delivered via a handheld device (video iPod) and the use of the system of least prompts to assist elementary-age students with transitioning between locations and activities within the school. Four students with autism learned to manipulate a handheld device to watch video models. An ABAB…

  9. Model-based video segmentation for vision-augmented interactive games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lurng-Kuo

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an architecture and algorithms for model based video object segmentation and its applications to vision augmented interactive game. We are especially interested in real time low cost vision based applications that can be implemented in software in a PC. We use different models for background and a player object. The object segmentation algorithm is performed in two different levels: pixel level and object level. At pixel level, the segmentation algorithm is formulated as a maximizing a posteriori probability (MAP) problem. The statistical likelihood of each pixel is calculated and used in the MAP problem. Object level segmentation is used to improve segmentation quality by utilizing the information about the spatial and temporal extent of the object. The concept of an active region, which is defined based on motion histogram and trajectory prediction, is introduced to indicate the possibility of a video object region for both background and foreground modeling. It also reduces the overall computation complexity. In contrast with other applications, the proposed video object segmentation system is able to create background and foreground models on the fly even without introductory background frames. Furthermore, we apply different rate of self-tuning on the scene model so that the system can adapt to the environment when there is a scene change. We applied the proposed video object segmentation algorithms to several prototype virtual interactive games. In our prototype vision augmented interactive games, a player can immerse himself/herself inside a game and can virtually interact with other animated characters in a real time manner without being constrained by helmets, gloves, special sensing devices, or background environment. The potential applications of the proposed algorithms including human computer gesture interface and object based video coding such as MPEG-4 video coding.

  10. Praćenje cilja pomoću video senzora primenom estimatora sa više modela / Target tracking by video sensor with multiple model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav Ugarak

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available U radu je opisan matematički model praćenja cilja na osnovu određivanja uglova i daljine cilja obradom video snimaka u toku praćenja. Izvršena je sinteza višemodelskog (MM estimatora stanja na bazi Kalmanovih filtera i utvrđena tačnost estimacije i predikcije kretanja cilja na konkretnom primeru. / This paper presents mathematical model of target tracking based on angle and target range determination by analyzing video frames during the tracking. The multiple model approach is performed using Kalman filter, and estimation and target motion prediction accuracy is determined using concrete example.

  11. Privacy og selvbeskrivelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengaard, Hans Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse......En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse...

  12. The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Beth T; Lawton, Rebecca; Dittmar, Helga

    2007-06-01

    Music videos are a particularly influential, new form of mass media for adolescents, which include the depiction of scantily clad female models whose bodies epitomise the ultra-thin sociocultural ideal for young women. The present study is the first exposure experiment that examines the impact of thin models in music videos on the body dissatisfaction of 16-19-year-old adolescent girls (n=87). First, participants completed measures of positive and negative affect, body image, and self-esteem. Under the guise of a memory experiment, they then either watched three music videos, listened to three songs (from the videos), or learned a list of words. Affect and body image were assessed afterwards. In contrast to the music listening and word-learning conditions, girls who watched the music videos reported significantly elevated scores on an adaptation of the Body Image States Scale after exposure, indicating increased body dissatisfaction. Self-esteem was not found to be a significant moderator of this relationship. Implications and future research are discussed.

  13. Privacy vs security

    CERN Document Server

    Stalla-Bourdillon, Sophie; Ryan, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Securing privacy in the current environment is one of the great challenges of today's democracies. Privacy vs. Security explores the issues of privacy and security and their complicated interplay, from a legal and a technical point of view. Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon provides a thorough account of the legal underpinnings of the European approach to privacy and examines their implementation through privacy, data protection and data retention laws. Joshua Philips and Mark D. Ryan focus on the technological aspects of privacy, in particular, on today's attacks on privacy by the simple use of today'

  14. Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.

  15. Incentivizing Verifiable Privacy-Protection Mechanisms for Offline Crowdsensing Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiajun Sun; Ningzhong Liu

    2017-01-01

    .... In this paper, we investigate offline verifiable privacy-protection crowdsensing issues. We firstly present a general verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline homogeneous and heterogeneous sensing job model...

  16. Moderating factors of video-modeling with other as model: a meta-analysis of single-case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rose A; Ganz, Jennifer B; Parker, Richard I; Burke, Mack D; Camargo, Siglia P

    2012-01-01

    Video modeling with other as model (VMO) is a more practical method for implementing video-based modeling techniques, such as video self-modeling, which requires significantly more editing. Despite this, identification of contextual factors such as participant characteristics and targeted outcomes that moderate the effectiveness of VMO has not previously been explored. The purpose of this study was to meta-analytically evaluate the evidence base of VMO with individuals with disabilities to determine if participant characteristics and targeted outcomes moderate the effectiveness of the intervention. Findings indicate that VMO is highly effective for participants with autism spectrum disorder (IRD=.83) and moderately effective for participants with developmental disabilities (IRD=.68). However, differential effects are indicated across levels of moderators for diagnoses and targeted outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pedagogical models for video communication in massive open on-line courses (MOOCs: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amata Garito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiatives on MOOCs promoted in the United States by prestigious universities, such as Stanford, Harvard, MIT, and by private bodies such as Udacity, aroused great interest worldwide; however the teaching and learning models proposed with MOOCs do not appear to rely on solid theoretical bases and, therefore, on valuable psycho-pedagogical models. The aim of this paper is to analyze some pedagogical aspects related to video communication models in order to highlight the strong and weak points of the educational framework of these initiatives. The teaching models adopted by the International Telematic University UNINETTUNO for its video lessons, the distance assessment systems, the teacher/tutor and student distance interaction models reached such a quality level that it allows us to generalize this model and trigger teaching and learning processes of high quality and to lower the dropouts rates of the students enrolled in MOOCs.

  18. Use of Video Modeling to Teach Vocational Skills to Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith D.; Wallace, Dustin P.; Renes, Diana; Bowen, Scott L.; Burke, Ray V.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a collaborative project between a University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities and a local private business, we examined the effects of video modeling to teach vocational skills to four adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Video modeling was used to teach the participants to wear a WalkAround[R]…

  19. Energy expenditure during tennis play: a preliminary video analysis and metabolic model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Florent; Hautier, Christophe; Eclache, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate, using video analysis, what proportion of the total energy expenditure during a tennis match is accounted for by aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively. The method proposed involved estimating the metabolic power (MP) of 5 activities, which are inherent to tennis: walking, running, hitting the ball, serving, and sitting down to rest. The energy expenditure concerned was calculated by sequencing the activity by video analysis. A bioenergetic model calculated the aerobic energy expenditure (EEO2mod) in terms of MP, and the anaerobic energy expenditure was calculated by subtracting this (MP - EEO2mod). Eight tennis players took part in the experiment as subjects (mean ± SD: age 25.2 ± 1.9 years, weight 79.3 ± 10.8 kg, VO2max 54.4 ± 5.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The players started off by participating in 2 games while wearing the K4b2, with their activity profile measured by the video analysis system, and then by playing a set without equipment but with video analysis. There was no significant difference between calculated and measured oxygen consumptions over the 16 games (p = 0.763), and these data were strongly related (r = 0.93, p method provided a good estimation of aerobic energy expenditure and made it possible to calculate the anaerobic energy expenditure. This could make it possible to estimate the metabolic intensity of training sessions and matches using video analysis.

  20. Impulsivity, self-regulation,and pathological video gaming among youth: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Albert K; Neo, Eng Chuan; Gentile, Douglas A; Choo, Hyekyung; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline

    2015-03-01

    Given the potential negative mental health consequences of pathological video gaming, understanding its etiology may lead to useful treatment developments. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of impulsive and regulatory processes on pathological video gaming. Study 1 involved 2154 students from 6 primary and 4 secondary schools in Singapore. Study 2 involved 191 students from 2 secondary schools. The results of study 1 and study 2 supported the hypothesis that self-regulation is a mediator between impulsivity and pathological video gaming. Specifically, higher levels of impulsivity was related to lower levels of self-regulation, which in turn was related to higher levels of pathological video gaming. The use of impulsivity and self-regulation in predicting pathological video gaming supports the dual-system model of incorporating both impulsive and reflective systems in the prediction of self-control outcomes. The study highlights the development of self-regulatory resources as a possible avenue for future prevention and treatment research. © 2011 APJPH.

  1. Maintaining Vocational Skills of Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities through Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laarhoven, Toni; Winiarski, Lauren; Blood, Erika; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A modified pre/posttest control group design was used to measure the effectiveness of video modeling on the maintenance of vocational tasks for six students with autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental disabilities. Each student was assigned two vocational tasks at their employment settings and their independence with each task was measured…

  2. Video Modeling: A Visually Based Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Cook, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    Visually based interventions such as video modeling have been demonstrated to be effective with students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This approach has wide utility, is appropriate for use with students of a range of ages and abilities, promotes independent functioning, and can be used to address numerous learner objectives, including…

  3. Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism through Video Modeling: Small Group Arrangement and Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Arzu; Batu, Sema; Birkan, Binyamin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine if video modeling was an effective way of teaching sociodramatic play skills to individuals with autism in a small group arrangement. Besides maintenance, observational learning and social validation data were collected. Three 9 year old boys with autism participated in the study. Multiple probe…

  4. Video Modeling to Teach Social Safety Skills to Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Corrine E.; Mechling, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling with a constant time delay procedure to teach social safety skills to three young women with intellectual disability. A multiple probe design across three social safety skills (responding to strangers who: requested personal information; requested money; and entered the participant's…

  5. Compositional Models for Video Event Detection: A Multiple Kernel Learning Latent Variable Approach (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    cate- gory in Fig. 1. This video contains segments focusing on the snowboard , the person jumping, is shot in an outdoor, ski-resort scene, and has fast... snowboard trick, but is unlikely to include all three. Grouping segments into their relevant scene types can improve recognition. Fi- nally, the model must

  6. The Effects of Video Modeling on Skill Acquisition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffer, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of a video modeling procedure on a basic math skill acquisition in students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using a multiple probe across students design. Participants were four kindergarten/first grade students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. All met the criteria for ASD…

  7. Increasing Independence in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Video Self Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucalos, Julie Iberer

    2013-01-01

    Independent task completion was examined using a multiple probe across participants research design for three students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) functioning in an inclusive classroom. Results were positive and suggest that video self-modeling (VSM) is a viable solution to decrease prompt dependence and increase independence and task…

  8. Effectiveness of Teaching Naming Facial Expression to Children with Autism via Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmanoglu, Nurgul

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of teaching naming emotional facial expression via video modeling to children with autism. Teaching the naming of emotions (happy, sad, scared, disgusted, surprised, feeling physical pain, and bored) was made by creating situations that lead to the emergence of facial expressions to children…

  9. Using Video Modeling to Teach Children with PDD-NOS to Respond to Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…

  10. Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the

  11. Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010, August). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial of Video Self-Modeling Following Speech Restructuring Treatment for Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cream, Angela; O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Harrison, Elisabeth; Lincoln, Michelle; Hewat, Sally; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated the efficacy of video self-modeling (VSM) following speech restructuring treatment to improve the maintenance of treatment effects. Method: The design was an open-plan, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Participants were 89 adults and adolescents who undertook intensive speech…

  13. The Impact of Video Modelling on Improving Social Skills in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzyoudi, Mohammed; Sartawi, AbedAlziz; Almuhiri, Osha

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism often show a lack of the interactive social skills that would allow them to engage with others successfully. They therefore frequently need training to aid them in successful social interaction. Video modelling is a widely used instructional technique that has been applied to teach children with developmental disabilities such…

  14. The Impact of Video Modeling on Improving Social Skills in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzyoudi, Mohammed; Sartawi, AbedAlziz; Almuhiri, Osha

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism often show a lack of the interactive social skills that would allow them to engage with others successfully. They therefore frequently need training to aid them in successful social interaction. Video modeling is a widely used instructional technique that has been applied to teach children with developmental disabilities such…

  15. Use of Video Modeling to Teach Developmentally Appropriate Play with Korean American Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Given the increased number of students with disabilities who have culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in the United States, there has been growing attention to the cultural responsiveness of evidence-based behavioral interventions. The current study examined the effects of video modeling intervention on social play and interactions…

  16. Video Modeling and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Survey of Caregiver Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.; Guimond, Amy; Smith-Treadwell, Amanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Video modeling (VM) has shown promise as an effective intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, little is known about what may promote or prevent caregivers' use of this intervention. While VM is an effective tool to support skill development among a wide range of children in research and clinical settings, VM is…

  17. Evaluating Video Self-Modeling Treatment Outcomes: Differentiating between Statistically and Clinically Significant Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spata, Michelle G.; Carter, Christopher W.; Johnson, Wendi L.; McGill, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of video self-modeling (VSM) for reducing externalizing behaviors (e.g., aggression, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) observed within the classroom environment. After identification of relevant target behaviors, VSM interventions were developed for first and second grade students (N = 4),…

  18. A Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Tracking in Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2016-10-25

    Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face clustering and face tracking from real world videos. The motivation for the proposed research is that face clustering and face tracking can provide useful information and constraints to each other, thus can bootstrap and improve the performances of each other. To this end, we introduce a Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field (CHMRF) to simultaneously model face clustering, face tracking, and their interactions. We provide an effective algorithm based on constrained clustering and optimal tracking for the joint optimization of cluster labels and face tracking. We demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art results in face clustering and tracking on several videos.

  19. A Model School Facility for Energy (with Related Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Seth; Crutchfield, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Energy modeling can be a powerful tool for managing energy-reduction concepts for an institution. Different types of energy models are developed at various stages of a project to provide data that can verify or disprove suggested energy-efficiency measures. Education institutions should understand what an energy model can do and, more important,…

  20. Conceptual Model for the Design of a Serious Video Game Promoting Self-Management among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Video games are a popular form of entertainment. Serious video games for health attempt to use entertainment to promote health behavior change. When designed within a framework informed by behavioral science and supported by commercial game-design principles, serious video games for health have the potential to be an effective method for promoting self-management behaviors among youth with diabetes. This article presents a conceptual model of how this may be achieved. It concludes by identify...

  1. Stochastic modeling of soundtrack for efficient segmentation and indexing of video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphade, Milind R.; Huang, Thomas S.

    1999-12-01

    Tools for efficient and intelligent management of digital content are essential for digital video data management. An extremely challenging research area in this context is that of multimedia analysis and understanding. The capabilities of audio analysis in particular for video data management are yet to be fully exploited. We present a novel scheme for indexing and segmentation of video by analyzing the audio track. This analysis is then applied to the segmentation and indexing of movies. We build models for some interesting events in the motion picture soundtrack. The models built include music, human speech and silence. We propose the use of hidden Markov models to model the dynamics of the soundtrack and detect audio-events. Using these models we segment and index the soundtrack. A practical problem in motion picture soundtracks is that the audio in the track is of a composite nature. This corresponds to the mixing of sounds from different sources. Speech in foreground and music in background are common examples. The coexistence of multiple individual audio sources forces us to model such events explicitly. Experiments reveal that explicit modeling gives better result than modeling individual audio events separately.

  2. Cognitive Modeling of Video Game Player User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohil, Corey J.; Biocca, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for the use of cognitive modeling to gain a detailed and dynamic look into user experience during game play. Applying cognitive models to game play data can help researchers understand a player's attentional focus, memory status, learning state, and decision strategies (among other things) as these cognitive processes occurred throughout game play. This is a stark contrast to the common approach of trying to assess the long-term impact of games on cognitive functioning after game play has ended. We describe what cognitive models are, what they can be used for and how game researchers could benefit by adopting these methods. We also provide details of a single model - based on decision field theory - that has been successfUlly applied to data sets from memory, perception, and decision making experiments, and has recently found application in real world scenarios. We examine possibilities for applying this model to game-play data.

  3. Change in the game : business model innovation in the video game industry across time

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, Austin; Uhrínová, Bianka

    2017-01-01

    Technological innovation has changed business models across multiple industries – retail (Amazon), taxi (Uber), hotel (Airbnb). Through exploratory research, using secondary data, this thesis describes changes that have occurred in video gaming industry from its creation to the current, modern era that are connected to technological innovation. Based on the current research of business models, the authors created a “Value Creation-Revenue Stream Framework” that they use to anal...

  4. Use of Video Modeling and Video Prompting Interventions for Teaching Daily Living Skills to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Stephanie; Wolfe, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase the independent functioning of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is vital in enhancing their quality of life; teaching students with ASD daily living skills can foster independent functioning. This review examines interventions that implement video modeling and/or prompting to teach individuals with…

  5. Dynamic Privacy Management in Pervasive Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Nan-Wei; Laibowitz, Mathew; Paradiso, Joseph A.

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a dynamic privacy management system aimed at enabling tangible privacy control and feedback in a pervasive sensor network. Our work began with the development of a potentially invasive sensor network (with high resolution video, audio, and motion tracking capabilities) featuring different interactive applications that created incentive for accepting this network as an extension of people's daily social space. A user study was then conducted to evaluate several privacy management approaches - an active badge system for both online and on-site control, on/off power switches for physically disabling the hardware, and touch screen input control. Results from a user study indicated that an active badge for on-site privacy control is the most preferable method among all provided options. We present a set of results that yield insight into the privacy/benefit tradeoff from various sensing capabilities in pervasive sensor networks and how privacy settings and user behavior relate in these environments.

  6. A Clustering Approach for the l-Diversity Model in Privacy Preserving Data Mining Using Fractional Calculus-Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan R. Bhaladhare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In privacy preserving data mining, the l-diversity and k-anonymity models are the most widely used for preserving the sensitive private information of an individual. Out of these two, l-diversity model gives better privacy and lesser information loss as compared to the k-anonymity model. In addition, we observe that numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed in data mining, namely, k-means, PSO, ACO, and BFO. Amongst them, the BFO algorithm is more stable and faster as compared to all others except k-means. However, BFO algorithm suffers from poor convergence behavior as compared to other optimization algorithms. We also observed that the current literature lacks any approaches that apply BFO with l-diversity model to realize privacy preservation in data mining. Motivated by this observation, we propose here an approach that uses fractional calculus (FC in the chemotaxis step of the BFO algorithm. The FC is used to boost the computational performance of the algorithm. We also evaluate our proposed FC-BFO and BFO algorithms empirically, focusing on information loss and execution time as vital metrics. The experimental evaluation shows that our proposed FC-BFO algorithm derives an optimal cluster as compared to the original BFO algorithm and existing clustering algorithms.

  7. Effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations by 3-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video Self-Modeling (VSM) provides individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task beyond their present functioning level through the careful editing of videos. In this study, a single-case multiple-baseline design was used to determine whether VSM would facilitate social initiations across three young children (M = 3 years 10…

  8. Procedures and Compliance of a Video Modeling Applied Behavior Analysis Intervention for Brazilian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiolo, Leila F.; Mari, Jair de J.; Bordini, Daniela; Ribeiro, Tatiane C.; Martone, Maria Carolina C.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Brunoni, Decio; Brentani, Helena; Paula, Cristiane S.

    2017-01-01

    Video modeling using applied behavior analysis techniques is one of the most promising and cost-effective ways to improve social skills for parents with autism spectrum disorder children. The main objectives were: (1) To elaborate/describe videos to improve eye contact and joint attention, and to decrease disruptive behaviors of autism spectrum…

  9. The Global Classroom Video Conferencing Model and First Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin

    2013-01-01

    their exams. Evaluations show that the students are happy with the flexibility this model provides in their everyday life. However, our findings also show several obstacles. Firstly technical issues are at play, but also the learning design of the lessons, as well as general organizational and cultural issues...

  10. Using Video Modeling to Teach Reciprocal Pretend Play to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Sacramone, Shelly; Mansfield, Renee; Wiltz, Kristine; Ahearn, William H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use video modeling to teach children with autism to engage in reciprocal pretend play with typically developing peers. Scripted play scenarios involving various verbalizations and play actions with adults as models were videotaped. Two children with autism were each paired with a typically developing child, and a multiple-probe design across three play sets was used to evaluate the effects of the video modeling procedure. Results indicated that both children with autism and the typically developing peers acquired the sequences of scripted verbalizations and play actions quickly and maintained this performance during follow-up probes. In addition, probes indicated an increase in the mean number of unscripted verbalizations as well as reciprocal verbal interactions and cooperative play. These findings are discussed as they relate to the development of reciprocal pretend-play repertoires in young children with autism. PMID:19721729

  11. Protecting Teachers' Privacy Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ray C.; Hoffman, Darlene Haffner

    2001-01-01

    Addresses concerns about school personnel records and legal precedents regarding privacy. Recommends inclusion in teacher education of content about teachers' privacy rights. Lists fair information practices for schools regarding the accuracy of and access to personnel records. (SK)

  12. Neuroethics and Brain Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology.......An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology....

  13. Random Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Rob; Rinaldo, Alessandro; Wasserman, Larry

    2011-01-01

    We propose a relaxed privacy definition called {\\em random differential privacy} (RDP). Differential privacy requires that adding any new observation to a database will have small effect on the output of the data-release procedure. Random differential privacy requires that adding a {\\em randomly drawn new observation} to a database will have small effect on the output. We show an analog of the composition property of differentially private procedures which applies to our new definition. We sh...

  14. Heterogeneous Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Alaggan, Mohammad; Gambs, Sébastien; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The massive collection of personal data by personalization systems has rendered the preservation of privacy of individuals more and more difficult. Most of the proposed approaches to preserve privacy in personalization systems usually address this issue uniformly across users, thus ignoring the fact that users have different privacy attitudes and expectations (even among their own personal data). In this paper, we propose to account for this non-uniformity of privacy expectations by introduci...

  15. Internet and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fadhli, Meshal Shehab

    2007-01-01

    The concept of privacy is hard to understand and is not easy to define, because this concept is linked with several dimensions. Internet Privacy is associated with the use of the Internet and most likely appointed under communications privacy, involving the user of the Internet’s personal information and activities, and the disclosure of them online. This essay is going to present the meaning of privacy and the implications of it for Internet users. Also, this essay will demonstrate some of t...

  16. Privacy and internet services

    OpenAIRE

    Samec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is focused on internet services user privacy. Goal of this thesis is to determine level of user awareness of how is their privacy approached while using internet services. Then suggest procedure to improve this awareness, or that will lead to better control of individual privacy. In theoretical part I analyze general and legislative approach to privacy, followed by analysis of behaviour of internet service users and providers. Part of this analysis deals with usage of web cookies ...

  17. Multi-modal gesture recognition using integrated model of motion, audio and video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutsu, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Takaki; Obara, Junya; Kusajima, Ikuo; Takeichi, Kazunari; Takano, Wataru; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Gesture recognition is used in many practical applications such as human-robot interaction, medical rehabilitation and sign language. With increasing motion sensor development, multiple data sources have become available, which leads to the rise of multi-modal gesture recognition. Since our previous approach to gesture recognition depends on a unimodal system, it is difficult to classify similar motion patterns. In order to solve this problem, a novel approach which integrates motion, audio and video models is proposed by using dataset captured by Kinect. The proposed system can recognize observed gestures by using three models. Recognition results of three models are integrated by using the proposed framework and the output becomes the final result. The motion and audio models are learned by using Hidden Markov Model. Random Forest which is the video classifier is used to learn the video model. In the experiments to test the performances of the proposed system, the motion and audio models most suitable for gesture recognition are chosen by varying feature vectors and learning methods. Additionally, the unimodal and multi-modal models are compared with respect to recognition accuracy. All the experiments are conducted on dataset provided by the competition organizer of MMGRC, which is a workshop for Multi-Modal Gesture Recognition Challenge. The comparison results show that the multi-modal model composed of three models scores the highest recognition rate. This improvement of recognition accuracy means that the complementary relationship among three models improves the accuracy of gesture recognition. The proposed system provides the application technology to understand human actions of daily life more precisely.

  18. Kronecker PCA based spatio-temporal modeling of video for dismount classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenewald, Kristjan H.; Hero, Alfred O.

    2014-06-01

    We consider the application of KronPCA spatio-temporal modeling techniques1, 2 to the extraction of spatiotemporal features for video dismount classification. KronPCA performs a low-rank type of dimensionality reduction that is adapted to spatio-temporal data and is characterized by the T frame multiframe mean μ and covariance ∑ of p spatial features. For further regularization and improved inverse estimation, we also use the diagonally corrected KronPCA shrinkage methods we presented in.1 We apply this very general method to the modeling of the multivariate temporal behavior of HOG features extracted from pedestrian bounding boxes in video, with gender classification in a challenging dataset chosen as a specific application. The learned covariances for each class are used to extract spatiotemporal features which are then classified, achieving competitive classification performance.

  19. Teaching Children with Autism to Play a Video Game Using Activity Schedules and Game-Embedded Simultaneous Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Dimaya, Alyssa; Reeve, Sharon A.; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Hoch, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism have severe and pervasive impairments in social interactions and communication that impact most areas of daily living and often limit independent engagement in leisure activities. We taught four children with autism to engage in an age-appropriate leisure skill, playing the video game Guitar Hero II[TM], through the use of (a)…

  20. Privacy Verification Using Ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kost, Martin; Freytag, Johann-Christoph; Kargl, Frank; Kung, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    As information systems extensively exchange information between participants, privacy concerns may arise from its potential misuse. A Privacy by Design (PbD) approach considers privacy requirements of different stakeholders during the design and the implementation of a system. Currently, a

  1. A typology of privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Bert Jaap; Newell, Bryce; Timan, Tjerk; Skorvánek, Ivan; Chokrevski, Tomislav; Galič, Maša

    2017-01-01

    Despite the difficulty of capturing the nature and boundaries of privacy, it is important to conceptualize it. Some scholars develop unitary theories of privacy in the form of a unified conceptual core; others offer classifications of privacy that make meaningful distinctions between different types

  2. Video Modeling for Teaching Daily Living Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Christine; Salls, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the efficacy of point-of-view video modeling as an intervention strategy to improve self-help skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A single-subject A-B design was implemented with eight school-aged children ages 7.5 years to 13.5 years. Six of the students participated in general education classes…

  3. Temporal structure analysis of broadcast tennis video using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijak, Ewa; Oisel, Lionel; Gros, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    This work aims at recovering the temporal structure of a broadcast tennis video from an analysis of the raw footage. Our method relies on a statistical model of the interleaving of shots, in order to group shots into predefined classes representing structural elements of a tennis video. This stochastic modeling is performed in the global framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). The fundamental units are shots and transitions. In a first step, colors and motion attributes of segmented shots are used to map shots into 2 classes: game (view of the full tennis court) and not game (medium, close up views, and commercials). In a second step, a trained HMM is used to analyze the temporal interleaving of shots. This analysis results in the identification of more complex structures, such as first missed services, short rallies that could be aces or services, long rallies, breaks that are significant of the end of a game and replays that highlight interesting points. These higher-level unit structures can be used either to create summaries, or to allow non-linear browsing of the video.

  4. Video self-modeling as a post-treatment fluency recovery strategy for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn; Kully, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    This multiple-baseline across subjects study investigated the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) in reducing stuttering and bringing about improvements in associated self-report measures. Participants' viewing practices and perceptions of the utility of VSM also were explored. Three adult males who had previously completed speech restructuring treatment viewed VSM recordings twice per week for 6 weeks. Weekly speech data, treatment viewing logs, and pre- and post-treatment self-report measures were obtained. An exit interview also was conducted. Two participants showed a decreasing trend in stuttering frequency. All participants appeared to engage in fewer avoidance behaviors and had less expectations to stutter. All participants perceived that, in different ways, the VSM treatment had benefited them and all participants had unique viewing practices. Given the increasing availability and ease in using portable audio-visual technology, VSM appears to offer an economical and clinically useful tool for clients who are motivated to use the technology to recover fluency. Readers will be able to describe: (a) the tenets of video-self modeling; (b) the main components of video-self modeling as a fluency recovery treatment as used in this study; and (c) speech and self-report outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Smartdata privacy meets evolutionary robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Inman; Tomko, George

    2013-01-01

    Privacy by Design and the Promise of SmartData.- SmartData: the Need, the Goal and the Challenge.- Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence.- Context dependent information processing entails scale-free dynamics.- Philosophy and SmartData.- Relevance Realization and the Neurodynamics and Neural Connectivity of General Intelligence.- What Matters: Real Bodies and Virtual Worlds.- The development of autonomous virtual agents.- Patterns of Attractors in the "Brain"".- A Privacy-Enabled Mobile Computing Model Using Intelligent Cloud-Based Services.- Unconstraint the Population: the Benefits of Horiz

  6. History of Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvast, Jan

    Discussion on privacy issues is as old as mankind. Starting with the protection of one’s body and home, it soon evolved in the direction of controlling one’s personal information. In 1891, the American lawyers Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis described the right to privacy in a famous article: it is the right to be let alone. In 1967 a new milestone was reached with the publication of Alan Westin’s Privacy and Freedom when he defined privacy in terms of self determination: privacy is the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others.

  7. Cross-Cultural Privacy Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cultural background on people’s privacy decisions is widely recognized. However, a cross-cultural approach to predicting privacy decisions is still lacking. Our paper presents a first integrated cross-cultural privacy prediction model that merges cultural, demographic, attitudinal and contextual prediction. The model applies supervised machine learning to users’ decisions on the collection of their personal data, collected from a large-scale quantitative study in eight different countries. We find that adding culture-related predictors (i.e. country of residence, language, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to demographic, attitudinal and contextual predictors in the model can improve the prediction accuracy. Hofstede’s variables - particularly individualism and indulgence - outperform country and language. We further apply generalized linear mixed-effect regression to explore possible interactions between culture and other predictors. We find indeed that the impact of contextual and attitudinal predictors varies between different cultures. The implications of such models in developing privacy-enabling technologies are discussed.

  8. Video Analysis and Modeling Performance Task to promote becoming like scientists in classrooms

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to share the use of Tracker a free open source video analysis and modeling tool that is increasingly used as a pedagogical tool for the effective learning and teaching of Physics for Grade 9 Secondary 3 students in Singapore schools to make physics relevant to the real world. We discuss the pedagogical use of Tracker, guided by the Framework for K-12 Science Education by National Research Council, USA to help students to be more like scientists. For a period of 6 to 10 weeks, students use a video analysis coupled with the 8 practices of sciences such as 1. Ask question, 2. Use models, 3. Plan and carry out investigation, 4. Analyse and interpret data, 5. Use mathematical and computational thinking, 6. Construct explanations, 7. Argue from evidence and 8. Communicate information. This papers focus in on discussing some of the performance task design ideas such as 3.1 flip video, 3.2 starting with simple classroom activities, 3.3 primer science activity, 3.4 integrative dynamics and kinematics l...

  9. A Batch-Incremental Video Background Estimation Model using Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra

    2017-07-02

    Principal component pursuit (PCP) is a state-of-the-art approach for background estimation problems. Due to their higher computational cost, PCP algorithms, such as robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and its variants, are not feasible in processing high definition videos. To avoid the curse of dimensionality in those algorithms, several methods have been proposed to solve the background estimation problem in an incremental manner. We propose a batch-incremental background estimation model using a special weighted low-rank approximation of matrices. Through experiments with real and synthetic video sequences, we demonstrate that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art background estimation algorithms such as GRASTA, ReProCS, incPCP, and GFL.

  10. Video Self-Modeling Is an Effective Intervention for an Adult with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Hin Ha Tsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increases in size and strength that come with adulthood, challenging behaviours among those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD can become critical. Few studies have explored behavioural interventions in adults with ASD, though recent studies have shown video self-modeling (VSM to be effective in children with ASD. VSM involves an individual watching videos of himself demonstrating prosocial behaviours, while those behaviours are pointed out and encouraged. In the current study, VSM was used to encourage prosocial behaviours and to reduce problematic behaviour displayed by an adult with ASD. Results reveal a decrease in the tendency to invade others’ personal space and make inappropriate loud noises. VSM may be an effective intervention and improve the lives of adults with ASD.

  11. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...

  12. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation...

  13. Video-based feedback combined with reflective enquiry – An interactive model for movement awareness among nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Backåberg; Mikael Rask; Christina Gummesson; David Brunt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe an interactive model developed for movement awareness in a practical learning situation and to explore the use of video-based digital feedback and reflective enquiry in this model among nursing students. Sixteen students participated in individual interactive video sessions with a facilitator, who encouraged the students to reflect upon their own movements. Qualitative analysis showed that movement patterns were visualized, and that movement awareness and ...

  14. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  15. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... CFR Part 261a Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulation implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act..., and applicants for Board employment, for access to their records under the Privacy Act; the amendment...

  16. The effects of different types of video modelling on undergraduate students’ motivation and learning in an academic writing course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariet Raedts

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study extends previous research on observational learning in writing. It was our objective to enhance students’ motivation and learning in an academic writing course on research synthesis writing. Participants were 162 first-year college students who had no experience with the writing task. Based on Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory we developed two videos. In the first video a manager (prestige model elaborated on how synthesizing information is important in professional life. In the second video a peer model demonstrated a five-step writing strategy for writing up a research synthesis. We compared two versions of this video. In the explicit-strategy-instruction-video we added visual cues to channel learners’ attention to critical features of the demonstrated task using an acronym in which each letter represented a step of the model’s strategy. In the implicit-strategy-instruction-video these cues were absent. The effects of the videos were tested using a 2x2 factorial between-subjects design with video of the prestige model (yes/no and type of instructional video (implicit versus explicit strategy instruction as factors. Four post-test measures were obtained: task value, self-efficacy beliefs, task knowledge and writing performances. Path analyses revealed that the prestige model did not affect students’ task value. Peer-mediated explicit strategy instruction had no effect on self-efficacy, but a strong effect on task knowledge. Task knowledge – in turn – was found to be predictive of writing performance.

  17. A procurement decision model for a video rental store - A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BJ Kok

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A procurement decision model for a video rental store is presented in this paper. The model is based on inventory management, but many classical inventory management principles are inappropriate since the commodities (movie titles are removed from, and after a certain time period, returned to inventory. The commodities also have a decaying demand in general; hence the video rental store owner (the decision maker is required to procure new titles periodically. The question addressed in this paper is how to determine which movie titles to acquire, and how many copies of each in order to best maximise profit. An approximated demand function is presented, and attributes of movie titles in inventory are used to classify candidate movie titles and predict their future demand. This allows the decision maker to select the most profitable candidate items from a list, whilst remaining within a predetermined budget. The procurement decision model is evaluated by means of predicting the expected turnover using the procurement decision model solution, and then comparing it to the turnover achieved using the procurement strategy followed by the store owner. The model is not prescriptive - the decision maker may still utilise his/her experience to acquire new movie titles. The procurement decision model, however, does assist the decision making process by presenting a point of departure from which procurement decisions may be made.

  18. Predicting Injury in Professional Baseball Pitchers From Delivery Mechanics: A Statistical Model Using Quantitative Video Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, E Grant; Orenduff, Justin; Fox, Will J; Myers, Joshua; Garrigues, Grant E

    2017-11-30

    Baseball pitching imposes significant stress on the upper extremity and can lead to injury. Many studies have attempted to predict injury through pitching mechanics, most of which have used laboratory setups that are often not practical for population-based analysis. This study sought to predict injury risk in professional baseball pitchers using a statistical model based on video analysis evaluating delivery mechanics in a large population. Career data were collected and video analysis was performed on a random sample of former and current professional pitchers. Delivery mechanics were analyzed using 6 categories: mass and momentum, arm swing, posture, position at foot strike, path of arm acceleration, and finish. Effects of demographics and delivery scores on injury were determined using a survival analysis, and model validity was assessed. A total of 449 professional pitchers were analyzed. Risk of injury significantly increased with later birth date, role as reliever vs starter, and previous major injury. Risk of injury significantly decreased with increase in overall delivery score (7.8%) and independently with increase in score of the mass and momentum (16.5%), arm swing (12.0%), and position at foot strike (22.8%) categories. The accuracy of the model in predicting injury was significantly better when including total delivery score compared with demographic factors alone. This study presents a model that evaluates delivery mechanics and predicts injury risk of professional pitchers based on video analysis and demographic variables. This model can be used to assess injury risk of professional pitchers and can be potentially expanded to assess injury risk in pitchers at other levels. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Doing fieldwork on the seafloor: Photogrammetric techniques to yield 3D visual models from ROV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Hansteen, Thor H.; Devey, Colin W.; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) have proven to be highly effective in recovering well localized samples and observations from the seafloor. In the course of ROV deployments, however, huge amounts of video and photographic data are gathered which present tremendous potential for data mining. We present a new workflow based on industrial software to derive fundamental field geology information such as quantitative stratigraphy and tectonic structures from ROV-based photo and video material. We demonstrate proof of principle tests for this workflow on video data collected during dives with the ROV Kiel 6000 on a new hot spot volcanic field that was recently identified southwest of the island of Santo Antão in the Cape Verdes. Our workflow allows us to derive three-dimensional models of outcrops facilitating quantitative measurements of joint orientation, bedding structure, grain size comparison and photo mosaicking within a georeferenced framework. The compiled data facilitate volcanological and tectonic interpretations from hand specimen to outcrop scales based on the quantified optical data. The demonstrated procedure is readily replicable and opens up possibilities for post-cruise "virtual fieldwork" on the seafloor.

  20. The Influence of Security Statement, Technical Protection, and Privacy on Satisfaction and Loyalty; A Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikari, Hamid Reza

    Customer satisfaction and loyalty have been cited as the e-commerce critical success factors and various studies have been conducted to find the antecedent determinants of these concepts in the online transactions. One of the variables suggested by some studies is perceived security. However, these studies have referred to security from a broad general perspective and no attempts have been made to study the specific security related variables. This paper intends to study the influence on security statement and technical protection on satisfaction, loyalty and privacy. The data was collected from 337 respondents and after the reliability and validity tests, path analysis was applied to examine the hypotheses. The results suggest that loyalty is influenced by satisfaction and security statement and no empirical support was found for the influence on technical protection and privacy on loyalty. Moreover, it was found that security statement and technical protection have a positive significant influence on satisfaction while no significant effect was found for privacy. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that security statement have a positive significant influence on technical protection while technical protection was found to have a significant negative impact on perceived privacy.

  1. Predicting user concerns about online privacy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; Zhang, Jinguang

    2008-12-01

    Empirical studies on people's online privacy concerns have largely been conducted in the West. The global threat of privacy violations on the Internet calls for similar studies to be done in non-Western regions. To fill this void, the current study develops a path model to investigate the influence of people's Internet use-related factors, their beliefs in the right to privacy, and psychological need for privacy on Hong Kong people's concerns about online privacy. Survey responses from 332 university students were analyzed. Results from this study show that people's belief in the right to privacy was the most important predictor of their online privacy concerns. It also significantly mediated the relationship between people's psychological need for privacy and their concerns with privacy violations online. Moreover, while frequent use of the Internet may increase concerns about online privacy issues, Internet use diversity may actually reduce such worries. The final model, well supported by the observed data, successfully explained 25% of the variability in user concerns about online privacy.

  2. Relative Hidden Markov Models for Video-Based Evaluation of Motion Skills in Surgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Baoxin

    2015-06-01

    A proper temporal model is essential to analysis tasks involving sequential data. In computer-assisted surgical training, which is the focus of this study, obtaining accurate temporal models is a key step towards automated skill-rating. Conventional learning approaches can have only limited success in this domain due to insufficient amount of data with accurate labels. We propose a novel formulation termed Relative Hidden Markov Model and develop algorithms for obtaining a solution under this formulation. The method requires only relative ranking between input pairs, which are readily available from training sessions in the target application, hence alleviating the requirement on data labeling. The proposed algorithm learns a model from the training data so that the attribute under consideration is linked to the likelihood of the input, hence supporting comparing new sequences. For evaluation, synthetic data are first used to assess the performance of the approach, and then we experiment with real videos from a widely-adopted surgical training platform. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach provides a promising solution to video-based motion skill evaluation. To further illustrate the potential of generalizing the method to other applications of temporal analysis, we also report experiments on using our model on speech-based emotion recognition.

  3. Model of assessment of requirements of privacy, security and quality of service for mobile medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Paul Guillen Pinto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The development of mobile technologies has facilitated the creation of mHealth applications, which are considered key tools for safe and quality care for patients from remote populations and with lack of infrastructure for the provision of health services. The article considers a proposal for an evaluation model that allows to determine weaknesses and vulnerabilities at the security level and quality of service (QoS in mHealth applications. Objective: To carry out an approximation of a model of analysis that supports the decision making, concerning the use and production of safe applications, minimizing the impact and the probability of occurrence of the risks of computer security. Materials and methods: The type of applied research is of a descriptive type, because each one details the characteristics that the mobile health applications must have to achieve an optimum level of safety. The methodology uses the rules that regulate applications and mixes them with techniques of security analysis, using the characterization of risks posed by Open Web Application Security Project-OWASP and the QoS requirements of the International Telecommunication Union-ITU. Results: An effective analysis was obtained in actual current applications, which shows their weaknesses and the aspects to be corrected to comply with appropriate security parameters. Conclusions: The model allows to evaluate the safety and quality of service (QoS requirements of mobile health applications that can be used to evaluate current applications or to generate the criteria before deployment.

  4. CameraCast: flexible access to remote video sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jiantao; Ganev, Ivan; Schwan, Karsten; Widener, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    New applications like remote surveillance and online environmental or traffic monitoring are making it increasingly important to provide flexible and protected access to remote video sensor devices. Current systems use application-level codes like web-based solutions to provide such access. This requires adherence to user-level APIs provided by such services, access to remote video information through given application-specific service and server topologies, and that the data being captured and distributed is manipulated by third party service codes. CameraCast is a simple, easily used system-level solution to remote video access. It provides a logical device API so that an application can identically operate on local vs. remote video sensor devices, using its own service and server topologies. In addition, the application can take advantage of API enhancements to protect remote video information, using a capability-based model for differential data protection that offers fine grain control over the information made available to specific codes or machines, thereby limiting their ability to violate privacy or security constraints. Experimental evaluations of CameraCast show that the performance of accessing remote video information approximates that of accesses to local devices, given sufficient networking resources. High performance is also attained when protection restrictions are enforced, due to an efficient kernel-level realization of differential data protection.

  5. Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  6. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM. The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  7. Differential Privacy with Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shuheng; Ligett, Katrina; Wasserman, Larry

    2009-01-01

    This work studies formal utility and privacy guarantees for a simple multiplicative database transformation, where the data are compressed by a random linear or affine transformation, reducing the number of data records substantially, while preserving the number of original input variables. We provide an analysis framework inspired by a recent concept known as differential privacy (Dwork 06). Our goal is to show that, despite the general difficulty of achieving the differential privacy guaran...

  8. Renyi Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mironov, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    We propose a natural relaxation of differential privacy based on the Renyi divergence. Closely related notions have appeared in several recent papers that analyzed composition of differentially private mechanisms. We argue that the useful analytical tool can be used as a privacy definition, compactly and accurately representing guarantees on the tails of the privacy loss. We demonstrate that the new definition shares many important properties with the standard definition of differential priva...

  9. Video Analysis and Modeling Performance Task to promote becoming like scientists in classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, Loo Kang; Leong, Tze Kwang

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to share the use of Tracker a free open source video analysis and modeling tool that is increasingly used as a pedagogical tool for the effective learning and teaching of Physics for Grade 9 Secondary 3 students in Singapore schools to make physics relevant to the real world. We discuss the pedagogical use of Tracker, guided by the Framework for K-12 Science Education by National Research Council, USA to help students to be more like scientists. For a period of 6 to 10 weeks, ...

  10. Partitioning-based mechanisms under personalized differential privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Xiong, Li; Ji, Zhanglong; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2017-01-01

    Differential privacy has recently emerged in private statistical aggregate analysis as one of the strongest privacy guarantees. A limitation of the model is that it provides the same privacy protection for all individuals in the database. However, it is common that data owners may have different privacy preferences for their data. Consequently, a global differential privacy parameter may provide excessive privacy protection for some users, while insufficient for others. In this paper, we propose two partitioning-based mechanisms, privacy-aware and utility-based partitioning, to handle personalized differential privacy parameters for each individual in a dataset while maximizing utility of the differentially private computation. The privacy-aware partitioning is to minimize the privacy budget waste, while utility-based partitioning is to maximize the utility for a given aggregate analysis. We also develop a t-round partitioning to take full advantage of remaining privacy budgets. Extensive experiments using real datasets show the effectiveness of our partitioning mechanisms. PMID:28932827

  11. The role of privacy protection in healthcare information systems adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lee, Ming-Ren; Su, Chien-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Privacy protection is an important issue and challenge in healthcare information systems (HISs). Recently, some privacy-enhanced HISs are proposed. Users' privacy perception, intention, and attitude might affect the adoption of such systems. This paper aims to propose a privacy-enhanced HIS framework and investigate the role of privacy protection in HISs adoption. In the proposed framework, privacy protection, access control, and secure transmission modules are designed to enhance the privacy protection of a HIS. An experimental privacy-enhanced HIS is also implemented. Furthermore, we proposed a research model extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology by considering perceived security and information security literacy and then investigate user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS. The experimental results and analyses showed that user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS is directly affected by social influence, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and perceived security. Perceived security has a mediating effect between information security literacy and user adoption. This study proposes several implications for research and practice to improve designing, development, and promotion of a good healthcare information system with privacy protection.

  12. Unsupervised video-based lane detection using location-enhanced topic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2010-10-01

    An unsupervised learning algorithm based on topic models is presented for lane detection in video sequences observed by uncalibrated moving cameras. Our contributions are twofold. First, we introduce the maximally stable extremal region (MSER) detector for lane-marking feature extraction and derive a novel shape descriptor in an affine invariant manner to describe region shapes and a modified scale-invariant feature transform descriptor to capture feature appearance characteristics. MSER features are more stable compared to edge points or line pairs and hence provide robustness to lane-marking variations in scale, lighting, viewpoint, and shadows. Second, we proposed a novel location-enhanced probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) topic model for simultaneous lane recognition and localization. The proposed model overcomes the limitation of a pLSA model for effective topic localization. Experimental results on traffic sequences in various scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  13. Privacy Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing that training and awareness are critical to protecting agency Personally Identifiable Information (PII), the EPA is developing online training for privacy contacts in its programs and regions.

  14. Privacy-preserving heterogeneous health data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Noman; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Rui; Fung, Benjamin C M; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2013-05-01

    Privacy-preserving data publishing addresses the problem of disclosing sensitive data when mining for useful information. Among existing privacy models, ε-differential privacy provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees and makes no assumptions about an adversary's background knowledge. All existing solutions that ensure ε-differential privacy handle the problem of disclosing relational and set-valued data in a privacy-preserving manner separately. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that considers both relational and set-valued data in differentially private disclosure of healthcare data. The proposed approach makes a simple yet fundamental switch in differentially private algorithm design: instead of listing all possible records (ie, a contingency table) for noise addition, records are generalized before noise addition. The algorithm first generalizes the raw data in a probabilistic way, and then adds noise to guarantee ε-differential privacy. We showed that the disclosed data could be used effectively to build a decision tree induction classifier. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is scalable and performs better than existing solutions for classification analysis. The resulting utility may degrade when the output domain size is very large, making it potentially inappropriate to generate synthetic data for large health databases. Unlike existing techniques, the proposed algorithm allows the disclosure of health data containing both relational and set-valued data in a differentially private manner, and can retain essential information for discriminative analysis.

  15. Cross modality registration of video and magnetic tracker data for 3D appearance and structure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Dusty; Chen, Chao-I.; Wang, Yuan-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The paper reports a fully-automated, cross-modality sensor data registration scheme between video and magnetic tracker data. This registration scheme is intended for use in computerized imaging systems to model the appearance, structure, and dimension of human anatomy in three dimensions (3D) from endoscopic videos, particularly colonoscopic videos, for cancer research and clinical practices. The proposed cross-modality calibration procedure operates this way: Before a colonoscopic procedure, the surgeon inserts a magnetic tracker into the working channel of the endoscope or otherwise fixes the tracker's position on the scope. The surgeon then maneuvers the scope-tracker assembly to view a checkerboard calibration pattern from a few different viewpoints for a few seconds. The calibration procedure is then completed, and the relative pose (translation and rotation) between the reference frames of the magnetic tracker and the scope is determined. During the colonoscopic procedure, the readings from the magnetic tracker are used to automatically deduce the pose (both position and orientation) of the scope's reference frame over time, without complicated image analysis. Knowing the scope movement over time then allows us to infer the 3D appearance and structure of the organs and tissues in the scene. While there are other well-established mechanisms for inferring the movement of the camera (scope) from images, they are often sensitive to mistakes in image analysis, error accumulation, and structure deformation. The proposed method using a magnetic tracker to establish the camera motion parameters thus provides a robust and efficient alternative for 3D model construction. Furthermore, the calibration procedure does not require special training nor use expensive calibration equipment (except for a camera calibration pattern-a checkerboard pattern-that can be printed on any laser or inkjet printer).

  16. A Bilingual Child Learns Social Communication Skills through Video Modeling--A Single Case Study in a Norwegian School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Meral; Özerk, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    "Video modeling" is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The model's theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986) social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can…

  17. Modeling 3D Unknown object by Range Finder and Video Camera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    real world); proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors allowing the recreating of the 3D geometric database of an environment (virtual world). The virtual world is projected onto a video display terminal (VDT). Computer-generated and video ...

  18. A unified and efficient framework for court-net sports video analysis using 3D camera modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jungong; de With, Peter H. N.

    2007-01-01

    The extensive amount of video data stored on available media (hard and optical disks) necessitates video content analysis, which is a cornerstone for different user-friendly applications, such as, smart video retrieval and intelligent video summarization. This paper aims at finding a unified and efficient framework for court-net sports video analysis. We concentrate on techniques that are generally applicable for more than one sports type to come to a unified approach. To this end, our framework employs the concept of multi-level analysis, where a novel 3-D camera modeling is utilized to bridge the gap between the object-level and the scene-level analysis. The new 3-D camera modeling is based on collecting features points from two planes, which are perpendicular to each other, so that a true 3-D reference is obtained. Another important contribution is a new tracking algorithm for the objects (i.e. players). The algorithm can track up to four players simultaneously. The complete system contributes to summarization by various forms of information, of which the most important are the moving trajectory and real-speed of each player, as well as 3-D height information of objects and the semantic event segments in a game. We illustrate the performance of the proposed system by evaluating it for a variety of court-net sports videos containing badminton, tennis and volleyball, and we show that the feature detection performance is above 92% and events detection about 90%.

  19. Modeling the subjective quality of highly contrasted videos displayed on LCD with local backlight dimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren; Pedersen, Jesper Melgaard

    2015-02-01

    Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage), and a contrast measure. The second analysis shows that modeling of leakage is necessary for objective quality assessment of sequences displayed with local backlight dimming.

  20. Performance Task using Video Analysis and Modelling to promote K12 eight practices of science

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2015-01-01

    We will share on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of physics performance tasks taking root in some Singapore Grade 9 (Secondary 3) schools. We discuss the pedagogical use of Tracker help students to be like scientists in these 6 to 10 weeks where all Grade 9 students are to conduct a personal video analysis and where appropriate the 8 practices of sciences (1. ask question, 2. use models, 3. Plan and carry out investigation, 4. Analyse and interpret data, 5. Using mathematical and computational thinking, 6. Construct explanations, 7. Discuss from evidence and 8. Communicating information). We will situate our sharing on actual students work and discuss how tracker could be an effective pedagogical tool. Initial research findings suggest that allowing learners conduct performance task using Tracker, a free open source video analysis and modelling tool, guided by the 8 practices of sciences and engineering, could be an innovative and effective way to mentor authent...

  1. Robust Adaptable Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...... in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models....

  2. A model of R-D performance evaluation for Rate-Distortion-Complexity evaluation of H.264 video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a method for evaluation of Rate-Distortion-Complexity (R-D-C) performance of video coding. A statistical model of the transformed coefficients is used to estimate the Rate-Distortion (R-D) performance. A model frame work for rate, distortion and slope of the R-D curve for inter...... and intra frame is presented. Assumptions are given for analyzing an R-D model for fast R-D-C evaluation. The theoretical expressions are combined with H.264 video coding, and confirmed by experimental results. The complexity frame work is applied to the integer motion estimation....

  3. Information Privacy Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Merri Beth

    2013-01-01

    Why is Information Privacy the focus of the January-February 2013 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" and "EDUCAUSE Review Online"? Results from the 2012 annual survey of the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) indicate that "meeting regulatory compliance requirements continues to be the top perceived driver…

  4. Toward practicing privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwork, Cynthia; Pottenger, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Private data analysis-the useful analysis of confidential data-requires a rigorous and practicable definition of privacy. Differential privacy, an emerging standard, is the subject of intensive investigation in several diverse research communities. We review the definition, explain its motivation, and discuss some of the challenges to bringing this concept to practice.

  5. Privacy Metrics and Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at defining a set of privacy metrics (quantitative and qualitative) in the case of the relation between a privacy protector ,and an information gatherer .The aims with such metrics are: -to allow to assess and compare different user scenarios and their differences; for

  6. Formal Methods for Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    automated enforcement [52]. Other policy languages such as P3P [15], which has a formal notation, inform website visitors of the site’s privacy practices...Lorrie Faith Cranor. Web Privacy with P3P . O’Reilly, September 2002. [16] Lorrie Faith Cranor, Praveen Guduru, and Manjula Arjula. User interfaces for

  7. An economical model for mastering the art of intubation with different video laryngoscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitin N Trivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Video laryngoscope (VL provides excellent laryngeal exposure in patients when anaesthesiologists encounter difficulty with direct laryngoscopy. Videolaryngoscopy, like flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy demands a certain level of training by practitioners to become dexterous at successful intubation with a given instrument. Due to their cost factors, VLs are not easily available for training purposes to all the students, paramedics and emergency medical services providers in developing countries. We tried to develop a cost-effective instrument, which can work analogous to various available VLs. An inexpensive and easily available instrument was used to create an Airtraq Model for VL guided intubation training on manikin. Using this technique, successful intubation of manikin could be achieved. The Airtraq Model mimics the Airtraq Avant ® and may be used for VL guided intubation training for students as well as paramedics, and decrease the time and shorten the learning curve for Airtraq ® as well as various other VLs.

  8. Modeling the Color Image and Video Quality on Liquid Crystal Displays with Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD......) and show how the modeled image can be used as an input to quality assessment algorithms. For quality assessment, we propose an image quality metric, based on Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) computation in the CIE L*a*b* color space. The metric takes luminance reduction, color distortion and loss...... of uniformity in the resulting image in consideration. Subjective evaluations of images generated using different backlight dimming algorithms and clipping strategies show that the proposed metric estimates the perceived image quality more accurately than conventional PSNR....

  9. Establishing verbal repertoires in children with autism using function-based video modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B; Ferreri, Summer J

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that language-training procedures for children with autism might be enhanced following an assessment of conditions that evoke emerging verbal behavior. The present investigation examined a methodology to teach recognizable mands based on environmental variables known to evoke participants' idiosyncratic communicative responses in the natural environment. An alternating treatments design was used during Experiment 1 to identify the variables that were functionally related to gestures emitted by 4 children with autism. Results showed that gestures functioned as requests for attention for 1 participant and as requests for assistance to obtain a preferred item or event for 3 participants. Video modeling was used during Experiment 2 to compare mand acquisition when video sequences were either related or unrelated to the results of the functional analysis. An alternating treatments within multiple probe design showed that participants repeatedly acquired mands during the function-based condition but not during the nonfunction-based condition. In addition, generalization of the response was observed during the former but not the latter condition.

  10. Preserving Differential Privacy in Degree-Correlation based Graph Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Wu, Xintao

    2013-08-01

    Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as cluster coefficient often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum) on tabular data. In this paper, we study the problem of enforcing edge differential privacy in graph generation. The idea is to enforce differential privacy on graph model parameters learned from the original network and then generate the graphs for releasing using the graph model with the private parameters. In particular, we develop a differential privacy preserving graph generator based on the dK-graph generation model. We first derive from the original graph various parameters (i.e., degree correlations) used in the dK-graph model, then enforce edge differential privacy on the learned parameters, and finally use the dK-graph model with the perturbed parameters to generate graphs. For the 2K-graph model, we enforce the edge differential privacy by calibrating noise based on the smooth sensitivity, rather than the global sensitivity. By doing this, we achieve the strict differential privacy guarantee with smaller magnitude noise. We conduct experiments on four real networks and compare the performance of our private dK-graph models with the stochastic Kronecker graph generation model in terms of utility and privacy tradeoff. Empirical evaluations show the developed private dK-graph generation models significantly outperform the approach based on the stochastic Kronecker generation model.

  11. Mobile Video in Everyday Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Erika; Lehikoinen, Jaakko; Impiö, Jussi

    Video recording has become a spontaneous everyday activity for many people, thanks to the video capabilities of modern mobile phones. Internet connectivity of mobile phones enables fluent sharing of captured material even real-time, which makes video an up-and-coming everyday interaction medium. In this article we discuss the effect of the video camera in the social environment, everyday life situations, mainly based on a study where four groups of people used digital video cameras in their normal settings. We also reflect on another study of ours, relating to real-time mobile video communication and discuss future views. The aim of our research is to understand the possibilities in the domain of mobile video. Live and delayed sharing seem to have their special characteristics, live video being used as a virtual window between places whereas delayed video usage has more scope for good-quality content. While this novel way of interacting via mobile video enables new social patterns, it also raises new concerns for privacy and trust between participating persons in all roles, largely due to the widely spreading possibilities of videos. Video in a social situation affects cameramen (who record), targets (who are recorded), passers-by (who are unintentionally in the situation), and the audience (who follow the videos or recording situations) but also the other way around, the participants affect the video by their varying and evolving personal and communicational motivations for recording.

  12. Preserving Differential Privacy in Degree-Correlation based Graph Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Wang; Xintao Wu

    2013-01-01

    Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as cluster coefficient often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum) on tabular data. In this paper, we study the problem of enforcing edge differential privacy in graph generation. The idea is to enforce differential privacy on graph model parameters learned from the original network and then genera...

  13. Modeling the Quality of Videos Displayed With Local Dimming Backlight at Different Peak White and Ambient Light Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Søgaard, Jacob; Bech, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness of a display) on the perceived quality of videos displayed using local backlight dimming. Two subjective tests providing quality evaluations are presented and analyzed. The analyses of variance show significant...... is computed using a model of the display. Widely used objective quality metrics are applied based on the rendering models of the videos to predict the subjective evaluations. As these predictions are not satisfying, three machine learning methods are applied: partial least square regression, elastic net...

  14. Real-Time Human Detection for Aerial Captured Video Sequences via Deep Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouar AlDahoul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human detection in videos plays an important role in various real life applications. Most of traditional approaches depend on utilizing handcrafted features which are problem-dependent and optimal for specific tasks. Moreover, they are highly susceptible to dynamical events such as illumination changes, camera jitter, and variations in object sizes. On the other hand, the proposed feature learning approaches are cheaper and easier because highly abstract and discriminative features can be produced automatically without the need of expert knowledge. In this paper, we utilize automatic feature learning methods which combine optical flow and three different deep models (i.e., supervised convolutional neural network (S-CNN, pretrained CNN feature extractor, and hierarchical extreme learning machine for human detection in videos captured using a nonstatic camera on an aerial platform with varying altitudes. The models are trained and tested on the publicly available and highly challenging UCF-ARG aerial dataset. The comparison between these models in terms of training, testing accuracy, and learning speed is analyzed. The performance evaluation considers five human actions (digging, waving, throwing, walking, and running. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed methods are successful for human detection task. Pretrained CNN produces an average accuracy of 98.09%. S-CNN produces an average accuracy of 95.6% with soft-max and 91.7% with Support Vector Machines (SVM. H-ELM has an average accuracy of 95.9%. Using a normal Central Processing Unit (CPU, H-ELM’s training time takes 445 seconds. Learning in S-CNN takes 770 seconds with a high performance Graphical Processing Unit (GPU.

  15. Examples of Video to Communicate Scientific Findings to Non-Scientists-Bayesian Ecological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, M.; Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T.; Qian, S.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film about the results of modeling the effects urbanization on stream ecology. The film describes some of the results of the EUSE ecological modeling effort and the advantages of the Bayesian and multi-level statistical modeling approaches, while relating the science to fly fishing. The complex scientific discussion combined with the lighter, more popular activity of fly fishing leads to an entertaining forum while educating viewers about a complex topic. This approach is intended to represent the scientists as interesting people with diverse interests. Video can be an effective scientific communication tool for presenting scientific findings to a broad audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). Additional films are planned to be released in 2012 on other USGS project results and programs.

  16. Attention to the Model's Face When Learning from Video Modeling Examples in Adolescents with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wermeskerken, Margot; Grimmius, Bianca; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of seeing the instructor's (i.e., the model's) face in video modeling examples on students' attention and their learning outcomes. Research with university students suggested that the model's face attracts students' attention away from what the model is doing, but this did not hamper learning. We aimed to investigate…

  17. Video Game Acceptance: A Meta-Analysis of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian

    2017-11-01

    The current study systematically reviews and summarizes the existing literature of game acceptance, identifies the core determinants, and evaluates the strength of the relationships in the extended technology acceptance model. Moreover, this study segments video games into two categories: hedonic and utilitarian and examines player acceptance of these two types separately. Through a meta-analysis of 50 articles, we find that perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), and perceived enjoyment (PE) significantly associate with attitude and behavioral intention. PE is the dominant predictor of hedonic game acceptance, while PEOU and PU are the main determinants of utilitarian game acceptance. Furthermore, we find that respondent type and game platform are significant moderators. Findings of this study provide critical insights into the phenomenon of game acceptance and suggest directions for future research.

  18. Protecting patron privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Beckstrom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In a world where almost anyone with computer savvy can hack, track, and record the online activities of others, your library can serve as a protected haven for your visitors who rely on the Internet to conduct research-if you take the necessary steps to safeguard their privacy. This book shows you how to protect patrons' privacy while using the technology that your library provides, including public computers, Internet access, wireless networks, and other devices. Logically organized into two major sections, the first part of the book discusses why the privacy of your users is of paramount

  19. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Simson

    2011-01-01

    Since the first edition of this classic reference was published, World Wide Web use has exploded and e-commerce has become a daily part of business and personal life. As Web use has grown, so have the threats to our security and privacy--from credit card fraud to routine invasions of privacy by marketers to web site defacements to attacks that shut down popular web sites. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce goes behind the headlines, examines the major security risks facing us today, and explains how we can minimize them. It describes risks for Windows and Unix, Microsoft Internet Exp

  20. FCJ-195 Privacy, Responsibility, and Human Rights Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Kazansky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that many difficulties associated with the protection of digital privacy are rooted in the framing of privacy as a predominantly individual responsibility. We examine how models of privacy protection, such as Notice and Choice, contribute to the ‘responsibilisation’ of human rights activists who rely on the use of technologies for their work. We also consider how a group of human rights activists countered technology-mediated threats that this ‘responsibilisation’ causes by developing a collective approach to address their digital privacy and security needs. We conclude this article by discussing how technological tools used to maintain or counter the loss of privacy can be improved in order to support the privacy and digital security of human rights activists.

  1. A Bilingual Child Learns Social Communication Skills through Video Modeling-A Single Case Study in a Norwegian School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Özerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986 social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1 In Vivo Modeling and 2 Video Modeling. These can be used a to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and positive targeted results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.

  2. A bilingual child learns social communication skills through video modeling-a single case study in a norwegian school setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Özerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986 social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1 In Vivo Modeling and 2 Video Modeling. These can be used a to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and achieved positive results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.

  3. Innovative models for providing clinical pharmacy services to remote locations using clinical video telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdew, Cassie; Erickson, Katie; Litke, Jessica

    2017-07-15

    The use of videoconferencing and other telehealth technologies to expand access to clinical pharmacy services at multiple Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics in rural areas of Alaska and the northwestern United States is described. Beginning in 2014, clinical pharmacy specialists at a regional VA Telehealth Hub based at Boise VA Medical Center in Idaho have provided telehealth services for 16 clinics. In one telehealth model, a pharmacist and other remotely located primary care team members (a medical provider, a medical support assistant, a social worker, and a psychologist) conduct telehealth visits with veterans located at VA clinics, with support provided by clinic-based nursing staff; this model has been used to improve medication management services for veterans in sparsely populated areas. In the second VA telehealth model, a remotely located pharmacist uses telehealth technology to participate in clinical encounters along with primary care team members located at the patient site; this model allows on-demand remote coverage in the event of planned or unplanned absences of clinic-based pharmacists. Since the Telehealth Hub was established, pharmacists have engaged in video encounters and provided other telehealth-based clinical services to more than 1,200 veterans with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and other chronic conditions. Within the VA healthcare system, telehealth technology has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective and well-received means of providing clinical pharmacy services in rural areas. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  5. Privacy for Sale?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Khajuria, Samant

    Data brokers have become central players in the collection online of private user data. Data brokers’ activities are however not very transparent or even known by users. Many users regard privacy a central element when they use online services. Based on 12 short interviews with users, this paper...... analyses how users perceive the concept of online privacy in respect to data brokers col- lection of private data, and particularly novel services that offer users the possi- bility to sell their private data. Two groups of users are identified: Those who are considering selling their data under specific...... conditions, and those who reject the idea completely. Based on the literature we identify two positions to privacy either as an instrumental good, or as an intrinsic good. The paper positions vari- ous user perceptions on privacy that are relevant for future service develop- ment....

  6. EGRP Privacy Policy & Disclaimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program complies with requirements for privacy and security established by the Office of Management and Budget, Department of Health and Human Services, the National Institutes of Health, and the National Cancer Institute.

  7. Privacy Policy | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The privacy of our users is of utmost importance to Frederick National Laboratory. The policy outlined below establishes how Frederick National Laboratory will use the information we gather about you from your visit to our website. We may coll

  8. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot discuss your care with your family members – FALSE The Privacy Rule permits healthcare provides to share information that is directly relevant to the involvement of a spouse, family members, friends, or other persons identified by you regarding your ...

  9. Introducing an Information-Seeking Skill in a School Library to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Using Video Modeling and Least-to-Most Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patricia T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a video peer modeling and least-to-most prompting intervention in the school library setting, targeting the instructional delivery of an information-literacy skill to students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Research studies have evaluated the effectiveness of video-modeling procedures in the…

  10. Using Video Self-Modeling via iPads to Increase Academic Responding of an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Juliet E.; Whalon, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations on effective interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have focused on video modeling (VM) and video self-modeling (VSM) to teach a variety of skills. While a considerable literature base exists on VM/VSM to address the social communication, functional, vocational, and behavioral needs of this student…

  11. Learning with Technology: Video Modeling with Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequencing for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Shinaberry, Megan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the…

  12. Seizures in the intrahippocampal kainic acid epilepsy model: Characterization using long-term video-EEG monitoring in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, R.; Van Dycke, A.; Van Melkebeke, D.; De Smedt, T.; Claeys, P.; Wyckhuys, T.; Vonck, K.; Wadman, W.; Boon, P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - Intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats evokes a status epilepticus (SE) and leads to spontaneous seizures. However to date, precise electroencephalographic (EEG) and clinical characterization of spontaneous seizures in this epilepsy model using long-term video-EEG

  13. The Use of Video Self-Modeling to Increase On-Task Behavior in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Rochelle B.; Peterson, Rachel K.; Bellini, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the researchers implemented a video self-modeling intervention for increasing on-task classroom behavior for three elementary school students diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The researchers observed the students' on-task engagement three times a week during their respective math classes. A multiple baseline design…

  14. Effects of Mother-Delivered Social Stories and Video Modeling in Teaching Social Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Cimen; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Yikmis, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare mother-developed and delivered social stories and video modeling in teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers' opinions about the social validity of the study were also examined. Three mother-child dyads participated in the study. Results showed that…

  15. A Comparison of Video Modeling, Text-Based Instruction, and No Instruction for Creating Multiple Baseline Graphs in Microsoft Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Bryan C.; Fienup, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphing is socially significant for behavior analysts; however, graphing can be difficult to learn. Video modeling (VM) may be a useful instructional method but lacks evidence for effective teaching of computer skills. A between-groups design compared the effects of VM, text-based instruction, and no instruction on graphing performance.…

  16. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Video-Modeling Based Interventions for Reduction of Challenging Behaviors for Students with EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinski, Mickey; Wiseman, Nicole; White, Sherry A.; Balluch, Felicity

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the use of video modeling (VM)-based interventions to reduce the challenging behaviors of students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Each study was evaluated using Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC's) quality indicators for evidence-based practices. In addition, study effects were calculated along the three…

  18. Student Behavioural Intentions to Use Desktop Video Conferencing in a Distance Course: Integration of Autonomy to the UTAUT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, Sawsen; Khechine, Hager; Pascot, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine psychological factors which could influence acceptance and use of the desktop video conferencing technology by undergraduate business students. Based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, this study tested a theoretical model encompassing seven variables: behavioural intentions to use…

  19. Effects of Video Modeling on the Instructional Efficiency of Simultaneous Prompting among Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc-Tosun, Derya; Kurt, Onur

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of simultaneous prompting with and without video modeling in teaching food preparation skills to four participants with autism spectrum disorder, whose ages ranged from 5 to 6 years old. An adapted alternating treatment single-case experimental design was used to…

  20. The Combined Use of Video Modeling and Social Stories in Teaching Social Skills for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Seray Olçay

    2016-01-01

    There are many studies in the literature in which individuals with intellectual disabilities exhibit social skills deficits and which show the need for teaching these skills systematically. This study aims to investigate the effects of an intervention package of consisting computer-presented video modeling and Social Stories on individuals with…

  1. Generalized Effects of Video Modeling on Establishing Instructional Stimulus Control in Children with Autism: Results of a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikopoulos, Christos K.; Canavan, Caroline; Nikopoulou-Smyrni, Panagiota

    2009-01-01

    Video modeling has been suggested as a powerful treatment tool that has concentrated on increasing a variety of skills in children with autism. However, it has rarely been examined as a behavioral procedure for eliminating kinds of behaviors (e.g., noncompliance), a target that is often included in children's support plans. The present study…

  2. Teaching Functional Play Skills to a Young Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Video Self-Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon Y.; Lo, Ya-yu; Lo, Yafen

    2017-01-01

    The researchers used a single-case, multiple probe design across three sets of toys (i.e., farm toy, doctor's clinic toy, and rescue toy) to examine the effects of video self-modeling (VSM) on the functional play skills of a 5-year-old child with autism spectrum disorder. The findings showed a functional relation between VSM and increased…

  3. Using Portable Video Modeling Technology to Increase the Compliment Behaviors of Children with Autism during Athletic Group Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Kevin; Charlop, Marjorie H.; Miltenberger, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the effects of a portable video modeling intervention delivered in the natural environment on the verbal compliments and compliment gestures demonstrated by five children with autism. Participants were observed playing kickball with peers and adults. In baseline, participants…

  4. Privacy and Anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Yanes, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the digital area, privacy and anonymity have been impacted drastically (both, positively and negatively), by the different technologies developed for communications purposes. The broad possibilities that the Internet offers since its conception, makes it a mandatory target for those entities that are aiming to know and control the different channels of communication and the information that flows through. In this paper, we address the current threats against privacy and...

  5. Privacy of juridical bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Tiujo, Edson Mitsuo; CESUMAR

    2007-01-01

    According to art. 52 of the present Civil Code, juridical bodies may be titular to personality rights. The legal provision, however, has not defined what are personality rights attributable to juridical bodies, leaving the interpretation to the judges. Among personality rights, there is the right to privacy, which unfolds in other types such as the right to intimacy, to private life and to secrecy, from which juridical dobies have granted a privacy sphere (right to secrecy), from which third ...

  6. Student Teachers' Modeling of Acceleration Using a Video-Based Laboratory in Physics Education: A Multimodal Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Trudel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study intends to model kinematics learning of a pair of student teachers when exposed to prescribed teaching strategies in a video-based laboratory. Two student teachers were chosen from the Francophone B.Ed. program of the Faculty of Education of a Canadian university. The study method consisted of having the participants interact with a video-based laboratory to complete two activities for learning properties of acceleration in rectilinear motion. Time limits were placed on the learning activities during which the researcher collected detailed multimodal information from the student teachers' answers to questions, the graphs they produced from experimental data, and the videos taken during the learning sessions. As a result, we describe the learning approach each one followed, the evidence of conceptual change and the difficulties they face in tackling various aspects of the accelerated motion. We then specify advantages and limits of our research and propose recommendations for further study.

  7. Video Quality Prediction over Wireless 4G

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-04-14

    In this paper, we study the problem of video quality prediction over the wireless 4G network. Video transmission data is collected from a real 4G SCM testbed for investigating factors that affect video quality. After feature transformation and selection on video and network parameters, video quality is predicted by solving as regression problem. Experimental results show that the dominated factor on video quality is the channel attenuation and video quality can be well estimated by our models with small errors.

  8. The Privacy Calculus: Mobile Apps and User Perceptions of Privacy and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Fife; Juan Orjuela

    2012-01-01

    A continuing stream of new mobile data services are being released that rely upon the collection of personal data to support a business model. New technologies including facial recognition, sensors and Near Field Communications (NFC) will increasingly become a part of everyday services and applications that challenge traditional concepts of individual privacy. The average person as well as the “tech‐savvy” mobile phone user may not yet be fully aware of the extent to which their privacy and s...

  9. Modeling 3D Unknown object by Range Finder and Video Camera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer-generated and video images are superimposed. The man-machine interface functions deal mainly with on line building of graphic aids to improve perception, updating the geometric database of the robotic site, and video control of the robot. The superimposition of the real and virtual worlds is carried out through ...

  10. Model New Media/Video Programs in Arts Education: Case Study Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    As a result of cheaper, accessible, and user-friendly technologies, there is an increasing volume of videos created by children, yet these works often lack excellence. Strong pedagogical practice is important to nurture excellence in video production, but there is scant literature in this area. In this paper, I examine best practices through a…

  11. Unsupervised Primary Object Discovery in Videos Based on Evolutionary Primary Object Modeling With Reliable Object Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yeong Jun; Kim, Chang-Su

    2017-11-01

    A novel primary object discovery (POD) algorithm, which uses reliable object proposals while exploiting the recurrence property of a primary object in a video sequence, is proposed in this paper. First, we generate both color-based and motion-based object proposals in each frame, and extract the feature of each proposal using the random walk with restart simulation. Next, we estimate the foreground confidence for each proposal to remove unreliable proposals. By superposing the features of the remaining reliable proposals, we construct the primary object models. To this end, we develop the evolutionary primary object modeling technique, which exploits the recurrence property of the primary object. Then, using the primary object models, we choose the main proposal in each frame and find the location of the primary object by merging the main proposal with candidate proposals selectively. Finally, we refine the discovered bounding boxes by exploiting temporal correlations of the recurring primary object. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed POD algorithm significantly outperforms conventional algorithms.

  12. A Coupled Hidden Conditional Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Naming in Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan

    2016-08-18

    For face naming in TV series or movies, a typical way is using subtitles/script alignment to get the time stamps of the names, and tagging them to the faces. We study the problem of face naming in videos when subtitles are not available. To this end, we divide the problem into two tasks: face clustering which groups the faces depicting a certain person into a cluster, and name assignment which associates a name to each face. Each task is formulated as a structured prediction problem and modeled by a hidden conditional random field (HCRF) model. We argue that the two tasks are correlated problems whose outputs can provide prior knowledge of the target prediction for each other. The two HCRFs are coupled in a unified graphical model called coupled HCRF where the joint dependence of the cluster labels and face name association is naturally embedded in the correlation between the two HCRFs. We provide an effective algorithm to optimize the two HCRFs iteratively and the performance of the two tasks on real-world data set can be both improved.

  13. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  14. E-Commerce and Privacy: Conflict and Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Badie N.; Higby, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic commerce has intensified conflict between businesses' need to collect data and customers' desire to protect privacy. Web-based privacy tools and legislation could add to the costs of e-commerce and reduce profitability. Business models not based on profiling customers may be needed. (SK)

  15. 3D modeling of architectural objects from video data obtained with the fixed focal length lens geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliś, Paulina; Kędzierski, Michał; Fryśkowska, Anna; Wilińska, Michalina

    2013-12-01

    The article describes the process of creating 3D models of architectural objects on the basis of video images, which had been acquired by a Sony NEX-VG10E fixed focal length video camera. It was assumed, that based on video and Terrestrial Laser Scanning data it is possible to develop 3D models of architectural objects. The acquisition of video data was preceded by the calibration of video camera. The process of creating 3D models from video data involves the following steps: video frames selection for the orientation process, orientation of video frames using points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), generating a TIN model using automatic matching methods. The above objects have been measured with an impulse laser scanner, Leica ScanStation 2. Created 3D models of architectural objects were compared with 3D models of the same objects for which the self-calibration bundle adjustment process was performed. In this order a PhotoModeler Software was used. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed 3D models of architectural objects, points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning were used. To assess the accuracy a shortest distance method was used. Analysis of the accuracy showed that 3D models generated from video images differ by about 0.06 ÷ 0.13 m compared to TLS data. Artykuł zawiera opis procesu opracowania modeli 3D obiektów architektonicznych na podstawie obrazów wideo pozyskanych kamerą wideo Sony NEX-VG10E ze stałoogniskowym obiektywem. Przyjęto założenie, że na podstawie danych wideo i danych z naziemnego skaningu laserowego (NSL) możliwe jest opracowanie modeli 3D obiektów architektonicznych. Pozyskanie danych wideo zostało poprzedzone kalibracją kamery wideo. Model matematyczny kamery był oparty na rzucie perspektywicznym. Proces opracowania modeli 3D na podstawie danych wideo składał się z następujących etapów: wybór klatek wideo do procesu orientacji, orientacja klatek wideo na

  16. LEA in Private: A Privacy and Data Protection Framework for a Learning Analytics Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Christina M.; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Albert, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    To find a balance between learning analytics research and individual privacy, learning analytics initiatives need to appropriately address ethical, privacy, and data protection issues. A range of general guidelines, model codes, and principles for handling ethical issues and for appropriate data and privacy protection are available, which may…

  17. The Dynamic Model Embed in Augmented Graph Cuts for Robust Hand Tracking and Segmentation in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmenting human hand is important in computer vision applications, for example, sign language interpretation, human computer interaction, and gesture recognition. However, some serious bottlenecks still exist in hand localization systems such as fast hand motion capture, hand over face, and hand occlusions on which we focus in this paper. We present a novel method for hand tracking and segmentation based on augmented graph cuts and dynamic model. First, an effective dynamic model for state estimation is generated, which correctly predicts the location of hands probably having fast motion or shape deformations. Second, new energy terms are brought into the energy function to develop augmented graph cuts based on some cues, namely, spatial information, hand motion, and chamfer distance. The proposed method successfully achieves hand segmentation even though the hand passes over other skin-colored objects. Some challenging videos are provided in the case of hand over face, hand occlusions, dynamic background, and fast motion. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is much more accurate than other graph cuts-based methods for hand tracking and segmentation.

  18. Traffic Video Image Segmentation Model Based on Bayesian and Spatio-Temporal Markov Random Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Bao, Xu; Li, Dawei; Yin, Yongwen

    2017-10-01

    Traffic video image is a kind of dynamic image and its background and foreground is changed at any time, which results in the occlusion. In this case, using the general method is more difficult to get accurate image segmentation. A segmentation algorithm based on Bayesian and Spatio-Temporal Markov Random Field is put forward, which respectively build the energy function model of observation field and label field to motion sequence image with Markov property, then according to Bayesian' rule, use the interaction of label field and observation field, that is the relationship of label field’s prior probability and observation field’s likelihood probability, get the maximum posterior probability of label field’s estimation parameter, use the ICM model to extract the motion object, consequently the process of segmentation is finished. Finally, the segmentation methods of ST - MRF and the Bayesian combined with ST - MRF were analyzed. Experimental results: the segmentation time in Bayesian combined with ST-MRF algorithm is shorter than in ST-MRF, and the computing workload is small, especially in the heavy traffic dynamic scenes the method also can achieve better segmentation effect.

  19. Visual fatigue modeling for stereoscopic video shot based on camera motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guozhong; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Liu, Yangdong; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    As three-dimensional television (3-DTV) and 3-D movie become popular, the discomfort of visual feeling limits further applications of 3D display technology. The cause of visual discomfort from stereoscopic video conflicts between accommodation and convergence, excessive binocular parallax, fast motion of objects and so on. Here, a novel method for evaluating visual fatigue is demonstrated. Influence factors including spatial structure, motion scale and comfortable zone are analyzed. According to the human visual system (HVS), people only need to converge their eyes to the specific objects for static cameras and background. Relative motion should be considered for different camera conditions determining different factor coefficients and weights. Compared with the traditional visual fatigue prediction model, a novel visual fatigue predicting model is presented. Visual fatigue degree is predicted using multiple linear regression method combining with the subjective evaluation. Consequently, each factor can reflect the characteristics of the scene, and the total visual fatigue score can be indicated according to the proposed algorithm. Compared with conventional algorithms which ignored the status of the camera, our approach exhibits reliable performance in terms of correlation with subjective test results.

  20. Privacy-preserving schemes for Ad Hoc Social Networks: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrag, Mohamed Amine; Maglaras, Leandros; Ahmim, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the state of the art of privacy-preserving schemes for ad hoc social networks, including, mobile social networks (MSNs) and vehicular social networks (VSNs). Specifically, we select and in-detail examine thirty-three privacy preserving schemes developed for or applied in the context of ad hoc social networks. These schemes are published between 2008 and 2016. Based on this existing privacy preservation schemes, we survey privacy preservation models, including location...

  1. Service Outsourcing Character Oriented Privacy Conflict Detection Method in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Changbo Ke; Zhiqiu Huang; Weiwei Li; Yi Sun; Fangxiong Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has provided services for users as a software paradigm. However, it is difficult to ensure privacy information security because of its opening, virtualization, and service outsourcing features. Therefore how to protect user privacy information has become a research focus. In this paper, firstly, we model service privacy policy and user privacy preference with description logic. Secondly, we use the pellet reasonor to verify the consistency and satisfiability, so as to detect t...

  2. Valuating Privacy with Option Pricing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer

    One of the key challenges in the information society is responsible handling of personal data. An often-cited reason why people fail to make rational decisions regarding their own informational privacy is the high uncertainty about future consequences of information disclosures today. This chapter builds an analogy to financial options and draws on principles of option pricing to account for this uncertainty in the valuation of privacy. For this purpose, the development of a data subject's personal attributes over time and the development of the attribute distribution in the population are modeled as two stochastic processes, which fit into the Binomial Option Pricing Model (BOPM). Possible applications of such valuation methods to guide decision support in future privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) are sketched.

  3. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  4. Developing Model-Making and Model-Breaking Skills Using Direct Measurement Video-Based Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Matthew; Bohacek, Peter; Militello, Cheryl; Iverson, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on student development of two important laboratory skills in the context of introductory college-level physics. The first skill, which we call model making, is the ability to analyze a phenomenon in a way that produces a quantitative multimodal model. The second skill, which we call model breaking, is the ability to critically…

  5. Service Outsourcing Character Oriented Privacy Conflict Detection Method in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbo Ke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has provided services for users as a software paradigm. However, it is difficult to ensure privacy information security because of its opening, virtualization, and service outsourcing features. Therefore how to protect user privacy information has become a research focus. In this paper, firstly, we model service privacy policy and user privacy preference with description logic. Secondly, we use the pellet reasonor to verify the consistency and satisfiability, so as to detect the privacy conflict between services and user. Thirdly, we present the algorithm of detecting privacy conflict in the process of cloud service composition and prove the correctness and feasibility of this method by case study and experiment analysis. Our method can reduce the risk of user sensitive privacy information being illegally used and propagated by outsourcing services. In the meantime, the method avoids the exception in the process of service composition by the privacy conflict, and improves the trust degree of cloud service providers.

  6. An informational theory of privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schottmuller, C.; Jann, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory that explains how and when privacy can increase welfare. Without privacy, some individuals misrepresent their preferences, because they will otherwise be statistically discriminated against. This "chilling effect" hurts them individually, and impairs information aggregation. The

  7. It’s all a matter of perspective : Viewing first-person video modeling examples promotes learning of an assembly task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorella, Logan; van Gog, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/294304975; Hoogerheide, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412654504; Mayer, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The present study tests whether presenting video modeling examples from the learner’s (first-person) perspective promotes learning of an assembly task, compared to presenting video examples from a third-person perspective. Across 2 experiments conducted in different labs, university students viewed

  8. Video surveillance using JPEG 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a video surveillance system which is composed of three key components, smart cameras, a server, and clients, connected through IP-networks in wired or wireless configurations. The system has been designed so as to protect the privacy of people under surveillance. Smart cameras are based on JPEG 2000 compression where an analysis module allows for events detection and regions of interest identification. The resulting regions of interest can then be encoded with better quality and scrambled. Compressed video streams are scrambled and signed for the purpose of privacy and data integrity verification using JPSEC compliant methods. The same bitstream may also be protected for robustness to transmission errors based on JPWL compliant methods. The server receives, stores, manages and transmits the video sequences on wired and wireless channels to a variety of clients and users with different device capabilities, channel characteristics and preferences. Use of seamless scalable coding of video sequences prevents any need for transcoding operations at any point in the system.

  9. CREATION OF 3D MODELS FROM LARGE UNSTRUCTURED IMAGE AND VIDEO DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hollick

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of various places using low-cost camera solutions over decades without having a photogrammetric application in mind has resulted in large collections of images and videos that may have significant cultural value. The purpose of collecting this data is often to provide a log of events and therefore the data is often unstructured and of varying quality. Depending on the equipment used there may be approximate location data available for the images but the accuracy of this data may also be of varying quality. In this paper we present an approach that can deal with these conditions and process datasets of this type to produce 3D models. Results from processing the dataset collected during the discovery and subsequent exploration of the HMAS Sydney and HSK Kormoran wreck sites shows the potential of our approach. The results are promising and show that there is potential to retrieve significantly more information from many of these datasets than previously thought possible.

  10. Self-control over combined video feedback and modeling facilitates motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Phillip G; Aiken, Christopher A; Laughlin, David D; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    Allowing learners to control the video presentation of knowledge of performance (KP) or an expert model during practice has been shown to facilitate motor learning (Aiken, Fairbrother, & Post, 2012; Wulf, Raupach, & Pfeiffer, 2005). Split-screen replay features now allow for the simultaneous presentation of these modes of instructional support. It is uncertain, however, if such a combination incorporated into a self-control protocol would yield similar benefits seen in earlier self-control studies. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of self-controlled split-screen replay on the learning of a golf chip shot. Participants completed 60 practice trials, three administrations of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and a questionnaire on day one. Retention and transfer tests and a final motivation inventory were completed on day two. Results revealed significantly higher form and accuracy scores for the self-control group during transfer. The self-control group also had significantly higher scores on the perceived competence subscale, reported requesting feedback mostly after perceived poor trials, and recalled a greater number of critical task features compared to the yoked group. The findings for the performance measures were consistent with previous self-control research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential Privacy via Wavelet Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Xiaokui; Wang, Guozhang; Gehrke, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Privacy preserving data publishing has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. Among the existing solutions, {\\em $\\epsilon$-differential privacy} provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees. Existing data publishing methods that achieve $\\epsilon$-differential privacy, however, offer little data utility. In particular, if the output dataset is used to answer count queries, the noise in the query answers can be proportional to the number of tuples in the data, which ren...

  12. A model for treating voice disorders in school-age children within a video gaming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Suzanne N; Davis, Larry; Lehman, Jeffrey J; Ruddy, Bari Hoffman

    2012-09-01

    Clinicians use a variety of approaches to motivate children with hyperfunctional voice disorders to comply with voice therapy in a therapeutic session and improve the motivation of children to practice home-based exercises. Utilization of current entertainment technology in such approaches may improve participation and motivation in voice therapy. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of using an entertainment video game as a therapy device. Prospective cohort and case-control study. Three levels of game testing were conducted to an existing entertainment video game for use as a voice therapy protocol. The game was tested by two computer programmers and five normal participants. The third level of testing was a case study with a child diagnosed with a hyperfunctional voice disorder. Modifications to the game were made after each feasibility test. Errors with the video game performance were modified, including the addition of a time stamp directory and game controller. Resonance voice exercises were modified to accommodate the gaming environment and unique competitive situation, including speech rate, acoustic parameters, game speed, and point allocations. The development of video games for voice therapeutic purposes attempt to replicate the high levels of engagement and motivation attained with entertainment video games, stimulating a more productive means of learning while doing. This case study found that a purely entertainment video game can be implemented as a voice therapeutic protocol based on information obtained from the case study. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  13. On the Privacy Implications of Location Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ağır Berker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile users increasingly make use of location-based online services enabled by localization systems. Not only do they share their locations to obtain contextual services in return (e.g., ‘nearest restaurant’, but they also share, with their friends, information about the venues (e.g., the type, such as a restaurant or a cinema they visit. This introduces an additional dimension to the threat to location privacy: location semantics, combined with location information, can be used to improve location inference by learning and exploiting patterns at the semantic level (e.g., people go to cinemas after going to restaurants. Conversely, the type of the venue a user visits can be inferred, which also threatens her semantic location privacy. In this paper, we formalize this problem and analyze the effect of venue-type information on location privacy. We introduce inference models that consider location semantics and semantic privacy-protection mechanisms and evaluate them by using datasets of semantic check-ins from Foursquare, totaling more than a thousand users in six large cities. Our experimental results show that there is a significant risk for users’ semantic location privacy and that semantic information improves inference of user locations.

  14. A Programmable Video Platform and Its Application Mapping Framework Using the Target Application's SystemC Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Daewoong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HD video applications can be represented with multiple tasks consisting of tightly coupled multiple threads. Each task requires massive computation, and their communication can be categorized as asynchronous distributed small data and large streaming data transfers. In this paper, we propose a high performance programmable video platform that consists of four processing element (PE clusters. Each PE cluster runs a task in the video application with RISC cores, a hardware operating system kernel (HOSK, and task-specific accelerators. PE clusters are connected with two separate point-to-point networks: one for asynchronous distributed controls and the other for heavy streaming data transfers among the tasks. Furthermore, we developed an application mapping framework, with which parallel executable codes can be obtained from a manually developed SystemC model of the target application without knowing the detailed architecture of the video platform. To show the effectivity of the platform and its mapping framework, we also present mapping results for an H.264/AVC 720p decoder/encoder and a VC-1 720p decoder with 30 fps, assuming that the platform operates at 200 MHz.

  15. In-person and video-based post-traumatic stress disorder treatment for veterans: a location-allocation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musdal, Hande; Shiner, Brian; Chen, Techieh; Ceyhan, Mehmet E; Watts, Bradley V; Benneyan, James

    2014-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with poor health but there is a gap between need and receipt of care. It is useful to understand where to optimally locate in-person care and where video-based PTSD care would be most useful to minimize access to care barriers, care outside the Veterans Affairs system, and total costs. We developed a service location systems engineering model based on 2010 to 2020 projected care needs for veterans across New England to help determine where to best locate and use in-person and video-based care. This analysis determined specific locations and capacities of each type of PTSD care relative to patient home locations to help inform allocation of mental health resources. Not surprisingly Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island are well suited for in-person care, whereas some rural areas of Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire where in-patient services are infeasible could be better served by video-based care than external care, if the latter is even available. Results in New England alone suggest a potential $3,655,387 reduction in average annual total costs by shifting 9.73% of care to video-based treatment, with an average 12.6 miles travel distance for the remaining in-person care. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  17. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  18. Designing Privacy-by-Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, J.H.C. van; Boonstra, D.; Everts, M.H.; Rijn, M. van; Paassen, R.J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    The proposal for a new privacy regulation d.d. January 25th 2012 introduces sanctions of up to 2% of the annual turnover of enterprises. This elevates the importance of mitigation of privacy risks. This paper makes Privacy by Design more concrete, and positions it as the mechanism to mitigate these

  19. Privacy in an Ambient World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy

    Privacy is a prime concern in today's information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices, while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website,

  20. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  1. What was privacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Lew

    2008-10-01

    Why is that question in the past tense? Because individuals can no longer feel confident that the details of their lives--from identifying numbers to cultural preferences--will be treated with discretion rather than exploited. Even as Facebook users happily share the names of their favorite books, movies, songs, and brands, they often regard marketers' use of that information as an invasion of privacy. In this wide-ranging essay, McCreary, a senior editor at HBR, examines numerous facets of the privacy issue, from Google searches, public shaming on the internet, and cell phone etiquette to passenger screening devices, public surveillance cameras, and corporate chief privacy officers. He notes that IBM has been a leader on privacy; its policy forswearing the use of employees' genetic information in hiring and benefits decisions predated the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act by three years. Now IBM is involved in an open-source project known as Higgins to provide users with transportable, potentially anonymous online presences. Craigslist, whose CEO calls it "as close to 100% user driven as you can get," has taken an extremely conservative position on privacy--perhaps easier for a company with a declared lack of interest in maximizing revenue. But TJX and other corporate victims of security breaches have discovered that retaining consumers' transaction information can be both costly and risky. Companies that underestimate the importance of privacy to their customers or fail to protect it may eventually face harsh regulation, reputational damage, or both. The best thing they can do, says the author, is negotiate directly with those customers over where to draw the line.

  2. A Model for Video Quality Assessment Considering Packet Loss for Broadcast Digital Television Coded in H.264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Joskowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to predict video quality perceived by the broadcast digital television (DTV viewer. We present how noise on DTV can introduce individual transport stream (TS packet losses at the receiver. The type of these errors is different than the produced on IP networks. Different scenarios of TS packet loss are analyzed, including uniform and burst distributions. The results show that there is a high variability on the perceived quality for a given percentage of packet loss and type of error. This implies that there is practically no correlation between the type of error or the percentage of packets loss and the perceived degradation. A new metric is introduced, the weighted percentage of slice loss, which takes into account the affected slice type in each lost TS packet. We show that this metric is correlated with the video quality degradation. A novel parametric model for video quality estimation is proposed, designed, and verified based on the results of subjective tests in SD and HD. The results were compared to a standard model used in IP transmission scenarios. The proposed model improves Pearson Correlation and root mean square error between the subjective and the predicted MOS.

  3. Privacy Policy | Smokefree 60+

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) respects the privacy of users of its websites. This is why we have taken the time to disclose our privacy policy and information collection practices. NCI does not disclose, give, sell, or transfer any personal information about visitors unless required to do so by law. NCI automatically collects a limited amount of information about the use of websites for statistical purposes — that is, to measure the numbers of visitors. This information may be helpful when considering changes that improve our websites for future visitors.

  4. Open Educational Resources from Performance Task using Video Analysis and Modeling - Tracker and K12 science education framework

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2014-01-01

    This invited paper discusses why Physics performance task by grade 9 students in Singapore is worth participating in for two reasons; 1) the video analysis and modeling are open access, licensed creative commons attribution for advancing open educational resources in the world and 2) allows students to be like physicists, where the K12 science education framework is adopted. Personal reflections on how physics education can be made more meaningful in particular Practice 1: Ask Questions, Prac...

  5. Privacy Bridges: EU and US Privacy Experts In Search of Transatlantic Privacy Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramatic, J.-F.; Bellamy, B.; Callahan, M.E.; Cate, F.; van Eecke, P.; van Eijk, N.; Guild, E.; de Hert, P.; Hustinx, P.; Kuner, C.; Mulligan, D.; O'Connor, N.; Reidenberg, J.; Rubinstein, I.; Schaar, P.; Shadbolt, N.; Spiekermann, S.; Vladeck, D.; Weitzner, D.J.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.; Hagenauw, D.; Hijmans, H.

    2015-01-01

    The EU and US share a common commitment to privacy protection as a cornerstone of democracy. Following the Treaty of Lisbon, data privacy is a fundamental right that the European Union must proactively guarantee. In the United States, data privacy derives from constitutional protections in the

  6. The Privacy Jungle:On the Market for Data Protection in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Joseph; Preibusch, Sören

    We have conducted the first thorough analysis of the market for privacy practices and policies in online social networks. From an evaluation of 45 social networking sites using 260 criteria we find that many popular assumptions regarding privacy and social networking need to be revisited when considering the entire ecosystem instead of only a handful of well-known sites. Contrary to the common perception of an oligopolistic market, we find evidence of vigorous competition for new users. Despite observing many poor security practices, there is evidence that social network providers are making efforts to implement privacy enhancing technologies with substantial diversity in the amount of privacy control offered. However, privacy is rarely used as a selling point, even then only as auxiliary, nondecisive feature. Sites also failed to promote their existing privacy controls within the site. We similarly found great diversity in the length and content of formal privacy policies, but found an opposite promotional trend: though almost all policies are not accessible to ordinary users due to obfuscating legal jargon, they conspicuously vaunt the sites' privacy practices. We conclude that the market for privacy in social networks is dysfunctional in that there is significant variation in sites' privacy controls, data collection requirements, and legal privacy policies, but this is not effectively conveyed to users. Our empirical findings motivate us to introduce the novel model of a privacy communication game, where the economically rational choice for a site operator is to make privacy control available to evade criticism from privacy fundamentalists, while hiding the privacy control interface and privacy policy to maximize sign-up numbers and encourage data sharing from the pragmatic majority of users.

  7. Open Educational Resources from Performance Task using Video Analysis and Modeling - Tracker and K12 science education framework

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2014-01-01

    This invited paper discusses why Physics performance task by grade 9 students in Singapore is worth participating in for two reasons; 1) the video analysis and modeling are open access, licensed creative commons attribution for advancing open educational resources in the world and 2) allows students to be like physicists, where the K12 science education framework is adopted. Personal reflections on how physics education can be made more meaningful in particular Practice 1: Ask Questions, Practice 2: Use Models and Practice 5: Mathematical and Computational Thinking using Video Modeling supported by evidence based data from video analysis. This paper hopes to spur fellow colleagues to look into open education initiatives such as our Singapore Tracker community open educational resources curate on http://weelookang.blogspot.sg/p/physics-applets-virtual-lab.html as well as digital libraries http://iwant2study.org/lookangejss/ directly accessible through Tracker 4.86, EJSS reader app on Android and iOS and EJS 5....

  8. Tracking and recognition face in videos with incremental local sparse representation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhaoxiang

    2013-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of tracking and recognizing faces via incremental local sparse representation. First a robust face tracking algorithm is proposed via employing local sparse appearance and covariance pooling method. In the following face recognition stage, with the employment of a novel template update strategy, which combines incremental subspace learning, our recognition algorithm adapts the template to appearance changes and reduces the influence of occlusion and illumination variation. This leads to a robust video-based face tracking and recognition with desirable performance. In the experiments, we test the quality of face recognition in real-world noisy videos on YouTube database, which includes 47 celebrities. Our proposed method produces a high face recognition rate at 95% of all videos. The proposed face tracking and recognition algorithms are also tested on a set of noisy videos under heavy occlusion and illumination variation. The tracking results on challenging benchmark videos demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods. In the case of the challenging dataset in which faces undergo occlusion and illumination variation, and tracking and recognition experiments under significant pose variation on the University of California, San Diego (Honda/UCSD) database, our proposed method also consistently demonstrates a high recognition rate.

  9. Biometrics and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Biometrics offers many alternatives for protecting our privacy and preventing us from falling victim to crime. Biometrics can even serve as a solid basis for safe anonymous and semi-anonymous legal transactions. In this article Jan Grijpink clarifies which concepts and practical applications this

  10. Reconciling privacy and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Friedewald, M.; Wright, D.; Gutwirth, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between privacy and security and, in particular, the traditional "trade-off" paradigm. The issue is this: how, in a democracy, can one reconcile the trend towards increasing security (for example, as manifested by increasing surveillance) with the fundamental

  11. Privacy Policy | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The privacy of our users is of utmost importance to Frederick National Lab. The policy outlined below establishes how Frederick National Lab will use the information we gather about you from your visit to our website. We may collect and store

  12. Movement control during aspiration with different injection systems via video monitoring-an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmerer, P W; Schneider, D; Pacyna, A A; Daubländer, M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was an evaluation of movement during double aspiration by different manual syringes and one computer-controlled local anesthesia delivery system (C-CLAD). With five different devices (two disposable syringes (2, 5 ml), two aspirating syringes (active, passive), one C-CLAD), simulation of double aspiration in a phantom model was conducted. Two experienced and two inexperienced test persons carried out double aspiration with the injection systems at the right and left phantom mandibles in three different inclination angles (n = 24 × 5 × 2 for each system). 3D divergences of the needle between aspiration procedures (mm) were measured with two video cameras. An average movement for the 2-ml disposal syringe of 2.85 mm (SD 1.63), for the 5 ml syringe of 2.36 mm (SD 0.86), for the active-aspirating syringe of 2.45 mm (SD 0.9), for the passive-aspirating syringe of 2.01 mm (SD 0.7), and for the C-CLAD, an average movement of 0.91 mm (SD 0.63) was seen. The movement was significantly less for the C-CLAD compared to the other systems (p movement of the needle in the soft tissue was significantly less for the C-CLAD compared to the other systems (p movement of the syringe could be seen in comparison between manual and C-CLAD systems. Launching the aspiration by a foot pedal in computer-assisted anesthesia leads to a minor movement. To solve the problem of movement during aspiration with possibly increased false-negative results, a C-CLAD seems to be favorable.

  13. Personalized video summarization based on group scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Darabi, K; G. Ghinea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an expert-based model for generation of personalized video summaries is suggested. The video frames are initially scored and annotated by multiple video experts. Thereafter, the scores for the video segments that have been assigned the higher priorities by end users will be upgraded. Considering the required summary length, the highest scored video frames will be inserted into a personalized final summary. For evaluation purposes, the video summaries generated by our system have...

  14. Digital video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike

    2004-04-01

    The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.

  15. 360-degree video and X-ray modeling of the Galactic center's inner parsec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher Michael Post; Wang, Daniel; Cuadra, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    360-degree videos, which render an image over all 4pi steradian, provide a unique and immersive way to visualize astrophysical simulations. Video sharing sites such as YouTube allow these videos to be shared with the masses; they can be viewed in their 360° nature on computer screens, with smartphones, or, best of all, in virtual-reality (VR) goggles. We present the first such 360° video of an astrophysical simulation: a hydrodynamics calculation of the Wolf-Rayet stars and their ejected winds in the inner parsec of the Galactic center. Viewed from the perspective of the super-massive black hole (SMBH), the most striking aspect of the video, which renders column density, is the inspiraling and stretching of clumps of WR-wind material as they makes their way towards the SMBH. We will brielfy describe how to make 360° videos and how to publish them online in their desired 360° format.Additionally we discuss computing the thermal X-ray emission from a suite of Galactic-center hydrodynamic simulations that have various SMBH feedback mechanisms, which are compared to Chandra X-ray Visionary Program observations of the region. Over a 2-5” ring centered on Sgr A*, the spectral shape is well matched, indicating that the WR winds are the dominant source of the thermal X-ray emission. Furthermore, the X-ray flux depends on the SMBH feedback due to the feedback's ability to clear out material from the central parsec. A moderate outburst is necessary to explain the current thermal X-ray flux, even though the outburst ended ˜100 yr ago.

  16. Creation of a Collaborative Disaster Preparedness Video for Daycare Providers: Use of the Delphi Model for the Creation of a Comprehensive Disaster Preparedness Video for Daycare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Pamela; Spears, Robert; Reeb, Jeffrey; Thompson, Sarah B; Myers, Paul; Burke, Rita V

    2018-02-22

    Eight million American children under the age of 5 attend daycare and more than another 50 million American children are in school or daycare settings. Emergency planning requirements for daycare licensing vary by state. Expert opinions were used to create a disaster preparedness video designed for daycare providers to cover a broad spectrum of scenarios. Various stakeholders (17) devised the outline for an educational pre-disaster video for child daycare providers using the Delphi technique. Fleiss κ values were obtained for consensus data. A 20-minute video was created, addressing the physical, psychological, and legal needs of children during and after a disaster. Viewers completed an anonymous survey to evaluate topic comprehension. A consensus was attempted on all topics, ranging from elements for inclusion to presentation format. The Fleiss κ value of 0.07 was obtained. Fifty-seven of the total 168 video viewers completed the 10-question survey, with comprehension scores ranging from 72% to 100%. Evaluation of caregivers that viewed our video supports understanding of video contents. Ultimately, the technique used to create and disseminate the resources may serve as a template for others providing pre-disaster planning education. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 5).

  17. Privacy in psychiatric treatment: threats and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2002-11-01

    The author provides an overview of the current status of privacy in psychiatric treatment, with particular attention to the effects of new federal regulations authorized by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The author reviews the ethical and legal underpinnings for medical privacy, including the empirical data supporting its importance; discusses those portions of the new federal regulations most relevant to psychiatric practice; and suggests steps that psychiatrists can take to maintain their patients' privacy in the new environment. Medical ethics and law, in keeping with patients' preferences, traditionally have provided strong protection for the information that patients communicate while receiving medical care. In general, release of information has required patients' explicit consent. However, limitations of the consent model and technological innovations that permit the aggregation of computerized medical information have led to pressure for greater access to these data. Although the new federal regulations offer patients some additional protections (including security for psychotherapy notes), they also mark a retreat from reliance on patient consent and open up records to previously unauthorized uses, among them law enforcement investigations and marketing and fundraising by health care organizations. However, states retain the power to provide higher levels of protection. The new regulatory environment is less friendly to medical privacy but still leaves a great deal of discretion in physicians' hands. A commitment to protecting privacy as an ethical norm can be advanced by psychiatrists' requesting patients' consent even when it is not required, by ensuring that patients are aware of the limits on confidentiality, and by avoiding unnecessary breaches of privacy in the course of providing psychiatric care.

  18. Collaborative Privacy - A Community-Based Privacy Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Jan; Kernchen, Thomas; Pernul, Günther

    The landscape of the World Wide Web with all its versatile services heavily relies on the disclosure of private user information. Service providers collecting more and more of these personal user data pose a growing privacy threat for users. Addressing user concerns privacy-enhancing technologies emerged. One goal of these technologies is to enable users to improve the control over their personal data. A famous representative is the PRIME project that aims for a holistic privacy-enhancing identity management system. However, approaches like the PRIME privacy architecture require service providers to change their server infrastructure and add specific privacy-enhancing components. In the near future, service providers are not expected to alter internal processes. In this paper, we introduce a collaborative privacy community that allows the open exchange of privacy-related information. We lay out the privacy community’s functions and potentials within a user-centric, provider-independent privacy architecture that will help foster the usage and acceptance of privacy-enhancing technologies.

  19. Trust-aware Privacy Control for Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Na; Najafian-Razavi, Maryam; Gillet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Due to the huge exposure of personal information in social media, a challenge now is to design effective privacy mechanisms that protect against unauthorized access to social data. In this paper, a trust model for social media is first presented. Based on the trust model, a trust-aware privacy control protocol is proposed, that exploits the underlying inter-entity trust information. The objective is to design a fine-grained privacy scheme that ensures a user’s online information is disclosed ...

  20. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Braeken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side.

  1. The Effects of Mental Imagery with Video-Modeling on Self-Efficacy and Maximal Front Squat Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. M. Buck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM. Subjects (13 male, 7 female who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either an experimental (n = 10 or a control (n = 10 group. Subjects′ 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were measured at baseline. Following this, subjects in the experimental group followed a structured imagery protocol, incorporating video recordings of both their own 3RM performance and a model lifter with excellent technique, twice a day for three days. Subjects in the control group spent the same amount of time viewing a placebo video. Following three days with no physical training, measurements of front squat 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were repeated. Subjects in the experimental group increased in self-efficacy following the intervention, and showed greater 3RM improvement than those in the control group. Self-efficacy was found to significantly mediate the relationship between imagery and front squat 3RM. These findings point to the importance of mental skills training for the enhancement of self-efficacy and front squat performance.

  2. A Memory Hierarchy Model Based on Data Reuse for Full-Search Motion Estimation on High-Definition Digital Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Sandyra Bezerra Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion estimation is the most complex module in a video encoder requiring a high processing throughput and high memory bandwidth, mainly when the focus is high-definition videos. The throughput problem can be solved increasing the parallelism in the internal operations. The external memory bandwidth may be reduced using a memory hierarchy. This work presents a memory hierarchy model for a full-search motion estimation core. The proposed memory hierarchy model is based on a data reuse scheme considering the full search algorithm features. The proposed memory hierarchy expressively reduces the external memory bandwidth required for the motion estimation process, and it provides a very high data throughput for the ME core. This throughput is necessary to achieve real time when processing high-definition videos. When considering the worst bandwidth scenario, this memory hierarchy is able to reduce the external memory bandwidth in 578 times. A case study for the proposed hierarchy, using 32×32 search window and 8×8 block size, was implemented and prototyped on a Virtex 4 FPGA. The results show that it is possible to reach 38 frames per second when processing full HD frames (1920×1080 pixels using nearly 299 Mbytes per second of external memory bandwidth.

  3. FPGA Implementation of Gaussian Mixture Model Algorithm for 47 fps Segmentation of 1080p Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Genovese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Circuits and systems able to process high quality video in real time are fundamental in nowadays imaging systems. The circuit proposed in the paper, aimed at the robust identification of the background in video streams, implements the improved formulation of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM algorithm that is included in the OpenCV library. An innovative, hardware oriented, formulation of the GMM equations, the use of truncated binary multipliers, and ROM compression techniques allow reduced hardware complexity and increased processing capability. The proposed circuit has been designed having commercial FPGA devices as target and provides speed and logic resources occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The circuit, when implemented on Virtex6 or StratixIV, processes more than 45 frame per second in 1080p format and uses few percent of FPGA logic resources.

  4. You are who you play you are : Modeling Player Traits from Video Game Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekofsky, Shoshannah

    2017-01-01

    You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom.

  5. A procurement decision model for a video rental store — A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inappropriate since the commodities (movie titles) are removed from, and after a certain time period, returned to inventory. The commodities also have a decaying demand in general; hence the video rental store owner (the decision maker) is required to procure new titles periodically. The question addressed in this paper is ...

  6. A procurement decision model for a video rental store — A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eral; hence the video rental store owner (the decision maker) is required to procure new titles periodically. The question addressed in this paper is how to determine which movie titles to acquire, and how many copies of each in order to best maximise profit. An approx- imated demand function is presented, and attributes of ...

  7. Modeling the Subjective Quality of Highly Contrasted Videos Displayed on LCD With Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight...

  8. Privacy and Data Protection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srinija

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of individual rights and privacy in Japan focuses on the Privacy Protection Act, which acknowledges the threat posed by government databases to the individual's right of privacy. Characteristics of the Japanese legal system are described, origins of privacy in Japanese law are examined, and privacy and government databases are…

  9. Privacy Awareness: A Means to Solve the Privacy Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzsch, Stefanie

    People are limited in their resources, i.e. they have limited memory capabilities, cannot pay attention to too many things at the same time, and forget much information after a while; computers do not suffer from these limitations. Thus, revealing personal data in electronic communication environments and being completely unaware of the impact of privacy might cause a lot of privacy issues later. Even if people are privacy aware in general, the so-called privacy paradox shows that they do not behave according to their stated attitudes. This paper discusses explanations for the existing dichotomy between the intentions of people towards disclosure of personal data and their behaviour. We present requirements on tools for privacy-awareness support in order to counteract the privacy paradox.

  10. Incentivizing Verifiable Privacy-Protection Mechanisms for Offline Crowdsensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiajun; Liu, Ningzhong

    2017-01-01

    Incentive mechanisms of crowdsensing have recently been intensively explored. Most of these mechanisms mainly focus on the standard economical goals like truthfulness and utility maximization. However, enormous privacy and security challenges need to be faced directly in real-life environments, such as cost privacies. In this paper, we investigate offline verifiable privacy-protection crowdsensing issues. We firstly present a general verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline homogeneous and heterogeneous sensing job model. In addition, we also propose a more complex verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline submodular sensing job model. The two mechanisms not only explore the private protection issues of users and platform, but also ensure the verifiable correctness of payments between platform and users. Finally, we demonstrate that the two mechanisms satisfy privacy-protection, verifiable correctness of payments and the same revenue as the generic one without privacy protection. Our experiments also validate that the two mechanisms are both scalable and efficient, and applicable for mobile devices in crowdsensing applications based on auctions, where the main incentive for the user is the remuneration. PMID:28869574

  11. Privacy Management and Networked PPD Systems - Challenges Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Pharow, Peter; Petersen, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Modern personal portable health devices (PPDs) become increasingly part of a larger, inhomogeneous information system. Information collected by sensors are stored and processed in global clouds. Services are often free of charge, but at the same time service providers' business model is based on the disclosure of users' intimate health information. Health data processed in PPD networks is not regulated by health care specific legislation. In PPD networks, there is no guarantee that stakeholders share same ethical principles with the user. Often service providers have own security and privacy policies and they rarely offer to the user possibilities to define own, or adapt existing privacy policies. This all raises huge ethical and privacy concerns. In this paper, the authors have analyzed privacy challenges in PPD networks from users' viewpoint using system modeling method and propose the principle "Personal Health Data under Personal Control" must generally be accepted at global level. Among possible implementation of this principle, the authors propose encryption, computer understandable privacy policies, and privacy labels or trust based privacy management methods. The latter can be realized using infrastructural trust calculation and monitoring service. A first step is to require the protection of personal health information and the principle proposed being internationally mandatory. This requires both regulatory and standardization activities, and the availability of open and certified software application which all service providers can implement. One of those applications should be the independent Trust verifier.

  12. Incentivizing Verifiable Privacy-Protection Mechanisms for Offline Crowdsensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Incentive mechanisms of crowdsensing have recently been intensively explored. Most of these mechanisms mainly focus on the standard economical goals like truthfulness and utility maximization. However, enormous privacy and security challenges need to be faced directly in real-life environments, such as cost privacies. In this paper, we investigate offline verifiable privacy-protection crowdsensing issues. We firstly present a general verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline homogeneous and heterogeneous sensing job model. In addition, we also propose a more complex verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline submodular sensing job model. The two mechanisms not only explore the private protection issues of users and platform, but also ensure the verifiable correctness of payments between platform and users. Finally, we demonstrate that the two mechanisms satisfy privacy-protection, verifiable correctness of payments and the same revenue as the generic one without privacy protection. Our experiments also validate that the two mechanisms are both scalable and efficient, and applicable for mobile devices in crowdsensing applications based on auctions, where the main incentive for the user is the remuneration.

  13. Incentivizing Verifiable Privacy-Protection Mechanisms for Offline Crowdsensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiajun; Liu, Ningzhong

    2017-09-04

    Incentive mechanisms of crowdsensing have recently been intensively explored. Most of these mechanisms mainly focus on the standard economical goals like truthfulness and utility maximization. However, enormous privacy and security challenges need to be faced directly in real-life environments, such as cost privacies. In this paper, we investigate offline verifiable privacy-protection crowdsensing issues. We firstly present a general verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline homogeneous and heterogeneous sensing job model. In addition, we also propose a more complex verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline submodular sensing job model. The two mechanisms not only explore the private protection issues of users and platform, but also ensure the verifiable correctness of payments between platform and users. Finally, we demonstrate that the two mechanisms satisfy privacy-protection, verifiable correctness of payments and the same revenue as the generic one without privacy protection. Our experiments also validate that the two mechanisms are both scalable and efficient, and applicable for mobile devices in crowdsensing applications based on auctions, where the main incentive for the user is the remuneration.

  14. Colourful Privacy: Designing Visible Privacy Settings with Teenage Hospital Patients

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velden, Maja; Machniak, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports from a qualitative study based on the analysis of semi-structured interviews and Participatory Design activities with hospitalised teenagers with chronic health challenges. We studied how teenage patients manage their online privacy, with a focus on the design and use of privacy settings. We found that the majority of participants preferred to visualise privacy settings through the use colours and to personalise access control. They also considered these necessary on more se...

  15. On the adoption of privacy-enhancing technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, T.; Ioannidis, C.; Pym, D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model, based on the work of Brock and Durlauf, which looks at how agents make choices between competing technologies, as a framework for exploring aspects of the economics of the adoption of privacy-enhancing technologies. In order to formulate a model of decision-making among choices of technologies by these agents, we consider the following: context, the setting in which and the purpose for which a given technology is used; requirement, the level of privacy that the technology ...

  16. Experimental Investigation of Aeroelastic Deformation of Slender Wings at Supersonic Speeds Using a Video Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A video-based photogrammetric model deformation system was established as a dedicated optical measurement technique at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This system was used to measure the wing twist due to aerodynamic loads of two supersonic commercial transport airplane models with identical outer mold lines but different aeroelastic properties. One model featured wings with deflectable leading- and trailing-edge flaps and internal channels to accommodate static pressure tube instrumentation. The wings of the second model were of single-piece construction without flaps or internal channels. The testing was performed at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.7, unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 million to 5.0 million, and angles of attack from -4 degrees to +10 degrees. The video model deformation system quantified the wing aeroelastic response to changes in the Mach number, Reynolds number concurrent with dynamic pressure, and angle of attack and effectively captured the differences in the wing twist characteristics between the two test articles.

  17. Video games

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  18. Enabling secure and privacy preserving communications in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    This brief focuses on the current research on security and privacy preservation in smart grids. Along with a review of the existing works, this brief includes fundamental system models, possible frameworks, useful performance, and future research directions. It explores privacy preservation demand response with adaptive key evolution, secure and efficient Merkle tree based authentication, and fine-grained keywords comparison in the smart grid auction market. By examining the current and potential security and privacy threats, the author equips readers to understand the developing issues in sma

  19. Online Learning via Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Abernethy, Jacob; Lee, Chansoo; McMillan, Audra; Tewari, Ambuj

    2017-01-01

    We explore the use of tools from differential privacy in the design and analysis of online learning algorithms. We develop a simple and powerful analysis technique for Follow-The-Leader type algorithms under privacy-preserving perturbations. This leads to the minimax optimal algorithm for k-sparse online PCA and the best-known perturbation based algorithm for the dense online PCA. We also show that the differential privacy is the core notion of algorithm stability in various online learning p...

  20. Video compressed sensing using iterative self-similarity modeling and residual reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yookyung; Oh, Han; Bilgin, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) has great potential for use in video data acquisition and storage because it makes it unnecessary to collect an enormous amount of data and to perform the computationally demanding compression process. We propose an effective CS algorithm for video that consists of two iterative stages. In the first stage, frames containing the dominant structure are estimated. These frames are obtained by thresholding the coefficients of similar blocks. In the second stage, refined residual frames are reconstructed from the original measurements and the measurements corresponding to the frames estimated in the first stage. These two stages are iterated until convergence. The proposed algorithm exhibits superior subjective image quality and significantly improves the peak-signal-to-noise ratio and the structural similarity index measure compared to other state-of-the-art CS algorithms.

  1. On the Development and Optimization of HEVC Video Decoders Using High-Level Dataflow Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jerbi, Khaled; Yviquel, Hervé; Sanchez, Alexandre; Renzi, Daniele; De Saint Jorre, Damien; Alberti, Claudio; Mattavelli, Marco; Raulet, Mickael

    2017-01-01

    International audience; With the emergence of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, a dataflow description of the decoder part was developed as part of the MPEG-B standard. This dataflow description presented modest framerate results which led us to propose methodolo-gies to improve the performance. In this paper, we introduce architectural improvements by exposing more parallelism using YUV and frame-based parallel decoding. We also present platform optimizations based on the use...

  2. The learning rate in three dimensional high definition video assisted microvascular anastomosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsougiani, Dimitra; Hundepool, Caroline A; Bulstra, Liselotte F; Shin, Delaney M; Shin, Alexander Y; Bishop, Allen T

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) high definition (HD) video systems are changing microsurgical practice by providing stereoscopic imaging not only for the surgeon and first assistant using the binocular microscope, but also for others involved in the surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential to replace the binocular microscope for microarterial anastomoses and assess the rate of learning based on surgeons' experience. Two experienced and two novice microsurgeons performed a total of 88 rat femoral arterial anastomoses: 44 using a 3D HD video device ('Trenion', Carl Zeiss Meditech) and 44, a binocular microscope. We evaluated anastomosis time and modified OSATS scores as well as the subjects' preference for comfort, image adequacy and technical ease. Experienced microsurgeons showed a steep learning curve for anastomosis times with equivalent OSATS scores for both systems. However, prolonged anastomosis times were required when using the novel 3D-HD system rather than direct binocular vision. Comparable learning rates for anastomosis time were demonstrated for novice microsurgeons and modified OSATS scores did not differ between the different viewing technologies. All microsurgeons reported improved comfort for the 3D HD video system but found the image quality of the conventional microscope superior, facilitating technical ease. The present study demonstrates the potential of 3D HD video systems to replace current binocular microscopes, offering qualitatively-equivalent microvascular anastomosis with improved comfort for experienced microsurgeons. However, image quality was rated inferior with the 3D HD system resulting in prolonged anastomosis times. Microsurgical skill acquisition in novice microsurgeons was not influenced by the viewing system used. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. 3-D model-based frame interpolation for distributed video coding of static scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitre, Matthieu; Guillemot, Christine; Morin, Luce

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of side information extraction for distributed coding of videos captured by a camera moving in a 3-D static environment. Examples of targeted applications are augmented reality, remote-controlled robots operating in hazardous environments, or remote exploration by drones. It explores the benefits of the structure-from-motion paradigm for distributed coding of this type of video content. Two interpolation methods constrained by the scene geometry, based either on block matching along epipolar lines or on 3-D mesh fitting, are first developed. These techniques are based on a robust algorithm for sub-pel matching of feature points, which leads to semi-dense correspondences between key frames. However, their rate-distortion (RD) performances are limited by misalignments between the side information and the actual Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames due to the assumption of linear motion between key frames. To cope with this problem, two feature point tracking techniques are introduced, which recover the camera parameters of the WZ frames. A first technique, in which the frames remain encoded separately, performs tracking at the decoder and leads to significant RD performance gains. A second technique further improves the RD performances by allowing a limited tracking at the encoder. As an additional benefit, statistics on tracks allow the encoder to adapt the key frame frequency to the video motion content.

  4. Cognitive Privacy for Personal Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Radenkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Cognitive Privacy (CogPriv framework that improves privacy of data sharing between Personal Clouds for different application types and across heterogeneous networks. Depending on the behaviour of neighbouring network nodes, their estimated privacy levels, resource availability, and social network connectivity, each Personal Cloud may decide to use different transmission network for different types of data and privacy requirements. CogPriv is fully distributed, uses complex graph contacts analytics and multiple implicit novel heuristics, and combines these with smart probing to identify presence and behaviour of privacy compromising nodes in the network. Based on sensed local context and through cooperation with remote nodes in the network, CogPriv is able to transparently and on-the-fly change the network in order to avoid transmissions when privacy may be compromised. We show that CogPriv achieves higher end-to-end privacy levels compared to both noncognitive cellular network communication and state-of-the-art strategies based on privacy-aware adaptive social mobile networks routing for a range of experiment scenarios based on real-world user and network traces. CogPriv is able to adapt to varying network connectivity and maintain high quality of service while managing to keep low data exposure for a wide range of privacy leakage levels in the infrastructure.

  5. Investigating How German Biology Teachers Use Three-Dimensional Physical Models in Classroom Instruction: a Video Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sonja; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2017-07-01

    To obtain a general understanding of science, model use as part of National Education Standards is important for instruction. Model use can be characterized by three aspects: (1) the characteristics of the model, (2) the integration of the model into instruction, and (3) the use of models to foster scientific reasoning. However, there were no empirical results describing the implementation of National Education Standards in science instruction concerning the use of models. Therefore, the present study investigated the implementation of different aspects of model use in German biology instruction. Two biology lessons on the topic neurobiology in grade nine of 32 biology teachers were videotaped (N = 64 videos). These lessons were analysed using an event-based coding manual according to three aspects of model described above. Rasch analysis of the coded categories was conducted and showed reliable measurement. In the first analysis, we identified 68 lessons where a total of 112 different models were used. The in-depth analysis showed that special aspects of an elaborate model use according to several categories of scientific reasoning were rarely implemented in biology instruction. A critical reflection of the used model (N = 25 models; 22.3%) and models to demonstrate scientific reasoning (N = 26 models; 23.2%) were seldom observed. Our findings suggest that pre-service biology teacher education and professional development initiatives in Germany have to focus on both aspects.

  6. Privacy vs. Reward in Indoor Location-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Kassem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of indoor localization technology, indoor location-based services (ILBS are gaining popularity. They, however, accompany privacy concerns. ILBS providers track the users’ mobility to learn more about their behavior, and then provide them with improved and personalized services. Our survey of 200 individuals highlighted their concerns about this tracking for potential leakage of their personal/private traits, but also showed their willingness to accept reduced tracking for improved service. In this paper, we propose PR-LBS (Privacy vs. Reward for Location-Based Service, a system that addresses these seemingly conflicting requirements by balancing the users’ privacy concerns and the benefits of sharing location information in indoor location tracking environments. PR-LBS relies on a novel location-privacy criterion to quantify the privacy risks pertaining to sharing indoor location information. It also employs a repeated play model to ensure that the received service is proportionate to the privacy risk. We implement and evaluate PR-LBS extensively with various real-world user mobility traces. Results show that PR-LBS has low overhead, protects the users’ privacy, and makes a good tradeoff between the quality of service for the users and the utility of shared location data for service providers.

  7. Categorizing Video Game Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...... they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio....

  8. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  9. USO DO PECS ASSOCIADO AO VIDEO MODELING NA CRIANÇA COM SÍNDROME DE DOWN

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES, Viviane; CAMPOS, Juliane Aparecida de Paula Perez; ALMEIDA, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO A Comunicação Suplementar e Alternativa (CSA) é uma área da tecnologia assistiva que busca facilitar a participação das pessoas nos vários contextos comunicativos. Há uma variedade de estratégias em CSA e uma delas é o Sistema de Comunicação por Troca de Figuras (PECS) que propõe desenvolver as habilidades de comunicação em pessoas com necessidades complexas de comunicação. Associado à aplicação do PECS, algumas pesquisas tem demonstrado os benefícios do uso do Video Modeling (VM) que ...

  10. Seizures in the intrahippocampal kainic acid epilepsy model: characterization using long-term video-EEG monitoring in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedt, R; Van Dycke, A; Van Melkebeke, D; De Smedt, T; Claeys, P; Wyckhuys, T; Vonck, K; Wadman, W; Boon, P

    2009-05-01

    Intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats evokes a status epilepticus (SE) and leads to spontaneous seizures. However to date, precise electroencephalographic (EEG) and clinical characterization of spontaneous seizures in this epilepsy model using long-term video-EEG monitoring has not been performed. Rats were implanted with bipolar hippocampal depth electrodes and a cannula for the injection of KA (0.4 lg /0.2 ll) in the right hippocampus. Video-EEG monitoring was used to determine habitual parameters of spontaneous seizures such as seizure frequency, severity, progression and day-night rhythms. Spontaneous seizures were detected in all rats with 13 out of 15 animals displaying seizures during the first eight weeks after SE. A considerable fraction (35%) of the spontaneous seizures did not generalize secondarily. Seizure frequency was quite variable and the majority of the KA treated animals had less than one seizure per day. A circadian rhythm was observed in all rats that showed sufficient seizures per day. This study shows that the characteristics of spontaneous seizures in the intrahippocampal KA model display many similarities to other SE models and human temporal lobe epilepsy.

  11. The Use of Model Matching Video Analysis and Computational Simulation to Study the Ankle Sprain Injury Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tik-Pui Fong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lateral ankle sprains continue to be the most common injury sustained by athletes and create an annual healthcare burden of over $4 billion in the U.S. alone. Foot inversion is suspected in these cases, but the mechanism of injury remains unclear. While kinematics and kinetics data are crucial in understanding the injury mechanisms, ligament behaviour measures – such as ligament strains – are viewed as the potential causal factors of ankle sprains. This review article demonstrates a novel methodology that integrates model matching video analyses with computational simulations in order to investigate injury-producing events for a better understanding of such injury mechanisms. In particular, ankle joint kinematics from actual injury incidents were deduced by model matching video analyses and then input into a generic computational model based on rigid bone surfaces and deformable ligaments of the ankle so as to investigate the ligament strains that accompany these sprain injuries. These techniques may have the potential for guiding ankle sprain prevention strategies and targeted rehabilitation therapies.

  12. Security Vs. Liberty: How to Measure Privacy Costs in Domestic Surveillance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    with video , infrared imagery, and multispectral sensors, collect their biometric signatures, uniquely identify them, and presumably provide a...to include video , agile 105 Ibid., 9. 106 Ibid., 10. 107 Ibid., 10–11. 108 Ibid., 11. 109 Ibid., A-21. 25...maintain the same level of privacy intended by the framers of the Constitution. Chapter III concluded that a person exhibits a subjective expectation of

  13. Privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin; Reiter, Michael K; Ahalt, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Record linkage to integrate uncoordinated databases is critical in biomedical research using Big Data. Balancing privacy protection against the need for high quality record linkage requires a human-machine hybrid system to safely manage uncertainty in the ever changing streams of chaotic Big Data. In the computer science literature, private record linkage is the most published area. It investigates how to apply a known linkage function safely when linking two tables. However, in practice, the linkage function is rarely known. Thus, there are many data linkage centers whose main role is to be the trusted third party to determine the linkage function manually and link data for research via a master population list for a designated region. Recently, a more flexible computerized third-party linkage platform, Secure Decoupled Linkage (SDLink), has been proposed based on: (1) decoupling data via encryption, (2) obfuscation via chaffing (adding fake data) and universe manipulation; and (3) minimum information disclosure via recoding. We synthesize this literature to formalize a new framework for privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL) with tractable privacy and utility properties and then analyze the literature using this framework. Human-based third-party linkage centers for privacy preserving record linkage are the accepted norm internationally. We find that a computer-based third-party platform that can precisely control the information disclosed at the micro level and allow frequent human interaction during the linkage process, is an effective human-machine hybrid system that significantly improves on the linkage center model both in terms of privacy and utility.

  14. You are who you play you are: Modeling Player Traits from Video Game Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tekofsky, Shoshannah

    2017-01-01

    You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom. There is even a sweet spot where it all comes together around 20 years of age. At least, as far as game performance goes among 13,000 players of a shooter game like Battlefield 3. When we look at g...

  15. An improved mixture-of-Gaussians background model with frame difference and blob tracking in video stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Ling, Miaogen

    2014-01-01

    Modeling background and segmenting moving objects are significant techniques for computer vision applications. Mixture-of-Gaussians (MoG) background model is commonly used in foreground extraction in video steam. However considering the case that the objects enter the scenery and stay for a while, the foreground extraction would fail as the objects stay still and gradually merge into the background. In this paper, we adopt a blob tracking method to cope with this situation. To construct the MoG model more quickly, we add frame difference method to the foreground extracted from MoG for very crowded situations. What is more, a new shadow removal method based on RGB color space is proposed.

  16. An Improved Mixture-of-Gaussians Background Model with Frame Difference and Blob Tracking in Video Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling background and segmenting moving objects are significant techniques for computer vision applications. Mixture-of-Gaussians (MoG background model is commonly used in foreground extraction in video steam. However considering the case that the objects enter the scenery and stay for a while, the foreground extraction would fail as the objects stay still and gradually merge into the background. In this paper, we adopt a blob tracking method to cope with this situation. To construct the MoG model more quickly, we add frame difference method to the foreground extracted from MoG for very crowded situations. What is more, a new shadow removal method based on RGB color space is proposed.

  17. Story Lab: Student Data Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Student data privacy is an increasingly high-profile--and controversial--issue that touches schools and families across the country. There are stories to tell in virtually every community. About three dozen states have passed legislation addressing student data privacy in the past two years, and eight different proposals were floating around…

  18. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has undertaken and completed a... Act (PA), the CIA has undertaken and completed a review of its public PA regulations. As a result of...

  19. 78 FR 73466 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... CORPORATION 22 CFR Part 707 Privacy Act AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation. ACTION: Notice of... (``OPIC'') Privacy Act (``PA'') regulations by making substantive and administrative changes. These... confidential or inappropriate for public disclosure. Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) Pursuant...

  20. Privacy Law and Print Photojournalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhouse, Caroline Dow

    Reviews of publications about privacy law, of recent court actions, and of interviews with newspaper photographers and attorneys indicate that torts of privacy often conflict with the freedoms to publish and to gather news. Although some guidelines have already been established (about running distorted pictures, "stealing" pictures, taking…

  1. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    . To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...

  2. Privacy and the News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    States that the right of the public to know and the right of the individual to privacy are inherently in conflict. Examines the relationship between privacy law and the press. Observes that conditions with the birth of new electronic media are similar to those of a century ago, when two lawyers sued for relief from aggressive journalists. (PA)

  3. Money is privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Charles M.; McAndrews, James; Roberds, William

    2004-01-01

    An extensive literature in monetary theory has emphasized the role of money as a record-keeping device. Money assumes this role in situations where using credit would be too costly, and some might argue that this role will diminish as the cost of information, and thus the cost of credit-based transactions, continues to fall. ; In this paper we investigate another use for money: the provision of privacy. That is, a money purchase does not identify the purchaser while a credit purchase does. In...

  4. Performing privacy in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Albrechtslund, Anders; Andersen, Lars Bo

    . School life involves a wide range of technologies, including smartphones, online communication platforms between teachers and parents, and social media. These and other surveillance-enabling services all contribute to the tracking of and by school children and shape their perceptions of privacy (Monahan....... Rutgers University Press. Selwyn, N. (2010). Schools and Schooling in the Digital Age: A Critical Analysis. Routledge. Taylor, E. (2013). Surveillance Schools: Security, Discipline and Control in Contemporary Education. Palgrave Macmillan UK. Taylor, E., & Rooney, T. (2016). Surveillance Futures: Social...

  5. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  6. Quo vadis, data privacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Society can gain much value from Big Data. We can study census data to learn where to allocate public resources, medical records from hospitals to fight diseases, or data about students and teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of various approaches to learning and teaching. In all of these scenarios, we need to limit statistical disclosure: we want to release accurate statistics about the data while preserving the privacy of the individuals who contributed it. This paper gives an overview of recent advances and open challenges in the field, focusing on methods that probably limit how much an adversary can learn from a data release. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Video Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2016-01-01

    This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...

  8. Conceptual model for the design of a serious video game promoting self-management among youth with type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games are a popular form of entertainment. Serious video games for health attempt to use entertainment to promote health behavior change. When designed within a framework informed by behavioral science and supported by commercial game-design principles, serious video games for health have the ...

  9. User Privacy in RFID Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singelée, Dave; Seys, Stefaan

    Wireless RFID networks are getting deployed at a rapid pace and have already entered the public space on a massive scale: public transport cards, the biometric passport, office ID tokens, customer loyalty cards, etc. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customers and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of the end-users. The lack of protection mechanisms being deployed could potentially result in a privacy leakage of personal data. Furthermore, there is the emerging threat of location privacy. In this paper, we will show some practical attack scenarios and illustrates some of them with cases that have received press coverage. We will present the main challenges of enhancing privacy in RFID networks and evaluate some solutions proposed in literature. The main advantages and shortcomings will be briefly discussed. Finally, we will give an overview of some academic and industrial research initiatives on RFID privacy.

  10. Preserving Differential Privacy for Similarity Measurement in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Seng Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in both sensor technologies and network infrastructures have encouraged the development of smart environments to enhance people’s life and living styles. However, collecting and storing user’s data in the smart environments pose severe privacy concerns because these data may contain sensitive information about the subject. Hence, privacy protection is now an emerging issue that we need to consider especially when data sharing is essential for analysis purpose. In this paper, we consider the case where two agents in the smart environment want to measure the similarity of their collected or stored data. We use similarity coefficient function FSC as the measurement metric for the comparison with differential privacy model. Unlike the existing solutions, our protocol can facilitate more than one request to compute FSC without modifying the protocol. Our solution ensures privacy protection for both the inputs and the computed FSC results.

  11. Preserving differential privacy for similarity measurement in smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kok-Seng; Kim, Myung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Advances in both sensor technologies and network infrastructures have encouraged the development of smart environments to enhance people's life and living styles. However, collecting and storing user's data in the smart environments pose severe privacy concerns because these data may contain sensitive information about the subject. Hence, privacy protection is now an emerging issue that we need to consider especially when data sharing is essential for analysis purpose. In this paper, we consider the case where two agents in the smart environment want to measure the similarity of their collected or stored data. We use similarity coefficient function (F SC) as the measurement metric for the comparison with differential privacy model. Unlike the existing solutions, our protocol can facilitate more than one request to compute F SC without modifying the protocol. Our solution ensures privacy protection for both the inputs and the computed F SC results.

  12. Perceived Speech Privacy in Computer Simulated Open-plan Offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Claudiu B.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    In open plan offices the lack of speech privacy between the workstations is one of the major acoustic problems. Improving the speech privacy in an open plan design is therefore the main concern for a successful open plan environment. The project described in this paper aimed to find an objective...... parameter that correlates well with the perceived degree of speech privacy and to derive a clear method for evaluating the acoustic conditions in open plan offices. Acoustic measurements were carried out in an open plan office, followed by data analysis at the Acoustic Department, DTU. A computer model...... of the actual office was developed using the ODEON room acoustic software, and this allowed a systematic investigation of the possible influence of various acoustic conditions on the speech privacy. Four different versions of acoustic treatment of the office were used and three different distances from...

  13. New Collaborative Filtering Algorithms Based on SVD++ and Differential Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzheng Xian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative filtering technology has been widely used in the recommender system, and its implementation is supported by the large amount of real and reliable user data from the big-data era. However, with the increase of the users’ information-security awareness, these data are reduced or the quality of the data becomes worse. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is one of the common matrix factorization methods used in collaborative filtering, which introduces the bias information of users and items and is realized by using algebraic feature extraction. The derivative model SVD++ of SVD achieves better predictive accuracy due to the addition of implicit feedback information. Differential privacy is defined very strictly and can be proved, which has become an effective measure to solve the problem of attackers indirectly deducing the personal privacy information by using background knowledge. In this paper, differential privacy is applied to the SVD++ model through three approaches: gradient perturbation, objective-function perturbation, and output perturbation. Through theoretical derivation and experimental verification, the new algorithms proposed can better protect the privacy of the original data on the basis of ensuring the predictive accuracy. In addition, an effective scheme is given that can measure the privacy protection strength and predictive accuracy, and a reasonable range for selection of the differential privacy parameter is provided.

  14. A Generic Privacy Quantification Framework for Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zutao

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the concerns about the privacy for the electronic data collected by government agencies, organizations, and industries are increasing. They include individual privacy and knowledge privacy. Privacy-preserving data publishing is a research branch that preserves the privacy while, at the same time, withholding useful information in…

  15. Effective evaluation of privacy protection techniques in visible and thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Tahir; Berg, Amanda; Ferryman, James; Ahlberg, Jörgen; Felsberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Privacy protection may be defined as replacing the original content in an image region with a (less intrusive) content having modified target appearance information to make it less recognizable by applying a privacy protection technique. Indeed, the development of privacy protection techniques also needs to be complemented with an established objective evaluation method to facilitate their assessment and comparison. Generally, existing evaluation methods rely on the use of subjective judgments or assume a specific target type in image data and use target detection and recognition accuracies to assess privacy protection. An annotation-free evaluation method that is neither subjective nor assumes a specific target type is proposed. It assesses two key aspects of privacy protection: "protection" and "utility." Protection is quantified as an appearance similarity, and utility is measured as a structural similarity between original and privacy-protected image regions. We performed an extensive experimentation using six challenging datasets (having 12 video sequences), including a new dataset (having six sequences) that contains visible and thermal imagery. The new dataset is made available online for the community. We demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method by evaluating six image-based privacy protection techniques and also show comparisons of the proposed method over existing methods.

  16. Real-time differentiation of adenomatous and hyperplastic diminutive colorectal polyps during analysis of unaltered videos of standard colonoscopy using a deep learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael F; Chapados, Nicolas; Soudan, Florian; Oertel, Clemens; Linares Pérez, Milagros; Kelly, Raymond; Iqbal, Nadeem; Chandelier, Florent; Rex, Douglas K

    2017-10-24

    In general, academic but not community endoscopists have demonstrated adequate endoscopic differentiation accuracy to make the 'resect and discard' paradigm for diminutive colorectal polyps workable. Computer analysis of video could potentially eliminate the obstacle of interobserver variability in endoscopic polyp interpretation and enable widespread acceptance of 'resect and discard'. We developed an artificial intelligence (AI) model for real-time assessment of endoscopic video images of colorectal polyps. A deep convolutional neural network model was used. Only narrow band imaging video frames were used, split equally between relevant multiclasses. Unaltered videos from routine exams not specifically designed or adapted for AI classification were used to train and validate the model. The model was tested on a separate series of 125 videos of consecutively encountered diminutive polyps that were proven to be adenomas or hyperplastic polyps. The AI model works with a confidence mechanism and did not generate sufficient confidence to predict the histology of 19 polyps in the test set, representing 15% of the polyps. For the remaining 106 diminutive polyps, the accuracy of the model was 94% (95% CI 86% to 97%), the sensitivity for identification of adenomas was 98% (95% CI 92% to 100%), specificity was 83% (95% CI 67% to 93%), negative predictive value 97% and positive predictive value 90%. An AI model trained on endoscopic video can differentiate diminutive adenomas from hyperplastic polyps with high accuracy. Additional study of this programme in a live patient clinical trial setting to address resect and discard is planned. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  18. Surveillance Video Synopsis in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Xie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance videos contain a considerable amount of data, wherein interesting information to the user is sparsely distributed. Researchers construct video synopsis that contain key information extracted from a surveillance video for efficient browsing and analysis. Geospatial–temporal information of a surveillance video plays an important role in the efficient description of video content. Meanwhile, current approaches of video synopsis lack the introduction and analysis of geospatial-temporal information. Owing to the preceding problems mentioned, this paper proposes an approach called “surveillance video synopsis in GIS”. Based on an integration model of video moving objects and GIS, the virtual visual field and the expression model of the moving object are constructed by spatially locating and clustering the trajectory of the moving object. The subgraphs of the moving object are reconstructed frame by frame in a virtual scene. Results show that the approach described in this paper comprehensively analyzed and created fusion expression patterns between video dynamic information and geospatial–temporal information in GIS and reduced the playback time of video content.

  19. Trust information-based privacy architecture for ubiquitous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka Sakari; Blobel, Bernd; Seppälä, Antto; Nykänen, Pirkko

    2013-10-08

    Ubiquitous health is defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems that offers health services independent of time and location to a data subject (DS). The network takes place in open and unsecure information space. It is created and managed by the DS who sets rules that regulate the way personal health information is collected and used. Compared to health care, it is impossible in ubiquitous health to assume the existence of a priori trust between the DS and service providers and to produce privacy using static security services. In ubiquitous health features, business goals and regulations systems followed often remain unknown. Furthermore, health care-specific regulations do not rule the ways health data is processed and shared. To be successful, ubiquitous health requires novel privacy architecture. The goal of this study was to develop a privacy management architecture that helps the DS to create and dynamically manage the network and to maintain information privacy. The architecture should enable the DS to dynamically define service and system-specific rules that regulate the way subject data is processed. The architecture should provide to the DS reliable trust information about systems and assist in the formulation of privacy policies. Furthermore, the architecture should give feedback upon how systems follow the policies of DS and offer protection against privacy and trust threats existing in ubiquitous environments. A sequential method that combines methodologies used in system theory, systems engineering, requirement analysis, and system design was used in the study. In the first phase, principles, trust and privacy models, and viewpoints were selected. Thereafter, functional requirements and services were developed on the basis of a careful analysis of existing research published in journals and conference proceedings. Based on principles, models, and requirements, architectural components and their interconnections were developed using system

  20. Prior Negative Experience, Online Privacy Concerns and Intent to Disclose Personal Information in Chinese Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei “Chris†Yang

    2014-01-01

    A paper survey of 489 Chinese college students was conducted in spring, 2012 to test a conceptual model of online information disclosure in social media. It shows that young Chinese SNS users' prior negative experience of online disclosure significantly increased their online privacy concerns and their perceived risk. Their online privacy concerns undermined their trust of online companies, marketers and laws to protect privacy and elevated their perceived risk. Their trust strongly predicted...

  1. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  2. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C...

  3. Employee Privacy Rights: A Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Ira Michael; Olsen, Harry

    Employee privacy rights are considered, along with practical problems and permissible parameters of employer activity. Included is a state-by-state analysis of the status of workplace privacy. Definitions are offered of "invasion of privacy," with attention to four types of privacy invasions: (1) placing someone in a "false light," (2) the public…

  4. Rethinking Privacy: A Feminist Approach to Privacy Rights after Snowden

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Tim Cook’s message to Apple customers, regarding Apple’s refusal to provide the FBI with a backdoor to the San Bernardino shooter’s iPhone, typifies the corporate appropriation of privacy rights discourse. In light of this appropriation, I propose a reconsideration of the sovereign subject presupposed by privacy rights discourse through a comparative approach to the US and EU’s treatments of privacy rights. I then apply feminist theories of the non-sovereign subject, which challenge liberal d...

  5. Augmenting real-time video with virtual models for enhanced visualization for simulation, teaching, training and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Michael; Bensch, Alexander; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Linte, Cristian A.

    2015-03-01

    In minimally invasive surgical interventions direct visualization of the target area is often not available. Instead, clinicians rely on images from various sources, along with surgical navigation systems for guidance. These spatial localization and tracking systems function much like the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) that we are all well familiar with. In this work we demonstrate how the video feed from a typical camera, which could mimic a laparoscopic or endoscopic camera used during an interventional procedure, can be used to identify the pose of the camera with respect to the viewed scene and augment the video feed with computer-generated information, such as rendering of internal anatomy not visible beyond the imaged surface, resulting in a simple augmented reality environment. This paper describes the software and hardware environment and methodology for augmenting the real world with virtual models extracted from medical images to provide enhanced visualization beyond the surface view achieved using traditional imaging. Following intrinsic and extrinsic camera calibration, the technique was implemented and demonstrated using a LEGO structure phantom, as well as a 3D-printed patient-specific left atrial phantom. We assessed the quality of the overlay according to fiducial localization, fiducial registration, and target registration errors, as well as the overlay offset error. Using the software extensions we developed in conjunction with common webcams it is possible to achieve tracking accuracy comparable to that seen with significantly more expensive hardware, leading to target registration errors on the order of 2 mm.

  6. Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on OpenCV Gaussian mixture model algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore

    2013-05-01

    The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.

  7. A Comparison of Least-to-Most Prompting and Video Modeling for Teaching Pretend Play Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulke-Kurkcuoglu, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare effectiveness and efficiency of least-to-most prompting and video modeling for teaching pretend play skills to children with autism spectrum disorder. The adapted alternating treatment model, a single-subject design, was used in the study. Three students, one girl and two boys, between the ages of 5-6…

  8. Modeling Skills, Signs and Lettering for Children with Down Syndrome, Autism and Other Severe Developmental Delays by Video Instruction in Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, G. B.; Freedman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses optimal strategies in teaching essential life and communication skills to children with Down syndrome, autism and other developmental delays. Evidence from the literature concerning the relative efficacy of hand-over-hand (self-modeling) in contrast to passive observational teaching techniques (e.g., video modeling) shows the…

  9. Advanced research in data privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the research work on data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies carried by the participants of the ARES project. ARES (Advanced Research in Privacy an Security, CSD2007-00004) has been one of the most important research projects funded by the Spanish Government in the fields of computer security and privacy. It is part of the now extinct CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010 program, a highly competitive program which aimed to advance knowledge and open new research lines among top Spanish research groups. The project started in 2007 and will finish this 2014. Composed by 6 research groups from 6 different institutions, it has gathered an important number of researchers during its lifetime. Among the work produced by the ARES project, one specific work package has been related to privacy. This books gathers works produced by members of the project related to data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies. The presented works not only summarize important research carried in the proje...

  10. Nursing professional facing patient privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel López Espuela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Privacy of patients admitted to the hospital is played down in favour of other needs considered more basic by the healthcare system and more related to the disease than to patients themselves. Situations and factors where privacy is damaged are frequent, but it is known that when these are avoided by professionals’ attitude, through strategies and different mechanisms, it becomes one of the most satisfactory elements to patients.Objectives: To identify and analyze situations and factors which affect privacy in hospital environment as well as the adaptation capacity of patients to them.Methodology: Phenomenological, qualitative research. By means of discussion groups with professionals, the following questions where answered: ‘What do professionals understand by privacy? Which situations and factors jeopardize it during the hospital stay? How do they think patients get adapted?Results: The concept of privacy is complex, personal and non-transferable. Situations in which it is jeopardized were divided in 5 main areas. Numerous behaviors regarding adaptation of patients to these were collected.Discussion: Although there is little nursery research referring to privacy and its defense in the professional-patient relationship field, concern about this aspect always shown by nursery staff stands out.As a conclussion, we observe the need to complement this research with the perception patients have about these same questions, establishing the importance they give to privacy.

  11. Know Stroke: Know the Signs, Act in Time Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radio PSAs » Videos and TV PSAs » Widgets » Infographics Health Professional Resources Campaign Partners Research Programs Español Research ... 830K) » Home | About the Campaign | Stroke Materials | Health Professional Resources | Campaign Partners | Research Programs | Contact | Disclaimer | Privacy | ...

  12. Robust video object cosegmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).

  13. A Privacy Manager for Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Siani; Shen, Yun; Mowbray, Miranda

    We describe a privacy manager for cloud computing, which reduces the risk to the cloud computing user of their private data being stolen or misused, and also assists the cloud computing provider to conform to privacy law. We describe different possible architectures for privacy management in cloud computing; give an algebraic description of obfuscation, one of the features of the privacy manager; and describe how the privacy manager might be used to protect private metadata of online photos.

  14. A secure data privacy preservation for on-demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhasarathan Chandramohan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper spotlights privacy and its obfuscation issues of intellectual, confidential information owned by insurance and finance sectors. Privacy risk in business era if authoritarians misuse secret information. Software interruptions in steeling digital data in the name of third party services. Liability in digital secrecy for the business continuity isolation, mishandling causing privacy breaching the vicinity and its preventive phenomenon is scrupulous in the cloud, where a huge amount of data is stored and maintained enormously. In this developing IT-world toward cloud, users privacy protection is becoming a big question , albeit cloud computing made changes in the computing field by increasing its effectiveness, efficiency and optimization of the service environment etc, cloud users data and their identity, reliability, maintainability and privacy may vary for different CPs (cloud providers. CP ensures that the user’s proprietary information is maintained more secretly with current technologies. More remarkable occurrence is even the cloud provider does not have suggestions regarding the information and the digital data stored and maintained globally anywhere in the cloud. The proposed system is one of the obligatory research issues in cloud computing. We came forward by proposing the Privacy Preserving Model to Prevent Digital Data Loss in the Cloud (PPM–DDLC. This proposal helps the CR (cloud requester/users to trust their proprietary information and data stored in the cloud.

  15. Probabilistic recognition of human faces from video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Saohua; Krüger, Volker; Chellappa, Rama

    2003-01-01

    Recognition of human faces using a gallery of still or video images and a probe set of videos is systematically investigated using a probabilistic framework. In still-to-video recognition, where the gallery consists of still images, a time series state space model is proposed to fuse temporal...... demonstrate that, due to the propagation of the identity variable over time, a degeneracy in posterior probability of the identity variable is achieved to give improved recognition. The gallery is generalized to videos in order to realize video-to-video recognition. An exemplar-based learning strategy...... of the identity variable produces the recognition result. The model formulation is very general and it allows a variety of image representations and transformations. Experimental results using videos collected by NIST/USF and CMU illustrate the effectiveness of this approach for both still-to-video and video...

  16. The Privacy Calculus: Mobile Apps and User Perceptions of Privacy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fife

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A continuing stream of new mobile data services are being released that rely upon the collection of personal data to support a business model. New technologies including facial recognition, sensors and Near Field Communications (NFC will increasingly become a part of everyday services and applications that challenge traditional concepts of individual privacy. The average person as well as the “tech‐savvy” mobile phone user may not yet be fully aware of the extent to which their privacy and security are being affected through their mobile activities and how comparable this situation is to personal computer usage. We investigate perceptions and usage of mobile data services that appear to have specific privacy and security sensitivities, specifically social networking,\tbanking/payments\tand\thealth‐related activities. Our annual survey of smartphone users in the U.S. and Japan is presented from 2011. This nationally representative survey data is used to show demographic and cultural differences, and substantiate our hypotheses about the links between use and privacy concerns

  17. Health data privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, G C; Kennan, S A

    1997-01-01

    How can the tradition of patient-provider confidentiality be preserved and still meet the changing information needs of insurers, employers, public health agencies, policy analysts, and researchers? As countries grapple with the issue of a patient's right to medical record privacy, actions that the U.S. takes in this area will set precedents and have implications for nearly every health care electronic transaction. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requires the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to recommend standards for electronic financial and administrative transactions. The HHS focused on the confidentially of patient's health care information, guided by five principles in developing recommendations: (1) Boundaries; (2) Security; (3) Consumer Control; (4) Accountability; and (5) Public Responsibility.

  18. Parasiteware: Unlocking Personal Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Garrie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Spyware presents a threat of privacy infringement to unassuming internet users irrespective of their country of citizenship. European legislation attempts to protect end-users from unethical processing of their personal data. Spyware technologies, however, skirts these laws and often break them in their entirety. Outlawing the spyware and strengthening the legal consent requirement to mine data are statutory solutions that can prevent spyware users from skirting the law. An internationally standardized technology education system for the judiciaries in Europe and the U.S. can help ensure that when spyware users do break the law, they cannot hide by escaping from one nation to another without being held accountable. Transnational improvements are necessary to remedy the global spyware epidemic.

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Press Room Ask a Doctor Sign In Privacy & Terms Contact Us Connect With Us: Press Room Ask a Doctor Sign In Privacy & Terms Contact Us © 2017 Parkinson's Foundation Miami: 200 SE ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... org Press Room Ask a Doctor Sign In Privacy & Terms Contact Us Connect With Us: Press Room Ask a Doctor Sign In Privacy & Terms Contact Us © 2018 Parkinson's Foundation Miami: 200 ...

  1. User aware video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerofsky, Louis; Jagannath, Abhijith; Reznik, Yuriy

    2015-03-01

    We describe the design of a video streaming system using adaptation to viewing conditions to reduce the bitrate needed for delivery of video content. A visual model is used to determine sufficient resolution needed under various viewing conditions. Sensors on a mobile device estimate properties of the viewing conditions, particularly the distance to the viewer. We leverage the framework of existing adaptive bitrate streaming systems such as HLS, Smooth Streaming or MPEG-DASH. The client rate selection logic is modified to include a sufficient resolution computed using the visual model and the estimated viewing conditions. Our experiments demonstrate significant bitrate savings compare to conventional streaming methods which do not exploit viewing conditions.

  2. Physical factors that influence patients’ privacy perception toward a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Ramli, Rusyaizila

    2018-01-01

    Background Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients’ perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients’ privacy. Methods We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients’ perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months. Results Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system. Conclusion Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy. PMID:29343963

  3. Akademisk video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet er...... der dog opstået nye muligheder og udfordringer i forhold til at formidle og distribuere forskningsresultater til forskellige målgrupper via video. Samtidig er klassiske metodologiske problematikker som forskerens positionering i forhold til det undersøgte stadig aktuelle. Både klassiske og nye...... problemstillinger diskuteres i kapitlet, som rammesætter diskussionen ud fra forskellige positioneringsmuligheder: formidler, historiefortæller, eller dialogist. Disse positioner relaterer sig til genrer inden for ’akademisk video’. Afslutningsvis præsenteres en metodisk værktøjskasse med redskaber til planlægning...

  4. Privacy Preserving Distributed Data Mining

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed data mining from privacy-sensitive multi-party data is likely to play an important role in the next generation of integrated vehicle health monitoring...

  5. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  6. Librarians, Civil Liberties and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Derek

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of current civil liberties issues in Australia with the status of similar issues in Britain and the United States. Included are political affiliation of government employees, censorship, rights of the individual, privacy, and freedom of information. (JAB)

  7. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  8. Privacy in Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raad, Elie; Chbeir, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks have become an important part of the online activities on the web and one of the most influencing media. Unconstrained by physical spaces, online social networks offer to web users new interesting means to communicate, interact, and socialize. While these networks make frequent data sharing and inter-user communications instantly possible, privacy-related issues are their obvious much discussed immediate consequences. Although the notion of privacy may take different fo...

  9. Lower bounds in differential privacy

    OpenAIRE

    De, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    This is a paper about private data analysis, in which a trusted curator holding a confidential database responds to real vector-valued queries. A common approach to ensuring privacy for the database elements is to add appropriately generated random noise to the answers, releasing only these {\\em noisy} responses. In this paper, we investigate various lower bounds on the noise required to maintain different kind of privacy guarantees.

  10. Security and privacy in biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Campisi, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    This important text/reference presents the latest secure and privacy-compliant techniques in automatic human recognition. Featuring viewpoints from an international selection of experts in the field, the comprehensive coverage spans both theory and practical implementations, taking into consideration all ethical and legal issues. Topics and features: presents a unique focus on novel approaches and new architectures for unimodal and multimodal template protection; examines signal processing techniques in the encrypted domain, security and privacy leakage assessment, and aspects of standardizati

  11. Target recognition and scene interpretation in image/video understanding systems based on network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-08-01

    Vision is only a part of a system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, which is an interpretation of visual information in terms of these knowledge models. These mechanisms provide a reliable recognition if the object is occluded or cannot be recognized as a whole. It is hard to split the entire system apart, and reliable solutions to the target recognition problems are possible only within the solution of a more generic Image Understanding Problem. Brain reduces informational and computational complexities, using implicit symbolic coding of features, hierarchical compression, and selective processing of visual information. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, is the most feasible for such models. It converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic structures, avoiding artificial precise computations of 3-dimensional models. Network-Symbolic Transformations derive abstract structures, which allows for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class. Active vision helps creating consistent models. Attention, separation of figure from ground and perceptual grouping are special kinds of network-symbolic transformations. Such Image/Video Understanding Systems will be reliably recognizing targets.

  12. Target recognition with image/video understanding systems based on active vision principle and network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-08-01

    Vision is only a part of a larger system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, which is an interpretation of visual information in terms of these knowledge models. This mechanism provides a reliable recognition if the target is occluded or cannot be recognized. It is hard to split the entire system apart, and reliable solutions to the target recognition problems are possible only within the solution of a more generic Image Understanding Problem. Brain reduces informational and computational complexities, using implicit symbolic coding of features, hierarchical compression, and selective processing of visual information. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic structures, avoiding artificial precise computations of 3-dimensional models. Logic of visual scenes can be captured in Network-Symbolic models and used for disambiguation of visual information. Network-Symbolic Transformations derive abstract structures, which allow for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class. Active vision helps build consistent, unambiguous models. Such Image/Video Understanding Systems will be able reliably recognizing targets in real-world conditions.

  13. High-speed video gait analysis reveals early and characteristic locomotor phenotypes in mouse models of neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisig, Daniel F; Kulic, Luka; Krüger, Maik; Wirth, Fabian; McAfoose, Jordan; Späni, Claudia; Gantenbein, Pascal; Derungs, Rebecca; Nitsch, Roger M; Welt, Tobias

    2016-09-15

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system frequently affect the locomotor system resulting in impaired movement and gait. In this study we performed a whole-body high-speed video gait analysis in three different mouse lines of neurodegenerative movement disorders to investigate the motor phenotype. Based on precise computerized motion tracking of all relevant joints and the tail, a custom-developed algorithm generated individual and comprehensive locomotor profiles consisting of 164 spatial and temporal parameters. Gait changes observed in the three models corresponded closely to the classical clinical symptoms described in these disorders: Muscle atrophy due to motor neuron loss in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice led to gait characterized by changes in hind-limb movement and positioning. In contrast, locomotion in huntingtin N171-82Q mice modeling Huntington's disease with basal ganglia damage was defined by hyperkinetic limb movements and rigidity of the trunk. Harlequin mutant mice modeling cerebellar degeneration showed gait instability and extensive changes in limb positioning. Moreover, model specific gait parameters were identified and were shown to be more sensitive than conventional motor tests. Altogether, this technique provides new opportunities to decipher underlying disease mechanisms and test novel therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Handbook of video databases design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONIntroduction to Video DatabasesOge Marques and Borko FurhtVIDEO MODELING AND REPRESENTATIONModeling Video Using Input/Output Markov Models with Application to Multi-Modal Event DetectionAshutosh Garg, Milind R. Naphade, and Thomas S. HuangStatistical Models of Video Structure and SemanticsNuno VasconcelosFlavor: A Language for Media RepresentationAlexandros Eleftheriadis and Danny HongIntegrating Domain Knowledge and Visual Evidence to Support Highlight Detection in Sports VideosJuergen Assfalg, Marco Bertini, Carlo Colombo, and Alberto Del BimboA Generic Event Model and Sports Vid

  15. Negotiation for Strategic Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Afiouni, Einar Nour; Øvrelid, Leif Julian

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to examine the possibilities of using game theoretic concepts and multi-agent systems in modern video games with real time demands. We have implemented a multi-issue negotiation system for the strategic video game Civilization IV, evaluating different negotiation techniques with a focus on the use of opponent modeling to improve negotiation results.

  16. A Video Analysis of Intra- and Interprofessional Leadership Behaviors Within "The Burns Suite": Identifying Key Leadership Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Saadeddin, Munir; Loon, Mark; Kneebone, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is particularly important in complex highly interprofessional health care contexts involving a number of staff, some from the same specialty (intraprofessional), and others from different specialties (interprofessional). The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel simulation tool to deliver interprofessional and teamwork training. It is unclear which leadership behaviors are the most important in an interprofessional burns resuscitation scenario, and whether they can be modeled on to current leadership theory. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive video analysis of leadership behaviors within TBS. A total of 3 burns resuscitation simulations within TBS were recorded. The video analysis was grounded-theory inspired. Using predefined criteria, actions/interactions deemed as leadership behaviors were identified. Using an inductive iterative process, 8 main leadership behaviors were identified. Cohen's κ coefficient was used to measure inter-rater agreement and calculated as κ = 0.7 (substantial agreement). Each video was watched 4 times, focusing on 1 of the 4 team members per viewing (senior surgeon, senior nurse, trainee surgeon, and trainee nurse). The frequency and types of leadership behavior of each of the 4 team members were recorded. Statistical significance to assess any differences was assessed using analysis of variance, whereby a p Leadership behaviors were triangulated with verbal cues and actions from the videos. All 3 scenarios were successfully completed. The mean scenario length was 22 minutes. A total of 362 leadership behaviors were recorded from the 12 participants. The most evident leadership behaviors of all team members were adhering to guidelines (which effectively equates to following Advanced Trauma and Life Support/Emergency Management of Severe Burns resuscitation guidelines and hence "maintaining standards"), followed by making decisions. Although in terms of total

  17. Fine and Gross Motor Task Performance When Using Computer-Based Video Models by Students with Autism and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Swindle, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of video modeling on the fine and gross motor task performance by three students with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability (Group 1) and by three students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (Group 2). Using a multiple probe design across three sets of tasks, the study examined the…

  18. The Use of Video Modeling with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Increase Independent Communicative Initiations in Preschoolers with Autism and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Smith, Catherine C.; Cornett, Ashlee; Coleman, Mari Beth

    2012-01-01

    The use of video modeling (VM) procedures in conjunction with the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to increase independent communicative initiations in preschool-age students was evaluated in this study. The four participants were 3-year-old children with limited communication skills prior to the intervention. Two of the students had…

  19. Video Self-Modeling in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study Validating Prerequisite Skills and Extending the Utilization of VSM across Skill Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Robert L.; Casey, Laura B.; Robertson, Janna Siegel; Buggey, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Given the recent interest in the use of video self-modeling (VSM) to provide instruction within iPod apps and other pieces of handheld mobile assistive technologies, investigating appropriate prerequisite skills for effective use of this intervention is particularly timely and relevant. To provide additional information regarding the efficacy of…

  20. Science Teacher Efficacy and Extrinsic Factors toward Professional Development Using Video Games in a Design-Based Research Model: The Next Generation of STEM Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based…

  1. Using a Hero as a Model in Video Instruction to Improve the Daily Living Skills of an Elementary-Aged Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the impact of video hero modelling (VHM) on the daily living skills of an elementary-aged student with autism spectrum disorder. The VHM, in which a character much admired by the student exhibited a correct response, was shown to the participant immediately before the situation where he needed to exhibit the…

  2. Factors and Predictors of Online Security and Privacy Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bubaš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Assumptions and habits regarding computer and Internet use are among the major factors which influence online privacy and security of Internet users. In our study a survey was performed on 312 subjects (college students who are Internet users with IT skills that investigated how assumptions and habits of Internet users are related to their online security and privacy. The following four factors of online security and privacy related behaviors were revealed in factor analysis: F1 – conscientiousness in the maintenance of the operating system, upgrading of the Internet browser and use of antivirus and antispyware programs; F2 –engagement in risky and careless online activities with lack of concern for personal online privacy; F3 – disbelief that privacy violations and security threats represent possible problems; F4 – lack of fear regarding potential privacy and security threats with no need for change in personal online behavior. Statistically significant correlations were found between some of the discovered factors on the one side, and criteria variables occurrence of malicious code (C1 and data loss on the home computer (C2 on the other. In addition, a regression analysis was performed which revealed that the potentially risky online behaviors of Internet users were associated with the two criteria variables. To properly interpret the results of correlation and regression analyses a conceptual model was developed of the potential causal relationships between the behavior of Internet users and their experiences with online security threats. An additional study was also performed which partly confirmed the conceptual model, as well as the factors of online security and privacy related behaviors.

  3. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real W...

  4. MPEG-4 video compression optimization research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianmin

    2011-10-01

    In order to make a large amount of video data compression and effectively with limited network bandwidth to transfer smoothly, this article using the MPEG-4 compression technology to compress video stream. In the network transmission, according to the characteristics of video stream, for transmission technology to carry out full analysis and optimization, and combining current network bandwidth status and protocol, to establish one network model with transferring and playback video streaming effectively. Through a combination of these two areas, significantly improved compression and storage of video files and network transmission efficiency, increased video processing power.

  5. Preventing Back Injuries in Hospital Settings: The Effects of Video Modeling on Safe Patient Lifting by Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Don; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Austin, John

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated video scoring and feedback about scoring as a safety intervention among 6 nursing staff. The dependent variable was safety behavior on one-person transfers. Following baseline, 5 nursing staff participated in an information phase. A video scoring phase was then introduced for all 6. A feedback phase was added for 2…

  6. Interactive and Lightweight Mechanisms to Coordinate Interpersonal Privacy in Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Natalia; Boer, Laurens; Markopoulos, Panos

    In this paper we describe three mechanisms that enable people to coordinate their interaction needs with others in their social network. The proposed designs are based on the Privacy Grounding Model [4] that argues the need for lightweight and interactive coordination mechanisms to support the dynamic and dialectic nature of interpersonal privacy coordination.

  7. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A

    2005-01-01

    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en

  8. SE3000 Summer AY 14 Systems Engineering Colloquium, Total Ownership Cost Modeling [video

    OpenAIRE

    Madachy, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Naval Postgraduate School Graduate School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Total Ownership Cost Modeling presented by Raymond J. Madachy, Associate Professor of Systems Engineering at the Naval Postgraduate School. Total Ownership Cost (TOC) is the sum cost of system acquisition, development, and operations including direct and indirect costs. In the DoD, cost modeling is needed to enable tradespace analysis of affordability with other system ilities. Parametric cost models will be overv...

  9. VOIP for Telerehabilitation: A Risk Analysis for Privacy, Security and HIPAA Compliance: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J.M. Watzlaf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous publication the authors developed a privacy and security checklist to evaluate Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP videoconferencing software used between patients and therapists to provide telerehabilitation (TR therapy.  In this paper, the privacy and security checklist that was previously developed is used to perform a risk analysis of the top ten VoIP videoconferencing software to determine if their policies provide answers to the privacy and security checklist. Sixty percent of the companies claimed they do not listen into video-therapy calls unless maintenance is needed. Only 50% of the companies assessed use some form of encryption, and some did not specify what type of encryption was used. Seventy percent of the companies assessed did not specify any form of auditing on their servers. Statistically significant differences across company websites were found for sharing information outside of the country (p=0.010, encryption (p=0.006, and security evaluation (p=0.005. Healthcare providers considering use of VoIP software for TR services may consider using this privacy and security checklist before deciding to incorporate a VoIP software system for TR.  Other videoconferencing software that is specific for TR with strong encryption, good access controls, and hardware that meets privacy and security standards should be considered for use with TR.Keywords: Voice over the Internet Protocol (VOIP, telerehabilitation, HIPAA, privacy, security, evaluation

  10. SnapVideo: Personalized Video Generation for a Sightseeing Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.

  11. Privacy in the Genomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAVEED, MUHAMMAD; AYDAY, ERMAN; CLAYTON, ELLEN W.; FELLAY, JACQUES; GUNTER, CARL A.; HUBAUX, JEAN-PIERRE; MALIN, BRADLEY A.; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward. PMID:26640318

  12. Anatomical Knowledge Gain through a Clay-Modeling Exercise Compared to Live and Video Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…

  13. Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Schepens-Franke, A.N.; Bergman, E.M.; Donders, R.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two

  14. 76 FR 67763 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National...

  15. 76 FR 64112 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Revisions of NASA Appendices to Privacy Act System of... publishes with the Agency's systems of records under the Privacy Act of 1974. This notice publishes those...

  16. 76 FR 64115 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of the retirement of one Privacy Act system of records notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, NASA is giving notice that it proposes to...

  17. 76 FR 64114 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National...

  18. 75 FR 81205 - Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice to Revise Privacy Act Systems of Records. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proposes to revise two Privacy Act Systems of...

  19. 78 FR 77719 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is...

  20. The privacy coach: Supporting customer privacy in the internet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, E.G.; Hoepman, J.H.; Hof, C. van 't; Kranenburg, R. van; Smits, D.; Wisman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Privacy Coach is an application running on a mobile phone that supports customers in making privacy decisions when confronted with RFID tags. The approach we take to increase customer privacy is a radical departure from the mainstream research efforts that focus on implementing privacy enhancing

  1. Structured and Collaborative Signal Models: Theory and Applications in Image, Video, and Audio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    delivered a number of presentations at universities, including February Fourier Talks (FFT) at the Norbert Wiener Center, University of Maryland... voice separation from monaural recordings using robust low-rank modeling, International Society for Music In- formation Retrieval Conference, Porto

  2. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...

  3. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...

  4. The association of Self-concept with Substance Abuse and Problematic Use of Video Games in University Students: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón Cuberos, Ramón; Zurita Ortega, Félix; Castro Sánchez, Manuel; Espejo Garcés, Tamara; Martínez Martínez, Asunción; Ruiz-Rico Ruiz, Gerardo

    2017-07-14

    This study aims to define and contrast an explanatory model of consumption of alcohol, tobacco consumption, and problematic use of video games based on self-concept and its dimensions in a sample of university students. The research was conducted with a sample of 490 students from the province of Granada (Spain), aged between 20 and 29 years (M = 22.80 ± 3.63), with a homogeneous distribution by gender. The instruments used were the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (García & Musitu, 1999), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Saunders, Aasland, Babor, De la Fuente, & Grant, 1993), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerström, 1991) and the Questionnaire for Experiences Related to Video Games (Chamarro et al., 2014). A model of structural equations was estimated, which was adjusted properly, χ2(8) = 19.843, p = .011; CFI = .963, NFI = .943, IFI = .965, RMSEA = .055. As main results, a positive relationship between social and physical self-concept and consumption of alcohol was obtained, as well as a negative relationship between social self-concept and problematic use of videogames. Academic dimension was negatively related to alcohol and video game use. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was positively related to tobacco consumption and use of video games. It is concluded that levels of self-concept may represent a risk factor in substance abuse and digital leisure, and their study and consideration are appropriate.

  5. Internet privacy options for adequate realisation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A thorough multidisciplinary analysis of various perspectives on internet privacy was published as the first volume of a study, revealing the results of the achatech project "Internet Privacy - A Culture of Privacy and Trust on the Internet." The second publication from this project presents integrated, interdisciplinary options for improving privacy on the Internet utilising a normative, value-oriented approach. The ways in which privacy promotes and preconditions fundamental societal values and how privacy violations endanger the flourishing of said values are exemplified. The conditions which must be fulfilled in order to achieve a culture of privacy and trust on the internet are illuminated. This volume presents options for policy-makers, educators, businesses and technology experts how to facilitate solutions for more privacy on the Internet and identifies further research requirements in this area.

  6. CARAVAN: Providing Location Privacy for VANET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampigethaya, Krishna; Huang, Leping; Li, Mingyan; Poovendran, Radha; Matsuura, Kanta; Sezaki, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    .... This type of tracking leads to threats on the location privacy of the vehicle's user. In this paper, we study the problem of providing location privacy in VANET by allowing vehicles to prevent tracking of their broadcast communications...

  7. Is that really my movement?—Students' experiences of a video-supported interactive learning model for movement awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backåberg, Sofia; Gummesson, Christina; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students’ experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12–18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; “Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness,” “Experiencing changes in one's own movement,” and “Experiencing challenges in the learning process.” The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required. PMID:26274385

  8. Is that really my movement? - Students' experiences of a video-supported interactive learning model for movement awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backåberg, Sofia; Gummesson, Christina; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students' experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12-18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; "Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness," "Experiencing changes in one's own movement," and "Experiencing challenges in the learning process." The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required.

  9. Active vision and image/video understanding systems for UGV based on network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-09-01

    Vision evolved as a sensory system for reaching, grasping and other motion activities. In advanced creatures, it has become a vital component of situation awareness, navigation and planning systems. Vision is part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. It is hard to split such a system apart. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, is the most feasible for natural processing of visual information. It converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic models, avoiding artificial precise computations of 3-dimensional models. Logic of visual scenes can be captured in such models and used for disambiguation of visual information. Network-Symbolic transformations derive abstract structures, which allows for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class. Active vision helps create unambiguous network-symbolic models. This approach is consistent with NIST RCS. The UGV, equipped with such smart vision, will be able to plan path and navigate in a real environment, perceive and understand complex real-world situations and act accordingly.

  10. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems (Privacy). 262.5 Section 262.5 Postal... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a...

  11. Risk analysis for privacy and identity management

    OpenAIRE

    Wangen, Gaute Bjørklund

    2012-01-01

    ENGELSK: The concept of privacy was recognized as early as the time of Aristotle, and has been a theme of debate since. Risks to privacy are problematic because the concept of "privacy" holds different meaning and importance to different people and cultures. What is considered private in Europe, may not be considered private in China, and vice versa. This makes defining and detecting risks to privacy a complex matter. As people become increasingly dependent on online services, ...

  12. Model-Based Synthesis of Visual Speech Movements from 3D Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edge JamesD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for the synthesis of visual speech movements using a hybrid unit selection/model-based approach. Speech lip movements are captured using a 3D stereo face capture system and split up into phonetic units. A dynamic parameterisation of this data is constructed which maintains the relationship between lip shapes and velocities; within this parameterisation a model of how lips move is built and is used in the animation of visual speech movements from speech audio input. The mapping from audio parameters to lip movements is disambiguated by selecting only the most similar stored phonetic units to the target utterance during synthesis. By combining properties of model-based synthesis (e.g., HMMs, neural nets with unit selection we improve the quality of our speech synthesis.

  13. Efficiency and Privacy Enhancement for a Track and Trace System of RFID-Based Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjun Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is in supply chain management as it promises to provide real-time visibility based on the function of track and trace. However, such an RFID-based track and trace system raises new security and privacy challenges due to the restricted resource of tags. In this paper, we refine three privacy related models (i.e., the privacy, path unlinkability, and tag unlinkability of RFID-based track and trace systems, and clarify the relations among these privacy models. Specifically, we have proven that privacy is equivalent to path unlinkability and tag unlinkability implies privacy. Our results simplify the privacy concept and protocol design for RFID-based track and trace systems. Furthermore, we propose an efficient track and trace scheme, Tracker+, which allows for authentic and private identification of RFID-tagged objects in supply chains. In the Tracker+, no computational ability is required for tags, but only a few bytes of storage (such as EPC Class 1 Gen 2 tags are needed to store the tag state. Indeed, Tracker+ reduces the memory requirements for each tag by one group element compared to the Tracker presented in other literature. Moreover, Tracker+ provides privacy against supply chain inside attacks.

  14. An Efficient Context-Aware Privacy Preserving Approach for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of smartphones and the usage of the smartphone apps, privacy preservation has become an important issue. The existing privacy preservation approaches for smartphones usually have less efficiency due to the absent consideration of the active defense policies and temporal correlations between contexts related to users. In this paper, through modeling the temporal correlations among contexts, we formalize the privacy preservation problem to an optimization problem and prove its correctness and the optimality through theoretical analysis. To further speed up the running time, we transform the original optimization problem to an approximate optimal problem, a linear programming problem. By resolving the linear programming problem, an efficient context-aware privacy preserving algorithm (CAPP is designed, which adopts active defense policy and decides how to release the current context of a user to maximize the level of quality of service (QoS of context-aware apps with privacy preservation. The conducted extensive simulations on real dataset demonstrate the improved performance of CAPP over other traditional approaches.

  15. Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Etter, Michael; Lutz, Christoph

    ’s digital services through providing recommendations to Europe’s institutions. The initial stage of this research project involves a set of three literature reviews of the state of research on three core topics in relation to the sharing economy: participation (1), privacy (2), and power (3). This piece......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share:Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy. This paper gives an in-depth overview of the topic of power in the sharing economy. It forms one part of a European Union Horizon 2020 Research Project on the sharing economy: "Ps2Share...... Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy". We aim to foster better awareness of the consequences which the sharing economy has on the way people behave, think, interact, and socialize across Europe. Our overarching objective is to identify key challenges of the sharing economy and improve Europe...

  16. On genomics, kin, and privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telenti, Amalio; Ayday, Erman; Hubaux, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The storage of greater numbers of exomes or genomes raises the question of loss of privacy for the individual and for families if genomic data are not properly protected. Access to genome data may result from a personal decision to disclose, or from gaps in protection. In either case, revealing genome data has consequences beyond the individual, as it compromises the privacy of family members. Increasing availability of genome data linked or linkable to metadata through online social networks and services adds one additional layer of complexity to the protection of genome privacy.  The field of computer science and information technology offers solutions to secure genomic data so that individuals, medical personnel or researchers can access only the subset of genomic information required for healthcare or dedicated studies.

  17. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PROBLEM SOLVING BERBASIS VIDEO TERHADAP METAKOGNISI DAN PEMAHAMAN KONSEP FISIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariati Purnama Simanjuntak

    2014-06-01

    tes berbentuk uraian dan data pemahaman konsep dikumpulkan dengan tes pilihan ganda. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan skor gain dinormalisasi, N-gain. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa model pembelajaran problem solving dapat meningkatkan metakognisi dan pemahaman konsep pada topik Kinematika dan Dinamika dalam kategori sedang.

  18. Applicability of video-derived bathymetry estimates to nearshore current model predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radermacher, M.; Wengrove, M.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.; Holman, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of swimmer safety, coastal managers desire accurate nearshore current predictions obtained from numerical models. To this end, detailed and up-to-date bathymetry is a necessity. Remote sensing techniques for bathymetry estimation are a promising solution. The focus of this paper is

  19. MediaEval 2013 Visual Privacy Task: Warping-based Privacy Protection Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe EPFL privacy protection tool submitted to the MediaEval 2013 Visual Privacy task. The goal of the task is to obscure faces and other personal items of people in the provided surveillance clips to preserve their personal privacy. In the privacy protection tool, we used a combination of reversible privacy protection filter based on geometric warping transformation, randomized saturation filter, masking with partial opacity, and pixelization. The aim of the implementat...

  20. Privacy Notice | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC respects the privacy concerns of users of this website. This Privacy Notice explains how personal information that is collected from and about the visitors to IDRC's website is handled. All personal information held or collected by IDRC is protected under Canada's Privacy Act. Information automatically collected from all ...