Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Johnson, Austin H.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Delcampo, Marisa A.
Although widely recommended, evidence-based interventions are not regularly utilized by school practitioners. Video self-modeling is an effective and efficient evidence-based intervention for a variety of student problem behaviors. However, like many other evidence-based interventions, it is not frequently used in schools. As video creation…
Wyttenbach, Robert A
Demonstrating laboratory procedures in person during class time can be time-consuming. When procedures are done under a microscope, live demonstration is also impractical because of the limited number of students who can view the demonstration at once. Creating videos beforehand, which students can watch before class and review during lab sessions, solves both of these problems. This article suggests ways to make and distribute high quality video of microscopic procedures.
Bagaiolo, Leila F.; Mari, Jair de J.; Bordini, Daniela; Ribeiro, Tatiane C.; Martone, Maria Carolina C.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Brunoni, Decio; Brentani, Helena; Paula, Cristiane S.
Video modeling using applied behavior analysis techniques is one of the most promising and cost-effective ways to improve social skills for parents with autism spectrum disorder children. The main objectives were: (1) To elaborate/describe videos to improve eye contact and joint attention, and to decrease disruptive behaviors of autism spectrum…
Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey
Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…
There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.
van Det, M.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Hoff, C.; Middel, B.; Pierie, J.P.
INtraoperative Video Enhanced Surgical procedure Training (INVEST) is a new training method designed to improve the transition from basic skills training in a skills lab to procedural training in the operating theater. Traditionally, the master-apprentice model (MAM) is used for procedural training
Full Text Available We present a user-based method that detects regions of interest within a video in order to provide video skims and video summaries. Previous research in video retrieval has focused on content-based techniques, such as pattern recognition algorithms that attempt to understand the low-level features of a video. We are proposing a pulse modeling method, which makes sense of a web video by analyzing users' Replay interactions with the video player. In particular, we have modeled the user information seeking behavior as a time series and the semantic regions as a discrete pulse of fixed width. Then, we have calculated the correlation coefficient between the dynamically detected pulses at the local maximums of the user activity signal and the pulse of reference. We have found that users' Replay activity significantly matches the important segments in information-rich and visually complex videos, such as lecture, how-to, and documentary. The proposed signal processing of user activity is complementary to previous work in content-based video retrieval and provides an additional user-based dimension for modeling the semantics of a social video on the web.
DeLisi, Michael P; Mawn, Louise A; Galloway, Robert L
Surgical interventions to the orbital space behind the eyeball are limited to highly invasive procedures due to the confined nature of the region along with the presence of several intricate soft tissue structures. A minimally invasive approach to orbital surgery would enable several therapeutic options, particularly new treatment protocols for optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. The authors have developed an image-guided system for the purpose of navigating a thin flexible endoscope to a specified target region behind the eyeball. Navigation within the orbit is particularly challenging despite its small volume, as the presence of fat tissue occludes the endoscopic visual field while the surgeon must constantly be aware of optic nerve position. This research investigates the impact of endoscopic video augmentation to targeted image-guided navigation in a series of anthropomorphic phantom experiments. A group of 16 surgeons performed a target identification task within the orbits of four skull phantoms. The task consisted of identifying the correct target, indicated by the augmented video and the preoperative imaging frames, out of four possibilities. For each skull, one orbital intervention was performed with video augmentation, while the other was done with the standard image guidance technique, in random order. The authors measured a target identification accuracy of 95.3% and 85.9% for the augmented and standard cases, respectively, with statistically significant improvement in procedure time (Z=-2.044, p=0.041) and intraoperator mean procedure time (Z=2.456, p=0.014) when augmentation was used. Improvements in both target identification accuracy and interventional procedure time suggest that endoscopic video augmentation provides valuable additional orientation and trajectory information in an image-guided procedure. Utilization of video augmentation in transorbital interventions could further minimize complication risk and enhance surgeon comfort and
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.
Full Text Available Video surveillance system senses and trails out all the threatening issues in the real time environment. It prevents from security threats with the help of visual devices which gather the information related to videos like CCTV’S and IP (Internet Protocol cameras. Video surveillance system has become a key for addressing problems in the public security. They are mostly deployed on the IP based network. So, all the possible security threats exist in the IP based application might also be the threats available for the reliable application which is available for video surveillance. In result, it may increase cybercrime, illegal video access, mishandling videos and so on. Hence, in this paper an intelligent model is used to propose security for video surveillance system which ensures safety and it provides secured access on video.
Jacco R. Taal
Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.
You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew
This paper proposes to evaluate video quality by balancing two quality components: global quality and local quality. The global quality is a result from subjects allocating their ttention equally to all regions in a frame and all frames n a video. It is evaluated by image quality metrics (IQM) ith...... quality modeling algorithm can improve the performance of image quality metrics on video quality assessment compared to the normal averaged spatiotemporal pooling scheme....... averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in modeling visual attention, which is then integrated into IQMs to calculate the local quality of a video frame...
Bowers, Janet; Passentino, Gabriela; Connors, Curtis
Online video sharing websites have had a profound impact on the ways that students learn about the world, about the culture, and about mathematics. However, we would like to challenge McLuhan's assertion that changing the media has necessarily changed the message. In fact, the authors posit that the majority of online videos are seen as…
Castro, Josué Viana Neto, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto do Coração do Nordeste (INCONE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Melo, Emanuel Carvalho; Silva, Juliana Fernandes [Instituto do Coração do Nordeste (INCONE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rebouças, Leonardo Lemos; Corrêa, Larissa Chagas; Germano, Amanda de Queiroz [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Machado, João José Aquino [Instituto do Coração do Nordeste (INCONE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)
Minimally invasive cardiovascular procedures have been progressively used in heart surgery. To describe the techniques and immediate results of minimally invasive procedures in 5 years. Prospective and descriptive study in which 102 patients were submitted to minimally invasive procedures in direct and video-assisted forms. Clinical and surgical variables were evaluated as well as the in hospital follow-up of the patients. Fourteen patients were operated through the direct form and 88 through the video-assisted form. Between minimally invasive procedures in direct form, 13 had aortic valve disease. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 43 had mitral valve disease, 41 atrial septal defect and four tumors. In relation to mitral valve disease, we replaced 26 and reconstructed 17 valves. Aortic clamp, extracorporeal and procedure times were, respectively, 91,6 ± 21,8, 112,7 ± 27,9 e 247,1 ± 20,3 minutes in minimally invasive procedures in direct form. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 71,6 ± 29, 99,7 ± 32,6 e 226,1 ± 42,7 minutes. Considering intensive care and hospitalization times, these were 41,1 ± 14,7 hours and 4,6 ± 2 days in minimally invasive procedures in direct and 36,8 ± 16,3 hours and 4,3 ± 1,9 days in minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms procedures. Minimally invasive procedures were used in two forms - direct and video-assisted - with safety in the surgical treatment of video-assisted, atrial septal defect and tumors of the heart. These procedures seem to result in longer surgical variables. However, hospital recuperation was faster, independent of the access or pathology.
Steven Nicholas Graves, MA
Conclusions: The GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera enables high-quality, cost-effective video recording of plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures. When set to a narrow field of view and automatic white balance, the camera is able to sufficiently compensate for the contrasting light environment of the operating room and capture high-resolution, detailed video.
van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.
Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In
Wouters, Pieter; Tabbers, Huib; Paas, Fred
textabstractIn this review we argue that interactivity can be effective in video-based models to engage learners in relevant cognitive processes. We do not treat modeling as an isolated instructional method but adopted the social cognitive model of sequential skill acquisition in which learners start with observation and finish with independent, self-regulated performance. Moreover, we concur with the notion that interactivity should emphasize the cognitive processes that learners engage in w...
Gershkoff, I.; Haspert, J. K.; Morgenstern, B.
A cost model that can be used to systematically identify the costs of procuring and operating satellite linked communications systems is described. The user defines a network configuration by specifying the location of each participating site, the interconnection requirements, and the transmission paths available for the uplink (studio to satellite), downlink (satellite to audience), and voice talkback (between audience and studio) segments of the network. The model uses this information to calculate the least expensive signal distribution path for each participating site. Cost estimates are broken downy by capital, installation, lease, operations and maintenance. The design of the model permits flexibility in specifying network and cost structure.
Endo, Chiaki; Sakurada, A; Kondo, T
Recently, endoscopic procedures including surgery, intervention, and examination have been widely performed. Medical practitioners are required to record the procedures precisely in order to check the procedures retrospectively and to get the legally reliable record. Medical Forensic System made by KS Olympus Japan offers 2 kinds of movie and patient's data, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and Spo, which are simultaneously recorded. We installed this system into the bronchoscopy room and have experienced its benefit. Under this system, we can get bronchoscopic image, bronchoscopy room view, and patient's data simultaneously. We can check the quality of the bronchoscopic procedures retrospectively, which is useful for bronchoscopy staff training. Medical Forensic System should be installed in any kind of endoscopic procedures.
AO-AIO 790 BOM CORP MCLEAN VA F/A 17/8 VIDEO AUTOMATIC TARGE T TRACKING SYSTEM (VATTS) OPERATING PROCEO -ETC(U) AUG Go C STAMM J P ORRESTER, J...Tape Transport Number Two TKI Tektronics I/0 Terminal DS1 Removable Disk Storage Unit DSO Fixed Disk Storage Unit CRT Cathode Ray Tube 1-3 THE BDM...file (mark on Mag Tape) AZEL Quick look at Trial Information Program DUPTAPE Allows for duplication of magnetic tapes CA Cancel ( terminates program on
Duncan, James R; Glaiberman, Craig B
To assess different methods of recording angiographic simulations and to determine how such recordings might be used for training and research. Two commercially available high-fidelity angiography simulations, the Mentice Vascular Interventional Simulation Trainer and the Simbionix AngioMentor, were used for data collection. Video and audio records of simulated procedures were created by different methods, including software-based screen capture, video splitters and converters, and external cameras. Recording parameters were varied, and the recordings were transferred to computer workstations for postprocessing and presentation. The information displayed on the simulators' computer screens could be captured by each method. Although screen-capture software provided the highest resolution, workflow considerations favored a hardware-based solution that duplicated the video signal and recorded the data stream(s) at lower resolutions. Additional video and audio recording devices were used to monitor the angiographer's actions during the simulated procedures. The multiple audio and video files were synchronized and composited with personal computers equipped with commercially available video editing software. Depending on the needs of the intended audience, the resulting files could be distributed and displayed at full or reduced resolutions. The capture, editing, presentation, and distribution of synchronized multichannel audio and video recordings holds great promise for angiography training and simulation research. To achieve this potential, technical challenges will need to be met, and content will need to be tailored to suit the needs of trainees and researchers.
D. R. Marković
Full Text Available From the perspective of average viewer, high definition video streams such as HD (High Definition and UHD (Ultra HD are increasing their internet presence year over year. This is not surprising, having in mind expansion of HD streaming services, such as YouTube, Netflix etc. Therefore, high definition video streams are starting to challenge network resource allocation with their bandwidth requirements and statistical characteristics. Need for analysis and modeling of this demanding video traffic has essential importance for better quality of service and experience support. In this paper we use an easy-to-apply statistical model for prediction of 4K video traffic. Namely, seasonal autoregressive modeling is applied in prediction of 4K video traffic, encoded with HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding. Analysis and modeling were performed within R programming environment using over 17.000 high definition video frames. It is shown that the proposed methodology provides good accuracy in high definition video traffic modeling.
Full Text Available The increasing demand for security systems hasresulted in rapid development of video surveillance and videosurveillance has turned into a major area of interest andmanagement challenge. Personal experience in specializedcompanies helped me to adapt demands of users of videosecurity systems to system performance. It is known thatpeople wish to obtain maximum profit with minimum effort,but security is not neglected. Surveillance systems and videomonitoring should provide only necessary information and torecord only when there is activity. Via IP video surveillanceservices provides more safety in this sector, being able torecord information on servers located in other locations thanthe IP cameras. Also, these systems allow real timemonitoring of goods or activities that take place in supervisedperimeters. View live and recording can be done via theInternet from any computer, using a web browser. Access tothe surveillance system is granted after a user and passwordauthentication.
Palechka, Gail; MacDonald, Rebecca
We compared the effects of a commercially-available children's video relative to an instructor-created video model on the acquisition of play skills with three children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Each participant was exposed to one commercially-available video model for one play scenario and one instructor-created video for a…
Hoogerheide, V.; Loyens, S.M.M.; van Gog, T.
Online learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the model-observer
Graves, Steven Nicholas; Shenaq, Deana Saleh; Langerman, Alexander J; Song, David H
Significant improvements can be made in recoding surgical procedures, particularly in capturing high-quality video recordings from the surgeons' point of view. This study examined the utility of the GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera for high-definition, point-of-view recordings of plastic and reconstructive surgery. The GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera was head-mounted on the surgeon and oriented to the surgeon's perspective using the GoPro App. The camera was used to record 4 cases: 2 fat graft procedures and 2 breast reconstructions. During cases 1-3, an assistant remotely controlled the GoPro via the GoPro App. For case 4 the GoPro was linked to a WiFi remote, and controlled by the surgeon. Camera settings for case 1 were as follows: 1080p video resolution; 48 fps; Protune mode on; wide field of view; 16:9 aspect ratio. The lighting contrast due to the overhead lights resulted in limited washout of the video image. Camera settings were adjusted for cases 2-4 to a narrow field of view, which enabled the camera's automatic white balance to better compensate for bright lights focused on the surgical field. Cases 2-4 captured video sufficient for teaching or presentation purposes. The GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera enables high-quality, cost-effective video recording of plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures. When set to a narrow field of view and automatic white balance, the camera is able to sufficiently compensate for the contrasting light environment of the operating room and capture high-resolution, detailed video.
Becker, Emily Ann; Watry-Christian, Meghan; Simmons, Amanda; Van Eperen, Ashleigh
This review explores the evidence in support of using video modeling for teaching children with autism. The process of implementing video modeling, the use of various perspectives, and a wide range of target skills are addressed. Additionally, several helpful clinician resources including handheld device applications, books, and websites are…
Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hao
As quality assurance is of strong concern in advanced surgeries, intelligent surgical systems are expected to have knowledge such as the knowledge of the surgical workflow model (SWM) to support their intuitive cooperation with surgeons. For generating a robust and reliable SWM, a large amount of training data is required. However, training data collected by physically recording surgery operations is often limited and data collection is time-consuming and labor-intensive, severely influencing knowledge scalability of the surgical systems. The objective of this research is to solve the knowledge scalability problem in surgical workflow modeling with a low cost and labor efficient way. A novel web-video-mining-supported surgical workflow modeling (webSWM) method is developed. A novel video quality analysis method based on topic analysis and sentiment analysis techniques is developed to select high-quality videos from abundant and noisy web videos. A statistical learning method is then used to build the workflow model based on the selected videos. To test the effectiveness of the webSWM method, 250 web videos were mined to generate a surgical workflow for the robotic cholecystectomy surgery. The generated workflow was evaluated by 4 web-retrieved videos and 4 operation-room-recorded videos, respectively. The evaluation results (video selection consistency n-index ≥0.60; surgical workflow matching degree ≥0.84) proved the effectiveness of the webSWM method in generating robust and reliable SWM knowledge by mining web videos. With the webSWM method, abundant web videos were selected and a reliable SWM was modeled in a short time with low labor cost. Satisfied performances in mining web videos and learning surgery-related knowledge show that the webSWM method is promising in scaling knowledge for intelligent surgical systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prix Jeunesse Foundation, Munich (Germany).
The use of video technology as an alternative form of communications media for artists, teachers, students, and community groups in the United States, Europe, and Third World nations is described. Specific examples of video use in the various countries are outlined and individual characteristics of program organization, production, and…
Taal, J.R.; Chen, Z.; He, Y.; Lagendijk, R.I.L.
Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression
Al-Namankany, A; Petrie, A; Ashley, P
This study was part of a successfully completed PhD and was presented at the IADR/AADR General Session (2013) in Seattle, Washington, USA. The report of this clinical trial conforms to the CONSORT statement. A randomised controlled trial to investigate if video modelling can influence a child's anxiety before the administration of local anaesthesia (LA). A sample of 180 (6- to 12-year-old) children due to have dental treatments under LA were randomly allocated to the modelling video or the control video (oral hygiene instruction). The level of anxiety was recorded before and after watching the video on the Abeer Children Dental Anxiety Scale (ACDAS) and the child's ability to cope with the subsequent procedure was assessed on the visual analogue scale (VAS). A two group chi-square test was used as the basis for the sample size calculation; a significance level of 0.025 was chosen rather than the conventional 0.05 to avoid spurious results arising from multiple testing. Children in the test group had significantly less anxiety after watching the video than children in the control group throughout the subsequent dental procedure; in particular at the time of the LA administration (p Video modelling appeared to be effective at reducing dental anxiety and has a significant impact on needle phobia in children.
Akmanoglu, Nurgul; Yanardag, Mehmet; Batu, E. Sema
Teaching play skills is important for children with autism. The purpose of the present study was to compare effectiveness and efficiency of providing video modeling and graduated guidance together and video modeling alone for teaching role playing skills to children with autism. The study was conducted with four students. The study was conducted…
Saarela, Janne; Merialdo, Bernard
The amount of digitized video in archives is becoming so huge, that easier access and content browsing tools are desperately needed. Also, video is no longer one big piece of data, but a collection of useful smaller building blocks, which can be accessed and used independently from the original context of presentation. In this paper, we demonstrate a content model for audio video sequences, with the purpose of enabling the automatic generation of video summaries. The model is based on descriptors, which indicate various properties and relations of audio and video segments. In practice, these descriptors could either be generated automatically by methods of analysis, or produced manually (or computer-assisted) by the content provider. We analyze the requirements and characteristics of the different data segments, with respect to the problem of summarization, and we define our model as a set of constraints, which allow to produce good quality summaries.
Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem; Zivkovic, Z.
This paper addresses content-based video retrieval with an emphasis on recognizing events in tennis game videos. In particular, we aim at recognizing different classes of tennis strokes using automatic learning capability of Hidden Markov Models. Driven by our domain knowledge, a robust player
Spivey, Corrine E.; Mechling, Linda C.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling with a constant time delay procedure to teach social safety skills to three young women with intellectual disability. A multiple probe design across three social safety skills (responding to strangers who: requested personal information; requested money; and entered the participant's…
Kaffer, Christine L.
The current study examined the effectiveness of a video modeling procedure on a basic math skill acquisition in students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using a multiple probe across students design. Participants were four kindergarten/first grade students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. All met the criteria for ASD…
Abdolhosseini Moghadam, Abdolreza; Kumar, Mrityunjay; Radha, Hayder
Efficient video representation models are critical for many video analysis and processing tasks. In this paper, we present a framework based on the concept of finding the sparsest solution to model video frames. To model the spatio-temporal information, frames from one scene are decomposed into two components: (i) a common frame, which describes the visual information common to all the frames in the scene/segment, and (ii) a set of innovative frames, which depicts the dynamic behaviour of the scene. The proposed approach exploits and builds on recent results in the field of compressed sensing to jointly estimate the common frame and the innovative frames for each video segment. We refer to the proposed modeling framework by CIV (Common and Innovative Visuals). We show how the proposed model can be utilized to find scene change boundaries and extend CIV to videos from multiple scenes. Furthermore, the proposed model is robust to noise and can be used for various video processing applications without relying on motion estimation and detection or image segmentation. Results for object tracking, video editing (object removal, inpainting) and scene change detection are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and the performance of the proposed model.
Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Hazelton, Martin L; Morgan, William H
Modern day datasets continue to increase in both size and diversity. One example of such 'big data' is video data. Within the medical arena, more disciplines are using video as a diagnostic tool. Given the large amount of data stored within a video image, it is one of most time consuming types of data to process and analyse. Therefore, it is desirable to have automated techniques to extract, process and analyse data from video images. While many methods have been developed for extracting and processing video data, statistical modelling to analyse the outputted data has rarely been employed. We develop a method to take a video sequence of periodic nature, extract the RGB data and model the changes occurring across the contiguous images. We employ harmonic regression to model periodicity with autoregressive terms accounting for the error process associated with the time series nature of the data. A linear spline is included to account for movement between frames. We apply this model to video sequences of retinal vessel pulsation, which is the pulsatile component of blood flow. Slope and amplitude are calculated for the curves generated from the application of the harmonic model, providing clinical insight into the location of obstruction within the retinal vessels. The method can be applied to individual vessels, or to smaller segments such as 2 × 2 pixels which can then be interpreted easily as a heat map. © The Author(s) 2016.
Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Thoma, Stephen J
This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.
Steven Nicholas Graves, MA; Deana Saleh Shenaq, MD; Alexander J. Langerman, MD; David H. Song, MD, MBA, FACS
Background: Significant improvements can be made in recoding surgical procedures, particularly in capturing high-quality video recordings from the surgeons’ point of view. This study examined the utility of the GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera for high-definition, point-of-view recordings of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Methods: The GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera was head-mounted on the surgeon and oriented to the surgeon’s perspective using the GoPro App. The camera was used ...
Full Text Available In the paper, the process of creating 3D models of St. Anne’s Church’s facades is described. Some examples of architectural structures inside of St. Anne’s Church’s are presented. Video data were acquired with the fixed focal length lens f = 16 mm. It allowed to determine interior orientation parameters in a calibration process and to remove an influence of distortion. 3D models of heritage objects were generated using the Topcon Image Master software. The process of 3D model creating from video data involved the following steps: video frames selection for the orientation process, orientation of video frames using points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning, wireframe and TIN model generation. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed 3D models, points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning were used. The accuracy analysis showed that the accuracy of 3D models generated from video images is ±0.05 m.[b]Keywords[/b]: terrestrial photogrammetry, video, terrestrial laser scanning, 3D model, heritage objects
English, Derek L; Gounden, Sadhana; Dagher, Richard E; Chan, Shu Fen; Furlonger, Brett E; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W
To examine the effectiveness of a video modeling (VM) with video feedback (VFB) intervention to teach vocational gardening skills to three adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple probe design across skills was used to assess the effects of the intervention on the three participants' ability to perform skills accurately. The use of VM with VFB led to improvements across skills for two of the participants. The third participant required video prompting (VP) for successful skill acquisition. Skill performance generalized across personnel and settings for two of the participants, but it was not assessed for the third. Skill performance maintained at follow-up for all three participants. Social validity data gathered from participants, parents, and co-workers were positive. These findings suggest that VM with VFB and VP with VFB were effective and socially acceptable interventions for teaching vocational gardening skills to young adults with ASD.
Wei, Xian; Li, Yuanxiang; Shen, Hao; Chen, Fang; Kleinsteuber, Martin; Wang, Zhongfeng
Video representation is an important and challenging task in the computer vision community. In this paper, we consider the problem of modeling and classifying video sequences of dynamic scenes which could be modeled in a dynamic textures (DT) framework. At first, we assume that image frames of a moving scene can be modeled as a Markov random process. We propose a sparse coding framework, named joint video dictionary learning (JVDL), to model a video adaptively. By treating the sparse coefficients of image frames over a learned dictionary as the underlying "states", we learn an efficient and robust linear transition matrix between two adjacent frames of sparse events in time series. Hence, a dynamic scene sequence is represented by an appropriate transition matrix associated with a dictionary. In order to ensure the stability of JVDL, we impose several constraints on such transition matrix and dictionary. The developed framework is able to capture the dynamics of a moving scene by exploring both sparse properties and the temporal correlations of consecutive video frames. Moreover, such learned JVDL parameters can be used for various DT applications, such as DT synthesis and recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the strong competitiveness of the proposed JVDL approach in comparison with state-of-the-art video representation methods. Especially, it performs significantly better in dealing with DT synthesis and recognition on heavily corrupted data.
Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.
Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.
Full Text Available We propose methods for selecting the modelling parameters of H.263-quantized video traffic under two different encoding scenarios. For videos encoded with a constant quantization step (unconstrained, we conclude that a two-parameter power relation holds between the exhibited video bit rate and the quantizer value and that the autocorrelation decay rate remains constant for all cases. On the basis of these results, we propose a generic method for estimating the modelling parameters of unconstrained traffic by means of measuring the statistics of the single “raw” video trace. For rate-controlled video (constrained, we propose an approximate method based on the adjustment of the “shape” parameter of the counterpart—with respect to rate—unconstrained video trace. The convergence of the constructed models is assessed via q-q plots and queuing simulations. On the assumption that the popular MPEG-4 encoders like XVID, DIVX usually employ identical H.263 quantization and rate control schemes, it is expected that the results of this paper also hold for the MPEG-4 part 2 family.
Yang, Jiong; Price, Brian; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yuan, Junsong
Automatic segmentation of the primary object in a video clip is a challenging problem as there is no prior knowledge of the primary object. Most existing techniques thus adapt an iterative approach for foreground and background appearance modeling, i.e., fix the appearance model while optimizing the segmentation and fix the segmentation while optimizing the appearance model. However, these approaches may rely on good initialization and can be easily trapped in local optimal. In addition, they are usually time consuming for analyzing videos. To address these limitations, we propose a novel and efficient appearance modeling technique for automatic primary video object segmentation in the Markov random field (MRF) framework. It embeds the appearance constraint as auxiliary nodes and edges in the MRF structure, and can optimize both the segmentation and appearance model parameters simultaneously in one graph cut. The extensive experimental evaluations validate the superiority of the proposed approach over the state-of-the-art methods, in both efficiency and effectiveness.
Video cameras and other visual sensors can provide valuable navigation information for underwater remotely operated vehicles. The thesis relates to the geometric modelling and calibration of video cameras. To exploit the accuracy potential of a video camera, all systematic errors must be modelled and compensated for. This dissertation proposes a new geometric camera model, where linear image plane distortion (difference in scale and lack of orthogonality between the image axes) is compensated for after, and separately from, lens distortion. The new model can be viewed as an extension of the linear or DLT (Direct Linear Transformation) model and as a modification of the model traditionally used in photogrammetry. The new model can be calibrated from both planar and nonplanar calibration objects. The feasibility of the model is demonstrated in a typical camera calibration experiment, which indicates that the new model is more accurate than the traditional one. It also gives a simple solution to the problem of computing undistorted image coordinates from distorted ones. Further, the dissertation suggests how to get initial estimates for all the camera model parameters, how to select the number of parameters modelling lens distortion and how to reduce the dimension of the search space in the nonlinear optimization. There is also a discussion on the use of analytical partial derivates. The new model is particularly well suited for video images with non-square pixels, but it may also advantagely be used with professional photogrammetric equipment. 63 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.
van Det, M. J.; Meijerink, W. J. H. J.; Hoff, C.; Middel, L. J.; Koopal, S. A.; Pierie, J. P. E. N.
Background The transition from basic skills training in a skills lab to procedure training in the operating theater using the traditional master-apprentice model (MAM) lacks uniformity and efficiency. When the supervising surgeon performs parts of a procedure, training opportunities are lost. To
Markey, Patricia T.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a video peer modeling and least-to-most prompting intervention in the school library setting, targeting the instructional delivery of an information-literacy skill to students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Research studies have evaluated the effectiveness of video-modeling procedures in the…
Shimizu, Shuji; Itaba, Soichi; Yada, Shinichiro; Takahata, Shunichi; Nakashima, Naoki; Okamura, Koji; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Akaraviputh, Thawatchai; Lu, Xinghua; Tanaka, Masao
With the rapid and marked progress in gastrointestinal endoscopy, the education of doctors in many new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is of increasing importance. Telecommunications (telemedicine) is very useful and cost-effective for doctors' continuing exposure to advanced skills, including those needed for hepato-pancreato-biliary diseases. Nevertheless, telemedicine in endoscopy has not yet gained much popularity. We have successfully established a new system which solves the problems of conventional ones, namely poor streaming images and the need for special expensive teleconferencing equipment. The digital video transport system, free software that transforms digital video signals directly into Internet Protocol without any analog conversion, was installed on a personal computer using a network with as much as 30 Mbps per channel, thereby providing more than 200 times greater information volume than the conventional system. Kyushu University Hospital in Japan was linked internationally to worldwide academic networks, using security software to protect patients' privacy. Of the 188 telecommunications link-ups involving 108 institutions in 23 countries performed between February 2003 and August 2009, 55 events were endoscopy-related, 19 were live demonstrations, and 36 were gastrointestinal teleconferences with interactive discussions. The frame rate of the transmitted pictures was 30/s, thus preserving smooth high-quality streaming. This paper documents the first time that an advanced tele-endoscopy system has been established over such a wide area using academic high-volume networks, funded by the various governments, and which is now available all over the world. The benefits of a network dedicated to research and education have barely been recognized in the medical community. We believe our cutting-edge system will be a milestone in endoscopy and will improve the quality of gastrointestinal education, especially with respect to endoscopic retrograde
Dowrick, Peter W.; Raeburn, John M.
Self-modeling requires the production of a videotape in which the subject is seen to perform in a model way. A 4-year-old "hyperactive" boy, initially under psychotropic medication, was unable to role play suitable behaviors. Video editing was used to produce a videotape that when watched by the subject, had therapeutic effects as compared with an…
Patel, Shalizeh A; Barros, Juliana A; Clark, Christina M; Frey, Gary N; Streckfus, Charles F; Quock, Ryan L
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychomotor operative video demonstrations on first-year dental students who are performing specific procedures for the first time in a preclinical setting. The class was randomly divided into two groups, and three restorative procedures were selected. On the date on which each procedure was to be performed in the preclinical laboratory for the first time, one group (experimental, n=50) was shown a technique video for that specific procedure immediately before commencing the exercise; the control cohort (n=50) did not view the video. Technical performance on procedures was evaluated by students and two calibrated and blinded examiners. The students' perceptions of the experience were also collected in a survey. All first-year students participated in the study, for a 100% response rate. A Mann-Whitney U test did not show any group differences in technical performance (mean values on preparation: 77.1 vs. 77.8; amalgam: 82.7 vs. 82.8; composite: 79.7 vs. 78.0). A Spearman rho test revealed a significantly higher correlation in 13 out of 25 evaluation categories between student self-assessment and blinded examiner assessment for the experimental group. A chi-square test of questionnaire responses revealed a positive student perception of administering these videos for the preparation (X(2)=4.8, pstudent performance on preclinical operative procedures, but they were well received by students and augmented self-assessment ability. These findings suggest that videos can be a useful teaching aid in a preclinical environment, especially regarding comprehension of concepts.
Marcello Arnaldo Picucci
Full Text Available In the present study a model is proposed offering a comprehensive categorization of video game narrative structures intended as the methods and techniques used by game designers and allowed by the medium to deliver the story content throughout the gameplay in collaboration with the players. A case is first made for the presence of narrative in video games and its growth of importance as a central component in game design. An in-depth analysis ensues focusing on how games tell stories, guided by the criteria of linearity/nonlinearity, interactivity and randomness. Light is shed upon the fundamental architectures through which stories are told as well as the essential boundaries posed by the close link between narrative and game AI.
Van Gog, Tamara; Verveer, Ilse; Verveer, Lise
Video modeling examples in which a human(-like) model shows learners how to perform a task are increasingly used in education, as they have become very easy to create and distribute in e-learning environments. However, little is known about design guidelines to optimize learning from video modeling
Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda
This article examines the need to develop a more enterprising approach to learning by adopting an experiential approach. It specifically examines the use of video case studies of entrepreneurial role models within an enterprise module at Leeds Metropolitan University. The exercise enables students to act as a consultant or counsellor and apply…
Chan, Antoni B; Vasconcelos, Nuno
A dynamic texture is a spatio-temporal generative model for video, which represents video sequences as observations from a linear dynamical system. This work studies the mixture of dynamic textures, a statistical model for an ensemble of video sequences that is sampled from a finite collection of visual processes, each of which is a dynamic texture. An expectationmaximization (EM) algorithm is derived for learning the parameters of the model, and the model is related to previous works in linear systems, machine learning, time-series clustering, control theory, and computer vision. Through experimentation, it is shown that the mixture of dynamic textures is a suitable representation for both the appearance and dynamics of a variety of visual processes that have traditionally been challenging for computer vision (e.g. fire, steam, water, vehicle and pedestrian traffic, etc.). When compared with state-of-the-art methods in motion segmentation, including both temporal texture methods and traditional representations (e.g. optical flow or other localized motion representations), the mixture of dynamic textures achieves superior performance in the problems of clustering and segmenting video of such processes.
Tarantino, Giovanni; Fazio, Claudio
A video-analysis software tool has been employed in order to measure the steady-state values of the kinematics variables describing the longitudinal behaviour of a radio-controlled model aircraft during take-off, climbing and gliding. These experimental results have been compared with the theoretical steady-state configurations predicted by the…
Rodriquez-Valderrama, Paul A.; Wohlberg, Brendt
An incremental Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) algorithm for video background modeling that is able to process one frame at a time while adapting to changes in background, with a computational complexity that allows for real-time processing, having a low memory footprint and is robust to translational and rotational jitter.
Gandsas, Alejandro; McIntire, Katherine; Palli, Guillermo; Park, Adrian
At the University of Kentucky (UK), we applied streaming video technology to develop a webcast model that will allow institutions to broadcast live and prerecorded surgeries, conferences, and courses in real time over networks (the Internet or an intranet). We successfully broadcast a prerecorded laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair to domestic and international clients by using desktop computers equipped with off-the-shelf, streaming-enabled software and standard hardware and operating systems. A web-based user interface made accessing the educational material as simple as a mouse click and allowed clients to participate in the broadcast event via an embedded e-mail/chat module. Three client computers (two connected to the Internet and a third connected to the UK intranet) requested and displayed the surgical film by means of seven common network connection configurations. Significantly, no difference in image resolution was detected with the use of a connection speed faster than 128 kilobytes per second (kbps). At this connection speed, an average bandwidth of 32.7 kbps was used, and although a 15-second delay was experienced from the time of data request to data display, the surgical film streamed continuously from beginning to end at a mean rate of 14.4 frames per second (fps). The clients easily identified all anatomic structures in full color motion, clearly followed all steps of the surgical procedure, and successfully asked questions and made comments by using the e-mail/chat module while viewing the surgery. With minimal financial investment, we have created an interactive virtual classroom with the potential to attract a global audience. Our webcast model represents a simple and practical method for institutions to supplement undergraduate and graduate surgical education and offer continuing medical education credits in a way that is convenient for clients (surgeons, students, residents, others). In the future, physicians may access streaming webcast
Campbell, Laurie O.; Cox, Thomas D.
Students within this study followed the ICSDR (Identify, Conceptualize/Connect, Storyboard, Develop, Review/Reflect/Revise) development model to create digital video, as a personalized and active learning assignment. The participants, graduate students in education, indicated that following the ICSDR framework for student-authored video guided…
MacDonald, Rebecca; Sacramone, Shelly; Mansfield, Renee; Wiltz, Kristine; Ahearn, William H
The purpose of the present study was to use video modeling to teach children with autism to engage in reciprocal pretend play with typically developing peers. Scripted play scenarios involving various verbalizations and play actions with adults as models were videotaped. Two children with autism were each paired with a typically developing child, and a multiple-probe design across three play sets was used to evaluate the effects of the video modeling procedure. Results indicated that both children with autism and the typically developing peers acquired the sequences of scripted verbalizations and play actions quickly and maintained this performance during follow-up probes. In addition, probes indicated an increase in the mean number of unscripted verbalizations as well as reciprocal verbal interactions and cooperative play. These findings are discussed as they relate to the development of reciprocal pretend-play repertoires in young children with autism. PMID:19721729
Tarantino, Giovanni; Fazio, Claudio, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [UOP-PERG (University of Palermo Physics Education Research Group), Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy)
A video-analysis software tool has been employed in order to measure the steady-state values of the kinematics variables describing the longitudinal behaviour of a radio-controlled model aircraft during take-off, climbing and gliding. These experimental results have been compared with the theoretical steady-state configurations predicted by the phugoid model for longitudinal flight. A comparison with the parameters and performance of the full-size aircraft has also been outlined.
Matessa, Michael P.; Polson, Peter G.
This paper presents a new theory of the initial stages of skill acquisition and then employs the theory to model current and future training programs for fight management systems (FMSs) in modern commercial airliners like the Boeing 777 and the Airbus A320. The theoretical foundations for the theory are a new synthesis of the literature on human memory and the latest version of the ACT-R theory of skill acquisition.
Nikopoulos, Christos K.; Canavan, Caroline; Nikopoulou-Smyrni, Panagiota
Video modeling has been suggested as a powerful treatment tool that has concentrated on increasing a variety of skills in children with autism. However, it has rarely been examined as a behavioral procedure for eliminating kinds of behaviors (e.g., noncompliance), a target that is often included in children's support plans. The present study…
Sargent, Dusty; Chen, Chao-I.; Wang, Yuan-Fang
The paper reports a fully-automated, cross-modality sensor data registration scheme between video and magnetic tracker data. This registration scheme is intended for use in computerized imaging systems to model the appearance, structure, and dimension of human anatomy in three dimensions (3D) from endoscopic videos, particularly colonoscopic videos, for cancer research and clinical practices. The proposed cross-modality calibration procedure operates this way: Before a colonoscopic procedure, the surgeon inserts a magnetic tracker into the working channel of the endoscope or otherwise fixes the tracker's position on the scope. The surgeon then maneuvers the scope-tracker assembly to view a checkerboard calibration pattern from a few different viewpoints for a few seconds. The calibration procedure is then completed, and the relative pose (translation and rotation) between the reference frames of the magnetic tracker and the scope is determined. During the colonoscopic procedure, the readings from the magnetic tracker are used to automatically deduce the pose (both position and orientation) of the scope's reference frame over time, without complicated image analysis. Knowing the scope movement over time then allows us to infer the 3D appearance and structure of the organs and tissues in the scene. While there are other well-established mechanisms for inferring the movement of the camera (scope) from images, they are often sensitive to mistakes in image analysis, error accumulation, and structure deformation. The proposed method using a magnetic tracker to establish the camera motion parameters thus provides a robust and efficient alternative for 3D model construction. Furthermore, the calibration procedure does not require special training nor use expensive calibration equipment (except for a camera calibration pattern-a checkerboard pattern-that can be printed on any laser or inkjet printer).
Di Pasquale, Peter
As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.
Morlock, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Fisher, Sycarah; Comer, Ronald J.
Video modeling involves the learner viewing videos of a model demonstrating a target skill. According to the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (2011), video modeling is an evidenced-based intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in elementary through middle school. Little research exists…
Full Text Available The rapid development of computer graphics and imaging provides the modern archeologist with several tools to realistically model and visualize archeological sites in 3D. This, however, creates a tension between veridical and realistic modeling. Visually compelling models may lead people to falsely believe that there exists very precise knowledge about the past appearance of a site. In order to make the underlying uncertainty visible, it has been proposed to encode this uncertainty with different levels of transparency in the rendering, or of decoloration of the textures. We argue that procedural modeling technology based on shape grammars provides an interesting alternative to such measures, as they tend to spoil the experience for the observer. Both its efficiency and compactness make procedural modeling a tool to produce multiple models, which together sample the space of possibilities. Variations between the different models express levels of uncertainty implicitly, while letting each individual model keeping its realistic appearance. The underlying, structural description makes the uncertainty explicit. Additionally, procedural modeling also yields the flexibility to incorporate changes as knowledge of an archeological site gets refined. Annotations explaining modeling decisions can be included. We demonstrate our procedural modeling implementation with several recent examples.
Calibration Light Pole. Light poles should be erected as straight as possible (plumb). Its base must be firmly set. Where applicable, poles should...function of the Quazar** application to record the event until the projectile impacts the farthest target while monitoring the live video feedback . The
Du, Bangshi; Qi, Feng; Shao, Sujie; Wang, Ying; Li, Weijian
Video conference system has become an important support platform for smart grid operation and management, its operation quality is gradually concerning grid enterprise. First, the evaluation indicator system covering network, business and operation maintenance aspects was established on basis of video conference system's operation statistics. Then, the operation quality assessment model combining genetic algorithm with regularized BP neural network was proposed, which outputs operation quality level of the system within a time period and provides company manager with some optimization advice. The simulation results show that the proposed evaluation model offers the advantages of fast convergence and high prediction accuracy in contrast with regularized BP neural network, and its generalization ability is superior to LM-BP neural network and Bayesian BP neural network.
Divakaran, Ajay; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou; Casey, Michael
In Casey describes a generalized sound recognition framework based on reduced rank spectra and Minimum-Entropy Priors. This approach enables successful recognition of a wide variety of sounds such as male speech, female speech, music, animal sounds etc. In this work, we apply this recognition framework to news video to enable quick video browsing. We identify speaker change positions in the broadcast news using the sound recognition framework. We combine the speaker change position with color & motion cues from video and are able to locate the beginning of each of the topics covered by the news video. We can thus skim the video by merely playing a small portion starting from each of the locations where one of the principal cast begins to speak. In combination with our motion-based video browsing approach, our technique provides simple automatic news video browsing. While similar work has been done before, our approach is simpler and faster than competing techniques, and provides a rich framework for further analysis and description of content.
Mason, Rose A.; Ganz, Jennifer B.; Parker, Richard I.; Burke, Mack D.; Camargo, Siglia P.
Video modeling with other as model (VMO) is a more practical method for implementing video-based modeling techniques, such as video self-modeling, which requires significantly more editing. Despite this, identification of contextual factors such as participant characteristics and targeted outcomes that moderate the effectiveness of VMO has not…
Spriggs, Amy D.; Gast, David L.; Knight, Victoria F.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate both video modeling and observational learning to teach age-appropriate recreation and leisure skills (i.e., accessing video games) to students with autism spectrum disorder. Effects of video modeling were evaluated via a multiple probe design across participants and criteria for mastery were based on…
Besler, Fatma; Kurt, Onur
Video modeling is an evidence-based practice that can be used to provide instruction to individuals with autism. Studies show that this instructional practice is effective in teaching many types of skills such as self-help skills, social skills, and academic skills. However, in previous studies, videos used in the video modeling process were…
Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa
Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.
Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Shahid, Muhammad; Garcia, Narciso
With the recent increased popularity and high usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) techniques, various studies have been carried out in this area which generally focused on the technical enhancement of HAS technology and applications. However, a lack of common HAS standard led to multiple proprietary approaches which have been developed by major Internet companies. In the emerging MPEG-DASH standard the packagings of the video content and HTTP syntax have been standardized; but all the details of the adaptation behavior are left to the client implementation. Nevertheless, to design an adaptation algorithm which optimizes the viewing experience of the enduser, the multimedia service providers need to know about the Quality of Experience (QoE) of different adaptation schemes. Taking this into account, the objective of this experiment was to study the QoE of a HAS-based video broadcast model. The experiment has been carried out through a subjective study of the end user response to various possible clients' behavior for changing the video quality taking different QoE-influence factors into account. The experimental conclusions have made a good insight into the QoE of different adaptation schemes which can be exploited by HAS clients for designing the adaptation algorithms.
Beneš, J.; Kelly, T.; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Křivánek, J.; Müller, P.
Roč. 36, č. 2 (2017), s. 225-234 ISSN 0167-7055 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : realism * procedural modeling * architecture Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2016
Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Malis, Martin
This article presents a procedure for building product models to support the specification processes dealing with sales, design of product variants and production preparation. The procedure includes, as the first phase, an analysis and redesign of the business processes, which are to be supported...... for the business processes they support, and properly structured and documented, in order to facilitate that the systems can be maintained continually and further developed. The research has been carried out at the Centre for Industrialisation of Engineering, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Technical...
Ballesteros, Luis Guillermo Martinez; Ickin, Selim; Fiedler, Markus
In this paper, we study the influence of video stalling on QoE. We provide QoE models that are obtained in realistic scenarios on the smartphone, and provide energy-saving approaches for smartphone by leveraging the proposed QoE models in relation to energy. Results show that approximately 5J...... is saved in a 3 minutes video clip with an acceptable Mean Opinion Score (MOS) level when the video frames are skipped. If the video frames are not skipped, then it is suggested to avoid freezes during a video stream as the freezes highly increase the energy waste on the smartphones....
Blomqvist, Minna T.; Luhtanen, Pekka; Laakso, Lauri; Keskinen, Esko
Reports the development and validation of video-based game-understanding tests in badminton for elementary and secondary students. The tests included different sequences that simulated actual game situations. Players had to solve tactical problems by selecting appropriate solutions and arguments for their decisions. Results suggest that the test…
Spelten, Evelien R; Martin, Linda; Gitsels, Janneke T; Pereboom, Monique T R; Hutton, Eileen K; van Dulmen, Sandra
video recording studies have been found to be complex; however very few studies describe the actual introduction and enrolment of the study, the resulting dataset and its interpretation. In this paper we describe the introduction and the use of video recordings of health care provider (HCP)-client interactions in primary care midwifery for research purposes. We also report on the process of data management, data coding and the resulting data set. we describe our experience in undertaking a study using video recording to assess the interaction of the midwife and her client in the first antenatal consultation, in a real life clinical practice setting in the Netherlands. Midwives from six practices across the Netherlands were recruited to videotape 15-20 intakes. The introduction, complexity of the study and intrusiveness of the study were discussed within the research group. The number of valid recordings and missing recordings was measured; reasons not to participate, non-response analyses, and the inter-rater reliability of the coded videotapes were assessed. Video recordings were supplemented by questionnaires for midwives and clients. The Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) was used for coding as well as an obstetric topics scale. at the introduction of the study, more initial hesitation in co-operation was found among the midwives than among their clients. The intrusive nature of the recording on the interaction was perceived to be minimal. The complex nature of the study affected recruitment and data collection. Combining the dataset with the questionnaires and medical records proved to be a challenge. The final dataset included videotapes of 20 midwives (7-23 recordings per midwife). Of the 460 eligible clients, 324 gave informed consent. The study resulted in a significant dataset of first antenatal consultations involving recording 269 clients and 194 partners. video recording of midwife-client interaction was both feasible and challenging and resulted
Daly, M. J.; Chan, H.; Prisman, E.; Vescan, A.; Nithiananthan, S.; Qiu, J.; Weersink, R.; Irish, J. C.; Siewerdsen, J. H.
Methods for accurate registration and fusion of intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) with endoscopic video have been developed and integrated into a system for surgical guidance that accounts for intraoperative anatomical deformation and tissue excision. The system is based on a prototype mobile C-Arm for intraoperative CBCT that provides low-dose 3D image updates on demand with sub-mm spatial resolution and soft-tissue visibility, and also incorporates subsystems for real-time tracking and navigation, video endoscopy, deformable image registration of preoperative images and surgical plans, and 3D visualization software. The position and pose of the endoscope are geometrically registered to 3D CBCT images by way of real-time optical tracking (NDI Polaris) for rigid endoscopes (e.g., head and neck surgery), and electromagnetic tracking (NDI Aurora) for flexible endoscopes (e.g., bronchoscopes, colonoscopes). The intrinsic (focal length, principal point, non-linear distortion) and extrinsic (translation, rotation) parameters of the endoscopic camera are calibrated from images of a planar calibration checkerboard (2.5×2.5 mm2 squares) obtained at different perspectives. Video-CBCT registration enables a variety of 3D visualization options (e.g., oblique CBCT slices at the endoscope tip, augmentation of video with CBCT images and planning data, virtual reality representations of CBCT [surface renderings]), which can reveal anatomical structures not directly visible in the endoscopic view - e.g., critical structures obscured by blood or behind the visible anatomical surface. Video-CBCT fusion is evaluated in pre-clinical sinus and skull base surgical experiments, and is currently being incorporated into an ongoing prospective clinical trial in CBCT-guided head and neck surgery.
Hoogerheide, Vincent; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Loyens, Sofie M M; van Gog, Tamara
Learning from (video) modeling examples in which a model demonstrates how to perform a task is an effective instructional strategy. The model-observer similarity (MOS) hypothesis postulates that (perceived) similarity between learners and the model in terms of age or expertise moderates the
Firdaus, T.; Setiawan, W.; Hamidah, I.
An educator currently in demand to apply the learning to not be separated from the development of technology. Educators often experience difficulties when explaining kinematics material, this is because kinematics is one of the lessons that often relate the concept to real life. Kinematics is one of the courses of physics that explains the cause of motion of an object, Therefore it takes the thinking skills and analytical skills in understanding these symptoms. Technology is one that can bridge between conceptual relationship with real life. A framework of technology-based learning models has been developed using video and interfaces analysis on kinematics concept. By using this learning model, learners will be better able to understand the concept that is taught by the teacher. This learning model is able to improve the ability of creative thinking, analytical skills, and problem-solving skills on the concept of kinematics.
Kwasnitschka, Tom; Hansteen, Thor H.; Devey, Colin W.; Kutterolf, Steffen
Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) have proven to be highly effective in recovering well localized samples and observations from the seafloor. In the course of ROV deployments, however, huge amounts of video and photographic data are gathered which present tremendous potential for data mining. We present a new workflow based on industrial software to derive fundamental field geology information such as quantitative stratigraphy and tectonic structures from ROV-based photo and video material. We demonstrate proof of principle tests for this workflow on video data collected during dives with the ROV Kiel 6000 on a new hot spot volcanic field that was recently identified southwest of the island of Santo Antão in the Cape Verdes. Our workflow allows us to derive three-dimensional models of outcrops facilitating quantitative measurements of joint orientation, bedding structure, grain size comparison and photo mosaicking within a georeferenced framework. The compiled data facilitate volcanological and tectonic interpretations from hand specimen to outcrop scales based on the quantified optical data. The demonstrated procedure is readily replicable and opens up possibilities for post-cruise "virtual fieldwork" on the seafloor.
Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike
The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.
Elena Simona NICOARA
Full Text Available The most challenging issues related to manufacturing efficiency occur if the jobs to be sched-uled are structurally different, if these jobs allow flexible routings on the equipments and mul-tiple objectives are required. This framework, called Multi-objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems (MOFJSSP, applicable to many real processes, has been less reported in the literature than the JSSP framework, which has been extensively formalized, modeled and analyzed from many perspectives. The MOFJSSP lie, as many other NP-hard problems, in a tedious place where the vast optimization theory meets the real world context. The paper brings to discussion the most optimization models suited to MOFJSSP and analyzes in detail the genetic algorithms and agent-based models as the most appropriate procedural models.
Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
TDWZ video coding trails that of conventional video coding solutions, mainly due to the quality of side information, inaccurate noise modeling and loss in the final coding step. The major goal of this paper is to enhance the accuracy of the noise modeling, which is one of the most important aspects...... that the proposed noise model and noise residue refinement scheme can improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of TDWZ video coding significantly. The quality of the side information modeling is also evaluated by a measure of the ideal code length.......Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm, which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of decoder side information. One approach to DVC is feedback channel based Transform Domain Wyner–Ziv (TDWZ) video coding. The efficiency of current...
Shepley, Sally B.; Smith, Katie A.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Alexander, Jennifer L.
Self-instruction for individuals with an intellectual disability can be viewed as a pivotal skill in that once learned this skill has collateral effects on future behaviors in various environments. This study used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate video modeling to teach high school students with an intellectual disability to…
Wee, Loo Kang
This workshop aims to demonstrate how the Tracker Video Analysis and Modeling Tool engages, enables and empowers teachers to be learners so that we can be leaders in our teaching practice. Through this workshop, the kinematics of a falling ball and a projectile motion are explored using video analysis and in the later video modeling. We hope to lead and inspire other teachers by facilitating their experiences with this ICT-enabled video modeling pedagogy (Brown, 2008) and free tool for facilitating students-centered active learning, thus motivate students to be more self-directed.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research reporting effective pain care strategies exists, yet it is not translated to care. Little is known about how repeated pain exposure has affected nurses’ ability to be empathetic and use their knowledge to provide evidence-based care. Concerns have been raised regarding the validity of self-report empathy instruments; therefore, a novel video program was developed for testing. It was hypothesized that those who viewed infants in painful and nonpainful states would have a measureable empathy (pain rating response correlating to the level of pain expressed by the infants.
Coppage, Sara; Meindl, James N
Treatment plans focused on problem behavior often include punishment contingencies to decrease problem behavior. Immediate punishers are typically more effective than delayed punishers, but immediate delivery of a punisher is not always possible. Strategies need to be developed to increase the suppressive effects of delayed punishers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a treatment package involving replaying a video recording of problem behavior immediately before delivering a 15 min delayed time-out. This treatment package may prove to be an accessible and inexpensive strategy when using delayed punishers.
Nadimi, Sohail; Bhanu, Bir
Current moving object detection systems typically detect shadows cast by the moving object as part of the moving object. In this paper, the problem of separating moving cast shadows from the moving objects in an outdoor environment is addressed. Unlike previous work, we present an approach that does not rely on any geometrical assumptions such as camera location and ground surface/object geometry. The approach is based on a new spatio-temporal albedo test and dichromatic reflection model and accounts for both the sun and the sky illuminations. Results are presented for several video sequences representing a variety of ground materials when the shadows are cast on different surface types. These results show that our approach is robust to widely different background and foreground materials, and illuminations.
Choi, Jaeseob; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Sunghwan; Sohn, Kwanghoon
In this paper, we propose a visual fatigue prediction method for stereoscopic video. We select visual fatigue factor candidates and determine the equations for each. The candidates are then classified into their principal components, and the validity of each is confirmed using principal component analysis. Visual fatigue is predicted using multiple regression with subjective visual fatigue. In order to determine the best model, we select the visual fatigue factors that have sufficient significance in terms of subjective fatigue according to the stepwise method. The predicted visual fatigue score is presented as a linear combination of the selected visual fatigue factors. Consequently, the proposed algorithm provides more reliable performance in terms of correlation with the subjective test results compared with a conventional algorithm.
Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren
Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The noise model is one of the inherently difficult challenges in DVC. This paper considers Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes...... noise residual learning techniques that take residues from previously decoded frames into account to estimate the decoding residue more precisely. Moreover, the techniques calculate a number of candidate noise residual distributions within a frame to adaptively optimize the soft side information during...... decoding. A residual refinement step is also introduced to take advantage of correlation of DCT coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed techniques robustly improve the coding efficiency of TDWZ DVC and for GOP=2 bit-rate savings up to 35% on WZ frames are achieved compared with DISCOVER....
Full Text Available Currently, there is a rapid development in the techniques of the automated image based modelling (IBM, especially in advanced structure-from-motion (SFM and dense image matching methods, and camera technology. One possibility is to use video imaging to create 3D reality based models of cultural heritage architectures and monuments. Practically, video imaging is much easier to apply when compared to still image shooting in IBM techniques because the latter needs a thorough planning and proficiency. However, one is faced with mainly three problems when video image sequences are used for highly detailed modelling and dimensional survey of cultural heritage objects. These problems are: the low resolution of video images, the need to process a large number of short baseline video images and blur effects due to camera shake on a significant number of images. In this research, the feasibility of using video images for efficient 3D modelling is investigated. A method is developed to find the minimal significant number of video images in terms of object coverage and blur effect. This reduction in video images is convenient to decrease the processing time and to create a reliable textured 3D model compared with models produced by still imaging. Two experiments for modelling a building and a monument are tested using a video image resolution of 1920×1080 pixels. Internal and external validations of the produced models are applied to find out the final predicted accuracy and the model level of details. Related to the object complexity and video imaging resolution, the tests show an achievable average accuracy between 1 – 5 cm when using video imaging, which is suitable for visualization, virtual museums and low detailed documentation.
Wilson, Kaitlyn P.
Purpose: Video modeling is an intervention strategy that has been shown to be effective in improving the social and communication skills of students with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline empirically supported, step-by-step instructions for the use of video modeling by school-based speech-language…
Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Anderson, Candace; McCarthy, Scott; Buggey, Tom
Video self-modeling demonstrates promise as an intervention strategy to improve outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This article summarizes the empirical evidence supporting the use of video self-modeling with individuals with autism spectrum disorders to increase language and communication, increase social skills, modify…
Ergenekon, Yasemin; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kapan, Alper; Akmanoglu, Nurgul
Research has shown that video and live modeling are both effective in teaching new skills to children with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of video and live modeling in teaching response chains to three children with autism. Each child was taught two chained skills; one skill…
Plavnick, Joshua B.; MacFarland, Mari C.; Ferreri, Summer J.
Video modeling is an evidence-based instructional strategy for teaching a variety of skills to individuals with autism. Despite the effectiveness of this strategy, there is some uncertainty regarding the conditions under which video modeling is likely to be effective. The present investigation examined the differential effectiveness of video…
Acar, Cimen; Diken, Ibrahim H.
This study explored 31 instructional research articles written using video modeling to children with autism and published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies in this research have been reached by searching EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, ERIC and other Anadolu University online search engines and using keywords such as "autism, video modeling,…
Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Dima, M.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Munari, M.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.; Scuderi, S.; Beck, T.; Buxton, R.; Piazza, D.; Benz, W.; Broeg, C.; Cessa, V.; Piotto, G.
The CHaracterizing ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is an ESA Small Mission whose launch is planned for the end of 2017. It is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 320 mm aperture providing a FoV of 0.32 degrees, which will target nearby bright stars already known to host planets, and measure, through ultrahigh precision photometry, the radius of exo-planets, allowing to determine their composition. This paper will present the details of the AIV plan for a demonstration model of the CHEOPS Telescope with equivalent structure but different CTEs. Alignment procedures, needed GSEs and devised verification tests will be described and a path for the AIV of the flight model, which will take place at industries premises, will be sketched.
Moustafa M. El-Badry
Conclusions: Intra-operative removal of chest tube during VATS procedures was a safe technique in well selected patients with an intra-operative successful air-leak test with radiological and clinical follow-up. This technique provided lesser post-operative pain with shorter hospital stay.
de Abreu, Igor Renato Louro Bruno; Abrão, Fernando Conrado; Silva, Alessandra Rodrigues; Corrêa, Larissa Teresa Cirera; Younes, Riad Nain
Currently, there is a tendency to perform surgical procedures via laparoscopic or thoracoscopic access. However, even with the impressive technological advancement in surgical materials, such as improvement in quality of monitors, light sources, and optical fibers, surgeons have to face simple problems that can greatly hinder surgery by video. One is the formation of "fog" or residue buildup on the lens, causing decreased visibility. Intracavitary techniques for cleaning surgical optics and preventing fog formation have been described; however, some of these techniques employ the use of expensive and complex devices designed solely for this purpose. Moreover, these techniques allow the cleaning of surgical optics when they becomes dirty, which does not prevent the accumulation of residue in the optics. To solve this problem we have designed a device that allows cleaning the optics with no surgical stops and prevents the fogging and residue accumulation. The objective of this study is to evaluate through experimental testing the effectiveness of a simple device that prevents the accumulation of residue and fogging of optics used in surgical procedures performed through thoracoscopic or laparoscopic access. Ex-vivo experiments were performed simulating the conditions of residue presence in surgical optics during a video surgery. The experiment consists in immersing the optics and catheter set connected to the IV line with crystalloid solution in three types of materials: blood, blood plus fat solution, and 200 mL of distilled water and 1 vial of methylene blue. The optics coupled to the device were immersed in 200 mL of each type of residue, repeating each immersion 10 times for each distinct residue for both thirty and zero degrees optics, totaling 420 experiments. A success rate of 98.1% was observed after the experiments, in these cases the device was able to clean and prevent the residue accumulation in the optics.
How can player models and artificially intelligent (AI) agents be useful in early-stage iterative game and simulation design? One answer may be as ways of generating synthetic play-test data, before a game or level has ever seen a player, or when the sampled amount of play test data is very low. ....... Finally, the thesis compares the top-down theory driven definition of utility functions with bottom-up play trace driven learning of utility functions and proposes methods for hybridizing the two approaches.......How can player models and artificially intelligent (AI) agents be useful in early-stage iterative game and simulation design? One answer may be as ways of generating synthetic play-test data, before a game or level has ever seen a player, or when the sampled amount of play test data is very low....... This thesis explores methods for creating low-complexity, easily interpretable, generative AI agents for use in game and simulation design. Based on insights from decision theory and behavioral economics, the thesis investigates how player decision making styles may be defined, operationalised, and measured...
Wynkoop, Kaylee Stahr
The video modeling (VM) teaching strategy is one in which a student watches a video of someone performing a specific behavior, skill, or task and is then expected to complete the behavior, skill, or task. This column discusses the variety of ways in which VM has been documented within the literature and supports teacher interest in the strategy by…
Regan, Helen; Howe, Julia
There has recently been a growth in interest in the use of video technology in the practice of educational psychologists. This research explores the effects of a video self-modelling (VSM) intervention on the behaviours of a child in mainstream education using a single case study design set within a behaviourist paradigm. VSM is a behavioural…
Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C
Over-the-top adaptive video streaming services are frequently impacted by fluctuating network conditions that can lead to rebuffering events (stalling events) and sudden bitrate changes. These events visually impact video consumers' quality of experience (QoE) and can lead to consumer churn. The development of models that can accurately predict viewers' instantaneous subjective QoE under such volatile network conditions could potentially enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for media-driven services, such as YouTube, Amazon, Netflix, and so on. However, most existing models only predict a single overall QoE score on a given video and are based on simple global video features, without accounting for relevant aspects of human perception and behavior. We have created a QoE evaluator, called the time-varying QoE Indexer, that accounts for interactions between stalling events, analyzes the spatial and temporal content of a video, predicts the perceptual video quality, models the state of the client-side data buffer, and consequently predicts continuous-time quality scores that agree quite well with human opinion scores. The new QoE predictor also embeds the impact of relevant human cognitive factors, such as memory and recency, and their complex interactions with the video content being viewed. We evaluated the proposed model on three different video databases and attained standout QoE prediction performance.
Buggey, Tom; Hoomes, Grace; Sherberger, Mary Elizabeth; Williams, Sarah
Video self-modeling (VSM) has accumulated a relatively impressive track record in the research literature across behaviors, ages, and types of disabilities. Using only positive imagery, VSM gives individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task just beyond their present functioning level via creative editing of videos using VCRs or…
Amaya, F.; Cárdenas, A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
In this work we present a model for the design and optimization of the video distribution link in the next generation optical access network. We analyze the video distribution performance in a SCM-WDM link, including the noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities. Additionally, we c...
van Dam, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan
In forensic comparison of facial video data, often only the best quality frontal face frames are selected, and hence much video data is ignored. To improve 2D facial comparison for law enforcement and forensic investigation, we introduce a model-free 3D shape reconstruction algorithm based on 2D
van Dam, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Broemme, A.; Busch, C.
In forensic comparison of facial video data, often only the best quality frontal face frames are selected, and hence potentially useful video data is ignored. To improve 2D facial comparison for law enforcement and forensic investigation, we introduce a model-free 3D shape reconstruction algorithm
Popular culture experience in video games creates avenues to practice information literacy skills and model research in a real-world setting. Video games create a unique popular culture experience where players can invest dozens of hours on one game, create characters to identify with, organize skill sets and plot points, collaborate with people…
Sancho, Kimberly; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Sidener, David W.
The current study employed an adapted alternating treatments design with reversal and multiple probe across participants components to compare the effects of traditional video priming and simultaneous video modeling on the acquisition of play skills in two children diagnosed with autism. Generalization was programmed across play sets, instructors,…
AL-Salahat, Mohammad Mousa
The current study aimed to identify the impact of video modeling upon teaching three pupils with Down syndrome the skill of preparing a simple meal (sandwich), where the training was conducted in a separate classroom in schools of normal students. The training consisted of (i) watching the video of an intellectually disabled pupil, who is…
Cihak, David F.; Smith, Catherine C.; Cornett, Ashlee; Coleman, Mari Beth
The use of video modeling (VM) procedures in conjunction with the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to increase independent communicative initiations in preschool-age students was evaluated in this study. The four participants were 3-year-old children with limited communication skills prior to the intervention. Two of the students had…
Plavnick, Joshua B; Ferreri, Summer J
Previous research suggests that language-training procedures for children with autism might be enhanced following an assessment of conditions that evoke emerging verbal behavior. The present investigation examined a methodology to teach recognizable mands based on environmental variables known to evoke participants' idiosyncratic communicative responses in the natural environment. An alternating treatments design was used during Experiment 1 to identify the variables that were functionally related to gestures emitted by 4 children with autism. Results showed that gestures functioned as requests for attention for 1 participant and as requests for assistance to obtain a preferred item or event for 3 participants. Video modeling was used during Experiment 2 to compare mand acquisition when video sequences were either related or unrelated to the results of the functional analysis. An alternating treatments within multiple probe design showed that participants repeatedly acquired mands during the function-based condition but not during the nonfunction-based condition. In addition, generalization of the response was observed during the former but not the latter condition.
Suda, Yuki; Kitazawa, Shigeru
When typical adults watch TV programs, they show surprisingly stereo-typed gaze behaviours, as indicated by the almost simultaneous shifts of their gazes from one face to another. However, a standard saliency model based on low-level physical features alone failed to explain such typical gaze behaviours. To find rules that explain the typical gaze behaviours, we examined temporo-spatial gaze patterns in adults while they viewed video clips with human characters that were played with or without sound, and in the forward or reverse direction. We here show the following: 1) the “peak” face scanpath, which followed the face that attracted the largest number of views but ignored other objects in the scene, still retained the key features of actual scanpaths, 2) gaze behaviours remained unchanged whether the sound was provided or not, 3) the gaze behaviours were sensitive to time reversal, and 4) nearly 60% of the variance of gaze behaviours was explained by the face saliency that was defined as a function of its size, novelty, head movements, and mouth movements. These results suggest that humans share a face-oriented network that integrates several visual features of multiple faces, and directs our eyes to the most salient face at each moment. PMID:25597621
Guan, Jungang; An, Fengwei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Chen, Lei; Mattausch, Hans Jürgen
The Hough Transform (HT) is a method for extracting straight lines from an edge image. The main limitations of the HT for usage in actual applications are computation time and storage requirements. This paper reports a hardware architecture for HT implementation on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with parallelized voting procedure. The 2-dimensional accumulator array, namely the Hough space in parametric form (ρ, θ), for computing the strength of each line by a voting mechanism is mapped on a 1-dimensional array with regular increments of θ. Then, this Hough space is divided into a number of parallel parts. The computation of (ρ, θ) for the edge pixels and the voting procedure for straight-line determination are therefore executable in parallel. In addition, a synchronized initialization for the Hough space further increases the speed of straight-line detection, so that XGA video processing becomes possible. The designed prototype system has been synthesized on a DE4 platform with a Stratix-IV FPGA device. In the application of road-lane detection, the average processing speed of this HT implementation is 5.4ms per XGA-frame at 200 MHz working frequency.
Kuckelman, John P; Barron, Morgan R; Martin, Matthew J
In 2012 the FDA approved a magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) device (LINX, Torax Medical, Inc) for placement around the lower esophageal sphincter as an alternative approach to fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a relatively new procedure and there is not widespread familiarization with the standard indications and techniques of device placement. We present two operative videos to highlight the standard surgical technique and technical points needed for successful LINX placement. First will be placement in a standard indications setting of uncomplicated GERD with no hiatal hernia. Second will be placement with complicated anatomy due to alterations from prior gastric surgery and a hiatal hernia. Our experience has revealed that the LINX device can be placed safely in patients with normal or significantly altered anatomy but requires adherence to several key principles and technical points. This procedure offers a new option that is anatomically and physiologically unique compared to standard fundoplication, and that offers highly effective control of GERD with a less invasive approach. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available The Hough Transform (HT is a method for extracting straight lines from an edge image. The main limitations of the HT for usage in actual applications are computation time and storage requirements. This paper reports a hardware architecture for HT implementation on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA with parallelized voting procedure. The 2-dimensional accumulator array, namely the Hough space in parametric form (ρ, θ, for computing the strength of each line by a voting mechanism is mapped on a 1-dimensional array with regular increments of θ. Then, this Hough space is divided into a number of parallel parts. The computation of (ρ, θ for the edge pixels and the voting procedure for straight-line determination are therefore executable in parallel. In addition, a synchronized initialization for the Hough space further increases the speed of straight-line detection, so that XGA video processing becomes possible. The designed prototype system has been synthesized on a DE4 platform with a Stratix-IV FPGA device. In the application of road-lane detection, the average processing speed of this HT implementation is 5.4ms per XGA-frame at 200 MHz working frequency.
Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C.
Over-the-top mobile video streaming is invariably influenced by volatile network conditions which cause playback interruptions (stalling events), thereby impairing users' quality of experience (QoE). Developing models that can accurately predict users' QoE could enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for video streaming networks that reduce network operational costs while still delivering high-quality video content to the customers. Existing objective models that predict QoE are based on global video features, such as the number of stall events and their lengths, and are trained and validated on a small pool of ad hoc video datasets, most of which are not publicly available. The model we propose in this work goes beyond previous models as it also accounts for the fundamental effect that a viewer's recent level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction has on their overall viewing experience. In other words, the proposed model accounts for and adapts to the recency, or hysteresis effect caused by a stall event in addition to accounting for the lengths, frequency of occurrence, and the positions of stall events - factors that interact in a complex way to affect a user's QoE. On the recently introduced LIVE-Avvasi Mobile Video Database, which consists of 180 distorted videos of varied content that are afflicted solely with over 25 unique realistic stalling events, we trained and validated our model to accurately predict the QoE, attaining standout QoE prediction performance.
Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
The noise model is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of Distributed Video Coding. This paper proposes a novel noise model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding by using clustering of DCT blocks. The clustering algorithm takes advantage of the residual...... information of all frequency bands, iteratively classifies blocks into different categories and estimates the noise parameter in each category. The experimental results show that the coding performance of the proposed cluster level noise model is competitive with state-ofthe- art coefficient level noise...... modelling. Furthermore, the proposed cluster level noise model is adaptively combined with a coefficient level noise model in this paper to robustly improve coding performance of TDWZ video codec up to 1.24 dB (by Bjøntegaard metric) compared to the DISCOVER TDWZ video codec....
Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
Distributed video coding (DVC) has been proposed as a new video coding paradigm to deal with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. A virtual channel noise model is utilized at the decoder to estimate...... the noise distribution between the side information frame and the original frame. This is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of DVC. Noise models with different granularity have been proposed. In this paper, an improved noise model for transform domain Wyner-Ziv video...
Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard; Hoston, Douglas; Shapiro, Marina; Matthews, Benjamin
Video games with violent content have raised considerable concern in popular media and within academia. Recently, there has been considerable attention regarding the claim of the relationship between aggression and video game play. The authors of this study propose the use of a new class of tools developed via computational models to allow examination of the question of whether there is a relationship between violent video games and aggression. The purpose of this study is to computationally model and compare the General Aggression Model with the Diathesis Mode of Aggression related to the play of violent content in video games. A secondary purpose is to provide a method of measuring and examining individual aggression arising from video game play. Total participants examined for this study are N = 1065. This study occurs in three phases. Phase 1 is the development and quantification of the profile combination of traits via latent class profile analysis. Phase 2 is the training of the artificial neural network. Phase 3 is the comparison of each model as a computational model with and without the presence of video game violence. Results suggest that a combination of environmental factors and genetic predispositions trigger aggression related to video games.
Full Text Available Background: Adapting a child to the alien settings of a dental operatory is a major challenge to the dentist. Fear of the unknown and preconceived notions of dental pain causes anxiety in the pediatric patient. This often leads to disruptive and uncooperative behavior in the dental operatory. Many methods of behavior management have been described, of which the Tell-Show-Do (TSD is an established and time-tested technique of behavior management. Aim: To determine if a live visual output of the dental operating microscope (DOM could be used as an adjunct to the TSD technique, to involve the child more completely in the procedure and reduce the fear of the unknown. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, crossover, and cross-sectional clinical trial. Data were obtained from two visits. 90 children having carious lesions on both lower first molars, in the 7-9 years age group were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Restorative procedures were performed on one tooth per visit, with visits 1 week apart. Live display of the procedure was shown to the patient using video output of the DOM displayed on a 72 inch LCD monitor, angled for best visibility of the child. Anxiety levels were evaluated using Venhams picture selection test and pulse oximetry. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the anxiety scores obtained from the two groups. Results: The results showed there was a decrease in the anxiety from the first visit to the second visit. (P = 0.05 for Group A and P = 0.003 for Group B. The patients preferred the visit in which the DOM was used. The operator reported an increased patient compliance and reduced patient movement in the visits in which the DOM was used. Conclusion: There is a reduction in anxiety from the first visit to the second visit for restorative treatment when the DOM is used.
Dupere, Sally; MacDonald, Rebecca P F; Ahearn, William H
Children with autism often engage in repetitive play with little variation in the actions performed or items used. This study examined the use of video modeling with scripted substitutable loops on children's pretend play with trained and untrained characters. Three young children with autism were shown a video model of scripted toy play that included a substitutable loop that allowed various characters to perform the same actions and vocalizations. Three characters were modeled with the substitutable loop during training sessions, and 3 additional characters were present in the video but never modeled. Following video modeling, all the participants incorporated untrained characters into their play, but the extent to which they did so varied. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C
Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.
Full Text Available Packet loss will make severe errors due to the corruption of related video data. For most video streams, because the predictive coding structures are employed, the transmission errors in one frame will not only cause decoding failure of itself at the receiver side, but also propagate to its subsequent frames along the motion prediction path, which will bring a significant degradation of end-to-end video quality. To quantify the effects of packet loss on video quality, a no-reference objective quality assessment model is presented in this paper. Considering the fact that the degradation of video quality significantly relies on the video content, the temporal complexity is estimated to reflect the varying characteristic of video content, using the macroblocks with different motion activities in each frame. Then, the quality of the frame affected by the reference frame loss, by error propagation, or by both of them is evaluated, respectively. Utilizing a two-level temporal pooling scheme, the video quality is finally obtained. Extensive experimental results show that the video quality estimated by the proposed method matches well with the subjective quality.
Mitra, Adway; Biswas, Soma; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib
A video is understood by users in terms of entities present in it. Entity Discovery is the task of building appearance model for each entity (e.g., a person), and finding all its occurrences in the video. We represent a video as a sequence of tracklets, each spanning 10-20 frames, and associated with one entity. We pose Entity Discovery as tracklet clustering, and approach it by leveraging Temporal Coherence (TC): the property that temporally neighboring tracklets are likely to be associated with the same entity. Our major contributions are the first Bayesian nonparametric models for TC at tracklet-level. We extend Chinese Restaurant Process (CRP) to TC-CRP, and further to Temporally Coherent Chinese Restaurant Franchise (TC-CRF) to jointly model entities and temporal segments using mixture components and sparse distributions. For discovering persons in TV serial videos without meta-data like scripts, these methods show considerable improvement over state-of-the-art approaches to tracklet clustering in terms of clustering accuracy, cluster purity and entity coverage. The proposed methods can perform online tracklet clustering on streaming videos unlike existing approaches, and can automatically reject false tracklets. Finally we discuss entity-driven video summarization- where temporal segments of the video are selected based on the discovered entities, to create a semantically meaningful summary.
Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Ørngreen, Rikke; Hautopp, Heidi
The literature on design research emphasizes working in iterative cycles that investigate and explore many ideas and alternative designs. However, these cycles are seldom applied or documented in educational research papers. In this paper, we illustrate the development process of a video sketchin...... developing educational theories....
Vonk, Matthew; Bohacek, Peter; Militello, Cheryl; Iverson, Ellen
This study focuses on student development of two important laboratory skills in the context of introductory college-level physics. The first skill, which we call model making, is the ability to analyze a phenomenon in a way that produces a quantitative multimodal model. The second skill, which we call model breaking, is the ability to critically evaluate if the behavior of a system is consistent with a given model. This study involved 116 introductory physics students in four different sections, each taught by a different instructor. All of the students within a given class section participated in the same instruction (including labs) with the exception of five activities performed throughout the semester. For those five activities, each class section was split into two groups; one group was scaffolded to focus on model-making skills and the other was scaffolded to focus on model-breaking skills. Both conditions involved direct measurement videos. In some cases, students could vary important experimental parameters within the video like mass, frequency, and tension. Data collected at the end of the semester indicate that students in the model-making treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-making skill despite the fact that both groups shared a common physical lab experience. Likewise, the model-breaking treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-breaking skill. This is important because it shows that direct measurement video-based instruction can help students acquire science-process skills, which are critical for scientists, and which are a key part of current science education approaches such as the Next Generation Science Standards and the Advanced Placement Physics 1 course.
Parasa, Mrunalini; Yallapragada, Srivishnu Vardhan; Vemuri, Nagendra Nath; Shaik, Mastan Saheb
GlideScope (GS) is a video laryngoscope that allows a real-time view of the glottis and endotracheal intubation. It provides a better view of the larynx without the need for alignment of the airway axes. This prospective randomized comparative study is designed to compare the intubation time, hemodynamic response, and complications associated with intubation using a GS or Macintosh laryngoscope (ML) in adult subjects undergoing elective surgical procedures. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1-2 patients were included in this prospective randomized comparative study. Patients were randomized to be intubated using either a GS or an ML. The primary outcome measure was the intubation time. The secondary outcome measures were the hemodynamic response to intubation and the incidence of mucosal injury. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for different parameters under the study. The observed results were analyzed using Student's t-test for quantitative data and Z-test of proportions. PCormack and Lehane laryngoscopic view (P = 0.0016 for grade 1 view) with 95% CI -0.1389 to -0.5951. GS group exhibited more laryngoscopic response than ML group with more increase in blood pressure and heart rate, but the difference was not statistically significant. More cases of mucosal trauma were documented in GS group. Use of GS to facilitate intubation led to better glottic view but took a longer time to achieve endotracheal intubation. GS was associated with more hemodynamic response to intubation and mucosal injury in comparison with an ML.
Juan P. Artero
Full Text Available Los orígenes y el desarrollo de dos de los servicios de vídeo en línea con más éxito en los Estados Unidos: YouTube y Hulu se examinan en este documento. Al mirar ambas historias de negocios, este estudio de caso analiza los diferentes modelos comerciales aplicados, los resultados en términos de tráfico web e ingresos y la perspectiva estratégica para cada una. YouTube desarrolla un modelo que ofrece vídeos gratis a una escala global, pero con peculiaridades locales en los mercados más importantes. Tiene una gran cantidad de videos; sin embargo, en general, son de corta duración y de baja calidad. En la mayoría de los casos, presentados y producidos por los propios usuarios. Esto tiene el potencial para crear problemas tecnológicos (la capacidad de video streaming tendrá que ser de alto rendimiento, dificultades de orden jurídico (posibles infracciones con respecto a contenido protegido o inadecuado y los problemas comerciales (reticencia entre los anunciantes a insertar publicidad en los vídeos de baja calidad. Hulu se concentra en la oferta gratuita de contenido profesional y sólo a escala nacional en los Estados Unidos. La cantidad de videos es menor y, por lo general, de mayor duración y mejor calidad. Los videos son puestos a disposición por los canales y las productoras que posee los derechos. En consecuencia, Hulu enfrenta menos problemas de carácter tecnológico, legal y comercial, pero su marca no es tan conocida, ni tiene el poder de convocatoria de YouTube
Kellems, Ryan O.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using video modeling delivered through a Portable media player (video iPod) as a means of teaching three job-related tasks to four young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a community-based employment setting. The videos used in the study were enhanced by adding written…
Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Marshall, Thomas C.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Karunarathna, Nadeeka; Orville, Richard E.
A full negative stepped leader and portions of four negative stepped leaders preceding negative cloud-to-ground lightning return strokes were modeled; each model was constrained to match electric field change measurements recorded at three or four sites located within 30 km of the leader. The time evolution and 2-D locations of stepped leaders were obtained from data collected with a high-speed video camera operated at 50,000 frames/s. The Lu et al. (Charge transfer during intracloud lightning from a time-dependent multidipole model, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2011) time-dependent multidipole model was used with some modifications. The model used a time step equal to one video frame, 20μs. At each time step, negative charges were deposited at stepped leader tips based on measured light intensity, and an equivalent positive charge was deposited at one of the locations of the initial breakdown pulses that preceded the stepped leaders. The method has the unique advantage of obtaining locations of CG stepped leaders including its branches all the way to the ground. Three main quantities were obtained from the model: total charge transfer of -1.50 to -7.51 C, average line charge density of -0.113 to -0.413 mC/m (mean =- 0.196 mC/m), and average current of -0.084 to -0.456 kA (mean =- 0.31 kA). From the video data, the estimated 2-D speeds were 2.43-4.95×105 m/s (mean 3.34 × 105 m/s), and the cumulative lengths of the all branches were 3.5-9.2 times the vertical distance traveled by the visible stepped leader.
Vijay S Ukani
Full Text Available Wireless Video Sensor Network (WVSN are gaining increasing popularity due availability of low cost CMOS camera and miniaturization of hardware. For many applications it is difficult to have pre-engineered deployment of video camera sensors which leads to redundancy. Due to sectored coverage and random deployment, it becomes challenging to model video sensor coverage to identify redundancy and suppress redundant video transmission. Several efforts have been made to model coverage redundancy considering 2-dimensional coverage. Field of View (FoV of the camera sensor is in 3-dimensions, thus it is very difficult to model the coverage and identify overlap area for realistic camera. 3-dimensional coverage is largely an unexplored problem. In this paper, a realistic 3-dimensional pyramid camera coverage is assumed and backup set of nodes are computed. Backup set of a node is a set of video sensor nodes which collectively covers coverage area of the node under consideration. The approach presented in the paper identifies minimal sized set of backup nodes which can be used to adaptively duty cycle the video capture and transmission. The result shows that number of nodes required to remain active to cover the sensor field is reduced and in turn average energy consumption of the network also reduces.
Han, Junwei; Chen, Changyuan; Shao, Ling; Hu, Xintao; Han, Jungong; Liu, Tianming
Generally, various visual media are unequally memorable by the human brain. This paper looks into a new direction of modeling the memorability of video clips and automatically predicting how memorable they are by learning from brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We propose a novel computational framework by integrating the power of low-level audiovisual features and brain activity decoding via fMRI. Initially, a user study experiment is performed to create a ground truth database for measuring video memorability and a set of effective low-level audiovisual features is examined in this database. Then, human subjects' brain fMRI data are obtained when they are watching the video clips. The fMRI-derived features that convey the brain activity of memorizing videos are extracted using a universal brain reference system. Finally, due to the fact that fMRI scanning is expensive and time-consuming, a computational model is learned on our benchmark dataset with the objective of maximizing the correlation between the low-level audiovisual features and the fMRI-derived features using joint subspace learning. The learned model can then automatically predict the memorability of videos without fMRI scans. Evaluations on publically available image and video databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Zang, Weilin; Gunnars, Jens (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Dong, Pingsha; Hong, Jeong K. (Center for Welded Structures Research, Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))
The objective of this work is to identify and evaluate improvements for the residual stress modelling procedure currently used in Sweden. There is a growing demand to eliminate any unnecessary conservatism involved in residual stress assumptions. The study was focused on the development and validation of an improved weld residual stress modelling procedure, by taking advantage of the recent advances in residual stress modelling and stress measurement techniques. The major changes applied in the new weld residual stress modelling procedure are: - Improved procedure for heat source calibration based on use of analytical solutions. - Use of an isotropic hardening model where mixed hardening data is not available. - Use of an annealing model for improved simulation of strain relaxation in re-heated material. The new modelling procedure is demonstrated to capture the main characteristics of the through thickness stress distributions by validation to experimental measurements. Three austenitic stainless steel butt-welds cases are analysed, covering a large range of pipe geometries. From the cases it is evident that there can be large differences between the residual stresses predicted using the new procedure, and the earlier procedure or handbook recommendations. Previously recommended profiles could give misleading fracture assessment results. The stress profiles according to the new procedure agree well with the measured data. If data is available then a mixed hardening model should be used
Luis G. Occeña; Wenzhen Chen; Daniel L. Schmoldt
One of the difficulties in solid log modelling is working with huge data sets, such as those that come from computed axial tomographic imaging. Algorithmic procedures are described in this paper that have successfully reduced data without sacrificing modelling integrity.
Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.
Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.
Sembiring, L.; Van Ormondt, M.; Van Dongeren, A. R.; Roelvink, J. A.
Rip currents are one of the most dangerous coastal hazards for swimmers. In order to minimize the risk, a coastal operational-process based-model system can be utilized in order to provide forecast of nearshore waves and currents that may endanger beach goers. In this paper, an operational model for rip current prediction by utilizing nearshore bathymetry obtained from video image technique is demonstrated. For the nearshore scale model, XBeach1 is used with which tidal currents, wave induced currents (including the effect of the wave groups) can be simulated simultaneously. Up-to-date bathymetry will be obtained using video images technique, cBathy 2. The system will be tested for the Egmond aan Zee beach, located in the northern part of the Dutch coastline. This paper will test the applicability of bathymetry obtained from video technique to be used as input for the numerical modelling system by comparing simulation results using surveyed bathymetry and model results using video bathymetry. Results show that the video technique is able to produce bathymetry converging towards the ground truth observations. This bathymetry validation will be followed by an example of operational forecasting type of simulation on predicting rip currents. Rip currents flow fields simulated over measured and modeled bathymetries are compared in order to assess the performance of the proposed forecast system.
activities. A basic assumption is that engineers have to take the responsability for building product models to be used in their domain. To do that they must be able to carry out the modeling task on their own without any need for support from computer science experts. This paper presents a set of simple...
Gian Luca Brunetti
Full Text Available This article discusses a procedure for the exploration of options in preliminary design. The procedure is based on the application of morphing procedures, which are typical of animation software, to building parametric analyses. The procedure is based on partially overlapping sequences of evaluations targeted on dynamic ad-hoc test-models and is aimed at the creation of data fields for the representation of the performance consequences of competing design sceneries. This representation is necessarily multidimensional and is based on parallel coordinates plots. The implementation of a specific test procedure of the kind described above is also discussed. The procedure has been supported by the use of contemporary analytical and representational systems and tools; namely, ESP-r, Radiance, Ggobi, and an extensible tool for the dynamic morphing of models through user-specified criteria, named OPTS, by the author.
Rossel, P.; Charitat, G.; Tranduc, H.; Morancho, F.; Moncoqut
In this survey, the historical evolution of power MOS transistor structures is presented and currently used devices are described. General considerations on current and voltage capabilities are discussed and configurations of popular structures are given. A synthesis of different modelling approaches proposed last three years is then presented, including analytical solutions, for basic electrical parameters such as threshold voltage, on-resistance, saturation and quasi-saturation effects, temperature influence and voltage handling capability. The numerical solutions of basic semiconductor devices is then briefly reviewed along with some typical problems which can be solved this way. A compact circuit modelling method is finally explained with emphasis on dynamic behavior modelling
Full Text Available The use of video sequences for face recognition has been relatively less studied compared to image-based approaches. In this paper, we present an analysis-by-synthesis framework for face recognition from video sequences that is robust to large changes in facial pose and lighting conditions. This requires tracking the video sequence, as well as recognition algorithms that are able to integrate information over the entire video; we address both these problems. Our method is based on a recently obtained theoretical result that can integrate the effects of motion, lighting, and shape in generating an image using a perspective camera. This result can be used to estimate the pose and structure of the face and the illumination conditions for each frame in a video sequence in the presence of multiple point and extended light sources. We propose a new inverse compositional estimation approach for this purpose. We then synthesize images using the face model estimated from the training data corresponding to the conditions in the probe sequences. Similarity between the synthesized and the probe images is computed using suitable distance measurements. The method can handle situations where the pose and lighting conditions in the training and testing data are completely disjoint. We show detailed performance analysis results and recognition scores on a large video dataset.
M. van Wermeskerken (Margot); Grimmius, B. (Bianca); T. van Gog (Tamara)
textabstractWe investigated the effects of seeing the instructor's (i.e., the model's) face in video modeling examples on students' attention and their learning outcomes. Research with university students suggested that the model's face attracts students' attention away from what the model is doing,
Turel, O; Romashkin, A; Morrison, K M
There is a growing need to curb paediatric obesity. The aim of this study is to untangle associations between video-game-use attributes and obesity as a first step towards identifying and examining possible interventions. Cross-sectional time-lagged cohort study was employed using parent-child surveys (t1) and objective physical activity and physiological measures (t2) from 125 children/adolescents (mean age = 13.06, 9-17-year-olds) who play video games, recruited from two clinics at a Canadian academic children's hospital. Structural equation modelling and analysis of covariance were employed for inference. The results of the study are as follows: (i) self-reported video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime is related to greater abdominal adiposity (waist-to-height ratio) and this association may be mediated through reduced sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index); and (ii) self-reported average video-game session duration is associated with greater abdominal adiposity and this association may be mediated through higher self-reported sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and reduced sleep quality. Video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime, typical video-game session duration, sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and poor sleep quality have aversive associations with abdominal adiposity. Paediatricians and researchers should further explore how these factors can be altered through behavioural or pharmacological interventions as a means to reduce paediatric obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
The author has developed a unified theory of path and multi-block modelling of data. The data blocks are arranged in a directional path. Each data block can lead to one or more data blocks. It is assumed that there is given a collection of input data blocks. Each of them is supposed to describe one...... that lead to it. Methods of standard regression analysis are extended to this type of modelling. Three types of 'strengths' of relationship are computed for each set of two connected data blocks. First is the strength in the path, second the strength where only the data blocks leading to the last one...... are used and third if only the two are considered. Cross-validation and other standard methods of linear regression are carried out in a similar manner. In industry, processes are organised in different ways. It can be useful to model the processes in the way they are carried out. By proper alignment...
Van Calster, L; Van Hoecke, A-S; Octaef, A; Boen, F
This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. Intervention study. Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator. The interventions took place in two buildings. The implementation of the interventions varied between these buildings and the sequence was reversed. Improving the visibility of the stairs increased both stair climbing (+6%) and descending stair use (+7%) compared with baseline. Sending the video by email yielded no additional effect on stair use. By contrast, displaying the video at the POC increased stair climbing in both buildings by 12.5% on average. One week after the intervention, the positive effects on stair climbing remained in one of the buildings, but not in the other. These findings suggest that improving the visibility of the stairwell and displaying a stair climbing model on a screen at the POC can result in a short-term increase in both climbing and descending stair use. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cihak, David; Fahrenkrog, Cynthia; Ayres, Kevin M.; Smith, Catherine
This study evaluated the efficacy of video modeling delivered via a handheld device (video iPod) and the use of the system of least prompts to assist elementary-age students with transitioning between locations and activities within the school. Four students with autism learned to manipulate a handheld device to watch video models. An ABAB…
Full Text Available
Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 3: Internet Video: Teknik og pædagogik mødes på nettet, april - juni 2004, red. Jens Dørup. ISSN 1603-5518.
Artiklen omhandler erfaringer med brug af digital video til at lære kirurgiske procedurer for tandlægestuderende og tandlæger under efteruddannelse. Der beskrives 4 års tekniske og pædagogiske erfaringer med in-house produktion af digitale videooptagelser af operationer, som tilgås on-demand. Endvidere beskrives streaming af video til efteruddannelse i forbindelse med et arrangement, hvor video fra kæbeoperationer blev transmitteret live fra Tandlægeskolen i København til Bella Centret, hvor 250 tandlæger overværede seancen på storskærm. Det blev valgt at bruge eksisterende udstyr, herunder eksisterende Internet forbindelser uden forsøg på at reservere båndbredde. Afslutningsvis tegnes nogle perspektiver for fremtidige anvendelsesmuligheder både teknisk og pædagogisk.
As virtual environments become larger and more complex, there is an increasing need for more automated construction algorithms to support the development process. We present an approach for modeling solids by combining prior examples with a simple sketch. Our algorithm uses an inference-based approach to incrementally fit patches together in a consistent fashion to define the boundary of an object. This algorithm samples and extracts surface patches from input models, and develops a Petri net structure that describes the relationship between patches along an imposed parameterization. Then, given a new parameterized line or curve, we use the Petri net to logically fit patches together in a manner consistent with the input model. This allows us to easily construct objects of varying sizes and configurations using arbitrary articulation, repetition, and interchanging of parts. The result of our process is a solid model representation of the constructed object that can be integrated into a simulation-based environment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper presents an architecture and algorithms for model based video object segmentation and its applications to vision augmented interactive game. We are especially interested in real time low cost vision based applications that can be implemented in software in a PC. We use different models for background and a player object. The object segmentation algorithm is performed in two different levels: pixel level and object level. At pixel level, the segmentation algorithm is formulated as a maximizing a posteriori probability (MAP) problem. The statistical likelihood of each pixel is calculated and used in the MAP problem. Object level segmentation is used to improve segmentation quality by utilizing the information about the spatial and temporal extent of the object. The concept of an active region, which is defined based on motion histogram and trajectory prediction, is introduced to indicate the possibility of a video object region for both background and foreground modeling. It also reduces the overall computation complexity. In contrast with other applications, the proposed video object segmentation system is able to create background and foreground models on the fly even without introductory background frames. Furthermore, we apply different rate of self-tuning on the scene model so that the system can adapt to the environment when there is a scene change. We applied the proposed video object segmentation algorithms to several prototype virtual interactive games. In our prototype vision augmented interactive games, a player can immerse himself/herself inside a game and can virtually interact with other animated characters in a real time manner without being constrained by helmets, gloves, special sensing devices, or background environment. The potential applications of the proposed algorithms including human computer gesture interface and object based video coding such as MPEG-4 video coding.
The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of a new procedure for modelling industrial energy systems. The new procedure combines second-law methods of analysis with simple component models that allow all of the plant energy forms to be included in a single model. As an example, the new procedure is used to analyze the steam system for a large Canadian petrochemicals plant. Changes in the system operation resulting in an estimated savings of $600,000 per year are identified. It is concluded that the new procedure can be used in Canadian industry to save energy and money. The recommended course of action is to incorporate the second-law measures into the ENERGY Mark II program that is currently under develpment and to consider funding the development of a version of the optimization model at a later date. 58 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
We introduce design transformations for rule-based procedural models, e.g., for buildings and plants. Given two or more procedural designs, each specified by a grammar, a design transformation combines elements of the existing designs to generate new designs. We introduce two technical components to enable design transformations. First, we extend the concept of discrete rule switching to rule merging, leading to a very large shape space for combining procedural models. Second, we propose an algorithm to jointly derive two or more grammars, called grammar co-derivation. We demonstrate two applications of our work: we show that our framework leads to a larger variety of models than previous work, and we show fine-grained transformation sequences between two procedural models.
Full Text Available U radu je opisan matematički model praćenja cilja na osnovu određivanja uglova i daljine cilja obradom video snimaka u toku praćenja. Izvršena je sinteza višemodelskog (MM estimatora stanja na bazi Kalmanovih filtera i utvrđena tačnost estimacije i predikcije kretanja cilja na konkretnom primeru. / This paper presents mathematical model of target tracking based on angle and target range determination by analyzing video frames during the tracking. The multiple model approach is performed using Kalman filter, and estimation and target motion prediction accuracy is determined using concrete example.
Bell, Beth T; Lawton, Rebecca; Dittmar, Helga
Music videos are a particularly influential, new form of mass media for adolescents, which include the depiction of scantily clad female models whose bodies epitomise the ultra-thin sociocultural ideal for young women. The present study is the first exposure experiment that examines the impact of thin models in music videos on the body dissatisfaction of 16-19-year-old adolescent girls (n=87). First, participants completed measures of positive and negative affect, body image, and self-esteem. Under the guise of a memory experiment, they then either watched three music videos, listened to three songs (from the videos), or learned a list of words. Affect and body image were assessed afterwards. In contrast to the music listening and word-learning conditions, girls who watched the music videos reported significantly elevated scores on an adaptation of the Body Image States Scale after exposure, indicating increased body dissatisfaction. Self-esteem was not found to be a significant moderator of this relationship. Implications and future research are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.
Huang, Haibin; Kalogerakis, Evangelos; Yumer, Ersin; Mech, Radomir
Procedural modeling techniques can produce high quality visual content through complex rule sets. However, controlling the outputs of these techniques for design purposes is often notoriously difficult for users due to the large number of parameters involved in these rule sets and also their non-linear relationship to the resulting content. To circumvent this problem, we present a sketch-based approach to procedural modeling. Given an approximate and abstract hand-drawn 2D sketch provided by a user, our algorithm automatically computes a set of procedural model parameters, which in turn yield multiple, detailed output shapes that resemble the user's input sketch. The user can then select an output shape, or further modify the sketch to explore alternative ones. At the heart of our approach is a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that is trained to map sketches to procedural model parameters. The network is trained by large amounts of automatically generated synthetic line drawings. By using an intuitive medium, i.e., freehand sketching as input, users are set free from manually adjusting procedural model parameters, yet they are still able to create high quality content. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficacy of our method in a variety of procedural modeling scenarios including design of man-made and organic shapes.
Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Yavuzcan, H Guclu; Ozel, Mesut
In order to ensure that digital evidence is collected, preserved, examined, or transferred in a manner safeguarding the accuracy and reliability of the evidence, law enforcement and digital forensic units must establish and maintain an effective quality assurance system. The very first part of this system is standard operating procedures (SOP's) and/or models, conforming chain of custody requirements, those rely on digital forensics "process-phase-procedure-task-subtask" sequence. An acceptable and thorough Digital Forensics (DF) process depends on the sequential DF phases, and each phase depends on sequential DF procedures, respectively each procedure depends on tasks and subtasks. There are numerous amounts of DF Process Models that define DF phases in the literature, but no DF model that defines the phase-based sequential procedures for crime scene identified. An analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM) that we suggest in this paper is supposed to fill in this gap. The proposed analytical procedure model for digital investigations at a crime scene is developed and defined for crime scene practitioners; with main focus on crime scene digital forensic procedures, other than that of whole digital investigation process and phases that ends up in a court. When reviewing the relevant literature and interrogating with the law enforcement agencies, only device based charts specific to a particular device and/or more general perspective approaches to digital evidence management models from crime scene to courts are found. After analyzing the needs of law enforcement organizations and realizing the absence of crime scene digital investigation procedure model for crime scene activities we decided to inspect the relevant literature in an analytical way. The outcome of this inspection is our suggested model explained here, which is supposed to provide guidance for thorough and secure implementation of digital forensic procedures at a crime scene. In digital forensic
Mason, Rose A; Ganz, Jennifer B; Parker, Richard I; Burke, Mack D; Camargo, Siglia P
Video modeling with other as model (VMO) is a more practical method for implementing video-based modeling techniques, such as video self-modeling, which requires significantly more editing. Despite this, identification of contextual factors such as participant characteristics and targeted outcomes that moderate the effectiveness of VMO has not previously been explored. The purpose of this study was to meta-analytically evaluate the evidence base of VMO with individuals with disabilities to determine if participant characteristics and targeted outcomes moderate the effectiveness of the intervention. Findings indicate that VMO is highly effective for participants with autism spectrum disorder (IRD=.83) and moderately effective for participants with developmental disabilities (IRD=.68). However, differential effects are indicated across levels of moderators for diagnoses and targeted outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
María Amata Garito
Full Text Available The initiatives on MOOCs promoted in the United States by prestigious universities, such as Stanford, Harvard, MIT, and by private bodies such as Udacity, aroused great interest worldwide; however the teaching and learning models proposed with MOOCs do not appear to rely on solid theoretical bases and, therefore, on valuable psycho-pedagogical models. The aim of this paper is to analyze some pedagogical aspects related to video communication models in order to highlight the strong and weak points of the educational framework of these initiatives. The teaching models adopted by the International Telematic University UNINETTUNO for its video lessons, the distance assessment systems, the teacher/tutor and student distance interaction models reached such a quality level that it allows us to generalize this model and trigger teaching and learning processes of high quality and to lower the dropouts rates of the students enrolled in MOOCs.
Allen, Keith D.; Wallace, Dustin P.; Renes, Diana; Bowen, Scott L.; Burke, Ray V.
As part of a collaborative project between a University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities and a local private business, we examined the effects of video modeling to teach vocational skills to four adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Video modeling was used to teach the participants to wear a WalkAround[R]…
Botton, Florent; Hautier, Christophe; Eclache, Jean-Paul
The aim of this study was to estimate, using video analysis, what proportion of the total energy expenditure during a tennis match is accounted for by aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively. The method proposed involved estimating the metabolic power (MP) of 5 activities, which are inherent to tennis: walking, running, hitting the ball, serving, and sitting down to rest. The energy expenditure concerned was calculated by sequencing the activity by video analysis. A bioenergetic model calculated the aerobic energy expenditure (EEO2mod) in terms of MP, and the anaerobic energy expenditure was calculated by subtracting this (MP - EEO2mod). Eight tennis players took part in the experiment as subjects (mean ± SD: age 25.2 ± 1.9 years, weight 79.3 ± 10.8 kg, VO2max 54.4 ± 5.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The players started off by participating in 2 games while wearing the K4b2, with their activity profile measured by the video analysis system, and then by playing a set without equipment but with video analysis. There was no significant difference between calculated and measured oxygen consumptions over the 16 games (p = 0.763), and these data were strongly related (r = 0.93, p method provided a good estimation of aerobic energy expenditure and made it possible to calculate the anaerobic energy expenditure. This could make it possible to estimate the metabolic intensity of training sessions and matches using video analysis.
Liau, Albert K; Neo, Eng Chuan; Gentile, Douglas A; Choo, Hyekyung; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline
Given the potential negative mental health consequences of pathological video gaming, understanding its etiology may lead to useful treatment developments. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of impulsive and regulatory processes on pathological video gaming. Study 1 involved 2154 students from 6 primary and 4 secondary schools in Singapore. Study 2 involved 191 students from 2 secondary schools. The results of study 1 and study 2 supported the hypothesis that self-regulation is a mediator between impulsivity and pathological video gaming. Specifically, higher levels of impulsivity was related to lower levels of self-regulation, which in turn was related to higher levels of pathological video gaming. The use of impulsivity and self-regulation in predicting pathological video gaming supports the dual-system model of incorporating both impulsive and reflective systems in the prediction of self-control outcomes. The study highlights the development of self-regulatory resources as a possible avenue for future prevention and treatment research. © 2011 APJPH.
Van Laarhoven, Toni; Winiarski, Lauren; Blood, Erika; Chan, Jeffrey M.
A modified pre/posttest control group design was used to measure the effectiveness of video modeling on the maintenance of vocational tasks for six students with autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental disabilities. Each student was assigned two vocational tasks at their employment settings and their independence with each task was measured…
Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Cook, Katherine E.
Visually based interventions such as video modeling have been demonstrated to be effective with students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This approach has wide utility, is appropriate for use with students of a range of ages and abilities, promotes independent functioning, and can be used to address numerous learner objectives, including…
Ozen, Arzu; Batu, Sema; Birkan, Binyamin
The purpose of the present study was to examine if video modeling was an effective way of teaching sociodramatic play skills to individuals with autism in a small group arrangement. Besides maintenance, observational learning and social validation data were collected. Three 9 year old boys with autism participated in the study. Multiple probe…
cate- gory in Fig. 1. This video contains segments focusing on the snowboard , the person jumping, is shot in an outdoor, ski-resort scene, and has fast... snowboard trick, but is unlikely to include all three. Grouping segments into their relevant scene types can improve recognition. Fi- nally, the model must
Bucalos, Julie Iberer
Independent task completion was examined using a multiple probe across participants research design for three students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) functioning in an inclusive classroom. Results were positive and suggest that video self-modeling (VSM) is a viable solution to decrease prompt dependence and increase independence and task…
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of teaching naming emotional facial expression via video modeling to children with autism. Teaching the naming of emotions (happy, sad, scared, disgusted, surprised, feeling physical pain, and bored) was made by creating situations that lead to the emergence of facial expressions to children…
Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.
Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…
Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit
Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the
Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit
Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010, August). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science
Cream, Angela; O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Harrison, Elisabeth; Lincoln, Michelle; Hewat, Sally; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark
Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated the efficacy of video self-modeling (VSM) following speech restructuring treatment to improve the maintenance of treatment effects. Method: The design was an open-plan, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Participants were 89 adults and adolescents who undertook intensive speech…
Alzyoudi, Mohammed; Sartawi, AbedAlziz; Almuhiri, Osha
Children with autism often show a lack of the interactive social skills that would allow them to engage with others successfully. They therefore frequently need training to aid them in successful social interaction. Video modelling is a widely used instructional technique that has been applied to teach children with developmental disabilities such…
Alzyoudi, Mohammed; Sartawi, AbedAlziz; Almuhiri, Osha
Children with autism often show a lack of the interactive social skills that would allow them to engage with others successfully. They therefore frequently need training to aid them in successful social interaction. Video modeling is a widely used instructional technique that has been applied to teach children with developmental disabilities such…
Given the increased number of students with disabilities who have culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in the United States, there has been growing attention to the cultural responsiveness of evidence-based behavioral interventions. The current study examined the effects of video modeling intervention on social play and interactions…
Cardon, Teresa A.; Guimond, Amy; Smith-Treadwell, Amanda M.
Video modeling (VM) has shown promise as an effective intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, little is known about what may promote or prevent caregivers' use of this intervention. While VM is an effective tool to support skill development among a wide range of children in research and clinical settings, VM is…
La Spata, Michelle G.; Carter, Christopher W.; Johnson, Wendi L.; McGill, Ryan J.
The present study examined the utility of video self-modeling (VSM) for reducing externalizing behaviors (e.g., aggression, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) observed within the classroom environment. After identification of relevant target behaviors, VSM interventions were developed for first and second grade students (N = 4),…
Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face clustering and face tracking from real world videos. The motivation for the proposed research is that face clustering and face tracking can provide useful information and constraints to each other, thus can bootstrap and improve the performances of each other. To this end, we introduce a Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field (CHMRF) to simultaneously model face clustering, face tracking, and their interactions. We provide an effective algorithm based on constrained clustering and optimal tracking for the joint optimization of cluster labels and face tracking. We demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art results in face clustering and tracking on several videos.
Spangler, Seth; Crutchfield, Dave
Energy modeling can be a powerful tool for managing energy-reduction concepts for an institution. Different types of energy models are developed at various stages of a project to provide data that can verify or disprove suggested energy-efficiency measures. Education institutions should understand what an energy model can do and, more important,…
Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard
Video games are a popular form of entertainment. Serious video games for health attempt to use entertainment to promote health behavior change. When designed within a framework informed by behavioral science and supported by commercial game-design principles, serious video games for health have the potential to be an effective method for promoting self-management behaviors among youth with diabetes. This article presents a conceptual model of how this may be achieved. It concludes by identify...
Naphade, Milind R.; Huang, Thomas S.
Tools for efficient and intelligent management of digital content are essential for digital video data management. An extremely challenging research area in this context is that of multimedia analysis and understanding. The capabilities of audio analysis in particular for video data management are yet to be fully exploited. We present a novel scheme for indexing and segmentation of video by analyzing the audio track. This analysis is then applied to the segmentation and indexing of movies. We build models for some interesting events in the motion picture soundtrack. The models built include music, human speech and silence. We propose the use of hidden Markov models to model the dynamics of the soundtrack and detect audio-events. Using these models we segment and index the soundtrack. A practical problem in motion picture soundtracks is that the audio in the track is of a composite nature. This corresponds to the mixing of sounds from different sources. Speech in foreground and music in background are common examples. The coexistence of multiple individual audio sources forces us to model such events explicitly. Experiments reveal that explicit modeling gives better result than modeling individual audio events separately.
Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.
The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…
Educators are often tasked with developing courses and curricula that teach learners how to perform medical procedures. This instruction must provide an optimal, uniform learning experience for all learners. If not well designed, this instruction risks being unstructured, informal, variable amongst learners, or incomplete. This article shows how an instructional design model can help craft courses and curricula to optimize instruction in performing medical procedures. Educators can use this as a guide to developing their own course instruction.
In the last years, many computational models have been developed for tensile fracture in concrete. However, their reliability is related to the correct estimate of the model parameters, not all directly measurable during laboratory tests. Hence, the development of inverse procedures is needed, that
Bohil, Corey J.; Biocca, Frank A.
This paper argues for the use of cognitive modeling to gain a detailed and dynamic look into user experience during game play. Applying cognitive models to game play data can help researchers understand a player's attentional focus, memory status, learning state, and decision strategies (among other things) as these cognitive processes occurred throughout game play. This is a stark contrast to the common approach of trying to assess the long-term impact of games on cognitive functioning after game play has ended. We describe what cognitive models are, what they can be used for and how game researchers could benefit by adopting these methods. We also provide details of a single model - based on decision field theory - that has been successfUlly applied to data sets from memory, perception, and decision making experiments, and has recently found application in real world scenarios. We examine possibilities for applying this model to game-play data.
Kämmerer, P W; Schneider, D; Pacyna, A A; Daubländer, M
The aim of the present study was an evaluation of movement during double aspiration by different manual syringes and one computer-controlled local anesthesia delivery system (C-CLAD). With five different devices (two disposable syringes (2, 5 ml), two aspirating syringes (active, passive), one C-CLAD), simulation of double aspiration in a phantom model was conducted. Two experienced and two inexperienced test persons carried out double aspiration with the injection systems at the right and left phantom mandibles in three different inclination angles (n = 24 × 5 × 2 for each system). 3D divergences of the needle between aspiration procedures (mm) were measured with two video cameras. An average movement for the 2-ml disposal syringe of 2.85 mm (SD 1.63), for the 5 ml syringe of 2.36 mm (SD 0.86), for the active-aspirating syringe of 2.45 mm (SD 0.9), for the passive-aspirating syringe of 2.01 mm (SD 0.7), and for the C-CLAD, an average movement of 0.91 mm (SD 0.63) was seen. The movement was significantly less for the C-CLAD compared to the other systems (p movement of the needle in the soft tissue was significantly less for the C-CLAD compared to the other systems (p movement of the syringe could be seen in comparison between manual and C-CLAD systems. Launching the aspiration by a foot pedal in computer-assisted anesthesia leads to a minor movement. To solve the problem of movement during aspiration with possibly increased false-negative results, a C-CLAD seems to be favorable.
Locke, Austin; Uhrínová, Bianka
Technological innovation has changed business models across multiple industries – retail (Amazon), taxi (Uber), hotel (Airbnb). Through exploratory research, using secondary data, this thesis describes changes that have occurred in video gaming industry from its creation to the current, modern era that are connected to technological innovation. Based on the current research of business models, the authors created a “Value Creation-Revenue Stream Framework” that they use to anal...
Gardner, Stephanie; Wolfe, Pamela
Identifying methods to increase the independent functioning of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is vital in enhancing their quality of life; teaching students with ASD daily living skills can foster independent functioning. This review examines interventions that implement video modeling and/or prompting to teach individuals with…
Full Text Available Audience: Medical Students, Interns, Residents, Fellows and Attending Physicians. Introduction: Most residents graduate residency without having the opportunity to perform emergency cricothyrotomy in a real failed airway scenario. Simulation training is therefore often utilized to fulfill residents’ procedural education. Animal tracheas are common models, but there is difficulty maintaining the unattached trachea in appropriate alignment and exposure. This manuscript outlines the materials and steps to reproduce a realistic, reusable cricothyrotomy simulation model and utilize it in training. Methods: Supplies from a local hardware store plus beginner woodworking skills and tools were used to build a pig trachea holding device. This simulation model has been used by the site’s Emergency Medicine residents as a tool for procedural airway training since 2011. Results: The pig trachea simulation model has become a reusable, favorable tool and permanent part of resident skills training sessions, which are held at the beginning of every academic year. A survey was administered which revealed that the model was easy to use, was a good simulation, and improved residents’ comfort level performing a cricothyrotomy. Conclusion: The inexpensive, reusable surgical airway model using a pig trachea holder and cadaveric skin is a useful, high fidelity procedural training tool. It has successfully fulfilled trainees’ need to practice this rare but potentially life-saving procedure.
Byrnes, Patrick D.; Higgins, William E.
Image-guided bronchoscopy is a critical component in the treatment of lung cancer and other pulmonary disorders. During bronchoscopy, a high-resolution endobronchial video stream facilitates guidance through the lungs and allows for visual inspection of a patient's airway mucosal surfaces. Despite the detailed information it contains, little effort has been made to incorporate recorded video into the clinical workflow. Follow-up procedures often required in cancer assessment or asthma treatment could significantly benefit from effectively parsed and summarized video. Tracking diagnostic regions of interest (ROIs) could potentially better equip physicians to detect early airway-wall cancer or improve asthma treatments, such as bronchial thermoplasty. To address this need, we have developed a system for the postoperative analysis of recorded endobronchial video. The system first parses an input video stream into endoscopic shots, derives motion information, and selects salient representative key frames. Next, a semi-automatic method for CT-video registration creates data linkages between a CT-derived airway-tree model and the input video. These data linkages then enable the construction of a CT-video chest model comprised of a bronchoscopy path history (BPH) - defining all airway locations visited during a procedure - and texture-mapping information for rendering registered video frames onto the airwaytree model. A suite of analysis tools is included to visualize and manipulate the extracted data. Video browsing and retrieval is facilitated through a video table of contents (TOC) and a search query interface. The system provides a variety of operational modes and additional functionality, including the ability to define regions of interest. We demonstrate the potential of our system using two human case study examples.
Video Self-Modeling (VSM) provides individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task beyond their present functioning level through the careful editing of videos. In this study, a single-case multiple-baseline design was used to determine whether VSM would facilitate social initiations across three young children (M = 3 years 10…
Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin
their exams. Evaluations show that the students are happy with the flexibility this model provides in their everyday life. However, our findings also show several obstacles. Firstly technical issues are at play, but also the learning design of the lessons, as well as general organizational and cultural issues...
Potter, Michael; Bensch, Alexander; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Linte, Cristian A.
In minimally invasive surgical interventions direct visualization of the target area is often not available. Instead, clinicians rely on images from various sources, along with surgical navigation systems for guidance. These spatial localization and tracking systems function much like the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) that we are all well familiar with. In this work we demonstrate how the video feed from a typical camera, which could mimic a laparoscopic or endoscopic camera used during an interventional procedure, can be used to identify the pose of the camera with respect to the viewed scene and augment the video feed with computer-generated information, such as rendering of internal anatomy not visible beyond the imaged surface, resulting in a simple augmented reality environment. This paper describes the software and hardware environment and methodology for augmenting the real world with virtual models extracted from medical images to provide enhanced visualization beyond the surface view achieved using traditional imaging. Following intrinsic and extrinsic camera calibration, the technique was implemented and demonstrated using a LEGO structure phantom, as well as a 3D-printed patient-specific left atrial phantom. We assessed the quality of the overlay according to fiducial localization, fiducial registration, and target registration errors, as well as the overlay offset error. Using the software extensions we developed in conjunction with common webcams it is possible to achieve tracking accuracy comparable to that seen with significantly more expensive hardware, leading to target registration errors on the order of 2 mm.
Full Text Available Traditionally, surgical and procedural apprenticeship has been an assumed activity of students, without a formal educational context. With increasing barriers to patient and operating room access such as shorter work week hours for residents, and operating room and endoscopy time at a premium, alternate strategies to maximizing procedural skill development are being considered. Recently, the traditional surgical apprenticeship model has been challenged, with greater emphasis on the need for surgical and procedural skills training to be more transparent and for alternatives to patient-based training to be considered. Colonoscopy performance is a complex psychomotor skill requiring practioners to integrate multiple sensory inputs, and involves higher cortical centres for optimal performance. Colonoscopy skills involve mastery in the cognitive, technical and process domains. In the present review, we propose a model for teaching colonoscopy to the novice trainee based on educational theory.
Goutsu, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Takaki; Obara, Junya; Kusajima, Ikuo; Takeichi, Kazunari; Takano, Wataru; Nakamura, Yoshihiko
Gesture recognition is used in many practical applications such as human-robot interaction, medical rehabilitation and sign language. With increasing motion sensor development, multiple data sources have become available, which leads to the rise of multi-modal gesture recognition. Since our previous approach to gesture recognition depends on a unimodal system, it is difficult to classify similar motion patterns. In order to solve this problem, a novel approach which integrates motion, audio and video models is proposed by using dataset captured by Kinect. The proposed system can recognize observed gestures by using three models. Recognition results of three models are integrated by using the proposed framework and the output becomes the final result. The motion and audio models are learned by using Hidden Markov Model. Random Forest which is the video classifier is used to learn the video model. In the experiments to test the performances of the proposed system, the motion and audio models most suitable for gesture recognition are chosen by varying feature vectors and learning methods. Additionally, the unimodal and multi-modal models are compared with respect to recognition accuracy. All the experiments are conducted on dataset provided by the competition organizer of MMGRC, which is a workshop for Multi-Modal Gesture Recognition Challenge. The comparison results show that the multi-modal model composed of three models scores the highest recognition rate. This improvement of recognition accuracy means that the complementary relationship among three models improves the accuracy of gesture recognition. The proposed system provides the application technology to understand human actions of daily life more precisely.
Greenewald, Kristjan H.; Hero, Alfred O.
We consider the application of KronPCA spatio-temporal modeling techniques1, 2 to the extraction of spatiotemporal features for video dismount classification. KronPCA performs a low-rank type of dimensionality reduction that is adapted to spatio-temporal data and is characterized by the T frame multiframe mean μ and covariance ∑ of p spatial features. For further regularization and improved inverse estimation, we also use the diagonally corrected KronPCA shrinkage methods we presented in.1 We apply this very general method to the modeling of the multivariate temporal behavior of HOG features extracted from pedestrian bounding boxes in video, with gender classification in a challenging dataset chosen as a specific application. The learned covariances for each class are used to extract spatiotemporal features which are then classified, achieving competitive classification performance.
Blum-Dimaya, Alyssa; Reeve, Sharon A.; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Hoch, Hannah
Children with autism have severe and pervasive impairments in social interactions and communication that impact most areas of daily living and often limit independent engagement in leisure activities. We taught four children with autism to engage in an age-appropriate leisure skill, playing the video game Guitar Hero II[TM], through the use of (a)…
Meister, Christine; Salls, Joyce
This pilot study investigated the efficacy of point-of-view video modeling as an intervention strategy to improve self-help skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A single-subject A-B design was implemented with eight school-aged children ages 7.5 years to 13.5 years. Six of the students participated in general education classes…
Joo, Han Gyu; Lee, Ki Bog; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)
This report describes the procedure for generating input models of a one-dimensional kinetics code, HAMOCE, and also provides the method and model verification results through a series of illustrative sample calculations. The primary component of a HAMOCE model is the one-dimensional (1D) group constants which are obtained through radial collapsing. It is thus necessary to generate raw group constant data by three-dimensional static calculations at various reactor conditions and then functionalize these 1D group constants. Chapter 2 first provides the definitions and functionalization schemes of the 1D group constants and describes the procedure for generating and verifying them. This procedure includes the methods for specifying the calculation condition and ranges of the base code MASTER and also for executing the 1D group constant processing code GENDA1D, which actually produces and verifies the group constant file. Chapter 3 describes the HAMOCE model generation procedure with practical examples for the SMART core application. In case of SMART, the core inlet temperature varies depending on the power level and employs a unique CEA moving sequence. These characteristics of SMART are reflected in the 1-D group constant generation. The verification results obtained for the hot full power steady state and a load follow simulation indicate that HAMOCE agrees with the reference MASTER very well as long as the inlet temperature variation is excluded. This proves that the HAMOCE methodology including the group constant functionalization scheme works properly. If the inlet temperature variation is allowed, the error increases. However, the magnitude is still small enough (<100 pcm). Chapter 4 explains the coupled calculation of a system code TASS and HAMOCE. This explanation includes a brief introduction of the coupled calculation method and the initialization procedure. The applications to a power maneuvering and a cold zero power rod withdrawal indicates that the TASS
Kijak, Ewa; Oisel, Lionel; Gros, Patrick
This work aims at recovering the temporal structure of a broadcast tennis video from an analysis of the raw footage. Our method relies on a statistical model of the interleaving of shots, in order to group shots into predefined classes representing structural elements of a tennis video. This stochastic modeling is performed in the global framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). The fundamental units are shots and transitions. In a first step, colors and motion attributes of segmented shots are used to map shots into 2 classes: game (view of the full tennis court) and not game (medium, close up views, and commercials). In a second step, a trained HMM is used to analyze the temporal interleaving of shots. This analysis results in the identification of more complex structures, such as first missed services, short rallies that could be aces or services, long rallies, breaks that are significant of the end of a game and replays that highlight interesting points. These higher-level unit structures can be used either to create summaries, or to allow non-linear browsing of the video.
Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn; Kully, Deborah
This multiple-baseline across subjects study investigated the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) in reducing stuttering and bringing about improvements in associated self-report measures. Participants' viewing practices and perceptions of the utility of VSM also were explored. Three adult males who had previously completed speech restructuring treatment viewed VSM recordings twice per week for 6 weeks. Weekly speech data, treatment viewing logs, and pre- and post-treatment self-report measures were obtained. An exit interview also was conducted. Two participants showed a decreasing trend in stuttering frequency. All participants appeared to engage in fewer avoidance behaviors and had less expectations to stutter. All participants perceived that, in different ways, the VSM treatment had benefited them and all participants had unique viewing practices. Given the increasing availability and ease in using portable audio-visual technology, VSM appears to offer an economical and clinically useful tool for clients who are motivated to use the technology to recover fluency. Readers will be able to describe: (a) the tenets of video-self modeling; (b) the main components of video-self modeling as a fluency recovery treatment as used in this study; and (c) speech and self-report outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wee, Loo Kang
This paper aims to share the use of Tracker a free open source video analysis and modeling tool that is increasingly used as a pedagogical tool for the effective learning and teaching of Physics for Grade 9 Secondary 3 students in Singapore schools to make physics relevant to the real world. We discuss the pedagogical use of Tracker, guided by the Framework for K-12 Science Education by National Research Council, USA to help students to be more like scientists. For a period of 6 to 10 weeks, students use a video analysis coupled with the 8 practices of sciences such as 1. Ask question, 2. Use models, 3. Plan and carry out investigation, 4. Analyse and interpret data, 5. Use mathematical and computational thinking, 6. Construct explanations, 7. Argue from evidence and 8. Communicate information. This papers focus in on discussing some of the performance task design ideas such as 3.1 flip video, 3.2 starting with simple classroom activities, 3.3 primer science activity, 3.4 integrative dynamics and kinematics l...
Principal component pursuit (PCP) is a state-of-the-art approach for background estimation problems. Due to their higher computational cost, PCP algorithms, such as robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and its variants, are not feasible in processing high definition videos. To avoid the curse of dimensionality in those algorithms, several methods have been proposed to solve the background estimation problem in an incremental manner. We propose a batch-incremental background estimation model using a special weighted low-rank approximation of matrices. Through experiments with real and synthetic video sequences, we demonstrate that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art background estimation algorithms such as GRASTA, ReProCS, incPCP, and GFL.
Genevieve Hin Ha Tsui
Full Text Available With the increases in size and strength that come with adulthood, challenging behaviours among those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD can become critical. Few studies have explored behavioural interventions in adults with ASD, though recent studies have shown video self-modeling (VSM to be effective in children with ASD. VSM involves an individual watching videos of himself demonstrating prosocial behaviours, while those behaviours are pointed out and encouraged. In the current study, VSM was used to encourage prosocial behaviours and to reduce problematic behaviour displayed by an adult with ASD. Results reveal a decrease in the tendency to invade others’ personal space and make inappropriate loud noises. VSM may be an effective intervention and improve the lives of adults with ASD.
Sofia Backåberg; Mikael Rask; Christina Gummesson; David Brunt
The aim of this study is to describe an interactive model developed for movement awareness in a practical learning situation and to explore the use of video-based digital feedback and reflective enquiry in this model among nursing students. Sixteen students participated in individual interactive video sessions with a facilitator, who encouraged the students to reflect upon their own movements. Qualitative analysis showed that movement patterns were visualized, and that movement awareness and ...
Mabotuwana, Thusitha; Hall, Christopher S; Thomas, Shiby; Wald, Christoph
Across the United States, there is a growing number of patients in Accountable Care Organizations and under risk contracts with commercial insurance. This is due to proliferation of new value-based payment models and care delivery reform efforts. In this context, the business model of radiology within a hospital or health system context is shifting from a primary profit-center to a cost-center with a goal of cost savings. Radiology departments need to increasingly understand how the transactional nature of the business relates to financial rewards. The main challenge with current reporting systems is that the information is presented only at an aggregated level, and often not broken down further, for instance, by type of exam. As such, the primary objective of this research is to provide better visibility into payments associated with individual radiology procedures in order to better calibrate expense/capital structure of the imaging enterprise to the actual revenue or value-add to the organization it belongs to. We propose a methodology that can be used to determine technical payments at a procedure level. We use a proportion based model to allocate payments to individual radiology procedures based on total charges (which also includes non-radiology related charges). Using a production dataset containing 424,250 radiology exams we calculated the overall average technical charge for Radiology to be $873.08 per procedure and the corresponding average payment to be $326.43 (range: $48.27 for XR and $2750.11 for PET/CT) resulting in an average payment percentage of 37.39% across all exams. We describe how charges associated with a procedure can be used to approximate technical payments at a more granular level with a focus on Radiology. The methodology is generalizable to approximate payment for other services as well. Understanding payments associated with each procedure can be useful during strategic practice planning. Charge-to-total charge ratio can be used to
Full Text Available This study extends previous research on observational learning in writing. It was our objective to enhance students’ motivation and learning in an academic writing course on research synthesis writing. Participants were 162 first-year college students who had no experience with the writing task. Based on Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory we developed two videos. In the first video a manager (prestige model elaborated on how synthesizing information is important in professional life. In the second video a peer model demonstrated a five-step writing strategy for writing up a research synthesis. We compared two versions of this video. In the explicit-strategy-instruction-video we added visual cues to channel learners’ attention to critical features of the demonstrated task using an acronym in which each letter represented a step of the model’s strategy. In the implicit-strategy-instruction-video these cues were absent. The effects of the videos were tested using a 2x2 factorial between-subjects design with video of the prestige model (yes/no and type of instructional video (implicit versus explicit strategy instruction as factors. Four post-test measures were obtained: task value, self-efficacy beliefs, task knowledge and writing performances. Path analyses revealed that the prestige model did not affect students’ task value. Peer-mediated explicit strategy instruction had no effect on self-efficacy, but a strong effect on task knowledge. Task knowledge – in turn – was found to be predictive of writing performance.
Jalali, Ali; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay; Nataraj, C
This paper is concerned with the optimization of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure, which plays a critical rule in saving the life of patients suffering from cardiac arrest. In this paper, we define the performance index for optimization using the oxygen delivery. A model developed earlier is used to calculate the oxygen delivery through CPR. The free parameters of this model which depend on the rescuer performance are ventilation time, compression speed, tidal volume, and fraction of oxygen in the inspired air. Two different optimization problems are carried out. First, a global optimization is implemented to discover the best values of the free parameters which maximize the oxygen delivery. In addition to this, a sequential optimization scheme is explored which uses a two step optimization in each CPR sequence to maximize the oxygen delivery. Results show that the sequential optimization procedure will enhance the performance of the CPR significantly.
Johanna H Oxstrand; Katya L Le Blanc
The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory, the Institute for Energy Technology, and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field operators. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do this. The underlying philosophy in the research effort is “Stop – Start – Continue”, i.e. what features from the use of paper-based procedures should we not incorporate (Stop), what should we keep (Continue), and what new features or work processes should be added (Start). One step in identifying the Stop – Start – Continue was to conduct a baseline study where affordances related to the current usage of paper-based procedures were identified. The purpose of the study was to develop a model of paper based procedure use which will help to identify desirable features for computer based procedure prototypes. Affordances such as note taking, markups
Full Text Available A procurement decision model for a video rental store is presented in this paper. The model is based on inventory management, but many classical inventory management principles are inappropriate since the commodities (movie titles are removed from, and after a certain time period, returned to inventory. The commodities also have a decaying demand in general; hence the video rental store owner (the decision maker is required to procure new titles periodically. The question addressed in this paper is how to determine which movie titles to acquire, and how many copies of each in order to best maximise profit. An approximated demand function is presented, and attributes of movie titles in inventory are used to classify candidate movie titles and predict their future demand. This allows the decision maker to select the most profitable candidate items from a list, whilst remaining within a predetermined budget. The procurement decision model is evaluated by means of predicting the expected turnover using the procurement decision model solution, and then comparing it to the turnover achieved using the procurement strategy followed by the store owner. The model is not prescriptive - the decision maker may still utilise his/her experience to acquire new movie titles. The procurement decision model, however, does assist the decision making process by presenting a point of departure from which procurement decisions may be made.
Sutter, E Grant; Orenduff, Justin; Fox, Will J; Myers, Joshua; Garrigues, Grant E
Baseball pitching imposes significant stress on the upper extremity and can lead to injury. Many studies have attempted to predict injury through pitching mechanics, most of which have used laboratory setups that are often not practical for population-based analysis. This study sought to predict injury risk in professional baseball pitchers using a statistical model based on video analysis evaluating delivery mechanics in a large population. Career data were collected and video analysis was performed on a random sample of former and current professional pitchers. Delivery mechanics were analyzed using 6 categories: mass and momentum, arm swing, posture, position at foot strike, path of arm acceleration, and finish. Effects of demographics and delivery scores on injury were determined using a survival analysis, and model validity was assessed. A total of 449 professional pitchers were analyzed. Risk of injury significantly increased with later birth date, role as reliever vs starter, and previous major injury. Risk of injury significantly decreased with increase in overall delivery score (7.8%) and independently with increase in score of the mass and momentum (16.5%), arm swing (12.0%), and position at foot strike (22.8%) categories. The accuracy of the model in predicting injury was significantly better when including total delivery score compared with demographic factors alone. This study presents a model that evaluates delivery mechanics and predicts injury risk of professional pitchers based on video analysis and demographic variables. This model can be used to assess injury risk of professional pitchers and can be potentially expanded to assess injury risk in pitchers at other levels. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Santiago Barroso Juan
Full Text Available While the procedural modeling of buildings and other architectural structures has evolved very significantly in recent years, there is noticeable absence of high-level tools that allow a designer, an artist or an historian, creating important buildings or architectonic structures in a particular city. In this paper we present a tool for creating buildings in a simple and clear, following rules that use the language and methodology of creating their own buildings, and hiding the user the algorithmic details of the creation of the model.
Zhang, Qiang; Li, Baoxin
A proper temporal model is essential to analysis tasks involving sequential data. In computer-assisted surgical training, which is the focus of this study, obtaining accurate temporal models is a key step towards automated skill-rating. Conventional learning approaches can have only limited success in this domain due to insufficient amount of data with accurate labels. We propose a novel formulation termed Relative Hidden Markov Model and develop algorithms for obtaining a solution under this formulation. The method requires only relative ranking between input pairs, which are readily available from training sessions in the target application, hence alleviating the requirement on data labeling. The proposed algorithm learns a model from the training data so that the attribute under consideration is linked to the likelihood of the input, hence supporting comparing new sequences. For evaluation, synthetic data are first used to assess the performance of the approach, and then we experiment with real videos from a widely-adopted surgical training platform. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach provides a promising solution to video-based motion skill evaluation. To further illustrate the potential of generalizing the method to other applications of temporal analysis, we also report experiments on using our model on speech-based emotion recognition.
Saldana, M.; Johanson, C.
RomeLab is a multidisciplinary working group at UCLA that uses the city of Rome as a laboratory for the exploration of research approaches and dissemination practices centered on the intersection of space and time in antiquity. In this paper we present a multiplatform workflow for the rapid-prototyping of historical cityscapes through the use of geographic information systems, procedural modeling, and interactive game development. Our workflow begins by aggregating archaeological data in a GIS database. Next, 3D building models are generated from the ArcMap shapefiles in Esri CityEngine using procedural modeling techniques. A GIS-based terrain model is also adjusted in CityEngine to fit the building elevations. Finally, the terrain and city models are combined in Unity, a game engine which we used to produce web-based interactive environments which are linked to the GIS data using keyhole markup language (KML). The goal of our workflow is to demonstrate that knowledge generated within a first-person virtual world experience can inform the evaluation of data derived from textual and archaeological sources, and vice versa.
Wee, Loo Kang; Leong, Tze Kwang
This paper aims to share the use of Tracker a free open source video analysis and modeling tool that is increasingly used as a pedagogical tool for the effective learning and teaching of Physics for Grade 9 Secondary 3 students in Singapore schools to make physics relevant to the real world. We discuss the pedagogical use of Tracker, guided by the Framework for K-12 Science Education by National Research Council, USA to help students to be more like scientists. For a period of 6 to 10 weeks, ...
Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Sano, Ryuichi [High Temperature Plasma Physics Research Division, The Graduate University of Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Mukai, Kiyofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Pandya, Santosh P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Nr. Indira Bridge, Village Bhat, Gandhinagar 382-428 (India)
The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) used for measurement of the two-dimensional (2D) radiation profiles from the Large Helical Device has been significantly upgraded recently to improve its signal to noise ratio, sensitivity, and calibration, which ultimately provides quantitative measurements of the radiation from the plasma. The reliability of the quantified data needs to be established by various checks. The noise estimates also need to be revised and more realistic values need to be established. It is shown that the 2D heat diffusion equation can be used for estimating the power falling on the IRVB foil, even with a significant amount of spatial variation in the thermal diffusivity across the area of the platinum foil found experimentally during foil calibration. The equation for the noise equivalent power density (NEPD) is re-derived to include the errors in the measurement of the thermophysical and the optical properties of the IRVB foil. The theoretical value estimated using this newly derived equation matches closely, within 5.5%, with the mean experimental value. The change in the contribution of each error term of the NEPD equation with rising foil temperature is also studied and the blackbody term is found to dominate the other terms at elevated operating temperatures. The IRVB foil is also sensitive to the charge exchange (CX) neutrals escaping from the plasma. The CX neutral contribution is estimated to be marginally higher than the noise equivalent power (NEP) of the IRVB. It is also established that the radiation measured by the IRVB originates from the impurity line radiation from the plasma and not from the heated divertor tiles. The change in the power density due to noise reduction measures such as data smoothing and averaging is found to be comparable to the IRVB NEPD. The precautions that need to be considered during background subtraction are also discussed with experimental illustrations. Finally, the analysis algorithm with all the
Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang; El-Sheimy, Naser
An unsupervised learning algorithm based on topic models is presented for lane detection in video sequences observed by uncalibrated moving cameras. Our contributions are twofold. First, we introduce the maximally stable extremal region (MSER) detector for lane-marking feature extraction and derive a novel shape descriptor in an affine invariant manner to describe region shapes and a modified scale-invariant feature transform descriptor to capture feature appearance characteristics. MSER features are more stable compared to edge points or line pairs and hence provide robustness to lane-marking variations in scale, lighting, viewpoint, and shadows. Second, we proposed a novel location-enhanced probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) topic model for simultaneous lane recognition and localization. The proposed model overcomes the limitation of a pLSA model for effective topic localization. Experimental results on traffic sequences in various scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Labarthe, Baptiste; Abasq, Lena; de Fouquet, Chantal; Flipo, Nicolas
Stream-aquifer interaction is a complex process depending on regional and local processes. Indeed, the groundwater component of hydrosystem and large scale heterogeneities control the regional flows towards the alluvial plains and the rivers. In second instance, the local distribution of the stream bed permeabilities controls the dynamics of stream-aquifer water fluxes within the alluvial plain, and therefore the near-river piezometric head distribution. In order to better understand the water circulation and pollutant transport in watersheds, the integration of these multi-dimensional processes in modelling platform has to be performed. Thus, the nested interfaces concept in continental hydrosystem modelling (where regional fluxes, simulated by large scale models, are imposed at local stream-aquifer interfaces) has been presented in Flipo et al (2014). This concept has been implemented in EauDyssée modelling platform for a large alluvial plain model (900km2) part of a 11000km2 multi-layer aquifer system, located in the Seine basin (France). The hydrosystem modelling platform is composed of four spatially distributed modules (Surface, Sub-surface, River and Groundwater), corresponding to four components of the terrestrial water cycle. Considering the large number of parameters to be inferred simultaneously, the calibration process of coupled models is highly computationally demanding and therefore hardly applicable to a real case study of 10000km2. In order to improve the efficiency of the calibration process, a stepwise calibration procedure is proposed. The stepwise methodology involves determining optimal parameters of all components of the coupled model, to provide a near optimum prior information for the global calibration. It starts with the surface component parameters calibration. The surface parameters are optimised based on the comparison between simulated and observed discharges (or filtered discharges) at various locations. Once the surface parameters
Cappellini, V.; Saleri, R.; Stefani, C.; Nony, N.; De Luca, L.
The paper will describe a new approach based on the development of a procedural modelling methodology for archaeological data representation. This is a custom-designed solution based on the recognition of the rules belonging to the construction methods used in roman times. We have conceived a tool for 3D reconstruction of masonry structures starting from photogrammetric surveying. Our protocol considers different steps. Firstly we have focused on the classification of opus based on the basic interconnections that can lead to a descriptive system used for their unequivocal identification and design. Secondly, we have chosen an automatic, accurate, flexible and open-source photogrammetric pipeline named Pastis Apero Micmac - PAM, developed by IGN (Paris). We have employed it to generate ortho-images from non-oriented images, using a user-friendly interface implemented by CNRS Marseille (France). Thirdly, the masonry elements are created in parametric and interactive way, and finally they are adapted to the photogrammetric data. The presented application, currently under construction, is developed with an open source programming language called Processing, useful for visual, animated or static, 2D or 3D, interactive creations. Using this computer language, a Java environment has been developed. Therefore, even if the procedural modelling reveals an accuracy level inferior to the one obtained by manual modelling (brick by brick), this method can be useful when taking into account the static evaluation on buildings (requiring quantitative aspects) and metric measures for restoration purposes.
Farley, Arthur M.
A qualitative, cluster-based approach to the representation of hydraulic systems is described and its potential for generating and explaining procedures is demonstrated. Many ideas are formalized and implemented as part of an interactive, computer-based system. The system allows for designing, displaying, and reasoning about hydraulic systems. The interactive system has an interface consisting of three windows: a design/control window, a cluster window, and a diagnosis/plan window. A qualitative mechanism model for the ORS (Orbital Refueling System) is presented to coordinate with ongoing research on this system being conducted at NASA Ames Research Center.
Özerk, Meral; Özerk, Kamil
"Video modeling" is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The model's theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986) social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can…
real world); proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors allowing the recreating of the 3D geometric database of an environment (virtual world). The virtual world is projected onto a video display terminal (VDT). Computer-generated and video ...
Han, Jungong; de With, Peter H. N.
The extensive amount of video data stored on available media (hard and optical disks) necessitates video content analysis, which is a cornerstone for different user-friendly applications, such as, smart video retrieval and intelligent video summarization. This paper aims at finding a unified and efficient framework for court-net sports video analysis. We concentrate on techniques that are generally applicable for more than one sports type to come to a unified approach. To this end, our framework employs the concept of multi-level analysis, where a novel 3-D camera modeling is utilized to bridge the gap between the object-level and the scene-level analysis. The new 3-D camera modeling is based on collecting features points from two planes, which are perpendicular to each other, so that a true 3-D reference is obtained. Another important contribution is a new tracking algorithm for the objects (i.e. players). The algorithm can track up to four players simultaneously. The complete system contributes to summarization by various forms of information, of which the most important are the moving trajectory and real-speed of each player, as well as 3-D height information of objects and the semantic event segments in a game. We illustrate the performance of the proposed system by evaluating it for a variety of court-net sports videos containing badminton, tennis and volleyball, and we show that the feature detection performance is above 92% and events detection about 90%.
Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren; Pedersen, Jesper Melgaard
Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage), and a contrast measure. The second analysis shows that modeling of leakage is necessary for objective quality assessment of sequences displayed with local backlight dimming.
Kerrien, E; Yureidini, A; Dequidt, J; Duriez, C; Anxionnat, R; Cotin, S
Endovascular interventions can benefit from interactive simulation in their training phase but also during pre-operative and intra-operative phases if simulation scenarios are based on patient data. A key feature in this context is the ability to extract, from patient images, models of blood vessels that impede neither the realism nor the performance of simulation. This paper addresses both the segmentation and reconstruction of the vasculature from 3D Rotational Angiography data, and adapted to simulation: An original tracking algorithm is proposed to segment the vessel tree while filtering points extracted at the vessel surface in the vicinity of each point on the centerline; then an automatic procedure is described to reconstruct each local unstructured point set as a skeleton-based implicit surface (blobby model). The output of successively applying both algorithms is a new model of vasculature as a tree of local implicit models. The segmentation algorithm is compared with Multiple Hypothesis Testing (MHT) algorithm (Friman et al., 2010) on patient data, showing its greater ability to track blood vessels. The reconstruction algorithm is evaluated on both synthetic and patient data and demonstrate its ability to fit points with a subvoxel precision. Various tests are also reported where our model is used to simulate catheter navigation in interventional neuroradiology. An excellent realism, and much lower computational costs are reported when compared to triangular mesh surface models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wee, Loo Kang
We will share on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of physics performance tasks taking root in some Singapore Grade 9 (Secondary 3) schools. We discuss the pedagogical use of Tracker help students to be like scientists in these 6 to 10 weeks where all Grade 9 students are to conduct a personal video analysis and where appropriate the 8 practices of sciences (1. ask question, 2. use models, 3. Plan and carry out investigation, 4. Analyse and interpret data, 5. Using mathematical and computational thinking, 6. Construct explanations, 7. Discuss from evidence and 8. Communicating information). We will situate our sharing on actual students work and discuss how tracker could be an effective pedagogical tool. Initial research findings suggest that allowing learners conduct performance task using Tracker, a free open source video analysis and modelling tool, guided by the 8 practices of sciences and engineering, could be an innovative and effective way to mentor authent...
H. M. Arani
Full Text Available A lumping procedure is developed for obtaining kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of catalytic naphtha reforming. All kinetic and deactivation parameters are estimated from industrial data and thermodynamic parameters are calculated from derived mathematical expressions. The proposed model contains 17 lumps that include the C6 to C8+ hydrocarbon range and 15 reaction pathways. Hougen-Watson Langmuir-Hinshelwood type reaction rate expressions are used for kinetic simulation of catalytic reactions. The kinetic parameters are benchmarked with several sets of plant data and estimated by the SQP optimization method. After calculation of deactivation and kinetic parameters, plant data are compared with model predictions and only minor deviations between experimental and calculated data are generally observed.
Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy
Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...... in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models....
Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren
This paper considers a method for evaluation of Rate-Distortion-Complexity (R-D-C) performance of video coding. A statistical model of the transformed coefficients is used to estimate the Rate-Distortion (R-D) performance. A model frame work for rate, distortion and slope of the R-D curve for inter...... and intra frame is presented. Assumptions are given for analyzing an R-D model for fast R-D-C evaluation. The theoretical expressions are combined with H.264 video coding, and confirmed by experimental results. The complexity frame work is applied to the integer motion estimation....
Romero, Mario; Summet, Jay; Stasko, John; Abowd, Gregory
In the established procedural model of information visualization, the first operation is to transform raw data into data tables . The transforms typically include abstractions that aggregate and segment relevant data and are usually defined by a human, user or programmer. The theme of this paper is that for video, data transforms should be supported by low level computer vision. High level reasoning still resides in the human analyst, while part of the low level perception is handled by the computer. To illustrate this approach, we present Viz-A-Vis, an overhead video capture and access system for activity analysis in natural settings over variable periods of time. Overhead video provides rich opportunities for long-term behavioral and occupancy analysis, but it poses considerable challenges. We present initial steps addressing two challenges. First, overhead video generates overwhelmingly large volumes of video impractical to analyze manually. Second, automatic video analysis remains an open problem for computer vision.
Jitin N Trivedi
Full Text Available Video laryngoscope (VL provides excellent laryngeal exposure in patients when anaesthesiologists encounter difficulty with direct laryngoscopy. Videolaryngoscopy, like flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy demands a certain level of training by practitioners to become dexterous at successful intubation with a given instrument. Due to their cost factors, VLs are not easily available for training purposes to all the students, paramedics and emergency medical services providers in developing countries. We tried to develop a cost-effective instrument, which can work analogous to various available VLs. An inexpensive and easily available instrument was used to create an Airtraq Model for VL guided intubation training on manikin. Using this technique, successful intubation of manikin could be achieved. The Airtraq Model mimics the Airtraq Avant ® and may be used for VL guided intubation training for students as well as paramedics, and decrease the time and shorten the learning curve for Airtraq ® as well as various other VLs.
Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino
Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD......) and show how the modeled image can be used as an input to quality assessment algorithms. For quality assessment, we propose an image quality metric, based on Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) computation in the CIE L*a*b* color space. The metric takes luminance reduction, color distortion and loss...... of uniformity in the resulting image in consideration. Subjective evaluations of images generated using different backlight dimming algorithms and clipping strategies show that the proposed metric estimates the perceived image quality more accurately than conventional PSNR....
Calogero, E.; Arnold, D.
This paper presents the process of reconstructing two facade designs for the East wing of the Louvre using procedural modeling. The first proposal reconstructed is Louis Le Vau's 1662 scheme and the second is the 1668 design of the "petit conseil" that still stands today. The initial results presented show how such reconstructions may aid general and expert understanding of the two designs. It is claimed that by formalizing the facade description into a shape grammar in CityEngine, a systematized approach to a stylistic analysis is possible. It is also asserted that such an analysis is still best understood in the historical context of what is known about the contemporary design intentions of the building creators and commissioners.
Mantel, Claire; Søgaard, Jacob; Bech, Søren
This paper investigates the impact of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness of a display) on the perceived quality of videos displayed using local backlight dimming. Two subjective tests providing quality evaluations are presented and analyzed. The analyses of variance show significant...... is computed using a model of the display. Widely used objective quality metrics are applied based on the rendering models of the videos to predict the subjective evaluations. As these predictions are not satisfying, three machine learning methods are applied: partial least square regression, elastic net...
Full Text Available Human detection in videos plays an important role in various real life applications. Most of traditional approaches depend on utilizing handcrafted features which are problem-dependent and optimal for specific tasks. Moreover, they are highly susceptible to dynamical events such as illumination changes, camera jitter, and variations in object sizes. On the other hand, the proposed feature learning approaches are cheaper and easier because highly abstract and discriminative features can be produced automatically without the need of expert knowledge. In this paper, we utilize automatic feature learning methods which combine optical flow and three different deep models (i.e., supervised convolutional neural network (S-CNN, pretrained CNN feature extractor, and hierarchical extreme learning machine for human detection in videos captured using a nonstatic camera on an aerial platform with varying altitudes. The models are trained and tested on the publicly available and highly challenging UCF-ARG aerial dataset. The comparison between these models in terms of training, testing accuracy, and learning speed is analyzed. The performance evaluation considers five human actions (digging, waving, throwing, walking, and running. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed methods are successful for human detection task. Pretrained CNN produces an average accuracy of 98.09%. S-CNN produces an average accuracy of 95.6% with soft-max and 91.7% with Support Vector Machines (SVM. H-ELM has an average accuracy of 95.9%. Using a normal Central Processing Unit (CPU, H-ELM’s training time takes 445 seconds. Learning in S-CNN takes 770 seconds with a high performance Graphical Processing Unit (GPU.
Moorman, M.; Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T.; Qian, S.
The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film about the results of modeling the effects urbanization on stream ecology. The film describes some of the results of the EUSE ecological modeling effort and the advantages of the Bayesian and multi-level statistical modeling approaches, while relating the science to fly fishing. The complex scientific discussion combined with the lighter, more popular activity of fly fishing leads to an entertaining forum while educating viewers about a complex topic. This approach is intended to represent the scientists as interesting people with diverse interests. Video can be an effective scientific communication tool for presenting scientific findings to a broad audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). Additional films are planned to be released in 2012 on other USGS project results and programs.
Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars
This paper presents experiences with a procedure for building configurators. The procedure has been used in an American company producing custom-made precision air conditioning equipment. The paper describes experiences with the use of the procedure and experiences with the project in general....
Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham
Vascular bubble models, which present a realistic biophysical approach, hold great promise for devising suitable diver decompression procedures. Nanobubbles were found to nucleate on a flat hydrophobic surface, expanding to form bubbles after decompression. Such active hydrophobic spots (AHS) were formed from lung surfactants on the luminal aspect of ovine blood vessels. Many of the phenomena observed in these bubbling vessels correlated with those known to occur in diving. On the basis of our previous studies, which proposed a new model for the formation of arterial bubbles, we now suggest the biophysical model presented herein. There are two phases of bubble expansion after decompression. The first is an extended initiation phase, during which nanobubbles are transformed into gas micronuclei and begin to expand. The second, shorter phase is one of simple diffusion-driven growth, the inert gas tension in the blood remaining almost constant during bubble expansion. Detachment of the bubble occurs when its buoyancy exceeds the intermembrane force. Three mechanisms underlying the appearance of arterial bubbles should be considered: patent foramen ovale, intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses, and the evolution of bubbles in the distal arteries with preference for the spinal cord. Other parameters that may be quantified include age, acclimation, distribution of bubble volume, AHS, individual sensitivity, and frequency of bubble formation. We believe that the vascular bubble model we propose adheres more closely to proven physiological processes. Its predictability may therefore be higher than other models, with appropriate adjustments for decompression illness (DCI) data. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
van Wermeskerken, Margot; Grimmius, Bianca; van Gog, Tamara
We investigated the effects of seeing the instructor's (i.e., the model's) face in video modeling examples on students' attention and their learning outcomes. Research with university students suggested that the model's face attracts students' attention away from what the model is doing, but this did not hamper learning. We aimed to investigate…
Wang, Xiaohui; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian
The current study systematically reviews and summarizes the existing literature of game acceptance, identifies the core determinants, and evaluates the strength of the relationships in the extended technology acceptance model. Moreover, this study segments video games into two categories: hedonic and utilitarian and examines player acceptance of these two types separately. Through a meta-analysis of 50 articles, we find that perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), and perceived enjoyment (PE) significantly associate with attitude and behavioral intention. PE is the dominant predictor of hedonic game acceptance, while PEOU and PU are the main determinants of utilitarian game acceptance. Furthermore, we find that respondent type and game platform are significant moderators. Findings of this study provide critical insights into the phenomenon of game acceptance and suggest directions for future research.
Full Text Available Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986 social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1 In Vivo Modeling and 2 Video Modeling. These can be used a to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and positive targeted results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.
Full Text Available Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986 social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1 In Vivo Modeling and 2 Video Modeling. These can be used a to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and achieved positive results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop an orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation technique and an effective immunosuppressive protocol in the sheep model. METHODS: In this pilot study, 10 sexually mature ewes were subjected to laparotomy and total abdominal hysterectomy with oophorectomy to procure uterus allografts. The cold ischemic time was 60 min. End-to-end vascular anastomosis was performed using continuous, non-interlocking sutures. Complete tissue reperfusion was achieved in all animals within 30 s after the vascular re-anastomosis, without any evidence of arterial or venous thrombosis. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone tablets. Graft viability was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. RESULTS: Viable uterine tissue and vascular patency were observed on transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy. Histological analysis of the graft tissue (performed in one ewe revealed normal tissue architecture with a very subtle inflammatory reaction but no edema or stasis. CONCLUSION: We have developed a modified procedure that allowed us to successfully perform orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation in sheep, whose uterine and vascular anatomy (apart from the bicornuate uterus is similar to the human anatomy, making the ovine model excellent for human uterine transplant research.
Robison, Barrie; LandonWright; Heck, Samantha; Soule, Terence; Gomez, Spencer
This poster describes our approach to procedurally generating video game creatures through the evolution of digital genomes. The creature genomes are modeled in the Unity game engine using floating point variables to represent genes. The genetic values are then used to calculate game specific traits that can be tied to fitness functions during game design.
Lawford, Belinda J; Bennell, Kim L; Kasza, Jessica; Hinman, Rana S
Investigate physical therapists' perceptions of, and willingness to use, telephone- and internet-mediated service models for exercise therapy for people with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis. An internet-based survey of Australian physical therapists comprising three sections: i) demographic information; and 16 positively-framed perception statements about delivering exercise via ii) telephone and; iii) video over the internet, for people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis. Levels of agreement with each statement were evaluated. Logistic regression models were used to determine therapist characteristics influencing interest in delivering telerehabilitation. 217 therapists spanning metropolitan, regional, rural and remote Australia completed the survey. For telephone-delivered care, there was consensus agreement it would not violate patient privacy (81% agreed/strongly agreed) and would save patient's time (76%), however there was less than majority agreement for 10 statements. There was consensus agreement video-delivered care would save a patient's time (82%), be convenient for patients (80%), and not violate patient privacy (75%). Most agreed with all other perception statements about video-delivered care, except for liking no physical contact (14%). Low confidence using internet video technologies, and inexperience with telerehabilitation, were significantly associated with reduced interest in delivering telephone and/or video-based services. Physical therapists agree telerehabilitation offers time-saving and privacy advantages for people with osteoarthritis, and perceive video-delivered care more favorably than telephone-delivered services. However, most do not like the lack of physical contact with either service model. These findings may inform the implementation of telerehabilitation osteoarthritis services, and the training needs of clinicians involved in delivering care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College
Perdew, Cassie; Erickson, Katie; Litke, Jessica
The use of videoconferencing and other telehealth technologies to expand access to clinical pharmacy services at multiple Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics in rural areas of Alaska and the northwestern United States is described. Beginning in 2014, clinical pharmacy specialists at a regional VA Telehealth Hub based at Boise VA Medical Center in Idaho have provided telehealth services for 16 clinics. In one telehealth model, a pharmacist and other remotely located primary care team members (a medical provider, a medical support assistant, a social worker, and a psychologist) conduct telehealth visits with veterans located at VA clinics, with support provided by clinic-based nursing staff; this model has been used to improve medication management services for veterans in sparsely populated areas. In the second VA telehealth model, a remotely located pharmacist uses telehealth technology to participate in clinical encounters along with primary care team members located at the patient site; this model allows on-demand remote coverage in the event of planned or unplanned absences of clinic-based pharmacists. Since the Telehealth Hub was established, pharmacists have engaged in video encounters and provided other telehealth-based clinical services to more than 1,200 veterans with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and other chronic conditions. Within the VA healthcare system, telehealth technology has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective and well-received means of providing clinical pharmacy services in rural areas. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hart, Juliet E.; Whalon, Kelly J.
Recent investigations on effective interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have focused on video modeling (VM) and video self-modeling (VSM) to teach a variety of skills. While a considerable literature base exists on VM/VSM to address the social communication, functional, vocational, and behavioral needs of this student…
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Shinaberry, Megan
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the…
Raedt, R.; Van Dycke, A.; Van Melkebeke, D.; De Smedt, T.; Claeys, P.; Wyckhuys, T.; Vonck, K.; Wadman, W.; Boon, P.
Objective - Intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats evokes a status epilepticus (SE) and leads to spontaneous seizures. However to date, precise electroencephalographic (EEG) and clinical characterization of spontaneous seizures in this epilepsy model using long-term video-EEG
Schatz, Rochelle B.; Peterson, Rachel K.; Bellini, Scott
In the present study, the researchers implemented a video self-modeling intervention for increasing on-task classroom behavior for three elementary school students diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The researchers observed the students' on-task engagement three times a week during their respective math classes. A multiple baseline design…
Acar, Cimen; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Yikmis, Ahmet
An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare mother-developed and delivered social stories and video modeling in teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers' opinions about the social validity of the study were also examined. Three mother-child dyads participated in the study. Results showed that…
Tyner, Bryan C.; Fienup, Daniel M.
Graphing is socially significant for behavior analysts; however, graphing can be difficult to learn. Video modeling (VM) may be a useful instructional method but lacks evidence for effective teaching of computer skills. A between-groups design compared the effects of VM, text-based instruction, and no instruction on graphing performance.…
Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick
Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…
Losinski, Mickey; Wiseman, Nicole; White, Sherry A.; Balluch, Felicity
The current study examined the use of video modeling (VM)-based interventions to reduce the challenging behaviors of students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Each study was evaluated using Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC's) quality indicators for evidence-based practices. In addition, study effects were calculated along the three…
Lakhal, Sawsen; Khechine, Hager; Pascot, Daniel
The aim of this study was to examine psychological factors which could influence acceptance and use of the desktop video conferencing technology by undergraduate business students. Based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, this study tested a theoretical model encompassing seven variables: behavioural intentions to use…
Genc-Tosun, Derya; Kurt, Onur
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of simultaneous prompting with and without video modeling in teaching food preparation skills to four participants with autism spectrum disorder, whose ages ranged from 5 to 6 years old. An adapted alternating treatment single-case experimental design was used to…
Gül, Seray Olçay
There are many studies in the literature in which individuals with intellectual disabilities exhibit social skills deficits and which show the need for teaching these skills systematically. This study aims to investigate the effects of an intervention package of consisting computer-presented video modeling and Social Stories on individuals with…
Lee, Sharon Y.; Lo, Ya-yu; Lo, Yafen
The researchers used a single-case, multiple probe design across three sets of toys (i.e., farm toy, doctor's clinic toy, and rescue toy) to examine the effects of video self-modeling (VSM) on the functional play skills of a 5-year-old child with autism spectrum disorder. The findings showed a functional relation between VSM and increased…
Macpherson, Kevin; Charlop, Marjorie H.; Miltenberger, Catherine A.
A multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the effects of a portable video modeling intervention delivered in the natural environment on the verbal compliments and compliment gestures demonstrated by five children with autism. Participants were observed playing kickball with peers and adults. In baseline, participants…
Full Text Available This exploratory study intends to model kinematics learning of a pair of student teachers when exposed to prescribed teaching strategies in a video-based laboratory. Two student teachers were chosen from the Francophone B.Ed. program of the Faculty of Education of a Canadian university. The study method consisted of having the participants interact with a video-based laboratory to complete two activities for learning properties of acceleration in rectilinear motion. Time limits were placed on the learning activities during which the researcher collected detailed multimodal information from the student teachers' answers to questions, the graphs they produced from experimental data, and the videos taken during the learning sessions. As a result, we describe the learning approach each one followed, the evidence of conceptual change and the difficulties they face in tackling various aspects of the accelerated motion. We then specify advantages and limits of our research and propose recommendations for further study.
Lau, Chun Pong
In this paper, we study the problem of video quality prediction over the wireless 4G network. Video transmission data is collected from a real 4G SCM testbed for investigating factors that affect video quality. After feature transformation and selection on video and network parameters, video quality is predicted by solving as regression problem. Experimental results show that the dominated factor on video quality is the channel attenuation and video quality can be well estimated by our models with small errors.
Computer-generated and video images are superimposed. The man-machine interface functions deal mainly with on line building of graphic aids to improve perception, updating the geometric database of the robotic site, and video control of the robot. The superimposition of the real and virtual worlds is carried out through ...
As a result of cheaper, accessible, and user-friendly technologies, there is an increasing volume of videos created by children, yet these works often lack excellence. Strong pedagogical practice is important to nurture excellence in video production, but there is scant literature in this area. In this paper, I examine best practices through a…
Koh, Yeong Jun; Kim, Chang-Su
A novel primary object discovery (POD) algorithm, which uses reliable object proposals while exploiting the recurrence property of a primary object in a video sequence, is proposed in this paper. First, we generate both color-based and motion-based object proposals in each frame, and extract the feature of each proposal using the random walk with restart simulation. Next, we estimate the foreground confidence for each proposal to remove unreliable proposals. By superposing the features of the remaining reliable proposals, we construct the primary object models. To this end, we develop the evolutionary primary object modeling technique, which exploits the recurrence property of the primary object. Then, using the primary object models, we choose the main proposal in each frame and find the location of the primary object by merging the main proposal with candidate proposals selectively. Finally, we refine the discovered bounding boxes by exploiting temporal correlations of the recurring primary object. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed POD algorithm significantly outperforms conventional algorithms.
For face naming in TV series or movies, a typical way is using subtitles/script alignment to get the time stamps of the names, and tagging them to the faces. We study the problem of face naming in videos when subtitles are not available. To this end, we divide the problem into two tasks: face clustering which groups the faces depicting a certain person into a cluster, and name assignment which associates a name to each face. Each task is formulated as a structured prediction problem and modeled by a hidden conditional random field (HCRF) model. We argue that the two tasks are correlated problems whose outputs can provide prior knowledge of the target prediction for each other. The two HCRFs are coupled in a unified graphical model called coupled HCRF where the joint dependence of the cluster labels and face name association is naturally embedded in the correlation between the two HCRFs. We provide an effective algorithm to optimize the two HCRFs iteratively and the performance of the two tasks on real-world data set can be both improved.
Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik
This report describes a new method for obtaining detailed information about the heat dynamics of a building using frequent reading of the heat consumption. Such a procedure is considered to be of uttermost importance as a key procedure for using readings from smart meters, which is expected...
Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise
Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....
Full Text Available ... Survivor Experiences Decision Making Advice Expert Videos Basic Fertility Info Common Oncofertility Questions Female Procedures & Treatment Male Procedures & Treatment Children Procedures & Treatment Speaker Bios ...
Moore, D.W.; Anderson, A.; Treccase, F.; Deppeler, J.; Furlonger, B.; Didden, H.C.M.
The purpose of this study was to trial a procedure involving point-of-view video modeling, backward chaining and reinforcement to teach a child with ASD to write her name. Video modeling and reinforcement were used to teach letter writing, and backward chaining to produce the complete name. A
Deliś, Paulina; Kędzierski, Michał; Fryśkowska, Anna; Wilińska, Michalina
The article describes the process of creating 3D models of architectural objects on the basis of video images, which had been acquired by a Sony NEX-VG10E fixed focal length video camera. It was assumed, that based on video and Terrestrial Laser Scanning data it is possible to develop 3D models of architectural objects. The acquisition of video data was preceded by the calibration of video camera. The process of creating 3D models from video data involves the following steps: video frames selection for the orientation process, orientation of video frames using points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), generating a TIN model using automatic matching methods. The above objects have been measured with an impulse laser scanner, Leica ScanStation 2. Created 3D models of architectural objects were compared with 3D models of the same objects for which the self-calibration bundle adjustment process was performed. In this order a PhotoModeler Software was used. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed 3D models of architectural objects, points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning were used. To assess the accuracy a shortest distance method was used. Analysis of the accuracy showed that 3D models generated from video images differ by about 0.06 ÷ 0.13 m compared to TLS data. Artykuł zawiera opis procesu opracowania modeli 3D obiektów architektonicznych na podstawie obrazów wideo pozyskanych kamerą wideo Sony NEX-VG10E ze stałoogniskowym obiektywem. Przyjęto założenie, że na podstawie danych wideo i danych z naziemnego skaningu laserowego (NSL) możliwe jest opracowanie modeli 3D obiektów architektonicznych. Pozyskanie danych wideo zostało poprzedzone kalibracją kamery wideo. Model matematyczny kamery był oparty na rzucie perspektywicznym. Proces opracowania modeli 3D na podstawie danych wideo składał się z następujących etapów: wybór klatek wideo do procesu orientacji, orientacja klatek wideo na
Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Katherine Del Giudice; Logan Fiorella; Denise Nicholson
.... Participants were 23 males and 45 females, randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Conditions were developed by a 2 x 2 matrix using video games with and without advance organizers to enhance decision-making skills...
Full Text Available Segmenting human hand is important in computer vision applications, for example, sign language interpretation, human computer interaction, and gesture recognition. However, some serious bottlenecks still exist in hand localization systems such as fast hand motion capture, hand over face, and hand occlusions on which we focus in this paper. We present a novel method for hand tracking and segmentation based on augmented graph cuts and dynamic model. First, an effective dynamic model for state estimation is generated, which correctly predicts the location of hands probably having fast motion or shape deformations. Second, new energy terms are brought into the energy function to develop augmented graph cuts based on some cues, namely, spatial information, hand motion, and chamfer distance. The proposed method successfully achieves hand segmentation even though the hand passes over other skin-colored objects. Some challenging videos are provided in the case of hand over face, hand occlusions, dynamic background, and fast motion. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is much more accurate than other graph cuts-based methods for hand tracking and segmentation.
Zhou, Jun; Bao, Xu; Li, Dawei; Yin, Yongwen
Traffic video image is a kind of dynamic image and its background and foreground is changed at any time, which results in the occlusion. In this case, using the general method is more difficult to get accurate image segmentation. A segmentation algorithm based on Bayesian and Spatio-Temporal Markov Random Field is put forward, which respectively build the energy function model of observation field and label field to motion sequence image with Markov property, then according to Bayesian' rule, use the interaction of label field and observation field, that is the relationship of label field’s prior probability and observation field’s likelihood probability, get the maximum posterior probability of label field’s estimation parameter, use the ICM model to extract the motion object, consequently the process of segmentation is finished. Finally, the segmentation methods of ST - MRF and the Bayesian combined with ST - MRF were analyzed. Experimental results: the segmentation time in Bayesian combined with ST-MRF algorithm is shorter than in ST-MRF, and the computing workload is small, especially in the heavy traffic dynamic scenes the method also can achieve better segmentation effect.
Shi, Guozhong; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Liu, Yangdong; Liu, Jing
As three-dimensional television (3-DTV) and 3-D movie become popular, the discomfort of visual feeling limits further applications of 3D display technology. The cause of visual discomfort from stereoscopic video conflicts between accommodation and convergence, excessive binocular parallax, fast motion of objects and so on. Here, a novel method for evaluating visual fatigue is demonstrated. Influence factors including spatial structure, motion scale and comfortable zone are analyzed. According to the human visual system (HVS), people only need to converge their eyes to the specific objects for static cameras and background. Relative motion should be considered for different camera conditions determining different factor coefficients and weights. Compared with the traditional visual fatigue prediction model, a novel visual fatigue predicting model is presented. Visual fatigue degree is predicted using multiple linear regression method combining with the subjective evaluation. Consequently, each factor can reflect the characteristics of the scene, and the total visual fatigue score can be indicated according to the proposed algorithm. Compared with conventional algorithms which ignored the status of the camera, our approach exhibits reliable performance in terms of correlation with subjective test results.
This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.
Vonk, Matthew; Bohacek, Peter; Militello, Cheryl; Iverson, Ellen
This study focuses on student development of two important laboratory skills in the context of introductory college-level physics. The first skill, which we call model making, is the ability to analyze a phenomenon in a way that produces a quantitative multimodal model. The second skill, which we call model breaking, is the ability to critically…
Fiorella, Logan; van Gog, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/294304975; Hoogerheide, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412654504; Mayer, Richard
The present study tests whether presenting video modeling examples from the learner’s (first-person) perspective promotes learning of an assembly task, compared to presenting video examples from a third-person perspective. Across 2 experiments conducted in different labs, university students viewed
Tyler, Tom R; Blader, Steven L
The group engagement model expands the insights of the group-value model of procedural justice and the relational model of authority into an explanation for why procedural justice shapes cooperation in groups, organizations, and societies. It hypothesizes that procedures are important because they shape people's social identity within groups, and social identity in turn influences attitudes, values, and behaviors. The model further hypothesizes that resource judgments exercise their influence indirectly by shaping social identity. This social identity mediation hypothesis explains why people focus on procedural justice, and in particular on procedural elements related to the quality of their interpersonal treatment, because those elements carry the most social identity-relevant information. In this article, we review several key insights of the group engagement model, relate these insights to important trends in psychological research on justice, and discuss implications of the model for the future of procedural justice research.
Full Text Available Exploration of various places using low-cost camera solutions over decades without having a photogrammetric application in mind has resulted in large collections of images and videos that may have significant cultural value. The purpose of collecting this data is often to provide a log of events and therefore the data is often unstructured and of varying quality. Depending on the equipment used there may be approximate location data available for the images but the accuracy of this data may also be of varying quality. In this paper we present an approach that can deal with these conditions and process datasets of this type to produce 3D models. Results from processing the dataset collected during the discovery and subsequent exploration of the HMAS Sydney and HSK Kormoran wreck sites shows the potential of our approach. The results are promising and show that there is potential to retrieve significantly more information from many of these datasets than previously thought possible.
Post, Phillip G; Aiken, Christopher A; Laughlin, David D; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T
Allowing learners to control the video presentation of knowledge of performance (KP) or an expert model during practice has been shown to facilitate motor learning (Aiken, Fairbrother, & Post, 2012; Wulf, Raupach, & Pfeiffer, 2005). Split-screen replay features now allow for the simultaneous presentation of these modes of instructional support. It is uncertain, however, if such a combination incorporated into a self-control protocol would yield similar benefits seen in earlier self-control studies. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of self-controlled split-screen replay on the learning of a golf chip shot. Participants completed 60 practice trials, three administrations of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and a questionnaire on day one. Retention and transfer tests and a final motivation inventory were completed on day two. Results revealed significantly higher form and accuracy scores for the self-control group during transfer. The self-control group also had significantly higher scores on the perceived competence subscale, reported requesting feedback mostly after perceived poor trials, and recalled a greater number of critical task features compared to the yoked group. The findings for the performance measures were consistent with previous self-control research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Samir Kamel Ashour
Full Text Available Three different selection procedures namely RML, S and F-procedure are reviewed with application to exponential, Weibull, Pareto, and Finite range models. Some inacurate results were discovered in the article of Pandy et al. (1991, it will be illustrated and modified. A simulation study is developed to numerically compare between the three procedures by obtaining the probability of correct selection
King, Suzanne N; Davis, Larry; Lehman, Jeffrey J; Ruddy, Bari Hoffman
Clinicians use a variety of approaches to motivate children with hyperfunctional voice disorders to comply with voice therapy in a therapeutic session and improve the motivation of children to practice home-based exercises. Utilization of current entertainment technology in such approaches may improve participation and motivation in voice therapy. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of using an entertainment video game as a therapy device. Prospective cohort and case-control study. Three levels of game testing were conducted to an existing entertainment video game for use as a voice therapy protocol. The game was tested by two computer programmers and five normal participants. The third level of testing was a case study with a child diagnosed with a hyperfunctional voice disorder. Modifications to the game were made after each feasibility test. Errors with the video game performance were modified, including the addition of a time stamp directory and game controller. Resonance voice exercises were modified to accommodate the gaming environment and unique competitive situation, including speech rate, acoustic parameters, game speed, and point allocations. The development of video games for voice therapeutic purposes attempt to replicate the high levels of engagement and motivation attained with entertainment video games, stimulating a more productive means of learning while doing. This case study found that a purely entertainment video game can be implemented as a voice therapeutic protocol based on information obtained from the case study. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract HD video applications can be represented with multiple tasks consisting of tightly coupled multiple threads. Each task requires massive computation, and their communication can be categorized as asynchronous distributed small data and large streaming data transfers. In this paper, we propose a high performance programmable video platform that consists of four processing element (PE clusters. Each PE cluster runs a task in the video application with RISC cores, a hardware operating system kernel (HOSK, and task-specific accelerators. PE clusters are connected with two separate point-to-point networks: one for asynchronous distributed controls and the other for heavy streaming data transfers among the tasks. Furthermore, we developed an application mapping framework, with which parallel executable codes can be obtained from a manually developed SystemC model of the target application without knowing the detailed architecture of the video platform. To show the effectivity of the platform and its mapping framework, we also present mapping results for an H.264/AVC 720p decoder/encoder and a VC-1 720p decoder with 30 fps, assuming that the platform operates at 200 MHz.
Musdal, Hande; Shiner, Brian; Chen, Techieh; Ceyhan, Mehmet E; Watts, Bradley V; Benneyan, James
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with poor health but there is a gap between need and receipt of care. It is useful to understand where to optimally locate in-person care and where video-based PTSD care would be most useful to minimize access to care barriers, care outside the Veterans Affairs system, and total costs. We developed a service location systems engineering model based on 2010 to 2020 projected care needs for veterans across New England to help determine where to best locate and use in-person and video-based care. This analysis determined specific locations and capacities of each type of PTSD care relative to patient home locations to help inform allocation of mental health resources. Not surprisingly Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island are well suited for in-person care, whereas some rural areas of Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire where in-patient services are infeasible could be better served by video-based care than external care, if the latter is even available. Results in New England alone suggest a potential $3,655,387 reduction in average annual total costs by shifting 9.73% of care to video-based treatment, with an average 12.6 miles travel distance for the remaining in-person care. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
King, Bruce Hardison; Hansen, Clifford; Riley, Daniel; Robinson, Charles David; Pratt, Larry
The Sandia Array Performance Model (SAPM), a semi-empirical model for predicting PV system power, has been in use for more than a decade. While several studies have presented comparisons of measurements and analysis results among laboratories, detailed procedures for determining model coefficients have not yet been published. Independent test laboratories must develop in-house procedures to determine SAPM coefficients, which contributes to uncertainty in the resulting models. Here we present a standard procedure for calibrating the SAPM using outdoor electrical and meteorological measurements. Analysis procedures are illustrated with data measured outdoors for a 36-cell silicon photovoltaic module.
van der Meij, Hans
This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were
Full Text Available This paper presents a model to predict video quality perceived by the broadcast digital television (DTV viewer. We present how noise on DTV can introduce individual transport stream (TS packet losses at the receiver. The type of these errors is different than the produced on IP networks. Different scenarios of TS packet loss are analyzed, including uniform and burst distributions. The results show that there is a high variability on the perceived quality for a given percentage of packet loss and type of error. This implies that there is practically no correlation between the type of error or the percentage of packets loss and the perceived degradation. A new metric is introduced, the weighted percentage of slice loss, which takes into account the affected slice type in each lost TS packet. We show that this metric is correlated with the video quality degradation. A novel parametric model for video quality estimation is proposed, designed, and verified based on the results of subjective tests in SD and HD. The results were compared to a standard model used in IP transmission scenarios. The proposed model improves Pearson Correlation and root mean square error between the subjective and the predicted MOS.
Full Text Available This paper deals with takeoff procedure of various aircraftand rotorcraft types from the same runway. The three-typequeue, at three different holding positions i.e. the simulationmodel for these conditions has been created. Simulation analysisof resulting values determines the optimal start-up time foreach participam and its pwpose is potential reduction of fuelconsumption.
Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D modelling and visualisation is one of the fastest growing application fields in geographic information science. 3D city models are being researched extensively for a variety of purposes and in various domains, including urban design, disaster management, education and computer gaming. These models typically depict urban business districts (downtown or suburban residential areas. Despite informal settlements being a prevailing feature of many cities in developing countries, 3D models of informal settlements are virtually non-existent. 3D models of informal settlements could be useful in various ways, e.g. to gather information about the current environment in the informal settlements, to design upgrades, to communicate these and to educate inhabitants about environmental challenges. In this article, we described the development of a 3D model of the Slovo Park informal settlement in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa. Instead of using time-consuming traditional manual methods, we followed the procedural modelling technique. Visualisation characteristics of 3D models of informal settlements were described and the importance of each characteristic in urban design activities for informal settlement upgrades was assessed. Next, the visualisation characteristics of the Slovo Park model were evaluated. The results of the evaluation showed that the 3D model produced by the procedural modelling technique is suitable for urban design activities in informal settlements. The visualisation characteristics and their assessment are also useful as guidelines for developing 3D models of informal settlements. In future, we plan to empirically test the use of such 3D models in urban design projects in informal settlements.
Wee, Loo Kang
This invited paper discusses why Physics performance task by grade 9 students in Singapore is worth participating in for two reasons; 1) the video analysis and modeling are open access, licensed creative commons attribution for advancing open educational resources in the world and 2) allows students to be like physicists, where the K12 science education framework is adopted. Personal reflections on how physics education can be made more meaningful in particular Practice 1: Ask Questions, Prac...
Wee, Loo Kang
This invited paper discusses why Physics performance task by grade 9 students in Singapore is worth participating in for two reasons; 1) the video analysis and modeling are open access, licensed creative commons attribution for advancing open educational resources in the world and 2) allows students to be like physicists, where the K12 science education framework is adopted. Personal reflections on how physics education can be made more meaningful in particular Practice 1: Ask Questions, Practice 2: Use Models and Practice 5: Mathematical and Computational Thinking using Video Modeling supported by evidence based data from video analysis. This paper hopes to spur fellow colleagues to look into open education initiatives such as our Singapore Tracker community open educational resources curate on http://weelookang.blogspot.sg/p/physics-applets-virtual-lab.html as well as digital libraries http://iwant2study.org/lookangejss/ directly accessible through Tracker 4.86, EJSS reader app on Android and iOS and EJS 5....
Wang, Chao; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhaoxiang
This paper addresses the problem of tracking and recognizing faces via incremental local sparse representation. First a robust face tracking algorithm is proposed via employing local sparse appearance and covariance pooling method. In the following face recognition stage, with the employment of a novel template update strategy, which combines incremental subspace learning, our recognition algorithm adapts the template to appearance changes and reduces the influence of occlusion and illumination variation. This leads to a robust video-based face tracking and recognition with desirable performance. In the experiments, we test the quality of face recognition in real-world noisy videos on YouTube database, which includes 47 celebrities. Our proposed method produces a high face recognition rate at 95% of all videos. The proposed face tracking and recognition algorithms are also tested on a set of noisy videos under heavy occlusion and illumination variation. The tracking results on challenging benchmark videos demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods. In the case of the challenging dataset in which faces undergo occlusion and illumination variation, and tracking and recognition experiments under significant pose variation on the University of California, San Diego (Honda/UCSD) database, our proposed method also consistently demonstrates a high recognition rate.
Michelsen, Michael Locht
Equations of state that incorporate the Wertheim association expression are more difficult to apply than conventional pressure explicit equations, because the association term is implicit and requires solution for an internal set of composition variables. In this work, we analyze the convergence...... behavior of different solution methods and demonstrate how a simple and efficient, yet globally convergent, procedure for the solution of the equation of state can be formulated....
Darabi, K; G. Ghinea
In this paper an expert-based model for generation of personalized video summaries is suggested. The video frames are initially scored and annotated by multiple video experts. Thereafter, the scores for the video segments that have been assigned the higher priorities by end users will be upgraded. Considering the required summary length, the highest scored video frames will be inserted into a personalized final summary. For evaluation purposes, the video summaries generated by our system have...
Farajzadehbibalan, Saber; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nielsen, Peter
In this study, a comprehensive test procedure is developed to test wind turbine generators with a hardware-in-loop setup. The procedure employs the statistical model of the power grid considering the restrictions of the test facility and system dynamics. Given the model in the latent space, the j...
Russell, Christopher Michael Post; Wang, Daniel; Cuadra, Jorge
360-degree videos, which render an image over all 4pi steradian, provide a unique and immersive way to visualize astrophysical simulations. Video sharing sites such as YouTube allow these videos to be shared with the masses; they can be viewed in their 360° nature on computer screens, with smartphones, or, best of all, in virtual-reality (VR) goggles. We present the first such 360° video of an astrophysical simulation: a hydrodynamics calculation of the Wolf-Rayet stars and their ejected winds in the inner parsec of the Galactic center. Viewed from the perspective of the super-massive black hole (SMBH), the most striking aspect of the video, which renders column density, is the inspiraling and stretching of clumps of WR-wind material as they makes their way towards the SMBH. We will brielfy describe how to make 360° videos and how to publish them online in their desired 360° format.Additionally we discuss computing the thermal X-ray emission from a suite of Galactic-center hydrodynamic simulations that have various SMBH feedback mechanisms, which are compared to Chandra X-ray Visionary Program observations of the region. Over a 2-5” ring centered on Sgr A*, the spectral shape is well matched, indicating that the WR winds are the dominant source of the thermal X-ray emission. Furthermore, the X-ray flux depends on the SMBH feedback due to the feedback's ability to clear out material from the central parsec. A moderate outburst is necessary to explain the current thermal X-ray flux, even though the outburst ended ˜100 yr ago.
Mar, Pamela; Spears, Robert; Reeb, Jeffrey; Thompson, Sarah B; Myers, Paul; Burke, Rita V
Eight million American children under the age of 5 attend daycare and more than another 50 million American children are in school or daycare settings. Emergency planning requirements for daycare licensing vary by state. Expert opinions were used to create a disaster preparedness video designed for daycare providers to cover a broad spectrum of scenarios. Various stakeholders (17) devised the outline for an educational pre-disaster video for child daycare providers using the Delphi technique. Fleiss κ values were obtained for consensus data. A 20-minute video was created, addressing the physical, psychological, and legal needs of children during and after a disaster. Viewers completed an anonymous survey to evaluate topic comprehension. A consensus was attempted on all topics, ranging from elements for inclusion to presentation format. The Fleiss κ value of 0.07 was obtained. Fifty-seven of the total 168 video viewers completed the 10-question survey, with comprehension scores ranging from 72% to 100%. Evaluation of caregivers that viewed our video supports understanding of video contents. Ultimately, the technique used to create and disseminate the resources may serve as a template for others providing pre-disaster planning education. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 5).
Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kar, Rahul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)
This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.
Daniel J. M. Buck
Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM. Subjects (13 male, 7 female who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either an experimental (n = 10 or a control (n = 10 group. Subjects′ 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were measured at baseline. Following this, subjects in the experimental group followed a structured imagery protocol, incorporating video recordings of both their own 3RM performance and a model lifter with excellent technique, twice a day for three days. Subjects in the control group spent the same amount of time viewing a placebo video. Following three days with no physical training, measurements of front squat 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were repeated. Subjects in the experimental group increased in self-efficacy following the intervention, and showed greater 3RM improvement than those in the control group. Self-efficacy was found to significantly mediate the relationship between imagery and front squat 3RM. These findings point to the importance of mental skills training for the enhancement of self-efficacy and front squat performance.
Alba Sandyra Bezerra Lopes
Full Text Available The motion estimation is the most complex module in a video encoder requiring a high processing throughput and high memory bandwidth, mainly when the focus is high-definition videos. The throughput problem can be solved increasing the parallelism in the internal operations. The external memory bandwidth may be reduced using a memory hierarchy. This work presents a memory hierarchy model for a full-search motion estimation core. The proposed memory hierarchy model is based on a data reuse scheme considering the full search algorithm features. The proposed memory hierarchy expressively reduces the external memory bandwidth required for the motion estimation process, and it provides a very high data throughput for the ME core. This throughput is necessary to achieve real time when processing high-definition videos. When considering the worst bandwidth scenario, this memory hierarchy is able to reduce the external memory bandwidth in 578 times. A case study for the proposed hierarchy, using 32×32 search window and 8×8 block size, was implemented and prototyped on a Virtex 4 FPGA. The results show that it is possible to reach 38 frames per second when processing full HD frames (1920×1080 pixels using nearly 299 Mbytes per second of external memory bandwidth.
Full Text Available Circuits and systems able to process high quality video in real time are fundamental in nowadays imaging systems. The circuit proposed in the paper, aimed at the robust identification of the background in video streams, implements the improved formulation of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM algorithm that is included in the OpenCV library. An innovative, hardware oriented, formulation of the GMM equations, the use of truncated binary multipliers, and ROM compression techniques allow reduced hardware complexity and increased processing capability. The proposed circuit has been designed having commercial FPGA devices as target and provides speed and logic resources occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The circuit, when implemented on Virtex6 or StratixIV, processes more than 45 frame per second in 1080p format and uses few percent of FPGA logic resources.
You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom.
inappropriate since the commodities (movie titles) are removed from, and after a certain time period, returned to inventory. The commodities also have a decaying demand in general; hence the video rental store owner (the decision maker) is required to procure new titles periodically. The question addressed in this paper is ...
eral; hence the video rental store owner (the decision maker) is required to procure new titles periodically. The question addressed in this paper is how to determine which movie titles to acquire, and how many copies of each in order to best maximise profit. An approx- imated demand function is presented, and attributes of ...
Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari
signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight...
Full Text Available In the field of architecture, researches are being conducted for the issue of combining VR environment and procedural modelling. Instead of simply using VR as an visualization tool for procedural modelling, as in other researches, we argue that manipulations of 3D elements and adjustments of design parameters should be implemented in VR to provide further supports for a design process. An integrated system is thus proposed based on this augment, with a special focus on architectural design education. This paper presents the design of such a multi-user system, in which 3D modelling, procedural modelling and VR platform are integrated, aiming to support architectural design education.
Full Text Available Aims. (1 To assess the efficacy and safety of pediatric office-based sedation for ophthalmologic procedures using a pediatric sedation service model. (2 To assess the reduction in hospital charges of this model of care delivery compared to the operating room (OR setting for similar procedures. Background. Sedation is used to facilitate pediatric procedures and to immobilize patients for imaging and examination. We believe that the pediatric sedation service model can be used to facilitate office-based deep sedation for brief ophthalmologic procedures and examinations. Methods. After IRB approval, all children who underwent office-based ophthalmologic procedures at our institution between January 1, 2000 and July 31, 2008 were identified using the sedation service database and the electronic health record. A comparison of hospital charges between similar procedures in the operating room was performed. Results. A total of 855 procedures were reviewed. Procedure completion rate was 100% (C.I. 99.62–100. There were no serious complications or unanticipated admissions. Our analysis showed a significant reduction in hospital charges (average of $1287 per patient as a result of absent OR and recovery unit charges. Conclusions. Pediatric ophthalmologic minor procedures can be performed using a sedation service model with significant reductions in hospital charges.
Full Text Available Advanced terrain models are currently commonly used in many video/computers games. Professional GIS technologies, existing spatial datasets and cartographic methodology are more widely used in their development. This allows for achieving a realistic model of the world. On the other hand, the so-called game engines have very high capability of spatial data visualization. Preparing terrain models for the purpose of video games requires knowledge and experience of GIS specialists and cartographers, although it is also accessible for non-professionals. The authors point out commonness and variety of use of terrain models in video games and the existence of a series of ready, advanced tools and procedures of terrain model creating. Finally the authors describe the experiment of performing the process of data modeling for “Condor Soar Simulator”.
The primary aim of this study is to develop a model for estimation of the cooling requirement of residential rooms. Fuzzy logic was employed to model four input variables (window area (m2), roof area (m2), external wall area (m2) and internal load (Watt). The algorithm of the inference engine applied sets of 81 linguistic ...
Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand
The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field workers. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do so. This paper describes the development of a Model of Procedure Use and the qualitative study on which the model is based. The study was conducted in collaboration with four nuclear utilities and five research institutes. During the qualitative study and the model development requirements and for computer-based procedures were identified.
Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
of greater complexity. Consequently, there is a need for a simple, general method which is capable of generating both types of objects. Generic Graph Grammar has been developed to address this need. The production rules consist of a small set of basic productions which are applied directly onto primitives...... in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...... in a highly expressive grammar capable of generating a wide range of types of models. Models which consist of skeletal structures or surfaces or any combination of these. Besides generic modelling capabilities, the focus has also been on usability, especially userfriendliness and efficiency. Therefore several...
This study presents data driven and component based PE cost prediction models by utilizing critical factors retrieved from ten years of historical project data obtained from ODOT roadway division. The study used factor analysis of covariance and corr...
Erickson, Gary E.
A video-based photogrammetric model deformation system was established as a dedicated optical measurement technique at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This system was used to measure the wing twist due to aerodynamic loads of two supersonic commercial transport airplane models with identical outer mold lines but different aeroelastic properties. One model featured wings with deflectable leading- and trailing-edge flaps and internal channels to accommodate static pressure tube instrumentation. The wings of the second model were of single-piece construction without flaps or internal channels. The testing was performed at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.7, unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 million to 5.0 million, and angles of attack from -4 degrees to +10 degrees. The video model deformation system quantified the wing aeroelastic response to changes in the Mach number, Reynolds number concurrent with dynamic pressure, and angle of attack and effectively captured the differences in the wing twist characteristics between the two test articles.
This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...
Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.
A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.
Løvholt, Finn; Harbitz, Carl B.; Glimsdal, Sylfest
Landslides, including volcano flank collapses or volcanically induced flows, constitute the second-most important cause of tsunamis after earthquakes. Compared to earthquakes, landslides are more diverse with respect to how they generation tsunamis. Here, we give an overview over the main tsunami generation mechanisms for landslide tsunamis. In the presentation, a mix of results using analytical models, numerical models, laboratory experiments, and case studies are used to illustrate the diversity, but also to point out some common characteristics. Different numerical modelling techniques for the landslide evolution, and the tsunami generation and propagation, as well as the effect of frequency dispersion, are also briefly discussed. Basic tsunami generation mechanisms for different types of landslides, including large submarine translational landslide, to impulsive submarine slumps, and violent subaerial landslides and volcano flank collapses, are reviewed. The importance of the landslide kinematics is given attention, including the interplay between landslide acceleration, landslide velocity to depth ratio (Froude number) and dimensions. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate how landslide deformation and retrogressive failure development influence tsunamigenesis. Generation mechanisms for subaerial landslides, are reviewed by means of scaling relations from laboratory experiments and numerical modelling. Finally, it is demonstrated how the different degree of complexity in the landslide tsunamigenesis needs to be reflected by increased sophistication in numerical models.
Lenhart, Suzanne M.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Jung, Eunok
A method for determining a chest pressure profile for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) includes the steps of representing a hemodynamic circulation model based on a plurality of difference equations for a patient, applying an optimal control (OC) algorithm to the circulation model, and determining a chest pressure profile. The chest pressure profile defines a timing pattern of externally applied pressure to a chest of the patient to maximize blood flow through the patient. A CPR device includes a chest compressor, a controller communicably connected to the chest compressor, and a computer communicably connected to the controller. The computer determines the chest pressure profile by applying an OC algorithm to a hemodynamic circulation model based on the plurality of difference equations.
Coffey, M.E.; Workman, S.R.; Taraba, J.L.; Fogle, A.W.
The overall study objective was to evaluate the applicability of different qualitative and quantitative methods for comparing daily and monthly SWAT computer model hydrologic streamflow predictions to observed data, and to recommend statistical methods for use in future model evaluations. Statistical methods were tested using daily streamflows and monthly equivalent runoff depths. The statistical techniques included linear regression, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, nonparametric tests, t-test, objective functions, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation. None of the methods specifically applied to the non-normal distribution and dependence between data points for the daily predicted and observed data. Of the tested methods, median objective functions, sign test, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation were most applicable for the daily data. The robust coefficient of determination (CD*) and robust modeling efficiency (EF*) objective functions were the preferred methods for daily model results due to the ease of comparing these values with a fixed ideal reference value of one. Predicted and observed monthly totals were more normally distributed, and there was less dependence between individual monthly totals than was observed for the corresponding predicted and observed daily values. More statistical methods were available for comparing SWAT model-predicted and observed monthly totals. The 1995 monthly SWAT model predictions and observed data had a regression Rr2 of 0.70, a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.41, and the t-test failed to reject the equal data means hypothesis. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and the R r2 coefficient were the preferred methods for monthly results due to the ability to compare these coefficients to a set ideal value of one.
Kim, Yookyung; Oh, Han; Bilgin, Ali
Compressed sensing (CS) has great potential for use in video data acquisition and storage because it makes it unnecessary to collect an enormous amount of data and to perform the computationally demanding compression process. We propose an effective CS algorithm for video that consists of two iterative stages. In the first stage, frames containing the dominant structure are estimated. These frames are obtained by thresholding the coefficients of similar blocks. In the second stage, refined residual frames are reconstructed from the original measurements and the measurements corresponding to the frames estimated in the first stage. These two stages are iterated until convergence. The proposed algorithm exhibits superior subjective image quality and significantly improves the peak-signal-to-noise ratio and the structural similarity index measure compared to other state-of-the-art CS algorithms.
E-commerce systems became a standard interface between sellers (or suppliers) and customers. One of basic condition of an e-commerce system to be efficient is correct definitions and describes of the all internal and external processes. All is targeted the customers´ needs and requirements. The optimal and most exact way how to obtain and find optimal solution of e-commerce system and its processes structure in companies is the modeling and simulation. In this article author shows basic model...
Jerbi, Khaled; Yviquel, Hervé; Sanchez, Alexandre; Renzi, Daniele; De Saint Jorre, Damien; Alberti, Claudio; Mattavelli, Marco; Raulet, Mickael
International audience; With the emergence of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, a dataflow description of the decoder part was developed as part of the MPEG-B standard. This dataflow description presented modest framerate results which led us to propose methodolo-gies to improve the performance. In this paper, we introduce architectural improvements by exposing more parallelism using YUV and frame-based parallel decoding. We also present platform optimizations based on the use...
Kotsougiani, Dimitra; Hundepool, Caroline A; Bulstra, Liselotte F; Shin, Delaney M; Shin, Alexander Y; Bishop, Allen T
Three-dimensional (3D) high definition (HD) video systems are changing microsurgical practice by providing stereoscopic imaging not only for the surgeon and first assistant using the binocular microscope, but also for others involved in the surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential to replace the binocular microscope for microarterial anastomoses and assess the rate of learning based on surgeons' experience. Two experienced and two novice microsurgeons performed a total of 88 rat femoral arterial anastomoses: 44 using a 3D HD video device ('Trenion', Carl Zeiss Meditech) and 44, a binocular microscope. We evaluated anastomosis time and modified OSATS scores as well as the subjects' preference for comfort, image adequacy and technical ease. Experienced microsurgeons showed a steep learning curve for anastomosis times with equivalent OSATS scores for both systems. However, prolonged anastomosis times were required when using the novel 3D-HD system rather than direct binocular vision. Comparable learning rates for anastomosis time were demonstrated for novice microsurgeons and modified OSATS scores did not differ between the different viewing technologies. All microsurgeons reported improved comfort for the 3D HD video system but found the image quality of the conventional microscope superior, facilitating technical ease. The present study demonstrates the potential of 3D HD video systems to replace current binocular microscopes, offering qualitatively-equivalent microvascular anastomosis with improved comfort for experienced microsurgeons. However, image quality was rated inferior with the 3D HD system resulting in prolonged anastomosis times. Microsurgical skill acquisition in novice microsurgeons was not influenced by the viewing system used. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bojanowski, J.S.; Donatelli, Marcello; Skidmore, A.K.; Vrieling, A.
Solar radiation data are an important input for estimating evapotranspiration and modelling crop growth. Direct measurement of solar radiation is now carried out in most European countries, but the network of measuring stations is too sparse for reliable interpolation of measured values. Instead of
Cuk, Vladimir; Cobben, Joseph F.G.; Kling, Wil L.; Timens, R.B.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes
An automated test technique for determining parameters of low voltage equipment is presented in the paper. The aim of this research is to obtain simple models of household, office and industrial equipment which could be used to predict power quality problems during the design of low voltage
Maitre, Matthieu; Guillemot, Christine; Morin, Luce
This paper addresses the problem of side information extraction for distributed coding of videos captured by a camera moving in a 3-D static environment. Examples of targeted applications are augmented reality, remote-controlled robots operating in hazardous environments, or remote exploration by drones. It explores the benefits of the structure-from-motion paradigm for distributed coding of this type of video content. Two interpolation methods constrained by the scene geometry, based either on block matching along epipolar lines or on 3-D mesh fitting, are first developed. These techniques are based on a robust algorithm for sub-pel matching of feature points, which leads to semi-dense correspondences between key frames. However, their rate-distortion (RD) performances are limited by misalignments between the side information and the actual Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames due to the assumption of linear motion between key frames. To cope with this problem, two feature point tracking techniques are introduced, which recover the camera parameters of the WZ frames. A first technique, in which the frames remain encoded separately, performs tracking at the decoder and leads to significant RD performance gains. A second technique further improves the RD performances by allowing a limited tracking at the encoder. As an additional benefit, statistics on tracks allow the encoder to adapt the key frame frequency to the video motion content.
Full Text Available Market segmentation presents one of the key concepts of the modern marketing. The main goal of market segmentation is focused on creating groups (segments of customers that have similar characteristics, needs, wishes and/or similar behavior regarding the purchase of concrete product/service. Companies can create specific marketing plan for each of these segments and therefore gain short or long term competitive advantage on the market. Depending on the concrete marketing goal, different segmentation schemes and techniques may be applied. This paper presents a predictive market segmentation model based on the application of logistic regression model and CHAID analysis. The logistic regression model was used for the purpose of variables selection (from the initial pool of eleven variables which are statistically significant for explaining the dependent variable. Selected variables were afterwards included in the CHAID procedure that generated the predictive market segmentation model. The model results are presented on the concrete empirical example in the following form: summary model results, CHAID tree, Gain chart, Index chart, risk and classification tables.
Werner, Sonja; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.
To obtain a general understanding of science, model use as part of National Education Standards is important for instruction. Model use can be characterized by three aspects: (1) the characteristics of the model, (2) the integration of the model into instruction, and (3) the use of models to foster scientific reasoning. However, there were no empirical results describing the implementation of National Education Standards in science instruction concerning the use of models. Therefore, the present study investigated the implementation of different aspects of model use in German biology instruction. Two biology lessons on the topic neurobiology in grade nine of 32 biology teachers were videotaped (N = 64 videos). These lessons were analysed using an event-based coding manual according to three aspects of model described above. Rasch analysis of the coded categories was conducted and showed reliable measurement. In the first analysis, we identified 68 lessons where a total of 112 different models were used. The in-depth analysis showed that special aspects of an elaborate model use according to several categories of scientific reasoning were rarely implemented in biology instruction. A critical reflection of the used model (N = 25 models; 22.3%) and models to demonstrate scientific reasoning (N = 26 models; 23.2%) were seldom observed. Our findings suggest that pre-service biology teacher education and professional development initiatives in Germany have to focus on both aspects.
Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...... they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio....
Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline
While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th
Full Text Available To estimate a time series model for multiple individuals, a multilevel model may be used.In this paper we compare two estimation methods for the autocorrelation in Multilevel AR(1 models, namely Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo.Furthermore, we examine the difference between modeling fixed and random individual parameters.To this end, we perform a simulation study with a fully crossed design, in which we vary the length of the time series (10 or 25, the number of individuals per sample (10 or 25, the mean of the autocorrelation (-0.6 to 0.6 inclusive, in steps of 0.3 and the standard deviation of the autocorrelation (0.25 or 0.40.We found that the random estimators of the population autocorrelation show less bias and higher power, compared to the fixed estimators. As expected, the random estimators profit strongly from a higher number of individuals, while this effect is small for the fixed estimators.The fixed estimators profit slightly more from a higher number of time points than the random estimators.When possible, random estimation is preferred to fixed estimation.The difference between MLE and Bayesian estimation is nearly negligible. The Bayesian estimation shows a smaller bias, but MLE shows a smaller variability (i.e., standard deviation of the parameter estimates.Finally, better results are found for a higher number of individuals and time points, and for a lower individual variability of the autocorrelation. The effect of the size of the autocorrelation differs between outcome measures.
RODRIGUES, Viviane; CAMPOS, Juliane Aparecida de Paula Perez; ALMEIDA, Maria Amélia
RESUMO A Comunicação Suplementar e Alternativa (CSA) é uma área da tecnologia assistiva que busca facilitar a participação das pessoas nos vários contextos comunicativos. Há uma variedade de estratégias em CSA e uma delas é o Sistema de Comunicação por Troca de Figuras (PECS) que propõe desenvolver as habilidades de comunicação em pessoas com necessidades complexas de comunicação. Associado à aplicação do PECS, algumas pesquisas tem demonstrado os benefícios do uso do Video Modeling (VM) que ...
Andrea Pacheco Pacífico
This article recommends a new way to improve Refugee Status Determination (RSD) procedures by proposing a network society communicative model based on active involvement and dialogue among all implementing partners...
Márcio Nascimento de Souza Leão
Full Text Available We present a model selection procedure for use in Mixture and Mixture-Process Experiments. Certain combinations of restrictions on the proportions of the mixture components can result in a very constrained experimental region. This results in collinearity among the covariates of the model, which can make it difficult to fit the model using the traditional method based on the significance of the coefficients. For this reason, a model selection methodology based on information criteria will be proposed for process optimization. Two examples are presented to illustrate this model selection procedure.
Raedt, R; Van Dycke, A; Van Melkebeke, D; De Smedt, T; Claeys, P; Wyckhuys, T; Vonck, K; Wadman, W; Boon, P
Intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats evokes a status epilepticus (SE) and leads to spontaneous seizures. However to date, precise electroencephalographic (EEG) and clinical characterization of spontaneous seizures in this epilepsy model using long-term video-EEG monitoring has not been performed. Rats were implanted with bipolar hippocampal depth electrodes and a cannula for the injection of KA (0.4 lg /0.2 ll) in the right hippocampus. Video-EEG monitoring was used to determine habitual parameters of spontaneous seizures such as seizure frequency, severity, progression and day-night rhythms. Spontaneous seizures were detected in all rats with 13 out of 15 animals displaying seizures during the first eight weeks after SE. A considerable fraction (35%) of the spontaneous seizures did not generalize secondarily. Seizure frequency was quite variable and the majority of the KA treated animals had less than one seizure per day. A circadian rhythm was observed in all rats that showed sufficient seizures per day. This study shows that the characteristics of spontaneous seizures in the intrahippocampal KA model display many similarities to other SE models and human temporal lobe epilepsy.
Daniel Tik-Pui Fong
Full Text Available Lateral ankle sprains continue to be the most common injury sustained by athletes and create an annual healthcare burden of over $4 billion in the U.S. alone. Foot inversion is suspected in these cases, but the mechanism of injury remains unclear. While kinematics and kinetics data are crucial in understanding the injury mechanisms, ligament behaviour measures – such as ligament strains – are viewed as the potential causal factors of ankle sprains. This review article demonstrates a novel methodology that integrates model matching video analyses with computational simulations in order to investigate injury-producing events for a better understanding of such injury mechanisms. In particular, ankle joint kinematics from actual injury incidents were deduced by model matching video analyses and then input into a generic computational model based on rigid bone surfaces and deformable ligaments of the ankle so as to investigate the ligament strains that accompany these sprain injuries. These techniques may have the potential for guiding ankle sprain prevention strategies and targeted rehabilitation therapies.
Lin Chun-Heng; Hsu Pei-Hsien
In the field of architecture, researches are being conducted for the issue of combining VR environment and procedural modelling. Instead of simply using VR as an visualization tool for procedural modelling, as in other researches, we argue that manipulations of 3D elements and adjustments of design parameters should be implemented in VR to provide further supports for a design process. An integrated system is thus proposed based on this augment, with a special focus on architectural design ed...
A new procedure to develop accurate lumped kinetic models for complex fuels is proposed, and applied to the experimental data of the heavy fuel oil measured by thermogravimetry. The new procedure is based on the pseudocomponents representing different reaction stages, which are determined by a systematic optimization process to ensure that the separation of different reaction stages with highest accuracy. The procedure is implemented and the model prediction was compared against that from a conventional method, yielding a significantly improved agreement with the experimental data. © 2016 American Chemical Society.
... mathematical modeling methods used in predicting the dispersion of heated effluent in natural water bodies. The... COMMISSION Reporting Procedure for Mathematical Models Selected To Predict Heated Effluent Dispersion in... Mathematical Models Selected to Predict Heated Effluent Dispersion in Natural Water Bodies.'' The guide is...
Matas, Gerard; Lantada, Nieves; Corominas, Jordi; Gili, Josep Antoni; Ruiz-Carulla, Roger; Prades, Albert
A Rockfall is a mass instability process frequently observed in road cuts, open pit mines and quarries, steep slopes and cliffs. It is frequently observed that the detached rock mass becomes fragmented when it impacts with the slope surface. The consideration of the fragmentation of the rockfall mass is critical for the calculation of block's trajectories and their impact energies, to further assess their potential to cause damage and design adequate preventive structures. We present here the performance of the RockGIS model. It is a GIS-Based tool that simulates stochastically the fragmentation of the rockfalls, based on a lumped mass approach. In RockGIS, the fragmentation initiates by the disaggregation of the detached rock mass through the pre-existing discontinuities just before the impact with the ground. An energy threshold is defined in order to determine whether the impacting blocks break or not. The distribution of the initial mass between a set of newly generated rock fragments is carried out stochastically following a power law. The trajectories of the new rock fragments are distributed within a cone. The model requires the calibration of both the runout of the resultant blocks and the spatial distribution of the volumes of fragments generated by breakage during their propagation. As this is a coupled process which is controlled by several parameters, a set of performance criteria to be met by the simulation have been defined. The criteria includes: position of the centre of gravity of the whole block distribution, histogram of the runout of the blocks, extent and boundaries of the young debris cover over the slope surface, lateral dispersion of trajectories, total number of blocks generated after fragmentation, volume distribution of the generated fragments, the number of blocks and volume passages past a reference line and the maximum runout distance Since the number of parameters to fit increases significantly when considering fragmentation, the
You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom. There is even a sweet spot where it all comes together around 20 years of age. At least, as far as game performance goes among 13,000 players of a shooter game like Battlefield 3. When we look at g...
Yao, Li; Ling, Miaogen
Modeling background and segmenting moving objects are significant techniques for computer vision applications. Mixture-of-Gaussians (MoG) background model is commonly used in foreground extraction in video steam. However considering the case that the objects enter the scenery and stay for a while, the foreground extraction would fail as the objects stay still and gradually merge into the background. In this paper, we adopt a blob tracking method to cope with this situation. To construct the MoG model more quickly, we add frame difference method to the foreground extracted from MoG for very crowded situations. What is more, a new shadow removal method based on RGB color space is proposed.
Full Text Available Modeling background and segmenting moving objects are significant techniques for computer vision applications. Mixture-of-Gaussians (MoG background model is commonly used in foreground extraction in video steam. However considering the case that the objects enter the scenery and stay for a while, the foreground extraction would fail as the objects stay still and gradually merge into the background. In this paper, we adopt a blob tracking method to cope with this situation. To construct the MoG model more quickly, we add frame difference method to the foreground extracted from MoG for very crowded situations. What is more, a new shadow removal method based on RGB color space is proposed.
Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...
Video games are a popular form of entertainment. Serious video games for health attempt to use entertainment to promote health behavior change. When designed within a framework informed by behavioral science and supported by commercial game-design principles, serious video games for health have the ...
Høybye, Mette Terp; Vesterby, Martin; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup
Visual approaches to health information reduce complexity and may bridge challenges in health literacy. But the mechanisms and meanings of using animated video in communication with patients undergoing surgery are not well described. By comparing two versions of a two-dimensional animated video on spinal anesthesia, this study tested the patient-avatar identification within two different narrative models. To explore the perspectives of total hip arthroplasty, we employed qualitative methods of interviews and ethnographic observation. The animated presentation of the spinal anesthesia procedure was immediately recognized by all participants as reflecting their experience of the procedure independent of the narrative form. The avatar gender did not affect this identification. We found no preference for either narrative form. This study supports the potential of animation video in health informatics as a didactic model for qualifying patient behavior. Animation video creates a high degree of identification that may work to reduce pre-surgical anxiety. © The Author(s) 2014.
Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh
This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Motion blur from camera shake is a major problem in videos captured by hand-held devices. Unlike single-image deblurring, video-based approaches can take advantage of the abundant information that exists across neighboring frames. As a result the best performing methods rely on aligning nearby frames. However, aligning images is a computationally expensive and fragile procedure, and methods that aggregate information must therefore be able to identify which regions have been accurately aligned and which have not, a task which requires high level scene understanding. In this work, we introduce a deep learning solution to video deblurring, where a CNN is trained end-to-end to learn how to accumulate information across frames. To train this network, we collected a dataset of real videos recorded with a high framerate camera, which we use to generate synthetic motion blur for supervision. We show that the features learned from this dataset extend to deblurring motion blur that arises due to camera shake in a wide range of videos, and compare the quality of results to a number of other baselines.
Vergouwe, Yvonne; Nieboer, Daan; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Debray, Thomas P A; Murray, Gordon D; Kattan, Michael W; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Moons, Karel G M; Steyerberg, Ewout W
Prediction models fitted with logistic regression often show poor performance when applied in populations other than the development population. Model updating may improve predictions. Previously suggested methods vary in their extensiveness of updating the model. We aim to define a strategy in selecting an appropriate update method that considers the balance between the amount of evidence for updating in the new patient sample and the danger of overfitting. We consider recalibration in the large (re-estimation of model intercept); recalibration (re-estimation of intercept and slope) and model revision (re-estimation of all coefficients) as update methods. We propose a closed testing procedure that allows the extensiveness of the updating to increase progressively from a minimum (the original model) to a maximum (a completely revised model). The procedure involves multiple testing with maintaining approximately the chosen type I error rate. We illustrate this approach with three clinical examples: patients with prostate cancer, traumatic brain injury and children presenting with fever. The need for updating the prostate cancer model was completely driven by a different model intercept in the update sample (adjustment: 2.58). Separate testing of model revision against the original model showed statistically significant results, but led to overfitting (calibration slope at internal validation = 0.86). The closed testing procedure selected recalibration in the large as update method, without overfitting. The advantage of the closed testing procedure was confirmed by the other two examples. We conclude that the proposed closed testing procedure may be useful in selecting appropriate update methods for previously developed prediction models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Byrne, Michael F; Chapados, Nicolas; Soudan, Florian; Oertel, Clemens; Linares Pérez, Milagros; Kelly, Raymond; Iqbal, Nadeem; Chandelier, Florent; Rex, Douglas K
In general, academic but not community endoscopists have demonstrated adequate endoscopic differentiation accuracy to make the 'resect and discard' paradigm for diminutive colorectal polyps workable. Computer analysis of video could potentially eliminate the obstacle of interobserver variability in endoscopic polyp interpretation and enable widespread acceptance of 'resect and discard'. We developed an artificial intelligence (AI) model for real-time assessment of endoscopic video images of colorectal polyps. A deep convolutional neural network model was used. Only narrow band imaging video frames were used, split equally between relevant multiclasses. Unaltered videos from routine exams not specifically designed or adapted for AI classification were used to train and validate the model. The model was tested on a separate series of 125 videos of consecutively encountered diminutive polyps that were proven to be adenomas or hyperplastic polyps. The AI model works with a confidence mechanism and did not generate sufficient confidence to predict the histology of 19 polyps in the test set, representing 15% of the polyps. For the remaining 106 diminutive polyps, the accuracy of the model was 94% (95% CI 86% to 97%), the sensitivity for identification of adenomas was 98% (95% CI 92% to 100%), specificity was 83% (95% CI 67% to 93%), negative predictive value 97% and positive predictive value 90%. An AI model trained on endoscopic video can differentiate diminutive adenomas from hyperplastic polyps with high accuracy. Additional study of this programme in a live patient clinical trial setting to address resect and discard is planned. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...
Full Text Available Surveillance videos contain a considerable amount of data, wherein interesting information to the user is sparsely distributed. Researchers construct video synopsis that contain key information extracted from a surveillance video for efficient browsing and analysis. Geospatial–temporal information of a surveillance video plays an important role in the efficient description of video content. Meanwhile, current approaches of video synopsis lack the introduction and analysis of geospatial-temporal information. Owing to the preceding problems mentioned, this paper proposes an approach called “surveillance video synopsis in GIS”. Based on an integration model of video moving objects and GIS, the virtual visual field and the expression model of the moving object are constructed by spatially locating and clustering the trajectory of the moving object. The subgraphs of the moving object are reconstructed frame by frame in a virtual scene. Results show that the approach described in this paper comprehensively analyzed and created fusion expression patterns between video dynamic information and geospatial–temporal information in GIS and reduced the playback time of video content.
Wang, Z I; Dell'Osso, L F
Our purpose was to perform a systematic study of the post-four-muscle-tenotomy procedure changes in target acquisition time by comparing predictions from the behavioral ocular motor system (OMS) model and data from infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) patients. We studied five INS patients who underwent only tenotomy at the enthesis and reattachment at the original insertion of each (previously unoperated) horizontal rectus muscle for their INS treatment. We measured their pre- and post-tenotomy target acquisition changes using data from infrared reflection and high-speed digital video. Three key aspects were calculated and analyzed: the saccadic latency (Ls), the time to target acquisition after the target jump (Lt) and the normalized stimulus time within the cycle. Analyses were performed in MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Natick, MA) using OMLAB software (OMtools, available from http://www.omlab.org). Model simulations were performed in MATLAB Simulink environment. The model simulation suggested an Lt reduction due to an overall foveation-quality improvement. Consistent with that prediction, improvement in Lt, ranging from approximately 200 ms to approximately 500 ms (average approximately 280 ms), was documented in all five patients post-tenotomy. The Lt improvement was not a result of a reduced Ls. INS patients acquired step-target stimuli faster post-tenotomy. This target acquisition improvement may be due to the elevated foveation quality resulting in less inherent variation in the input to the OMS. A refined behavioral OMS model, with "fast" and "slow" motor neuron pathways and a more physiological plant, successfully predicted this improved visual behavior and again demonstrated its utility in guiding ocular motor research.
Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo
Estimation procedures for ordered categories usually assume that the estimated coefficients of independent variables do not vary between the categories (parallel-lines assumption). This view neglects possible heterogeneous effects of some explaining factors. This paper describes the use of an autofit option for identifying variables that meet the parallel-lines assumption when estimating a random effects generalized ordered probit model. We combine the test procedure developed by Richard Will...
Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore
The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.
Villacañas de Castro, Luis S.
This article aims to apply Stenhouse's process model of curriculum to foreign language (FL) education, a model which is characterized by enacting "principles of procedure" which are specific to the discipline which the school subject belongs to. Rather than to replace or dissolve current approaches to FL teaching and curriculum…
The aim of this study is to compare effectiveness and efficiency of least-to-most prompting and video modeling for teaching pretend play skills to children with autism spectrum disorder. The adapted alternating treatment model, a single-subject design, was used in the study. Three students, one girl and two boys, between the ages of 5-6…
Biederman, G. B.; Freedman, B.
This paper addresses optimal strategies in teaching essential life and communication skills to children with Down syndrome, autism and other developmental delays. Evidence from the literature concerning the relative efficacy of hand-over-hand (self-modeling) in contrast to passive observational teaching techniques (e.g., video modeling) shows the…
Park, Min S; Brock, Andrea; Mortimer, Vance; Taussky, Philipp; Couldwell, William T; Quigley, Edward
Neurointerventional education relies on an apprenticeship model, with the trainee observing and participating in procedures with the guidance of a mentor. While educational videos are becoming prevalent in surgical cases, there is a dearth of comparable educational material for trainees in neurointerventional programs. We sought to create a high-quality, three-dimensional video of a routine diagnostic cerebral angiogram for use as an educational tool. A diagnostic cerebral angiogram was recorded using two GoPro HERO 3+ cameras with the Dual HERO System to capture the proceduralist's hands during the case. This video was edited with recordings from the video monitors to create a real-time three-dimensional video of both the actions of the neurointerventionalist and the resulting wire/catheter movements. The final edited video, in either two or three dimensions, can serve as another instructional tool for the training of residents and/or fellows. Additional videos can be created in a similar fashion of more complicated neurointerventional cases. The GoPro HERO 3+ camera and Dual HERO System can be used to create educational videos of neurointerventional procedures.
Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih
With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).
Ranken, D M; Stephen, J M; George, J S
The Constrained Start Spatio-Temporal modeling program (CSST) is an objective multi-dipole, multi-start MEG/EEG analysis procedure that randomly selects from 100 to 100,000 initial dipole configurations, and runs a nonlinear simplex search on each of these configurations employing a reduced Chi-square statistic as the minimization criterion, to obtain a set of dipole configurations that best fit the data [Ranken, 2002]. A parallel version of CSST is implemented in IDL and MPI, making CSST usable on a single computer, or on a Linux cluster. We have now developed a multi-resolution version of MUSIC [Mosher, 1992] [Mosher, 1998] that provides an 80% or more reduction in the number of forward calculations needed to obtain results comparable to a 160,000 point MUSIC scan, on a 2 mm grid that defines a brain volume. The multi-resolution MUSIC scan provides an improved set of initial dipole estimates for the CSST analysis. In preliminary tests on real and simulated MEG data, with model orders ranging between 5 and 7 dipoles, the best performance improvements were obtained by mixing in 1 to 3 dipole locations randomly drawn from the best MUSIC locations, with randomly selected locations from the brain volume to complete the selected model order. We have also developed an improved method for sampling the brain volume for initial configurations. These improvements have led to a 75% reduction in the number of starting configurations required to obtain 5-10 best solutions with equal or lower reduced Chi-square values, when compared to the best solutions from the previous version of CSST.
Zhou, Saohua; Krüger, Volker; Chellappa, Rama
Recognition of human faces using a gallery of still or video images and a probe set of videos is systematically investigated using a probabilistic framework. In still-to-video recognition, where the gallery consists of still images, a time series state space model is proposed to fuse temporal...... demonstrate that, due to the propagation of the identity variable over time, a degeneracy in posterior probability of the identity variable is achieved to give improved recognition. The gallery is generalized to videos in order to realize video-to-video recognition. An exemplar-based learning strategy...... of the identity variable produces the recognition result. The model formulation is very general and it allows a variety of image representations and transformations. Experimental results using videos collected by NIST/USF and CMU illustrate the effectiveness of this approach for both still-to-video and video...
Plavnick, Joshua B.; Ferreri, Summer J.
Previous research suggests that language-training procedures for children with autism might be enhanced following an assessment of conditions that evoke emerging verbal behavior. The present investigation examined a methodology to teach recognizable mands based on environmental variables known to evoke participants' idiosyncratic communicative…
McVaney, Gary P.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis presents one method for modelling and analyzing a helicopter design using Flightlab. Flightlab is a computer program that provides for engineering design, analysis and simulation of aircraft using non-linear dynamic modeling techniques. The procedure to model a single main rotor helicopter is outlined using the sample helicopter design in the book 'Helicopter Performance, Stability, and Control' by Ray Prouty. The analysis...
Andrea Pacheco Pacífico
Full Text Available This article recommends a new way to improve Refugee Status Determination (RSD procedures by proposing a network society communicative model based on active involvement and dialogue among all implementing partners. This model, named after proposals from Castells, Habermas, Apel, Chimni, and Betts, would be mediated by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, whose role would be modeled after that of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC practice.
Houghton, Robert F.
A long standing problem in information technology security is how to help reduce the security footprint. Many specific proposals exist to address specific problems in information technology security. Most information technology solutions need to be repeatable throughout the course of an information systems lifecycle. The Chain-Link Fence Model is a new model for creating and implementing information technology procedures. This model was validated by two different methods: the first being int...
Kerofsky, Louis; Jagannath, Abhijith; Reznik, Yuriy
We describe the design of a video streaming system using adaptation to viewing conditions to reduce the bitrate needed for delivery of video content. A visual model is used to determine sufficient resolution needed under various viewing conditions. Sensors on a mobile device estimate properties of the viewing conditions, particularly the distance to the viewer. We leverage the framework of existing adaptive bitrate streaming systems such as HLS, Smooth Streaming or MPEG-DASH. The client rate selection logic is modified to include a sufficient resolution computed using the visual model and the estimated viewing conditions. Our experiments demonstrate significant bitrate savings compare to conventional streaming methods which do not exploit viewing conditions.
Henken, K.R.; Jansen, F.W.; Klein, J.; Stassen, L.P.S.; Dankelman, J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.
Background Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear
Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet er...... der dog opstået nye muligheder og udfordringer i forhold til at formidle og distribuere forskningsresultater til forskellige målgrupper via video. Samtidig er klassiske metodologiske problematikker som forskerens positionering i forhold til det undersøgte stadig aktuelle. Både klassiske og nye...... problemstillinger diskuteres i kapitlet, som rammesætter diskussionen ud fra forskellige positioneringsmuligheder: formidler, historiefortæller, eller dialogist. Disse positioner relaterer sig til genrer inden for ’akademisk video’. Afslutningsvis præsenteres en metodisk værktøjskasse med redskaber til planlægning...
Ricardo Mingarini Terra
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The concept of a hybrid operating room represents the union of a high-complexity surgical apparatus with state-of-the-art radiological tools (ultrasound, CT, fluoroscopy, or magnetic resonance imaging, in order to perform highly effective, minimally invasive procedures. Although the use of a hybrid operating room is well established in specialties such as neurosurgery and cardiovascular surgery, it has rarely been explored in thoracic surgery. Our objective was to discuss the possible applications of this technology in thoracic surgery, through the reporting of three cases.
Kim, Yun Goo [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the primary operating support systems in the digital Main Control Room. The CPS displays procedure on the computer screen in the form of a flow chart, and displays plant operating information along with procedure instructions. It also supports operator decision making by providing a system decision. A procedure flow should be correct and reliable, as an error would lead to operator misjudgement and inadequate control. In this paper we present a modeling for the CPS that enables formal verification based on Petri nets. The proposed State Token Petri Nets (STPN) also support modeling of a procedure flow that has various interruptions by the operator, according to the plant condition. STPN modeling is compared with Coloured Petri net when they are applied to Emergency Operating Computerized Procedure. A converting program for Computerized Procedure (CP) to STPN has been also developed. The formal verification and validation methods of CP with STPN increase the safety of a nuclear power plant and provide digital quality assurance means that are needed when the role and function of the CPS is increasing.
West, Brady T
Many applied researchers analyzing longitudinal data share a common misconception: that specialized statistical software is necessary to fit hierarchical linear models (also known as linear mixed models [LMMs], or multilevel models) to longitudinal data sets. Although several specialized statistical software programs of high quality are available that allow researchers to fit these models to longitudinal data sets (e.g., HLM), rapid advances in general purpose statistical software packages have recently enabled analysts to fit these same models when using preferred packages that also enable other more common analyses. One of these general purpose statistical packages is SPSS, which includes a very flexible and powerful procedure for fitting LMMs to longitudinal data sets with continuous outcomes. This article aims to present readers with a practical discussion of how to analyze longitudinal data using the LMMs procedure in the SPSS statistical software package.
This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...
Full Text Available E-learning projects at universities are produced under different conditions than in industry. The main characteristic of many university projects is that these are realized quasi in a solo effort. In contrast, in private industry the different, interdisciplinary skills that are necessary for the development of e-learning are typically supplied by a multimedia agency.A specific procedure tailored for the use at universities is therefore required to facilitate mastering the amount and complexity of the tasks.In this paper an incremental procedure model is presented, which describes the proceeding in every phase of the project. It allows a high degree of flexibility and emphasizes the didactical concept – instead of the technical implementation. In the second part, we illustrate the practical use of the theoretical procedure model based on the project “Online training in Genetic Epidemiology”.
Vision is only a part of a system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, which is an interpretation of visual information in terms of these knowledge models. These mechanisms provide a reliable recognition if the object is occluded or cannot be recognized as a whole. It is hard to split the entire system apart, and reliable solutions to the target recognition problems are possible only within the solution of a more generic Image Understanding Problem. Brain reduces informational and computational complexities, using implicit symbolic coding of features, hierarchical compression, and selective processing of visual information. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, is the most feasible for such models. It converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic structures, avoiding artificial precise computations of 3-dimensional models. Network-Symbolic Transformations derive abstract structures, which allows for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class. Active vision helps creating consistent models. Attention, separation of figure from ground and perceptual grouping are special kinds of network-symbolic transformations. Such Image/Video Understanding Systems will be reliably recognizing targets.
Vision is only a part of a larger system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, which is an interpretation of visual information in terms of these knowledge models. This mechanism provides a reliable recognition if the target is occluded or cannot be recognized. It is hard to split the entire system apart, and reliable solutions to the target recognition problems are possible only within the solution of a more generic Image Understanding Problem. Brain reduces informational and computational complexities, using implicit symbolic coding of features, hierarchical compression, and selective processing of visual information. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic structures, avoiding artificial precise computations of 3-dimensional models. Logic of visual scenes can be captured in Network-Symbolic models and used for disambiguation of visual information. Network-Symbolic Transformations derive abstract structures, which allow for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class. Active vision helps build consistent, unambiguous models. Such Image/Video Understanding Systems will be able reliably recognizing targets in real-world conditions.
Preisig, Daniel F; Kulic, Luka; Krüger, Maik; Wirth, Fabian; McAfoose, Jordan; Späni, Claudia; Gantenbein, Pascal; Derungs, Rebecca; Nitsch, Roger M; Welt, Tobias
Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system frequently affect the locomotor system resulting in impaired movement and gait. In this study we performed a whole-body high-speed video gait analysis in three different mouse lines of neurodegenerative movement disorders to investigate the motor phenotype. Based on precise computerized motion tracking of all relevant joints and the tail, a custom-developed algorithm generated individual and comprehensive locomotor profiles consisting of 164 spatial and temporal parameters. Gait changes observed in the three models corresponded closely to the classical clinical symptoms described in these disorders: Muscle atrophy due to motor neuron loss in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice led to gait characterized by changes in hind-limb movement and positioning. In contrast, locomotion in huntingtin N171-82Q mice modeling Huntington's disease with basal ganglia damage was defined by hyperkinetic limb movements and rigidity of the trunk. Harlequin mutant mice modeling cerebellar degeneration showed gait instability and extensive changes in limb positioning. Moreover, model specific gait parameters were identified and were shown to be more sensitive than conventional motor tests. Altogether, this technique provides new opportunities to decipher underlying disease mechanisms and test novel therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tueller, Stephen; Lubke, Gitta
Taxometric procedures and the Factor Mixture Model (FMM) have a complimentary set of strengths and weaknesses. Both approaches purport to detect evidence of a latent class structure. Taxometric procedures, popular in psychiatric and psychopathology literature, make no assumptions beyond those needed to compute means and covariances. However, Taxometric procedures assume that observed items are uncorrelated within a class or taxon. This assumption is violated when there are individual differences in the trait underlying the items (i.e., severity differences within class). FMMs can model within-class covariance structures ranging from local independence to multidimensional within-class factor models and permits the specification of more than two classes. FMMs typically rely on normality assumptions for within-class factors and error terms. FMMs are highly parameterized and susceptible to misspecifications of the within-class covariance structure. The current study compared the Taxometric procedures MAXEIG and the Base-Rate Classification Technique to the FMM in their respective abilities to (1) correctly detect the two-class structure in simulated data, and to (2) correctly assign subjects to classes. Two class data were simulated under conditions of balanced and imbalanced relative class size, high and low class separation, and 1-factor and 2-factor within-class covariance structures. For the 2-factor data, simple and cross-loaded factor loading structures, and positive and negative factor correlations were considered. For the FMM, both correct and incorrect within-class factor structures were fit to the data. FMMs generally outperformed Taxometric procedures in terms of both class detection and in assigning subjects to classes. Imbalanced relative class size (e.g., a small minority class and a large majority class) negatively impacted both FMM and Taxometric performance while low class separation was much more problematic for Taxometric procedures than the FMM
INTRODUCTIONIntroduction to Video DatabasesOge Marques and Borko FurhtVIDEO MODELING AND REPRESENTATIONModeling Video Using Input/Output Markov Models with Application to Multi-Modal Event DetectionAshutosh Garg, Milind R. Naphade, and Thomas S. HuangStatistical Models of Video Structure and SemanticsNuno VasconcelosFlavor: A Language for Media RepresentationAlexandros Eleftheriadis and Danny HongIntegrating Domain Knowledge and Visual Evidence to Support Highlight Detection in Sports VideosJuergen Assfalg, Marco Bertini, Carlo Colombo, and Alberto Del BimboA Generic Event Model and Sports Vid
Holmes, David, III; Rettmann, Maryam; Cameron, Bruce; Camp, Jon; Robb, Richard
Image-guided cardiac ablation has the potential to decrease procedure times and improve clinical outcome for patients with cardiac arrhythmias. There are several proposed methods for integrating patient-specific anatomy into the cardiac ablation procedure; however, these methods require thorough validation. One of the primary challenges in validation is determining ground truth as a standard for comparison. Some validation protocols have been developed for animals models and even in patients; however, these methods can be costly to implement and may increase the risk to patients. We have developed an approach to building realistic patient-specific anatomic models at a low-cost in order to validate the guidance procedure without introducing additional risk to the patients. Using a pre-procedural cardiac computed tomography scan, the blood pool of the left and right atria of a patient are segmented semi-manually. In addition, several anatomical landmarks are identified in the image data. The segmented atria and landmarks are converted into a polygonalized model which is used to build a thin-walled patient-specific blood pool model in a stereo-lithography system. Thumbscrews are inserted into the model at the landmarks. The entire model is embedded in a platinum silicone material which has been shown to have tissue-mimicking properties relative to ultrasound. Once the pliable mold has set, the blood pool model is extracted by dissolving the rigid material. The resulting physical model correctly mimics a specific patient anatomy with embedded fiducals which can be used for validation experiments. The patient-specific anatomic model approach may also be used for pre-surgical practice and training of new interventionalists.
Afiouni, Einar Nour; Øvrelid, Leif Julian
This project aims to examine the possibilities of using game theoretic concepts and multi-agent systems in modern video games with real time demands. We have implemented a multi-issue negotiation system for the strategic video game Civilization IV, evaluating different negotiation techniques with a focus on the use of opponent modeling to improve negotiation results.
Sadideen, Hazim; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Saadeddin, Munir; Loon, Mark; Kneebone, Roger
Leadership is particularly important in complex highly interprofessional health care contexts involving a number of staff, some from the same specialty (intraprofessional), and others from different specialties (interprofessional). The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel simulation tool to deliver interprofessional and teamwork training. It is unclear which leadership behaviors are the most important in an interprofessional burns resuscitation scenario, and whether they can be modeled on to current leadership theory. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive video analysis of leadership behaviors within TBS. A total of 3 burns resuscitation simulations within TBS were recorded. The video analysis was grounded-theory inspired. Using predefined criteria, actions/interactions deemed as leadership behaviors were identified. Using an inductive iterative process, 8 main leadership behaviors were identified. Cohen's κ coefficient was used to measure inter-rater agreement and calculated as κ = 0.7 (substantial agreement). Each video was watched 4 times, focusing on 1 of the 4 team members per viewing (senior surgeon, senior nurse, trainee surgeon, and trainee nurse). The frequency and types of leadership behavior of each of the 4 team members were recorded. Statistical significance to assess any differences was assessed using analysis of variance, whereby a p Leadership behaviors were triangulated with verbal cues and actions from the videos. All 3 scenarios were successfully completed. The mean scenario length was 22 minutes. A total of 362 leadership behaviors were recorded from the 12 participants. The most evident leadership behaviors of all team members were adhering to guidelines (which effectively equates to following Advanced Trauma and Life Support/Emergency Management of Severe Burns resuscitation guidelines and hence "maintaining standards"), followed by making decisions. Although in terms of total
The paper describes the procedure model AKUE, which aims at the improvement and assurance of quality and cost efficiency in the context of the introduction of e-learning and the development of digital learning material. AKUE divides the whole planning and implementation process into four different phases: analysis, conception, implementation, and…
Lee, Doo Young; Lehto, Mark R.
The present study was framed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to identify determinants affecting behavioral intention to use YouTube. Most importantly, this research emphasizes the motives for using YouTube, which is notable given its extrinsic task goal of being used for procedural learning tasks. Our conceptual framework included two…
Papaspyrides, C.D.; Voultzatis, Y.; Pavlidou, S.; Tsenoglou, C.; Dole, P.; Feigenbaum, A.; Paseiro, P.; Pastorelli, S.; Cruz Garcia, C. de la; Hankemeier, T.; Aucejo, S.
A new experimental procedure for incorporation of model contaminants in polymers was developed as part of a general scheme for testing the efficiency of functional barriers in food packaging. The aim was to progressively pollute polymers in a controlled fashion up to a high level in the range of
Choosing the near equivalence for translator is of great concern nowadays. While it seems more commitment has been given to this issue, yet there are still rooms for more attention to innovative methods of Translation Studies in this direction. The idea of wafting procedure in Intermediacy model of translation comes from a book by Alireza Akbari…
Full Text Available ... Survivor Stories Survivor Experiences Decision Making Advice Expert Videos Basic Fertility Info Common Oncofertility Questions Female Procedures & ... do things here }); } }); Home Patients Parents Partners Animations Videos Resources Support Search this site: Copyright © 2008-2016 ...
Mechling, Linda C.; Swindle, Catherine O.
This investigation examined the effects of video modeling on the fine and gross motor task performance by three students with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability (Group 1) and by three students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (Group 2). Using a multiple probe design across three sets of tasks, the study examined the…
Williamson, Robert L.; Casey, Laura B.; Robertson, Janna Siegel; Buggey, Tom
Given the recent interest in the use of video self-modeling (VSM) to provide instruction within iPod apps and other pieces of handheld mobile assistive technologies, investigating appropriate prerequisite skills for effective use of this intervention is particularly timely and relevant. To provide additional information regarding the efficacy of…
Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu
Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based…
The present pilot study investigated the impact of video hero modelling (VHM) on the daily living skills of an elementary-aged student with autism spectrum disorder. The VHM, in which a character much admired by the student exhibited a correct response, was shown to the participant immediately before the situation where he needed to exhibit the…
This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real W...
In order to make a large amount of video data compression and effectively with limited network bandwidth to transfer smoothly, this article using the MPEG-4 compression technology to compress video stream. In the network transmission, according to the characteristics of video stream, for transmission technology to carry out full analysis and optimization, and combining current network bandwidth status and protocol, to establish one network model with transferring and playback video streaming effectively. Through a combination of these two areas, significantly improved compression and storage of video files and network transmission efficiency, increased video processing power.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Power analysis is a critical aspect of the design of experiments to detect an effect of a given size. When multiple hypotheses are tested simultaneously, multiplicity adjustments to p-values should be taken into account in power analysis. There are a limited number of studies on power analysis in multiple testing procedures. For some methods, the theoretical analysis is difficult and extensive numerical simulations are often needed, while other methods oversimplify the information under the alternative hypothesis. To this end, this paper aims to develop a new statistical model for power analysis in multiple testing procedures. Methods We propose a step-function-based p-value model under the alternative hypothesis, which is simple enough to perform power analysis without simulations, but not too simple to lose the information from the alternative hypothesis. The first step is to transform distributions of different test statistics (e.g., t, chi-square or F to distributions of corresponding p-values. We then use a step function to approximate each of the p-value’s distributions by matching the mean and variance. Lastly, the step-function-based p-value model can be used for theoretical power analysis. Results The proposed model is applied to problems in multiple testing procedures. We first show how the most powerful critical constants can be chosen using the step-function-based p-value model. Our model is then applied to the field of multiple testing procedures to explain the assumption of monotonicity of the critical constants. Lastly, we apply our model to a behavioral weight loss and maintenance study to select the optimal critical constants. Conclusions The proposed model is easy to implement and preserves the information from the alternative hypothesis.
Nielsen, Don; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Austin, John
This study evaluated video scoring and feedback about scoring as a safety intervention among 6 nursing staff. The dependent variable was safety behavior on one-person transfers. Following baseline, 5 nursing staff participated in an information phase. A video scoring phase was then introduced for all 6. A feedback phase was added for 2…
Full Text Available ... Advice Expert Videos Basic Fertility Info Common Oncofertility Questions Female Procedures & Treatment Male Procedures & Treatment Children Procedures & ... Consortium® Blog | Disclaimer | Contact Us | Site Map For questions about your fertility preservation options call 866-708- ...
Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Malis, Martin
This article presents a procedure for building product models to support the specification processes dealing with sales, design of product variants and production preparation. The procedure includes, as the first phase, an analysis and redesign of the business processes that are to be supported...... for the business processes they support, and properly structured and documented in order to facilitate the maintenance and further development of the systems. The research has been carried out at the Centre for Industrialisation of Engineering, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Technical University...
Magnor, Marcus A
Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en
Gordon, Shayna L; Porto, Dennis A; Ozog, David M; Council, M Laurin
The use of video can enhance the learning experience by demonstrating procedural techniques that are difficult to relay in writing. Several peer-reviewed journals allow publication of videos alongside articles to complement the written text. The purpose of this article is to instruct the dermatologic surgeon on how to create and edit a video using a smartphone, to accompany a article. The authors describe simple tips to optimize surgical videography. The video that accompanies this article further demonstrates the techniques described. Creating a surgical video requires little experience or equipment and can be completed in a modest amount of time. Making and editing a video to accompany a article can be accomplished by following the simple recommendations in this article. In addition, the increased use of video in dermatologic surgery education can enhance the learning opportunity.
Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Andrade, Juliano Ribeiro; Mariani, Alessandro Wasum; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Succi, Jose Ernesto; Soares, Andrey; Zimmer, Paulo Marcelo
The concept of a hybrid operating room represents the union of a high-complexity surgical apparatus with state-of-the-art radiological tools (ultrasound, CT, fluoroscopy, or magnetic resonance imaging), in order to perform highly effective, minimally invasive procedures. Although the use of a hybrid operating room is well established in specialties such as neurosurgery and cardiovascular surgery, it has rarely been explored in thoracic surgery. Our objective was to discuss the possible applications of this technology in thoracic surgery, through the reporting of three cases. RESUMO O conceito de sala híbrida traduz a união de um aparato cirúrgico de alta complexidade com recursos radiológicos de última geração (ultrassom, TC, radioscopia e/ou ressonância magnética), visando a realização de procedimentos minimamente invasivos e altamente eficazes. Apesar de bem estabelecido em outras especialidades, como neurocirurgia e cirurgia cardiovascular, o uso da sala hibrida ainda é pouco explorado na cirurgia torácica. Nosso objetivo foi discutir as aplicações e as possibilidades abertas por essa tecnologia na cirurgia torácica através do relato de três casos.
Madachy, Raymond J.
Naval Postgraduate School Graduate School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Total Ownership Cost Modeling presented by Raymond J. Madachy, Associate Professor of Systems Engineering at the Naval Postgraduate School. Total Ownership Cost (TOC) is the sum cost of system acquisition, development, and operations including direct and indirect costs. In the DoD, cost modeling is needed to enable tradespace analysis of affordability with other system ilities. Parametric cost models will be overv...
Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling
Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.
Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S
Although different methods are available for the analyses of longitudinal data, analyses based on generalized linear models (GLM) are criticized as violating the assumption of independence of observations. Alternatively, linear mixed models (LMM) are commonly used to understand changes in human behavior over time. In this paper, the basic concepts surrounding LMM (or hierarchical linear models) are outlined. Although SPSS is a statistical analyses package commonly used by researchers, documentation on LMM procedures in SPSS is not thorough or user friendly. With reference to this limitation, the related procedures for performing analyses based on LMM in SPSS are described. To demonstrate the application of LMM analyses in SPSS, findings based on six waves of data collected in the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) in Hong Kong are presented.
Heidmann, Tove; Tofteng, Charlotte; Abrahamsen, Per
In the FertOrgaNic EU project, 3 years of field experiments with drip irrigation and fertigation were carried out at six different sites across Europe, involving seven different varieties of potato. The Daisy model, which simulates plant growth together with water and nitrogen dynamics, was used...... to simulate the field experiments. An initial potato parameterisation was generated from an independent dataset and was used for site-specific calibrations. At those sites where the same variety was used for all 3 years, the calibration of the initial potato model was based on the first 2 years using the last...... for adaptation of the Daisy model to new potato varieties or for the improvement of the existing parameter set. The procedure is then, as a starting point, to focus the calibration process on the recommended list of parameters to change. We demonstrate this approach by showing the procedure for recalibrating...
Liu, Jun; Dong, Junyu; Cai, Xiaoxu; Qi, Lin; Chantler, Mike
Procedural models are widely used in computer graphics for generating realistic, natural-looking textures. However, these mathematical models are not perceptually meaningful, whereas the users, such as artists and designers, would prefer to make descriptions using intuitive and perceptual characteristics like "repetitive," "directional," "structured," and so on. To make up for this gap, we investigated the perceptual dimensions of textures generated by a collection of procedural models. Two psychophysical experiments were conducted: free-grouping and rating. We applied Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to discover the perceptual features used by the observers in grouping similar textures. The results suggested that existing dimensions in literature cannot accommodate random textures. We therefore utilized isometric feature mapping (Isomap) to establish a three-dimensional perceptual texture space which better explains the features used by humans in texture similarity judgment. Finally, we proposed computational models to map perceptual features to the perceptual texture space, which can suggest a procedural model to produce textures according to user-defined perceptual scales.
Full Text Available Procedural models are widely used in computer graphics for generating realistic, natural-looking textures. However, these mathematical models are not perceptually meaningful, whereas the users, such as artists and designers, would prefer to make descriptions using intuitive and perceptual characteristics like "repetitive," "directional," "structured," and so on. To make up for this gap, we investigated the perceptual dimensions of textures generated by a collection of procedural models. Two psychophysical experiments were conducted: free-grouping and rating. We applied Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD to discover the perceptual features used by the observers in grouping similar textures. The results suggested that existing dimensions in literature cannot accommodate random textures. We therefore utilized isometric feature mapping (Isomap to establish a three-dimensional perceptual texture space which better explains the features used by humans in texture similarity judgment. Finally, we proposed computational models to map perceptual features to the perceptual texture space, which can suggest a procedural model to produce textures according to user-defined perceptual scales.
Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.
Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…
Kooloos, J.G.M.; Schepens-Franke, A.N.; Bergman, E.M.; Donders, R.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.
Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two
Laing, Justin; Moore, John; Bainbridge, Daniel; Drangova, Maria; Peters, Terry
Minimally invasive cardiac procedures requiring a trans-septal puncture such as atrial ablation and MitraClip® mitral valve repair are becoming increasingly common. These procedures are performed on the beating heart, and require clinicians to rely on image-guided techniques. For cases of complex or diseased anatomy, in which fluoroscopic and echocardiography images can be difficult to interpret, clinicians may benefit from patient-specific atrial models that can be used for training, surgical planning, and the validation of new devices and guidance techniques. Computed tomography (CT) images of a patient's heart were segmented and used to generate geometric models to create a patient-specific atrial phantom. Using rapid prototyping, the geometric models were converted into physical representations and used to build a mold. The atria were then molded using tissue-mimicking materials and imaged using CT. The resulting images were segmented and used to generate a point cloud data set that could be registered to the original patient data. The absolute distance of the two point clouds was compared and evaluated to determine the model's accuracy. The result when comparing the molded model point cloud to the original data set, resulted in a maximum Euclidean distance error of 4.5 mm, an average error of 0.5 mm and a standard deviation of 0.6 mm. Using our workflow for creating atrial models, potential complications, particularly for complex repairs, may be accounted for in pre-operative planning. The information gained by clinicians involved in planning and performing the procedure should lead to shorter procedural times and better outcomes for patients.
Full Text Available The analyses of clinical and epidemiologic studies are often based on some kind of regression analysis, mainly linearregression and logistic models. These analyses are often affected by the fact that one or more of the predictors are measuredwith error. The error in the predictors is also known to bias the estimates and hypothesis testing results. One of the proceduresfrequently used to handle such problem in order to reduce the measurement errors is the method of regression calibration forpredicting the continuous covariate. The idea is to predict the true value of error-prone predictor from the observed data, thento use the predicted value for the analyses. In this research we develop four calibration procedures, namely probit, complementary log-log, logit, and logistic calibration procedures for corrections of the measurement error and/or the misclassification error to predict the true values for the misclassification explanatory variables used in generalized linear models. Theprocesses give the predicted true values of a binary explanatory variable using the calibration techniques then use thesepredicted values to fit the three models such that the probit, the complementary log-log, and the logit models under the binaryresponse. All of which are investigated by considering the mean square error (MSE in 1,000 simulation studies in each caseof the known parameters and conditions. The results show that the proposed working calibration techniques that can performadequately well are the probit, logistic, and logit calibration procedures. Both the probit calibration procedure and the probitmodel are superior to the logistic and logit calibrations due to the smallest MSE. Furthermore, the probit model-parameterestimates also improve the effects of the misclassification explanatory variable. Only the complementary log-log model andits calibration technique are appropriate when measurement error is moderate and sample size is high.
delivered a number of presentations at universities, including February Fourier Talks (FFT) at the Norbert Wiener Center, University of Maryland... voice separation from monaural recordings using robust low-rank modeling, International Society for Music In- formation Retrieval Conference, Porto
Kvist, Kajsa; Gerster, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel
For recurrent events there is evidence that misspecification of the frailty distribution can cause severe bias in estimated regression coefficients (Am. J. Epidemiol 1998; 149:404-411; Statist. Med. 2006; 25:1672-1684). In this paper we adapt a procedure originally suggested in (Biometrika 1999; 86:381-393) for parallel data for checking the gamma frailty to recurrent events. To apply the model checking procedure, a consistent non-parametric estimator for the marginal gap time distributions is needed. This is in general not possible due to induced dependent censoring in the recurrent events setting, however, in (Biometrika 1999; 86:59-70) a non-parametric estimator for the joint gap time distributions based on the principle of inverse probability of censoring weights is suggested. Here, we attempt to apply this estimator in the model checking procedure and the performance of the method is investigated with simulations and applied to Danish registry data. The method is further investigated using the usual Kaplan-Meier estimator and a marginalized estimator for the marginal gap time distributions. We conclude that the procedure only works when the recurrent event is common and when the intra-individual association between gap times is weak. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wei, Yu-Chung; Wen, Shu-Hui; Chen, Pei-Chun; Wang, Chih-Hao; Hsiao, Chuhsing K
Genome-wide association studies often face the undesirable result of either failing to detect any influential markers at all because of a stringent level for testing error corrections or encountering difficulty in quantifying the importance of markers by their P-values. Advocates of estimation procedures prefer to estimate the proportion of association rather than test significance to avoid overinterpretation. Here, we adopt a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate directly the proportion of influential markers, and then proceed to a selection procedure based on the Bayes factor (BF). This mixture model is able to accommodate different sources of dependence in the data through only a few parameters. Specifically, we focus on a standardized risk measure of unit variance so that fewer parameters are involved in inference. The expected value of this measure follows a mixture distribution with a mixing probability of association, and it is robust to minor allele frequencies. Furthermore, to select promising markers, we use the magnitude of the BF to represent the strength of evidence in support of the association between markers and disease. We demonstrate this procedure both with simulations and with SNP data from studies on rheumatoid arthritis, coronary artery disease, and Crohn's disease obtained from the Wellcome Trust Case–Control Consortium. This Bayesian procedure outperforms other existing methods in terms of accuracy, power, and computational efficiency. The R code that implements this method is available at http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/~ckhsiao/Bmix/Bmix.htm. PMID:20407469
This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure has been developed to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1) Overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost and technology); 2) Preliminary research, acquisition and familiarisation with all available ELE software packages; 3) Assessment of these 30+ software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4) Loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data. Keywords: OPAL, displacement-based, DBELA, earthquake loss estimation, earthquake loss assessment, open source, HAZUS
Daniell, J. E.
This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure was created to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1. overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost, and technology); 2. preliminary research, acquisition, and familiarisation for available ELE software packages; 3. assessment of these software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4. loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw = 7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment, Crowley et al., 2006), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States, FEMA, USA, 2003) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach, Lindholm et al., 2007) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic, and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data.
This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...
include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...
Chacón Cuberos, Ramón; Zurita Ortega, Félix; Castro Sánchez, Manuel; Espejo Garcés, Tamara; Martínez Martínez, Asunción; Ruiz-Rico Ruiz, Gerardo
This study aims to define and contrast an explanatory model of consumption of alcohol, tobacco consumption, and problematic use of video games based on self-concept and its dimensions in a sample of university students. The research was conducted with a sample of 490 students from the province of Granada (Spain), aged between 20 and 29 years (M = 22.80 ± 3.63), with a homogeneous distribution by gender. The instruments used were the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (García & Musitu, 1999), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Saunders, Aasland, Babor, De la Fuente, & Grant, 1993), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerström, 1991) and the Questionnaire for Experiences Related to Video Games (Chamarro et al., 2014). A model of structural equations was estimated, which was adjusted properly, χ2(8) = 19.843, p = .011; CFI = .963, NFI = .943, IFI = .965, RMSEA = .055. As main results, a positive relationship between social and physical self-concept and consumption of alcohol was obtained, as well as a negative relationship between social self-concept and problematic use of videogames. Academic dimension was negatively related to alcohol and video game use. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was positively related to tobacco consumption and use of video games. It is concluded that levels of self-concept may represent a risk factor in substance abuse and digital leisure, and their study and consideration are appropriate.
Backåberg, Sofia; Gummesson, Christina; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael
Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students’ experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12–18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; “Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness,” “Experiencing changes in one's own movement,” and “Experiencing challenges in the learning process.” The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required. PMID:26274385
Backåberg, Sofia; Gummesson, Christina; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael
Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students' experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12-18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; "Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness," "Experiencing changes in one's own movement," and "Experiencing challenges in the learning process." The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required.
Vision evolved as a sensory system for reaching, grasping and other motion activities. In advanced creatures, it has become a vital component of situation awareness, navigation and planning systems. Vision is part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. It is hard to split such a system apart. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, is the most feasible for natural processing of visual information. It converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic models, avoiding artificial precise computations of 3-dimensional models. Logic of visual scenes can be captured in such models and used for disambiguation of visual information. Network-Symbolic transformations derive abstract structures, which allows for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class. Active vision helps create unambiguous network-symbolic models. This approach is consistent with NIST RCS. The UGV, equipped with such smart vision, will be able to plan path and navigate in a real environment, perceive and understand complex real-world situations and act accordingly.
Full Text Available We describe a method for the synthesis of visual speech movements using a hybrid unit selection/model-based approach. Speech lip movements are captured using a 3D stereo face capture system and split up into phonetic units. A dynamic parameterisation of this data is constructed which maintains the relationship between lip shapes and velocities; within this parameterisation a model of how lips move is built and is used in the animation of visual speech movements from speech audio input. The mapping from audio parameters to lip movements is disambiguated by selecting only the most similar stored phonetic units to the target utterance during synthesis. By combining properties of model-based synthesis (e.g., HMMs, neural nets with unit selection we improve the quality of our speech synthesis.
Ghorbani, A.; Dijkema, G. P. J.; Bots, P.; Alderwereld, H.; Dignum, V.
Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is highly instrumental for studying sociotechnical systems. MAIA - Modelling Agents using Institutional Analysis - is an ABMS modelling framework that formalises social sciences knowledge. It enables handling the complexity of large complex systems, allows
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of a procedure for inferring black-box, yet biologically interpretable, dynamic models of bioprocesses based on sets of measurements of a few external components (biomass, substrates, and products of interest. The procedure has three main steps: (a the determination of the number of macroscopic biological reactions linking the measured components; (b the estimation of a first reaction scheme, which has interesting mathematical properties, but might lack a biological interpretation; and (c the "projection" (or transformation of this reaction scheme onto a biologically-consistent scheme. The advantage of the method is that it allows the fast prototyping of models for the culture of microorganisms that are not well documented. The good performance of the third step of the method is demonstrated by application to an example of microalgal culture.
Mariati Purnama Simanjuntak
tes berbentuk uraian dan data pemahaman konsep dikumpulkan dengan tes pilihan ganda. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan skor gain dinormalisasi, N-gain. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa model pembelajaran problem solving dapat meningkatkan metakognisi dan pemahaman konsep pada topik Kinematika dan Dinamika dalam kategori sedang.
Radermacher, M.; Wengrove, M.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.; Holman, R.
In the framework of swimmer safety, coastal managers desire accurate nearshore current predictions obtained from numerical models. To this end, detailed and up-to-date bathymetry is a necessity. Remote sensing techniques for bathymetry estimation are a promising solution. The focus of this paper is
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...
Nakstad, Espen Rostrup; Opdahl, Helge; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Borchsenius, Fredrik; Skjønsberg, Ole Henning
Removal of pulmonary secretions in mechanically ventilated patients usually requires suction with closed catheter systems or flexible bronchoscopes. Manual ventilation is occasionally performed during such procedures if clinicians suspect inadequate ventilation. Suctioning can also be performed with the ventilator entirely disconnected from the endotracheal tube (ETT). The aim of this study was to investigate if these two procedures generate negative airway pressures, which may contribute to atelectasis. The effects of device insertion and suctioning in ETTs were examined in a mechanical lung model with a pressure transducer inserted distal to ETTs of 9 mm, 8 mm and 7 mm internal diameter (ID). A 16 Fr bronchoscope and 12, 14 and 16 Fr suction catheters were used at two different vacuum levels during manual ventilation and with the ETTs disconnected. During manual ventilation with ETTs of 9 mm, 8 mm and 7 mm ID, and bronchoscopic suctioning at moderate suction level, peak pressure (PPEAK) dropped from 23, 22 and 24.5 cm H2O to 16, 16 and 15 cm H2O, respectively. Maximum suction reduced PPEAK to 20, 17 and 11 cm H2O, respectively, and the end-expiratory pressure fell from 5, 5.5 and 4.5 cm H2O to -2, -6 and -17 cm H2O. Suctioning through disconnected ETTs (open suction procedure) gave negative model airway pressures throughout the duration of the procedures. Manual ventilation and open suction procedures induce negative end-expiratory pressure during endotracheal suctioning, which may have clinical implications in patients who need high PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure).
Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.
Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video....... There is a need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction...... of investigating the existing legal infrastructure for ensuring privacy in video surveillance and suggest guidelines in order to help those who want to deploy video surveillance while least compromising the privacy of people and complying with legal infrastructure....
De Lepeleere, Sara; Verloigne, Maïté; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity caused by an unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) is a prominent public health concern. Parenting practices may contribute to healthy behaviour change in children, but well-researched examples are limited. The aim of this study is to describe the systematic development of an intervention for parents to prevent childhood overweight/obesity through the improvement of parenting practices. The six steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP), a theory- and evidence-based tool to develop health-related interventions, were used as a framework to develop the 'Movie Models' programme. In Step 1, a needs assessment was performed to better understand the health problem of overweight/obesity in children and its association with diet, PA and SB. In Step 2, the programme goal (increasing the adoption of effective parenting practices) was sub-divided into performance objectives. Change objectives, which specify explicit actions required to accomplish the performance objectives, were also identified. Step 3 included the selection of theoretical methods (e.g. 'modelling' and 'images'), which were then translated into the practical strategy of online parenting videos. Step 4 comprised the development of a final intervention framework, and Step 5 included the planning of programme adoption and implementation. The final phase, Step 6, included the development of an effect- and process-evaluation plan. The IMP was used to structure the development of 'Movie Models', an intervention targeting specific parenting practices related to children's healthy diet, PA, SB, and parental self-efficacy. A clear framework for process analyses is offered, which aims to increase the potential effectiveness of an intervention and can be useful for those developing health promotion programmes. © The Author(s) 2016.
determined by Froude scaling ( Dean and Dalrymple , 2002) with a model length scale 1/6 of prototype and resulting time factor of √ . In Figure 2.4...resources planning for the us army corps of engineers, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Dean , R.G. and Dalrymple , R.A., 2002. Coastal...December 9, 2010 APPROVED: Major Professor, representing Oceanography Dean of the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences Dean of the
Mukovozov, Arseniy; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Limonova, Elena
An iterative algorithm is proposed for blind multi-image deblurring of binary images. The binarity is the only prior restriction imposed on the image. Image formation model assumes convolution with arbitrary kernel and addition of a constant value. Penalty functional is composed using binarity constraint for regularization. The algorithm estimates the original image and distortion parameters by alternate reduction of two parts of this functional. Experimental results for natural (non-synthetic) data are present.
Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inapplicability of low-rent public... Development and Operation § 884.222 Inapplicability of low-rent public housing model lease and grievance procedures. Model lease and grievance procedures established by HUD for PHA-owned low-rent public housing are...
Ullman, Michael T.; Lovelett, Jarrett T.
The declarative/procedural (DP) model posits that the learning, storage, and use of language critically depend on two learning and memory systems in the brain: declarative memory and procedural memory. Thus, on the basis of independent research on the memory systems, the model can generate specific and often novel predictions for language. Till…
Ruf, Boitumelo; Schuchert, Tobias
Image based change detection is of great importance for security applications, such as surveillance and reconnaissance, in order to find new, modified or removed objects. Such change detection can generally be performed by co-registration and comparison of two or more images. However, existing 3d objects, such as buildings, may lead to parallax artifacts in case of inaccurate or missing 3d information, which may distort the results in the image comparison process, especially when the images are acquired from aerial platforms like small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Furthermore, considering only intensity information may lead to failures in detection of changes in the 3d structure of objects. To overcome this problem, we present an approach that uses Structure-from-Motion (SfM) to compute depth information, with which a 3d change detection can be performed against an existing 3d model. Our approach is capable of the change detection in real-time. We use the input frames with the corresponding camera poses to compute dense depth maps by an image-based depth estimation algorithm. Additionally we synthesize a second set of depth maps, by rendering the existing 3d model from the same camera poses as those of the image-based depth map. The actual change detection is performed by comparing the two sets of depth maps with each other. Our method is evaluated on synthetic test data with corresponding ground truth as well as on real image test data.
Vision is a part of information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive the vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, which is an interpretation of visual information in terms of these knowledge models. It is hard to split the entire system apart, and vision mechanisms cannot be completely understood separately from informational processes related to knowledge and intelligence. Brain reduces informational and computational complexities, using implicit symbolic coding of features, hierarchical compression, and selective processing of visual information. Vision is a component of situation awareness, motion and planning systems. Foveal vision provides semantic analysis, recognizing objects in the scene. Peripheral vision guides fovea to salient objects and provides scene context. Biologically inspired Network-Symbolic representation, in which both systematic structural/logical methods and neural/statistical methods are parts of a single mechanism, converts visual information into relational Network-Symbolic structures, avoiding precise artificial computations of 3-D models. Network-Symbolic transformations derive more abstract structures that allows for invariant recognition of an object as exemplar of a class and for a reliable identification even if the object is occluded. Systems with such smart vision will be able to navigate in real environment and understand real-world situations.
Hofmann, A. F.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.
We present, by means of a simple example, a comprehensive step-by-step procedure to consistently derive a pH model of aquatic systems. As pH modelling is inherently complex, we make every step of the model generation process explicit, thus ensuring conceptual, mathematical, and chemical correctness. Summed quantities, such as total inorganic carbon and total alkalinity, and the influences of modeled processes on them are consistently derived. The different time scales of processes involved in the pH problem (biological and physical reactions: days; aquatic chemical reactions: fractions of seconds) give rise to a stiff equation system. Subsequent reformulations of the system reduce its stiffness, accepting higher non-linear algebraic complexity. The model is reformulated until numerically and computationally simple dynamical solutions, like a variation of the operator splitting approach (OSA) and the direct substitution approach (DSA), are obtained. As several solution methods are pointed out, connections between previous pH modelling approaches are established. The final reformulation of the system according to the DSA allows for quantification of the influences of kinetic processes on the rate of change of proton concentration in models containing multiple biogeochemical processes. These influences are calculated including the effect of re-equilibration of the system due to a set of acid-base reactions in local equilibrium. This possibility of quantifying influences of modeled processes on the pH makes the end-product of the described model generation procedure a powerful tool for understanding the internal pH dynamics of aquatic systems.
Figl, Michael; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Eddie
The aim of the work described in this paper is registration of a 4D preoperative motion model of the heart to the video view of the patient through the intraoperative endoscope. The heart motion is cyclical and can be modelled using multiple reconstructions of cardiac gated coronary CT. We propose the use of photoconsistency between the two views through the da Vinci endoscope to align to the preoperative heart surface model from CT. The temporal alignment from the video to the CT model could in principle be obtained from the ECG signal. We propose averaging of the photoconsistency over the cardiac cycle to improve the registration compared to a single view. Though there is considerable motion of the heart, after correct temporal alignment we suggest that the remaining motion should be close to rigid. Results are presented for simulated renderings and for real video of a beating heart phantom. We found much smoother sections at the minimum when using multiple phases for the registration, furthermore convergence was found to be better when more phases are used.
In the present research, the peers of children with autism at primary school level and in an inclusive environment were taught using direct modeling and video modeling education processes, and it was observed whether or not they could effectively and efficiently teach how to play games to their friends with autism. This study used adapted…
Jones, Edmund; Epstein, David; García-Mochón, Leticia
For health-economic analyses that use multistate Markov models, it is often necessary to convert from transition rates to transition probabilities, and for probabilistic sensitivity analysis and other purposes it is useful to have explicit algebraic formulas for these conversions, to avoid having to resort to numerical methods. However, if there are four or more states then the formulas can be extremely complicated. These calculations can be made using packages such as R, but many analysts and other stakeholders still prefer to use spreadsheets for these decision models. We describe a procedure for deriving formulas that use intermediate variables so that each individual formula is reasonably simple. Once the formulas have been derived, the calculations can be performed in Excel or similar software. The procedure is illustrated by several examples and we discuss how to use a computer algebra system to assist with it. The procedure works in a wide variety of scenarios but cannot be employed when there are several backward transitions and the characteristic equation has no algebraic solution, or when the eigenvalues of the transition rate matrix are very close to each other.
Poupart, E.; Jolly, G.; Percebois, C.; Bazex, P.; Palanque, P.; Basnyat, S.; Rabault, P.; Sabatier, L.; Walrawens, A.
In this paper, we present a CNES participation through a case study in a research project called DOMINO financed by the French National Research Agency (ANR) RNTL. This project has started in March 2007 and will end in March 2009, it regroups academics (ENSIETA, IRISA, and IRIT), industries and agencies, (AIRBUS, CEA, CNES and SODIFRANCE). This project has two main goals: to develop reliable Model Driven Engineering (MDE) components and to build bridges with Domain Specific Languages (DSL). CNES participates in this project through a case study on the reliable design of operational procedures and associated applications. There are two main objectives for this case study: the first to improve "offline" interoperability with the possibility to build import/export tools for any scripting procedure language by using meta-modeling technology. The second is to improve efficiency for the production, validation, and execution of scripting procedures using operational specifications. It is anticipated that this will result in a reduction of costs and reliability improvement.
Yiong Hwee Teo
Full Text Available In art, design and media education, learning from examples has been an established way to coach students. To derive greater benefits, teachers should get students to go beyond mere studying of examples. This paper focuses on engaging novice learners in collaborative critiquing of real examples of professional work and past student work in the context of producing an educational video project. While critiquing of such works is not new in art education, there is however scant literature on how to involve students in collaborative critiquing in an online environment involving video projects. A four-step critique model was therefore designed as procedural scaffolding and implemented in an online system, Knowledge Community. A group of Singapore pre-service teachers were engaged in online collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video production. This research points to the value of online collaborative critiquing as a way to facilitate novice designers‟ progress towards expertise. In this environment learners are able to look at problems through multiple perspectives, generate their own solutions and build knowledge that uses the overlapping expertise of the online community.
Brunelli, Alessandro; Tentzeris, Vasileios; Sandri, Alberto; McKenna, Alexandra; Liew, Shan Liung; Milton, Richard; Chaudhuri, Nilanjan; Kefaloyannis, Emmanuel; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas
To develop a clinically risk-adjusted financial model to estimate the cost associated with a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy programme. Prospectively collected data of 236 VATS lobectomy patients (August 2012-December 2013) were analysed retrospectively. Fixed and variable intraoperative and postoperative costs were retrieved from the Hospital Accounting Department. Baseline and surgical variables were tested for a possible association with total cost using a multivariable linear regression and bootstrap analyses. Costs were calculated in GBP and expressed in Euros (EUR:GBP exchange rate 1.4). The average total cost of a VATS lobectomy was €11 368 (range €6992-€62 535). Average intraoperative (including surgical and anaesthetic time, overhead, disposable materials) and postoperative costs [including ward stay, high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) and variable costs associated with management of complications] were €8226 (range €5656-€13 296) and €3029 (range €529-€51 970), respectively. The following variables remained reliably associated with total costs after linear regression analysis and bootstrap: carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity (DLCO) 0.05) in 86% of the samples. A hypothetical patient with COPD and DLCO less than 60% would cost €4270 more than a patient without COPD and with higher DLCO values (€14 793 vs €10 523). Risk-adjusting financial data can help estimate the total cost associated with VATS lobectomy based on clinical factors. This model can be used to audit the internal financial performance of a VATS lobectomy programme for budgeting, planning and for appropriate bundled payment reimbursements. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Shamiyeh, A; Hubmann, R; Benkö, L; Vattay, P; Röth, E; Tulipan, L; Wayand, W U; Danis, J
To examine the feasibility of a new, minimally invasive procedure for the devascularization of the proximal stomach and distal esophagus to prevent recurrent variceal bleeding in portal hypertension in a new animal model. Portal hypertension was created by laparoscopic clip ligation of the portal vein on 20 pigs. After 2 weeks the azygoportal disconnection procedure was performed with the LigaSure-ATLAS instrument. There were 16 pigs out of 20 that survived both operations. Two died during introduction of anesthesia, one because of a cardiac arrest (second operation). One pig died resulting from necrosis of the gastric and esophageal wall. Autopsy (2 weeks later) showed that there was a complete arterial devascularization. At autopsy, none of the remaining 16 pigs had esophageal varices or necrosis of the stomach or esophagus. Laparoscopic azygoportal disconnection is a less invasive method for the prevention of rebleeding and seems to be safely performed with the LigaSure-ATLAS instrument.
Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.; Horton, John D.
A modified procedure is proposed for mixture-model clustering of regional-scale geochemical data. The key modification is the robust principal component transformation of the isometric log-ratio transforms of the element concentrations. This principal component transformation and the associated dimension reduction are applied before the data are clustered. The principal advantage of this modification is that it significantly improves the stability of the clustering. The principal disadvantage is that it requires subjective selection of the number of clusters and the number of principal components. To evaluate the efficacy of this modified procedure, it is applied to soil geochemical data that comprise 959 samples from the state of Colorado (USA) for which the concentrations of 44 elements are measured. The distributions of element concentrations that are derived from the mixture model and from the field samples are similar, indicating that the mixture model is a suitable representation of the transformed geochemical data. Each cluster and the associated distributions of the element concentrations are related to specific geologic and anthropogenic features. In this way, mixture model clustering facilitates interpretation of the regional geochemical data.
Kantsevoy, Sergey V; Dray, Xavier; Shin, Eun Ji; Buscaglia, Jonathan M; Magno, Priscilla; Assumpcao, Lia; Marohn, Michael R; Redan, Jay; Giday, Samuel A; Schweitzer, Michael A
Ventral hernia repair is currently performed via open surgery or laparoscopic approach. To develop an alternative ventral hernia repair technique. Acute and survival experiments on twelve 50-kg pigs. An endoscope was introduced transgastrically into the peritoneal cavity. An abdominal wall hernia was created through a 5-mm skin incision followed by a 5-cm-long incision of the abdominal wall muscles and aponeurosis. A hernia repair technique was developed in 3 acute experiments. Then animals were randomized into 2 groups. In the experimental group (5 animals) Gore-Tex mesh was transgastrically attached to the abdominal wall, repairing the previously created abdominal wall hernia. In the control group (4 animals), the hernia was not repaired. In both groups, the endoscope was then withdrawn into the stomach, and the gastric wall incision was closed with T-bars. The animals survived for 2 weeks and were then euthanized. The presence of ventral hernia on necropsy. In the control group, the ventral hernia was present on necropsy in all animals. In the experimental group, the ventral hernia was easily repaired, with no evidence of hernia on necropsy. In the first animal in the experimental group, necropsy revealed infected mesh. After this discovery, we used sterilized cover for mesh delivery and did not find any signs of infection in 4 subsequent study animals. The study was performed in a porcine model. Transgastric ventral hernia repair is feasible, technically easy, and effective. It can become a less invasive alternative to the currently used laparoscopic and surgical ventral hernia repair.
Cai, Jiji; Jung, Cheolkon
We propose image-guided depth propagation for two-dimensional (2-D)-to-three-dimensional (3-D) video conversion using superpixel matching and the adaptive autoregressive (AR) model. We adopt key frame-based depth propagation that propagates the depth map in the key frame to nonkey frames. Moreover, we use the adaptive AR model for depth refinement to penalize depth-color inconsistency. First, we perform superpixel matching to estimate motion vectors at the superpixel level instead of block matching based on the fixed block size. Then, we conduct depth compensation based on motion vectors to generate the depth map in the nonkey frame. However, the size of two superpixels is not exactly the same due to the segment-based matching, which causes matching errors in the compensated depth map. Thus, we introduce an adaptive image-guided AR model to minimize matching errors and produce the final depth map by minimizing AR prediction errors. Finally, we employ depth-image-based rendering to generate stereoscopic views from 2-D videos and their depth maps. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully performs depth propagation and produces high-quality depth maps for 2-D-to-3-D video conversion.
Full Text Available Video is a popular and a motivating potential medium in schools. Using video in the language classroom helps the language teachers in many different ways. Video, for instance, brings the outside world into the language classroom, providing the class with many different topics and reasons to talk about. It can provide comprehensible input to the learners through contextualised models of language use. It also offers good opportunities to introduce native English speech into the language classroom. Through this article I will try to show what the benefits of using video are and, at the end, I present an instrument to select and classify video materials.
Scherr, Rachel; Goerzen, Renee Michelle
The Video Resource for Learning Assistant Development is a package (under development) of thematic case-based ``video workshops,'' designed to supplement the University of Colorado's widely disseminated LA development program. In a video workshop, short, compelling video episodes are accompanied by captions, transcript, excerpts from instructional materials, and targeted discussion questions to help LAs and faculty explore the principles and values that inform instructor and student behavior. The video episodes for this project will showcase a variety of exemplary (yet real-life) LA-relevant instructional formats including Tutorials in Introductory Physics, Modeling Instruction, Investigative Science Learning Environment, and Open Source Tutorials.
Huda, C.; Hudha, M. N.; Ain, N.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Abdullah, A. G.; Widiaty, I.
Computer programming course is theoretical. Sufficient practice is necessary to facilitate conceptual understanding and encouraging creativity in designing computer programs/animation. The development of tutorial video in an Android-based blended learning is needed for students’ guide. Using Android-based instructional material, students can independently learn anywhere and anytime. The tutorial video can facilitate students’ understanding about concepts, materials, and procedures of programming/animation making in detail. This study employed a Research and Development method adapting Thiagarajan’s 4D model. The developed Android-based instructional material and tutorial video were validated by experts in instructional media and experts in physics education. The expert validation results showed that the Android-based material was comprehensive and very feasible. The tutorial video was deemed feasible as it received average score of 92.9%. It was also revealed that students’ conceptual understanding, skills, and creativity in designing computer program/animation improved significantly.
Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper
thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization......Abstract The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA...... (FISH) procedure, the melting temperature is used as a reference, together with corrections for certain compounds that are used during FISH. However, the quantitative relation between melting and experimental FISH temperatures is poorly described. In this review, various models used to predict...
Rafique, Rashad; Fienen, Michael N.; Parkin, Timothy B.; Anex, Robert P.
DayCent is a biogeochemical model of intermediate complexity widely used to simulate greenhouse gases (GHG), soil organic carbon and nutrients in crop, grassland, forest and savannah ecosystems. Although this model has been applied to a wide range of ecosystems, it is still typically parameterized through a traditional “trial and error” approach and has not been calibrated using statistical inverse modelling (i.e. algorithmic parameter estimation). The aim of this study is to establish and demonstrate a procedure for calibration of DayCent to improve estimation of GHG emissions. We coupled DayCent with the parameter estimation (PEST) software for inverse modelling. The PEST software can be used for calibration through regularized inversion as well as model sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The DayCent model was analysed and calibrated using N2O flux data collected over 2 years at the Iowa State University Agronomy and Agricultural Engineering Research Farms, Boone, IA. Crop year 2003 data were used for model calibration and 2004 data were used for validation. The optimization of DayCent model parameters using PEST significantly reduced model residuals relative to the default DayCent parameter values. Parameter estimation improved the model performance by reducing the sum of weighted squared residual difference between measured and modelled outputs by up to 67 %. For the calibration period, simulation with the default model parameter values underestimated mean daily N2O flux by 98 %. After parameter estimation, the model underestimated the mean daily fluxes by 35 %. During the validation period, the calibrated model reduced sum of weighted squared residuals by 20 % relative to the default simulation. Sensitivity analysis performed provides important insights into the model structure providing guidance for model improvement.
Vivian V. Valentin
Full Text Available The evidence is now good that different memory systems mediate the learning of different types of category structures. In particular, declarative memory dominates rule-based (RB category learning and procedural memory dominates information-integration (II category learning. For example, several studies have reported that feedback timing is critical for II category learning, but not for RB category learning – results that have broad support within the memory systems literature. Specifically, II category learning has been shown to be best with feedback delays of 500ms compared to delays of 0 and 1000ms, and highly impaired with delays of 2.5 seconds or longer. In contrast, RB learning is unaffected by any feedback delay up to 10 seconds. We propose a neurobiologically detailed theory of procedural learning that is sensitive to different feedback delays. The theory assumes that procedural learning is mediated by plasticity at cortical-striatal synapses that are modified by dopamine-mediated reinforcement learning. The model captures the time-course of the biochemical events in the striatum that cause synaptic plasticity, and thereby accounts for the empirical effects of various feedback delays on II category learning.
Linthorst, Marianne; Drizdal, Tomas; Joosten, Hans; Rhoon, Gerard C. van; Zee, Jacoba van der [Hyperthermia Unit, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Erasmus MC Rotterdam
To make a patient- and treatment-specific computed tomography (CT) scan and to create a three-dimensional (3D) patient model for superficial hyperthermia treatment planning (SHTP). Patients with recurrent breast adenocarcinoma in previously irradiated areas referred for radiotherapy (RT) and hyperthermia (HT) treatment and giving informed consent were included. After insertion of the thermometry catheters in the treatment area, a CT scan in the treatment position was made. A total of 26 patients have been, thus far, included in the study. During the study period, five types of adjustments were made to the procedure: (1) marking the RT field with radioopaque markers, (2) making the CT scan after the first HT treatment instead of before, (3) using an air- and foam-filled (dummy) water bolus, (4) a change to radiolucent catheters for which radioopaque markers were needed, and (5) marking the visible/palpable extent of the tumor with radioopaque markers, if necessary. With these adjustments, all necessary information is visible on the CT scan. Each CT slice was automatically segmented into muscle, fat, bone, and air. RT field, catheters, applicators, and tumor lesions, if indicated, were outlined manually using the segmentation program iSeg. Next the model was imported into SEMCAD X, a 3D electromagnetic field simulator. Using the final procedure to obtain a patient- and treatment-specific CT scan, it is possible to create a 3D model for SHTP.
Aralis, Hilary; Brookmeyer, Ron
Multistate models provide an important method for analyzing a wide range of life history processes including disease progression and patient recovery following medical intervention. Panel data consisting of the states occupied by an individual at a series of discrete time points are often used to estimate transition intensities of the underlying continuous-time process. When transition intensities depend on the time elapsed in the current state and back transitions between states are possible, this intermittent observation process presents difficulties in estimation due to intractability of the likelihood function. In this manuscript, we present an iterative stochastic expectation-maximization algorithm that relies on a simulation-based approximation to the likelihood function and implement this algorithm using rejection sampling. In a simulation study, we demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed procedure. We then demonstrate application of the algorithm to a study of dementia, the Nun Study, consisting of intermittently-observed elderly subjects in one of four possible states corresponding to intact cognition, impaired cognition, dementia, and death. We show that the proposed stochastic expectation-maximization algorithm substantially reduces bias in model parameter estimates compared to an alternative approach used in the literature, minimal path estimation. We conclude that in estimating intermittently observed semi-Markov models, the proposed approach is a computationally feasible and accurate estimation procedure that leads to substantial improvements in back transition estimates.
Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per Bromand
The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing...... procedure consists of analyzing the voltage and current values during a power reference step-response and evaluating the relevant electrochemical parameters such as the internal resistance. The results of different tests are presented and used to define the electrical characteristics and the overall...
Seamans, David P; Louka, Boshra F; Fortuin, F David; Patel, Bhavesh M; Sweeney, John P; Lanza, Louis A; DeValeria, Patrick A; Ezrre, Kim M; Ramakrishna, Harish
The surgical and procedural specialties are continually evolving their methods to include more complex and technically difficult cases. These cases can be longer and incorporate multiple teams in a different model of operating room synergy. Patients are frequently older, with comorbidities adding to the complexity of these cases. Recording of this environment has become more feasible recently with advancement in video and audio capture systems often used in the simulation realm. We began using live capture to record a new procedure shortly after starting these cases in our institution. This has provided continued assessment and evaluation of live procedures. The goal of this was to improve human factors and situational challenges by review and debriefing. B-Line Medical's LiveCapture video system was used to record successive transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures in our cardiac catheterization/laboratory. An illustrative case is used to discuss analysis and debriefing of the case using this system. An illustrative case is presented that resulted in long-term changes to our approach of these cases. The video capture documented rare events during one of our TAVR procedures. Analysis and debriefing led to definitive changes in our practice. While there are hurdles to the use of this technology in every institution, the role for the ongoing use of video capture, analysis, and debriefing may play an important role in the future of patient safety and human factors analysis in the operating environment.
Mahmud, Shahrear; Chowdhury, Md.Sadat Hossain
The evolution of 3G systems has contributed to a significant amount of progress towards 4th generation wireless technology, Long Term Evolution (LTE). On the other hand, demand for more bandwidth has been evidenced by the ever growing usage of real-time application such as video conference. For instance, users tend to have reliable and efficient connection when they are on the go maintaining the minimum quality of the video conference. In order to meet these challenges, QoS of LTE makes it an...
Li, Wenliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Cetin, Kristen; Eom, Jiyong; Wang, Yu; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Xuesong
With rapid urbanization and economic development, the world has been experiencing an unprecedented increase in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions is a common interest shared by major developed and developing countries, actions to enable these global reductions are generally implemented at the city scale. This is because baseline information from individual cities plays an important role in identifying economical options for improving building energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Numerous approaches have been proposed for modeling urban building energy use in the past decades. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the broad categories of energy models for urban buildings and describes the basic workflow of physics-based, bottom-up models and their applications in simulating urban-scale building energy use. Because there are significant differences across models with varied potential for application, strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed models are also presented. This is followed by a discussion of challenging issues associated with model preparation and calibration.
Rospleszcz, Susanne; Janitza, Silke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure
Automated variable selection procedures, such as backward elimination, are commonly employed to perform model selection in the context of multivariable regression. The stability of such procedures can be investigated using a bootstrap-based approach. The idea is to apply the variable selection procedure on a large number of bootstrap samples successively and to examine the obtained models, for instance, in terms of the inclusion of specific predictor variables. In this paper, we aim to investigate a particular important problem affecting this method in the case of categorical predictor variables with different numbers of categories and to give recommendations on how to avoid it. For this purpose, we systematically assess the behavior of automated variable selection based on the likelihood ratio test using either bootstrap samples drawn with replacement or subsamples drawn without replacement from the original dataset. Our study consists of extensive simulations and a real data example from the NHANES study. Our main result is that if automated variable selection is conducted on bootstrap samples, variables with more categories are substantially favored over variables with fewer categories and over metric variables even if none of them have any effect. Importantly, variables with no effect and many categories may be (wrongly) preferred to variables with an effect but few categories. We suggest the use of subsamples instead of bootstrap samples to bypass these drawbacks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nelson-Head, Cindy; Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a video story-based intervention with self-modeling to decrease spitting behavior in a female pre-school student with autism during an extended...
Cindy Nelson-Head; Doris Adams Hill; Margaret Flores
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a video story-based intervention with self-modeling to decrease spitting behavior in a female pre-school student with autism during an extended...
Williamson, Robert L; Casey, Laura B; Robertson, Janna Siegel; Buggey, Tom
Given the recent interest in the use of video self-modeling (VSM) to provide instruction within iPod apps and other pieces of handheld mobile assistive technologies, investigating appropriate prerequisite skills for effective use of this intervention is particularly timely and relevant. To provide additional information regarding the efficacy of VSM for students with autism and to provide insights into any possible prerequisite skills students may require for such efficacy, the authors investigated the use of VSM in increasing the instances of effective initiations of interpersonal greetings for three students with autism that exhibited different pre-intervention abilities. Results showed that only one of the three participants showed an increase in self-initiated greetings following the viewing of videos edited to show each participant self-modeling a greeting when entering his or her classroom. Due to the differences in initial skill sets between the three children, this finding supports anecdotally observed student prerequisite abilities mentioned in previous studies that may be required to effectively utilize video based teaching methods.
Roberto da Cunha Follador
Full Text Available The Operational Modal Analysis technique is a methodology very often applied for the identification of dynamic systems when the input signal is unknown. The applied methodology is based on a technique to estimate the Frequency Response Functions and extract the modal parameters using only the structural dynamic response data, without assuming the knowledge of the excitation forces. Such approach is an adequate way for measuring the aircraft aeroelastic response due to random input, like atmospheric turbulence. The in-flight structural response has been measured by accelerometers distributed along the aircraft wings, fuselage and empennages. The Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique was chosen to identify the airframe dynamic parameters. This technique is based on the hypothesis that the system is randomly excited with a broadband spectrum with almost constant power spectral density. The system identification procedure is based on the Single Value Decomposition of the power spectral densities of system output signals, estimated by the usual Fast Fourier Transform method. This procedure has been applied to different flight conditions to evaluate the modal parameters and the aeroelastic stability trends of the airframe under investigation. The experimental results obtained by this methodology were compared with the predicted results supplied by aeroelastic numerical models in order to check the consistency of the proposed output-only methodology. The objective of this paper is to compare in-flight measured aeroelastic damping against the corresponding parameters computed from numerical aeroelastic models. Different aerodynamic modeling approaches should be investigated such as the use of source panel body models, cruciform and flat plate projection. As a result of this investigation it is expected the choice of the better aeroelastic modeling and Operational Modal Analysis techniques to be included in a standard aeroelastic
Saito, Toshikuni; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Otake, Yoshito
We have been developing a DSVC (Dynamic Spatial Video Camera) system to measure and observe human locomotion quantitatively and freely. A 4D (four-dimensional) human model with detailed skeletal structure, joint, muscle, and motor functionality has been built. The purpose of our research was to estimate skeletal movements from body surface shapes using DSVC and the 4D human model. For this purpose, we constructed a body surface model of a subject and resized the standard 4D human model to match with geometrical features of the subject's body surface model. Software that integrates the DSVC system and the 4D human model, and allows dynamic skeletal state analysis from body surface movement data was also developed. We practically applied the developed system in dynamic skeletal state analysis of a lower limb in motion and were able to visualize the motion using geometrically resized standard 4D human model.
Procedural Portfolio Planning in Plastic Surgery, Part 2: Collaboration Between Surgeons and Hospital Administrators to Develop a Funds Flow Model for Procedures Performed at an Academic Medical Center.
Hultman, Charles Scott
Although plastic surgeons make important contributions to the clinical, educational, and research missions of academic medical centers (AMCs), determining the financial value of a plastic surgery service can be difficult, due to complex cost accounting systems. We analyzed the financial impact of plastic surgery on an AMC, by examining the contribution margins and operating income of surgical procedures. We collaborated with hospital administrators to implement 3 types of strategic changes: (1) growth of areas with high contribution margin, (2) curtailment of high-risk procedures with negative contribution margin, (3) improved efficiency of mission-critical services with high resource consumption. Outcome measures included: facility charges, hospital collections, contribution margin, operating margin, and operating room times. We also studied the top 50 Current Procedural Terminology codes (total case number × charge/case), ranking procedures for profitability, as determined by operating margin. During the 2-year study period, we had no turnover in faculty; did not pursue any formal marketing; did not change our surgical fees, billing system, or payer mix; and maintained our commitment to indigent care. After rebalancing our case mix, through procedural portfolio planning, average hospital operating income/procedure increased from $-79 to $+816. Volume and diversity of cases increased, with no change in payer mix. Although charges/case decreased, both contribution margin and operating margin increased, due to improved throughput and decreased operating room times. The 5 most profitable procedures for the hospital were hernia repair, mandibular osteotomy, hand skin graft, free fibula flap, and head and neck flap, whereas the 5 least profitable were latissimus breast reconstruction, craniosynostosis repair, free-flap breast reconstruction, trunk skin graft, and cutaneous free flap. Total operating income for the hospital, from plastic surgery procedures, increased
Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...
Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...
... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...
Hackl, W O; Ammenwerth, E
... of routine medical record data are missing. We propose a conceptual best-practice framework and procedure model for the systematic planning of intelligent reuse of integrated clinical routine data (SPIRIT...
Full Text Available Designing an effective and high performance network requires an accurate characterization and modeling of network traffic. The modeling of video frame sizes is normally applied in simulation studies and mathematical analysis and generating streams for testing and compliance purposes. Besides, video traffic assumed as a major source of multimedia traffic in future heterogeneous network. Therefore, the statistical distribution of video data can be used as the inputs for performance modeling of networks. The finding of this paper comprises the theoretical definition of distribution which seems to be relevant to the video trace in terms of its statistical properties and finds the best distribution using both the graphical method and the hypothesis test. The data set used in this article consists of layered video traces generating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC video compression technique of three different movies.
Full Text Available ... Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed ... Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic ...
Full Text Available As the public education system in Northern Ontario continues to take a downward spiral, a plethora of secondary school students are being placed in an alternative educational environment. Juxtaposing the two educational settings reveals very similar methods and characteristics of educating our youth as opposed to using a truly alternative approach to education. This video reviews the relationship between public education and alternative education in a remote Northern Ontario setting. It is my belief that the traditional methods of teaching are not appropriate in educating at risk students in alternative schools. Paper and pencil worksheets do not motivate these students to learn and succeed. Alternative education should emphasize experiential learning, a just in time curriculum based on every unique individual and the students true passion for everyday life. Cameron Culbert was born on February 3rd, 1977 in North Bay, Ontario. His teenage years were split between attending public school and his willed curriculum on the ski hill. Culbert spent 10 years (1996-2002 & 2006-2010 competing for Canada as an alpine ski racer. His passion for teaching and coaching began as an athlete and has now transferred into the classroom and the community. As a graduate of Nipissing University (BA, BEd, MEd. Camerons research interests are alternative education, physical education and technology in the classroom. Currently Cameron is an active educator and coach in Northern Ontario.
Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu
Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based curricula was employed to determine how science teacher's attitudes and efficacy where impacted while designing science-based video games. The study's mixed-method design ascertained teacher efficacy on five factors (General computer use, Science Learning, Inquiry Teaching and Learning, Synchronous chat/text, and Playing Video Games) related to technology and gaming using a web-based survey). Qualitative data in the form of online blog posts was gathered during the project to assist in the triangulation and assessment of teacher efficacy. Data analyses consisted of an Analysis of Variance and serial coding of teacher reflective responses. Results indicated participants who used computers daily have higher efficacy while using inquiry-based teaching methods and science teaching and learning. Additional emergent findings revealed possible motivating factors for efficacy. This professional development project was focused on inquiry as a pedagogical strategy, standard-based science learning as means to develop content knowledge, and creating video games as technological knowledge. The project was consistent with the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework where overlapping circles of the three components indicates development of an integrated understanding of the suggested relationships. Findings provide suggestions for development of standards-based science education software, its integration into the curriculum and, strategies for implementing technology into teaching practices.
Seidel, Sabine J.; Werisch, Stefan
Crop growth models are a commonly used tool for impact assessment of climate variability and climate change on crop yields and water use. Process-based crop models rely on algorithms that approximate the main physiological plant processes by a set of equations containing several calibration parameters as well as basic underlying assumptions. It is well recognized that model calibration is essential to improve the accuracy and reliability of model predictions. However, model calibration and validation is often hindered by a limited quantity and quality of available data. Recent studies suggest that crop model parameters can only be derived from field experiments in which plant growth and development processes have been measured. To be able to achieve a reliable prediction of crop growth under irrigation or drought stress, the correct characterization of the whole soil-plant-atmosphere system is essential. In this context is the accurate simulation of crop development, yield and the soil water dynamics plays an important role. In this study we aim to investigate the importance of a site and cultivar-specific model calibration based on experimental data using the SVAT model Daisy. We investigate to which extent different data sets and different parameter estimation procedures affect particularly yield estimates, irrigation water demand and the soil water dynamics. The comprehensive experimental data has been derived from an experiment conducted in Germany where five irrigation regimes were imposed on cabbage. Data collection included continuous measurements of soil tension and soil water content in two plots at three depths, weekly measurements of LAI, plant heights, leaf-N-content, stomatal conductivity, biomass partitioning, rooting depth as well as harvested yields and duration of growing period. Three crop growth calibration strategies were compared: (1) manual calibration based on yield and duration of growing period, (2) manual calibration based on yield
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer
We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...
Dabanlı, İsmail; Şen, Zekai
The statistical climate downscaling model by the Turkish Water Foundation (TWF) is further developed and applied to a set of monthly precipitation records. The model is structured by two phases as spatial (regional) and temporal downscaling of global circulation model (GCM) scenarios. The TWF model takes into consideration the regional dependence function (RDF) for spatial structure and Markov whitening process (MWP) for temporal characteristics of the records to set projections. The impact of climate change on monthly precipitations is studied by downscaling Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC-SRES) A2 and B2 emission scenarios from Max Plank Institute (EH40PYC) and Hadley Center (HadCM3). The main purposes are to explain the TWF statistical climate downscaling model procedures and to expose the validation tests, which are rewarded in same specifications as "very good" for all stations except one (Suhut) station in the Akarcay basin that is in the west central part of Turkey. Eventhough, the validation score is just a bit lower at the Suhut station, the results are "satisfactory." It is, therefore, possible to say that the TWF model has reasonably acceptable skill for highly accurate estimation regarding standard deviation ratio (SDR), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) criteria. Based on the validated model, precipitation predictions are generated from 2011 to 2100 by using 30-year reference observation period (1981-2010). Precipitation arithmetic average and standard deviation have less than 5% error for EH40PYC and HadCM3 SRES (A2 and B2) scenarios.
Eric R. Edelman
Full Text Available For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs, accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016. The final dataset consisted of 79,983 records, describing 199,772 h of total OR time. Potential predictors of TPT that were included in the subsequent analysis were eSCT, patient age, type of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status classification, and type of anesthesia used. First, we computed the predicted TPT based on a previously described fixed ratio model for each record, multiplying eSCT by 1.33. This number is based on the research performed by van Veen-Berkx et al., which showed that 33% of SCT is generally a good approximation of anesthesia-controlled time (ACT. We then systematically tested all possible linear regression models to predict TPT using eSCT in combination with the other available independent variables. In addition, all regression models were again tested without eSCT as a predictor to predict ACT separately (which leads to TPT by adding SCT. TPT was most accurately predicted using a linear regression model based on the independent variables eSCT, type of operation, ASA classification, and type of anesthesia. This model performed significantly better than the fixed ratio model and the method of predicting ACT separately. Making use of these more accurate predictions in planning and sequencing algorithms may enable an increase in utilization of ORs, leading to significant financial and productivity related
Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert Nourgaliev; Nam Dinh
We introduce a novel approach for the hyperbolization of the well-known two-phase six equation flow model. The six-equation model has been frequently used in many two-phase flow applications such as bubbly fluid flows in nuclear reactors. One major drawback of this model is that it can be arbitrarily non-hyperbolic resulting in difficulties such as numerical instability issues. Non-hyperbolic behavior can be associated with complex eigenvalues that correspond to characteristic matrix of the system. Complex eigenvalues are often due to certain flow parameter choices such as the definition of inter-facial pressure terms. In our method, we prevent the characteristic matrix receiving complex eigenvalues by fine tuning the inter-facial pressure terms with an iterative procedure. In this way, the characteristic matrix possesses all real eigenvalues meaning that the characteristic wave speeds are all real therefore the overall two-phase flowmodel becomes hyperbolic. The main advantage of this is that one can apply less diffusive highly accurate high resolution numerical schemes that often rely on explicit calculations of real eigenvalues. We note that existing non-hyperbolic models are discretized mainly based on low order highly dissipative numerical techniques in order to avoid stability issues.
Slesnick, Timothy C
Increasingly, computational modelling and numerical simulations are used to help plan complex surgical and interventional cardiovascular procedures in children and young adults with congenital heart disease. From its origins more than 30 years ago, surgical planning with analysis of flow hemodynamics and energy loss/efficiency has helped design and implement many modifications to existing techniques. On the basis of patient-specific medical imaging, surgical planning allows accurate model production that can then be manipulated in a virtual surgical environment, with the proposed solutions finally tested with advanced computational fluid dynamics to evaluate the results. Applications include a broad range of congenital heart disease, including patients with single-ventricle anatomy undergoing staged palliation, those with arch obstruction, with double outlet right ventricle, or with tetralogy of Fallot. In the present work, we focus on clinical applications of this exciting field. We describe the framework for these techniques, including brief descriptions of the engineering principles applied and the interaction between "benchtop" data with medical decision-making. We highlight some early insights learned from pioneers over the past few decades, including refinements in Fontan baffle geometries and configurations. Finally, we offer a glimpse into exciting advances that are presently being explored, including use of modelling for transcatheter interventions. In this era of personalized medicine, computational modelling and surgical planning allows patient-specific tailoring of interventions to optimize clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ostrowski, Jeffrey R.; Sarhan, Nabil J.
The popularity of social media has grown dramatically over the World Wide Web. In this paper, we analyze the video popularity distribution of well-known social video websites (YouTube, Google Video, and the AOL Truveo Video Search engine) and characterize their workload. We identify trends in the categories, lengths, and formats of those videos, as well as characterize the evolution of those videos over time. We further provide an extensive analysis and comparison of video content amongst the main regions of the world.
Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A
We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.
Han, Zhi; Xu, Zongben; Zhu, Song-Chun
This paper presents a middle-level video representation named Video Primal Sketch (VPS), which integrates two regimes of models: i) sparse coding model using static or moving primitives to explicitly represent moving corners, lines, feature points, etc., ii) FRAME /MRF model reproducing feature statistics extracted from input video to implicitly represent textured motion, such as water and fire. The feature statistics include histograms of spatio-temporal filters and velocity distributions. T...
Jones, JoAnna; Lerman, Dorothea C; Lechago, Sarah
We taught social responses to young children with autism using an adult as the recipient of the social interaction and then assessed generalization of performance to adults and peers who had not participated in the training. Although the participants' performance was similar across adults, responding was less consistent with peers, and a subsequent probe suggested that the recipient of the social behavior (adults vs. peers) controlled responding. We then evaluated the effects of having participants observe a video of a peer engaged in the targeted social behavior with another peer who provided reinforcement for the social response. Results suggested that certain irrelevant stimuli (adult vs. peer recipient) were more likely to exert stimulus control over responding than others (setting, materials) and that video viewing was an efficient way to promote generalization to peers. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Full Text Available The scope of this paper is a video surveillance system constituted of three principal modules, segmentation module, vehicle classification and vehicle counting. The segmentation is based on a background subtraction by using the Codebooks method. This step aims to define the regions of interest associated with vehicles. To classify vehicles in their type, our system uses the histograms of oriented gradient followed by support vector machine. Counting and tracking vehicles will be the last task to be performed. The presence of partial occlusion involves the decrease of the accuracy of vehicle segmentation and classification, which directly impacts the robustness of a video surveillance system. Therefore, a novel method to handle the partial occlusions based on vehicle classification process have developed. The results achieved have shown that the accuracy of vehicle counting and classification exceeds the accuracy measured in some existing systems.
Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling
This paper proposes a deep learning model to efficiently detect salient regions in videos. It addresses two important issues: 1) deep video saliency model training with the absence of sufficiently large and pixel-wise annotated video data and 2) fast video saliency training and detection. The proposed deep video saliency network consists of two modules, for capturing the spatial and temporal saliency information, respectively. The dynamic saliency model, explicitly incorporating saliency estimates from the static saliency model, directly produces spatiotemporal saliency inference without time-consuming optical flow computation. We further propose a novel data augmentation technique that simulates video training data from existing annotated image data sets, which enables our network to learn diverse saliency information and prevents overfitting with the limited number of training videos. Leveraging our synthetic video data (150K video sequences) and real videos, our deep video saliency model successfully learns both spatial and temporal saliency cues, thus producing accurate spatiotemporal saliency estimate. We advance the state-of-the-art on the densely annotated video segmentation data set (MAE of .06) and the Freiburg-Berkeley Motion Segmentation data set (MAE of .07), and do so with much improved speed (2 fps with all steps).This paper proposes a deep learning model to efficiently detect salient regions in videos. It addresses two important issues: 1) deep video saliency model training with the absence of sufficiently large and pixel-wise annotated video data and 2) fast video saliency training and detection. The proposed deep video saliency network consists of two modules, for capturing the spatial and temporal saliency information, respectively. The dynamic saliency model, explicitly incorporating saliency estimates from the static saliency model, directly produces spatiotemporal saliency inference without time-consuming optical flow computation. We further
Höferlin, Markus Johannes
The amount of video data recorded world-wide is tremendously growing and has already reached hardly manageable dimensions. It originates from a wide range of application areas, such as surveillance, sports analysis, scientific video analysis, surgery documentation, and entertainment, and its analysis represents one of the challenges in computer science. The vast amount of video data renders manual analysis by watching the video data impractical. However, automatic evaluation of video material...
Moutakki Zakaria; Ouloul Imad Mohamed; Afdel Karim; Amghar Abdellah
The scope of this paper is a video surveillance system constituted of three principal modules, segmentation module, vehicle classification and vehicle counting. The segmentation is based on a background subtraction by using the Codebooks method. This step aims to define the regions of interest associated with vehicles. To classify vehicles in their type, our system uses the histograms of oriented gradient followed by support vector machine. Counting and tracking vehicles will be the last task...
Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim
Three examples of usage of high-speed video filming in investigation of wind-wave interaction in laboratory conditions is described. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) and at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m, wind velocity up to 10 m/s). A combination of PIV-measurements, optical measurements of water surface form and wave gages were used for detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. The modified PIV-method is based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by particles and high-speed video. During the experiments on the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS Green (532 nm) CW laser with 1.5 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint (VS-Fast) was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz. Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved using conditional in phase averaging like in . In the experiments on the LASIF more powerful Argon laser (4 Wt, CW) was used as well as high-speed camera with higher sensitivity and resolution: Optronics Camrecord CR3000x2, frame rate 3571 Hz, frame size 259×1696 px. In both series of experiments spherical 0.02 mm polyamide particles with inertial time 7 ms were used for seeding airflow. New particle seeding system based on utilization of air pressure is capable of injecting 2 g of particles per second for 1.3 - 2.4 s without flow disturbance. Used in LASIF this system provided high particle density on PIV-images. In combination with high-resolution camera it allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from
Full Text Available In all universities, the Office for Quality Assurance defines the procedure for assessing the performance of the teaching staff, with a view to establishing students’ perception as regards the teachers’ activity from the point of view of the quality of the teaching process, of the relationship with the students and of the assistance provided for learning. The present paper aims at creating a combined model for evaluation, based on Data Mining statistical methods: starting from the findings revealed by the evaluations teachers performed to students, using the cluster analysis and the discriminant analysis, we identified the subjects which produced significant differences between students’ grades, subjects which were subsequently subjected to an evaluation by students. The results of these analyses allowed the formulation of certain measures for enhancing the quality of the evaluation process.
Full Text Available In biomedical research, one major objective is to identify risk factors and study their risk impacts, as this identification can help clinicians to both properly make a decision and increase efficiency of treatments and resource allocation. A two-step penalized-based procedure is proposed to select linear regression coefficients for linear components and to identify significant nonparametric varying-coefficient functions for semiparametric varying-coefficient partially linear Cox models. It is shown that the penalized-based resulting estimators of the linear regression coefficients are asymptotically normal and have oracle properties, and the resulting estimators of the varying-coefficient functions have optimal convergence rates. A simulation study and an empirical example are presented for illustration.
Gibson, Eli; Robu, Maria R.; Thompson, Stephen; Edwards, P. Eddie; Schneider, Crispin; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Davidson, Brian; Hawkes, David J.; Barratt, Dean C.; Clarkson, Matthew J.
Motivation: For primary and metastatic liver cancer patients undergoing liver resection, a laparoscopic approach can reduce recovery times and morbidity while offering equivalent curative results; however, only about 10% of tumours reside in anatomical locations that are currently accessible for laparoscopic resection. Augmenting laparoscopic video with registered vascular anatomical models from pre-procedure imaging could support using laparoscopy in a wider population. Segmentation of liver tissue on laparoscopic video supports the robust registration of anatomical liver models by filtering out false anatomical correspondences between pre-procedure and intra-procedure images. In this paper, we present a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach to liver segmentation in laparoscopic liver procedure videos. Method: We defined a CNN architecture comprising fully-convolutional deep residual networks with multi-resolution loss functions. The CNN was trained in a leave-one-patient-out cross-validation on 2050 video frames from 6 liver resections and 7 laparoscopic staging procedures, and evaluated using the Dice score. Results: The CNN yielded segmentations with Dice scores >=0.95 for the majority of images; however, the inter-patient variability in median Dice score was substantial. Four failure modes were identified from low scoring segmentations: minimal visible liver tissue, inter-patient variability in liver appearance, automatic exposure correction, and pathological liver tissue that mimics non-liver tissue appearance. Conclusion: CNNs offer a feasible approach for accurately segmenting liver from other anatomy on laparoscopic video, but additional data or computational advances are necessary to address challenges due to the high inter-patient variability in liver appearance.
Chen, Jiawen; Paris, Sylvain; Wang, Jue; Matusik, Wojciech; Cohen, Michael; Durand, Fredo
This paper introduces the video mesh, a data structure for representing video as 2.5D “paper cutouts.” The video mesh allows interactive editing of moving objects and modeling of depth, which enables 3D effects and post-exposure camera control. The video mesh sparsely encodes optical flow as well as depth, and handles occlusion using local layering and alpha mattes. Motion is described by a sparse set of points tracked over time. Each point also stores a depth value. The video mesh is a trian...
Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe
The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure, the melting temperature is used as a reference, together with corrections for certain compounds that are used during FISH. However, the quantitative relation between melting and experimental FISH temperatures is poorly described. In this review, various models used to predict the melting temperature for rRNA targets, for DNA oligonucleotides and for nucleic acid mimics (chemically modified oligonucleotides), will be addressed in detail, together with a critical assessment of how this information should be used in FISH.
Full Text Available The coupling of groundwater movement and reactive transport during groundwater recharge with wastewater leads to a complicated mathematical model, involving terms to describe convection-dispersion, adsorption/desorption and/or biodegradation, and so forth. It has been found very difficult to solve such a coupled model either analytically or numerically. The present study adopts operator-splitting techniques to decompose the coupled model into two submodels with different intrinsic characteristics. By applying an upwind finite difference scheme to the finite volume integral of the convection flux term, an implicit solution procedure is derived to solve the convection-dominant equation. The dispersion term is discretized in a standard central-difference scheme while the dispersion-dominant equation is solved using either the preconditioned Jacobi conjugate gradient (PJCG method or Thomas method based on local-one-dimensional scheme. The solution method proposed in this study is applied to the demonstration project of groundwater recharge with secondary effluent at Gaobeidian sewage treatment plant (STP successfully.
Guarnaccia, Joe; Hoppe, Tom
An assessment of off-site exposure from spills/releases of toxic chemicals can be conducted by compiling site-specific operational, geographic, demographic, and meteorological data and by using screening-level public-domain modeling tools (e.g., RMP Comp, ALOHA and DEGADIS). In general, the analysis is confined to the following: event-based simulations (allow for the use of known, constant, atmospheric conditions), known receptor distances (on the order of miles or less), short time scale for the distances considered (order of 10's of minutes or less), gently sloping rough terrain, dense and neutrally buoyant gas dispersion, known chemical inventory and infrastructure (used to define source-term), and known toxic endpoint (defines significance). While screening-level models are relatively simple to use, care must be taken to ensure that the results are meaningful. This approach allows one to assess risk from catastrophic release (e.g., via terrorism), or plausible release scenarios (related to standard operating procedures and industry standards). In addition, given receptor distance and toxic endpoint, the model can be used to predict the critical spill volume to realize significant off-site risk. This information can then be used to assess site storage and operation parameters and to determine the most economical and effective risk reduction measures to be applied.