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Sample records for video increased craving

  1. Smoking a virtual cigarette increases craving among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Weidberg, Sara; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) environments that reproduce smoking-related stimuli for increasing self-reported craving and psychophysiological reactivity in smokers. However, no study to date has attempted to simulate smoking behavior itself by means of VR technology. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of smoking a virtual cigarette on self-reported craving levels and heart rate (HR) in a sample of smokers. Participants were 45 smokers randomly assigned to three VR conditions built into a virtual pub: smoking a virtual cigarette, throwing virtual darts at a virtual dartboard or just being in the virtual pub. Results showed that smoking a virtual cigarette significantly increased self-reported craving and HR when compared to the other two conditions. These results reveal that simulation of smoking behavior in a VR environment functions as an efficacious proximal cue that can be used for triggering craving under the cue-exposure paradigm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Hwang, Jun Won; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-08-01

    Bupropion has been used in the treatment of patients with substance dependence based on its weak inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. We hypothesized that 6 weeks of bupropion sustained release (SR) treatment would decrease craving for Internet game play as well as video game cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (IAG). Eleven subjects who met criteria for IAG, playing StarCraft (>30 hr/week), and eight healthy comparison subjects (HC) who had experience playing StarCraft (addition, symptoms of depression, craving for playing the game, and the severity of Internet addiction were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, self-report of craving on a 7-point visual analogue scale, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale, respectively. In response to game cues, IAG showed higher brain activation in left occipital lobe cuneus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parahippocampal gyrus than HC. After a 6 week period of bupropion SR, craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were decreased in the IAG. We suggest that bupropion SR may change craving and brain activity in ways that are similar to those observed in individuals with substance abuse or dependence. PsycINFO Database Record 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Cue-elicited increases in incentive salience for marijuana: Craving, demand, and attentional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; MacKillop, James

    2016-10-01

    Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana's incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand. Frequent marijuana users (N=93, 34% female) underwent exposure to neutral cues then to lit marijuana cigarettes. Craving, marijuana demand via a marijuana purchase task, and heart rate were assessed after each cue set. A modified Stroop task with cannabis and control words was completed after the marijuana cues as a measure of attentional bias. Relative to neutral cues, marijuana cues significantly increased subjective craving and demand indices of intensity (i.e., drug consumed at $0) and Omax (i.e., peak drug expenditure). Elasticity significantly decreased following marijuana cues, reflecting sustained purchase despite price increases. Craving was correlated with demand indices (r's: 0.23-0.30). Marijuana users displayed significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words after marijuana cues. Cue-elicited increases in intensity were associated with greater attentional bias for marijuana words. Greater incentive salience indexed by subjective, behavioral economic, and implicit measures was observed after marijuana versus neutral cues, supporting multidimensional assessment. The study highlights the utility of a behavioral economic approach in detecting cue-elicited changes in marijuana incentive salience. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. The influence of acutely administered nicotine on cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk video lottery terminal gamblers who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Daniel S; Dorbeck, Anders; Barrett, Sean P

    2013-04-01

    Evidence indicates that tobacco use and gambling often co-occur. Despite this association, little is known about how tobacco use affects the propensity to gamble. Nicotine, the putative addictive component of tobacco, has been reported to potentiate the hedonic value of other nonsmoking stimuli. Environmental cues have been identified as an important contributor to relapse in addictive behavior; however, the extent to which nicotine can affect the strength of gambling cues remains unknown. This study examined whether nicotine influences subjective ratings for gambling following gambling cues. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, 30 (20 men) video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers ('moderate-risk' or 'problem' gamblers) who smoke daily were assigned to nicotine (4 mg deliverable) or placebo lozenge conditions. Subjective and behavioral responses were assessed at baseline, following lozenge, following neutral cues, and following presentation of gambling cues. Nicotine lozenge was found to significantly reduce tobacco-related cravings (P<0.05) but did not affect gambling-related cravings, the choice to play a VLT, or other subjective responses. These results suggest that a low dose of acutely administered nicotine does not increase cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk VLT gamblers who smoke.

  5. Brain Activity During Cocaine Craving and Gambling Urges: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Hedy; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Wexler, Bruce E; Malison, Robert T; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-01-01

    Although craving states are important to both cocaine dependence (CD) and pathological gambling (PG), few studies have directly investigated neurobiological similarities and differences in craving between these disorders. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain activity in 103 participants (30 CD, 28 PG, and 45 controls) while they watched videos depicting cocaine, gambling, and sad scenarios to investigate the neural correlates of craving. We observed a three-way urge type × video type × diagnostic group interaction in self-reported craving, with CD participants reporting strong cocaine cravings to cocaine videos, and PG participants reporting strong gambling urges to gambling videos. Neuroimaging data revealed a diagnostic group × video interaction in anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), activating predominantly to cocaine videos in CD participants, and a more dorsal mPFC region that was most strongly activated for cocaine videos in CD participants, gambling videos in PG participants, and sad videos in control participants. Gender × diagnosis × video interactions identified dorsal mPFC and a region in posterior insula/caudate in which female but not male PG participants showed increased responses to gambling videos. Findings illustrate both similarities and differences in the neural correlates of drug cravings and gambling urges in CD and PG. Future studies should investigate diagnostic- and gender-specific therapies targeting the neural systems implicated in craving/urge states in addictions.

  6. Marijuana craving in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Filbey, Francesca M.; Schacht, Joseph P.; Myers, Ursula S.; Chavez, Robert S.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    Craving is one of the primary behavioral components of drug addiction, and cue-elicited craving is an especially powerful form of this construct. While cue-elicited craving and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms have been extensively studied with respect to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, the same cannot be said for marijuana. Cue-elicited craving for other drugs of abuse is associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas, particularly the reward pathway. This study use...

  7. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Boundary Conditions of Methamphetamine Craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B.; Onyemekwu, Chukwudi; Hart, Carl L.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Kober, Hedy

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has increased significantly and become a global health concern. Craving is known to predict methamphetamine use and relapse following abstinence. Some have suggested that cravings are automatic, generalized, and uncontrollable, but experimental work addressing these claims is lacking. In two exploratory studies we tested the boundary conditions of methamphetamine craving by asking: (1) is craving specific to users’ preferred route of administration? and (2) can craving be regulated by cognitive strategies? Two groups of methamphetamine users were recruited. In Study 1, participants were grouped by their preferred route of administration (intranasal vs. smoking), and rated their craving in response to photographs and movies depicting methamphetamine use (via the intranasal vs. smoking route). In Study 2, methamphetamine smokers implemented cognitive regulation strategies while viewing photographs depicting methamphetamine smoking. Strategies involved either focusing on the positive aspects of smoking methamphetamine or the negative consequences of doing so – the latter strategy based on treatment protocols for addiction. In Study 1, we found a significant interaction between group and route of administration, such that participants who preferred to smoke methamphetamine reported significantly stronger craving for smoking stimuli, whereas those who preferred the intranasal route reported stronger craving for intranasal stimuli. In Study 2, participants reported significantly lower craving when focusing on the negative consequences associated with methamphetamine use. Taken together, these findings suggest that strength of craving for methamphetamine is moderated by users’ route of administration and can be reduced by cognitive strategies. This has important theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications. PMID:26302338

  9. Cigarette craving increases after a psychosocial stress test and is related to cortisol stress response but not to dependence scores in daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, A F; Laucht, M; Schmid, B; Wiedemann, K; Mann, K; Zimmermann, U S

    2010-02-01

    Stress is known to induce cigarette craving in smokers, but the underlying mechanisms are widely unknown. We investigated how dependence severity, smoking habits and stress-induced cortisol secretion are associated with increased cigarette craving after a standardised laboratory stressor. Hundred and six healthy participants (50 men, age 18-19 years) underwent a standardised public speaking stress task. In all, 35 smoked daily (DS), 13 smoked occasionally (OS), and 58 never smoked (NS). Smoking was unrestricted until 2 h before stress onset. Plasma cortisol was measured before and up to 95 min after the stressor. All current smokers rated intensity of cigarette craving immediately before and immediately after the stressor using the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (BQSU). Cortisol levels significantly increased in response to stress in all groups. The magnitude of this stress response was significantly lower in DS compared with OS and NS but did not differ between OS and NS. Baseline BQSU scores were significantly higher in DS than OS. BQSU scores increased significantly during the stress period and were positively correlated to the cortisol response in the DS but were unrelated to their nicotine dependence scores. In OS, no change in cigarette craving could be observed. In daily smokers, cigarette craving is increased after compared with before stress exposure and is related to the magnitude of cortisol stress response rather than to severity of nicotine dependence. This result supports, but does not prove, the concept that hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal stimulation is one of the mechanisms how stress can elicit cigarette craving.

  10. Determinants of cue-elicited craving and physiologic reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent subjects in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael; Price, Kimber L; Simpson, Annie N; DeSantis, Stacia M; Baker, Nathaniel L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-03-01

    Craving for methamphetamine is commonly reported by heavy users of the drug and may increase the risk of relapse in newly abstinent individuals. Exposure to methamphetamine-associated cues in the laboratory can elicit measureable craving and autonomic reactivity in some individuals with methamphetamine dependence. In this study, clinical and demographic correlates of methamphetamine craving and the optimal conditions for its measurement in the laboratory are explored. Subjective (craving) and physiologic (heart rate and skin conductance) reactivity to presentation of methamphetamine-associated photo, video, and paraphernalia cues were evaluated in 43 subjects with methamphetamine dependence. Association of cue reactivity with demographic and clinical characteristics including duration, frequency, amount, and recency of methamphetamine use were assessed. Craving was reported by fewer than half of subjects at baseline and by approximately 70% of subjects after methamphetamine cue exposure. Relative to baseline, subjective craving was increased by all three cue modalities to a similar extent. In general, physiological cue reactivity correlated poorly with cue-induced craving. Craving at baseline was strongly predictive of cue-induced craving. Differences in cue-induced craving were not associated with age, sex, education, employment, treatment status, or number of days using methamphetamine in the 60 days prior to study entry. In contrast, the degree of baseline craving was strongly associated with employment status and the number of days using methamphetamine in the past 60 days. Cue-induced craving for methamphetamine may be reliably measured in methamphetamine-dependent individuals in the laboratory. Further studies employing the cue reactivity paradigm in methamphetamine dependence are warranted.

  11. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p hunger, associated with overeating and obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The cerebellum in drug craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rius, Josep; Miquel, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Craving has been considered one of the core features of addiction. It can be defined as the urge or conscious desire to use a drug elicited by the drug itself, drug-associated cues or stressors. Craving plays a major role in relapse, even after prolonged periods of abstinence, as well as in the maintenance of drug seeking in non-abstinent addicts. The circuitry of craving includes medial parts of the prefrontal cortex, ventral striatal zones, ventral tegmental area, ventral pallidum, and limbic regions. Interestingly, the cerebellum shows reciprocal loops with many of these areas. The cerebellum has been linked traditionally to motor functions but increasing evidence indicates that this part of the brain is also involved in functions related to cognition, prediction, learning, and memory. Moreover, the functional neuroimaging studies that have addressed the study of craving in humans repeatedly demonstrate cerebellar activation when craving is elicited by the presentation of drug-related cues. However, the role of cerebellar activity in these craving episodes remains unknown. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to provide a brief update on craving studies and the traditional neural basis of this phenomenon, and then discuss and propose a hypothesis for the function of the cerebellum in craving episodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nicotine Dependence, “Background” and Cue-Induced Craving and Smoking in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S.; Shiffman, Saul; Kirchner, Thomas; Tindle, Hilary; Scholl, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine dependence has been associated with higher “background” craving and smoking, independent of situational cues. Due in part to conceptual and methodological differences across past studies, the relationship between dependence and cue-reactivity (CR; e.g., cue-induced craving and smoking) remains unclear. Methods 207 daily smokers completed six pictorial CR sessions (smoking, negative affect, positive affect, alcohol, smoking prohibitions, and neutral). Individuals rated craving before (background craving) and after cues, and could smoke following cue exposure. Session videos were coded to assess smoking. Participants completed four nicotine dependence measures. Regression models assessed the relationship of dependence to cue-independent (i.e., pre-cue) and cue-specific (i.e., pre-post cue change for each cue, relative to neutral) craving and smoking (likelihood of smoking, latency to smoke, puff count). Results Dependence was associated with background craving and smoking, but did not predict change in craving across the entire sample for any cue. Among alcohol drinkers, dependence was associated with greater increases in craving following the alcohol cue. Only one dependence measure (Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives) was consistently associated with smoking reactivity (higher likelihood of smoking, shorter latency to smoke, greater puff count) in response to cues. Conclusion While related to cue-independent background craving and smoking, dependence is not strongly associated with laboratory cue-induced craving under conditions of minimal deprivation. Dependence measures that incorporate situational influences on smoking correlate with greater cue-provoked smoking. This may suggest independent roles for CR and traditional dependence as determinants of smoking, and highlights the importance of assessing behavioral CR outcomes. PMID:25028339

  14. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

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    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  15. Playing prosocial video games increases the accessibility of prosocial thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive tendencies. In contrast, evidence on possible positive effects of video game exposure on prosocial tendencies has been relatively sparse. The present research tested and found support for the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial video games increases the accessibility of prosocial thoughts. These results provide support to the predictive validity of the General Learning Model (Buckley & Anderson, 2006) for the effects of exposure to prosocial media on social tendencies. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games can harm but may also benefit social relations.

  16. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  17. The clinical neurobiology of drug craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajita

    2013-08-01

    Drug craving has re-emerged as a relevant and important construct in the pathophysiology of addiction with its inclusion in DSM-V as a key clinical symptom of addictive disorders. This renewed focus has been due in part to the recent neurobiological evidence on craving-related neural activation and clinical evidence supporting its association with drug use, relapse, and recovery processes. This review covers the neurobiology of drug craving and relapse risk with a primary focus on cocaine addiction and a secondary emphasis on alcohol addiction. A conceptualization of drug craving on the continuum of healthy desire and compulsive seeking, and the associated neurobiological adaptations associated with the development of an increased craving/wanting state is presented. Altered dopamine neurochemistry as well as disrupted prefrontal control and hyperactive striatal-limbic responses in experiencing drug cues, stress, drug intake and in basal relaxed states are identified as neurobiological signatures that predict drug craving and drug use. Thus, the clinical and neurobiological features of the craving/wanting state are presented with specific attention to alterations in these cortico-limbic-striatal and prefrontal self-control circuits that predict drug craving and relapse risk. The methodological challenges that need to be addressed to further develop the evolving conceptual approach to the neuroscience of drug craving is presented, with a focus on identification and validation of biomarkers associated with the craving state and treatment approaches that may be of benefit in reversing the neurobiological adaptations associated with drug craving to improve treatment outcomes in addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving.

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    Pickens, Charles L; Airavaara, Mikko; Theberge, Florence; Fanous, Sanya; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-08-01

    It was suggested in 1986 that cue-induced drug craving in cocaine addicts progressively increases over the first several weeks of abstinence and remains high for extended periods. During the past decade, investigators have identified an analogous incubation phenomenon in rodents, in which time-dependent increases in cue-induced drug seeking are observed after withdrawal from intravenous cocaine self-administration. Such an incubation of drug craving is not specific to cocaine, as similar findings have been observed after self-administration of heroin, nicotine, methamphetamine and alcohol in rats. In this review, we discuss recent results that have identified important brain regions involved in the incubation of drug craving, as well as evidence for the underlying cellular mechanisms. Understanding the neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving in rodents is likely to have significant implications for furthering understanding of brain mechanisms and circuits that underlie craving and relapse in human addicts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Playing prosocial video games increases empathy and decreases schadenfreude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia; Brauer, Markus

    2010-12-01

    Past research provided abundant evidence that exposure to violent video games increases aggressive tendencies and decreases prosocial tendencies. In contrast, research on the effects of exposure to prosocial video games has been relatively sparse. The present research found support for the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial video games is positively related to prosocial affect and negatively related to antisocial affect. More specifically, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increased interpersonal empathy and decreased reported pleasure at another's misfortune (i.e., schadenfreude). These results lend further credence to the predictive validity of the General Learning Model (Buckley & Anderson, 2006) for the effects of media exposure on social tendencies.

  1. Neural Sensitivity to Smoking Stimuli Is Associated With Cigarette Craving in Adolescent Smokers.

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    Do, Kathy T; Galván, Adriana

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents initiate cigarette smoking at disproportionately high rates, despite widespread knowledge of its health-compromising and long-term consequences. Psychosocial factors clearly play a role in adolescent smoking initiation, but the role of the developing adolescent brain in this behavior remains unclear. The goal of the present study was to determine whether greater neural sensitivity to smoking cues in adolescents compared to adults underlies increased proclivity toward smoking behavior and craving. We addressed this question in a sample of adolescent (n = 39) and adult (n = 39) smokers and nonsmokers by assessing craving in response to smoking videos that featured late adolescents/young adults while participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Ventral striatal activation mediated the relationship between video-induced craving and subsequent desires to smoke following the scan in adolescent smokers only. We also found that functional coupling between striatal and cortical regions was associated with increased craving in adolescent smokers. These novel results demonstrate that adolescent smokers may be more neurobiologically responsive to smoking stimuli than adults, perhaps because of ongoing ontogenetic changes in adolescents that normatively occur in frontostriatal circuitry. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games

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    Dye, Matthew W.G.; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance. PMID:20485453

  3. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W G; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance.

  4. Motivational factors and negative affectivity as predictors of alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Samuel; Luísa Figueira, M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto

    2016-09-30

    Craving is thought to play an important role in alcohol use disorders. The recent inclusion of "craving" as a formal diagnostic symptom calls for further investigation of this subjective phenomenon with multiple dimensions. Considering that alcohol-dependent patients compensate negative physical/emotional states with alcohol, the aim of this study is to investigate alcohol craving and its correlation with drinking measures and affective personality dimensions. A sample of 135 alcohol-dependent patients (104 males and 31 females) was collected from a clinical setting. Subjects self-rated their cravings (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) and the stage of change. Several personality scales were also administered. Craving was related to drinking status, abstinence time, age, and taking steps. After controlling for these conditions, psychological characteristics related to low self-concept, neuroticism, cyclothymic affective temperament, depression, and hostility were found to be predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients. Our results support craving as a component of the phenomenology of alcohol dependence and highlight the presence of unpleasant feelings as predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients without co-occurring psychiatric conditions. The predisposition to experience negative emotions may induce a stronger craving response and increase the likelihood of a first drink and a subsequent loss of control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Visual cue-specific craving is diminished in stressed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Justinn R; Consedine, Nathan S; Lee, John M J; Pandit, Chinmay; Sollers, John J; Kydd, Robert R

    2017-09-01

    Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented. Self-reported craving was assessed after each block of visual stimuli and stress task, and after a recovery period following each task. As expected, the stress and smoking images generated greater craving than neutral or motivational control images (p visual cues task first (p visual cue task was completed first. Conversely, craving was stable across image types when the stress task was completed first. Findings indicate when smokers are stressed, visual cues have little additive effect on craving, and different types of visual cues elicit comparable craving. These findings may imply that once stressed, smokers will crave cigarettes comparably notwithstanding whether they are exposed to smoking image cues.

  6. Stop the Cravings!

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    ... Help Boost Your Memory tea and herbs - 4 Metabolism Myths and Facts 4 Metabolism Myths and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more ... that what you really may be craving is social support. A chat with a sympathetic friend can ...

  7. Cravings during Pregnancy

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    ... eating healthier foods. Nonfoods include: Ice Clay Laundry starch Wax Coffee grounds Dirt If you crave nonfoods, ... sources of calcium, such as dark leafy green vegetables or orange juice that’s fortified with calcium. If ...

  8. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, Matthew W.G.; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks be...

  9. Brief Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire: An investigation into craving and heavy smoking in Saudi Arabian males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz A Albrithen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh. Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12 is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12 and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD. Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality or Factor 3 (compulsiveness increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low. Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness is an indicator of physical dependence.

  10. Scientists Behind the Camera - Increasing Video Documentation in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S.; Wolfe, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two years, Skypunch Creative has designed and implemented a number of pilot projects to increase the amount of video captured by scientists in the field. The major barrier to success that we tackled with the pilot projects was the conflicting demands of the time, space, storage needs of scientists in the field and the demands of shooting high quality video. Our pilots involved providing scientists with equipment, varying levels of instruction on shooting in the field and post-production resources (editing and motion graphics). In each project, the scientific team was provided with cameras (or additional equipment if they owned their own), tripods, and sometimes sound equipment, as well as an external hard drive to return the footage to us. Upon receiving the footage we professionally filmed follow-up interviews and created animations and motion graphics to illustrate their points. We also helped with the distribution of the final product (http://climatescience.tv/2012/05/the-story-of-a-flying-hippo-the-hiaper-pole-to-pole-observation-project/ and http://climatescience.tv/2013/01/bogged-down-in-alaska/). The pilot projects were a success. Most of the scientists returned asking for additional gear and support for future field work. Moving out of the pilot phase, to continue the project, we have produced a 14 page guide for scientists shooting in the field based on lessons learned - it contains key tips and best practice techniques for shooting high quality footage in the field. We have also expanded the project and are now testing the use of video cameras that can be synced with sensors so that the footage is useful both scientifically and artistically. Extract from A Scientist's Guide to Shooting Video in the Field

  11. Exposure to Violent Video Games Increases Automatic Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games…

  12. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  13. How Long Does Craving Predict Use of Methamphetamine? Assessment of Use One to Seven Weeks After the Assessment of Craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gantt P. Galloway

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study lays the foundation for a clinical prediction model based on methamphetamine craving intensity and its ability to predict the presence or absence of within-treatment methamphetamine use.Design: We used a random effects logistic approach for estimating repeated-measures, generalized linear mixed models (GLMM using craving as the sole predictor of methamphetamine. A multivariate GLMM included craving, length of treatment, treatment assignment, and methamphetamine use the previous week as covariates to control for potential confounds. We performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses to evaluate predictive accuracy. We investigated further whether methamphetamine craving predicted subsequent use more accurately at intervals more proximal to versus those more distal to assessment, examining one-week periods ending one to seven weeks after assessment of craving.Setting: The study was part of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT Methamphetamine Treatment Project (MTP.Subjects: Analyses were based on data from 691 methamphetamine dependent outpatients enrolled in the MTP.Measurements: Craving was assessed by self-report on a 0–100 scale. Self-reported methamphetamine use was toxicologically verified. Craving and drug use were assessed weekly for 8 weeks.Findings: In the univariate analysis craving predicted methamphetamine use in the week immediately following the craving report (p <0.0001, with subject-specific use increasing 0.38% for each one-point increase in craving on a 0–100 scale. In the multivariate analysis the probability of use decreased by 2.45% for each week in treatment, increased by 33.11% for previous methamphetamine use, and the probability of methamphetamine use still increased with craving, rising 0.28% for each one-point increase in craving score (all p <0.0001. Predictive accuracy was strongest at the one-week time-lag and declined in magnitude the more distal the assessment period

  14. How Long Does Craving Predict Use of Methamphetamine? Assessment of Use One to Seven Weeks after the Assessment of Craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gantt P. Galloway

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims This study lays the foundation for a clinical prediction model based on methamphetamine craving intensity and its ability to predict the presence or absence of within-treatment methamphetamine use. Design We used a random effects logistic approach for estimating repeated-measures, generalized linear mixed models (GLMM using craving as the sole predictor of methamphetamine. A multivariate GLMM included craving, length of treatment, treatment assignment, and methamphetamine use the previous week as covariates to control for potential confounds. We performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses to evaluate predictive accuracy. We investigated further whether methamphetamine craving predicted subsequent use more accurately at intervals more proximal to versus those more distal to assessment, examining one-week periods ending one to seven weeks after assessment of craving. Setting The study was part of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT Methamphetamine Treatment Project (MTP. Subjects Analyses were based on data from 691 methamphetamine dependent outpatients enrolled in the MTP. Measurements Craving was assessed by self-report on a 0–100 scale. Self-reported methamphetamine use was toxicologically verified. Craving and drug use were assessed weekly for 8 weeks. Findings In the univariate analysis craving predicted methamphetamine use in the week immediately following the craving report (p < 0.0001, with subject-specific use increasing 0.38% for each one-point increase in craving on a 0–100 scale. In the multivariate analysis the probability of use decreased by 2.45% for each week in treatment increased by 33.11% for previous methamphetamine use, and the probability of methamphetamine use still increased with craving, rising 0.28% for each one-point increase in craving score (all p < 0.0001. Predictive accuracy was strongest at the one-week time-lag and declined in magnitude the more distal the assessment period

  15. Twelve tips for reducing production time and increasing long-term usability of instructional video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Marie K

    2017-08-01

    The use of instructional video is increasing across all disciplines and levels of education. Although video has a number of distinct advantages for course delivery and student learning, it can also be time-consuming and resource-intensive to produce, which imposes a burden on busy faculty. With video poised to play a larger role in medical education, we need strategies for streamlining video production and ensuring that the video we produce is of lasting value. This article draws on learning research and best practices in educational technology, along with the author's experience in online education and video production. It offers 12 practical tips for reducing the initial time investment in video production and creating video that can be reused long into the future. These tips can help faculty and departments create high-quality instructional video while using their time and resources more wisely.

  16. Contemporary framework for alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Olivera; Cvetić, Tijana; Zebić, Mirjana; Marić, Nadja; Britvić, Dubravka; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2008-12-01

    Fifty years ago, craving was defined as an "urgent and overpowering desire, or irresistible impulse", but subsequently, craving definitions have been modified by many authors and no unique definition of this phenomena, or a consensus in regards to its manifestation and significance exists. This review discusses the contemporary views of alcohol craving. Issues such as definition and different types, dynamics of craving, its mediators and moderators and clinical correlations are explored. We focused on the literature search (MEDLINE, PSYCHLIT, and EMBASE) and new findings in the addiction field, especially paying attention on the study of craving. There is growing evidence to suggest that craving is associated with different aspects of addiction (i.e. withdrawal, relapse) and clinical characteristics such as depression and anxiety. These different phenomena contribute individual differences in intensity, frequency and types of craving. At present, there are several different models to better describe the complexity of craving. Craving is not an exact, precisely measurable value but it is rather an uncertain, descriptive phenomenon. Further research (biological, sociological and psychological) should be orientated primarily toward exploration of the relationship between environmental factors and personality variables and craving and its maintenance, with special attention to gender differences.

  17. Some Video Games Can Increase the Player's Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, David C.; Crombie, William; Shabalina, Olga

    2017-01-01

    It is said that playing video games might make people more creative. There is some evidence of an association, but no so far general theory about any psychological causes, or other key factors. In this study, we test the possibility that different sorts of video games may have different effects, on different types of creativity; or none at all.…

  18. Methamphetamine Craving Induced in an Online Virtual Reality Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Culbertson, Christopher; Nicolas, Sam; Zaharovits, Itay; London, Edythe D.; De La Garza, Richard; Brody, Arthur L.; Newton, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess self-reported craving and physiological reactivity in a methamphetamine virtual reality (METH-VR) cue model created using Second Life, a freely available online gaming platform. Seventeen, non-treatment seeking, individuals that abuse methamphetamine (METH) completed this one-day, outpatient, within-subjects study. Participants completed four test sessions: 1) METH-VR 2) neutral-VR 3) METH-video 4) neutral-video in a counterbalanced (latin square) fash...

  19. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Kerr, Geoffrey T.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and nonviolent photos while their brain activity was measured, and then gave an ostensible opponent unpleasant noise blasts. Participants low in previous exposure to video game ...

  20. Similarities in food cravings and mood states between obese women and women who smoke tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M Yanina; Finkbeiner, Susana; Mennella, Julie A

    2009-06-01

    The present study assessed food cravings in a cohort of 229 women who differed in smoking history (i.e., never smoker, former smoker, and current smoker) and body weight (i.e., normal weight, overweight, and obese). Each subject completed the Food Craving Inventory (FCI), which measures cravings for sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast-food fats, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS), which measures psychological distress. Smoking and obesity were independently associated with specific food cravings and mood states. Current smokers craved high fats more frequently than former and never smokers. They also craved starches more frequently and felt more depressed and angry than never smokers, but not former smokers. Whereas cravings for starchy foods and some mood states may be characteristic of women who are likely to smoke, more frequent cravings for fat among smokers is related to smoking per se. Similarly, obese women craved high fats more frequently than nonobese women and depression symptoms were intensified with increasing body weights. We hypothesize that the overlapping neuroendocrine alterations associated with obesity and smoking and the remarkable similarities in food cravings and mood states between women who smoke and women who are obese suggest that common biological mechanisms modulate cravings for fat in these women.

  1. Video game playing increases food intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Visby, Trine; Nyby, Signe; Klingenberg, Lars; Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Tremblay, Angelo; Astrup, Arne; Sjödin, Anders

    2011-06-01

    Video game playing has been linked to obesity in many observational studies. However, the influence of this sedentary activity on food intake is unknown. The objective was to examine the acute effects of sedentary video game play on various components of energy balance. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 22 healthy, normal-weight, male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 16.7 ± 1.1 y) completed two 1-h experimental conditions, namely video game play and rest in a sitting position, followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous food intake, energy expenditure, stress markers, appetite sensations, and profiles of appetite-related hormones. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, sympathetic tone, and mental workload were significantly higher during the video game play condition than during the resting condition (P video game play than during rest (mean increase over resting: 89 kJ; P video game play exceeded that measured after rest by 335 kJ (P video game play condition. The increase in food intake associated with video game play was observed without increased sensations of hunger and was not compensated for during the rest of the day. Finally, the profiles of glucose, insulin, cortisol, and ghrelin did not suggest an up-regulation of appetite during the video game play condition. A single session of video game play in healthy male adolescents is associated with an increased food intake, regardless of appetite sensations. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01013246.

  2. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  3. Action Video Game Playing Is Reflected In Enhanced Visuomotor Performance and Increased Corticospinal Excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Therrien-Blanchet, Jean-Marc; Ferland, Marie C.; Th?oret, Hugo; West, Greg L.

    2016-01-01

    Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs) was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) compared to non-video game play...

  4. Denying humanness to others: a newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; McLatchie, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior. So far, these effects have been explained mainly as the result of priming existing knowledge structures. The research reported here examined the role of denying humanness to other people in accounting for the effect that playing a violent video game has on aggressive behavior. In two experiments, we found that playing violent video games increased dehumanization, which in turn evoked aggressive behavior. Thus, it appears that video-game-induced aggressive behavior is triggered when victimizers perceive the victim to be less human.

  5. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  6. Video assisted resections. Increasing access to minimally invasive liver surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Perini, Marcos Vinícius; Kruger, Jaime Arthur Pirola; Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Makdissi, Fábio Ferrari; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Cecconello, Ivan; Herman, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate perioperative outcomes, safety and feasibility of video-assisted resection for primary and secondary liver lesions. From a prospective database, we analyzed the perioperative results (up to 90 days) of 25 consecutive patients undergoing video-assisted resections in the period between June 2007 and June 2013. The mean age was 53.4 years (23-73) and 16 (64%) patients were female. Of the total, 84% were suffering from malignant diseases. We performed 33 resections (1 to 4 nodules per patient). The procedures performed were non-anatomical resections (n = 26), segmentectomy (n = 1), 2/3 bisegmentectomy (n = 1), 6/7 bisegmentectomy (n = 1), left hepatectomy (n = 2) and right hepatectomy (n = 2). The procedures contemplated postero-superior segments in 66.7%, requiring multiple or larger resections. The average operating time was 226 minutes (80-420), and anesthesia time, 360 minutes (200-630). The average size of resected nodes was 3.2 cm (0.8 to 10) and the surgical margins were free in all the analyzed specimens. Eight percent of patients needed blood transfusion and no case was converted to open surgery. The length of stay was 6.5 days (3-16). Postoperative complications occurred in 20% of patients, with no perioperative mortality. The video-assisted liver resection is feasible and safe and should be part of the liver surgeon armamentarium for resection of primary and secondary liver lesions.

  7. Video assisted resections. Increasing access to minimally invasive liver surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Ferreira Coelho

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate perioperative outcomes, safety and feasibility of video-assisted resection for primary and secondary liver lesions. Methods : From a prospective database, we analyzed the perioperative results (up to 90 days of 25 consecutive patients undergoing video-assisted resections in the period between June 2007 and June 2013. Results : The mean age was 53.4 years (23-73 and 16 (64% patients were female. Of the total, 84% were suffering from malignant diseases. We performed 33 resections (1 to 4 nodules per patient. The procedures performed were non-anatomical resections (n = 26, segmentectomy (n = 1, 2/3 bisegmentectomy (n = 1, 6/7 bisegmentectomy (n = 1, left hepatectomy (n = 2 and right hepatectomy (n = 2. The procedures contemplated postero-superior segments in 66.7%, requiring multiple or larger resections. The average operating time was 226 minutes (80-420, and anesthesia time, 360 minutes (200-630. The average size of resected nodes was 3.2 cm (0.8 to 10 and the surgical margins were free in all the analyzed specimens. Eight percent of patients needed blood transfusion and no case was converted to open surgery. The length of stay was 6.5 days (3-16. Postoperative complications occurred in 20% of patients, with no perioperative mortality. Conclusion : The video-assisted liver resection is feasible and safe and should be part of the liver surgeon armamentarium for resection of primary and secondary liver lesions.

  8. Conflict-related dorsomedial frontal cortex activation during healthy food decisions is associated with increased cravings for high-fat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan; Alkozei, Anna; Killgore, William D S

    2017-04-27

    Previous studies suggest obesity is associated with altered function within the insula and dorsomedial frontal cortex (including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; DMFC/dACC), reflecting abnormal reward processing and reduced sensitivity to feelings of satiety. Given the proposed roles of DMFC/dACC in monitoring response conflict and reward-based decision making, the present study examined DMFC/dACC activation, and functional connectivity between the DMFC/dACC and the anterior insula (AI), during food-related decision-making. Twenty participants recruited from the general population (10 Female) performed a decision task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. They were instructed to "choose the healthier option" when simultaneously shown pairs of images of different foods. Significant DMFC/dACC activation was observed during food-related decision-making, and activation levels also positively correlated with self-reported cravings for high-fat foods (r = 0.57, p = 0.009) and self-reported desire to eat the high-fat foods depicted in the images (r = 0.48, p = 0.032). Negative functional connectivity estimates between the right AI and DMFC/dACC were also associated with self-reported control over eating (r = -0.50, p = 0.025). These results suggest that (1) more intense cravings for unhealthy foods are associated with greater response conflict when deciding between healthy and unhealthy food options, and (2) lack of eating-related control may involve a reduced influence of insula-mediated bodily signals on decision-making. This task may offer a neuroimaging-based probe for identifying individuals vulnerable to eating-related disorders and should be replicated in clinical populations.

  9. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng; Dong, Yan; Huang, Yanhua H

    2015-09-30

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. Significance statement: Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  10. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, C.R.; Bartholow, B.D.; Kerr, G.T.; Bushman, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and

  11. Human Laboratory Settings for Assessing Drug Craving; Implications for the Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on assessing craving in laboratory settings often involves inducing and then measuring craving in subjects. Cue-induced craving is studied in laboratory settings using the cue reactivity paradigm, in which drug-related photos, videos, evocative scripts, olfactory cues, and paraphernalia may induce craving. Cue-induced craving evoked by drug-related stimuli could be associated with relapse and recurrence of drug addiction. In this article, the authors review different methods of assessing craving in laboratory settings and explain how human laboratory settings can bridge the gap between randomized clinical trials (RCTs and animal models on pharmacological treatments for drug dependence. The brief reviewed literature provides strong evidence that laboratory-based studies of craving may improve our understanding of how subjective reports of drug craving are related to objective measures of drug abuse and laboratory settings provide an opportunity to measure the degree to which they co-vary during pharmacological interventions. This issue has important implications inclinical studies.

  12. Does alexithymia explain variation in cue-elicited craving reported by methamphetamine-dependent individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-01-01

    Drug craving is an important motivational phenomenon among addicted individuals, and successful management of craving is essential to both the initiation and maintenance of abstinence. Although craving in response to drug cues is common in drug-dependent individuals, it is not universal. At the present time, it is not known why approximately 20-30% of all addicted persons fail to report appreciable craving in laboratory-based cue reactivity studies. This study examined the possibility that alexithymia, a personality attribute characterized by a difficulty identifying and describing emotions, may contribute to the impoverished cue-elicited craving experienced by some addicts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), would be inversely related to the magnitude of cue-elicited craving obtained in a cue reactivity protocol. Forty methamphetamine-dependent individuals completed the TAS and provided craving ratings for methamphetamine after presentation of methamphetamine-associated cues. Thirteen participants (32%) reported no methamphetamine cue-elicited craving. Contrary to expectation, TAS factor 1 (a measure of difficulty identifying feelings) scores were positively associated with cue-elicited craving. Thus, the results suggest that increasing difficulty-identifying feelings may be associated with higher cue-elicited craving. Clinical implications for this finding are discussed. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P=0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P=0.0019; after heroin administration: P=0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction. PMID:26218852

  15. NEGATIVE MOOD EFFECTS ON CRAVING TO SMOKE IN WOMEN VERSUS MEN

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Giedgowd, Grace E.; Conklin, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Negative mood situations increase craving to smoke, even in the absence of any tobacco deprivation (e.g. “stressors”). Individual differences in effects of negative mood situations on craving have received relatively little attention but may include variability between men and women. Across two separate within-subjects studies, we examined sex differences in craving (via the QSU-brief) as functions of brief smoking abstinence (versus satiation; Study 1) and acute induction of negative mood (v...

  16. Use of active video games to increase physical activity in children: a (virtual) reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Maddison, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to promote physical activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an intervention to increase physical activity in children. Compared with traditional nonactive video games, active video games elicited greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body composition in children; however, methodological limitations prevent definitive conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.

  17. Virtual reality exposure on nicotine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Pereira, Edgar; Morais, Diogo; Saraiva, Tomaz; Santos, Nuno; Soares, Fábio

    2011-01-01

    Several forms of treatment for nicotine dependence that combine the classical smoking cessation strategies with new Virtual Reality (VR) exposure techniques to smoking-related cues are in development. In this line, the main goal of our study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce cravings in smokers. Sixty undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments (high-arousal cues and low-arousal cues). Both environments were based on a three-room apartment with commercial music playing and virtual characters interacting in a social event. The assessment was carried out before and after exposure through psychophysiological activation and self-report data for craving and nicotine dependence levels. No statistical differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers in psychophysiological activation. As far as self-report data is concerned, smokers revealed a significant increase in craving after the VR exposure to high arousal environments. Overall results were in line with previous studies suggesting the use of virtual environments as a tool for the existing smoking cessation programs.

  18. Craving shift in chronic alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanns, K; Veltrup, C; Wetterling, T

    2000-06-01

    In order to investigate changes in the consumption of substances that stimulate the reward system, 222 recently detoxified alcoholics were asked about their consumptional habits before as compared to after detoxification (mixed prospective and retrospective design). Seventy-eight point two percent reported an increase in consumption of coffee, cigarettes, chocolate and other sweets, while 34.9% managed to reduce at least one of these substances. The increase was significant for coffee, chocolate and other sweets. The desire for consumption of these substances was correlated with the maximum ever experienced desire for alcohol (0.232 for coffee, 0.213 for cigarettes, 0.193 for chocolate and 0.176 for other sweets), and the actual consumption of coffee, cigarettes and sweets was correlated with the actual desire for alcohol (0.172, 0.157 and 0.245, respectively). The results lend some support to the hypothesis that psychotropic substances might serve as a kind of self-regulation against craving in this group. A possible link to biochemical theories is discussed. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Bibliotherapy and food cravings control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C; Gómez-Quintana, Anisleidy; Díaz-Martínez, Glendy; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2013-06-01

    The use of self-help manuals or bibliotherapy could be an effective resource to treat obesity, but their effects on the elaborative processes of food cravings remain unclear. The present study examined whether bibliotherapy can effectively reduce food cravings in an overweight and obese adult population. 80 participants were randomly allocated either to the Self-help Manual group or the Intention-control group. They had to apply each resource over a period of 3 months whenever they felt a craving arise. During the baseline period most of the participants reported grazing as the main cause of their weight gain. Compared to baseline, the results of the third month of the follow-up revealed that intentions had paradoxical effects on food thought suppression, preoccupation with food, negative affect and guilty feelings; but the Self-help Manual promoted positive changes on the food cravings trait and its dimensions, food thoughts suppression, emotional and behavioural reactions to intrusions and BMI. These findings suggest that the Self-help Manual could be useful in reducing food cravings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal trends in food cravings following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in an adolescent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Christopher C; Peugh, James L; Brode, Cassie S; Inge, Thomas H; Benoit, Stephen C; Zeller, Meg H

    2015-01-01

    Food cravings are more prevalent and potentially problematic for many individuals with obesity. Initial evidence suggests that bariatric surgery has some short-term beneficial effects on cravings in adults, but little is known about the effect on adolescents or the trajectory beyond 6 months. The purpose of the present study was to determine the longitudinal effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on food cravings in a sample of adolescents with severe obesity (body mass index (BMI)≥40 kg/m2). Sixteen adolescents were recruited and underwent RYGB. Participants completed the Food Craving Inventory before RYGB, and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. The present study took place in a single pediatric tertiary care hospital. RYGB produced a negative (cravings decreased as time increased) nonlinear trend for total food cravings as well as for each individual subscale (sweets, high fat foods, carbohydrates, fast food) over the 24-month study period. This means that while cravings decrease postsurgically, there is a decline in the slope with the line reaching asymptote at approximately 18 months. BMI change was not a significant predictor of food cravings, but low statistical power may account for this lack of significance. These findings provide preliminary evidence that RYGB decreases food cravings in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health How Do I Care for My Child's Baby ... your desktop! more... Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health Article Chapters Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral ...

  2. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper; Jensen, Maria Anna Bruunsgaard; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøll; Nygaard, Ulrikka; Poulsen, Anja; Sørensen, Jette Led; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-04-01

    Use of video cases in clinical education is rarely used systematically. Medical students (n = 127) reported by questionnaire whether they had or had not seen a bedside case of each of 22 specific clinical conditions during their five-week clinical course in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. A total of 81% of the students reported having seen a child with asthma in the daily clinic. In contrast, respiratory syncytial virus infection was only seen by 20%. Students' self-reported confidence in the assessment of paediatric patients increased after the video case library was made available: Before the intervention, 41% (57/138) of the students reported confidence at a score of 5-7 on a seven-point Likert scale. This increased to 64% (186/289) (p students judged the impact of video cases to be high (score 5-7 on a seven-point Likert scale) and after the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. The University of Copenhagen funded the study. not relevant.

  3. Reward-Induced Eating: Therapeutic Approaches to Addressing Food Cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Candida J; Greenway, Frank L

    2016-11-01

    The homeostatic controls over eating are inextricably linked to the reward aspects of eating. The result is an integrated response that coordinates the internal milieu with the prevailing environment. Thus, appetite, which reflects a complex interaction among the external environment, behavioral profile, and subjective states as well as the storage and metabolism of energy, has an important role in the regulation of energy balance. In the prevailing food environment which offers an abundance of food choices it is likely that the motivation to consume from a wide range of delectable foods plays a greater role in contributing to overeating than in the past when the motivation to eat was largely governed by metabolic need. The response to food-related cues can promote strong desires to eat known as cravings by activating the mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurocircuitry. Cravings are associated with subsequent eating and weight-related outcomes. Being able to control food cravings is a determinant of success at adhering to an energy-restricted diet regimen. Increased understanding of the neurocircuitry of appetite regulation, especially reward-related eating behavior, has provided potential targets for therapeutic anti-obesity agents specifically directed at reward mechanisms. The naltrexone-bupropion combination and lorcaserin, which are both approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for long-term weight management, have shown promise in addressing craving-related eating behavior. Phentermine and liraglutide are approved as monotherapies for weight management. Preliminary research suggests that liraglutide, as well as phentermine alone or in combination with lorcaserin, may be effective in targeting food cravings. Food components such as thylakoid membranes have also been shown to influence food cravings. This review explores the concepts related to appetite and reward-induced eating behavior, as well as the pharmacological options and food-derived components

  4. Neural circuitry of impulsivity in a cigarette craving paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane eBourque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity has been shown to play a pivotal role in the onset, pattern of consumption, relapse and, most notably, craving of illicit and licit drugs such as cigarette smoking. The goal of this study was to examine the neurobiological influence of trait impulsivity during cue-induced cigarette craving. Thirty-one chronic smokers passively viewed appetitive smoking-related and neutral images while being scanned and reported their feelings of craving. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a measure of trait impulsivity. We conducted functional connectivity analyses using the psycho-physiological interaction method. During the processing of smoking stimuli, participants presented increased activations in the cingulate and prefrontal cortices, as well as in the limbic system. We observed a significant positive relationship between impulsivity scores and reported craving. A negative correlation was observed between the impulsivity score and activity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. The insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as well as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC presented a negative connectivity with the PCC. Consistent with the view that the PCC is related to the ability to resist cigarette craving, our results suggest that high impulsive smokers have greater difficulty in controlling their cravings, and that this weakness may be mediated by lower PCC activity. Moreover, we argue that the less PCC activity, the greater the probability of a stronger emotional, physiological and biased attentional response to smoking cues mediated by insula, dACC and DLPFC activity. This is the first study on this topic, and so, results will need to be replicated in both licit and illicit drug abusers. Our findings also highlight a need for more emphasis on the PCC in drug addiction research, as it is one of the most consistently activated regions in fMRI studies examining the neural correlates of cue-induced alcohol, drug and

  5. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    /138) of the students reported confidence at a score of 5-7 on a seven-point Likert scale. This increased to 64% (186/289) (p Likert scale) and after...... in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 81% of the students reported...

  6. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalu, Grace; Hella, Jerry; Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Weiss, Mitchell G; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. Randomized controlled trial. We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). They were randomly assigned to either receive instructions on sputum submission using the video before submission (intervention group, n = 100) or standard of care (control group, n = 100). Sputum samples were examined for volume, quality and presence of acid-fast bacilli by experienced laboratory technicians blinded to study groups. Median age was 39.1 years (interquartile range 37.0-50.0); 94 (47%) were females, 106 (53%) were males, and 49 (24.5%) were HIV-infected. We found that the instructional video intervention was associated with detection of a higher proportion of microscopically confirmed cases (56%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 45.7-65.9%, sputum smear positive patients in the intervention group versus 23%, 95% CI 15.2-32.5%, in the control group, p instructions were understood, the majority of patients in the intervention group reported to have understood the video instructions well (97%). Most of the patients thought the video would be useful in the cultural setting of Tanzania (92%). Sputum submission instructional videos increased the yield of tuberculosis cases through better quality of sputum samples. If confirmed in larger studies, instructional videos may have a substantial effect on the case yield using sputum microscopy and also molecular tests. This low-cost strategy should be considered as part of the efforts to control TB in resource-limited settings. Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201504001098231.

  7. Leptin Influence in Craving and Relapse of Alcoholics and Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Nemer, Aline S.; Toffolo, Mayla C. F.; da Silva, Claudio Jeronimo; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Silva-Fonseca, Vilma A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptin inhibits signaling of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, suggesting its role in regulating stress and its possible involvement in the neurobiology of reward system. The aim of this study was to review of the literature on the influence of leptin in the craving for alcohol and tobacco and whether there is already evidence that leptin may be a biomarker to indicate risk for craving and relapse. The review used as data bases Medline, LILACS and SciElo in the period between 2000 and 2012. Keywords were leptin, substance use disorders, craving and withdrawal, in Portuguese and English. Only 12 articles were met the inclusion criteria, relating leptin with craving in alcoholics (n = 10) and smokers (n = 2). No studies were found in the LILACS database. Leptin levels increase during abstinence and this may be related to a reduction of dopaminergic action in mesolimbic system, resulting in a greater intensity of craving and maintenance of addictive behavior. Although there are few studies, the most recent results indicate the usefulness of leptin as a marker of risk for relapse among smokers and alcoholics in abstinence. PMID:23671541

  8. Negative mood effects on craving to smoke in women versus men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Giedgowd, Grace E; Conklin, Cynthia A

    2013-02-01

    Negative mood situations increase craving to smoke, even in the absence of any tobacco deprivation (e.g. "stressors"). Individual differences in effects of negative mood situations on craving have received relatively little attention but may include variability between men and women. Across two separate within-subjects studies, we examined sex differences in craving (via the QSU-brief) as functions of brief smoking abstinence (versus satiation; Study 1) and acute induction of negative mood (versus neutral mood; Study 2). Subjective ratings of negative affect (via the Mood Form) were also assessed. In Study 1, we compared the effects of overnight (>12h) abstinence versus non-abstinence on craving and affect in adult male (n=63) and female (n=42) smokers. In Study 2, these responses to negative versus neutral mood induction (via pictorial slides and music) were examined in male (n=85) and female (n=78) satiated smokers. Results from each study were similar in showing that craving during the abstinence and negative mood induction conditions was greater in women than men, as hypothesized, although the sex difference in craving due to abstinence was only marginal after controlling for dependence. Craving was strongly associated with negative affect in both studies. These results suggest that very acute negative mood situations (e.g. just a few minutes in Study 2), and perhaps overnight abstinence, may increase craving to smoke to a greater extent in women relative to men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of craving behavioral intervention on neural substrates of cue-induced craving in Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Potenza, Marc N; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Ma, Shan-Shan; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by high levels of craving for online gaming and related cues. Since addiction-related cues can evoke increased activation in brain areas involved in motivational and reward processing and may engender gaming behaviors or trigger relapse, ameliorating cue-induced craving may be a promising target for interventions for IGD. This study compared neural activation between 40 IGD and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects during an Internet-gaming cue-reactivity task and found that IGD subjects showed stronger activation in multiple brain areas, including the dorsal striatum, brainstem, substantia nigra, and anterior cingulate cortex, but lower activation in the posterior insula. Furthermore, twenty-three IGD subjects (CBI + group) participated in a craving behavioral intervention (CBI) group therapy, whereas the remaining 17 IGD subjects (CBI - group) did not receive any intervention, and all IGD subjects were scanned during similar time intervals. The CBI + group showed decreased IGD severity and cue-induced craving, enhanced activation in the anterior insula and decreased insular connectivity with the lingual gyrus and precuneus after receiving CBI. These findings suggest that CBI is effective in reducing craving and severity in IGD, and it may exert its effects by altering insula activation and its connectivity with regions involved in visual processing and attention bias.

  10. Effects of craving behavioral intervention on neural substrates of cue-induced craving in Internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Tao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder (IGD is characterized by high levels of craving for online gaming and related cues. Since addiction-related cues can evoke increased activation in brain areas involved in motivational and reward processing and may engender gaming behaviors or trigger relapse, ameliorating cue-induced craving may be a promising target for interventions for IGD. This study compared neural activation between 40 IGD and 19 healthy control (HC subjects during an Internet-gaming cue-reactivity task and found that IGD subjects showed stronger activation in multiple brain areas, including the dorsal striatum, brainstem, substantia nigra, and anterior cingulate cortex, but lower activation in the posterior insula. Furthermore, twenty-three IGD subjects (CBI+ group participated in a craving behavioral intervention (CBI group therapy, whereas the remaining 17 IGD subjects (CBI− group did not receive any intervention, and all IGD subjects were scanned during similar time intervals. The CBI+ group showed decreased IGD severity and cue-induced craving, enhanced activation in the anterior insula and decreased insular connectivity with the lingual gyrus and precuneus after receiving CBI. These findings suggest that CBI is effective in reducing craving and severity in IGD, and it may exert its effects by altering insula activation and its connectivity with regions involved in visual processing and attention bias.

  11. Incubation of methamphetamine craving is associated with selective increases in expression of Bdnf and trkb, glutamate receptors, and epigenetic enzymes in cue-activated fos-expressing dorsal striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Rubio, F Javier; Zeric, Tamara; Bossert, Jennifer M; Kambhampati, Sarita; Cates, Hannah M; Kennedy, Pamela J; Liu, Qing-Rong; Cimbro, Raffaello; Hope, Bruce T; Nestler, Eric J; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-05-27

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We determined whether this incubation is associated with alterations in candidate genes in dorsal striatum (DS), a brain area implicated in cue- and context-induced drug relapse. We first measured mRNA expression of 24 candidate genes in whole DS extracts after short (2 d) or prolonged (1 month) withdrawal in rats following extended-access methamphetamine or saline (control condition) self-administration (9 h/d, 10 d). We found minimal changes. Next, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we compared gene expression in Fos-positive dorsal striatal neurons, which were activated during "incubated" cue-induced drug-seeking tests after prolonged withdrawal, with nonactivated Fos-negative neurons. We found significant increases in mRNA expression of immediate early genes (Arc, Egr1), Bdnf and its receptor (Trkb), glutamate receptor subunits (Gria1, Gria3, Grm1), and epigenetic enzymes (Hdac3, Hdac4, Hdac5, GLP, Dnmt3a, Kdm1a) in the Fos-positive neurons only. Using RNAscope to determine striatal subregion and cell-type specificity of the activated neurons, we measured colabeling of Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in three DS subregions. Fos expression was neither subregion nor cell-type specific (52.5 and 39.2% of Fos expression colabeled with Drd1 and Drd2, respectively). Finally, we found that DS injections of SCH23390 (C17H18ClNO), a D1-family receptor antagonist known to block cue-induced Fos induction, decreased incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking after prolonged withdrawal. Results demonstrate a critical role of DS in incubation of methamphetamine craving and that this incubation is associated with selective gene-expression alterations in cue-activated D1- and D2-expressing DS neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358232-13$15.00/0.

  12. Does a video displaying a stair climbing model increase stair use in a worksite setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, L; Van Hoecke, A-S; Octaef, A; Boen, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. Intervention study. Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator. The interventions took place in two buildings. The implementation of the interventions varied between these buildings and the sequence was reversed. Improving the visibility of the stairs increased both stair climbing (+6%) and descending stair use (+7%) compared with baseline. Sending the video by email yielded no additional effect on stair use. By contrast, displaying the video at the POC increased stair climbing in both buildings by 12.5% on average. One week after the intervention, the positive effects on stair climbing remained in one of the buildings, but not in the other. These findings suggest that improving the visibility of the stairwell and displaying a stair climbing model on a screen at the POC can result in a short-term increase in both climbing and descending stair use. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching with Technology: Using Websites and Videos to Increase Understanding of Bacterial Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Stephanie; Ross, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    Technology can be a powerful tool to increase motivation, engagement, and achievement (Park, Khan, and Petrina 2009). In this article, the authors describe their collaborative approach to integrating technology with a lab on bacterial transformation. Students view websites and create videos to increase their conceptual understanding. Although the…

  14. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mhalu

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB, and evaluated the acceptance of the video.Randomized controlled trial.We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. They were randomly assigned to either receive instructions on sputum submission using the video before submission (intervention group, n = 100 or standard of care (control group, n = 100. Sputum samples were examined for volume, quality and presence of acid-fast bacilli by experienced laboratory technicians blinded to study groups.Median age was 39.1 years (interquartile range 37.0-50.0; 94 (47% were females, 106 (53% were males, and 49 (24.5% were HIV-infected. We found that the instructional video intervention was associated with detection of a higher proportion of microscopically confirmed cases (56%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 45.7-65.9%, sputum smear positive patients in the intervention group versus 23%, 95% CI 15.2-32.5%, in the control group, p <0.0001, an increase in volume of specimen defined as a volume ≥3ml (78%, 95% CI 68.6-85.7%, versus 45%, 95% CI 35.0-55.3%, p <0.0001, and specimens less likely to be salivary (14%, 95% CI 7.9-22.4%, versus 39%, 95% CI 29.4-49.3%, p = 0.0001. Older age, but not the HIV status or sex, modified the effectiveness of the intervention by improving it positively. When asked how well the video instructions were understood, the majority of patients in the intervention group reported to have understood the video instructions well (97%. Most of the patients thought the video would be useful in the cultural setting of Tanzania (92%.Sputum submission instructional videos increased the yield of tuberculosis cases through better quality of sputum

  15. [Effects of physical activity on tobacco craving for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2016-06-01

    One in two people who smoke for their whole lifetime will die from a disease related to tobacco use. The smoking habit is sustained by nicotine dependence, which makes smoking cessation very difficult because of withdrawal syndrome and craving (urge to smoke without delay). The aim of this review was to evaluate the impact of physical activity interventions to reduce tobacco craving in smoking cessation. It included 18 randomized controlled trials, which incorporated physical activity. Seventeen of the 18 trials demonstrate the effectiveness of the physical activity in reducing tobacco craving. The consistency of these results constitutes solid evidence of the importance of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation. Advice to increase physical activity should therefore be given during quit attempts and should be incorporated into smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in cue-induced, prefrontal cortex activity with video-game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Yong Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-12-01

    Brain responses, particularly within the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices, to Internet video-game cues in college students are similar to those observed in patients with substance dependence in response to the substance-related cues. In this study, we report changes in brain activity between baseline and following 6 weeks of Internet video-game play. We hypothesized that subjects with high levels of self-reported craving for Internet video-game play would be associated with increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, particularly the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. Twenty-one healthy university students were recruited. At baseline and after a 6-week period of Internet video-game play, brain activity during presentation of video-game cues was assessed using 3T blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Craving for Internet video-game play was assessed by self-report on a 7-point visual analogue scale following cue presentation. During a standardized 6-week video-game play period, brain activity in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex of the excessive Internet game-playing group (EIGP) increased in response to Internet video-game cues. In contrast, activity observed in the general player group (GP) was not changed or decreased. In addition, the change of craving for Internet video games was positively correlated with the change in activity of the anterior cingulate in all subjects. These changes in frontal-lobe activity with extended video-game play may be similar to those observed during the early stages of addiction.

  17. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Urban Adolescents’ Technology Use and Cravings for Unhealthy Snacks and Drinks: Differences by Ethnicity and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogna, Nicholas; Lockhart, Ginger; Grenard, Jerry L.; Barrett, Tyson; Shiffman, Saul; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Adolescents’ technology use is generally associated with food cravings, but it is not clear whether specific types of technology elicit particular types of cravings, and whether personal characteristics play a role in these associations. We examined whether momentary associations between four technology types (television, video games, computer messaging, and phone messaging) and cravings for unhealthy snack foods and sweetened drinks were moderated by youths’ gender, ethnicity, BMI, and age. Methods Urban adolescents (N=158) aged 14–17 provided momentary information about their technology use and food cravings over the course of one week and completed survey reports of their personal characteristics. We used multilevel modeling to determine momentary associations and interactions. Results Non-Hispanic adolescents showed stronger associations between television exposure and cravings for sweet snacks, salty snacks, and sweetened drinks. Being Hispanic was associated with stronger associations between phone messaging and cravings for sweet snacks, salty snacks, and sweetened drinks. Males showed stronger associations between video game use and salty snack cravings. Conclusions As the public health field continues to monitor the effects of technology use on adolescents’ eating and overall health, it will be important to determine the extent to which these groups are differentially affected by different forms of technology. PMID:25482855

  18. Acute effects of aerobic exercise and Hatha yoga on craving to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibero, Andrea; Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Drobes, David J

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies have examined the effects of physical activity on craving to smoke and smoking withdrawal. The current study was designed to compare and contrast the effects of 2 different forms of physical activity on general and cue-elicited craving to smoke. Following 1-hr nicotine abstinence, 76 daily smokers were randomly assigned to engage in a 30-min bout of cardiovascular exercise (CE; brisk walk on a treadmill), Hatha yoga (HY), or a nonactivity control condition. Participants completed measures of craving and mood, and a smoking cue reactivity assessment, before, immediately following, and approximately 20 min after the physical activity or control conditions. Compared with the control condition, participants in each of the physical activity groups reported a decrease in craving to smoke, an increase in positive affect, and a decrease in negative affect. In addition, craving in response to smoking cues was specifically reduced among those who engaged in CE, whereas those who engaged in HY reported a general decrease in cravings. This study provides further support for the use of exercise bouts for attenuating cigarette cravings during temporary nicotine abstinence. Results also suggest that CE can attenuate cravings in response to smoking cues. There are several areas for further research that may improve integration of exercise within smoking cessation treatment.

  19. The racing-game effect: why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.

  20. Violent Video Games Don't Increase Hostility in Teens, but They Do Stress Girls Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Trigani, Benjamin; Pilato, Steven; Miller, Stephanie; Foley, Kimberly; Barr, Hayley

    2016-03-01

    The impact of violent video games (VVGs) on youth remains unclear given inconsistent results in past literature. Most previous experimental studies have been done with college students, not youth. The current study examined the impact of VVGs in an experimental study of teens (12-18). Participants were randomized to play either a violent or non-violent video game. Teens also reported their levels of stress and hostility both before and after video game play. Hostility levels neither decreased nor increased following violent game play, and Bayesian analyzes confirmed that results are supportive of the null hypothesis. By contrast, VVG exposure increased stress, but only for girls. The impact of VVGs on teen hostility is minimal. However, players unfamiliar with such games may find them unpleasant. These results are put into the context of Uses and Gratifications Theory with suggestions for how medical professionals should address the issue of VVG play with concerned parents.

  1. Neural substrates of cue reactivity and craving in gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbrick-Oldfield, E H; Mick, I; Cocks, R E; McGonigle, J; Sharman, S P; Goldstone, A P; Stokes, P R A; Waldman, A; Erritzoe, D; Bowden-Jones, H; Nutt, D; Lingford-Hughes, A; Clark, L

    2017-01-03

    Cue reactivity is an established procedure in addictions research for examining the subjective experience and neural basis of craving. This experiment sought to quantify cue-related brain responses in gambling disorder using personally tailored cues in conjunction with subjective craving, as well as a comparison with appetitive non-gambling stimuli. Participants with gambling disorder (n=19) attending treatment and 19 controls viewed personally tailored blocks of gambling-related cues, as well as neutral cues and highly appetitive (food) images during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan performed ~2-3 h after a usual meal. fMRI analysis examined cue-related brain activity, cue-related changes in connectivity and associations with block-by-block craving ratings. Craving ratings in the participants with gambling disorder increased following gambling cues compared with non-gambling cues. fMRI analysis revealed group differences in left insula and anterior cingulate cortex, with the gambling disorder group showing greater reactivity to the gambling cues, but no differences to the food cues. In participants with gambling disorder, craving to gamble correlated positively with gambling cue-related activity in the bilateral insula and ventral striatum, and negatively with functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal cortex. Gambling cues, but not food cues, elicit increased brain responses in reward-related circuitry in individuals with gambling disorder (compared with controls), providing support for the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. Activity in the insula co-varied with craving intensity, and may be a target for interventions.

  2. Food cravings discriminate between anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Implications for "success" versus "failure" in dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Silvia; Warren, Cortney S; Rodríguez, Sonia; Fernández, M Carmen; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    Food cravings are subjective, motivational states thought to induce binge eating among eating disorder patients. This study compared food cravings across eating disorders. Women (N=135) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, restrictive (ANR) or binge-purging (ANBP) types, or bulimia nervosa, non-purging (BNNP) or purging (BNP) types completed measures of food cravings. Discriminant analysis yielded two statistically significant functions. The first function differentiated between all the four group pairs except ANBP and BNNP, with levels of various food-craving dimensions successively increasing for ANR, ANBP, BNNP, and BNP participants. The second function differentiated between ANBP and BNNP participants. Overall, the functions improved classification accuracy above chance level (44% fewer errors). The findings suggest that cravings are more strongly associated with loss of control over eating than with dietary restraint tendencies.

  3. Comparing narrative and informational videos to increase mammography in low-income African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Holmes, Kathleen; Alcaraz, Kassandra; Kalesan, Bindu; Rath, Suchitra; Richert, Melissa; McQueen, Amy; Caito, Nikki; Robinson, Lou; Clark, Eddie M

    2010-12-01

    Compare effects of narrative and informational videos on use of mammography, cancer-related beliefs, recall of core content and a range of reactions to the videos. African American women (n=489) ages 40 and older were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO and randomly assigned to watch a narrative video comprised of stories from African American breast cancer survivors (Living Proof) or a content-equivalent informational video using a more expository and didactic approach (Facts for Life). Effects were measured immediately post-exposure and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The narrative video was better liked, enhanced recall, reduced counterarguing, increased breast cancer discussions with family members and was perceived as more novel. Women who watched the narrative video also reported fewer barriers to mammography, more confidence that mammograms work, and were more likely to perceive cancer as an important problem affecting African Americans. Use of mammography at 6-month follow-up did not differ for the narrative vs. informational groups overall (49% vs. 40%, p=.20), but did among women with less than a high school education (65% vs. 32%, p<.01), and trended in the same direction for those who had no close friends or family with breast cancer (49% vs. 31%, p=.06) and those who were less trusting of traditional cancer information sources (48% vs. 30%, p=.06). Narrative forms of communication may increase the effectiveness of interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. Narratives appear to have particular value in certain population sub-groups; identifying these groups and matching them to specific communication approaches may increase effectiveness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtually compliant: Immersive video gaming increases conformity to false computer judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Ulrich W; Loughnan, Stephen; Sharma, Dinkar; Gonidis, Lazaros

    2015-08-01

    Real-life encounters with face-to-face contact are on the decline in a world in which many routine tasks are delegated to virtual characters-a development that bears both opportunities and risks. Interacting with such virtual-reality beings is particularly common during role-playing videogames, in which we incarnate into the virtual reality of an avatar. Video gaming is known to lead to the training and development of real-life skills and behaviors; hence, in the present study we sought to explore whether role-playing video gaming primes individuals' identification with a computer enough to increase computer-related social conformity. Following immersive video gaming, individuals were indeed more likely to give up their own best judgment and to follow the vote of computers, especially when the stimulus context was ambiguous. Implications for human-computer interactions and for our understanding of the formation of identity and self-concept are discussed.

  5. Brief report: Does exposure to violent video games increase moral disengagement among adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara

    2012-10-01

    Several studies have repeatedly shown that violent/action video games increase aggressive tendencies. The present study provides preliminary evidence that exposure to these games also affects the process of moral disengagement. High school students (N = 385) were recruited, and the impact of both recency and frequency of their exposure to the video game Grand Theft Auto IV (GTA; 2008) on moral disengagement was explored. Results showed that exposure to GTA predicted higher levels of moral disengagement. Recency of exposure had a primary impact on the considered mechanisms of moral disengagement. These findings provide insights into a relevant detrimental effect of exposure to video games, to our knowledge not explored yet. Future research is needed to provide evidence of the causal link in the observed relationships. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing Independence in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Video Self Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucalos, Julie Iberer

    2013-01-01

    Independent task completion was examined using a multiple probe across participants research design for three students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) functioning in an inclusive classroom. Results were positive and suggest that video self-modeling (VSM) is a viable solution to decrease prompt dependence and increase independence and task…

  7. Brief Report: Does Exposure to Violent Video Games Increase Moral Disengagement among Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have repeatedly shown that violent/action video games increase aggressive tendencies. The present study provides preliminary evidence that exposure to these games also affects the process of moral disengagement. High school students (N = 385) were recruited, and the impact of both recency and frequency of their exposure to the…

  8. Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charboneau, Evonne J.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M.; Martin, Peter R.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cowan, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

  9. Mood, cue and gender influences on motivation, craving and liking for alcohol in recreational drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P; Field, M; Pitts, K; Reeve, G

    1998-11-01

    The effects of exposure to an alcohol-related cue (drinking low-alcohol beer) and a musical depression/elation mood induction procedure, on craving, motivation and liking for alcohol, were studied in male and female recreational drinkers. Alcohol craving was assessed using the multidimensional desires for alcohol questionnaire (DAQ), motivation for alcohol was assessed by performance on a progressive ratio (PR) task reinforced with small volumes (25 ml) of low-alcohol beer, and liking for the reinforcers earned in the PR task was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Consumption of a half-pint of low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in male subjects but had no effect or decreased craving in female subjects. Subsequent induction of a depressed mood increased craving scores, relative to elated or neutral mood groups, but these effects were confined to abstinent (non-cued) subjects, both male and female. Performance on the PR task correlated significantly with one of the four factors of the DAQ, negative reinforcement, and was increased by induction of a depressed mood in abstinent female and cued male subjects. Reinforcer liking was unchanged following mood induction in male subjects, but decreased in both groups of female subjects. To summarize, the cue of drinking low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in men but not in women, and induction of a depressed mood increased alcohol craving and motivation, but also decreased alcohol liking. These effects were present to different extents in different cue/gender subgroups, and were partially independent.

  10. Craving as a DSM-5 Symptom of Alcohol Use Disorder in Non-Treatment Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Emily E; Ray, Lara A

    2017-11-14

    DSM-5 has added craving as a new criterion and changed the diagnostic structure of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Though craving has long been a target of intervention, less is known about the impact this addition will have on prevalence and factor structure of AUD, particularly in non-treatment seeker with alcohol problems. Non-treatment seeking individuals reporting alcohol-related problems (N = 296) completed a structured clinical interview and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS). PACS scores greater than 20 were considered to meet diagnostic criteria for the alcohol craving symptom. This study examined DSM-IV to DSM-5 diagnostic conversion and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to test the factor structure of the DSM-5 symptoms, including craving. The mean PACS score was 13.1 and alcohol craving was strongly correlated with other measures of alcohol use. Using the proposed cut-off score of PACS > 20, 46 participants (16.2%) met criteria for alcohol craving. Craving loaded moderately (0.47) onto the retained DSM symptoms and produced a unidimensional factor structure. The majority of participants who met for a DSM-IV AUD also met for a DSM-5 AUD (98.8%). Craving prevalence using the PACS was relatively low compared to the remaining 10 DSM-5 symptoms, possibly due to the non-treatment seeking nature of the sample. Conversion of DSM-IV to DSM-5 in this sample led to a small increase in overall AUD prevalence. Craving loaded well onto a single factor structure for AUD.

  11. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess

  12. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG. PMID:25295023

  13. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, M.; Bentz, D.; Schicktanz, N.; Milnik, A.; Aerni, A.; Gerhards, C.; Schwegler, K.; Vogel, M.; Blum, J.; Schmid, O.; Roozendaal, B.; Lang, U.E.; Borgwardt, S.; Quervain, D. de

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce

  14. Drug Craving Terminology among Opiate Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Maarefvand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Drug craving is defined as an urge to continue substance abuse. Drug dependents use different terms to express their subjective feeling of craving. This study was an attempt to generate an understanding of craving terminology among different groups of Persian speaking Iranian opiate dependents.Method:Terms used for the meaning of drug craving were listed by 36 ex-opiate dependents in focus group discussion meetings in the first phase of the study. These terms were composed from Craving Terms Questionnaire. In the second phase, 120 subjects in 3 groups of opiate dependents and a group of Current Opiate Abusers rated usage frequency of each term in the questionnaire under a Twelve-Step Program, Methadone Maintenance, and Other Abstinence-based Programs.Results:Eighty nine terms were categorized in stimulation and triggering, attention bias and obsession, decision making difficulty, information processing impairment, withdrawal induction, drug euphoric experience, mental urge, motor control problem, negative valancing and stigmatizing. Terms for the three categories of mental urge, attention bias and obsession and motor control problem were used more than others. Patients in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT group used different categories of craving terms in comparison to other groups. Abstinent cases reported higher total score for craving terms in comparison to other groups in Twelve-Step Program and other abstinence-based programs.Conclusion:Each craving-related term is associated with some aspects of the multidimensional concept of craving. A drug-craving thesaurus could provide a better understanding of craving nature from a drug dependent point of view. There are differences among abstinence vs. maintenance based treated opiate dependents in using craving terms. Addiction therapists will benefit from accessing drug dependents’ lexicon to assess and create therapeutic alliance with their clients.

  15. Measuring craving: An attempt to connect subjective craving with cue reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooteman, W.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Vserheul, R.; Schippers, G.M.; van den Brink, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Better insight into craving may contribute to the development of more efficient relapse prevention strategies. Inconsistent findings on the relation between craving and relapse may be due to difficulties in the measurement of craving. These difficulties are accounted for by 3

  16. STRESS AND CUE-ELICITED CRAVING AND REACTIVITY IN MARIJUANA-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Carter, Rickey E.; Price, Kimber L.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Thomas, Suzanne; Saladin, Michael E.; Giarla, Kathleen; Nicholas, Katherine; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Cue-elicited craving and stress responses have been identified as predictors of relapse in drug dependence, but little research exists on the contribution of these factors to marijuana use specifically. Objectives The aims of the present study were to evaluate (1) responses to a psychological stressor, (2) responses to marijuana-related cues, and (3) if an exposure to a psychological stressor augmented craving subsequently elicited by marijuana-related cue exposure in marijuana-dependent individuals. Methods Subjective (craving, stress), neuroendocrine (ACTH, cortisol), and physiologic responses to the presentation of neutral and marijuana cues were assessed after randomization to a stress (Trier Social Stress Task; TSST) or no-stress control condition in marijuana-dependent individuals. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, post-stressor/pre-neutral cue, post-neutral cue, and post marijuana cue. Results 87 participants completed procedures (stress group, n=45; non-stress group, n=42). The stress group had a significant increase over the non-stressed group in stress rating (p<0.001), craving (p=0.028), cortisol (p<0.001), and ACTH (p<0.001) after completion of the TSST. An increased craving response for all participants was seen following presentation of the marijuana cues (p=0.005). Following the TSST or no-stress condition, the non-stressed group had an increase in craving to marijuana cues as compared to neutral cues (p=0.002); an increase in craving was not observed in the stress group (p=0.404). Conclusions Marijuana cue exposure and a social stressor increased craving in marijuana-dependent individuals. Completion of the TSST did not increase craving response to subsequent marijuana-cue exposure. PMID:21710170

  17. Stress- and cue-elicited craving and reactivity in marijuana-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Carter, Rickey E; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; Thomas, Suzanne; Saladin, Michael E; Giarla, Kathleen; Nicholas, Katherine; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-11-01

    Cue-elicited craving and stress responses have been identified as predictors of relapse in drug dependence, but little research exists on the contribution of these factors to marijuana use specifically. The aims of the present study were to evaluate (1) responses to a psychological stressor, (2) responses to marijuana-related cues, and (3) if an exposure to a psychological stressor augmented craving subsequently elicited by marijuana-related cue exposure in marijuana-dependent individuals. Subjective (craving, stress), neuroendocrine (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol), and physiologic responses to the presentation of neutral and marijuana cues were assessed after randomization to a stress (Trier Social Stress Task (TSST)) or non-stress control condition in marijuana-dependent individuals. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, post-stressor/pre-neutral cue, post-neutral cue, and post-marijuana cue. Eighty-seven participants completed procedures (stress group, n = 45; non-stress group, n = 42). The stress group had a significant increase over the non-stress group in stress rating (p < 0.001), craving (p = 0.028), cortisol (p < 0.001), and ACTH (p < 0.001) after the completion of the TSST. An increased craving response for all participants was seen following the presentation of the marijuana cues (p = 0.005). Following the TSST or non-stress condition, the non-stress group had an increase in craving to marijuana cues as compared to neutral cues (p = 0.002); an increase in craving was not observed in the stress group (p = 0.404). Marijuana cue exposure and a social stressor increased craving in marijuana-dependent individuals. Completion of the TSST did not increase craving response to subsequent marijuana cue exposure.

  18. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    having seen a child with asthma in the daily clinic. In contrast, respiratory syncytial virus infection was only seen by 20%. Students' self-reported confidence in the assessment of paediatric patients increased after the video case library was made available: Before the intervention, 41% (57....../138) of the students reported confidence at a score of 5-7 on a seven-point Likert scale. This increased to 64% (186/289) (p

  19. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Action Video Game Playing Is Reflected In Enhanced Visuomotor Performance and Increased Corticospinal Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Therrien-Blanchet, Jean-Marc; Ferland, Marie C; Théoret, Hugo; West, Greg L

    2016-01-01

    Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs) was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) compared to non-video game players (nonVGPs). Further, we assessed if actionVGPs and nonVGPs displayed differences in procedural motor learning as measured by the SRTT. We found that at the behavioral level, both the actionVGPs and nonVGPs showed evidence of procedural learning with no significant difference between groups. However, the actionVGPs displayed higher visuomotor performance as evidenced by faster reaction times in the SRTT. This observed enhancement in visuomotor performance amongst actionVGPs was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in M1, as measured by corticospinal excitability changes pre- and post- SRTT and corticospinal excitability at rest before motor practice. Our results show that aVGPs, who are known to have better performance on visual and motor tasks, also display increased corticospinal excitability after completing a novel visuomotor task.

  1. Action Video Game Playing Is Reflected In Enhanced Visuomotor Performance and Increased Corticospinal Excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Morin-Moncet

    Full Text Available Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1 compared to non-video game players (nonVGPs. Further, we assessed if actionVGPs and nonVGPs displayed differences in procedural motor learning as measured by the SRTT. We found that at the behavioral level, both the actionVGPs and nonVGPs showed evidence of procedural learning with no significant difference between groups. However, the actionVGPs displayed higher visuomotor performance as evidenced by faster reaction times in the SRTT. This observed enhancement in visuomotor performance amongst actionVGPs was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in M1, as measured by corticospinal excitability changes pre- and post- SRTT and corticospinal excitability at rest before motor practice. Our results show that aVGPs, who are known to have better performance on visual and motor tasks, also display increased corticospinal excitability after completing a novel visuomotor task.

  2. Alcohol craving in relation to coping with stress and satisfaction with life in the addicted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gąsior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed at finding any relation between alcohol craving and strategies of coping with stress and satisfaction with life in the addicted. Until now, studies have shown that generalized deficits in coping with stress, and the dominance of avoidance strategies, are significantly related to the increase of the risk of addiction and the course of this disease. This relation, which could link strategies of coping with stress and quality of life with experiencing alcohol craving, has only been explained to a small extent. Also, the role of gender in explaining these relations is ambiguous. Participants and procedure The study was conducted in a group of 550 addicted subjects in out-patient or in-patient treatment (396 men and 114 women. In the present study the following instruments were used: the Craving Typology Questionnaire by Marinotti et al., the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale by Modell et al., the Mini-Cope by Carver et al., SADD by Reistrick et al., and the Satisfaction with Life Scale by Diener et al. Statistical correlational analysis and structural equations were applied, namely partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM. Results There are two types of links between craving and strategies of coping with stress among the addicted. The first dominating type is pointing at casual link between ineffective strategies of coping with stress and craving. The other weaker type indicates the diminishing influence of effective strategies of coping with stress on alcohol craving. Life satisfaction lowers alcohol craving. Conclusions Effective strategies of reacting to stress, together with life satisfaction, protect against increase of alcohol craving. Severity of dependence is an important factor which moderates the influence of strategies of coping with stress on alcohol craving.

  3. Withdrawal Symptoms and Nicotine Dependence Severity Predict Virtual Reality Craving in Cigarette-Deprived Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Cooper, Kim N; Mahoney, James J; Bordnick, Patrick S; Salas, Ramiro; Kosten, Thomas R; Dani, John A; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in eliciting responses to nicotine cues in cigarette smokers. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether cigarette-deprived smokers would exhibit increased craving and changes in heart rate when viewing cigarette related cues as compared to non-smoking cues in a VR environment, and the secondary aim was to assess the extent to which self-assessed measures of withdrawal and dependence correlated with VR craving. Nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers were recruited for a 2 day study. On Day 1, participants smoked as usual and on Day 2 were deprived from smoking overnight. On both days, participants completed self-assessment questionnaires on withdrawal, craving, and nicotine-dependence. Participants completed a VR session during the cigarette deprivation condition only (Day 2). During this session, they were exposed to active smoking and placebo (non-smoking) cues. The data show that self-reported levels of "craving" (p < .01) and "thinking about cigarettes" (p < .0001) were significantly greater after exposure to the active cues versus non-smoking cues. Significant increases in heart rate were found for 3 of 4 active cues when compared to non-smoking cues (p < .05). Finally, significant positive correlations were found between self-reported craving prior to the VR session and craving induced by active VR cues (p < .01). In this report, active VR cues elicited craving during cigarette deprivation. This is the first study to demonstrate that self-reported craving, withdrawal symptoms, and nicotine dependence severity predict cue-induced craving in the VR setting. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Differential Roles of Thought Suppression and Dispositional Mindfulness in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic events often results in severe distress which may elicit self-medication behaviors. Yet, some individuals exposed to trauma do not develop post-traumatic stress symptoms and comorbid addictive impulses. In the wake of traumatic events, psychological processes like thought suppression and mindfulness may modulate post-traumatic stress and craving for substances. We examined the differential roles of mindfulness and suppression in comorbid post-traumatic stress and craving in a sample of 125 persons with extensive trauma histories and psychiatric symptoms in residential treatment for substance dependence. Results indicated that thought suppression, rather than extent of trauma history, significantly predicted post-traumatic stress symptom severity while dispositional mindfulness significantly predicted both post-traumatic stress symptoms and craving. In multiple regression models, mindfulness and thought suppression combined explained nearly half of the variance in post-traumatic stress symptoms and one-quarter of the variance in substance craving. Moreover, multivariate path analysis indicated that prior traumatic experience was associated with greater thought suppression, which in turn was correlated with increased post-traumatic stress symptoms and drug craving, whereas dispositional mindfulness was associated with decreased suppression, post-traumatic stress, and craving. The maladaptive strategy of thought suppression appears to be linked with adverse psychological consequences of traumatic life events. In contrast, dispositional mindfulness appears to be a protective factor that buffers individuals from experiencing more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms and craving. PMID:22385734

  5. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.

  6. An educational video program to increase aging services technology awareness among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Joyce W; Van Son, Catherine; Dyck, Dennis; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2017-08-01

    Aging services technologies (ASTs), health technology that meets the needs of seniors, are being underutilized due to a lack of awareness. This study evaluated a video-based educational program to increase AST awareness. Two hundred and thirty-one older adults completed AST measures pre- and post-program. Participants endorsed significantly improved AST knowledge and attitude and a lower level of perceived stigma post-program. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a greater reduction in stigma post-program and a higher number of physical/cognitive needs supported by ASTs at baseline were significant predictors of a greater increase in expressed intention to use ASTs following the video program. Furthermore, individuals living in their own homes, with a lower level of education, fewer physical and/or cognitive needs supported by ASTs at baseline, and greater functional limitations were found to be more likely to report a significant reduction in perceived stigma post-program. Four-week follow-up data from 75 individuals showed stable program gains. Program feedback was positive. The current findings provide support for the utility of the AST videos. The educational materials used in this study can be used clinically or for public health education to increase awareness and adoption of ASTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized.

  8. Using Video Social Stories[TM] to Increase Task Engagement for Middle School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Kildare, Laura K.; Smith, Catherine C.; McMahon, Don D.; Quinn-Brown, Luella

    2012-01-01

    Four middle school students with autism spectrum disorders participated in a brief functional analysis and a video Social Stories[TM] intervention to remediate attention-seeking and task-avoidance behaviors. Results indicated that matching video Social Stories[TM] to specific functions of behaviors increased task-engagement behaviors in the…

  9. Caffeine cravings impair memory and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew A; Sauer, James D; Ling, Angus; Riza, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    Cravings for food and other substances can impair cognition. We extended previous research by testing the effects of caffeine cravings on cued-recall and recognition memory tasks, and on the accuracy of judgements of learning (JOLs; predicted future recall) and feeling-of-knowing (FOK; predicted future recognition for items that cannot be recalled). Participants (N = 55) studied word pairs (POND-BOOK) and completed a cued-recall test and a recognition test. Participants made JOLs prior to the cued-recall test and FOK judgements prior to the recognition test. Participants were randomly allocated to a craving or control condition; we manipulated caffeine cravings via a combination of abstinence, cue exposure, and imagery. Cravings impaired memory performance on the cued-recall and recognition tasks. Cravings also impaired resolution (the ability to distinguish items that would be remembered from those that would not) for FOK judgements but not JOLs, and reduced calibration (correspondence between predicted and actual accuracy) for JOLs but not FOK judgements. Additional analysis of the cued-recall data suggested that cravings also reduced participants' ability to monitor the likely accuracy of answers during the cued-recall test. These findings add to prior research demonstrating that memory strength manipulations have systematically different effects on different types of metacognitive judgements.

  10. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    ’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active ageing. Dominant...... but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....

  13. Does culture create craving? Evidence from the case of menstrual chocolate craving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Hormes

    Full Text Available Craving is considered a key characteristic of diverse pathologies, but evidence suggests it may be a culture-bound construct. Almost 50% of American women crave chocolate specifically around the onset of menstruation. Research does not support popular accounts implicating physiological factors in menstrual chocolate craving etiology. We tested the novel hypothesis that greater menstrual craving prevalence in the U.S. is the product of internalized cultural norms. Women of diverse backgrounds (n = 275 reported on craving frequency and triggers and completed validated measures of acculturation. Foreign-born women were significantly less likely to endorse menstrual chocolate craving (17.3%, compared to women born to U.S.-born parents (32.7%, p = .03 and second generation immigrants (40.9%, p = .001. Second generation immigrant and foreign-born women endorsing menstrual chocolate craving reported significantly greater U.S. acculturation and lower identification with their native culture than non-menstrual cravers (all p < .001. Findings inform our understanding of food cravings, with important implications for the study of cravings in other domains.

  14. Does culture create craving? Evidence from the case of menstrual chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M; Niemiec, Martha A

    2017-01-01

    Craving is considered a key characteristic of diverse pathologies, but evidence suggests it may be a culture-bound construct. Almost 50% of American women crave chocolate specifically around the onset of menstruation. Research does not support popular accounts implicating physiological factors in menstrual chocolate craving etiology. We tested the novel hypothesis that greater menstrual craving prevalence in the U.S. is the product of internalized cultural norms. Women of diverse backgrounds (n = 275) reported on craving frequency and triggers and completed validated measures of acculturation. Foreign-born women were significantly less likely to endorse menstrual chocolate craving (17.3%), compared to women born to U.S.-born parents (32.7%, p = .03) and second generation immigrants (40.9%, p = .001). Second generation immigrant and foreign-born women endorsing menstrual chocolate craving reported significantly greater U.S. acculturation and lower identification with their native culture than non-menstrual cravers (all p < .001). Findings inform our understanding of food cravings, with important implications for the study of cravings in other domains.

  15. How to stop smoking: Dealing with cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... times until you feel yourself relax. Listen to music. Read a book or listen to an audiobook. Try yoga, tai chi, or visualization. EXERCISE Exercise has many benefits. Moving your body may help reduce cravings. It ...

  16. The Internet and Video Games: Causes of Increased Aggressiveness Among Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ružić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in youth violence is among the most serious problems facing modern society. Many experts adhere to the opinion that responsibility for this phenomenon is borne by families, schools, and the media. The so-called digital generation spends much of its free time on the Internet and accepts the values imposed by the media. The modern criterion of success is to reach glory by any means necessary. As such, it is understandable that young people, eager for publicity, look for creative ways to attract attention. One of the most expedient ways to achieve fame and prove their ‘originality’ is by posting videos of violent behavior on websites like YouTube. The Internet has brought limitless freedom in the exposure of inappropriate content and has thus contributed to an increase in violence among the young, primarily through the video games industry. Based on all the above, we argue that the Internet has spurred and intensified the development of cyberbullying.

  17. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Cigarette craving, smoking withdrawal, and clonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, A H; Jackson, W K; Walsh, B T; Roose, S P; Rosenfeld, B

    1984-11-16

    Clonidine, an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, significantly reduces opiate withdrawal. Fifteen heavy smokers abstained from cigarettes on three separate occasions and received instead clonidine, placebo, or the benzodiazepine alprazolam. Clonidine and alprazolam diminished withdrawal symptoms. The two drugs suppressed anxiety, tension, irritability, and restlessness equally but clonidine had a greater effect than alprazolam on cigarette craving. These observations suggest that noradrenergic activity is a common feature in the pathophysiology of withdrawal and that a special relationship exists between central noradrenergic activity and craving.

  19. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardene, K; Fonseka, P; Goonaratne, C

    1994-01-01

    Although nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy has been studied in detail, there is little information available regarding dietary aversions and some cravings during pregnancy. To study the prevalence and factors associated with dietary aversions and cravings during pregnancy, a survey was carried out on 1000 randomly selected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a district in southern Sri Lanka. In this group 473 (47.3%) had pregnancy cravings for wide variety of foods: sour food 65%, unripe fruits 40%, meat and fish 47%, ripe fruits 30%, food from alms giving 26% and jam and bread fruit 22%. Ninety nine per cent of those who had pregnancy cravings had made special attempt to obtain the food of their choice and all of them had their cravings satisfied by eating the food of their choice. Pregnancy cravings was significantly higher in women who married after a love affair's than in those who had on 'arranged' marriage (p devil dancing and gods) than in those who were not (p < 0.05), and in women with a family income of less than Rs. 2,500 than in those with an income of more than Rs. 2,500 (p < 0.05).

  1. Psychopathology, craving, and mood during heroin acquisition: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirin, S M; Meyer, R E; McNamee, H B; McDougle, M

    1976-01-01

    Six detoxified addict volunteers were allowed to self-administer intravenous heroin on an essentially self-determined schedule. Two periods of heroin acquisition were compared: an unmodified cycle in which patients could become intoxicated and a later cycle in which the effects of heroin were blocked with a narcotic antagonist. In the unblocked condition, patients initially experienced an increase in positive mood, but with chronic administration there was a significant rise in psychopathology and the development of a generalized dysphoric state. Similar changes did not occur when the same patients took heroin while blocked with a narcotic antagonist. Drug craving rose dramatically when "unblocked" heroin was available, but gradually fell during methadone detoxification. Following treatment with a narcotic antagonist, the presence of heroin failed to elicit any sustained rise in craving and drug taking was dramatically reduced.

  2. Cue-induced craving for marijuana in cannabis-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2011-06-01

    Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes in mood, self-reported craving, and physiologic function were assessed. Significant Group X cue interactions were found on all three VAS craving indices as well as on the Compulsivity scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Brief Form (MCQ-BF). Cannabis-dependent individuals responded to marijuana-related cues with significantly increased reports of marijuana craving compared to neutral cue exposure, although there were no cue-induced changes in any of the physiological measures. There were no significant gender differences on any of the measures. These results indicate that marijuana craving can be induced and assessed in cannabis-dependent, healthy adults within a laboratory setting, and support the need for further research of the cue reactivity paradigm in the development of medications to treat cannabis-use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  4. Video-feedback intervention increases sensitive parenting in ethnic minority mothers: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmur, Sengul; Mesman, Judi; Malda, Maike; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Ekmekci, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Using a randomized control trial design we tested the effectiveness of a culturally sensitive adaptation of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) in a sample of 76 Turkish minority families in the Netherlands. The VIPP-SD was adapted based on a pilot with feedback of the target mothers, resulting in the VIPP-TM (VIPP-Turkish Minorities). The sample included families with 20-47-month-old children with high levels of externalizing problems. Maternal sensitivity, nonintrusiveness, and discipline strategies were observed during pretest and posttest home visits. The VIPP-TM was effective in increasing maternal sensitivity and nonintrusiveness, but not in enhancing discipline strategies. Applying newly learned sensitivity skills in discipline situations may take more time, especially in a cultural context that favors more authoritarian strategies. We conclude that the VIPP-SD program and its video-feedback approach can be successfully applied in immigrant families with a non-Western cultural background, with demonstrated effects on parenting sensitivity and nonintrusiveness.

  5. The use of virtual reality in craving assessment and cue-exposure therapy in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far.

  6. The use of virtual reality in craving assessment and cue-exposure therapy in substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHone-Blanchet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist, however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse.Current behavioural therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioural training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer-pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practice new skills in treatment. Virtual reality enhances ecological validity of traditional craving induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from 1 studies using virtual reality and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and 2 studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual reality in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug seeking behaviours and peer pressure.Findings indicate that virtual reality can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue exposure-therapy with virtual environment however reported mitigated success so far.

  7. The Use of Virtual Reality in Craving Assessment and Cue-Exposure Therapy in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue–exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far. PMID:25368571

  8. Increase in dermcidin-derived peptides in sweat of patients with atopic eczema caused by a humorous video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Dermcidin (DCD)-derived peptide is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the sweat glands. However, the levels of DCD-derived peptide in sweat were decreased in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The effect of viewing a humorous video on the levels of DCD-derived peptide was studied. Twenty patients with AE viewed an 87-min humorous video (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin). Just before and immediately after viewing, sweat was collected, and the levels of DCD-derived peptide and total protein in sweat were measured. Viewing a humorous video increased the levels of DCD-derived peptide without affecting the levels of total protein in sweat. Viewing a humorous video increased DCD-derived peptide in sweat of patients with AE, and thus, it may be helpful in the treatment of skin infection of AE.

  9. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. CONCLUSION: A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value...... in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 81% of the students reported...... for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  10. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 81% of the students reported...... for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION...... the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. CONCLUSION: A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value...

  11. Cigarette cravings, impulsivity and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane ePotvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g. someone smoking trigger significant cravings in smokers which impedes their self-control capacities and promotes drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers’ craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, panning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies and self-regulation and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit and genetic factors. Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingular mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation.

  12. Video as a Tool for Increasing Motivation and Developing Student's Skills in Didactics of Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Řeháková, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This master's thesis refers to the use of video as a teaching tool in the subject Didactics of Biology. It comprises two parts, one theoretical and another practical. The theoretical part charts the didactical and practical subjects taught at the Faculty of Education, Charles University in Prague, and deals with the use of video for the professional development of teachers. For the practical part, 8 lesson observation videos were recorded and placed on a newly created website (www.didaktikabi...

  13. Video as a Tool to Increase Understanding and Support for the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Peter N.; Parker, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Research into the effectiveness of video as a tool to educate students about environmental issues and cause a change in their attitudes toward them in a classroom setting is limited. We sought to add to this sparse body of research. We created three videos that showcased a species in a different stage of protection under the Endangered Species…

  14. Methods & Techniques: Techniques for Increasing Student Learning from Educational Videos: Notes Versus Guiding Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Bodle, James H.; McDonough, Tracy A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of several techniques for enhancing student learning from educational videos. Introductory psychology students (N = 113) watched a video about intelligence and testing while taking notes, not taking notes, writing answers to guiding questions, or thinking about guiding questions without writing answers. Afterward,…

  15. Violent video games cause an increase in aggression long after the game has been turned off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Gibson, B

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies show that violent video games cause people to behave more aggressively, but how long does the effect last? In most experiments, aggression is measured immediately after gameplay. The present experiment is the first to test the long-term causal effects of violent video games on

  16. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION......INTRODUCTION: Use of video cases in clinical education is rarely used systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical students (n = 127) reported by questionnaire whether they had or had not seen a bedside case of each of 22 specific clinical conditions during their five-week clinical course...... the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. CONCLUSION: A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value...

  17. Marijuana use, craving, and academic motivation and performance among college students: An in-the-moment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristina T; Phillips, Michael M; Lalonde, Trent L; Tormohlen, Kayla N

    2015-08-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the U.S., with high rates among young adults in the state of Colorado. Chronic, heavy marijuana use can impact cognitive functioning, which has the potential to influence academic performance of college students. It is possible that craving for marijuana may further contribute to diminished cognitive and affective functioning, thus leading to poor outcomes for students. College student marijuana users (n=57) were recruited based on heavy use and completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) via text-messaging. The association between marijuana use and craving in a college setting was explored, as well as how these variables might relate to academic motivation, effort and success. The participants were sent text messages for two weeks, three times per day at random times. A temporal association between craving and marijuana use was found, where momentary craving positively predicted greater marijuana use. Similarly, as craving levels increased, the number of minutes spent studying decreased at the next assessment point. A negative association between momentary craving for marijuana and academic motivation was found in the same moment. Greater academic self-efficacy positively predicted cumulative GPA, while average minutes spent smoking marijuana was negatively related. Using EMA, marijuana craving and use were significantly related. These findings provide further evidence that heavy marijuana use is negatively associated with academic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The central amygdala nucleus is critical for incubation of methamphetamine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-03-13

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4-5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on 'incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving.

  19. Induction and comparison of craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Brasil Araujo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature findings report that use of multiple substances can produce adverse clinical and behavioral effects, which may affect craving and the results of drug treatment. Also, the understanding of craving construct and its interaction in the use of smoked substances is underexplored. Objectives To induce and compare craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack-cocaine on hospitalized dependents whose drug of choice is crack-cocaine. Methods Quasi-experimental study with a convenience sample consisting of 210 males divided into 3 equal groups (Group-1: craving induced by crack; Group-2: craving induced by tobacco; and Group-3: craving induced by marijuana. All participants met ICD-10 dependence criteria for cocaine/crack, marijuana and tobacco, were aged between 18 and 65 and had used these substances for at least one year. Photos were used to induce craving and self-report instruments to evaluate possible alterations. Results This study showed that craving for tobacco was more intense than for marijuana and crack, when the groups were compared by VAS. Using specific scales, both craving for tobacco and craving for marijuana were more intense than craving for crack. Discussion These results would imply interventions at the initial stages of abstinence with cognitive-behavioural techniques and pharmacotherapy in order to reduce craving.

  20. Synaptic mechanisms underlying persistent cocaine craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marina E.

    2017-01-01

    Although it is challenging for individuals with cocaine addiction to achieve abstinence, the greatest difficulty is avoiding relapse to drug taking, which is often triggered by cues associated with prior cocaine use. This vulnerability to relapse persists for long periods (months to years) after abstinence is achieved. Here I discuss rodent studies of cue-induced cocaine craving during abstinence, with a focus on neuronal plasticity in the reward circuitry that maintains high levels of craving. Such work has the potential to identify new therapeutic targets and further our understanding of experience-dependent plasticity in the adult brain under normal circumstances and in the context of addiction. PMID:27150400

  1. Craving, cue reactivity, and stimulus control among early-stage young smokers: effects of smoking intensity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Larowe, Steven D; McClure, Erin A; Simonian, Susan; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-02-01

    Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Young (age range 16-20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers.

  2. Drive for Consumption, Craving, and Connectivity in the Visual Cortex during the Imagery of Desired Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eBullins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in understanding food cravings given the obesogenic environment of Western Society. In this paper we examine how the imagery of palatable foods affects cravings and functional connectivity in the visual cortex for people who differ on the power of food scale (PFS. Fourteen older, overweight/obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they ate a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 hours prior to scanning. On one day they consumed a BOOST® liquid meal after the period of food restriction, whereas on the other day they only consumed water (NO BOOST® condition. After these manipulations, they had an fMRI scan in which they were asked to image both neutral objects and their favorite snack foods; they also completed visual analogue scales for craving, hunger, and the vividness of the imagery experiences. Irrespective of the BOOST® manipulation, we observed marked increases in food cravings when older, overweight/obese adults created images of favorite foods in their minds as opposed to creating an image of neutral objects; however, the increase in food craving following the imagery of desired food was more pronounced among those scoring high than low on the PFS. Furthermore, local efficiency within the visual cortex when imaging desired food was higher for those scoring high as compared to low on the PFS. The active imagery of desired foods seemed to have overpowered the BOOST® manipulation when evaluating connectivity in the visual cortex.

  3. Video game playing increases food intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Visby, Trine; Nyby, Signe; Klingenberg, Lars; Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Tremblay, Angelo; Astrup, Arne; Sjödin, Anders

    2011-01-01

    .... Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, sympathetic tone, and mental workload were significantly higher during the video game play condition than during the resting condition (P < 0.05...

  4. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of video cases in clinical education is rarely used systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical students (n = 127) reported by questionnaire whether they had or had not seen a bedside case of each of 22 specific clinical conditions during their five-week clinical course...... in paediatrics in seven centres. A video case library showing children with common clinical conditions was established, and a short video was added to the oral examination. We evaluated students' and internal and external examiners' perceptions by questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 81% of the students reported...... for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  5. Craving and other characteristics of the comorbidity of alcohol and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertling, Ines; Ramskogler, Katrin; Dvorak, Alexander; Klingler, Anton; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda; Schoberberger, Rudolf; Walter, Henriette; Kunze, Michael; Lesch, Otto Michael

    2005-08-01

    In this cross-sectional study we compared alcohol-dependent smokers and non-alcohol-dependent smokers with respect to intensity of nicotine dependence, craving conditions, sleep disturbances, comorbidity with major depression, reasons for smoking, accompanying somatic diseases and patients' prolonged abstinence from smoking during the 3 years preceding the study. Fifty-one alcohol-dependent smokers and 327 non-alcohol-dependent smokers diagnosed as ICD-10 and DSM-IV-nicotine dependent, were investigated by means of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Lübeck Craving-Recurrence Risk Questionnaire and the Lesch Alcohol Dependence Typology (both adapted to smoking). The intensity of nicotine dependence was more enhanced in alcohol-dependent smokers compared to non-alcohol-dependent smokers. Several variables of all factors of craving ("depressive mood", "stimulation", "relaxation", "socially triggered tension") were significantly increased in alcohol-dependent patients (Pstress release and weight control. Our study demonstrates that the intensity of nicotine dependence, several conditions of craving for nicotine, sleep disturbances and symptoms of depression appear to be enhanced in alcohol-dependent smokers compared with non-alcohol-dependent smokers. Conclusions. - It is hoped that the factors of craving and reasons for smoking identified in this study will contribute to a better understanding of smoking temptation in alcohol-dependent smokers and non-alcohol-dependent smokers in future.

  6. The Effect of Buprenorphine on Methamphetamine Cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Emadossadat, Alireza; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse and dependence present a major global problem. We investigated the efficacy of adding buprenorphine in reducing METH cravings during treatment with the Matrix program. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial of 40 men between the age of 18 and 40 years who were referred to the addiction treatment center at Noor Hospital from December 2012 to September 2013. All of the selected subjects participated in the Matrix program and were randomly assigned into 2 groups and given either buprenorphine or a placebo. A 4-month intervention program with buprenorphine or a placebo was arranged for each group. Demographic variables of the 2 groups, descriptive indices from the cocaine craving questionnaire-brief (CCQ-Brief), the ratio of urine tests positive for METH, and the frequency of drug complications were regularly evaluated in both groups every 2 weeks and, if not possible, by the third or fourth week. All analyses were performed by SPSS20 using analysis of covariance, χ, and t tests. The average of indices from the cocaine craving questionnaire-brief score, except the 2 initial measurements, was significantly lower in the intervention group in all measurements (P < 0.05). Apart from weeks 3 and 28, the ratio of positive tests was significantly different in all measurements in both groups (P < 0.05). Buprenorphine augmentation, in comparison with the placebo, significantly reduced the craving to use METH during treatment with the Matrix program.

  7. The Use of Video Self-Modeling to Increase On-Task Behavior in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Rochelle B.; Peterson, Rachel K.; Bellini, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the researchers implemented a video self-modeling intervention for increasing on-task classroom behavior for three elementary school students diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The researchers observed the students' on-task engagement three times a week during their respective math classes. A multiple baseline design…

  8. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjorn Van Campenhout; Senne Vandevelde; Wilberforce Walukano; Piet Van Asten

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers' knowledge of recommended practices...

  9. Aging increases compensatory saccade amplitude in the video head impulse test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Anson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rotational vestibular function declines with age resulting in saccades as a compensatory mechanism to improve impaired gaze stability. Small reductions in rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain that would be considered clinically normal have been associated with compensatory saccades. We evaluated whether compensatory saccade characteristics varied as a function of age, independent of semicircular canal function as quantified by VOR gain.Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 participants age 27-93 from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT. Latency and amplitude of the first saccade (either covert – occurring during head impulse, or overt – occurring following head impulse were measured for head impulses with compensatory saccades (n = 2230 head impulses. The relationship between age and saccade latency, as well as the relationship between age and saccade amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for VOR gain, gender, and race.Results: Older adults (mean age 75.9 made significantly larger compensatory saccades relative to younger adults (mean age 45.0. In analyses adjusted for VOR gain, there was a significant association between age and amplitude of the first compensatory covert saccade (β = 0.015, p = 0.008. In analyses adjusted for VOR gain, there was a significant association between age and amplitude of the first compensatory overt saccade (β = 0.02, p < 0.001. Compensatory saccade latencies did not vary significantly by age. Conclusions: We observed that aging increases the compensatory catch-up saccade amplitude in healthy adults after controlling for VOR gain. Size of compensatory saccades may be useful in addition to VOR gain for characterizing vestibular function in aging adults.

  10. Effects of a low dose of alcohol on cognitive biases and craving in heavy drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Field, M.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Heavy alcohol drinking increases the incentive salience of alcohol-related cues. This leads to increased appetitive motivation to drink alcohol as measured by subjective craving and cognitive biases such as attentional bias and approach bias. Although these measures relate to the same

  11. Video game playing increases food intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Visby, Trine; Nyby, Signe; Klingenberg, Lars; Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Tremblay, Angelo; Astrup, Arne; Sjödin, Anders

    2011-01-01

    .... With the use of a randomized crossover design, 22 healthy, normal-weight, male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 16.7 ± 1.1 y) completed two 1-h experimental conditions, namely video game play and rest in a sitting position, followed by an ad libitum lunch...

  12. Narrative increases step counts during active video game play among children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity (PA) level offer a novel alternative to child obesity. Unfortunately, children's motivation to play AVG decreases quickly, underscoring the need to find new methods to maintain their engagement. According to narrative transportation th...

  13. Online Video Tutorials Increase Learning of Difficult Concepts in an Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Swenson, Sandra; Lents, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Educational technology has enhanced, even revolutionized, pedagogy in many areas of higher education. This study examines the incorporation of video tutorials as a supplement to learning in an undergraduate analytical chemistry course. The concepts and problems in which students faced difficulty were first identified by assessing students'…

  14. Desensitizing addiction: using eye movements to reduce the intensity of substance-related mental imagery and craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eLittel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall a traumatic memory while making horizontal eye movements (EM. Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories, but also positive memories and imagined events. Substance use behavior and craving are maintained by maladaptive memory associations and visual imagery. Preliminary findings have indicated that these mental images can be desensitized by EMDR techniques. We conducted two proof-of-principle studies to investigate whether EM can reduce the sensory richness of substance-related mental representations and accompanying craving levels. We investigated the effects of EM on 1 vividness of food-related mental imagery and food craving in dieting and non-dieting students, and 2 vividness of recent smoking-related memories and cigarette craving in daily smokers. In both experiments, participants recalled the images while making EM or keeping eyes stationary. Image vividness and emotionality, image-specific craving and general craving were measured before and after the intervention. As a behavioral outcome measure, participants in study 1 were offered a snack choice at the end of the experiment.Results of both experiments showed that image vividness and craving increased in the control condition, but remained stable or decreased after the EM intervention. EM additionally reduced image emotionality (exp 2, and affected behavior (exp 1: participants in the EM condition were more inclined to choose healthy over unhealthy snack options. In conclusion, the data suggest that EM can be used to reduce intensity of substance related imagery and craving. Although long-term effects are yet to be demonstrated, the current studies suggest that EM might be a useful technique in addiction treatment.

  15. Intranasal Oxytocin Selectively Modulates Social Perception, Craving, and Approach Behavior in Subjects With Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer M; Arcuni, Peter A; Weinstein, Dawn; Woolley, Josh D

    2016-01-01

    A pharmacotherapy that both improves social abilities and promotes abstinence may be particularly helpful for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Recent clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that oxytocin has prosocial and antiaddiction effects. We performed a pilot, laboratory-based, preclinical trial of oxytocin in subjects with alcohol abuse (as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 Edition criteria) to evaluate therapeutic potential and assess tolerability. Social perceptual ability, cue-induced craving, and approach bias for alcohol and appetitive imagery were quantified after intranasal oxytocin and placebo administration to 32 nontreatment-seeking individuals with alcohol abuse in a double-blind, crossover study. Because attachment style can moderate the effects of oxytocin, we also explored whether attachment style moderated oxytocin's effects on our behavioral measures. Oxytocin significantly improved recognition of easier items on a social perception task, but had no significant group-level effect on cue-induced craving. However, oxytocin effects on craving were moderated by attachment anxiety, with oxytocin reducing craving in more anxiously attached individuals and increasing craving in less anxiously attached individuals. Subjects did not display an approach bias to alcohol images on the placebo day, preventing meaningful analysis of this measure. Subjects did display an approach bias to appetitive images on the placebo day, which was significantly reduced by oxytocin administration. No adverse reactions were observed. Intranasal oxytocin has potential to improve social perception, reduce cue-induced alcohol cravings, and reduce appetitive approach bias in subjects with alcohol abuse, and can be safely tolerated in this population. The effects of oxytocin are complex, however, and require further investigation.

  16. Extinction of conditioned cues attenuates incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Heather B; Zbukvic, Isabel C; Luikinga, Sophia J; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to drug use is often precipitated by exposure to drug associated cues that evoke craving. Cue-induced drug craving has been observed in both animals and humans to increase over the first few weeks of abstinence and remain high over extended periods, a phenomenon known as 'incubation of craving'. As adolescence represents a period of vulnerability to developing drug addiction, potentially due to persistent reactivity to drug associated cues, we first compared incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (P35) and adult (P70) rats were trained to lever press to obtain intravenous cocaine, with each drug delivery accompanied by a light cue that served as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Following acquisition of stable responding, rats were tested for cue-induced cocaine-seeking after either 1 or 30days of abstinence. Additional groups of rats were also tested after 30days of abstinence, however these rats were subjected to a cue extinction session 1week into the abstinence period. Rats were injected with aripiprazole, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like partial agonist, or vehicle, 30min prior to cue extinction. We found that adolescent and adult rats acquired and maintained a similar level of cocaine self-administration, and rats of both ages exhibited a higher level of cue-induced cocaine-seeking if they were tested after 30days of abstinence compared to 1day. Incubation of cocaine craving was significantly reduced to 1day levels in both adults and adolescents that received cue extinction training. Administration of aripiprazole prior to cue extinction did not further reduce cue-induced drug-seeking. These results indicate that cue extinction training during abstinence may effectively reduce cue-induced relapse at a time when cue-induced drug craving is usually high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol Demand, Future Orientation, and Craving Mediate the Relation Between Depressive and Stress Symptoms and Alcohol Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Kathryn E; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2017-06-01

    Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. This study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving. Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge-drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month. Participants completed self-report measures of stress and depression, alcohol demand, future time orientation, craving, and alcohol problems. In separate mediation models that accounted for gender, race, and weekly alcohol consumption, future orientation and craving significantly mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems. Alcohol demand, future orientation, and craving significantly mediated the relation between stress symptoms and alcohol problems. Heavy-drinking young adults who experience stress or depression are likely to experience alcohol problems, and this is due in part to elevations in craving and alcohol demand, and less sensitivity to future outcomes. Interventions targeting alcohol misuse in young adults with elevated levels of depression and stress should attempt to increase future orientation and decrease craving and alcohol reward value. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Cue-induced cigarette craving and mixed emotions: a role for positive affect in the craving process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Conrad, Megan; Kassel, Jon D

    2013-04-01

    Craving is an important component of nicotine addiction, and extant research has demonstrated a clear link between cue-induced craving and negative affect, with mixed results in the positive affect domain. The current study was designed to test the idea that cue-reactive craving might be associated with a mixed emotional process, or the simultaneous experience of positive and negative affect. Participants were 86 non-deprived regular smokers and tobacco chippers who provided simultaneous ratings of positive and negative affect during cue exposure to pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cigarette cues. Results indicated that self-reported craving was elevated in response to cigarette cues compared to other valenced cue types and craving was higher to pleasant cues than either neutral or unpleasant cues. Mixed emotional responses were higher to cigarette cues than other cue types. In addition, mixed emotional responses to cigarette cues predicted craving even after controlling for smoker type, difficulties regulating negative emotion, baseline craving level and mixed emotional responses to neutral cues. As the first study to investigate mixed emotions and cigarette craving, our results highlight the importance of examining the relationship between cue-reactive craving and emotional response using models of emotion that allow for measurement of nuanced emotional experience. In addition, our findings suggest that positive affect processes may indeed play a role in craving among non-deprived smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coronary artery disease is associated with an increased mortality rate following video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandri, Alberto; Petersen, Rene Horsleben; Decaluwé, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy in patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Multicentre retrospective analysis of 1699 patients undergoing VATS lobectomy...... (January 2012-March 2015). CAD definition: previous acute myocardial infarct (AMI), angina, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). MACE definition: postoperative acute myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrest or any cardiac death. Propensity score analysis was performed...

  1. Craving and attentional bias respond differently to alcohol priming: a field study in the pub

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, T.M.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several experimental laboratory studies have shown that subjective craving for alcohol increases as a result of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption. Less is known about alcohol prime effects on relatively automatic appetitive motivational processes such as attentional bias

  2. The craving experience questionnaire: a brief, theory-based measure of consummatory desire and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David J; Feeney, Gerald F X; Gullo, Mathew J; Statham, Dixie J; Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Connolly, Jennifer M; Cassimatis, Mandy; Young, Ross McD; Connor, Jason P

    2014-05-01

    Research into craving is hampered by lack of theoretical specification and a plethora of substance-specific measures. This study aimed to develop a generic measure of craving based on elaborated intrusion (EI) theory. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) examined whether a generic measure replicated the three-factor structure of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) scale over different consummatory targets and time-frames. Twelve studies were pooled for CFA. Targets included alcohol, cigarettes, chocolate and food. Focal periods varied from the present moment to the previous week. Separate analyses were conducted for strength and frequency forms. Nine studies included university students, with single studies drawn from an internet survey, a community sample of smokers and alcohol-dependent out-patients. A heterogeneous sample of 1230 participants. Adaptations of the ACE questionnaire. Both craving strength [comparative fit indices (CFI = 0.974; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.039, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.035-0.044] and frequency (CFI = 0.971, RMSEA = 0.049, 95% CI = 0.044-0.055) gave an acceptable three-factor solution across desired targets that mapped onto the structure of the original ACE (intensity, imagery, intrusiveness), after removing an item, re-allocating another and taking intercorrelated error terms into account. Similar structures were obtained across time-frames and targets. Preliminary validity data on the resulting 10-item Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) for cigarettes and alcohol were strong. The Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) is a brief, conceptually grounded and psychometrically sound measure of desires. It demonstrates a consistent factor structure across a range of consummatory targets in both laboratory and clinical contexts. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Effect of Stress and Bupropion on Craving, Withdrawal Symptoms, and Mood in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drone, David; Thuras, Paul; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Brauer, Lisa; Adson, David E.; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies suggest that in smokers attempting to quit smoking, the occurrence of stressful events is associated with smoking relapse. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bupropion (an agent known to increase smoking cessation rates) on the craving, withdrawal, and mood response to stressful tasks administered in a laboratory setting. Methods: Response to three tasks (a speech, math, and cold pressor task) was measured in 65 smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smokers were then randomized to either bupropion or placebo. Fourteen days after starting medication, 43 subjects (28 receiving bupropion and 15 receiving placebo) quit smoking and laboratory procedures were repeated on the third day of abstinence. Results: Prior to cessation, stressors presented in a laboratory setting increased craving, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and subjective distress but decreased positive affect. Thirty minutes of relaxation after the stressors did not result in these measures returning to prestress levels. During the nicotine withdrawal period, stress-induced responses were generally smaller than during the precessation period. Bupropion (relative to placebo) reduced overall levels of craving and withdrawal symptoms but did not have significant effects on response to stress during the nicotine withdrawal period. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that stress results in sustained increases in craving and withdrawal symptoms and changes in mood symptoms and that bupropion affects overall levels of these symptoms. Further research is needed to determine if modifying response to stress is predictive of an effective treatment for facilitating smoking cessation. PMID:21378081

  4. Impulsivity and cigarette craving among adolescent daily and occasional smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Burris, Jessica L; Froeliger, Brett; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is robustly related to cigarette smoking. While underlying factors that account for this relation are not well understood, craving has been proposed as a central mechanism linking impulsivity to smoking. In order to further refine our understanding of associations between impulsivity and cigarette craving, the current study examined the association between impulsivity and tonic and cue-elicited craving among a sample of adolescent smokers. We expected trait impulsivity would be positively associated with both tonic and cue-elicited craving, and that this relationship would be stronger among daily vs. occasional smokers. 106 smokers (ages 16-20) completed the questionnaires and reported their cigarette craving prior to and immediately following presentation of each of three counterbalanced cue types: (a) in vivo smoking, (b) alcohol, and (c) neutral cue. Impulsivity was positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers (β=.38; p=.005), but not occasional smokers (β=.01; p=.95), with a significant impulsivity x smoker group interaction (β=1.31; p=.03). Impulsivity was unrelated to craving following smoking or alcohol cue, regardless of smoker group (all p's>.16). Results suggest a moderated effect in which impulsivity is positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers, but not occasional smokers. Tonic craving may serve as a mechanism linking impulsivity, smoking persistence, and nicotine dependence among daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subjective craving and event-related brain response to olfactory and visual chocolate cues in binge-eating and healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, I.; Sauvaget, A.; Granero, R.; Mestre-Bach, G.; Baño, M.; Martín-Romera, V.; Veciana de las Heras, M.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Jansen, A.; Roefs, A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.

    2017-01-01

    High-sugar/high-fat foods are related to binge-eating behaviour and especially people with low inhibitory control may encounter elevated difficulties to resist their intake. Incentive sensitization to food-related cues might lead to increased motivated attention towards these stimuli and to cue-induced craving. To investigate the combined influence of olfactory and visual stimuli on craving, inhibitory control and motivated attention, 20 healthy controls and 19 individuals with binge-eating viewed chocolate and neutral pictures, primed by chocolate or neutral odours. Subjective craving and electroencephalogram activity were recorded during the task. N2 and Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were analysed. Patients reported higher craving than controls. Subjective craving, N2 and LPP amplitudes were higher for chocolate versus neutral pictures. Patients showed a higher relative increase in N2 amplitudes to chocolate versus neutral pictures than controls. Chocolate images induced significant increases in craving, motivated attention and measures of cognitive control. Chocolate odour might potentiate the craving response to visual stimuli, especially in patients with binge-eating. PMID:28155875

  6. Subjective craving and event-related brain response to olfactory and visual chocolate cues in binge-eating and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, I; Sauvaget, A; Granero, R; Mestre-Bach, G; Baño, M; Martín-Romera, V; Veciana de Las Heras, M; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Jansen, A; Roefs, A; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2017-02-03

    High-sugar/high-fat foods are related to binge-eating behaviour and especially people with low inhibitory control may encounter elevated difficulties to resist their intake. Incentive sensitization to food-related cues might lead to increased motivated attention towards these stimuli and to cue-induced craving. To investigate the combined influence of olfactory and visual stimuli on craving, inhibitory control and motivated attention, 20 healthy controls and 19 individuals with binge-eating viewed chocolate and neutral pictures, primed by chocolate or neutral odours. Subjective craving and electroencephalogram activity were recorded during the task. N2 and Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were analysed. Patients reported higher craving than controls. Subjective craving, N2 and LPP amplitudes were higher for chocolate versus neutral pictures. Patients showed a higher relative increase in N2 amplitudes to chocolate versus neutral pictures than controls. Chocolate images induced significant increases in craving, motivated attention and measures of cognitive control. Chocolate odour might potentiate the craving response to visual stimuli, especially in patients with binge-eating.

  7. Virtually compliant: Immersive video gaming increases conformity to false computer judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Weger, Ulrich W.; Loughnan, Stephen; Sharma, Dinkar; Gonidis, Lazaros

    2015-01-01

    Real-life encounters with face-to-face contact are on the decline in a world in which many routine tasks are\\ud delegated to virtual characters—a development that bears both opportunities and risks. Interacting with such virtual-reality\\ud beings is particularly common during role-playing videogames, in which we incarnate into the virtual reality of\\ud an avatar. Video gaming is known to lead to the training and development of real-life skills and behaviors; hence, in the\\ud present study we ...

  8. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Slow Paced Breathing on Current Food Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) involves slow paced breathing (approximately six breaths per minute), thereby maximizing low-frequent heart rate oscillations and baroreflex gain. Mounting evidence suggests that HRV-BF promotes symptom reductions in a variety of physical and mental disorders. It may also positively affect eating behavior by reducing food cravings. The aim of the current study was to investigate if slow paced breathing can be useful for attenuating momentary food craving. Female students performed paced breathing either at six breaths per minute (n = 32) or at nine breaths per minute (n = 33) while watching their favorite food on the computer screen. Current food craving decreased during a first resting period, increased during paced breathing, and decreased during a second resting period in both conditions. Although current hunger increased in both conditions during paced breathing as well, it remained elevated after the second resting period in the nine breaths condition only. Thus, breathing rate did not influence specific food craving, but slow paced breathing appeared to have a delayed influence on state hunger. Future avenues are suggested for the study of HRV-BF in the context of eating behavior.

  9. Volitional reduction of anterior cingulate cortex activity produces decreased cue craving in smoking cessation: a preliminary real-time fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingbao; Hartwell, Karen J; Borckardt, Jeffery; Prisciandaro, James J; Saladin, Michael E; Morgan, Paul S; Johnson, Kevin A; Lematty, Todd; Brady, Kathleen T; George, Mark S

    2013-07-01

    Numerous research groups are now using analysis of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results and relaying back information about regional activity in their brains to participants in the scanner in 'real time'. In this study, we explored the feasibility of self-regulation of frontal cortical activation using real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers during exposure to smoking cues. Ten cigarette smokers were shown smoking-related visual cues in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner to induce their nicotine craving. Participants were instructed to modify their craving using rtfMRI feedback with two different approaches. In a 'reduce craving' paradigm, participants were instructed to 'reduce' their craving, and decrease the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity. In a separate 'increase resistance' paradigm, participants were asked to increase their resistance to craving and to increase middle prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity. We found that participants were able to significantly reduce the BOLD signal in the ACC during the 'reduce craving' task (P=0.028). There was a significant correlation between decreased ACC activation and reduced craving ratings during the 'reduce craving' session (P=0.011). In contrast, there was no modulation of the BOLD signal in mPFC during the 'increase resistance' session. These preliminary results suggest that some smokers may be able to use neurofeedback via rtfMRI to voluntarily regulate ACC activation and temporarily reduce smoking cue-induced craving. Further research is needed to determine the optimal parameters of neurofeedback rtfMRI, and whether it might eventually become a therapeutic tool for nicotine dependence. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Increased ISR operator capability utilizing a centralized 360° full motion video display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andryc, K.; Chamberlain, J.; Eagleson, T.; Gottschalk, G.; Kowal, B.; Kuzdeba, P.; LaValley, D.; Myers, E.; Quinn, S.; Rose, M.; Rusiecki, B.

    2012-06-01

    In many situations, the difference between success and failure comes down to taking the right actions quickly. While the myriad of electronic sensors available today can provide data quickly, it may overload the operator; where only a contextualized centralized display of information and intuitive human interface can help to support the quick and effective decisions needed. If these decisions are to result in quick actions, then the operator must be able to understand all of the data of his environment. In this paper we present a novel approach in contextualizing multi-sensor data onto a full motion video real-time 360 degree imaging display. The system described could function as a primary display system for command and control in security, military and observation posts. It has the ability to process and enable interactive control of multiple other sensor systems. It enhances the value of these other sensors by overlaying their information on a panorama of the surroundings. Also, it can be used to interface to other systems including: auxiliary electro-optical systems, aerial video, contact management, Hostile Fire Indicators (HFI), and Remote Weapon Stations (RWS).

  11. Daily stressors as antecedents, correlates, and consequences of alcohol and drug use and cravings in community-based offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Shevaun D; Desmarais, Sarah L; Gray, Julie S; Cohn, Amy M; Doherty, Stephen; Knight, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Justice-involved individuals with alcohol and drug use problems reoffend at higher rates than their nonusing counterparts, with alcohol and drug use serving as an important vector to recidivism. At the daily level, exposure to stressors may exacerbate problematic alcohol and drug use; at the individual level, prior treatment experiences may mitigate substance use as individuals adapt to and learn new coping mechanisms. We conducted a daily diary study using Interactive Voice Response technology over 14 consecutive days with 117 men on probation or parole participating in a community-based treatment program (n = 860 calls) and referred to medication-assisted treatment. Participants reported daily stressors, craving for alcohol and illegal drugs, and use of alcohol and illegal drugs 1 time each day. Results of multilevel models showed significant day-to-day fluctuation in alcohol and drug craving and use. In concurrent models, increases in daily stressors were associated with increases in cravings and use of illegal drugs. Prior treatment experience modified many of these relationships, and additional lagged models revealed that those with less treatment experience reported an increase in next-day alcohol craving when they experienced increases in stressors on the previous day compared to those with more treatment experience. Collectively, these findings highlight the importance of tailoring treatment as a function of individual differences, including prior treatment experiences, and targeting daily stressors and subsequent cravings among justice-involved adults with alcohol and drug use problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Influence of smoking cues in movies on craving among smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Research has shown that smoking-related cues are important triggers for craving. The objective of the present study was to test whether smoking cues in movies also function as triggers to evoke craving. To accomplish this, we conducted a pilot study in which we examined smokers' reactivity to

  13. Craving in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Becker, Theresa; Thiel, Maria Chantal; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne

    2013-11-01

    Cannabis use is widespread among patients with schizophrenia despite its negative impact on the course of the disease. Craving is a considerable predictor for relapse in people with substance use disorders. Our investigation aimed to gain insight into the intensity and dimensions of cravings in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use disorders (CUDs), compared with otherwise healthy people with CUDs (control subjects). We examined 51 patients with schizophrenia and CUDs and 51 control subjects by means of the Cannabis-Craving Screening questionnaire. We found greater overall intensity of craving and greater relief craving in patients with schizophrenia and CUDs. Reward craving was greater in the CUDs group. Relief craving was associated with symptoms of schizophrenia in patients with schizophrenia and CUDs. Our findings are in line with the view that aspects of self-medication or affect regulation may account (at least in part) for cannabis use in people with schizophrenia. A better understanding of the dimensions of craving may help to improve targeted therapeutic interventions that aim to reduce drug consumption in this difficult-to-treat patient group.

  14. Food cravings, aversions and pica among pregnant women in Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most women craved for meat and sour and savoury foods, and avoided rice, meat and fish. Soil consumption was the pica observed in most women. Since aversions and cravings are closely linked to dietary intake of pregnant woman understanding these behaviours is important in addressing maternal nutrition.

  15. Cue-induced craving for Internet among Internet addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Geng-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Kong, Fan-Chang; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Kui

    2016-11-01

    Intense craving is a core feature of addictive disorder, and cue-induced craving is believed to be a key factor in the maintenance and relapse of addictive behaviors. With the rapid development of the Internet, Internet addiction has become a widespread behavioral problem accompanied by many negative effects. This study used the cue-reactivity paradigm to examine cue-induced craving for the Internet among Internet addicts and non-addicts. Participants were exposed to Internet-related words, and asked to report their craving for the Internet. Results indicated that Internet-related words aroused cue-induced craving for the Internet among both Internet addicts and non-addicts; however, the craving was more intense among Internet addicts. These results suggest that craving may not be a unipolar, all or none state found only in addicts, but may also be present among non-addicts. They indicate that Internet-related words may be able to induce craving for the Internet, and that Internet addiction and other addictions may share similar underlying mechanisms. This finding has important implications for designing interventions for Internet addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural Correlates of Stress- and Food Cue–Induced Food Craving in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M.; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl; Small, Dana M.; Sherwin, Robert S.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with alterations in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions involved in food motivation and reward. Stress and the presence of food cues may each motivate eating and engage corticolimibic-striatal neurocircuitry. It is unknown how these factors interact to influence brain responses and whether these interactions are influenced by obesity, insulin levels, and insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that obese individuals would show greater responses in corticolimbic-striatal neurocircuitry after exposure to stress and food cues and that brain activations would correlate with subjective food craving, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fasting insulin levels were assessed in obese and lean subjects who were exposed to individualized stress and favorite-food cues during functional MRI. RESULTS Obese, but not lean, individuals exhibited increased activation in striatal, insular, and hypothalamic regions during exposure to favorite-food and stress cues. In obese but not lean individuals, food craving, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels correlated positively with neural activity in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions during favorite-food and stress cues. The relationship between insulin resistance and food craving in obese individuals was mediated by activity in motivation-reward regions including the striatum, insula, and thalamus. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate that obese, but not lean, individuals exhibit increased corticolimbic-striatal activation in response to favorite-food and stress cues and that these brain responses mediate the relationship between HOMA-IR and food craving. Improving insulin sensitivity and in turn reducing corticolimbic-striatal reactivity to food cues and stress may diminish food craving and affect eating behavior in obesity. PMID:23069840

  17. Incubation of Methamphetamine and Palatable Food Craving after Punishment-Induced Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnova, Irina N; Marchant, Nathan J; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Panlilio, Leigh V; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin; Cadet, Jean L

    2014-01-01

    In a rat model of drug craving and relapse, cue-induced drug seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from methamphetamine and other drugs, a phenomenon termed ‘incubation of drug craving'. However, current experimental procedures used to study incubation of drug craving do not incorporate negative consequences of drug use, which is a common factor promoting abstinence in humans. Here, we studied whether incubation of methamphetamine craving is observed after suppression of drug seeking by adverse consequences (punishment). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine or palatable food for 9 h per day for 14 days; reward delivery was paired with a tone-light cue. Subsequently, for one group within each reward type, 50% of the lever-presses were punished by mild footshock for 9–10 days, whereas for the other group lever-presses were not punished. Shock intensity was gradually increased over time. Next, we assessed cue-induced reward seeking in 1-h extinction sessions on withdrawal days 2 and 21. Response-contingent punishment suppressed extended-access methamphetamine or food self-administration; surprisingly, food-trained rats showed greater resistance to punishment than methamphetamine-trained rats. During the relapse tests, both punished and unpunished methamphetamine- and food-trained rats showed significantly higher cue-induced reward seeking on withdrawal day 21 than on day 2. These results demonstrate that incubation of both methamphetamine and food craving occur after punishment-induced suppression of methamphetamine or palatable food self-administration. Our procedure can be used to investigate mechanisms of relapse to drug and palatable food seeking under conditions that more closely approximate the human condition. PMID:24584329

  18. Modulation of Craving Related Brain Responses Using Real-Time fMRI in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Karch

    Full Text Available One prominent symptom in addiction disorders is the strong desire to consume a particular substance or to display a certain behaviour (craving. Especially the strong association between craving and the probability of relapse emphasises the importance of craving in the therapeutic process. Neuroimaging studies have shown that craving is associated with increased responses, predominantly in fronto-striatal areas.The aim of the present study is the modification of craving-related neuronal responses in patients with alcohol addiction using fMRI real-time neurofeedback. For that purpose, patients with alcohol use disorder and healthy controls participated once in neurofeedback training; during the sessions neuronal activity within an individualized cortical region of interest (ROI (anterior cingulate cortex, insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was evaluated. In addition, variations regarding the connectivity between brain regions were assessed in the resting state.The results showed a significant reduction of neuronal activity in patients at the end of the training compared to the beginning, especially in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the inferior temporal gyrus and the medial frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the results show that patients were able to regulate their neuronal activities in the ROI, whereas healthy subjects achieved no significant reduction. However, there was a wide variability regarding the effects of the training within the group of patients. After the neurofeedback-sessions, individual craving was slightly reduced compared to baseline. The results demonstrate that it seems feasible for patients with alcohol dependency to reduce their neuronal activity using rtfMRI neurofeedback. In addition, there is some evidence that craving can be influenced with the help of this technique.In future, real-time fMRI might be a complementary neurophysiological-based strategy for the psychotherapy of patients with psychiatric or

  19. Modulation of Craving Related Brain Responses Using Real-Time fMRI in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hümmer, Sebastian; Paolini, Marco; Kirsch, Valerie; Karali, Temmuz; Kupka, Michael; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Chrobok, Agnieszka; Blautzik, Janusch; Koller, Gabi; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Pogarell, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Literature One prominent symptom in addiction disorders is the strong desire to consume a particular substance or to display a certain behaviour (craving). Especially the strong association between craving and the probability of relapse emphasises the importance of craving in the therapeutic process. Neuroimaging studies have shown that craving is associated with increased responses, predominantly in fronto-striatal areas. Aim and Methods The aim of the present study is the modification of craving-related neuronal responses in patients with alcohol addiction using fMRI real-time neurofeedback. For that purpose, patients with alcohol use disorder and healthy controls participated once in neurofeedback training; during the sessions neuronal activity within an individualized cortical region of interest (ROI) (anterior cingulate cortex, insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) was evaluated. In addition, variations regarding the connectivity between brain regions were assessed in the resting state. Results and Discussion The results showed a significant reduction of neuronal activity in patients at the end of the training compared to the beginning, especially in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the inferior temporal gyrus and the medial frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the results show that patients were able to regulate their neuronal activities in the ROI, whereas healthy subjects achieved no significant reduction. However, there was a wide variability regarding the effects of the training within the group of patients. After the neurofeedback-sessions, individual craving was slightly reduced compared to baseline. The results demonstrate that it seems feasible for patients with alcohol dependency to reduce their neuronal activity using rtfMRI neurofeedback. In addition, there is some evidence that craving can be influenced with the help of this technique. Future Prospects In future, real-time fMRI might be a complementary neurophysiological-based strategy for the

  20. Video games as virtual teachers: Prosocial video game use by children and adolescents from different socioeconomic groups is associated with increased empathy and prosocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Brian; O'Connell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine if there was a positive relationship between prosocial video game use and prosocial behaviour in children and adolescents. Method: This study had a cross-sectional correlational design. Data were collected from 538 9–15 year old children and adolescents between March and December 2014. Participants completed measures of empathy, prosocial behaviour and video game habits. Teachers rated the prosocial behaviour of participants. The socioeco...

  1. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy

    2016-06-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.

  2. Crave-Out: A Distraction/Motivation Mobile Game to Assist in Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaughter, Kathryn L; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Kamberi, Ariana; English, Thomas M; Seward, Greg L; Chan, S Wayne; Volkman, Julie E; Amante, Daniel J; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-05-26

    Smoking is still the number one preventable cause of death. Cravings-an intense desire or longing for a cigarette-are a major contributor to quit attempt failure. New tools to help smokers' manage their cravings are needed. To present a case study of the development process and testing of a distraction/motivation game (Crave-Out) to help manage cravings. We used a phased approach: in Phase 1 (alpha testing), we tested and refined the game concept, using a Web-based prototype. In Phase 2 (beta testing), we evaluated the distraction/motivation potential of the mobile game prototype, using a prepost design. After varying duration of abstinence, smokers completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urge-Brief (QSU-Brief) measurement before and after playing Crave-Out. Paired t tests were used to compare pregame and postgame QSU-Brief levels. To test dissemination potential, we released the game on the Apple iTunes App Store and tracked downloads between December 22, 2011, and May 5, 2014. Our concept refinement resulted in a multilevel, pattern memory challenge game, with each level increasing in difficulty. Smokers could play the game as long as they wanted. At the end of each level, smokers were provided clear goals for the next level and rewards (positive reinforcement using motivational tokens that represented a benefit of quitting smoking). Negative reinforcement was removed in alpha testing as smokers felt it reminded them of smoking. Measurement of QSU-Brief (N=30) resulted in a pregame mean of 3.24 (SD 1.65) and postgame mean of 2.99 (SD 1.40) with an overall decrease of 0.25 in cravings (not statistically significant). In a subset analysis, the QSU-Brief decrease was significant for smokers abstinent for more than 48 hours (N=5) with a pregame mean of 2.84 (SD 1.16) and a postgame mean of 2.0 (SD 0.94; change=0.84; P =.03). Between December 22, 2011, and May 29, 2014, the game was downloaded 3372 times from the App-Store, with 1526 smokers visiting the online

  3. Chocolate craving and disordered eating. Beyond the gender divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M; Orloff, Natalia C; Timko, C Alix

    2014-12-01

    Chocolate craving in women has previously been linked to disordered eating behaviors. A relatively higher prevalence of eating disorder pathology may account for the fact that chocolate craving is significantly more common in women in North America, compared to many other countries. While support for a causal role of disordered eating in the etiology of craving in women is growing, little is known about the extent to which food cravings are associated with disordered eating behaviors in men. This study was designed to systematically assess the impact of gender and chocolate craving on measures of attitudes to chocolate, responsiveness to food cues in the environment, body shape dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and eating disorder and general pathology. Undergraduate men and women (n = 645, 37.2% male) were invited to complete self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, height and weight, food cravings, dietary attitudes and behaviors, along with eating disorder and general pathology. Data suggest that the relationship between chocolate craving and disordered eating behaviors in men is the opposite of what has previously been observed in women: compared to non-cravers, male chocolate cravers reported significantly more guilt related to craving, but were significantly less likely to diet and reported lower levels of dietary restraint, less frequent weight fluctuations, and fewer symptoms of eating disorders. Findings indicate that a positive relationship between disordered eating behaviors and chocolate craving may be unique to women (and potentially women in North America). Findings have important implications for our understanding of cultural and psychosocial factors involved in the etiology of food cravings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Darshan; Müller, Christian P; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K

    2014-06-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) preparations have been traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal properties. Lately, Kratom use has spread to Europe and the US, where abuse potential and health hazards increasingly emerge. This study is the first to measure systematically Kratom dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and drug craving in regular Kratom users in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of 293 regular Kratom users was conducted in the community across three northern peninsular states of Malaysia. The Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist, and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Short Form were used to measure Kratom dependence, withdrawal and craving. More than half of the regular users (>6 month of use) developed severe Kratom dependence problems, while 45% showed a moderate Kratom dependence. Physical withdrawal symptoms commonly experienced include muscle spasms and pain, sleeping difficulty, watery eyes/nose, hot flashes, fever, decreased appetite, and diarrhoea. Psychological withdrawal symptoms commonly reported were restlessness, tension, anger, sadness, and nervousness. The average amount of the psychoactive compound, mitragynine, in a single dose of a Kratom drink was 79mg, suggesting an average daily intake of 276.5mg. Regular users who consumed ≥3 glasses Kratom per day, had higher odds of developing severe Kratom dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and inability to control Kratom craving. The findings from this study show that regular Kratom use is associated with drug dependency, development of withdrawal symptoms, and craving. These symptoms become more severe with prolonged use and suggest a stronger control of the drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental effects of chocolate deprivation on cravings, mood, and consumption in high and low chocolate-cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Dominguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Martín, María; Warren, Cortney S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how deprivation of chocolate affects state-level chocolate cravings, mood, and chocolate consumption in high and low trait-level chocolate-cravers. After identifying high and low chocolate cravers (N=58), half of the participants were instructed not to eat any chocolate for 2weeks. This created four experimental groups: deprived high-cravers (n=14), deprived low-cravers (n=14), non-deprived high-cravers (n=15), and non-deprived low-cravers (n=15). Following 2-week deprivation, state-level food cravings, mood, and chocolate intake were measured in a laboratory setting and compared across groups. Analyses revealed that anxiety increased over time for high-cravers (both deprived and non-deprived); state-level chocolate- and food-craving increased over time for both deprived groups and non-deprived high-cravers; non-deprived high-cravers ate the most chocolate; and, high-cravers were more joyful and guilty than low-cravers after eating chocolate in the laboratory. Theoretically, these results suggest that chocolate consumption may be better explained by trait-level of chocolate craving than by deprivation and highlighted significant differences in mood, state-level cravings, and chocolate intake between cravers and non-cravers following deprivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tests of the elaborated intrusion theory of craving and desire: Features of alcohol craving during treatment for an alcohol disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, David J; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie

    2009-09-01

    We tested predictions from the elaborated intrusion (EI) theory of desire, which distinguishes intrusive thoughts and elaborations, and emphasizes the importance of imagery. Secondarily, we undertook preliminary evaluations of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) questionnaire, a new measure based on EI Theory. Participants (N = 232) were in correspondence-based treatment trials for alcohol abuse or dependence. The study used retrospective reports obtained early in treatment using the ACE, and daily self-monitoring of urges, craving, mood and alcohol consumption. The ACE displayed high internal consistency and test - retest reliability and sound relationships with self-monitored craving, and was related to Baseline alcohol dependence, but not to consumption. Imagery during craving was experienced by 81%, with 2.3 senses involved on average. More frequent imagery was associated with longer episode durations and stronger craving. Transient intrusive thoughts were reported by 87% of respondents, and were more common if they frequently attempted to stop alcohol cognitions. Associations between average daily craving and weekly consumption were seen. Depression and negative mood were associated with more frequent, stronger and longer lasting desires for alcohol. Results supported the distinction of automatic and controlled processes in craving, together with the importance of craving imagery. They were also consistent with prediction of consumption from cross-situational averages of craving, and with positive associations between craving and negative mood. However, this study's retrospective reporting and correlational design require that its results be interpreted cautiously. Research using ecological momentary measures and laboratory manipulations is needed before confident inferences about causality can be made.

  7. I am right, you are wrong: how biased assimilation increases the perceived gap between believers and skeptics of violent video game effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Greitemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants (N = 662 indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases.

  8. I Am Right, You Are Wrong: How Biased Assimilation Increases the Perceived Gap between Believers and Skeptics of Violent Video Game Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N = 662) indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases. PMID:24722467

  9. I am right, you are wrong: how biased assimilation increases the perceived gap between believers and skeptics of violent video game effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies, there is continuing debate about the extent to which violent video games increase aggression. Believers argue that playing violent video games increases aggression, but this stance is disputed by skeptics. The present study addressed believers' and skeptics' responses to summaries of scientific studies that do or do not present evidence for increased aggression after violent video game play. Participants (N = 662) indicated whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Afterwards, they evaluated two opposing summaries of fictitious studies on the effects of violent video play. They also reported whether their initial belief had changed after reading the two summaries and indicated again whether they believed that violent video games increase aggression. Results showed that believers evaluated the study showing an effect more favorably than a study showing no effect, whereas the opposite was observed for skeptics. Moreover, both believers and skeptics reported to become more convinced of their initial view. In contrast, for actual attitude change, a depolarization effect was found. These results suggest that biased assimilation of new information leads believers and skeptics to become more rather than less certain of their views. Hence, even when confronted with mixed and inconclusive evidence, the perceived gap between both sides of the argument increases.

  10. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers’ knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers’ knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context. PMID:28122005

  11. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers' knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers' knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context.

  12. Effects of a low dose of alcohol on cognitive biases and craving in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Tim; Wiers, Reinout W; Field, Matt

    2008-03-01

    Heavy alcohol drinking increases the incentive salience of alcohol-related cues. This leads to increased appetitive motivation to drink alcohol as measured by subjective craving and cognitive biases such as attentional bias and approach bias. Although these measures relate to the same construct, correlations between these variables are often very low. Alcohol consumption might not only increase different aspects of appetitive motivation, but also correlations between those aspects. To investigate the effect of a low alcohol dose on changes in various measures of appetitive motivation. Twenty-three heavy social drinkers were tested in 2 sessions, once after receiving an alcohol prime dose and once after receiving a placebo drink. After drink administration, attentional bias was measured with a visual-probe task using concurrent eye movement monitoring. Furthermore, we measured the approach bias with a stimulus response compatibility task and subjective craving with the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire. After the alcohol prime dose, participants had higher levels of craving and more pronounced attentional bias (faster reaction times to probes that replaced alcohol rather than control pictures, increased maintenance of gaze on alcohol pictures, and a higher percentage of first eye movements directed toward alcohol pictures). Approach bias was not influenced by the alcohol prime dose. The correlation between attentional bias and approach bias was significantly higher after the alcohol than after the placebo drink. A low alcohol dose increased most measures of appetitive motivation for alcohol and increased the interrelation between cognitive measures of this construct.

  13. Craving and Chewing Ice: A Sign of Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... constantly craving and chewing ice a sign of anemia? Answers from Ruben A. Mesa, M.D. Possibly. Doctors use the term "pica" ... ice (pagophagia) is often associated with iron deficiency anemia, although the reason is unclear. At least one ...

  14. The Dynamics of Addiction: Craving versus Self-Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasman, J; Grasman, R.P.P.P; van der Maas, H.L.J

    2016-01-01

    .... They determine the change in time of two state variables, craving and self-control. The model equations contain terms that represent external forces such as societal rules, peer influences and cues...

  15. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment. It can be self-administered or integrated in an interview when abuse or problems are suspected. With the existence of a single dimension, reflected in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the scale presents adequate reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.919). Simultaneously, we are able to show significantly increased correlations (r = 0.785, p = 0.000) with the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS) and state anxiety (r = 0.330, p = 0.000). We are also able to find associations with impulsivity, measured using the urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking scale, particularly in the dimensions of negative urgency (r = 0.303, p = 0.000) and positive urgency (r = 0.290, p = 0.000), which confirms its construct validity. The analysis of these results conveys important discriminant validity among the MPPUS user categories that are obtained using the criteria by Chow et al. (1). The MPACS demonstrates higher levels of craving in persons up to 35 years of age, reversing with age. In contrast, we do not find significant differences among the sexes. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis allows us to establish the scores from which we are able to determine the different levels of craving

  16. Effects of progesterone stimulated allopregnanolone on craving and stress response in cocaine dependent men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen C; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Covault, Jonathan; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-03-01

    Fluctuations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect physiological and subjective effects of cocaine. Furthermore, our laboratory has demonstrated that following drug-cue exposure, cocaine dependent women with high levels of circulating progesterone display lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure responses and report lower levels of anxiety and drug craving compared to cocaine dependent women with low levels of progesterone. In the current study we examined the role of the progesterone derived neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) on stress arousal, inhibitory control and drug craving in cocaine dependent subjects. Plasma levels of ALLO were measured using GC/MS in 46 treatment-seeking cocaine dependent men and women on day 5 of a 7-day treatment regimen of micronized progesterone (15M/8F) (400mg/day) or placebo (14M/9F) administered in a double blind, randomized manner. As a control, levels of the testosterone derived neurosteroid androstanediol (ADIOL) were also measured. All subjects participated in laboratory sessions on days 5-7 of progesterone/placebo administration in which they were exposed to a series of 5-min personalized guided imagery of either a stressful situation, cocaine use or of a neutral setting and dependent variables including subjective craving, mood, Stroop task as a measure of inhibitory control performance and plasma cortisol were assessed. Participants were grouped by high or low ALLO level and levels of dependent variables compared between ALLO groups. Progesterone relative to placebo significantly increased ALLO levels with no sex differences. There were no effects of micronized progesterone on the testosterone derived ADIOL. Individuals in the high versus the low ALLO group showed decreased levels of cortisol at baseline, and a higher cortisol response to stress; higher positive mood scores at baseline and improved Stroop performance in the drug-cue and stress conditions, and reduced cocaine

  17. Role of Dorsomedial Striatum Neuronal Ensembles in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving after Voluntary Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zhang, Michelle; Bossert, Jennifer M; Warren, Brandon L; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-01-25

    We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we studied the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets (6 d, 6 h/d) and methamphetamine (12 d, 6 h/d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent voluntary abstinence (using a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and food; 20 trials/d) for 19 d. We used in situ hybridization to measure the colabeling of the activity marker Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in DMS and DLS after the tests. Based on the in situ hybridization colabeling results, we tested the causal role of DMS D1 and D2 family receptors, and DMS neuronal ensembles in "incubated" methamphetamine seeking, using selective dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH39166 or raclopride) and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure, respectively. Methamphetamine seeking was higher after 21 d of voluntary abstinence than after 1 d (incubation of methamphetamine craving). The incubated response was associated with increased Fos expression in DMS but not in DLS; Fos was colabeled with both Drd1 and Drd2 DMS injections of SCH39166 or raclopride selectively decreased methamphetamine seeking after 21 abstinence days. In Fos-lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of relapse test-activated Fos neurons in DMS on abstinence day 18 decreased incubated methamphetamine seeking on day 21. Results demonstrate a role of DMS dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence and that DMS neuronal ensembles mediate this incubation. In human addicts, abstinence is often self-imposed and relapse can be triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving

  18. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José De-Sola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS. It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment. It can be self-administered or integrated in an interview when abuse or problems are suspected. With the existence of a single dimension, reflected in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA, the scale presents adequate reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.919. Simultaneously, we are able to show significantly increased correlations (r = 0.785, p = 0.000 with the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and state anxiety (r = 0.330, p = 0.000. We are also able to find associations with impulsivity, measured using the urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking scale, particularly in the dimensions of negative urgency (r = 0.303, p = 0.000 and positive urgency (r = 0.290, p = 0.000, which confirms its construct validity. The analysis of these results conveys important discriminant validity among the MPPUS user categories that are obtained using the criteria by Chow et al. (1. The MPACS demonstrates higher levels of craving in persons up to 35 years of age, reversing with age. In contrast, we do not find significant differences among the sexes. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis allows us to establish the scores from which we are able to determine the different levels of

  19. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment. It can be self-administered or integrated in an interview when abuse or problems are suspected. With the existence of a single dimension, reflected in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the scale presents adequate reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.919). Simultaneously, we are able to show significantly increased correlations (r = 0.785, p = 0.000) with the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS) and state anxiety (r = 0.330, p = 0.000). We are also able to find associations with impulsivity, measured using the urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking scale, particularly in the dimensions of negative urgency (r = 0.303, p = 0.000) and positive urgency (r = 0.290, p = 0.000), which confirms its construct validity. The analysis of these results conveys important discriminant validity among the MPPUS user categories that are obtained using the criteria by Chow et al. (1). The MPACS demonstrates higher levels of craving in persons up to 35 years of age, reversing with age. In contrast, we do not find significant differences among the sexes. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis allows us to establish the scores from which we are able to determine the different levels of craving

  20. Craving sensation in the assessment of alcohol-dependent persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Juczyński

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The approach to the problems of the occurrence of and coping with alcohol craving in the course of the therapy should be similar in men and women. However, there should be more focus on the working out of coping strategies, especially in the younger patients, because of the more frequent and intensive craving they experience, which poses a greater risk of relapse and recurrence of the problem.

  1. The Internet and Video Games: Causes of Increased Aggressiveness Among Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Ružić

    2011-01-01

    The increase in youth violence is among the most serious problems facing modern society. Many experts adhere to the opinion that responsibility for this phenomenon is borne by families, schools, and the media. The so-called digital generation spends much of its free time on the Internet and accepts the values imposed by the media. The modern criterion of success is to reach glory by any means necessary. As such, it is understandable that young people, eager for publicity, look for creative wa...

  2. Does Playing Sports Video Games Predict Increased Involvement in Real-Life Sports Over Several Years Among Older Adolescents and Emerging Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-02-01

    Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among youth. Yet, this association has not been examined in the long-term among older adolescents and emerging adults, and thus represents an exciting new area for discovery. The primary goal of the current study, therefore, was to examine the long-term association between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports clubs among older adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, we examined whether self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this longitudinal association. We surveyed older adolescents and emerging adults (N = 1132; 70.6 % female; M age = 19.06 years, range of 17-25 years at the first assessment) annually over 3 years about their video game play, self-esteem, and involvement in real-life sports. We found a long-term predictive effect of sports video game play on increased involvement in real-life sports over the 3 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated that self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this long-term association. Our findings make an important contribution to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game play, as they suggest that sports video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults.

  3. Time course of electrocortical food-cue responses during cognitive regulation of craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In our current obesogenic environment, exposure to visual food-cues can easily lead to craving and overeating because short-term, pleasurable effects of food intake dominate over the anticipated long-term adverse effects such as weight gain and associated health problems. Here we contrasted these two conditions during food-cue presentation while acquiring event-related potentials (ERPs and subjective craving ratings. Female participants (n = 25 were presented with either high-calorie (HC or low-calorie (LC food images under instructions to imagine either immediate (NOW or long-term effects (LATER of consumption. On subjective ratings for HC foods, the LATER perspective reduced cravings as compared to the NOW perspective. For LC foods, by contrast, craving increased under the LATER perspective. Early ERPs (occipital N1, 150-200 ms were sensitive to food type but not to perspective. Late ERPs (late positive potential, LPP, 350-550ms were larger in the HC-LATER condition than in all other conditions, possibly indicating that a cognitive focus on negative long-term consequences induced negative arousal. This enhancement for HC-LATER attenuated to the level of the LC conditions during the later slow wave (550-3000 ms, but amplitude in the HC-NOW condition was larger than in all other conditions, possibly due to a delayed appetitive response. Across all conditions, LPP amplitudes were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. In sum, results reveal that regulation effects are secondary to early neural appetitive responses and dynamically evolve over time. Adopting a long-term perspective on eating might promote a healthier food choice across a range of food types.

  4. Time course of electrocortical food-cue responses during cognitive regulation of craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea; Blechert, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In our current obesogenic environment, exposure to visual food-cues can easily lead to craving and overeating because short-term, pleasurable effects of food intake dominate over the anticipated long-term adverse effects such as weight gain and associated health problems. Here we contrasted these two conditions during food-cue presentation while acquiring event-related potentials (ERPs) and subjective craving ratings. Female participants (n = 25) were presented with either high-calorie (HC) or low-calorie (LC) food images under instructions to imagine either immediate (NOW) or long-term effects (LATER) of consumption. On subjective ratings for HC foods, the LATER perspective reduced cravings as compared to the NOW perspective. For LC foods, by contrast, craving increased under the LATER perspective. Early ERPs (occipital N1, 150-200 ms) were sensitive to food type but not to perspective. Late ERPs (late positive potential, LPP, 350-550 ms) were larger in the HC-LATER condition than in all other conditions, possibly indicating that a cognitive focus on negative long-term consequences induced negative arousal. This enhancement for HC-LATER attenuated to the level of the LC conditions during the later slow wave (550-3000 ms), but amplitude in the HC-NOW condition was larger than in all other conditions, possibly due to a delayed appetitive response. Across all conditions, LPP amplitudes were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. In sum, results reveal that regulation effects are secondary to an early attentional analysis of food type and dynamically evolve over time. Adopting a long-term perspective on eating might promote a healthier food choice across a range of food types.

  5. Guided imagery targeting exercise, food cravings, and stress: a multi-modal randomized feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter; Long, Dustin; Nolan, Richard; Shawley, Samantha; Johnson, Kelsey; Misra, Ranjita

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this randomized wait-list controlled trial was to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a guided imagery based multi-behavior intervention intended to address psychological stress, food cravings, and physical activity. Personalized guided imagery scripts were created and participants were instructed to practice guided imagery every day for 35 consecutive days. Of 48 women who enrolled, we report comparisons between 16 randomized to treatment with 19 who were wait-listed (overall Mage = 45.50; Mbodymassindex = 31.43). Study completers reported 89% compliance with practicing guided imagery during the intervention. A significant time-by-group interaction was observed with reductions in food cravings and increases in physical activity compared with wait-list controls. Telephone-based multi-behavior interventions that utilize guided imagery to address food cravings and exercise behavior appear to be acceptable for overweight and obese women. Future phone-based guided imagery research testing this skill to address multiple health behaviors is justified.

  6. Cue-induced craving in pathological buying: empirical evidence and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotzke, Patrick; Starcke, Katrin; Pedersen, Anya; Brand, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Pathological buying is associated with marked distress and impaired functioning in important life domains. It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered a behavioral addiction. In analogy to results reported in addicted individuals, craving reactions elicited by addiction-related cues might be an underlying mechanism for the etiology and pathogenesis of pathological buying. In the present study, 30 pathological buyers and 30 matched control participants were examined with a cue-reactivity paradigm consisting of shopping and control cues. Skin conductance responses, as well as subjective ratings for arousal, valence, and urge to buy, were assessed. Subjective craving reactions were measured before and after the cue-reactivity paradigm. On a physiological level, skin conductance responses toward shopping cues were higher in pathological buyers (mean [M; standard deviation {SD}] = 0.26 [0.13]) compared with control participants (M [SD] = 0.19 [0.09]; t(58) = 2.29, p = .025, d = 0.60). On a behavioral level, the individuals with pathological buying rated the shopping cues as more arousing and more positive, and reported a greater urge to buy compared with control participants and with control cues. An increase in subjective craving after completing the cue-reactivity paradigm was observed only in the pathological buyers (Mpre [SD] = 1.95 [1.47], Mpost [SD] = 2.87 [1.79]; t(29) = 5.07, p buying. The results demonstrate similarities between pathological buying and substance or behavioral addictions and provide implications for clinical treatment.

  7. Relationship between early symptoms of alcohol craving and binge drinking 2.5 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; DiFranza, Joseph R; Wellman, Robert J; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2016-03-01

    The first self-reported symptoms of nicotine dependence (e.g., as craving) can appear within days to weeks of the onset of occasional use, and the appearance of symptoms predicts future consumption and dependence. We sought to determine whether craving for alcohol occurs in early stages of adolescent alcohol use, and whether it predicts future binge drinking, a prevalent and problematic behavior. Longitudinal (30-month) four-wave study of 3415 students (M=12.5 years at baseline) from 29 German schools. Students reported five symptoms of alcohol craving on a scale developed based on well-validated measures for tobacco. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was used to predict having five or more binge episodes by last follow-up, based on the number of symptoms reported before the first lifetime binge. Multiple imputation was used to address study drop-out. At baseline, 23% reported at least one symptom, increasing to 54% at wave 4. Any report of symptoms at baseline was associated with frequency of alcohol use, being present in 100% of daily, 93% of weekly, 87% of monthly, 48% of infrequent drinkers, and 16% of ever drinkers reporting no current alcohol use. Moreover, symptoms at baseline independently predicted frequent binge drinking 2.5 years later, AOR=2.08 (95% CI 1.39, 3.11; pbinge drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased micronucleated cell frequency related to exposure to radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonari Karina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that electromagnetic fields can affect the biological functions of living organisms at both cellular and molecular level. The potential damaging effects of electromagnetic fields and very low frequency and extremely low frequency radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors (VDMs has become a concern within the scientific community. We studied the effects of occupational exposure to VDMs in 10 males and 10 females occupationally exposed to VDMs and 20 unexposed control subjects matched for age and sex. Genetic damage was assessed by examining the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells and the frequency of other nuclear abnormalities such as binucleated and broken egg cells. Although there were no differences regarding binucleated cells between exposed and control individuals our analysis revealed a significantly higher frequency of micronuclei (p < 0.001 and broken egg cells (p < 0.05 in individuals exposed to VDMs as compared to unexposed. We also found that the differences between individuals exposed to VDMs were significantly related to the sex of the individuals and that there was an increase in skin, central nervous system and ocular disease in the exposed individuals. These preliminary results indicate that microcomputer workers exposed to VDMs are at risk of significant cytogenetic damage and should periodically undergo biological monitoring.

  9. Does Digital Video Advertising Increase Population-Level Reach of Multimedia Campaigns? Evidence From the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul R; Rodes, Robert; Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Patel, Deesha; Coln, Caryn; Beistle, Diane

    2016-09-14

    Federal and state public health agencies in the United States are increasingly using digital advertising and social media to promote messages from broader multimedia campaigns. However, little evidence exists on population-level campaign awareness and relative cost efficiencies of digital advertising in the context of a comprehensive public health education campaign. Our objective was to compare the impact of increased doses of digital video and television advertising from the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign on overall campaign awareness at the population level. We also compared the relative cost efficiencies across these media platforms. We used data from a large national online survey of approximately 15,000 US smokers conducted in 2013 immediately after the conclusion of the 2013 Tips campaign. These data were used to compare the effects of variation in media dose of digital video and television advertising on population-level awareness of the Tips campaign. We implemented higher doses of digital video among selected media markets and randomly selected other markets to receive similar higher doses of television ads. Multivariate logistic regressions estimated the odds of overall campaign awareness via digital or television format as a function of higher-dose media in each market area. All statistical tests used the .05 threshold for statistical significance and the .10 level for marginal nonsignificance. We used adjusted advertising costs for the additional doses of digital and television advertising to compare the cost efficiencies of digital and television advertising on the basis of costs per percentage point of population awareness generated. Higher-dose digital video advertising was associated with 94% increased odds of awareness of any ad online relative to standard-dose markets (Pdigital advertising was associated with a marginally nonsignificant increase (46%) in overall campaign awareness regardless of media format (P=.09). Higher

  10. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Affect and Smoking Craving in the Weeks Before and After a Cessation Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Farris, Samantha G; Minami, Haruka; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Brown, Richard A

    2017-05-15

    Aerobic exercise may improve smoking abstinence via reductions in craving and negative affect, and increases in positive moods. Acute changes in craving and affect before and after structured exercise sessions have not been examined during the weeks prior to and following quit attempts, nor has smoking status been examined in relation to these effects. Given that regular cigarette smoking can be perceived as affect-enhancing and craving-reducing, it is not known whether exercise could contribute additional affective benefit beyond these effects. Participants (n = 57; 68.4% women) were low-active daily smokers randomized to cessation treatments plus either group-based aerobic exercise (AE) or a health-education control (HEC). Mood, anxiety, and craving were assessed before and after each intervention session for each of the 12-weeks. Carbon monoxide (CO) breath samples ≤ 5ppm indicated smoking abstinence. During the pre-quit sessions, significantly greater decreases in anxiety following AE sessions relative to HEC sessions were observed. Changes in mood and craving were similar after AE and HEC sessions prior to quitting. Post-quit attempt, significant reductions in craving and anxiety were observed after AE sessions, but not following HEC. During the post-quit period, positive mood increased following AE sessions relative to HEC, only among individuals who were abstinence on that day. AE may be effective in acutely reducing anxiety prior to a quit attempt, and both anxiety and craving following the quit attempt regardless of abstinence status. The mood enhancing effects of AE may occur only in the context of smoking abstinence. The current findings underscore the importance of examining the acute effects of aerobic exercise prior to and after a cessation attempt, and as a function of smoking status. Given the equivocal results from previous studies on the efficacy of exercise for smoking cessation, increasing our understanding of how aerobic exercise produces its

  11. The Use of Video Modeling with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Increase Independent Communicative Initiations in Preschoolers with Autism and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Smith, Catherine C.; Cornett, Ashlee; Coleman, Mari Beth

    2012-01-01

    The use of video modeling (VM) procedures in conjunction with the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to increase independent communicative initiations in preschool-age students was evaluated in this study. The four participants were 3-year-old children with limited communication skills prior to the intervention. Two of the students had…

  12. Real-time craving and mood assessments before and after smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Brian L.; Lam, Cho Y.; Robinson, Jason D.; Paris, Megan M.; Waters, Andrew J.; Wetter, David W.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored some quandaries concerning craving and mood as motivators to smoke. Craving and negative mood have long been associated with day-to-day smoking as two of the primary motivational forces behind the maintenance of the behavior, as well as significant barriers in smokers’ attempts to quit. Craving remains a clinically relevant phenomenon, with most smokers describing craving as a troublesome problem when quitting. Smokers’ self-reports of negative mood, as an antecedent for s...

  13. Brain fMRI study of crave induced by cue pictures in online game addicts (male adolescents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueji; Ying, Huang; Seetohul, Ravi M; Xuemei, Wang; Ya, Zheng; Qian, Li; Guoqing, Xu; Ye, Sun

    2012-08-01

    To study crave-related cerebral regions induced by game figure cues in online game addicts. fMRI brain imaging was done when the subjects were shown picture cues of the WoW (World of Warcraft, Version: 4.1.014250) game. 10 male addicts of WoW were selected as addicts' group, and 10 other healthy male non-addicts who were matched by age, were used as non-game addicts' group. All volunteers participated in fMRI paradigms. WoW associated cue pictures and neutral pictures were shown. We examined functional cerebral regions activated by the pictures with 3.0 T Philips MRI. The imaging signals' database was analyzed by SPM5. The correlation between game craving scores and different image results were assessed. When the game addicts watch the pictures, some brain areas show increased signal activity namely: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral temporal cortex, cerebellum, right inferior parietal lobule, right cuneus, right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, left caudate nucleus. But in these same brain regions we did not observe remarkable activities in the control group. Differential image signal densities of the addict group were subtracted from the health control group, results of which were expressed in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobe and inferior temporal gyrus, cerebellum, right insular and the right angular gyrus. The increased imaging signal densities were significant and positively correlated with the craving scale scores in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and right inferior parietal lobe. Craving of online game addicts was successfully induced by game cue pictures. Crave related brain areas are: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and right inferior parietal lobe. The brain regions are overlapped with cognitive and emotion related processing brain areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural correlates of stress- and food cue-induced food craving in obesity: association with insulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl; Small, Dana M; Sherwin, Robert S; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is associated with alterations in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions involved in food motivation and reward. Stress and the presence of food cues may each motivate eating and engage corticolimibic-striatal neurocircuitry. It is unknown how these factors interact to influence brain responses and whether these interactions are influenced by obesity, insulin levels, and insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that obese individuals would show greater responses in corticolimbic-striatal neurocircuitry after exposure to stress and food cues and that brain activations would correlate with subjective food craving, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR. Fasting insulin levels were assessed in obese and lean subjects who were exposed to individualized stress and favorite-food cues during functional MRI. Obese, but not lean, individuals exhibited increased activation in striatal, insular, and hypothalamic regions during exposure to favorite-food and stress cues. In obese but not lean individuals, food craving, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels correlated positively with neural activity in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions during favorite-food and stress cues. The relationship between insulin resistance and food craving in obese individuals was mediated by activity in motivation-reward regions including the striatum, insula, and thalamus. These findings demonstrate that obese, but not lean, individuals exhibit increased corticolimbic-striatal activation in response to favorite-food and stress cues and that these brain responses mediate the relationship between HOMA-IR and food craving. Improving insulin sensitivity and in turn reducing corticolimbic-striatal reactivity to food cues and stress may diminish food craving and affect eating behavior in obesity.

  15. Food Aversions and Cravings during Pregnancy on Yasawa Island, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerracher, Luseadra; Collard, Mark; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Women often experience novel food aversions and cravings during pregnancy. These appetite changes have been hypothesized to work alongside cultural strategies as adaptive responses to the challenges posed by pregnancy (e.g., maternal immune suppression). Here, we report a study that assessed whether data from an indigenous population in Fiji are consistent with the predictions of this hypothesis. We found that aversions focus predominantly on foods expected to exacerbate the challenges of pregnancy. Cravings focus on foods that provide calories and micronutrients while posing few threats to mothers and fetuses. We also found that women who experience aversions to specific foods are more likely to crave foods that meet nutritional needs similar to those provided by the aversive foods. These findings are in line with the predictions of the hypothesis. This adds further weight to the argument that appetite changes may function in parallel with cultural mechanisms to solve pregnancy challenges.

  16. Cannabis craving in response to laboratory-induced social stress among racially diverse cannabis users: The impact of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Ecker, Anthony H; Jeffries, Emily R

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Although it is presumed that increases in cannabis craving during elevated social anxiety reflect an intent to cope with greater negative affectivity, it is unclear whether increases in physiological arousal during social stress are related to cannabis craving, especially among those with social anxiety disorder. Similarly, no studies have assessed motivational reasons for cannabis use during elevated social stress. Thus, the current study tested whether increases in state social anxiety (measured subjectively and via physiological arousal) were related to greater cannabis craving among 126 current cannabis users (88.9% with cannabis use disorder, 31.7% with social anxiety disorder, 54.0% non-Hispanic Caucasian) randomly assigned to either a social interaction or reading task. As predicted, cannabis users in the social interaction condition reported greater cannabis craving than those in the reading condition. This effect was particularly evident among those with social anxiety disorder. Although physiological arousal did not moderate the relationship between condition and craving, coping motives were the most common reasons cited for wanting to use cannabis and were reported more among those in the social interaction task. These experimental results uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting the importance of elevated state social anxiety (especially among those with social anxiety disorder) in cannabis use vulnerability processes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Comparing and the Relationship between Stress and Craving Usage in Addicted to Opium and Industrial Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Fatemeh Poor-seyed M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: According to the importance of stressful and impellent factors in severity of craving and after that treating successes, this study had done with purpose of examining the relationship between these factors with craving experience in addicted men in six groups (smoking of opium, inhalation of Heroin, smoking of Heroin, injection of Heroin, smoking of methamphetamine, smoking of crack. Method: In this descriptive-sectional study, 195 addicted men had referred to cold turkey centers in Rasht, during 10 months of 1389-1390 selected by available sampling method in six groups. Stress evaluation questionnaire of Markham and the questionnaire of instant craving drug of Franken and also profited by imaginary indexes of computer tests for severity of craving administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between the stress and cue induction craving, and the stress and instant craving. Also, it proved that there is a significant difference between different users in degree of stress, and inductive craving, and instant craving. The average of stress scores, cue induction craving and instant craving in testing groups of methamphetamine users were more than other groups. Conclusion: According to findings of this survey, stress can be an important predicting factor for craving degree in addicted men so, attention of these aspects resulted in selecting an appropriate treatment of psychology for controlling of craving which is the most important factor leading to relapse in substance abuse.

  18. Playing Tetris decreases drug and other cravings in real world settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; Whalley, Ben; May, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Most research on cognitive processes in craving has been carried out in the laboratory and focuses on food craving. This study extends laboratory findings to real world settings and cravings for drugs or activities as well as food. Previous laboratory research has found that playing Tetris reduces craving strength. The present study used an ecological momentary assessment protocol in which 31 undergraduate participants carried iPods for a week and were prompted 7 times each day, by SMS message, to use their iPod to report craving. Participants reported craving target and strength (0-100), whether they indulged their previous craving (yes/no), and whether they were under the influence of alcohol (yes/no). Those randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n=15) then played Tetris for 3min and reported their craving again. Those in the monitoring-only control condition (n=16) provided baseline craving data to test if Tetris reduced the incidence and strength of spontaneous cravings across the week. Playing Tetris decreased craving strength for drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine), food and drink, and activities (sex, exercise, gaming), with a mean reduction of 13.9 percentage points, effect size f(2)=0.11. This effect was consistent across the week. This is the first demonstration that visual cognitive interference can be used in the field to reduce cravings for substances and activities other than eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biocultural considerations of food cravings and aversions: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Crystal L; Young, Sera L

    2012-01-01

    Food is fundamental to our existence as humans, but assertions about the kinds of foods that are appealing or repulsive vary widely. This thematic issue deals with assessments of food as desirable, or not, in order to understand the complex reasons why some foods are strongly craved while others are avoided. To do this, the five articles in this issue situate food cravings and aversions bioculturally, in the contexts of our history as a species, in the landscape of cultural heritage, and in the individual life course. By exploring both the biological and cultural mechanisms that shape food preferences, we reveal the complex and important underpinnings of the critical endeavor of food selection.

  20. Using Portable Video Modeling Technology to Increase the Compliment Behaviors of Children with Autism during Athletic Group Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Kevin; Charlop, Marjorie H.; Miltenberger, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the effects of a portable video modeling intervention delivered in the natural environment on the verbal compliments and compliment gestures demonstrated by five children with autism. Participants were observed playing kickball with peers and adults. In baseline, participants…

  1. Making good physics videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-05-01

    Online videos are an increasingly important way technology is contributing to the improvement of physics teaching. Students and teachers have begun to rely on online videos to provide them with content knowledge and instructional strategies. Online audiences are expecting greater production value, and departments are sometimes requesting educators to post video pre-labs or to flip our classrooms. In this article, I share my advice on creating engaging physics videos.

  2. A single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex reduces cue-induced craving in patients with gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, A; Boutet, C; Sigaud, T; Kamgoue, A; Sevos, J; Brunelin, J; Massoubre, C

    2017-03-01

    Gambling disorder (GD) is common and disabling addictive disorder. In patients with substance use disorders, the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) offers promise to alleviate craving. We hypothesized that applying real compared to sham rTMS over the left DLPFC would reduce gambling craving in patients with GD. In a randomized sham-controlled crossover design, 22 treatment-seeking patients with GD received real or sham treatment with high frequency rTMS over the left DLPFC followed a week later by the other type of treatment. Before and after each rTMS session, participants rated their gambling craving (from 0 to 100) before and after viewing a gambling video used as a cue. We used the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale adapted for Pathological Gambling to assess gambling behavior before and 7 days after each rTMS session. As compared to sham (mean +0.74; standard deviation±3.03), real rTMS significantly decreased cue-induced craving (-2.12±3.39; F (1,19) =4.87; P=0.04; partial η 2 =0.05; 95% CI: 0.00-0.21). No significant effect of rTMS was observed on gambling behavior. Patients with GD reported decreased cue-induced craving following a single session of high frequency rTMS applied over the left DLPFC. Further large randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the usefulness of rTMS in GD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Food for Thought: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Emotional Freedom Techniques and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Treatment of Food Cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Peta; Bannatyne, Amy Jean; Urzi, Keri-Charle; Porter, Brett; Sheldon, Terri

    2016-07-01

    Addressing the internal determinants of dysfunctional eating behaviours (e.g. food cravings) in the prevention and treatment of obesity has been increasingly recognised. This study compared Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for food cravings in adults who were overweight or obese (N = 83) in an 8-week intervention. Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6- and 12-months follow-up. Overall, EFT and CBT demonstrated comparable efficacy in reducing food cravings, one's responsiveness to food in the environment (power of food), and dietary restraint, with Cohen's effect size values suggesting moderate to high practical significance for both interventions. Results also revealed that both EFT and CBT are capable of producing treatment effects that are clinically meaningful, with reductions in food cravings, the power of food, and dietary restraint normalising to the scores of a non-clinical community sample. While reductions in BMI were not observed, the current study supports the suggestion that psychological interventions are beneficial for food cravings and both CBT and EFT could serve as vital adjunct tools in a multidisciplinary approach to managing obesity. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. The effects of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on food craving and temporal discounting in women with frequent food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekic, Maria; McClelland, Jessica; Campbell, Iain; Nestler, Steffen; Rubia, Katya; David, Anthony S; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-07-01

    Bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and some forms of obesity are characterised by compulsive overeating that is often precipitated by food craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to suppress food cravings, but there is insufficient evidence to support its application in clinical practice. Furthermore, the potential moderating role of impulsivity has not been considered. This study used a randomised within-subjects crossover design to examine whether a 20-minute session of sham-controlled bilateral tDCS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (anode right/cathode left) would transiently modify food cravings and temporal discounting (TD; a measure of choice impulsivity) in 17 healthy women with frequent food cravings. Whether the effects of tDCS on food craving were moderated by individual differences in TD behaviour was also explored. Participants were exposed to food and a film of people eating, and food cravings and TD were assessed before and after active and sham stimulation. Craving for sweet but not savoury foods was reduced following real tDCS. Participants that exhibited more reflective choice behaviour were more susceptible to the anti-craving effects of tDCS than those that displayed more impulsive choice behaviour. No differences were seen in TD or food consumption after real versus sham tDCS. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS in temporarily lowering food cravings and identify the moderating role of TD behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Craving patterns in methadone maintenance treatment with dextromoramide as adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, J. W.; Ufkes, J. G.; van den Brink, W.; van Brussel, G. H.; de Wolff, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the effect on opiate craving among six long-term opiate-dependent subjects in methadone maintenance treatment. Subjects currently stabilised on methadone, received 5 or 10 mg dextromoramide besides methadone. During the study the usual methadone dose was diminished

  6. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Van den Bergh, O.; Beckers, T.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task.

  7. Craving and withdrawal as core symptoms of alcohol dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; Korzec, Alex; Koerselman, Frank; van den Brink, Wim

    2004-01-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the validity of the distinction of alcohol abuse and dependence, the distinction between normality and alcohol abuse, and the absence of craving in the DSM-IV classification of alcohol use disorders. In this study, we examine the discriminant validity of the DSM-IV

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation, implicit alcohol associations and craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uijl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances working memory (e.g. in the n-back task), and reduces craving for cigarettes and alcohol. Stimulation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) improves response inhibition. The underlying

  9. Role of personality traits in cocaine craving throughout an outpatient psychosocial treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ismael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cocaine dependence is a major international public health concern. Its chronically relapsing nature is possibly related to craving intensity, which can be influenced by diverse biological and psychological aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the role of different personality traits in craving measured throughout a psychosocial treatment program. Method: The sample comprised 66 cocaine-dependent outpatients who were enrolled in an individual and manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy program. The influence of personality traits on craving intensity, frequency, and duration was analyzed using a generalized estimating equations model with an autoregressive correlation structure. Results: Craving varied during treatment. The personality traits of novelty seeking, reward dependence, and harm avoidance interacted with craving intensity, and the personality trait of persistence interacted with craving duration throughout the treatment period. Furthermore, there were significant interactions between drug use and craving intensity, and between different routes of administration and craving intensity. Participants who used cocaine/crack while in treatment and concurrent users of crack (i.e., freebase cocaine and powder cocaine also had a higher craving intensity. Conclusion: The extent of craving variation can depend on certain personality styles. This study shows that craving is influenced by personality traits, and this may presumably change clinical expression involved in disease.

  10. Digital Video in Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    questions of our media literacy pertaining to authoring multimodal texts (visual, verbal, audial, etc.) in research practice and the status of multimodal texts in academia. The implications of academic video extend to wider issues of how researchers harness opportunities to author different types of texts......Is video becoming “the new black” in academia, if so, what are the challenges? The integration of video in research methodology (for collection, analysis) is well-known, but the use of “academic video” for dissemination is relatively new (Eriksson and Sørensen). The focus of this paper is academic...... video, or short video essays produced for the explicit purpose of communicating research processes, topics, and research-based knowledge (see the journal of academic videos: www.audiovisualthinking.org). Video is increasingly used in popular showcases for video online, such as YouTube and Vimeo, as well...

  11. The role of Facebook in Crush the Crave, a mobile- and social media-based smoking cessation intervention: qualitative framework analysis of posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, Laura Louise; Baskerville, Neill Bruce

    2014-07-11

    Social networking sites, particularly Facebook, are increasingly included in contemporary smoking cessation interventions directed toward young adults. Little is known about the role of Facebook in smoking cessation interventions directed toward this age demographic. The aim of this study was to characterize the content of posts on the Facebook page of Crush the Crave, an evidence-informed smoking cessation intervention directed toward young adults aged 19 to 29 years. Crush the Crave Facebook posts between October 10, 2012 and June 12, 2013 were collected for analysis, representing page activity during the pilot phase of Crush the Crave. Of the 399 posts included for analysis, 121 were original posts, whereas the remaining 278 were reply posts. Posts were coded according to themes using framework analysis. We found that the original Crush the Crave Facebook posts served two main purposes: to support smoking cessation and to market Crush the Crave. Most of the original posts (86/121, 71.1%) conveyed support of smoking cessation through the following 7 subthemes: encouraging cessation, group stimulation, management of cravings, promoting social support, denormalizing smoking, providing health information, and exposing tobacco industry tactics. The remaining original posts (35/121, 28.9%) aimed to market Crush the Crave through 2 subthemes: Crush the Crave promotion and iPhone 5 contest promotion. Most of the reply posts (214/278, 77.0%) were in response to the supporting smoking cessation posts and the remaining 64 (23.0%) were in response to the marketing Crush the Crave posts. The most common response to both the supporting smoking cessation and marketing Crush the Crave posts was user engagement with the images associated with each post at 40.2% (86/214) and 45% (29/64), respectively. The second most common response consisted of users sharing their smoking-related experiences. More users shared their smoking-related experiences in response to the supporting

  12. The Role of Facebook in Crush the Crave, a Mobile- and Social Media-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention: Qualitative Framework Analysis of Posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Social networking sites, particularly Facebook, are increasingly included in contemporary smoking cessation interventions directed toward young adults. Little is known about the role of Facebook in smoking cessation interventions directed toward this age demographic. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize the content of posts on the Facebook page of Crush the Crave, an evidence-informed smoking cessation intervention directed toward young adults aged 19 to 29 years. Methods Crush the Crave Facebook posts between October 10, 2012 and June 12, 2013 were collected for analysis, representing page activity during the pilot phase of Crush the Crave. Of the 399 posts included for analysis, 121 were original posts, whereas the remaining 278 were reply posts. Posts were coded according to themes using framework analysis. Results We found that the original Crush the Crave Facebook posts served two main purposes: to support smoking cessation and to market Crush the Crave. Most of the original posts (86/121, 71.1%) conveyed support of smoking cessation through the following 7 subthemes: encouraging cessation, group stimulation, management of cravings, promoting social support, denormalizing smoking, providing health information, and exposing tobacco industry tactics. The remaining original posts (35/121, 28.9%) aimed to market Crush the Crave through 2 subthemes: Crush the Crave promotion and iPhone 5 contest promotion. Most of the reply posts (214/278, 77.0%) were in response to the supporting smoking cessation posts and the remaining 64 (23.0%) were in response to the marketing Crush the Crave posts. The most common response to both the supporting smoking cessation and marketing Crush the Crave posts was user engagement with the images associated with each post at 40.2% (86/214) and 45% (29/64), respectively. The second most common response consisted of users sharing their smoking-related experiences. More users shared their smoking

  13. An iPad™-based picture and video activity schedule increases community shopping skills of a young adult with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckley, Elizabeth; Tincani, Matt; Guld Fisher, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the iPad 2™ with Book Creator™ software to provide visual cues and video prompting to teach shopping skills in the community to a young adult with an autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. A multiple probe across settings design was used to assess effects of the intervention on the participant's independence with following a shopping list in a grocery store across three community locations. Visual cues and video prompting substantially increased the participant's shopping skills within two of the three community locations, skill increases maintained after the intervention was withdrawn, and shopping skills generalized to two untaught shopping items. Social validity surveys suggested that the participant's parent and staff favorably viewed the goals, procedures, and outcomes of intervention. The iPad 2™ with Book Creator™ software may be an effective way to teach independent shopping skills in the community; additional replications are needed.

  14. Craving and acute effects of alcohol in youths' daily lives: Associations with alcohol use disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Hayley; Miranda, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Identifying factors associated with the progression from recreational to pathological drinking in youth holds high clinical and theoretical importance. The present study tested cross-sectional associations of alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity with putative mechanisms of AUD progression among youth ages 15-24 years, namely acute subjective effects of alcohol and craving. Male (n = 44) and female (n = 42) youth completed ecological momentary assessments when not drinking, just before drinking, and while drinking in the natural environment via handheld wireless devices. Youth were recruited from the community and were frequent and heavy drinkers, the majority (93%) with at least 1 AUD symptom (M = 3.4, SD = 2.4). Findings from youths' daily lives suggested that how youth feel while they drink depends, in part, on their severity of AUD pathology. In support of hypotheses, youths with more progressed drinking pathology (i.e., those with more symptoms of AUD) reported greater reductions in craving and tension while drinking, relative to nondrinking times. In partial support of hypotheses, males with greater AUD symptomatology reported marginally attenuated increases in stimulatory states while drinking; however, contrary to hypotheses, females with greater AUD symptomatology reported enhanced increases in stimulation while drinking. This research leveraged ecological momentary assessment methods to study subjective responses to alcohol and craving in youths' daily lives and to cross-sectionally test putative associations with AUD etiology. This work adds to literature supporting subjective responses to alcohol in the pathogenesis of alcoholism, specifically by highlighting their importance during the period in life when alcohol problems typically first emerge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effect of the CRF1-receptor antagonist pexacerfont on stress-induced eating and food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H; Kennedy, Ashley P; Furnari, Melody; Heilig, Markus; Shaham, Yavin; Phillips, Karran A; Preston, Kenzie L

    2016-12-01

    In rodents, antagonism of receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) blocks stress-induced reinstatement of drug or palatable food seeking. To test anticraving properties of the CRF1 antagonist pexacerfont in humans. We studied stress-induced eating in people scoring high on dietary restraint (food preoccupation and chronic unsuccessful dieting) with body-mass index (BMI) >22. In a double-blind, between-groups trial, 31 "restrained" eaters were stabilized on either pexacerfont (300 mg/day for 7 days, then 100 mg/day for 21 days) or placebo. On day 15, they underwent a math-test stressor; during three subsequent visits, they heard personalized craving-induction scripts. In each session, stress-induced food consumption and craving were assessed in a bogus taste test and on visual analog scales. We used digital video to monitor daily ingestion of study capsules and nightly rating of food problems/preoccupation on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The study was stopped early due to an administrative interpretation of US federal law, unrelated to safety or outcome. The bogus taste tests suggested some protective effect of pexacerfont against eating after a laboratory stressor (r effect = 0.30, 95 % CL = -0.12, 0.63, Bayes factor 11.30). Similarly, nightly YFAS ratings were lower with pexacerfont than placebo (r effect = 0.39, CI 0.03, 0.66), but this effect should be interpreted with caution because it was present from the first night of pill ingestion, despite pexacerfont's slow pharmacokinetics. The findings may support further investigation of the anticraving properties of CRF1 antagonists, especially for food.

  16. Endogenous GDNF in ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens does not play a role in the incubation of heroin craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airavaara, Mikko; Pickens, Charles L; Stern, Anna L; Wihbey, Kristina A; Harvey, Brandon K; Bossert, Jennifer M; Liu, Qing-Rong; Hoffer, Barry J; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-04-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) activity in ventral tegmental area (VTA) mediates the time-dependent increases in cue-induced cocaine-seeking after withdrawal (incubation of cocaine craving). Here, we studied the generality of these findings to incubation of heroin craving. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin for 10 days (6 hours/day; 0.075 mg/kg/infusion; infusions were paired with a tone-light cue) and tested for cue-induced heroin-seeking in extinction tests after 1, 11 or 30 withdrawal days. Cue-induced heroin seeking was higher after 11 or 30 days than after 1 day (incubation of heroin craving), and the time-dependent increases in extinction responding were associated with time-dependent changes in GDNF mRNA expression in VTA and nucleus accumbens. Additionally, acute accumbens (but not VTA) GDNF injections (12.5 µg/side) administered 1-3 hours after the last heroin self-administration training session enhanced the time-dependent increases in extinction responding after withdrawal. However, the time-dependent increases in extinction responding after withdrawal were not associated with changes in GDNF protein expression in VTA and accumbens. Additionally, interfering with endogenous GDNF function by chronic delivery of anti-GDNF monoclonal neutralizing antibodies (600 ng/side/day) into VTA or accumbens had no effect on the time-dependent increases in extinction responding. In summary, heroin self-administration and withdrawal regulate VTA and accumbens GDNF mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner, and exogenous GDNF administration into accumbens but not VTA potentiates cue-induced heroin seeking. However, based on the GDNF protein expression and the anti-GDNF monoclonal neutralizing antibodies manipulation data, we conclude that neither accumbens nor VTA endogenous GDNF mediates the incubation of heroin craving. © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction. No claim to original US government works.

  17. Health Warning Labels for Smokeless Tobacco: The Impact of Graphic Images on Attention, Recall, and Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Shoben, Abigail B; Cooper, Sarah; Ferketich, Amy K; Berman, Micah; Peters, Ellen; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2017-10-01

    Little research has examined the impacts of graphic health warnings on the users of smokeless tobacco products. A convenience sample of past-month, male smokeless tobacco users (n = 142; 100% male) was randomly assigned to view a smokeless tobacco advertisement with a graphic health warning (GHW) or a text-only warning. Eye-tracking equipment measured viewing time, or dwell time, in milliseconds. Following the advertisement exposure, participants self-reported smokeless tobacco craving and recalled any content in the health warning message (unaided recall). Linear and logistic regression analyses evaluated the proportion of time viewing the GHW, craving, and GHW recall. Participants who viewed a GHW spent a significantly greater proportion of their ad viewing time on GHWs (2.87 seconds or 30%), compared to those viewing a text-only warning (2.05 seconds or 24%). Although there were no significant differences by condition in total advertisement viewing duration, those participants viewing a GHW had increased recall of health warning messages compared to the text-only warning (76% had any warning message recall compared to 53%; p < .05). Self-reported craving after advertisement exposure was lower in the GHW compared to text-only condition, but the difference was not statistically significant (a rating of 4.4 vs. 5.3 on a 10-point scale; p = .08). GHWs attracted greater attention and greater recall of health warning messages compared to text-only warnings among rural male smokeless tobacco users. Among a sample of rural smokeless tobacco users, GHWs attracted more attention and recall of health warning messages compared to text-only warnings when viewed within smokeless tobacco advertising. These findings provide additional empirical support that GHWs are an effective tobacco control tool for all tobacco products and advertisements.

  18. The absence of benzodiazepine craving in a general practice benzodiazepine discontinuation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, A J J; Oude Voshaar, R C; Gorgels, W J M J; Breteler, M H M; van Balkom, A J L M; van de Lisdonk, E H; Kan, C C; Mulder, J; Zitman, F G

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to assess benzodiazepine craving longitudinally and to describe its time course by means of the Benzodiazepine Craving Questionnaire (BCQ). Subjects were long-term benzodiazepine users participating in a two-part treatment intervention aimed to reduce long-term benzodiazepine use in general practice in The Netherlands. Four repeated measurements of benzodiazepine craving were taken over a 21-month follow-up period. Results indicated that (1) benzodiazepine craving severity decreased over time, (2) patients still using benzodiazepines experienced significantly more severe craving than patients who had quit their use after one of the two interventions, and (3) the way in which patients had attempted to quit did not influence the experienced craving severity over time, however, (4) patients who had received additional tapering off, on average, reported significantly more severe craving than patients who had only received a letter as an incentive to quit. Although benzodiazepine craving is prevalent among (former) long-term benzodiazepine users during and after discontinuation, craving severity decreases over time to negligible proportions. Self-reported craving can be longitudinally monitored and quantified by means of the BCQ.

  19. Induction of food craving experience: the role of mental imagery, dietary restraint, mood and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Valero, E; Ruiz Prieto, I

    2012-01-01

    Food craving consists of a strong motivational state whereby a person is driven to seek and ingest a specifically desired food. To explore the influence of mental imagery on the food craving experience as well as to analyse the role of different psychological variables. Participants consisted of 65 normal weight undergraduate students. An experimental induction of food craving was analysed considering the actual previous craving and the induced one as a state food craving. Measures of trait food craving, imaging ability, dietary restraint, anxiety, depression, and coping strategies were considered. Sweet foods in general and chocolate in particular were the most craved foods. During the induction thoughts and images were the most highly rated triggers, and all the different sensory modalities were involved. Anxiety, depression, and negative coping strategies influenced the results with regards to the food craving. This study confirms the role of mental imagery, the correlation between state and trait food craving, and the influence of different psychological variables on the food craving.

  20. Identifying viable theoretical frameworks with essential parameters for real-time and real world alcohol craving research : a systematic review of craving models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk-van Lier, Erika; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Schraagen, Jan Maarten C.; Postel, Marloes G.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M.R.; de Haan, Hein A.; Noordzij, Matthijs L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Substance use is known to be episodic, dynamic, complex, and highly influenced by the environment, therefore a situational and momentary focus to alcohol craving research is appropriate. Current advances in mobile and wearable technology provide novel opportunities for craving research.

  1. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m -2 ; maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  2. Geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco: real-time craving and smoking-cessation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Thomas R; Cantrell, Jennifer; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Ganz, Ollie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the factors that drive the association between point-of-sale marketing and behavior, because methods that directly link individual-level use outcomes to real-world point-of-sale exposure are only now beginning to be developed. Daily outcomes during smoking cessation were examined as a function of both real-time geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco (POST) and subjective craving to smoke. Continuous individual geospatial location data collected over the first month of a smoking-cessation attempt in 2010-2012 (N=475) were overlaid on a POST outlet geodatabase (N=1060). Participants' mobility data were used to quantify the number of times they came into contact with a POST outlet. Participants recorded real-time craving levels and smoking status via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on cellular telephones. The final data set spanned a total of 12,871 days of EMA and geospatial tracking. Lapsing was significantly more likely on days with any POST contact (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.18, 1.20), and increasingly likely as the number of daily POST contacts increased (OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.06, 1.08). Overall, daily POST exposure was significantly associated with lapsing when craving was low (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.20, 1.23); high levels of craving were more directly associated with lapse outcomes. These data shed light on the way mobility patterns drive a dynamic interaction between individuals and the POST environment, demonstrating that quantification of individuals' exposure to POST marketing can be used to identify previously unrecognized patterns of association among individual mobility, the built environment, and behavioral outcomes. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  3. TaylorActive--Examining the effectiveness of web-based personally-tailored videos to increase physical activity: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, C; Short, C; Plotnikoff, R C; Hooker, C; Canoy, D; Rebar, A; Alley, S; Schoeppe, S; Mummery, W K; Duncan, M J

    2015-10-05

    Physical inactivity levels are unacceptably high and effective interventions that can increase physical activity in large populations at low cost are urgently needed. Web-based interventions that use computer-tailoring have shown to be effective, though people tend to 'skim' and 'scan' text on the Internet rather than thoroughly read it. The use of online videos is, however, popular and engaging. Therefore, the aim of this 3-group randomised controlled trial is to examine whether a web-based physical activity intervention that provides personally-tailored videos is more effective when compared with traditional personally-tailored text-based intervention and a control group. In total 510 Australians will be recruited through social media advertisements, e-mail and third party databases. Participants will be randomised to one of three groups: text-tailored, video-tailored, or control. All groups will gain access to the same web-based platform and a library containing brief physical activity articles. The text-tailored group will additionally have access to 8 sessions of personalised physical activity advice that is instantaneously generated based on responses to brief online surveys. The theory-based advice will be provided over a period of 3 months and address constructs such as self-efficacy, motivation, goal setting, intentions, social support, attitudes, barriers, outcome expectancies, relapse prevention and feedback on performance. Text-tailored participants will also be able to complete 7 action plans to help them plan what, when, where, who with, and how they will become more active. Participants in the video-tailored group will gain access to the same intervention content as those in the text-tailored group, however all sessions will be provided as personalised videos rather than text on a webpage. The control group will only gain access to the library with generic physical activity articles. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity

  4. Similarities in Food Cravings and Mood States Between Obese Women and Women Who Smoke Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Pepino, M Yanina; Finkbeiner, Susana; Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed food cravings in a cohort of 229 women who differed in smoking history (i.e., never smoker, former smoker, and current smoker) and body weight (i.e., normal weight, overweight, and obese). Each subject completed the Food Craving Inventory (FCI), which measures cravings for sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast-food fats, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS), which measures psychological distress. Smoking and obesity were independently associated with ...

  5. The role of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the regulation of craving by reappraisal in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Tian, Jie; Wang, Wei; Qin, Wei; Shi, Jie; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Kai; Dong, Ming-Hao; Yang, Wei-Chuang; Wang, Ya-Rong; Sun, Li-Li; Lu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Drug cues can induce craving for drugs of abuse. Dysfunctional regulation of emotion and motivation regarding rewarding objects appears to be an integral part of addiction. It has been found that cognitive strategies decreased the intensity of craving in addicts. Reappraisal strategy is a type of cognitive strategy that requires participants to reinterpret the meaning of an emotional situation. In addition, studies have found that activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is associated with the selection and application of cognitive reappraisal. In present study, we sought to determine whether such cognitive regulation engages the dACC and improves inhibition of craving in smokers. Sixteen smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a cigarette reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive reappraisal. We focused our analyses on the dACC as a key structure of cognitive control of craving. Cue induced craving under different conditions was obtained. Correlational analysis between the functional response in the dACC and the subjective craving was performed. We found that using a cognitive reappraisal was successful in decreasing the conditioned craving. Right dACC (BA 24/32) engaged in the cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the individual's subjective craving was negatively correlated with the right dACC activation. These findings suggest that the dACC are important substrates of Inhibition of cue induced craving in smokers. Cognitive regulation by cognitive reappraisal may help addicted individuals avoid the anticipated situations where they are exposed to conditioned cues.

  6. fMRI of alcohol craving after individual cues: a follow-up case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Stephanie; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Woermann, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is typically associated with intense alcohol craving triggered by internal or environmental cues linked with past alcohol use. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record cerebral correlates of craving in an alcoholic patient. Craving was evoked by highly individual cues associated with past alcohol use and was assessed before (T1) and after an 8-month period of psychotherapy (T2). To control for effects of life event memories related to non alcoholic cravings, the patient provided two events from periods of his life when he experienced caffeine craving. We detected activation of the superior temporal lobe during recall of a highly alcohol craving situation (T1 minus T2), whereas we did not observe any activation during coffee craving recall when pre und post activations were compared. These results indicate that the superior temporal lobe may be involved when alcohol craving is initiated by individual verbal cues. Further studies using individual cues are needed to explore the neural correlates of alcohol craving.

  7. Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food craving and obesity in survivors of pediatric ALL and lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams-White, Marissa; Kelly, Michael J; Gilhooly, Cheryl; Liu, Shanshan; Must, Aviva; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward; Zhang, Fang Fang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment can impact the hypothalamic-pituitary region of the developing brain, impairing appetite regulation and causing food craving in children who have survived cancer. We assessed food craving using a modified Food Craving Inventory in 22 survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoma (median age = 11.7 years) and evaluated its association with treatment exposure and changes in weight status over a one-year period. Mean total craving score was 2.1 (SD = 0.7). Survivors reported significantly higher mean craving score for fast-foods [2.6 (SD = 0.9)] than for sweets [2.1 (SD = 0.8)], carbohydrates [2.0 (SD = 0.6)], and fats [1.8 (SD = 0.7)] (all P values food craving than those diagnosed at a younger age (Food craving, however, was not significantly associated with survivors' weight status over 12 months of follow-up. Food craving alone does not appear to explain the obesity risk in this sample of childhood cancer survivors. The role of food craving in shaping eating behavior and obesity risk needs to be further evaluated in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marijuana craving during a public speaking challenge: Understanding marijuana use vulnerability among women and those with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Silgado, José; Schmidt, Norman B

    2011-03-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with risk for developing marijuana dependence, yet it remains unclear whether urge to use marijuana increases in anticipation of social anxiety-provoking situation, during the situation, or afterwards (to avoid post-event processing). The present study examined the timing of marijuana craving in response to a social anxiety task among 60 (50% female; 33% with SAD) marijuana users randomly assigned to either a speech or reading task. Participants completed ratings of marijuana craving at baseline (prior to being informed of task assignment), before, during, and after task. Among women and participants with SAD, the speech task was associated with greater craving than the reading task. This effect was particularly pronounced during the social anxiety induction task. This effect was not observed for men or participants without SAD. Identification of timing of urge to use marijuana has important implications for treatment and relapse prevention of marijuana problems among women and people with SAD (a group at particular risk for marijuana-related problems). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social Networking Site Use While Driving: ADHD and the Mediating Roles of Stress, Self-Esteem and Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Adults who present ADHD symptoms have an increased risk for vehicle accidents. One conceivable overlooked account for this association is the possibility that people with ADHD symptoms use rewarding technologies such as social networking sites (SNS) while driving, more than others. The objective of this study was to understand if and how ADHD symptoms can promote SNS use while driving and specifically to conceptualize and examine mechanisms which may underlie this association. To do so, ADHD is viewed in this study as an underlying syndrome that promotes SNS use while driving in a manner similar to how addictive syndromes promote compulsive seeking of drug rewards. Time-lagged survey data regarding ADHD, stress, self-esteem, SNS craving experience, SNS use while driving, and control variables were collected from a sample of 457 participants who use a popular SNS (Facebook) and drive, after face-validity examination with a panel of five users and pretest with a sample of 47. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses using the frequency of ADHD symptoms measured with ASRS v1.1 Part A as a continuous variable, as well as multivariate analysis of variance using ADHD classification based on ASRS v1.1 scoring guidelines. ADHD symptoms promoted increased stress and reduced self-esteem, which in turn, together with ADHD symptoms, increased one's cravings to use the SNS. These cravings ultimately translated into increased SNS use while driving. Using the ASRS v1.1 classification, people having symptoms highly consistent with ADHD presented elevated levels of stress, cravings to use the SNS, and SNS use while driving, as well as decreased levels of self-esteem. Cravings to use the SNS among men were more potent than among women. SNS use while driving may be more prevalent than previously assumed and may be indirectly associated with ADHD symptoms. It is a new form of impulsive and risky behavior which is more common among people with symptoms

  11. Social Networking Site use while driving: ADHD and the mediating roles of stress, self-esteem and craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofir eTurel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adults who present ADHD symptoms have an increased risk for vehicle accidents. One conceivable overlooked account for this association is the possibility that people with ADHD symptoms use rewarding technologies such as social networking sites (SNS while driving, more than others. The objective of this study was to understand if and how ADHD symptoms can promote SNS use while driving and specifically to conceptualize and examine mechanisms which may underlie this association. To do so, ADHD is viewed in this study as an underlying syndrome that promotes SNS use while driving in a manner similar to how addictive syndromes promote compulsive seeking of drug rewards.Methods: Time-lagged survey data regarding ADHD, stress, self-esteem, SNS craving experience, SNS use while driving and control variables were collected from a sample of 457 participants who use a popular SNS (Facebook and drive, after face-validity examination with a panel of five users and pretest with a sample of 47. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM analyses using the frequency of ADHD symptoms measured with ASRS v1.1 Part A as a continuous variable, as well as multivariate analysis of variance using ADHD classification based on ASRS v1.1 scoring guidelines.Results: ADHD symptoms promoted increased stress and reduced self-esteem, which in turn, together with ADHD symptoms, increased one's cravings to use the SNS. These cravings ultimately translated into increased SNS use while driving. Using the ASRS v1.1 classification, people having symptoms highly consistent with ADHD presented elevated levels of stress, cravings to use the SNS, and SNS use while driving, as well as decreased levels of self-esteem. Cravings to use the SNS among men were more potent than among women.Conclusion: SNS use while driving may be more prevalent than previously assumed and may be indirectly associated with ADHD symptoms. It is a new form of impulsive and risky

  12. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will allow you to take a more active role in your care. The information in these videos ... Stategies to Increase your Level of Physical Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for ...

  14. Experimentally induced states of mind determine abstinent smokers' level of craving in reaction to smoking-cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Dijkstra

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The present studies provide experimental evidence that levels of craving can be determined by momentary states of mind. This theoretical perspective can be integrated in existing conditioning and social cognitive learning perspectives on craving and substance use.

  15. Pacing, Conventional Physical Activity and Active Video Games to Increase Physical Activity for Adults with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia Elizabeth; Smith, Ashleigh E; Davison, Kade

    2017-08-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a serious illness of biological origin characterized by profound physical and cognitive exhaustion and postexertion malaise. Pacing is a common strategy used to manage available energy and complete activities of daily living; yet little research has investigated this as a strategy to increase physical activity levels. Typically, people living with ME/CFS are faced by unique barriers to physical activity participation and are less physically active than healthy peers. As such they are at increased risk of physical inactivity-related health consequences. Active video games may be a feasible and acceptable avenue to deliver physical activity intervention by overcoming many of the reported barriers to participation. The primary objective of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of active video games to increase physical activity levels of people with ME/CFS. The secondary aims are to explore the preliminary effectiveness of pacing and active video gaming to pacing alone and pacing plus conventional physical activity to increase the physical activity levels of adults with ME/CFS and explore the relationship between physical activity and cumulative inflammatory load (allostatic load). This study will use a mixed method design, with a 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial, exit interviews, and collection of feasibility and process data. A total of 30 adults with ME/CFS will be randomized to receive either (1) pacing, (2) pacing and conventional physical activity, or (3) pacing and active video gaming. The intervention duration will be 6 months, and participants will be followed up for 6 months postintervention completion. The intervention will be conducted in the participant's home, and activity intensity will be determined by continuously monitored heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion. Feasibility and acceptability and process data will be collected during and at the end

  16. Role of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in incubation of cocaine craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Eisuke; Uejima, Jamie L.; Wihbey, Kristina A.; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-01-01

    Cue-induced drug-seeking in rodents progressively increases after withdrawal from cocaine, suggesting that cue-induced cocaine craving incubates over time. Here, we explored the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a brain area previously implicated in cue-induced cocaine seeking) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer cocaine for 10 d (6 h/d, infusions were paired with a tone-light cue), and then assessed after 1 or 30 withdrawal days the effect of exposure to cocaine cues on lever presses in extinction tests. We found that cue-induced cocaine-seeking in the extinction tests was higher after 30 withdrawal days than after 1 day. The time-dependent increases in extinction responding were associated with large (ventral mPFC) or modest (dorsal mPFC) increases in ERK phosphorylation (a measure of ERK activity and an index of neuronal activation). After 30 withdrawal days, ventral but not dorsal injections of muscimol+baclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor agonists that inhibit neuronal activity) decreased extinction responding. After 1 withdrawal day, ventral but not dorsal mPFC injections of bicuculline+saclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor antagonists that increase neuronal activity) strongly increased extinction responding. Finally, muscimol+baclofen had minimal effect on extinction responding after 1 day, and in cocaine-experienced rats, ventral mPFC injections of muscimol+baclofen or bicuculline+saclofen had no effect on lever presses for an oral sucrose solution. The present results indicate that ventral mPFC neuronal activity plays an important role in the incubation of cocaine craving. PMID:18565549

  17. Evidence of validity of an inhalant-craving questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Matías, Lizeth; Páez-Martínez, Nayeli; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; González-Olvera, Jorge J

    2015-12-15

    Inhalants are substances widely used as recreational drugs: their addictive potential has been demonstrated by many studies. There is no reported measurable evidence of craving in inhalant users. The main goal of this study was to design and obtain evidence of validity of the score of a questionnaire for the evaluation of inhalant craving (ICQ) in a Mexican population sample. The ICQ is a type of visual analog scale with ten items. Face validity was evaluated by a group of experts in the addiction field. Reviewers considered the completeness, semantics, and sentence structure to guarantee a conceptual representation of the items. The final ICQ was applied to a sample of 520 Mexican high school students, 46% women and 54% men, between 12-19 years of age (M=15.18; SD=1.48), from 7th to 12th grades. The internal consistency of the ICQ showed a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.947. The 10 items were grouped into one single factor, with a factor loading above 0.74 for each of them. ROC analysis breakpoint was located at 18.5 mm with a sensitivity of 0.855 and specificity of 0.753. Thirty-three per cent (n= 172) of the student population evaluated reported the use of inhalants at some point in their lifetimes, with an average of misuse beginning at 13.6 years of age. The ICQ showed adequate psychometric properties, suggesting that the instrument may be considered a useful tool for screening for craving in young inhalant users.

  18. Making Good Physics Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-01-01

    Online videos are an increasingly important way technology is contributing to the improvement of physics teaching. Students and teachers have begun to rely on online videos to provide them with content knowledge and instructional strategies. Online audiences are expecting greater production value, and departments are sometimes requesting educators…

  19. The absence of benzodiazepine craving in a general practice benzodiazepine discontinuation trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Kan, C.C.; Mulder, J.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to assess benzodiazepine craving longitudinally and to describe its time course by means of the Benzodiazepine Craving Questionnaire (BCQ). Subjects were long-term benzodiazepine users participating in a two-part treatment intervention aimed to reduce long-term benzodiazepine use in

  20. The absence of benzodiazepine craving in a general practice benzodiazepine discontinuation trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Kan, C.C.; Mulder, J.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to assess benzodiazepine craving longitudinally and to describe its time course by means of the Benzodiazepine Craving Questionnaire (BCQ). Subjects were long-term benzodiazepine users participating in a two-part treatment intervention aimed to reduce long-term benzodiazepine use in

  1. The absence of benzodiazepine craving in a general practice bezodiazepine discontinuation trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Kan, C.C.; Mulder, J.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to assess benzodiazepine craving longitudinally and to describe its time course by means of the Benzodiazepine Craving Questionnaire (BCQ). Subjects were long-term benzodiazepine users participating in a two-part treatment intervention aimed to reduce long-term benzodiazepine use in

  2. The role of craving in relapse after discontinuation of long-term benzodiazepine use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Kan, C.C.; Zitman, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Craving for benzodiazepines has never been examined as a factor of relapse after successful benzodiazepine discontinuation. In this study, we examined the predictive value of craving on benzodiazepine relapse. METHOD: A stepped-care intervention trial aimed to discontinue long-term

  3. Cue-Provoked Craving and Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Cue exposure paradigms have been used to examine reactivity to smoking cues. However, it is not known whether cue-provoked craving is associated with smoking cessation outcomes or whether cue reactivity can be attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in clinical samples. Cue-provoked craving ratings and reaction time responses were…

  4. State and trait food craving in people with bulimic eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eynde, Frederique; Koskina, Antonia; Syrad, Hayley; Guillaume, Sébastien; Broadbent, Hannah; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-12-01

    In two studies, we examined trait and state food craving levels in people with a bulimic disorder (BD) (bulimia nervosa and related disorders) and healthy controls (HC) using multidimensional self-report assessments. In study 1, trait food craving was assessed in 70 people with a BD and 69 HC using the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait. Participants also completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). In study 2, 45 people with a BD and 29 HC completed the Food Craving Questionnaire-State and the EDE-Q following exposure to visual and real high-caloric food cues. The results showed that both trait and state food cravings were significantly higher in people with a BD, compared to HC. Trait food craving was associated with eating disorder symptomatology in both the HC and BD groups. State food craving was associated with eating disorder psychopathology, but only in the BD group. This research underscores the importance of food craving in the study and conceptualization of BD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-Term Effects of the Realfit Intervention on Self-Esteem and Food Craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Nina H. M.; Mulkens, Sandra; Mujakovic, Suhreta; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: RealFit is a 13-week weight-reduction programme for adolescents. This study investigated the programme's long-term effectiveness regarding the psychological outcomes of self-esteem and food craving. Methods: The study had a quasi-experimental design. Body mass index, self-esteem and food craving were assessed at baseline (T[subscript…

  6. Within-Day Temporal Patterns of Smoking, Withdrawal Symptoms, and Craving*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Siddharth; Scharf, Deborah; Shiffman, Saul

    2011-01-01

    We examined the temporal relationships between smoking frequency and craving and withdrawal. 351 heavy smokers (≥15 cigarettes per day) used ecological momentary assessment and electronic diaries to track smoking, craving, negative affect, arousal, restlessness, and attention disturbance in real time over 16 days. The waking day was divided into 8 2-hour “bins” during which cigarette counts and mean levels of craving and withdrawal were computed. Cross-sectional analyses showed no association between restlessness and smoking, and arousal and smoking, but craving (b=0.65, psmoking. In prospective lagged analyses, higher craving predicted more subsequent smoking and higher smoking predicted lower craving (p's predicted more subsequent smoking and higher smoking predicted lower restlessness (p's predict later smoking, but more smoking preceded lower negative affect (ppredicted, or were predicted by variations in smoking. In short, smoking exhibits time-lagged, reciprocal relationships with craving and restlessness, and a one-way predictive relationship with negative affect. Temporal patterns of craving and restlessness may aid in the design of smoking cessation interventions. PMID:21324611

  7. Real-time craving and mood assessments before and after smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian L; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Paris, Megan M; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2008-07-01

    This study explored some quandaries concerning craving and mood as motivators to smoke. Craving and negative mood have long been associated with day-to-day smoking as two of the primary motivational forces behind the maintenance of the behavior, as well as significant barriers in smokers' attempts to quit. Craving remains a clinically relevant phenomenon, with most smokers describing craving as a troublesome problem when quitting. Smokers' self-reports of negative mood, as an antecedent for smoking, are so robustly reported that many models of nicotine dependence have incorporated a critical role for negative mood in maintaining smoking behavior. However, several naturalistic studies that collected mood ratings with hand held computers from smokers in real time, just before smoking a cigarette, have provided scant evidence that negative mood plays a major role in motivation to smoke. No study to date has examined craving and mood data as a consequence of smoking, that is, collecting the same data immediately after smoking. This study used personal digital assistants (PDAs) to collect craving and mood data immediately before smoking, immediately after smoking, and at random times of day. Nontreatment seeking smokers (N = 72) carried a PDA for an average of 10 days while they recorded their smoking behavior. Results showed that craving and negative mood ratings were lowest immediately after smoking compared with immediately before smoking and at random times of day. These findings suggest that smokers may be at least partially motivated to smoke to lower their craving and improve their mood states.

  8. The effects of continuous theta burst stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on executive function, food cravings, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Cassandra J; Hall, Peter A; Staines, William R

    2014-09-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that executive function (EF) strength is positively associated with dietary self-control. As such, the differential operation of the brain centers underlying EFs (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]) may explain controlled aspects of dietary self-control. The present study was designed to examine the causal relationship between DLPFC function and two aspects of dietary self-control: visceral cravings and actual consumptive behaviors. The research was conducted using a within-participant design. A sample of 21 healthy female young adults aged 19 to 26 years (mean [M; standard deviation] = 21.10 [1.86] years) received both active and sham continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left DLPFC. Before and after each session, subjective food cravings were assessed using the Food Craving Questionnaire-State. After each stimulation session, participants competed three measures of EF (Stroop, Go/No-Go, and Stop-Signal) and a bogus taste test. Participants reported larger increases in snack food cravings after active stimulation (M = 9.98% change, standard error [SE] = 0.45) than after sham stimulation (M = -3.46, SE = 0.39, p = .012) on the reinforcement anticipation dimension of Food Craving Questionnaire-State. Likewise, participants consumed significantly more snack foods after active stimulation (M = 70.62 grams, SE = 5.17) than after sham stimulation (M = 61.33, SE = 3.56, p = .006). Finally, performance on the Stroop task was reduced more after active (M = 71.56 milliseconds, SE = 25.18) than after sham stimulation (M = 20.16, SE = 13.32, p = .033); reduction in Stroop performance mediated the effect of active stimulation on increased appetitive food consumption. These results support the contention that EF strength, as modulated by DLPFC activity, is causally associated with effective dietary self-control.

  9. Resisting the urge to smoke and craving during a smoking quit attempt on varenicline: results from a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Karen J; Lematty, Todd; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Gray, Kevin M; George, Mark S; Brady, Kathleen T

    2013-03-01

    Varenicline has been shown to reduce cigarette craving during a quit attempt. Use BOLD fMRI to explore differences in smoking cue reactivity at baseline and after five weeks of varenicline smoking cessation treatment. Treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent adult smokers underwent BOLD fMRI scans with block presentation of visual smoking, neutral, and rest cues under two conditions: craving or resisting the urge to smoke at baseline and following 5 weeks of standard varenicline therapy. Data were analyzed using FMRI Expert Analysis Tool, version 5.98 of Functional Magnetic Imaging of the Brain Software Library focused on the smoking vs. neutral cue contrast at the individual and group level, Z>2.3 with cluster threshold p=0.05. Twenty-one participants were scanned at baseline and 16 completed the study; 10 were abstinent at the 2(nd) session, confirmed with urinary cotinine. In the Crave Condition no significant differences were found between the abstinent and non-abstinent groups at either time point. During the baseline Resist Condition, the abstinent group compared to the non-abstinent group demonstrated activation in a distributed network involved in alertness, learning and memory. Additionally, within the abstinent group, increased activation of the superior frontal gyrus was found at baseline compared to week 5. Successful smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with increased activation, prior to a quit attempt, in brain areas related to attentiveness and memory while resisting the urge to smoke Scientific Significance: Varenicline may exert effects by both reducing craving and enhancing resistance to smoking urges during cue-elicited craving.

  10. Belief about nicotine Modulates subjective craving and insula activity in Deprived smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, X. S.; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the specific neural mechanisms through which cognitive factors influence craving and associated brain responses, despite the initial success of cognitive therapies in treating drug addiction. In this study, we investigated how cognitive factors such as beliefs influence...... subjective craving and neural activities in nicotine-addicted individuals using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropharmacology. Deprived smokers (N = 24) participated in a two-by-two balanced placebo design, which crossed beliefs about nicotine (told "nicotine" vs. told "no......, smokers demonstrated significantly reduced craving after smoking when told "nicotine in cigarette" but showed no change in craving when told "no nicotine." Second, neural activity in the insular cortex related to craving was only significant when smokers were told "nicotine" but not when told "no nicotine...

  11. Impulsivity moderates the relationship between previous quit failure and cue-induced craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erblich, Joel; Michalowski, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Poor inhibitory control has been shown to be an important predictor of relapse to a number of drugs, including nicotine. Indeed, smokers who exhibit higher levels of impulsivity are thought to have impaired regulation of urges to smoke, and previous research has suggested that impulsivity may moderate cue-induced cigarette cravings. To that end, we conducted a study to evaluate the interplay between failed smoking cessation, cue-induced craving, and impulsivity. Current smokers (n=151) rated their cigarette cravings before and after laboratory to exposure to smoking cues, and completed questionnaires assessing impulsivity and previous failed quit attempts. Findings indicated that shorter duration of previous failed quit attempts was related to higher cue-induced cigarette craving, especially among smokers with higher levels of impulsivity. Results underscore the importance of considering trait impulsivity as a factor in better understanding the management of cue-induced cravings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food cravings mediate the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana; Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between chronic stress, food cravings, and body mass index. A community-based sample of adults (N = 619) completed a comprehensive assessment battery and heights and weights were measured. Chronic stress had a significant direct effect on food cravings, and food cravings had a significant direct effect on body mass index. The total effect of chronic stress on body mass index was significant. Food cravings partially mediated the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index. These findings are consistent with research that chronic stress may potentiate motivation for rewarding substances and behaviors and indicate that high food cravings may contribute to stress-related weight gain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Regulation of cocaine craving by cognitive strategies in an online sample of cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Reynolds, Anna R; Stoops, William W

    2016-08-01

    Emphasis on the negative consequences of drug use is a critical component of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) skills to regulate craving. Despite the relative success of CBT for treating substance use disorders, effective human laboratory models of CBT are lacking. Recent reports have indicated that the regulation of craving (ROC) task provides a valid model of craving regulation for nicotine, alcohol, and methamphetamine use. The present study examined ROC in an online sample of regular cocaine users (n = 44) recruited from Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk. In the ROC task, cognitive regulation strategies were manipulated by instructing participants to think about either the positive or negative consequences of consuming cocaine. Participants were then presented with cocaine images while engaging in each cognitive regulation strategy and asked to report current craving that was then compared to neutral look conditions. Food images served as a control. A cocaine purchase task was also completed to assess economic demand for cocaine and its relationship with cocaine craving. The use of negative appraisal strategies that model those used in CBT significantly attenuated craving for cocaine. Cocaine craving was also stimulus-specific, with greater smoked cocaine craving reported by individuals with a history of smoked cocaine use. This online extension of the ROC task provides converging evidence for its use as a model of CBT cocaine-craving regulation. Futures studies can use this model to examine the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of CBT for cocaine use and the relationship between craving regulation and drug-use behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Digital video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike

    2004-04-01

    The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.

  15. A Serious Video Game to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Elementary Aged Youth (Squire’s Quest! II): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Riddhi; Cullen, Karen; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Background Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions are specific plans to facilitate goal attainment. Redefining goal setting to include implementation intentions may be an effective way to increase effectiveness. Video games offer a controlled venue for conducting behavioral research and testing hypotheses to identify mechanisms of effect. Objective This report describes the protocol that guided the design and evaluation of Squire’s Quest! II, a video game aimed to increase child fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods Squire’s Quest! II is a 10-episode videogame promoting fruit and vegetable consumption to 4th and 5th grade children (approximately 9-11 year old youths). A four group randomized design (n=400 parent/child dyads) was used to systematically test the effect of two types of implementation intentions (action, coping) on fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption of 4th and 5th graders. Data collection occurred at baseline, immediately post game-play, and 3 months later. Child was the unit of assignment. Three dietary recalls were collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2009). Psychosocial and process data were also collected. Results To our knowledge, this is the first research to explore the effect of implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption. Conclusions This intervention will contribute valuable information regarding whether implementation intentions are effective with elementary age children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01004094 PMID:23612366

  16. Effect of the novel positive allosteric modulator of mGluR2 AZD8529 on incubation of methamphetamine craving after prolonged voluntary abstinence in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zeric, Tamara; Li, Xuan; Adhikary, Sweta; Madangopal, Rajtarun; Marchant, Nathan J.; Lucantonio, Federica; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cue-induced methamphetamine craving increases after prolonged forced (experimenter-imposed) abstinence from the drug (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Here, we determined whether this incubation phenomenon would occur under conditions that promote voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence. We also determined the effect of the novel mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator, AZD8529, on incubation of methamphetamine craving after forced or voluntary abstinence. Methods We trained rats to self-administer palatable food (6 sessions) and then to self-administer methamphetamine under two conditions: 12 sessions (9-hr/day) or 50 sessions (3-hr/day). We then assessed cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in extinctions test after 1 or 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent either forced abstinence (no access to the food- or drug-paired levers) or voluntary abstinence for 19 days (achieved via a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and palatable food; 20 trials per day). We also determined the effect of subcutaneous injections of AZD8529 (20 and 40 mg/kg) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking 1 or 21 days after forced or voluntary abstinence. Results Under both training and abstinence conditions, cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in the extinction tests was higher after 21 abstinence days than after 1 day (incubation of methamphetamine craving). AZD8529 decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking on day 21 but not day 1 of forced or voluntary abstinence. Conclusions We introduce a novel animal model to study incubation of drug craving and cue-induced drug seeking after prolonged voluntary abstinence, mimicking the human condition of relapse after successful contingency management treatment. Our data suggest that PAMs of mGluR2 should be considered for relapse prevention. PMID:25861699

  17. Effect of the Novel Positive Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 AZD8529 on Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving After Prolonged Voluntary Abstinence in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zeric, Tamara; Li, Xuan; Adhikary, Sweta; Madangopal, Rajtarun; Marchant, Nathan J; Lucantonio, Federica; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-10-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine craving increases after prolonged forced (experimenter-imposed) abstinence from the drug (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Here, we determined whether this incubation phenomenon would occur under conditions that promote voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence. We also determined the effect of the novel metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 positive allosteric modulator, AZD8529, on incubation of methamphetamine craving after forced or voluntary abstinence. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food (6 sessions) and then to self-administer methamphetamine under two conditions: 12 sessions (9 hours/day) or 50 sessions (3 hours/day). We then assessed cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in extinction tests after 1 or 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent either forced abstinence (no access to the food- or drug-paired levers) or voluntary abstinence (achieved via a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and palatable food; 20 trials per day) for 19 days. We also determined the effect of subcutaneous injections of AZD8529 (20 and 40 mg/kg) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking 1 day or 21 days after forced or voluntary abstinence. Under both training and abstinence conditions, cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in the extinction tests was higher after 21 abstinence days than after 1 day (incubation of methamphetamine craving). AZD8529 decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking on day 21 but not day 1 of forced or voluntary abstinence. We introduce a novel animal model to study incubation of drug craving and cue-induced drug seeking after prolonged voluntary abstinence, mimicking the human condition of relapse after successful contingency management treatment. Our data suggest that positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 should be considered for relapse prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Video special effects editing in MPEG-2 compressed video

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, WAC; Canagarajah, CN; Bull, David

    2000-01-01

    With the increase of digital technology in video production, several types of complex video special effects editing have begun to appear in video clips. In this paper we consider fade-out and fade-in special effects editing in MPEG-2 compressed video without full frame decompression and motion estimation. We estimated the DCT coefficients and use these coefficients together with the existing motion vectors to produce these special effects editing in compressed domain. Results show that both o...

  19. The Dynamics of Addiction: Craving versus Self-Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Grasman

    Full Text Available This study deals with addictive acts that exhibit a stable pattern not intervening with the normal routine of daily life. Nevertheless, in the long term such behaviour may result in health damage. Alcohol consumption is an example of such addictive habit. The aim is to describe the process of addiction as a dynamical system in the way this is done in the natural and technological sciences. The dynamics of the addictive behaviour is described by a mathematical model consisting of two coupled difference equations. They determine the change in time of two state variables, craving and self-control. The model equations contain terms that represent external forces such as societal rules, peer influences and cues. The latter are formulated as events that are Poisson distributed in time. With the model it is shown how a person can get addicted when changing lifestyle. Although craving is the dominant variable in the process of addiction, the moment of getting dependent is clearly marked by a switch in a variable that fits the definition of addiction vulnerability in the literature. Furthermore, the way chance affects a therapeutic addiction intervention is analysed by carrying out a Monte Carlo simulation. Essential in the dynamical model is a nonlinear component which determines the configuration of the two stable states of the system: being dependent or not dependent. Under identical external conditions both may be stable (hysteresis. With the dynamical systems approach possible switches between the two states are explored (repeated relapses.

  20. We All Stream for Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    More than ever, teachers are using digital video to enhance their lessons. In fact, the number of schools using video streaming increased from 30 percent to 45 percent between 2004 and 2006, according to Market Data Retrieval. Why the popularity? For starters, video-streaming products are easy to use. They allow teachers to punctuate lessons with…

  1. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  2. Harnessing Visual Media in Environmental Education: Increasing Knowledge of Orangutan Conservation Issues and Facilitating Sustainable Behaviour through Video Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elissa; Dorrian, Jillian; Litchfield, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Many animals are currently facing extinction. Conservation education which highlights the impacts of our behaviour on other species survival is crucial. This study provides evidence for the use of visual media to increase knowledge, attitudes and conservation behaviours regarding the highly endangered orangutan. University students (n = 126) were…

  3. Creating action plans in a serious video game increases and maintains child fruit-vegetable intake: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child fruit and vegetable intake is below recommended levels, increasing risk for chronic disease. Interventions to influence fruit and vegetable intake among youth have had mixed effects. Innovative, theory-driven interventions are needed. Goal setting, enhanced by implementation intentions (i.e., ...

  4. Immersive video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  5. Role of ventral tegmental area glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in incubation of cocaine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Xi; Wu, Ping; Xu, Chunmei; Zhao, Mei; Morales, Marisela; Harvey, Brandon K; Hoffer, Barry J; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-07-15

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) contributes to time-dependent increases in cue-induced cocaine seeking after withdrawal (incubation of cocaine craving). Here, we studied the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in incubation of cocaine craving because, like BDNF, GDNF provides trophic support to midbrain dopamine neurons. We first trained rats to self-administer intravenous cocaine for 10 days (6 hours/d, cocaine injections were paired with a tone-light cue). We then manipulated VTA GDNF function and assessed cue-induced cocaine seeking in extinction tests after withdrawal from cocaine. VTA injections of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing rat GDNF cDNA (5 x 10(8) viral genomes) on withdrawal Day 1 increased cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal days 11 and 31; this effect was not observed after VTA injections of an AAV viral vector containing red fluorescent protein (RFP). Additionally, VTA, but not substantial nigra (SN), GDNF injections (1.25 microg or 12.5 microg/side) immediately after the last cocaine self-administration session increased cue-induced drug seeking on withdrawal days 3 and 10; this effect was reversed by VTA injections of U0126, which inhibits the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). Finally, interfering with VTA GDNF function by chronic delivery of anti-GDNF monoclonal neutralizing antibodies via minipumps (600 ng/side/d) during withdrawal Days 1-14 prevented the time-dependent increases in cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal days 11 and 31. Our results indicate that during the first weeks of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, GDNF-dependent neuroadaptations in midbrain VTA neurons play an important role in the development of incubation of cocaine craving.

  6. The acute effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on video-lottery terminal gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sean P; Collins, Pam; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-03-01

    Gamblers often use alcohol and/or tobacco when they gamble but little is known about the extent to which drinking or smoking affects gambling behavior. This study examined the acute effects of alcohol and nicotine-containing tobacco administration on the subjective and behavioral responses to video-lottery terminal (VLT) gambling in 16 regular video-lottery terminal players (11 male) who were also regular consumers of alcohol and tobacco. During four double-blind, counterbalanced sessions, participants assessed the subjective effects of nicotine-containing tobacco or denicotinized tobacco following the administration of a moderately intoxicating dose of alcohol or a placebo beverage. They were then given $40 and provided with an opportunity to gamble using an authentic VLT. Alcohol administration was associated with increased ratings of several subjective descriptors including "intoxicated", "high", "want alcohol", "crave cigarette", and "want to gamble" but did not affect subsequent gambling behavior. In contrast, relative to denicotinized tobacco, the administration of nicotine containing tobacco was associated with increased average wagers, but did not significantly alter subjective state. Findings suggest that both alcohol and nicotine-containing tobacco may acutely increase the propensity to gamble using VLTs, but they may do so through separate processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of Drug Craving in Persian Speaking Subjects; a Review on Current Experiences and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Maarefvand

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug craving is considered as one of the main cores of drug dependency and addiction. Multidimensionality of drug craving, its cultural-bounded features and its intra individual rapidly changing nature makes it difficult to be measured. Nowadays, regarding different psychometric approaches, there are various instruments available for measurement of different aspects of drug craving but mainly for Latin-based languages in North America and European countries. High prevalence and special conditions, and unique subcultures in substance abuse and addiction in many countries, like Iran, make the design of culturally validated instruments for drug craving assessment priority. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive review on drug craving measurement instruments for Persian speaking subjects have been performed by searching in databases (ELSEVIER, Science Direct and Scientific Information Database (SID and investigating of related documents on regional experiences. Results: In this article seven main categories of drug craving instruments have been reviewed focusing on validated versions in Persian language including: self-reports, reinforcement “proxies”, drug self administration, psycho physiological responding, neurobiological responding, cognitive processing and expressive methods. Conclusion: Reviewing on weak and strength points of each instrument group and national and regional experiences shows that designing and validating a new series of ecologically-validated instruments for multidimensional measurement of drug craving in different addiction subcultures should be prioritized to cover current methodological gaps in substance abuse studies in Iran.

  8. Desire thinking as a predictor of craving and binge drinking: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesca; Caselli, Gabriele; Felicetti, Federica; Rampioni, Margherita; Romanelli, Pierluigi; Troiani, Lorena; Sassaroli, Sandra; Albery, Ian P; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Desire thinking is a conscious and voluntary cognitive process orienting to prefigure images, information and memories about positive target-related experience. Desire thinking has been found to be associated with both craving and alcohol use in clinical and non-clinical populations, however its role in predicting craving and problematic drinking patterns has never been investigated using a longitudinal design. The central aim of the present study was to explore the role of desire thinking at Time 2 (3months post-baseline) in predicting craving and binge drinking and Time 3 (6months post-baseline), controlling for levels of both these constructs and Time 1 (baseline). One hundred and thirty three non-hazardous drinkers were assessed on craving and binge drinking at Times 1 and 3, and on desire thinking at Time 2. Findings showed that desire thinking at Time 2 predicted craving and binge drinking at Time 3, controlling for craving and binge drinking at Time 1. Furthermore, the imaginal prefiguration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between craving at Times 1 and 3; conversely the verbal perseveration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between binge drinking at Times 1 and 3. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cocaine craving during protracted withdrawal requires PKCε priming within vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bailey W; Wroten, Melissa G; Sacramento, Arianne D; Silva, Hannah E; Shin, Christina B; Vieira, Philip A; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-05-01

    In individuals with a history of drug taking, the capacity of drug-associated cues to elicit indices of drug craving intensifies or incubates with the passage of time during drug abstinence. This incubation of cocaine craving, as well as difficulties with learning to suppress drug-seeking behavior during protracted withdrawal, are associated with a time-dependent deregulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) function. As the molecular bases for cocaine-related vmPFC deregulation remain elusive, the present study assayed the consequences of extended access to intravenous cocaine (6 hours/day; 0.25 mg/infusion for 10 day) on the activational state of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), an enzyme highly implicated in drug-induced neuroplasticity. The opportunity to engage in cocaine seeking during cocaine abstinence time-dependently altered PKCε phosphorylation within vmPFC, with reduced and increased p-PKCε expression observed in early (3 days) and protracted (30 days) withdrawal, respectively. This effect was more robust within the ventromedial versus dorsomedial PFC, was not observed in comparable cocaine-experienced rats not tested for drug-seeking behavior and was distinct from the rise in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase observed in cocaine-seeking rats. Further, the impact of inhibiting PKCε translocation within the vmPFC using TAT infusion proteins upon cue-elicited responding was determined and inhibition coinciding with the period of testing attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior, with an effect also apparent the next day. In contrast, inhibitor pretreatment prior to testing during early withdrawal was without effect. Thus, a history of excessive cocaine taking influences the cue reactivity of important intracellular signaling molecules within the vmPFC, with PKCε playing a critical role in the manifestation of cue-elicited cocaine seeking during protracted drug withdrawal. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Creating action plans in a serious video game increases and maintains child fruit-vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Bhatt, Riddhi; Vazquez, Isabel; Cullen, Karen W; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-18

    Child fruit and vegetable intake is below recommended levels, increasing risk for chronic disease. Interventions to influence fruit and vegetable intake among youth have had mixed effects. Innovative, theory-driven interventions are needed. Goal setting, enhanced by implementation intentions (i.e., plans tightly connected to a behavioral goal), may offer a solution. Action plans state "how" a goal will be achieved, while coping plans identify a potential barrier and corresponding solution. The research reported here evaluated the short- and long-term effects of goal setting enhanced with implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable intake in a 10-episode, theoretically-grounded serious videogame promoting fruit and vegetables. This is one of the first studies to test the efficacy of implementation intentions on the dietary intake of healthy children. A four-group randomized design with three data collection periods (baseline, immediate post-intervention, 3 months post-intervention) was employed. Groups varied on whether children created an implementation intention (none, action, coping, both) as part of goal setting. Participants were 4th and 5th grade children (~9-11 years old) and one parent. An a priori power analysis indicated this would provide >80% power to detect a small effect (Cohen's d = 0.17). Children played a 10-episode online videogame; parents received 10 electronic newsletters and access to a parent-only website. The primary outcome was child fruit and vegetable intake, assessed via three, dietitian-assisted telephone recalls at each data collection period. The primary analysis was conducted using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with a mixed model procedure. Secondary analyses examined intervention effects on fruit and vegetables separately. Four hundred parent/child dyads were recruited. A significant group-by-time interaction for fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001) was found in only the Action group, which had

  11. Using Video Self-Modeling via iPads to Increase Academic Responding of an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Juliet E.; Whalon, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations on effective interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have focused on video modeling (VM) and video self-modeling (VSM) to teach a variety of skills. While a considerable literature base exists on VM/VSM to address the social communication, functional, vocational, and behavioral needs of this student…

  12. Video games

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  13. The role of craving in relapse after discontinuation of long-term benzodiazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Audrey J J; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Gorgels, Wim J M J; Breteler, Marinus H M; van Balkom, Anton J L M; van de Lisdonk, Eloy H; Kan, Cornelis C; Zitman, Frans G

    2007-12-01

    Craving for benzodiazepines has never been examined as a factor of relapse after successful benzodiazepine discontinuation. In this study, we examined the predictive value of craving on benzodiazepine relapse. A stepped-care intervention trial aimed to discontinue long-term benzodiazepine use in general practice. The first step was the sending of a letter to users advising them to gradually quit their use by themselves (i.e., minimal intervention). The second step, a supervised tapering-off program, was offered to those unable to discontinue by themselves. Craving was assessed by means of the Benzodiazepine Craving Questionnaire (BCQ). Multiple Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of craving on subsequent relapse during a 15-month follow-up period in patients who had successfully quit their benzodiazepine use by themselves after the minimal intervention (N = 79) and in those patients who had successfully quit after the supervised tapering-off program (N = 45). Data were collected from August 1998 to December 2001. Thirty-five (44%) and 24 (53%) patients had relapsed after the minimal intervention and tapering-off program, respectively. Patients able to quit by themselves experienced very little craving. In this sample, craving was not related to relapse (p = .82). In patients who needed an additional supervised tapering-off program, higher craving scores were significantly related to relapse (hazard ratio = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.54, p = .029), when corrected for benzodiazepine characteristics, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Craving is an independent factor of subsequent relapse after successful benzodiazepine discontinuation in long-term benzodiazepine users who are not able to quit their usage of their own accord.

  14. The relationship between impulsivity and craving in cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziortzis, Desey; Mahoney, James J; Kalechstein, Ari D; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Impulsivity and craving have been independently hypothesized to contribute to sustained drug use and relapse in addiction. The primary focus of this project was to determine the relationship between impulsivity and craving in 85 cocaine-dependent and 73 methamphetamine-dependent, non-treatment-seeking volunteers. Drug use was assessed with a 14-item, self-report drug and alcohol use questionnaire. Self report instruments utilized included the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), which probed "just before your last use of cocaine (for cocaine-dependent participants) or methamphetamine (for methamphetamine-dependent participants), how much craving did you experience?" The groups were similar with respect to recent use of cocaine or methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal significant differences between cocaine and methamphetamine groups for total impulsivity or total craving. Simple linear regression revealed correlations between total impulsivity and total craving in cocaine (r(2)=0.05, p≤0.03) and methamphetamine users (r(2)=0.09, p≤0.008). Participants were separated into high impulsivity (HIBIS) or low impulsivity (LOBIS) subgroups using a median split. ANOVA revealed significantly higher craving in the HIBIS group versus the LOBIS group in methamphetamine users (p≤0.02), but not in cocaine users. For both cocaine and methamphetamine groups, level of impulsivity and craving were found to be related to some drug use variables including years of alcohol use, severity of withdrawal, and craving level following drug use. Taken together, this study shows a marginal relationship between impulsivity and craving, which may further the understanding of motivational factors contributing to ongoing drug use and addiction in psychostimulant users. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the regulation of craving by reappraisal in smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Drug cues can induce craving for drugs of abuse. Dysfunctional regulation of emotion and motivation regarding rewarding objects appears to be an integral part of addiction. It has been found that cognitive strategies decreased the intensity of craving in addicts. Reappraisal strategy is a type of cognitive strategy that requires participants to reinterpret the meaning of an emotional situation. In addition, studies have found that activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is associated with the selection and application of cognitive reappraisal. In present study, we sought to determine whether such cognitive regulation engages the dACC and improves inhibition of craving in smokers. METHODS: Sixteen smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during performance of a cigarette reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive reappraisal. We focused our analyses on the dACC as a key structure of cognitive control of craving. Cue induced craving under different conditions was obtained. Correlational analysis between the functional response in the dACC and the subjective craving was performed. RESULTS: We found that using a cognitive reappraisal was successful in decreasing the conditioned craving. Right dACC (BA 24/32 engaged in the cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the individual's subjective craving was negatively correlated with the right dACC activation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the dACC are important substrates of Inhibition of cue induced craving in smokers. Cognitive regulation by cognitive reappraisal may help addicted individuals avoid the anticipated situations where they are exposed to conditioned cues.

  16. How usability is visible in video games

    OpenAIRE

    Saari, M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As video games have become have become more popular and as popular as music and movies, the need for more video game developers have increased also. But even though there are more people developing video games, there still exists usability issues in video games like also in general computer software. The purpose of the thesis is to find out how usa...

  17. Video-game-assisted physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for idiopathic scoliosis: case series and introduction of a new tool to increase motivation and precision of exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Christine; Groebl, Petra; Nischelwitzer, Alexander; Salchinger, Beate; Sperl, Matthias; Wegmann, Helmut; Holzer, Hans-Peter; Saraph, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    It is important to monitor how patients with juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis comply with their physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE). Physiogame, a newly developed video game using the Game-Trak 3D interactive game controller, combines correct PSSE performance with gaming. It tracks the position of the working limb in 3D space during the exercises as participants aim to hit certain targets and avoid others, and gives direct feedback by stopping the game if the working limb leaves the target 3D space, which is chosen to secure the corrective position according to the Schroth method. Physiogame records the quality and frequency of the exercises performed. We aimed to investigate the influence of this tool on motivation to perform regularly and, correctly, and with self-assessment of performance quality. This case series included 8 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis (thoracolumbar 7, lumbar 1), ages 7-13 years, all female and treated according to SOSORT guidelines; the COBB angle of primary curve at the start of brace therapy was 22-34°. In addition to Full Time Rigid Bracing (FTRB, Cheneau) and PSSE (Schroth), the participants were to perform two standardized Schroth exercises (muscle cylinder in standing position, mainly addressing the thoracic curve, and in side-lying position, mainly addressing the lumbar curve) with video game assistance every day for 6 months. The development (first to last month) of the following parameters was analyzed with descriptive methods: the actual training time to assess motivation, the ratio of the actual playing time versus total playing time to assess exercise improvement, and self-assessment of quality of performance. The average number of sessions with Physiogame was 217 per study participant (range 24 to 572, the study protocol targeted at least 180); actual training time decreased from 79 to 52 min (first to last month). Actual playing time increased from 73% of the total playing time

  18. The high-sweet-fat food craving among women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: emotional response, implicit attitude and rewards sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Chang, Shun-Jen; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to: (1) evaluate food craving and high-sweet-fat food craving across the menstrual cycle; (2) compare the craving and explicit/implicit emotional response to different food; and (3) investigate the reward sensitivity among PMDD and control groups. The PMDD group without treatment history and control group were evaluated for food craving, emotional response to food, implicit attitude task to food, and responsiveness to reward both in luteal and follicular phases. A total of 59 women with PMDD and 60 controls had completed the study. The results revealed that both PMDD diagnosis and luteal phase were associated with higher body mass index. The high-sweet-fat food provoked higher craving, positive emotional, and positive implicit response more than other foods. The luteal phase contributed to higher food and high-sweet-fat food cravings. Besides, the PMDD women had higher reward sensitivity, emotional response, positive implicit attitude, and craving response to high-sweet-fat foods. Further, the rewarding sensitivity was associated with emotional response to high-sweet-fat food which was associated with high-sweet-fat food craving. These results would suggest emotional response and implicit attitude might play a role for high-sweet-fat food craving of PMDD. Further, PMDD women with higher reward sensitivity should be a target group of intervention for high-sweet-fat food craving. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Individualized real-time fMRI neurofeedback to attenuate craving in nicotine-dependent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Karen J.; Hanlon, Colleen A.; Li, Xingbao; Borckardt, Jeffrey J.; Canterberry, Melanie; Prisciandaro, James J.; Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M.; LeMatty, Todd; George, Mark S.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cue-induced craving plays an important role in relapse, and the neural correlates of cue-induced craving have been elucidated using fMRI. This study examined the utility of real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback to strengthen self-regulation of craving-related neural activation and cue-reactivity in cigarette smokers. Methods Nicotine-dependent smokers were randomized to rtfMRI neurofeedback or to a no-feedback control group. Participants completed 3 neuroimaging visits. Within each visit, an initial run during which smoking-related cues were used to provoke craving, an individualized craving-related region of interest (ROI) in the prefrontal cortex or anterior cingulate cortex was identified. In the rtfMRI group, activity from the ROI was fed back via a visual display during 3 subsequent runs while participants were instructed to reduce craving during cue exposure. The control group had an identical experience with no feedback provided. Results Forty-four nicotine-dependent smokers were recruited to participate in our study; data from the 33 participants who completed a 1-week follow-up visit were included in the analysis. Subjective craving ratings and cue-induced brain activation were lower in the rtfMRI group than in the control group. Limitations As participants were not seeking treatment, clinical outcomes are lacking. Conclusion Nicotine-dependent smokers receiving rtfMRI feedback from an individualized ROI attenuated smoking cue–elicited neural activation and craving, relative to a control group. Further studies are needed in treatment-seeking smokers to determine if this intervention can translate into a clinically meaningful treatment modality. PMID:26505139

  20. Explaining the effects of electronic cigarettes on craving for tobacco in recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2015-03-01

    To explore how e-cigarettes attenuate craving for tobacco, in e-cigarette users who recently quit smoking. Cross-sectional survey of recent quitters, Internet (French and English), 2012-2014. Participants were 374 daily users of e-cigarettes who had quit smoking in the previous two months, enrolled on websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and to smoking cessation. We measured perception that e-cigarettes attenuate craving for tobacco cigarettes, characteristics of e-cigarettes, modifications of the devices, patterns of e-cigarette use, reasons for use, satisfaction with e-cigarettes, dependence on e-cigarettes, and personal characteristics. The strongest attenuation of craving for tobacco was obtained by using higher nicotine concentrations in refill liquids, modular systems (rather than unmodified devices), and high voltage batteries. The strength of the effect of e-cigarettes on craving was also associated with more intensive use (more puffs per day, more refill liquid). Stronger effects on craving were associated with satisfaction with e-cigarettes, and with reporting that e-cigarettes helped to quit smoking. Participants who reported the strongest effects on craving for tobacco were the most dependent on the e-cigarette and had the strongest urges to vape. From a public health perspective, there is a trade-off between e-cigarettes that provide high levels of nicotine, high satisfaction and more effects on craving for tobacco, but may also be addictive, and e-cigarettes that contain less nicotine and are less addictive, but are also less satisfactory and less efficient at relieving craving and at helping dependent smokers quit smoking. This trade-off must be kept in mind when regulating e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying specific cues and contexts related to smoking craving for the development of effective virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Ferrer-García, Marta; Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Carballo, José L

    2011-03-01

    Craving is considered the main variable associated with relapse after smoking cessation. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET) consists of controlled and repeated exposure to drug-related cues with the aim of extinguishing craving responses. Some virtual reality (VR) environments, such as virtual bars or parties, have previously shown their efficacy as tools for eliciting smoking craving. However, in order to adapt this technology to smoking cessation interventions, there is a need for more diverse environments that enhance the probability of generalization of extinction in real life. The main objective of this study was to identify frequent situations that produce smoking craving, as well as detecting specific craving cues in those contexts. Participants were 154 smokers who responded to an ad hoc self-administered inventory for assessing craving level in 12 different situations. Results showed that having a drink in a bar/pub at night, after having lunch/dinner in a restaurant and having a coffee in a cafe or after lunch/dinner at home were reported as the most craving-inducing scenarios. Some differences were found with regard to participants' gender, age, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Females, younger people, and heavier smokers reported higher levels of craving in most situations. In general, the most widely cited specific cues across the contexts were people smoking, having a coffee, being with friends, and having finished eating. These results are discussed with a view to their consideration in the design of valid and reliable VR environments that could be used in the treatment of nicotine addicts who wish to give up smoking.

  2. Reward dependence moderates smoking-cue- and stress-induced cigarette cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Alexandra; Erblich, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette cravings following exposure to smoking cues in a smoker's environment are thought to play an important role in cessation failure. The possibility that dispositional factors may impact cue-induced cravings, though intriguing, has received little attention. According to Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Theory, factors such as reward dependence (RD), harm avoidance (HA), and novelty seeking (NS) may figure prominently in risk for addiction, as well as relapse, in individuals attempting to abstain from drug and alcohol use. Particularly interesting in this regard is the possibility that smokers with higher levels of RD, who are especially sensitive to reward signals, will have heightened craving reactions to smoking cues. To that end, non-treatment-seeking nicotine dependent smokers (n=96, mean age=41.1, 47% African American, 17% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, 19.3cigs/day, FTND=7.5) underwent a classic experimental cue-induction, during which they were exposed to imagery of: (1) smoking, (2) neutral, and (3) stress cues, and reported their cigarette cravings (0-100) before and after each exposure. Participants also completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Not surprisingly, smoking and stress cues (but not neutral cues) elicited significant elevations in craving (p's<0.0001). Consistent with study hypothesis, smokers who scored higher on RD had stronger craving reactions to both smoking cues (p<.02) and stress cues (p<.03). Findings raise the possibility that dispositional characteristics, in particular, reward dependence, influence smoking by potentiating reactions to environmental smoking cues. Furthermore, the similar effects of RD on stress-induced craving suggest that both cue-and stress-induced cravings may be influenced by a common underlying disposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing and the Relationship between Stress and Craving Usage in Addicted to Opium and Industrial Substances

    OpenAIRE

    S Fatemeh Poor-seyed M; S vali ollah Mousavi; S Mosa Kafi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: According to the importance of stressful and impellent factors in severity of craving and after that treating successes, this study had done with purpose of examining the relationship between these factors with craving experience in addicted men in six groups (smoking of opium, inhalation of Heroin, smoking of Heroin, injection of Heroin, smoking of methamphetamine, smoking of crack). Method: In this descriptive-sectional study, 195 addicted men had referred to cold turkey centers in Ras...

  4. Differential Roles of Thought Suppression and Dispositional Mindfulness in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Craving

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Eric; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic events often results in severe distress which may elicit self-medication behaviors. Yet, some individuals exposed to trauma do not develop post-traumatic stress symptoms and comorbid addictive impulses. In the wake of traumatic events, psychological processes like thought suppression and mindfulness may modulate post-traumatic stress and craving for substances. We examined the differential roles of mindfulness and suppression in comorbid post-traumatic stress and craving...

  5. Cue-induced craving among inhalant users: Development and preliminary validation of a visual cue paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shobhit; Dhawan, Anju; Kumaran, S Senthil; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Jain, Raka

    2017-12-01

    Cue-induced craving is known to be associated with a higher risk of relapse, wherein drug-specific cues become conditioned stimuli, eliciting conditioned responses. Cue-reactivity paradigm are important tools to study psychological responses and functional neuroimaging changes. However, till date, there has been no specific study or a validated paradigm for inhalant cue-induced craving research. The study aimed to develop and validate visual cue stimulus for inhalant cue-associated craving. The first step (picture selection) involved screening and careful selection of 30 cue- and 30 neutral-pictures based on their relevance for naturalistic settings. In the second step (time optimization), a random selection of ten cue-pictures each was presented for 4s, 6s, and 8s to seven adolescent male inhalant users, and pre-post craving response was compared using a Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) for each of the picture and time. In the third step (validation), craving response for each of 30 cue- and 30 neutral-pictures were analysed among 20 adolescent inhalant users. Findings revealed a significant difference in before and after craving response for the cue-pictures, but not neutral-pictures. Using ROC-curve, pictures were arranged in order of craving intensity. Finally, 20 best cue- and 20 neutral-pictures were used for the development of a 480s visual cue paradigm. This is the first study to systematically develop an inhalant cue picture paradigm which can be used as a tool to examine cue induced craving in neurobiological studies. Further research, including its further validation in larger study and diverse samples, is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute Effects of Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Affective Withdrawal Symptoms and Cravings among Women Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, David M.; Dunsiger, Shira; Whiteley, Jessica A.; Ussher, Michael H.; Ciccolo, Joseph T.; Jennings, Ernestine G.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of laboratory studies have shown that acute bouts of aerobic exercise favorably impact affect and cravings among smokers. However, randomized trials have generally shown exercise to have no favorable effect on smoking cessation or withdrawal symptoms during quit attempts. The purpose of the present study was to explore this apparent contradiction by assessing acute changes in affect and cravings immediately prior to and following each exercise and contact control session duri...

  7. Effectiveness of slow motion video compared to real time video in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spearman's rho, Cramer's V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters' SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these ...

  8. Using video and theater to increase knowledge and change attitudes-Why are gorillas important to the world and to Congo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Thomas; Mavinga, Franck Barrel; Evans, Ron; Lukas, Kristen E

    2017-10-01

    Applying environmental education in primate range countries is an important long-term activity to stimulate pro-conservation behavior. Within captive settings, mega-charismatic species, such as great apes are often used to increase knowledge and positively influence attitudes of visitors. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of a short-term video and theater program developed for a Western audience and adapted to rural people living in two villages around Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo. We assessed the knowledge gain and attitude change using oral evaluation in the local language (N = 111). Overall pre-program knowledge about Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) was high. Detailed multivariate analysis of pre-program knowledge revealed differences in knowledge between two villages and people with different jobs while attitudes largely were similar between groups. The short-term education program was successful in raising knowledge, particularly of those people with less pre-program knowledge. We also noted an overall significant attitude improvement. Our data indicate short-term education programs are useful in quickly raising knowledge as well improving attitudes. Furthermore, education messages need to be clearly adapted to the daily livelihood realities of the audience, and multi-variate analysis can help to identify potential target groups for education programs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Video Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2016-01-01

    This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...

  10. Does alcohol craving mediate the impulsivity-aggression relationship in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, H G; Wetering, B J M van de; Franken, I H A

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the use of alcohol and aggression is complex and represents major public health issues. Delving into the nature of this association is vital, since various underlying factors may contribute to the expression of aggression. This study examined trait aggression by assessing correlates and, subsequently, the unique contribution of alcohol craving, and dysfunctional impulsivity, by means of correlational and mediational analyses. Forty inpatient detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were recruited. These participants completed the Desire for Alcohol Questionnaire (DAQ), Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (DII), and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). The findings indicated that aggression, dysfunctional impulsivity, and alcohol craving were all positively intercorrelated. The association between dysfunctional impulsivity and aggression was robust. The mediational analyses yielded that craving partially mediated this relationship, although not very substantial. It was shown that impulsivity, as a personality characteristic, is strongly associated with aggressive behaviors, whereby the impact of craving on the relationship between impulsivity and trait aggression in alcohol-dependent inpatients was weak. Since it has been posited that factors such as impulsivity and craving may contribute to the lucid association between substance use and aggression, these findings mirror previous research on stimulant users and, subsequently, substantiates that craving exerts only a minor weight on the strong impulsivity-aggression relationship.

  11. Craving effect of smoking cues in smoking and antismoking stimuli in light smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-García, Francisco I; Cooper, Theodore V; Taylor, Thom

    2013-10-01

    Cue-reactivity models may be able to inform light and intermittent smoking patterns not yet explained by withdrawal models. For instance, smoking cues in smoking and antismoking advertisements may elicit cravings in smokers at equal rates, which may promote smoking maintenance. Moreover, smoking has been associated with impulsivity, but has not been explored in light and intermittent smokers (LITS). Aims of this study included the assessment of the impact of smoking and antismoking advertisements on post-exposure cravings in LITS and assessment of impulsivity as a moderator between cue exposure and cravings. Data from 155 LITS were analyzed. Participants were exposed to one of three stimuli conditions (i.e., smoking, antismoking, and neutral) and completed measures of demographics, tobacco use and history, impulsivity, and cravings. Univariate analysis demonstrated that smoking stimuli produced higher cravings relative to antismoking and neutral stimuli, whereas no differences between antismoking and neutral stimuli were observed. Impulsivity did not moderate the relationship between stimuli condition and cravings. Implications stemming from these findings include the further regulation of smoking advertisements and future exploration of smoking and smoking cessation in the context of cue-reactivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a ‘bottom-up’ attention to one’s present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers. PMID:22114078

  13. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cecilia; Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a 'bottom-up' attention to one's present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers.

  14. Autonomic stress reactivity and craving in individuals with problematic Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretta, Tania; Buodo, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    The link between autonomic stress reactivity and subjective urge/craving has been less systematically examined in behavioral addictions (i.e. problematic Internet use) than in substance use disorders. The present study investigated whether problematic Internet users (PU) show enhanced autonomic stress reactivity than non-PU, indexed by lower Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and higher Skin Conductance Level (SCL) reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whether greater reactivity is related to stronger Internet craving, and whether problematic Internet usage is associated with some dysfunctional psychological features. Based on their Internet Addiction Test scores, participants were divided into PU (N = 24) and non-PU (N = 21). Their heart rate and skin conductance were continuously recorded during baseline, social stressors, and recovery. Craving for Internet usage were collected using a Likert scale before and after the TSST. The SDNN, an overall measure of HRV, was significantly lower in PU than non-PU during baseline, but not during and after stressful task. Furthermore, only among PU a significant negative correlation emerged between SDNN during recovery and craving ratings after the test. No group differences emerged for SCL. Lastly, PU endorsed more mood, obsessive-compulsive, and alcohol-related problems. Our findings suggest that problems in controlling one's use of the Internet may be related to reduced autonomic balance at rest. Moreover, our results provide new insights into the characterization of craving in PIU, indicating the existence of a relationship between craving for Internet usage and reduced autonomic flexibility.

  15. The role of daily hassles and distress tolerance in predicting cigarette craving during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Angela R; Dennis, Paul A; Dennis, Michelle F; Calhoun, Patrick S; Wilson, Sarah M; Beckham, Jean C

    2014-06-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has shown that smoking behavior is linked to transient variables in the smoker's immediate context. Such research suggests that daily hassles (e.g., losing one's keys) may be more likely to lead to cigarette craving and eventual lapse than infrequent, large-scale stressors (e.g., death of a loved one) among individuals attempting to quit smoking. However, individual differences in distress tolerance (DT) may moderate the relationship between daily hassles and daily cigarette craving during a quit attempt. A sample of 56 veterans and community members drawn from a larger smoking-cessation study completed structured interviews and paper-and-pencil questionnaires during an initial laboratory visit and, directly following a quit attempt, were monitored via EMA. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the relationship between daily hassles and daily cigarette craving and to determine whether DT moderated this relationship. Daily hassles were positively associated with daily cigarette craving, and this association was moderated by individual differences in DT, such that the lower one's DT, the stronger the relationship between daily hassles and daily cigarette craving. This model explained 13% of the intraindividual variability and 8% of the interindividual variability in daily cigarette craving. Smoking-cessation interventions may be strengthened by targeting smokers' individual responses to contextual factors, such as by helping smokers develop skills to cope more effectively with distress prior to and during the quit phase.

  16. Live to work or love to work: work craving and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdylo, Kamila; Baumann, Nicola; Fischbach, Lis; Engeser, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to the theory of work craving, a workaholic has a craving for self-worth compensatory incentives and an expectation of relief from negative affect experienced through neurotic perfectionism and an obsessive-compulsive style of working. Research has shown that workaholism and work engagement should be considered as two distinct work styles with different health consequences. However, the mechanisms underlying the adoption of these work styles have been neglected. The present study proposes that work craving and work engagement are differentially associated with self-regulatory competencies and health. In particular, we expected that the working styles mediate the relationships between emotional self-regulation and health. In the cross-sectional study, 469 teachers from German schools completed online administered questionnaires. By means of structural equation modeling, we tested two indirect paths: a) from self-relaxation deficits via work craving to poor health and b) from self-motivation competencies via work engagement to good health. As expected, we found evidence that a) the negative relationship of self-relaxation deficits on health was partially mediated by work craving and b) the positive relationship of self-motivation competencies on health was partially mediated by work engagement. The present study emphasizes the importance of self-regulation competencies for healthy or unhealthy work styles. Whereas work craving was associated with a low ability to down-regulate negative emotions and poor health, work engagement was associated with a high ability to up-regulate positive emotions and good health.

  17. Considerations when using videos in lamaze classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    There are enough worthwhile videos available today so that a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator could literally teach an entire class series using only videos and feedback discussion. In this column, the author explores considerations in choosing videos for adult learners in Lamaze birth classes. Some things to consider when using videos should be the adult learner's attention span, whether the video increases fear of birth or empowers the learner, and if the video is appropriate for the culture of the class participants. Finally, the author provides a list of some of the many wonderful videos available to Lamaze birth educators.

  18. Effect of an online video-based intervention to increase HIV testing in men who have sex with men in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly M Blas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Although many men who have sex with men (MSM in Peru are unaware of their HIV status, they are frequent users of the Internet, and can be approached by that medium for promotion of HIV testing.We conducted an online randomized controlled trial to compare the effect of HIV-testing motivational videos versus standard public health text, both offered through a gay website. The videos were customized for two audiences based on self-identification: either gay or non-gay men. The outcomes evaluated were 'intention to get tested' and 'HIV testing at the clinic.'In the non-gay identified group, 97 men were randomly assigned to the video-based intervention and 90 to the text-based intervention. Non-gay identified participants randomized to the video-based intervention were more likely to report their intention of getting tested for HIV within the next 30 days (62.5% vs. 15.4%, Relative Risk (RR: 2.77, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.42-5.39. After a mean of 125.5 days of observation (range 42-209 days, 11 participants randomized to the video and none of the participants randomized to text attended our clinic requesting HIV testing (p = 0.001. In the gay-identified group, 142 men were randomized to the video-based intervention and 130 to the text-based intervention. Gay-identified participants randomized to the video were more likely to report intentions of getting an HIV test within 30 days, although not significantly (50% vs. 21.6%, RR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.74-3.20. At the end of follow up, 8 participants who watched the video and 10 who read the text visited our clinic for HIV testing (Hazard Ratio: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.40-2.85.This study provides some evidence of the efficacy of a video-based online intervention in improving HIV testing among non-gay-identified MSM in Peru. This intervention may be adopted by institutions with websites oriented to motivate HIV testing among similar MSM populations.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00751192.

  19. Video quality assessment for web content mirroring

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Fei, Kevin; Fernandez, Gustavo A.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Due to the increasing user expectation on watching experience, moving web high quality video streaming content from the small screen in mobile devices to the larger TV screen has become popular. It is crucial to develop video quality metrics to measure the quality change for various devices or network conditions. In this paper, we propose an automated scoring system to quantify user satisfaction. We compare the quality of local videos with the videos transmitted to a TV. Four video quality metrics, namely Image Quality, Rendering Quality, Freeze Time Ratio and Rate of Freeze Events are used to measure video quality change during web content mirroring. To measure image quality and rendering quality, we compare the matched frames between the source video and the destination video using barcode tools. Freeze time ratio and rate of freeze events are measured after extracting video timestamps. Several user studies are conducted to evaluate the impact of each objective video quality metric on the subjective user watching experience.

  20. Comparing factor, class, and mixture models of cannabis initiation and DSM cannabis use disorder criteria, including craving, in the Brisbane longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C; Clark, Shaunna L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian B; Neale, Michael C; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use.

  1. Craving as an Alcohol Use Disorder Symptom in DSM-5: An Empirical Examination in a Treatment-seeking Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cara M.; Stojek, Monika K.; Few, Lauren R.; Rothbaum, Alex O.; MacKillop, James

    2014-01-01

    Craving has been added as an Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) symptom in DSM-5 but relatively few nosological studies have directly examined the empirical basis for doing so. The current study investigated the validity of craving as an AUD symptom in a sample of heavy drinking treatment-seeking individuals. Using a semi-structured clinical interview, treatment-seeking heavy drinkers (N = 104; 62% male) were assessed for symptoms of DSM-IV AUD. The extent to which individuals endorsed pathological levels of craving in comparison to other AUD symptoms was investigated as was the association between craving and several aspects of problematic alcohol involvement. Factor analysis was utilized to examine whether craving and other AUD symptoms comprised a unidimensional syndrome. Results indicated that craving was significantly positively correlated with AUD severity, quantitative indices of drinking, and adverse consequences of alcohol abuse. In terms of frequency of endorsement, craving was present in 47% of the sample and was the 8th most frequent of the twelve symptoms evaluated. When considered with the DSM-IV AUD criteria, craving aggregated with other symptoms to form a unidimensional syndrome. Extending previous findings from epidemiological samples, these data suggest that, in a clinical sample, many relevant aspects of craving aggregate to form a diagnostic criterion that functions similarly to other AUD symptoms and is related to diverse aspects of alcohol-related impairment. PMID:24490710

  2. Video-game-assisted physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for idiopathic scoliosis: case series and introduction of a new tool to increase motivation and precision of exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wibmer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to monitor how patients with juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis comply with their physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE. Physiogame, a newly developed video game using the Game-Trak 3D interactive game controller, combines correct PSSE performance with gaming. It tracks the position of the working limb in 3D space during the exercises as participants aim to hit certain targets and avoid others, and gives direct feedback by stopping the game if the working limb leaves the target 3D space, which is chosen to secure the corrective position according to the Schroth method. Physiogame records the quality and frequency of the exercises performed. We aimed to investigate the influence of this tool on motivation to perform regularly and, correctly, and with self-assessment of performance quality. Methods This case series included 8 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis (thoracolumbar 7, lumbar 1, ages 7-13 years, all female and treated according to SOSORT guidelines; the COBB angle of primary curve at the start of brace therapy was 22-34°. In addition to Full Time Rigid Bracing (FTRB, Cheneau and PSSE (Schroth, the participants were to perform two standardized Schroth exercises (muscle cylinder in standing position, mainly addressing the thoracic curve, and in side-lying position, mainly addressing the lumbar curve with video game assistance every day for 6 months. The development (first to last month of the following parameters was analyzed with descriptive methods: the actual training time to assess motivation, the ratio of the actual playing time versus total playing time to assess exercise improvement, and self-assessment of quality of performance. Results The average number of sessions with Physiogame was 217 per study participant (range 24 to 572, the study protocol targeted at least 180; actual training time decreased from 79 to 52 min (first to last month. Actual playing

  3. Video Simulations to Develop Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Discourse Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    The incorporation of video technology in teacher education programmes is increasingly prevalent, with teacher educators commonly using three traditional forms of videos: published video, preservice teachers' own videos and colleagues' videos. This study explored a fourth type of video, self-created scripted video simulations in which preservice…

  4. Do scores on the Food Craving Inventory and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire correlate with expected brain regions of interest in people with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka Nadeeshan; Davis, Tyler; O'Boyle, Michael; Binks, Martin

    2018-01-27

    for starchy food (P=0.032) and overall food cravings (P=0.027) were also negatively correlated with ΔfMRI-FCR of brain regions involved in regulating internally focused attention and visual object recognition. In individuals with obesity, decreased food cravings seem to be reflective of increased fMRI-FCR of brain regions that regulate executive control over ingestion. Taken together, constructs measured by FCI seem to be reflective of neurophysiological processes underlying ingestive behavior and the changes in neurophysiological processes occurring during calorie restriction. NCT02637271; the protocol is available at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02637271. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Robust video object cosegmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).

  6. Craving and tobacco use: Development of the choice behavior under cued conditions (CBUCC) procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Julie C; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2017-05-01

    Many addiction theories propose that craving modulates smoking. Research on this relationship has yielded mixed results, which might be explained, in part, by a consideration of the various behaviors representing tobacco use. Tobacco use can be divided into seeking (attempts to access cigarettes) and consumption (ingestion of tobacco). Seeking can be further divided into behaviors that reflect the operation of automatic or nonautomatic cognitive processes. We developed a procedure (Choice Behavior Under Cued Conditions) to systematically examine the relationships between craving and these behaviors. Over multiple trials, thirty dependent smokers were exposed to a lit cigarette or a cup of water located behind a locked glass door. On each trial, participants rated craving and indicated the amount of money ($.01-$.25) they would spend to gain access to the cue. The amount spent, which determined the probability that the door would be unlocked and participants could sample the cue, indexed nonautomatic seeking. Latency to access the cue indexed automatic seeking behavior, and puff duration indexed consumption. Participants on average reported mild to moderate craving levels and had significantly higher craving and spent significantly more money on cigarette trials than water trials, though they did not access the cigarette more quickly than the water. Craving was significantly associated with money spent on cigarette trials (r = 0.54, p < .001) and puff duration (r = 0.38, p < .05), but not with latency (r = 0.35, p = .06). Overall, the data support the utility of this new procedure for examining the relationships between craving and various manifestations of tobacco use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Akademisk video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet er...... der dog opstået nye muligheder og udfordringer i forhold til at formidle og distribuere forskningsresultater til forskellige målgrupper via video. Samtidig er klassiske metodologiske problematikker som forskerens positionering i forhold til det undersøgte stadig aktuelle. Både klassiske og nye...... problemstillinger diskuteres i kapitlet, som rammesætter diskussionen ud fra forskellige positioneringsmuligheder: formidler, historiefortæller, eller dialogist. Disse positioner relaterer sig til genrer inden for ’akademisk video’. Afslutningsvis præsenteres en metodisk værktøjskasse med redskaber til planlægning...

  8. Animal models of drug relapse and craving: From drug priming-induced reinstatement to incubation of craving after voluntary abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    High rates of relapse to drug use during abstinence is a defining feature of drug addiction. In abstinent drug users, drug relapse is often precipitated by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, stress, as well as by short-term and protracted withdrawal symptoms. In this review, we discuss different animal models that have been used to study behavioral and neuropharmacological mechanisms of these relapse-related phenomena. In the first part, we discuss relapse models in which abstinence is achieved through extinction training, including the established reinstatement model, as well as the reacquisition and resurgence models. In the second part, we discuss recent animal models in which drug relapse is assessed after either forced abstinence (e.g., the incubation of drug craving model) or voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence achieved either by introducing adverse consequences to ongoing drug self-administration (e.g., punishment) or by an alternative nondrug reward using a discrete choice (drug vs. palatable food) procedure. We conclude by briefly discussing the potential implications of the recent developments of animal models of drug relapse after voluntary abstinence to the development of medications for relapse prevention. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recognizing problem video game use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Guy; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Fenech, Pauline

    2010-02-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that some people develop problem video game use, defined here as excessive use of video games resulting in various negative psychosocial and/or physical consequences. The main objectives of the present study were to identify individuals with problem video game use and compare them with those without problem video game use on several variables. An international, anonymous online survey was conducted, using a questionnaire with provisional criteria for problem video game use, which the authors have developed. These criteria reflect the crucial features of problem video game use: preoccupation with and loss of control over playing video games and multiple adverse consequences of this activity. A total of 1945 survey participants completed the survey. Respondents who were identified as problem video game users (n = 156, 8.0%) differed significantly from others (n = 1789) on variables that provided independent, preliminary validation of the provisional criteria for problem video game use. They played longer than planned and with greater frequency, and more often played even though they did not want to and despite believing that they should not do it. Problem video game users were more likely to play certain online role-playing games, found it easier to meet people online, had fewer friends in real life, and more often reported excessive caffeine consumption. People with problem video game use can be identified by means of a questionnaire and on the basis of the present provisional criteria, which require further validation. These findings have implications for recognition of problem video game users among individuals, especially adolescents, who present to mental health services. Mental health professionals need to acknowledge the public health significance of the multiple negative consequences of problem video game use.

  10. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  11. Relationship between drug dreams, affect, and craving during treatment for substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Hélène; Zadra, Antonio; Good, Daniel; Leri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between occurrence of drug dreams (DDs) and daytime negative affect and drug craving during the course of a 5-week treatment program for substance dependence. Using the dream journal methodology, 86 participants reported occurrence of dreams, dream content, and ratings of affect and drug craving. The relationships between the experience of DD, dream content ("active" vs "passive"), and affect and craving were analyzed using mixed model methods. The experience of DD was associated with higher levels of negative affect (P < 0.001) and craving (P < 0.001). The occurrence of DD did not decrease significantly over the 5 weeks of the study. Cocaine/crack users reported a higher occurrence of DD (P < 0.05) than the other drug groups (opiates and alcohol), and DD involving "active" drug use was associated with larger (P < 0.05) changes in negative affect. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DD can act as drug-conditioned stimuli to elevate negative affect and craving in abstaining individuals. Although correlational, such findings support the implementation of psychological and pharmacological interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of DD on individuals in recovery from drug addiction.

  12. Update on treatment of craving in patients with addiction using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria da Silva Roggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The craving is a strong desire to consume a psychotropic substance and is one of the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in drug addiction. As a theoretical construct, craving is complex and described by different authors, which results in various theoretical models, but there is a consensus on the importance of its treatment. This paper conducted a literature review to identify and describe the most widely used techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the management of craving and to verify the impact of applying these techniques on outcome variables, specifically the craving. Method: Searches were conducted in the databases of PubMed and PsycInfo using the following descriptors in association: “craving”, “cognitive therapy” “behavior therapy” and “cognitive behavior therapy”. Results: 198 papers were found, out of which thirty four were selected for analysis. The cognitive behavior therapy treatment includes various techniques such as Relapse Prevention, Psychoeducational, Humor and Stress Management, Motivational Interviewing, Exposure to the Relapse Prevention and Relaxation techniques. The manual for Project MATCH is one of the most cited and used for the treatment of drug addicts. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET, Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and newer “mindfulness” therapeutic methods are studied, and have shown promising results, but still need to be further investigated. Conclusion: Various treatments have been proposed and have allowed the achievement of significant improvements in the reduction of craving.

  13. Evaluation of the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire-Now factor structures: application of a cue reactivity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kevin M; Coffey, Scott F; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Drobes, David J; Saladin, Michael E

    2009-07-01

    The current study compared the psychometric properties and clinical/research utility of four distinct factor/subscale models of alcohol craving (three factor-derived models, and one rationally derived model) as measured by the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire-Now in social (n=52) and alcohol dependent (n=71) drinkers. All participants completed a self-report measure of alcohol abuse in addition to engaging in a structured interview and cue reactivity protocol. Participants provided self-reported craving, as well as desire to approach or avoid drinking, during a cue exposure task using separate analog scales. Factor/subscale models were compared in terms of internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and ability to predict cue-elicited approach and craving in addition to diagnostic status. All models demonstrated high levels of internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and the ability to predict both cue-elicited craving and alcohol dependence status. Specific strengths and weaknesses of each model are examined and the theoretical, clinical, and research utility of the current findings are discussed.

  14. Questionnaire of core beliefs related to drug use and craving for assessment of relapse risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, José Miguel; Vilar López, Raquel; Lozano-Rojas, Oscar; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-07-12

    This study was aimed at designing a questionnaire for the assessment of addiction-related core beliefs and craving. The sample comprised 215 patients (85.8% males and 14.2% females) in treatment for dependence to alcohol (40%), cocaine (36.3%) and cannabis (23.7%). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Variance, regression and factorial analyses were conducted to study the questionnaire structure and its relation with variables such as abstinence and craving. Items about drug-related beliefs yielded a four-factor structure: what patient think that they could not do without drug use, lack of withdrawal, conditions required to use drugs again, and use of drugs as the only way to feel good. Items related to craving yielded three factors: negative emotions as precipitants of drug use, positive emotions, and difficulties attributed to coping with craving. Furthermore, beliefs were more important to predict craving than abstinence time. The present questionnaire allows to assess a set of significant factors to design prevention relapse programs.

  15. Problematic internet pornography use: The role of craving, desire thinking, and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Katsikitis, Mary

    2017-07-01

    Defined as sexually explicit material that elicits erotic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, internet pornography is a prevalent form of media that may facilitate problematic use and craving for engagement. Research suggests that superordinate cognitions and information processing, such as desire thinking and metacognition, are central to the activation and escalation of craving in addictive behaviours. The current study aimed to contribute to the literature by testing the proposed metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving in a sample of problematic pornography users, while revising the model by incorporating negative affect. From a theoretical perspective, environmental cues trigger positive metacognitions about desire thinking that directly influence desire thinking, resulting in the escalation of craving, negative metacognitions, and negative affect. Participants were recruited via an online survey and screened for problematic internet pornography use. Path analyses were used to investigate relationships among the aforementioned constructs in a final sample of 191 participants. Consistent with previous research, results of this study validated the existence of metacognitive processes in the activation of desire thinking and escalation of craving, while indicating that desire thinking has the potential to influence negative affect. Additionally, results supported the role of significant indirect relationships between constructs within the revised model of metacognition, desire thinking, and psychopathology. Collectively, the findings demonstrate the clinical value of a metacognitive conceptualisation of problematic pornography use. Exploring the metacognitive mechanisms that underpin problematic internet pornography use may give rise to the development of new treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, pdisorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, pfood cravings and eating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Testing a mobile mindful eating intervention targeting craving-related eating: feasibility and proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E; Jhaveri, Kinnari; Cohn, Michael; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-09-16

    Theoretically driven smartphone-delivered behavioral interventions that target mechanisms underlying eating behavior are lacking. In this study, we administered a 28-day self-paced smartphone-delivered intervention rooted in an operant conditioning theoretical framework that targets craving-related eating using mindful eating practices. At pre-intervention and 1-month post-intervention, we assessed food cravings among adult overweight or obese women (N = 104; M age = 46.2 ± 14.1 years; M BMI = 31.5 ± 4.5) using ecological momentary assessment via text message (SMS), self-reported eating behavior (e.g., trait food craving), and in-person weight. Seventy-eight participants (75.0%) completed the intervention within 7 months ('all completers'), and of these, 64 completed the intervention within 3 months ('timely completers'). Participants experienced significant reductions in craving-related eating (40.21% reduction; p mindful eating training targeting craving-related eating may (1) target behavior that impacts a relative metabolic pathway, and (2) represent a low-burden and highly disseminable method to reduce problematic overeating among overweight individuals. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT02694731.

  18. The effect of social anxiety on urge and craving among smokers with and without anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Morissette, Sandra B; Gulliver, Suzy B; Langdon, Kirsten J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Despite the often social nature of smoking, relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between smoking and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Participants (N=99) included 34 smokers without current mental health disorders, 37 smokers with SAD, and 28 smokers who met criteria for other anxiety disorder diagnoses (e.g., panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, but not SAD). Nicotine and placebo patches were administered to participants in a counterbalanced manner across two assessment days. Urge and craving were assessed before and after a 5-h nicotine absorption/deprivation period. Compared to smokers without current mental health disorders, smokers with SAD did not report greater nicotine dependence, but did endorse greater motivation to use nicotine to avoid negative outcomes. In addition, after controlling for demographic variables, smoking characteristics, pre-deprivation urge and craving, and other anxiety/depression symptoms, social anxiety symptoms uniquely predicted urge and craving in the placebo patch condition; however, social anxiety had no influence on urge and craving in the nicotine patch condition. These findings suggest that one potential reason that smokers with SAD may have worse cessation outcomes is that they may experience higher levels of craving and urge to smoke during quit attempts. Thus, during a quit attempt, particularly in the absence of nicotine replacement therapy, smokers with SAD are likely to benefit from additional treatment aimed at managing or reducing their social anxiety symptoms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Comparison of craving for opioid in opioid-dependent individuals and people under methadone maintenance treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Chehri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT is the most important treatment for opioid -dependency recurrence. The aim of this study was to compare the craving level in opioid-dependent individuals and people under methadone maintenance therapy. Methods: In this case – control study, 120 men with opioid dependency were selected through cluster sampling method. They were divided into two groups, 60 people in opioid-dependent group and 60 people in MMT group. Both groups were matched for age, sex, marital status, education, duration of opioid dependency and method of consumption. Then, they completed INCAS Substance Abuse Profile (ISAP, opiate withdrawal symptoms checklist, self–report of craving, Desire for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ, Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS and visual cue-induced craving questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean craving for drug significantly was lower in MMT group comparing opioid-dependent group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Methadone Maintenance Therapy decreased the craving for drugs and substances This can have an important role in relapse prevention.

  20. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real W...

  1. Rate-Adaptive Video Compression (RAVC) Universal Video Stick (UVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hench, David L.

    2009-05-01

    The H.264 video compression standard, aka MPEG 4 Part 10 aka Advanced Video Coding (AVC) allows new flexibility in the use of video in the battlefield. This standard necessitates encoder chips to effectively utilize the increased capabilities. Such chips are designed to cover the full range of the standard with designers of individual products given the capability of selecting the parameters that differentiate a broadcast system from a video conferencing system. The SmartCapture commercial product and the Universal Video Stick (UVS) military versions are about the size of a thumb drive with analog video input and USB (Universal Serial Bus) output and allow the user to select the parameters of imaging to the. Thereby, allowing the user to select video bandwidth (and video quality) using four dimensions of quality, on the fly, without stopping video transmission. The four dimensions are: 1) spatial, change from 720 pixel x 480 pixel to 320 pixel x 360 pixel to 160 pixel x 180 pixel, 2) temporal, change from 30 frames/ sec to 5 frames/sec, 3) transform quality with a 5 to 1 range, 4) and Group of Pictures (GOP) that affects noise immunity. The host processor simply wraps the H.264 network abstraction layer packets into the appropriate network packets. We also discuss the recently adopted scalable amendment to H.264 that will allow limit RAVC at any point in the communication chain by throwing away preselected packets.

  2. Relacije umetnosti i video igara / Relations of Art and Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlo Maravić

    2012-01-01

    When discussing the art of video games, three different contexts need to be considered: the 'high' art (video games and the art); commercial video games (video games as the art) and the fan art. Video games are a legitimate artistic medium subject to modifications and recontextualisations in the process of creating a specific experience of the player/user/audience and political action by referring to particular social problems. They represent a high technological medium that increases, with p...

  3. The Comparison of Attentional Bias and Difficulty of Emotional States Regulation and Their Correlation with Craving Severity in Drug Abuser Methamphetamines and Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Haghiaght

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, within creased substance, type of substance used has changed. Therefore, drug abuse in population of crack to the stimulant drugs (amphetamine particularly crystal is expanding and increasing. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was the comparison of attentional bias and difficulty of emotional states regulation and their correlation with craving severity in drug abuser methamphetamines and crack. Materials and Methods: Type of research was descriptive analytical correlation. Population was total of users with methamphetamines and crack in summer and fall 2011 at the city of Isfahan, and 34 users with crystal with daily at least one year were selected on the basis of the snow ball sampling and 31 users with crack with daily at least one year were selected on the basis of the sample sampling. The difficulties emotion regulation scale (DERS, Stroop test and OCDUS were used as the outcome measures. For findings used of descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and regression analysis were used. Results: The results of analysis of variance showed that between drug abuser crystal and crack significantly differed of attentional bias and difficulty of emotional states regulation. The greatest differences to components of a lack of transparency, lack of emotional awareness, limit emotional states regulation strategies and of emotional responses. But, only the variable non-acceptance negative emotional of subscale of the difficulty of emotional states regulation was able to craving (as an important indicator of durable use substance in of both crack and crystal predicted. This variable is only 13% of the variance craving in drug abuser crack and crystal can be explained. Other findings showed that although there is no difference between the two groups in the intensity of craving, but attentional bias among drug abuser crack and crystal was a significant difference. Conclusion: Overall, can be said

  4. Video Games as Moral Educators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Angeline

    2012-01-01

    The growing interest in video gaming is matched by a corresponding increase in concerns about the harmful effects on children and adolescents. There are numerous studies on aggression and addiction which spark debates on the negative effects of video gaming. At the same time, there are also studies demonstrating prosocial effects. This paper…

  5. Food cravings and the effects of left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation using an improved sham condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eBarth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether a single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left prefrontal cortex would inhibit food cravings in healthy women who endorsed frequent food cravings. Ten participants viewed images of food and completed ratings for food cravings before and after receiving either real or sham rTMS over the left prefrontal cortex (10Hz, 100% rMT, 10 seconds-on, 20 seconds-off for 15 minutes; 3000 pulses. Sham TMS was matched with real TMS with respect to perceived painfulness of the stimulation. Each participant received both real and sham rTMS in random order and were blind to the condition in a within-subject cross-over design. With an improved sham control condition, prefrontal rTMS inhibited food cravings no better than sham rTMS. The mild pain from the real and sham rTMS may distract or inhibit food craving, and the decreased craving may not be caused by the effect of rTMS itself. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether rTMS has any true effects on food craving and whether painful stimuli inhibit food or other cravings. A sham condition which matches the painfulness is important to understand the true effects of TMS on behaviors and diseases.

  6. Examining nicotine craving during abstinence among adolescent smokers: the roles of general perceived stress and temptation-coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Visser, A.F.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of general perceived stress and temptation-coping strategies on the occurrence of nicotine craving among 125 daily-smoking adolescents. General perceived stress was measured at baseline. Craving was assessed at baseline and directly after a 24-hour period of

  7. The craving withdrawal model for alcoholism: Towards the DSM-V Improving the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare the discriminant validity of the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 classification of alcohol use disorders (AUD) with an alternative classification, the craving withdrawal model (CWM). CWM requires craving and withdrawal for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence and raises the alcohol abuse

  8. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  9. MPEG-4 video compression optimization research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianmin

    2011-10-01

    In order to make a large amount of video data compression and effectively with limited network bandwidth to transfer smoothly, this article using the MPEG-4 compression technology to compress video stream. In the network transmission, according to the characteristics of video stream, for transmission technology to carry out full analysis and optimization, and combining current network bandwidth status and protocol, to establish one network model with transferring and playback video streaming effectively. Through a combination of these two areas, significantly improved compression and storage of video files and network transmission efficiency, increased video processing power.

  10. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and dopamine release during cue-elicited craving in recently abstinent opiate-dependent males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Fleur; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by relapse behaviour, often preceded by craving and anhedonia. Chronic craving and anhedonia have been associated with low availability of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and cue-elicited craving has been linked with endogenous dopamine release. We

  11. Craving Behavior Intervention in Ameliorating College Students' Internet Game Disorder: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Craving, as a central feature of addiction and a precursor of relapse, is targeted recently in addiction intervention. While Internet gaming disorder (IGD), conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, is lack of effective treatment practice and exploration of its mechanism. This research aims to test the effectiveness and detect the active ingredients of craving behavior intervention (CBI) in mitigation of IGD among young adults. A total of 63 male college students with IGD were assigned into the intervention group (six-session CBI intervention) or the waiting-list control group. Structured questionnaires were administered at pre-intervention (T1), post-intervention (T2), 3-month follow-up (T3), and 6-month follow-up (T4). Compared to the control group, a significant decrease in the severity of IGD in intervention group was found at post-intervention and lasting to 6 months after intervention. The value changes of craving could partially mediate the relationship between intervention and changes of IGD among all effects tests (immediate, T2-T1; short-term, T3-T1; and long-term effects, T4-T1). Further, explorations of the active ingredients of intervention found depression relief and shift of psychological needs from Internet to real life significantly predict craving amelioration at both post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. Although preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of craving-aimed intervention practice in IGD treatment and identifies two potential active ingredients for mitigation of craving, and the long-term therapeutic benefits are further conferred. Registry name: The behavioral and brain mechanism of IGD; URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02550405; Registration number: NCT02550405. PMID:28443046

  12. Live to work or love to work: work craving and work engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojdylo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: According to the theory of work craving, a workaholic has a craving for self-worth compensatory incentives and an expectation of relief from negative affect experienced through neurotic perfectionism and an obsessive-compulsive style of working. Research has shown that workaholism and work engagement should be considered as two distinct work styles with different health consequences. However, the mechanisms underlying the adoption of these work styles have been neglected. The present study proposes that work craving and work engagement are differentially associated with self-regulatory competencies and health. In particular, we expected that the working styles mediate the relationships between emotional self-regulation and health. METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, 469 teachers from German schools completed online administered questionnaires. By means of structural equation modeling, we tested two indirect paths: a from self-relaxation deficits via work craving to poor health and b from self-motivation competencies via work engagement to good health. RESULTS: As expected, we found evidence that a the negative relationship of self-relaxation deficits on health was partially mediated by work craving and b the positive relationship of self-motivation competencies on health was partially mediated by work engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The present study emphasizes the importance of self-regulation competencies for healthy or unhealthy work styles. Whereas work craving was associated with a low ability to down-regulate negative emotions and poor health, work engagement was associated with a high ability to up-regulate positive emotions and good health.

  13. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A

    2005-01-01

    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en

  14. Video Content Foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Ynze; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Enser, Peter; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Smeulders, Arnold W.M.

    2004-01-01

    With information systems, the real design problem is not increased access to information, but greater efficiency in finding useful information. In our approach to video content browsing, we try to match the browsing environment with human information processing structures by applying ideas from

  15. Effects of Sequential Fluoxetine and Gender on Pre-quit Depressive Symptoms, Affect, Craving, and Quit Day Abstinence in Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Prince, Mark A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Strong, David R.; Niaura, Raymond; Miller, Ivan W.; Palm Reed, Kathleen M.; Price, Lawrence H.; Brown, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    While the important roles of post-quit affect and withdrawal symptoms in the process of smoking cessation have been well established, little is known about the relations between pre-quit affective trajectories and cessation outcome on the target quit date (TQD). This study examined whether a 16-week course of fluoxetine initiated 8 weeks pre-quit (“sequential” fluoxetine) improved TQD abstinence relative to placebo through its effects on pre-quit depressive symptoms, affect (withdrawal-relevant negative affect, general negative affect, and positive affect), and craving to smoke among 206 smokers with elevated depressed symptoms. The moderating effects of gender were also examined. A total of 83 smokers (40%) failed to achieve abstinence on TQD, with no difference between treatment conditions or gender. Overall structural equation models showed that fluoxetine had significant indirect effects on TQD abstinence through changes in pre-quit withdrawal-relevant negative affect and craving, but not depressive symptoms. However, multigroup analyses revealed gender differences. Sequential fluoxetine reduced pre-quit depressive symptoms, withdrawal-relevant negative affect, and craving only among women. Reduction in pre-quit depressive symptoms and craving among women, and withdrawal-relevant negative affect among men was associated with TQD abstinence. Moreover, exploratory analysis showed negative trend-level indirect effects of fluoxetine on TQD abstinence via increased side effects, regardless of gender. This study demonstrated the importance of considering gender when examining treatment efficacy. Identifying ways to further reduce pre-quit depressive symptoms and craving for women and withdrawal-relevant negative affect for men while alleviating side effects may help smokers with elevated depressed symptoms achieve the first smoking cessation milestone. PMID:25089930

  16. Performance Analysis of Video Transmission Using Sequential Distortion Minimization Method for Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Astin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents about the transmission of Digital Video Broadcasting system with streaming video resolution 640x480 on different IQ rate and modulation. In the video transmission, distortion often occurs, so the received video has bad quality. Key frames selection algorithm is flexibel on a change of video, but on these methods, the temporal information of a video sequence is omitted. To minimize distortion between the original video and received video, we aimed at adding methodology using sequential distortion minimization algorithm. Its aim was to create a new video, better than original video without significant loss of content between the original video and received video, fixed sequentially. The reliability of video transmission was observed based on a constellation diagram, with the best result on IQ rate 2 Mhz and modulation 8 QAM. The best video transmission was also investigated using SEDIM (Sequential Distortion Minimization Method and without SEDIM. The experimental result showed that the PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio average of video transmission using SEDIM was an increase from 19,855 dB to 48,386 dB and SSIM (Structural Similarity average increase 10,49%. The experimental results and comparison of proposed method obtained a good performance. USRP board was used as RF front-end on 2,2 GHz.

  17. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...

  18. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...

  19. Effects of cigarette smoking and family history of alcoholism on sweet taste perception and food cravings in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Mennella, Julie A

    2007-11-01

    heightened sweet preferences. These findings suggests that future research on the effects of smoking on food habits and cravings should take into account family history of alcoholism given its association with sweet liking and the increased likelihood to develop a tobacco disorder.

  20. A comparison of emotion regulation strategies in response to craving cognitions: Effects on smoking behaviour, craving and affect in dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadman, Matthew; Das, Ravi K; Freeman, Tom P; Scragg, Peter; West, Robert; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2015-06-01

    The effects of three emotion regulation strategies that targeted smoking-related thoughts were compared on outcomes relevant to smoking cessation. Daily smokers applied defusion (n = 25), reappraisal (n = 25) or suppression (n = 23) to thoughts associated with smoking during a cue-induced craving procedure. Smoking behaviour, approach/avoidance behavioural bias, and subjective measures of experiential avoidance, craving, and affect were assessed during the experimental session, with additional behavioural and subjective outcomes assessed at 24 h and seven day follow-up. The influence of baseline group differences in smoking level and nicotine dependence were explored statistically. Defusion and reappraisal were associated with greater restraint in smoking behaviour in the immediate post-session period as well as reduction in smoking at seven day follow-up compared to suppression. Relative to suppression, reduced subjective craving was seen in the reappraisal group, and reduced experiential avoidance in the defusion group. Differences in approach/avoidance responses to smoking and neutral cues were observed only between the suppression and reappraisal groups. Although suppression was rated as lower in both credibility and strategy-expectancy compared to defusion and reappraisal, neither credibility nor expectancy mediated the effect of any strategy on changes in levels of smoking. Defusion and reappraisal produced similar benefits in smoking-related behavioural outcomes but, relative to suppression, were associated with distinctive outcomes on experiential avoidance and craving. The effects appear to be independent of perceived expectancy and credibility of the different strategies. Overall, the results suggest a role for reappraisal and defusion strategies in the development of psychological treatments for addiction-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  2. Cue-reactivity in experienced electronic cigarette users: Novel stimulus videos and a pilot fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Travis T.; Foulds, Jonathan; Yingst, Jessica; Veldheer, Susan; Hrabovsky, Shari; Richie, John; Eissenberg, Thomas; Wilson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Some individuals who try electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) continue to use long-term. Previous research has investigated the safety of e-cigarettes and their potential for use in smoking cessation, but comparatively little research has explored chronic or habitual e-cigarette use. In particular, the relationship between e-cigarette cues and craving is unknown. We sought to bridge this gap by developing a novel set of e-cigarette (salient) and electronic toothbrush (neutral) videos for use ...

  3. Brain activity and desire for Internet video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling. This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 healthy male adults (age, 18-23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel Internet video game, "War Rock" (K2 Network, Irvine, CA). Using segments of videotape consisting of 5 contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control, and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a 7-point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. In responding to Internet video game stimuli, compared with neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (false discovery rate Internet video game showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal precentral gyrus, right parietal postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the Internet video game in the subjects who played more Internet video game was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to Internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathologic gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal

  4. Apples to Oranges: Comparing Streaming Video Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Milewski, Steven; Threatt, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Librarians rely on an ever-increasing variety of platforms to deliver streaming video content to our patrons. These two presentations will examine different aspects of video streaming platforms to gain guidance from the comparison of platforms. The first will examine the accessibility compliance of the various video streaming platforms for users with disabilities by examining accessibility features of the platforms. The second will be a comparison of subject usage of two of the larger video s...

  5. An Experimental Test of a Craving Management Technique for Adolescents in Substance-Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, Paul; Heavin, Sarah; Tiffany, Stephen; Colvin, Peter; Hiraoka, Regina

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to test an imagery-based craving management technique with a sample of adolescents diagnosed with substance-use disorders. Seventy adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 (41 males) were recruited through two substance-abuse treatment programs. The experimental procedure involved stimulating craving…

  6. A prospective study of stress and alcohol craving in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartter, Molly A; Ray, Lara A

    2012-06-01

    Recent work has examined the relationship between stress and relapse to alcohol use in clinical populations. Few prospective studies, however, have examined stress as a precipitant of alcohol problems. The present study is a longitudinal examination of the role of stress reactivity and alcohol craving in the etiology of alcohol problems in a sample of 41 (mean age=20.8), heavy-drinking, young adults. Participants completed a guided imagery exposure to stressful life events, followed by exposure to a neutral imagery control. Following the exposure, participants completed an alcohol cue exposure paradigm. Measures of negative mood (Profile of Mood States (POMS) depression/dejection scale), tension (POMS tension/anxiety scale) and alcohol craving (measured by the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ)) were used as indicators of reactivity to stress and to alcohol cues. Polymorphisms of the corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein (CRH-BP) gene and of the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene were examined as moderators of this relationship. Results revealed that stress-induced negative mood predicted negative consequences of drinking (scores on the Drinker's Inventory of Consequences (DrInC-2R)), whereas stress and cue-induced alcohol craving did not predict alcohol use or problems. Additionally, the CRH-BP genotype was found to moderate the relationship between stress-induced negative affect and the negative consequences of drinking. The current study supports and extends laboratory research describing phenotypes of stress-induced alcohol craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in craving for cannabis between schizophrenia patients using risperidone, olanzapine or clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machielsen, Marise; Beduin, Albertine Scheltema; Dekker, Nienke; Kahn, René S; Linszen, Don H; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse and psychotic disorders have a high rate of comorbidity. Both disorders are associated with changes in the dopaminergic transmission in the mesocorticolimbic pathways of the brain. Since antipsychotic medications interact with the dopamine receptors in these pathways, these medications could affect craving for substances. In the current study, the effect of clozapine (n = 27, mean dosage 350 mg), risperidone (n = 54, mean dosage 3.46 mg) and olanzapine (n = 60, mean dosage 13.78 mg) on subjective craving for cannabis was compared in 123 patients with cannabis dependence and psychotic disorder. Patients treated with risperidone reported significantly more craving compared with patients treated with clozapine (Z = -3.19, p = .001) or olanzapine (Z = -2.24, p = .025). No significant differences in craving between clozapine and olanzapine were found. These results are in concordance with findings in the literature on this subject and could be explained by differences in three dopamine mediated mechanisms of these compounds: 1) occupancy rate of dopamine D(2) receptors, 2) dissociation rate of dopamine D(2) receptors, 3) D(1)/D(2) occupancy ratio. Risperidone and clozapine show a maximal difference in D(2) receptor occupancy rate, dissociation rate and D(1)/D(2) ratio. Olanzapine is intermediate between risperidone and clozapine in these characteristics.

  8. Neurobiological substrates of cue-elicited craving and anhedonia in recently abstinent opioid-dependent males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, F.; Veltman, D.J.; Booij, J.; Brink, W.; Franken, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Drug-related stimuli may induce craving in addicted patients, prompting drug-seeking behaviour. In addition, studies have shown addicted patients to he less sensitive to pleasant, but non-drug-related, stimuli; a condition generally referred to as anhedonia. The neural correlates of cue-induced

  9. A mobile app offering distractions and tips to cope with cigarette craving: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploderer, Bernd; Smith, Wally; Pearce, Jon; Borland, Ron

    2014-05-07

    Despite considerable effort, most smokers relapse within a few months after quitting due to cigarette craving. The widespread adoption of mobile phones presents new opportunities to provide support during attempts to quit. To design and pilot a mobile app "DistractMe" to enable quitters to access and share distractions and tips to cope with cigarette cravings. A qualitative study with 14 smokers who used DistractMe on their mobiles during the first weeks of their quit attempt. Based on interviews, diaries, and log data, we examined how the app supported quitting strategies. Three distinct techniques of coping when using DistractMe were identified: diversion, avoidance, and displacement. We further identified three forms of engagement with tips for coping: preparation, fortification, and confrontation. Overall, strategies to prevent cravings and their effects (avoidance, displacement, preparation, and fortification) were more common than immediate coping strategies (diversion and confrontation). Tips for coping were more commonly used than distractions to cope with cravings, because they helped to fortify the quit attempt and provided opportunities to connect with other users of the application. However, distractions were important to attract new users and to facilitate content sharing. Based on the qualitative results, we recommend that mobile phone-based interventions focus on tips shared by peers and frequent content updates. Apps also require testing with larger groups of users to assess whether they can be self-sustaining.

  10. Gender differences in craving and cue reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. A Mobile App Offering Distractions and Tips to Cope With Cigarette Craving: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wally; Pearce, Jon; Borland, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite considerable effort, most smokers relapse within a few months after quitting due to cigarette craving. The widespread adoption of mobile phones presents new opportunities to provide support during attempts to quit. Objective To design and pilot a mobile app "DistractMe" to enable quitters to access and share distractions and tips to cope with cigarette cravings. Methods A qualitative study with 14 smokers who used DistractMe on their mobiles during the first weeks of their quit attempt. Based on interviews, diaries, and log data, we examined how the app supported quitting strategies. Results Three distinct techniques of coping when using DistractMe were identified: diversion, avoidance, and displacement. We further identified three forms of engagement with tips for coping: preparation, fortification, and confrontation. Overall, strategies to prevent cravings and their effects (avoidance, displacement, preparation, and fortification) were more common than immediate coping strategies (diversion and confrontation). Tips for coping were more commonly used than distractions to cope with cravings, because they helped to fortify the quit attempt and provided opportunities to connect with other users of the application. However, distractions were important to attract new users and to facilitate content sharing. Conclusions Based on the qualitative results, we recommend that mobile phone-based interventions focus on tips shared by peers and frequent content updates. Apps also require testing with larger groups of users to assess whether they can be self-sustaining. PMID:25099632

  12. Skipping breakfast: morningness-eveningness preference is differentially related to state and trait food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, A; Roeser, K; Randler, C; Kübler, A

    2012-12-01

    Eveningness preference is associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. We measured state and trait food cravings in chronotypes in the morning and in the evening. Less Evening (E)- than Morning (M)-types reported to have had breakfast. Accordingly, hours that had elapsed since the last meal were higher in E- than M-types in the morning, but did not differ between groups in the evening. E-types reported higher anticipation of positive reinforcement that may result from eating than M-types in the morning, but both had the same hunger levels. On a trait level, M-types reported more feelings of guilt for giving into cravings compared to E-types. Results suggest that E-types skip breakfast more often than M-types, but this eating pattern does not inevitably lead to more food cravings in the evening or more pronounced habitual cravings. Furthermore, E-types did not experience more hunger in the morning although they had not been eating for a longer time period. Results support findings about a different lifestyle in E-types compared to M-types.

  13. The effects of individualized gastric electrical stimulation on food craving and gastrointestinal peptides in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Li, Yanmei; Yao, Shukun; Chen, Shaoxuan; Du, Yuhui; Wang, Zhihua

    2014-07-01

    Using an adjustable stimulator with a wide range of stimulation parameters, the aims of this study were 1) to investigate the effects of long-term gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on appetite and differential food cravings for three different foods and 2) to investigate the effects of GES on plasma gastrointestinal peptide concentrations. The study was performed in eight Beagle dogs implanted with one pair of serosal electrodes. They were followed during GES and sham GES sessions in a crossover design. GES was conducted using a series of individualized parameters. Food intake and food cravings were observed to evaluate the effects of long-term GES. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal peptides. Dogs on GES for three months ate significantly less food than those on sham GES for three months (p food cravings was induced by GES. Dogs with GES ate significantly less high-fat food. However, there was no significant difference in consumption of high-carbohydrate food or balanced food between the periods of GES and sham GES. The plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 did not differ significantly between the periods of GES and sham GES. Food intake and food craving were changed significantly by adjustable GES. GES may be used for treating obesity by changing food preferences. Further clinical studies are necessary to highlight the effect of adjustable GES on eating behavior. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  14. Exploring gambling craving through the elaborated intrusion theory of desire: a mixed methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornil, Aurelien; Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Devos, Gaetan; de Timary, Philippe; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Billieux, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Gambling disorder is a well-established behavioural addiction, which was classified with substance-related disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Although craving was introduced as a new diagnostic criterion for substance-related disorders, it

  15. Just a bite: Considerably smaller snack portions satisfy delayed hunger and craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2013-01-01

    Could smaller snack portions be similarly effective in decreasing cravings or feelings of hunger as larger portions? To answer this, three common snack foods – chocolate, apple pie, potato chips – were given to 104 participants as either a small portion (x) or a substantially larger portion (5–10x).

  16. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Beckers, T.; Hermans, D.; Baeyens, F.; Van den Bergh, O.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n ¼ 40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days.

  17. Smoke your troubles away: exploring the effects of death cognitions on cannabis craving and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Maayan; Rabinovitz, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Two studies informed by the terror management health model were conducted to examine the question of how death cognition affects cannabis craving and whether actual cannabis smoking alleviates death cognitions. The first study examined whether priming thoughts of death are associated with subjective cannabis craving among 42 frequent cannabis users randomly assigned to either a mortality salience or control task. When reminded of their death, participants craved cannabis, even though there was no change in their conscious negative mood. The second study examined the effect of cannabis smoking on death cognitions in an exploratory field setting. Fifty frequent cannabis users were randomly assigned to either mortality reminders or control task and completed death-related words accessibility measures before and after smoking cannabis. Results indicate that cannabis served as a buffer and prevented death-related thoughts from entering consciousness, thus acting as a defense mechanism against death anxiety. These findings indicate that death-related concerns may play a hitherto unsuspected role in cannabis craving and consumption. Also discussed are the implications of a terror management perspective in communication of negative health consequences of recreational cannabis smoking and in the use of cannabis for medical purposes among people with terminal illness.

  18. Co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and behavioral addictions: relevance of impulsivity and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Marco; Tedeschi, Daniela; De Risio, Luisa; Pettorruso, Mauro; Martinotti, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Filippo; Swierkosz-Lenart, Kevin; Guglielmo, Riccardo; Callea, Antonino; Ruggeri, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Gino; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the occurrence of behavioral addictions (BAs) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) subjects and to investigate the role of impulsivity, personality dimensions and craving. 95 AUD outpatients (DSM-5) and 140 homogeneous controls were assessed with diagnostic criteria and specific tests for gambling disorder, compulsive buying, sexual, internet and physical exercise addictions, as well as with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Temperamental and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) and Visual Analogue Scale for craving (VASc) were also administered to the AUD sample. 28.4% (n=27) of AUD subjects had at least one BA, as compared to 15% (n=21) of controls (χ(2)=6.27; p=.014). In AUD subjects, direct correlations between BIS-11 and Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), Internet Addiction Disorder test (IAD), Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form (EAI-SF) scores (pcompulsive (Z=-2.12; p=.034) and VASc (Z=-4.94; pimpulsivity traits (BIS-11 scores; OR=1.08; p=.012) and higher craving levels (VASc scores; OR=2.48; pimpulsivity and craving for alcohol seem to be associated with other addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  20. Design decisions for a real time, alcohol craving study using physio- and psychological measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, Hendrika G.; Oberhagemann, Mira; Stroes, Jessica D.; Enewoldsen, Niklas M.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Schraagen, Jan Maarten C.; Postel, Marloes G.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M.R.; de Haan, Hein A.; Noordzij, Matthijs L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study was a pilot for an alcohol craving monitoring study with a biosensor (E4 wristband) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) smartphone app. The E4 wristband was evaluated on compliance rates, usability, comfort and stigmatization. Two EMA methodologies (signal- and

  1. Self-reported cue-induced physical symptoms of craving as an indicator of cocaine dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could

  2. What Counts as Educational Video?: Working toward Best Practice Alignment between Video Production Approaches and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslett, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The twenty years since the first digital video camera was made commercially available has seen significant increases in the use of low-cost, amateur video productions for teaching and learning. In the same period, production and consumption of professionally produced video has also increased, as has the distribution platforms to access it.…

  3. Innovative Video Diagnostic Equipment for Material Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, G.; Titomanlio, D.; Soellner, W.; Seidel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Materials science experiments under microgravity increasingly rely on advanced optical systems to determine the physical properties of the samples under investigation. This includes video systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. The acquisition, handling, storage and transmission to ground of the resulting video data are very challenging. Since the available downlink data rate is limited, the capability to compress the video data significantly without compromising the data quality is essential. We report on the development of a Digital Video System (DVS) for EML (Electro Magnetic Levitator) which provides real-time video acquisition, high compression using advanced Wavelet algorithms, storage and transmission of a continuous flow of video with different characteristics in terms of image dimensions and frame rates. The DVS is able to operate with the latest generation of high-performance cameras acquiring high resolution video images up to 4Mpixels@60 fps or high frame rate video images up to about 1000 fps@512x512pixels.

  4. Intelligent Model for Video Survillance Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vidhya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance system senses and trails out all the threatening issues in the real time environment. It prevents from security threats with the help of visual devices which gather the information related to videos like CCTV’S and IP (Internet Protocol cameras. Video surveillance system has become a key for addressing problems in the public security. They are mostly deployed on the IP based network. So, all the possible security threats exist in the IP based application might also be the threats available for the reliable application which is available for video surveillance. In result, it may increase cybercrime, illegal video access, mishandling videos and so on. Hence, in this paper an intelligent model is used to propose security for video surveillance system which ensures safety and it provides secured access on video.

  5. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video....... There is a need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction...... of investigating the existing legal infrastructure for ensuring privacy in video surveillance and suggest guidelines in order to help those who want to deploy video surveillance while least compromising the privacy of people and complying with legal infrastructure....

  6. Sustained reduction of nicotine craving with real-time neurofeedback: exploring the role of severity of dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canterberry, Melanie; Hanlon, Colleen A; Hartwell, Karen J; Li, Xingbao; Owens, Max; LeMatty, Todd; Prisciandaro, James J; Borckardt, Jeffrey; Saladin, Michael E; Brady, Kathleen T; George, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    Neurofeedback delivered via real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) is a promising therapeutic technique being explored to facilitate self-regulation of craving in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers. The current study examined the role of nicotine-dependence severity and the efficacy of multiple visits of neurofeedback from a single region of interest (ROI) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on craving reduction. Nine nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers participated in three rtfMRI visits that examined cue-induced craving and brain activation. Severity of nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. When viewing smoking-related images with instructions to "crave," patient-tailored ROIs were generated in the vicinity of the ACC. Activity levels from the ROI were fed back while participants viewed smoking cues with the instruction to reduce craving. Neurofeedback from a single ROI in the ACC led to consistent decreases in self-reported craving and activation in the ACC across the three visits. Dependence severity predicted response to neurofeedback at Visit 3. This study builds upon previous rtfMRI studies on the regulation of nicotine craving in demonstrating that feedback from the ACC can reduce activation to smoking cues across three separate visits. Individuals with lower nicotine-dependence severity were more successful in reducing ACC activation over time. These data highlight the need to consider dependence severity in developing more individualized neurofeedback methods.

  7. Acceptance- and imagery-based strategies can reduce chocolate cravings: A test of the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition. Pre- and post-intervention chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery, craving intensity, and chocolate consumption were compared. Experiment 1 recruited a general sample of young women (n = 94), whereas Experiment 2 recruited a sample of chocolate cravers who wanted to reduce their chocolate consumption (n = 97). Across both experiments, cognitive defusion lowered intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery and craving intensity. Guided imagery reduced chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness, vividness and craving intensity for chocolate cravers (Experiment 2), but not for the general sample (Experiment 1). There were no group differences in chocolate consumption in either experiment. Results add to existing evidence supporting the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire in the food domain, and suggest that acceptance- and imagery-based techniques have potential for use in combatting problematic cravings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food cravings, aversions and pica among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaruhucha, C N M

    2009-01-01

    Food cravings, aversions and pica are common during pregnancy and may have a significant input on pregnancy progress and outcome. A study was carried out to determine the frequency and duration of pronounced dietary cravings, aversions and pica during pregnancy among 204 pregnant and lactating women attending two health facilities in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Nausea and vomiting were reported by 82.8% of all women of which 43.2% experienced severe nausea alone, 9.5% severe vomiting alone and 35.5% experienced severe vomiting and nausea. Mild cases of each of the symptoms either occurring alone or both of them occurring together were also reported. Both behaviours were observed more in pica were 73.5%, 70.1% and 63.7% of all women respectively. More women (70.1%) experienced both food cravings and aversions than either symptom alone. Foods craved most were meat (23.3%), mangoes (22.7%), yoghurt (20.0%) oranges (20.0%), plantain (15.3%) and soft drinks (13.3%). Foods avoided most were rice (36.4%), meat (36.4%) and fish (30.8%). Eggs, beans, tea and stiff porridge were also avoided. Reasons given for avoiding foods were unpleasant smell/taste (10.3%), to reduce nausea (11.8%), no particular reason (58.3%) and dislike by foetus (belief) (3.9%). Pica was experienced by 63.7%% of the women and soil, ice and ash were the most commonly non-food substances eaten. The frequency of nausea and vomiting was highest in the early months of pregnancy and most women experienced the symptoms during morning hours. Craving in most women was more intense in the first trimesters. Most women craved for meat and sour and savoury foods, and avoided rice, meat and fish. Soil consumption was the pica observed in most women. Since aversions and cravings are closely linked to dietary intake of pregnant woman understanding these behaviours is important in addressing maternal nutrition.

  9. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Happening to the Joints? Rheumatoid Arthritis: Gaining Control – Working with your Rheumatologist Rheumatoid Arthritis: Additional Conditions ... Hopkins Stategies to Increase your Level of Physical Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos ...

  10. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Yoga for Arthritis Yoga Poses for Arthritis Patients from Johns Hopkins Stategies to Increase your Level of Physical Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid ...

  11. Do salt cravings in children with autistic disorders reveal low blood sodium depleting brain taurine and glutamine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Because boys are four times more likely than girls to develop autism, the role of male hormones (androgens) has received considerable scrutiny. Some researchers implicate arginine vasopressin, an androgen-dependent hormone from the pituitary gland that elicits male behavior. Elevated vasopressin is also the most common cause of low blood sodium (hyponatremia)--most serious in the brains of children. Hyponatremia causes astrocytes to swell, then release the amino acids taurine and glutamine and their water to compensate. Taurin--the brain osmolyte/inhibitory neurotransmitter that suppresses vasopressin--was the amino acid most wasted or depleted in urine of autistic children. Glutamine is a critical metabolic fuel in brain neurons, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and the intestines, especially during hypoglycemia. Because glutamine is not thought to cross the blood-brain barrier significantly, the implications of low blood glutamine in these children are not recognized. Yet children with high brain glutamine from urea cycle disorders are rarely diagnosed with autistic disorders. Other common events in autistic children that release vasopressin are gastrointestinal inflammation, hypoglycemia, and stress. Signs of hyponatremia in these children are salt cravings reported online and anecdotally, deep yellow urine revealing concentration, and relief of autistic behavior by fluid/salt diets. Several interventions offer promise: (a) taurine to suppress vasopressin and replenish astrocytes; (b) glutamine as fuel for intestines and brain; (c) arginine to spare glutamine, detoxify ammonia, and increase brain blood flow; and (d) oral rehydration salts to compensate dilutional hyponatremia. This hypothesis appears eminently testable: Does your child crave salt? Is his urine deep yellow? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of chronic delivery of the Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone on incubation of heroin craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theberge, Florence R; Li, Xuan; Kambhampati, Sarita; Pickens, Charles L; St Laurent, Robyn; Bossert, Jennifer M; Baumann, Michael H; Hutchinson, Mark R; Rice, Kenner C; Watkins, Linda R; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-04-15

    Recent evidence implicates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in opioid analgesia, tolerance, conditioned place preference, and self-administration. Here, we determined the effect of the TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone (a μ-opioid receptor inactive isomer) on the time-dependent increases in cue-induced heroin seeking after withdrawal (incubation of heroin craving). In an initial experiment, we trained rats for 9 hours per day to self-administer heroin (.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 9 days; lever presses were paired with a 5-second tone-light cue. We then assessed cue-induced heroin seeking in 30-minute extinction sessions on withdrawal day 1; immediately after testing, we surgically implanted rats with Alzet minipumps delivering (+)-naltrexone (0, 7.5, 15, 30 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous) for 14 days. We then tested the rats for incubated cue-induced heroin seeking in 3-hour extinction tests on withdrawal day 13. We found that chronic delivery of (+)-naltrexone via minipumps during the withdrawal phase decreased incubated cue-induced heroin seeking. In follow-up experiments, we found that acute injections of (+)-naltrexone immediately before withdrawal day 13 extinction tests had no effect on incubated cue-induced heroin seeking. Furthermore, chronic delivery of (+)-naltrexone (15 or 30 mg/kg/day) or acute systemic injections (15 or 30 mg/kg) had no effect on ongoing extended access heroin self-administration. Finally, in rats trained to self-administer methamphetamine (.1 mg/kg/infusion, 9 hours/day, 9 days), chronic delivery of (+)-naltrexone (30 mg/kg/day) during the withdrawal phase had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. The present results suggest a critical role of TLR4 in the development of incubation of heroin, but not methamphetamine, craving. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The Firepower of Work Craving: When Self-Control Is Burning under the Rubble of Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdylo, Kamila; Baumann, Nicola; Kuhl, Julius

    2017-01-01

    Work craving theory addresses how work-addicted individuals direct great emotion-regulatory efforts to weave their addictive web of working. They crave work for two main emotional incentives: to overcompensate low self-worth and to escape (i.e., reduce) negative affect, which is strategically achieved through neurotic perfectionism and compulsive working. Work-addicted individuals' strong persistence and self-discipline with respect to work-related activities suggest strong skills in volitional action control. However, their inability to disconnect from work implies low volitional skills. How can work-addicted individuals have poor and strong volitional skills at the same time? To answer this paradox, we elaborated on the relevance of two different volitional modes in work craving: self-regulation (self-maintenance) and self-control (goal maintenance). Four hypotheses were derived from Wojdylo's work craving theory and Kuhl's self-regulation theory: (H1) Work craving is associated with a combination of low self-regulation and high self-control. (H2) Work craving is associated with symptoms of psychological distress. (H3) Low self-regulation is associated with psychological distress symptoms. (H4) Work craving mediates the relationships between self-regulation deficits and psychological distress symptoms at high levels of self-control. Additionally, we aimed at supporting the discriminant validity of work craving with respect to work engagement by showing their different volitional underpinnings. Results of the two studies confirmed our hypotheses: whereas work craving was predicted by high self-control and low self-regulation and associated with higher psychological distress, work engagement was predicted by high self-regulation and high self-control and associated with lower symptoms of psychological distress. Furthermore, work styles mediated the relationship between volitional skills and symptoms of psychological distress. Based on these new insights, several

  14. Brain activity and desire for internet video game play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathological gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. PMID:21220070

  15. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences. In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors. Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  16. Neural Basis of Video Gaming: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Palaus; Marron, Elena M.; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Diego Redolar-Ripoll

    2017-01-01

    Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video ga...

  17. Neural Basis of Video Gaming: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M.; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. We aim ...

  18. Video recording in movement disorders: practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Andrew P

    2013-10-01

    Video recording can provide a valuable and unique record of the physical examinations of patients with a movement disorder, capturing nuances of movement and supplementing the written medical record. In addition, video is an indispensable tool for education and research in movement disorders. Digital file recording and storage has largely replaced analog tape recording, increasing the ease of editing and storing video records. Practical issues to consider include hardware and software configurations, video format, the security and longevity of file storage, patient consent, and video protocols.

  19. A Multi-View Intelligent Editor for Digital Video Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Brad A.; Casares, Juan P.; Stevens, Scott; Dabbish, Laura; Yocum, Dan; Corbett, Albert

    Digital video is becoming increasingly ubiquitous. Most camcorders today are digital, and computers are being advertised based on their video editing capabilities. Many exciting research projects are investigating how to search, visualize, and summarize digital video, but there is little work on new ways to support the use of the video beyond just…

  20. Fostering Teacher Candidates' Reflective Practice through Video Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Margaret; Gurvitch, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, interest in using video to promote the reflective practice in preservice teacher education has increased. Video recordings of teaching incidents inspire the reflective practice in preservice teachers by allowing them to analyze instruction and view teaching in an objective light. As an extension of video recording, video editing has…

  1. Quasi-prospective, real-life monitoring of food craving post-bariatric surgery: comparison with overweight and normal weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, H; Tetley, D; Hill, A J

    2014-06-01

    Food cravings are common post-bariatric surgery, suggested as predictors of relapse and weight regain, but relatively unstudied, especially in the longer term. The present study investigated the frequency and nature of food craving experiences after gastric surgery in comparison with non-surgical control participants. Participants were 21 women, 4-38 months post-surgery (mean age = 44 years, 9 following gastric banding, 12 after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), and two comparison samples of 39 overweight dieters and 33 normal weight non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a daily mood assessment and a food diary over a 7-day period. Over the 299 craving episodes, savoury foods were the most commonly craved (40% of craving events), followed by chocolate (31%). Post-bariatric patients reported more and stronger cravings than normal weight non-dieters but at a similar frequency and strength to overweight dieters. Neither hunger nor negative mood distinguished the food cravings of post-bariatric patients from those of comparison participants, nor did the proportion that led to eating (58%). Food cravings should be anticipated post-bariatric surgery but no more so at 12 months post-surgery than by other overweight or obese individuals. Food cravings are not the product of extreme hunger nor do they have the connection with negative mood seen in disordered eating. In addition, the ability to fulfil cravings by eating the craved food is reduced by the surgery itself, although the duration of surgical restraint is uncertain. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Binge eating behaviours and food cravings in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanes, Y M; Reeves, S; Gibson, E L; Piggott, C; May, V A; Hart, K H

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine condition in women, is often anecdotally associated with binge eating behaviours and food cravings; however there is a paucity of research. This study aimed to report the prevalence of binge eating and food cravings and their relation to obesity risk in women with PCOS. Participants completed an online survey including the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh, Food Cravings-Trait Questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire revised-18. The study included obese (n = 340), overweight (n = 70) and lean (n = 45) women with PCOS and lean healthy women (n = 40). Sixty percent of obese women with PCOS were categorised with binge-eating behaviour, with 39% presenting with clinically significant behaviour. Obese women with PCOS presented with high mean food cravings-trait scores (131.6 ± 28.9) that were significantly greater compared with lean (114.0 ± 34.9) and overweight women with PCOS (120.1 ± 29.5; p eating styles and adiposity explained 57% of the variance in binge eating symptom scores in women with PCOS (F = 130.4; p food cravings total score (beta = 0.53; p eating score (beta = 0.18; p eating score (beta = 0.009; p = 0.02). Compared with lean healthy women, lean women with PCOS exhibited significantly higher binge eating symptom scores (10.9 ± 7.8 versus 7.4 ± 6.0; p food craving scores (114.0 ± 34.9 versus 105.6 ± 26.6: NS). This study is the largest, to date, to robustly report that a high proportion of women with PCOS exhibit binge eating behaviours. We recommend screening women with PCOS for binge eating behaviours to help inform the choice of weight management approach for this clinical population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. JOGOS COOPERATIVOS E RELAXAMENTO RESPIRATÓRIO: EFEITO SOBRE CRAVING E ANSIEDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Euclides Fernandes Braga

    Full Text Available RESUMO Introdução: O uso de substâncias psicoativas é uma prática milenar e universal, que acompanha a história da humanidade. Na atualidade, o crack se alastrou pelo mundo por ter maior potencial de dependência comparado a outras drogas, visto que os usuários apresentam dificuldade para interromper o uso do crack, enfrentar o craving e a ansiedade. É essencial que haja uma abordagem multidisciplinar e integral do usuário, com a utilização de técnicas cognitivo-comportamentais que enfoquem as estratégias de prevenção de recaída. Nesse contexto, os jogos cooperativos (JC e o relaxamento respiratório (RR constituem possíveis estratégias para manejo terapêutico. Objetivo: Avaliar a utilização dos JC e do RR como estratégias de enfrentamento do craving e da ansiedade em usuários de crack em situação de dependência. Método: Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, quase experimental, com abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvida em uma unidade de desintoxicação para dependência química do estado da Paraíba. Resultados: A amostra foi constituída por 40 colaboradores dependentes de crack, com idade superior a 18 anos. Para avaliação dos efeitos dos JC e do RR sobre o craving e a ansiedade foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief (CCQ-B e o Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado (IDATE-E. Os resultados demonstraram que os JC e o RR reduziram os escores do craving total e da ansiedade. Quanto ao fator F1, apenas os JC apresentaram resultados satisfatórios. Conclusão: Os JC e o RR demonstraram eficácia como estratégias de enfrentamento do craving e ansiedade em usuários de crack em situação de dependência nas condições em que o estudo foi desenvolvido.

  4. Effectiveness of the Electronic Cigarette: An Eight-Week Flemish Study with Six-Month Follow-up on Smoking Reduction, Craving and Experienced Benefits and Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Karolien; Van Gucht, Dinska; Declerck, Paul; Baeyens, Frank

    2014-01-01

    highly effective in reducing abstinence induced cigarette craving and withdrawal symptoms, while not resulting in increases in eCO. Remarkable (>50 pc) eight-month reductions in, or complete abstinence from tobacco smoking was achieved with the e-cig in almost half (44%) of the participants. PMID:25358095

  5. Naltrexone moderates the relationship between cue-induced craving and subjective response to methamphetamine in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; Worley, Matthew J; Courtney, Kelly E; Bujarski, Spencer; London, Edythe D; Shoptaw, Steven; Ray, Lara A

    2017-07-01

    Reductions in cue-induced craving and subjective response to drugs of abuse are commonly used as initial outcome measures when testing novel medications for the treatment of addiction. Yet neither the relationship between these two measures at the individual level nor the moderating effects of pharmacotherapies on this relationship has been examined. This secondary data analysis sought to examine (1) the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and subsequent acute subjective response to methamphetamine (MA) and (2) whether the opioid-receptor antagonist naltrexone moderated this association in a sample of non-treatment-seeking individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for MA use disorder (abuse or dependence). Participants (n = 30) completed two 4-day medication regimens (oral naltrexone 50 mg or placebo, in a randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blind fashion). On day 4 of each medication regimen, participants completed a cue-reactivity paradigm followed by intravenous MA administration. Methamphetamine craving was assessed after the cue-reactivity paradigm, and subjective response to MA was assessed during MA infusion. Cue-induced craving for MA was positively associated with post-infusion subjective MA effects, including positive (i.e., stimulation, good effects, feel drug, high), negative (i.e., anxious and depressed), and craving-related (i.e., want more, would like access to drug, crave) responses. Naltrexone, vs. placebo, significantly reduced the association between cue-induced craving and positive subjective response to MA. The findings indicate that naltrexone moderates the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and positive subjective effects of MA, thereby suggesting a behavioral mechanism by which naltrexone may be efficacious in treating MA use disorder.

  6. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...

  8. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...

  9. Validation of the French version of the marijuana craving questionnaire (MCQ) generates a two-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauchard, Emeline; Goutaudier, Nelly; Heishman, Stephen J; Gorelick, David A; Chabrol, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Craving is a major issue in drug addiction, and a target for drug treatment. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Short Form (MCQ-SF) is a useful tool for assessing cannabis craving in clinical and research settings. To validate the French version of the MCQ-SF (FMCQ-SF). Young adult cannabis users not seeking treatment (n = 679) completed the FMCQ-SF and questionnaires assessing their frequency of cannabis use and craving, cannabis use disorder criteria, and alcohol use. Confirmatory factor analysis of the four-factor FMCQ-SF model did not fit the data well. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution ("pleasure", characterized by planning and expectation of positive effects, and "release of tension", characterized by relief from anxiety, nervousness, or tension) with good psychometric properties. This two-factor model showed good internal and convergent validity and correlated with cannabis abuse and dependence and with frequency of cannabis use and craving. Validation of the FMCQ-SF generated a two-factor model, different from the four-factor solution generated in English language studies. Considering that craving plays an important role in withdrawal and relapse, this questionnaire should be useful for French-language addiction professionals.

  10. Desire lies in the eyes: attention bias for chocolate is related to craving and self-endorsed eating permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Roefs, Anne; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2013-11-01

    The present study tested the impact of experimentally manipulated perceived availability of chocolate on attention for chocolate stimuli, momentary (state) craving for chocolate and consumption of chocolate in healthy weight female students. It was hypothesized that eating forbiddance would be related to attentional avoidance (thus diminished attention focus on food cues in an attempt to prevent oneself from processing food cues) and that eating motivation would be related to attentional approach (thus maintained attentional focus on food cues). High chronic chocolate cravers (n=40) and low cravers (n=40) participated in one of four perceived availability contexts (required to eat, forbidden to eat, individual choice to eat, and 50% chance to eat) following a brief chocolate exposure. Attention for chocolate was measured using eye-tracking; momentary craving from self-report; and the consumption of chocolate was assessed from direct observation. The perceived availability of chocolate did not significantly influence attention allocation for chocolate stimuli, momentary craving or chocolate intake. High chocolate cravers reported significantly higher momentary craving for chocolate (d=1.29, pchocolate, than low cravers (d=0.63, pchocolate, irrespective of the availability instruction they received, showed significantly less craving (d=0.96, pchocolate stimuli than participants who permitted themselves to eat chocolate (d=0.53, pchocolate craving, and self-endorsed eating permission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Creating and Editing Video to Accompany Manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Shayna L; Porto, Dennis A; Ozog, David M; Council, M Laurin

    2016-02-01

    The use of video can enhance the learning experience by demonstrating procedural techniques that are difficult to relay in writing. Several peer-reviewed journals allow publication of videos alongside articles to complement the written text. The purpose of this article is to instruct the dermatologic surgeon on how to create and edit a video using a smartphone, to accompany a article. The authors describe simple tips to optimize surgical videography. The video that accompanies this article further demonstrates the techniques described. Creating a surgical video requires little experience or equipment and can be completed in a modest amount of time. Making and editing a video to accompany a article can be accomplished by following the simple recommendations in this article. In addition, the increased use of video in dermatologic surgery education can enhance the learning opportunity.

  12. Video Game Accessibility: A Legal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Powers

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Video game accessibility may not seem of significance to some, and it may sound trivial to anyone who does not play video games. This assumption is false. With the digitalization of our culture, video games are an ever increasing part of our life. They contribute to peer to peer interactions, education, music and the arts. A video game can be created by hundreds of musicians and artists, and they can have production budgets that exceed modern blockbuster films. Inaccessible video games are analogous to movie theaters without closed captioning or accessible facilities. The movement to have accessible video games is small, unorganized and misdirected. Just like the other battles to make society accessible were accomplished through legislation and law, the battle for video game accessibility must be focused toward the law and not the market.

  13. Video game addiction: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD; Kuss, DJ; King, DL

    2012-01-01

    Gaming addiction has become a topic of increasing research interest. The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in the number of empirical studies examining various aspects of problematic video game play and video game addiction. This paper begins with a brief past history of how research into video game addiction has changed over the last three decades (i.e., the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s). It then examines more thoroughly the contemporary research literature by analyzing the (i) prev...

  14. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed ... Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic ...

  15. Geotail Video News Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Geotail mission, part of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, measures global energy flow and transformation in the magnetotail to increase understanding of fundamental magnetospheric processes. The satellite was launched on July 24, 1992 onboard a Delta II rocket. This video shows with animation the solar wind, and its effect on the Earth. The narrator explains that the Geotail spacecraft was designed and built by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), the Japanese Space Agency. The mission objectives are reviewed by one of the scientist in a live view. The video also shows an animation of the orbit, while the narrator explains the orbit and the reason for the small launch window.

  16. Use of Anti-Craving Agents in Soldiers with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, P L; Gupta, A K; Sharma, P K

    2008-10-01

    In a search for an effective 'anti-alcohol pill', three modern anti-craving agents have been studied in alcoholics of Army/ DSC, Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard. 129 patients of alcohol dependence syndrome were randomly assigned to three groups where topiramate, acamprosate and naltrexone were used as anti-craving agents in a year long prospective study. Of these 92 patients completed the study. Topiramate (76.3%) appears to be significantly more effective (p<0.01) in sustaining abstinence, though naltrexone (57.7%) and acamprosate (60.70%) offer moderate relapse-prevention efficacy. Side effects of all the three agents have been mild, transient and self-limiting. We recommend a trial of topiramate, before invaliding out of any alcoholic soldier.

  17. Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted.

  18. 61214++++','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="+++++https://jual.nipissingu.ca/wp-content/uploads/sites/25/2014/06/v61214.m4v">61214++++">Jailed - Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron CULBERT

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As the public education system in Northern Ontario continues to take a downward spiral, a plethora of secondary school students are being placed in an alternative educational environment. Juxtaposing the two educational settings reveals very similar methods and characteristics of educating our youth as opposed to using a truly alternative approach to education. This video reviews the relationship between public education and alternative education in a remote Northern Ontario setting. It is my belief that the traditional methods of teaching are not appropriate in educating at risk students in alternative schools. Paper and pencil worksheets do not motivate these students to learn and succeed. Alternative education should emphasize experiential learning, a just in time curriculum based on every unique individual and the students true passion for everyday life. Cameron Culbert was born on February 3rd, 1977 in North Bay, Ontario. His teenage years were split between attending public school and his willed curriculum on the ski hill. Culbert spent 10 years (1996-2002 & 2006-2010 competing for Canada as an alpine ski racer. His passion for teaching and coaching began as an athlete and has now transferred into the classroom and the community. As a graduate of Nipissing University (BA, BEd, MEd. Camerons research interests are alternative education, physical education and technology in the classroom. Currently Cameron is an active educator and coach in Northern Ontario.

  19. Association of time-dependent changes in mu opioid receptor mRNA, but not BDNF, TrkB, or MeCP2 mRNA and protein expression in the rat nucleus accumbens with incubation of heroin craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theberge, Florence R M; Pickens, Charles L; Goldart, Evan; Fanous, Sanya; Hope, Bruce T; Liu, Qing-Rong; Shaham, Yavin

    2012-12-01

    Responding to heroin cues progressively increases after cessation of heroin self-administration (incubation of heroin craving). We investigated whether this incubation is associated with time-dependent changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) signaling and mu opioid receptor (MOR) expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (DS), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We also investigated the effect of the preferential MOR antagonist naloxone on cue-induced heroin seeking during abstinence. We trained rats to self-administer heroin or saline for 9-10 days and then dissected the NAc, DS, and mPFC at different abstinence days and measured mRNA and protein levels of BDNF, TrkB, and MeCP2, as well as MOR mRNA (Oprm1). In other groups, we assessed cue-induced heroin seeking in extinction tests after 1, 11, and 30 abstinence days, and naloxone's (0-1.0 mg/kg) effect on extinction responding after 1 and 15 days. Cue-induced heroin seeking progressively increased or incubated during abstinence. This incubation was not associated with changes in BDNF, TrkB, or MeCP2 mRNA or protein levels in NAc, DS, or mPFC; additionally, no molecular changes were observed after extinction tests on day 11. In NAc, but not DS or mPFC, MOR mRNA decreased on abstinence day 1 and returned to basal levels over time. Naloxone significantly decreased cue-induced heroin seeking after 15 abstinence days but not 1 day. Results suggest a role of MOR in incubation of heroin craving. As previous studies implicated NAc BDNF in incubation of cocaine craving, our data suggest that different mechanisms contribute to incubation of heroin versus cocaine craving.

  20. Neural Basis of Video Gaming: A Systematic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marc Palaus; Elena M. Marron; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Diego Redolar-Ripoll

    2017-01-01

    Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study...

  1. Effects of fixed or self-titrated dosages of Sativex on cannabis withdrawal and cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jose M; Lagzdins, Dina; Rehm, Jürgen; Selby, Peter; Gamaleddin, Islam; Fischer, Benedikt; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    There is currently no pharmacological treatment approved for cannabis dependence. In this proof of concept study, we assessed the feasibility/effects of fixed and self-titrated dosages of Sativex (1:1, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD)) on craving and withdrawal from cannabis among nine community-recruited cannabis-dependent subjects. Participants underwent an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial (an ABACADAE design), with four smoke as usual conditions (SAU) (A) separated by four cannabis abstinence conditions (B-E), with administration of either self-titrated/fixed doses of placebo or Sativex (up to 108 mg THC/100 mg CBD). The order of medication administration during abstinence conditions was randomized and counterbalanced. Withdrawal symptoms and craving were assessed using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale (CWS), Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Medication use was assessed during the study by means of self-reports, vial weight control, toxicology and metabolite analysis. Cannabis use was assessed by means of self-reports. High fixed doses of Sativex were well tolerated and significantly reduced cannabis withdrawal during abstinence, but not craving, as compared to placebo. Self-titrated doses were lower and showed limited efficacy as compared to high fixed doses. Participants reported a significantly lower "high" following Sativex or placebo as compared to SAU conditions. Cannabis/medication use along the study, as per self-reports, suggests compliance with the study conditions. The results found in this proof of concept study warrant further systematic exploration of Sativex as a treatment option for cannabis withdrawal and dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong eXu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (~1.5 h smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and cathode to the right supra orbital area for 20min with a current of 2.0mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood State (POMS to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

  3. Video Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...

  4. Self-Control and Implicit Drinking Identity as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption, Problems, and Cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Westgate, Erin; Salemink, Elske

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated trait and alcohol-specific self-control as unique predictors and moderators of the relation between implicit drinking identity associations and drinking. Method: Three hundred undergraduates completed a drinking identity Implicit Association Test (IAT), trait and alcohol self-control questionnaires, and alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings inventories. Results: Regression analyses tested for unique effects of predictors and for Self-Control × IAT interactions. Each predictor accounted for unique variance in consumption, but there was no evidence of moderation effects. Both types of self-control, but not IAT scores, accounted for unique variance in problems. A Trait Self-Control × Implicit Drinking interaction accounted for excess zeros in problems, with a greater likelihood of not having alcohol problems among individuals with low implicit identity who had higher versus lower trait self-control. Each predictor accounted for unique variance in cravings. A Trait Self-Control × IAT interaction was also found, indicating that implicit drinking identity was a stronger predictor of cravings among those with lower versus higher trait self-control. Conclusions: Results are partially consistent with previous research: Both types of self-control and drinking identity associations predicted unique variance in drinking, and moderation effects were observed for trait self-control and drinking identity associations and two of the three drinking variables. Findings suggest that trait and alcohol-specific self-control and implicit drinking identity could be useful intervention targets. PMID:24650823

  5. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (ppsychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (pstressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on affective withdrawal symptoms and cravings among women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M; Dunsiger, Shira; Whiteley, Jessica A; Ussher, Michael H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Jennings, Ernestine G

    2011-08-01

    A growing number of laboratory studies have shown that acute bouts of aerobic exercise favorably impact affect and cravings among smokers. However, randomized trials have generally shown exercise to have no favorable effect on smoking cessation or withdrawal symptoms during quit attempts. The purpose of the present study was to explore this apparent contradiction by assessing acute changes in affect and cravings immediately prior to and following each exercise and contact control session during an eight-week smoking cessation trial. Sixty previously low-active, healthy, female smokers were randomized to an eight-week program consisting of brief baseline smoking cessation counseling and the nicotine patch plus either three sessions/week of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or contact control. Findings revealed a favorable impact of exercise on acute changes in positive activated affect (i.e., energy), negative deactivated affect (i.e., tiredness), and cigarette cravings relative to contact control. However, effects dissipated from session to session. Results suggest that aerobic exercise has potential as a smoking cessation treatment, but that it must be engaged in frequently and consistently over time in order to derive benefits. Thus, it is not surprising that previous randomized controlled trials-in which adherence to exercise programs has generally been poor-have been unsuccessful in showing effects of aerobic exercise on smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of social video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jeffrey R.; Sarhan, Nabil J.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of social media has grown dramatically over the World Wide Web. In this paper, we analyze the video popularity distribution of well-known social video websites (YouTube, Google Video, and the AOL Truveo Video Search engine) and characterize their workload. We identify trends in the categories, lengths, and formats of those videos, as well as characterize the evolution of those videos over time. We further provide an extensive analysis and comparison of video content amongst the main regions of the world.

  8. Video visual analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Höferlin, Markus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The amount of video data recorded world-wide is tremendously growing and has already reached hardly manageable dimensions. It originates from a wide range of application areas, such as surveillance, sports analysis, scientific video analysis, surgery documentation, and entertainment, and its analysis represents one of the challenges in computer science. The vast amount of video data renders manual analysis by watching the video data impractical. However, automatic evaluation of video material...

  9. Video Malware - Behavioral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeepsinh Dodia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The counts of malware attacks exploiting the internet increasing day by day and has become a serious threat. The latest malware spreading out through the media players embedded using the video clip of funny in nature to lure the end users. Once it is executed and installed then the behavior of the malware is in the malware authors hand. The spread of the malware emulates through Internet USB drives sharing of the files and folders can be anything which makes presence concealed. The funny video named as it connected to the film celebrity where the malware variant was collected from the laptop of the terror outfit organization .It runs in the backend which it contains malicious code which steals the user sensitive information like banking credentials username amp password and send it to the remote host user called command amp control. The stealed data is directed to the email encapsulated in the malicious code. The potential malware will spread through the USB and other devices .In summary the analysis reveals the presence of malicious code in executable video file and its behavior.

  10. Impact of food craving and calorie intake on body mass index (BMI) changes during an 18-month behavioral weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Rybak, Tiffany M; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Murphy, James G; Raynor, Hollie A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relations between food craving, caloric intake, and body mass index (BMI) changes over the course of an 18-month weight loss trial. Two-hundred two obese adults (mean BMI = 34.9 kg/m(2); mean age = 51.30 years, 92.2% White; 57.8% female) who participated in a behavioral weight loss trial completed measures of food craving, caloric intake, and BMI at baseline, 6 and 18 months. From baseline to 6 months, higher initial food cravings were associated with more gradual and less steep reductions in BMI. Additionally, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes varied by levels of change in caloric intake, such that BMI change and change in food cravings were positively associated at low levels of change in caloric intake, but were unrelated at average and high levels of change in caloric intake. Similarly, from baseline to 6 months and from 6 to 18 months, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes also varied by initial levels of caloric intake. Explicit clinical targeting of food craving management may be beneficial for individuals beginning weight loss programs, especially for those who report higher levels of food craving at baseline. Baseline caloric intake and change in calorie intake over time may serve as moderators of the relation between food cravings and BMI.

  11. Is serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor related to craving for or use of alcohol, cocaine, or methamphetamine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangwani P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Craig Hilburn, Vicki A Nejtek, Wendy A Underwood, Meharvan Singh, Gauravkumar Patel, Pooja Gangwani, Michael J ForsterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, TX, USABackground: Data suggests that brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF plays a neuroadaptive role in addiction. Whether serum BDNF levels are different in alcohol or psychostimulants as a function of craving is unknown. Here, we examined craving and serum BDNF levels in persons with alcohol versus psychostimulant dependence. Our goals were to explore BDNF as an objective biomarker for 1 craving 2 abstinence, and 3 years of chronic substance use.Methods: An exploratory, cross-sectional study was designed. Men and women between 20–65 years old with alcohol, cocaine, or methamphetamine dependence were eligible. A craving questionnaire was used to measure alcohol, cocaine and methamphetamine cravings. Serum levels of BDNF were measured using enzyme linked immunoassay. Analysis of variance, chi-square, and correlations were performed using a 95% confidence interval and a significance level of P < 0.05.Results: We found a significant difference in the mean craving score among alcohol, cocaine and methamphetamine dependent subjects. There were no significant influences of race, gender, psychiatric disorder or psychotropic medication on serum BDNF levels. We found that among psychostimulant users BDNF levels were significantly higher in men than in women when the number of abstinent days was statistically controlled. Further, a significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and the number of abstinent days since last psychostimulant use was found.Conclusion: These data suggest that BDNF may be a biomarker of abstinence in psychostimulant dependent subjects and inform clinicians about treatment initiatives. The results are interpreted with caution due to small sample size and lack of a control group.Keywords: BDNF, alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine, craving

  12. The Educational Efficacy of Distinct Information Delivery Systems in Modified Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirnia, Andrew; Israel, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of many commercial video games, this popularity is not shared by educational video games. Modified video games, however, can bridge the gap in quality between commercial and education video games by embedding educational content into popular commercial video games. This study examined how different information…

  13. Video enhancement effectiveness for target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael; Fischer, Amber; Petrov, Plamen

    2011-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) capture real-time video data of military targets while keeping the warfighter at a safe distance. This keeps soldiers out of harm's way while they perform intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and close-air support troops in contact (CAS-TIC) situations. The military also wants to use UAV video to achieve force multiplication. One method of achieving effective force multiplication involves fielding numerous UAVs with cameras and having multiple videos processed simultaneously by a single operator. However, monitoring multiple video streams is difficult for operators when the videos are of low quality. To address this challenge, we researched several promising video enhancement algorithms that focus on improving video quality. In this paper, we discuss our video enhancement suite and provide examples of video enhancement capabilities, focusing on stabilization, dehazing, and denoising. We provide results that show the effects of our enhancement algorithms on target detection and tracking algorithms. These results indicate that there is potential to assist the operator in identifying and tracking relevant targets with aided target recognition even on difficult video, increasing the force multiplier effect of UAVs. This work also forms the basis for human factors research into the effects of enhancement algorithms on ISR missions.

  14. High-quality real-time temporal segmentation tool for video editing software

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Rodríguez, Carlos; García Santos, Narciso

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of video editing software has resulted in a necessity for faster and more efficient editing tools. Here, we propose a lightweight high-quality video indexing tool that is suitable for video editing software.

  15. A serious video game to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among elementary aged youth (Squire's Quest! II): Rationale, design, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions a...

  16. The Use of Video Self-Modeling and Peer Training to Increase Social Engagement in Preschool Children on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Scott; Gardner, Lauren; Hudock, Rebekah; Kashima-Ellingson, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social functioning are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and can create great difficulties in the life of an individual on the autism spectrum. Social skill deficits increase the likelihood of children experiencing social failure, peer rejection, and isolation, leaving them vulnerable to developing anxiety,…

  17. Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Phase-Dependent Modulation of Craving for Cigarette: An fMRI Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Mendrek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While overall more men than women smoke cigarettes, women and girls take less time to become dependent after initial use and have more difficulties quitting the habit. One of the factors contributing to these differences may be that women crave cigarettes more than men and that their desire to smoke is influenced by hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a to examine potential sex/gender differences in functional neuroanatomy of craving and to (b delineate neural correlates of cigarette cravings in women across their menstrual cycle. Fifteen tobacco-smoking men and 19 women underwent a functional MRI during presentation of neutral and smoking-related images, known to elicit craving. Women were tested twice: once during early follicular phase and once during midluteal phase of their menstrual cycle. The analysis did not reveal any significant sex differences in the cerebral activations associated with craving. Nevertheless, the pattern of activations in women varied across their menstrual cycle with significant activations in parts of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe, during follicular phase, and only limited activations in the right hippocampus during the luteal phase.

  18. Is serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor related to craving for or use of alcohol, cocaine, or methamphetamine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Craig; Nejtek, Vicki A; Underwood, Wendy A; Singh, Meharvan; Patel, Gauravkumar; Gangwani, Pooja; Forster, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Background Data suggests that brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) plays a neuroadaptive role in addiction. Whether serum BDNF levels are different in alcohol or psychostimulants as a function of craving is unknown. Here, we examined craving and serum BDNF levels in persons with alcohol versus psychostimulant dependence. Our goals were to explore BDNF as an objective biomarker for 1) craving 2) abstinence, and 3) years of chronic substance use. Methods An exploratory, cross-sectional study was designed. Men and women between 20–65 years old with alcohol, cocaine, or methamphetamine dependence were eligible. A craving questionnaire was used to measure alcohol, cocaine and methamphetamine cravings. Serum levels of BDNF were measured using enzyme linked immunoassay. Analysis of variance, chi-square, and correlations were performed using a 95% confidence interval and a significance level of P methamphetamine dependent subjects. There were no significant influences of race, gender, psychiatric disorder or psychotropic medication on serum BDNF levels. We found that among psychostimulant users BDNF levels were significantly higher in men than in women when the number of abstinent days was statistically controlled. Further, a significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and the number of abstinent days since last psychostimulant use was found. Conclusion These data suggest that BDNF may be a biomarker of abstinence in psychostimulant dependent subjects and inform clinicians about treatment initiatives. The results are interpreted with caution due to small sample size and lack of a control group. PMID:21792305

  19. PTSD symptom severity as a predictor of cue-elicited drug craving in victims of violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Drobes, David J; Coffey, Scott F; Dansky, Bonnie S; Brady, Kathleen T; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2003-12-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity as a predictor of cue-elicited craving among alcohol- and cocaine-dependent individuals with a history of at least one physical and/or sexual assault. Approximately half of the sample had current PTSD. Severity of PTSD symptoms was measured via the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) total severity score. Subjects listened to four trials of a brief narrative imagery script followed by the presentation of an in vivo cue. The script presentation consisted of a description of either the subject's worst traumatic event or a neutral scene. The in vivo cues consisted of the presentation of either the subject's preferred drug or neutral cues. Craving was measured in response to both the script and in vivo cues. Results indicated a high degree of correlation between self-report craving and (a) PTSD symptom severity, (b) type of substance use disorder (SUD) [alcohol dependence (AD) vs. cocaine dependence (CD)], and (c) sex and race of participant. A series of stepwise multiple regressions indicated that PTSD severity was significantly predictive of trauma cue-elicited craving and drug cue-elicited craving. The results are discussed in the context of current research, theory, and clinical practice.

  20. A preliminary report on the use of virtual reality technology to elicit craving and cue reactivity in cocaine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Brady, Kathleen T; Graap, Ken; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2006-10-01

    In the present feasibility study, we developed a 3-dimensional virtual "crack" cocaine environment and evaluated the environment's ability to elicit subjective craving and cue reactivity (i.e., subjective emotional responding, heart rate and skin conductance) in 11 crack cocaine dependent individuals. Each of the seven 3-D crack cocaine scenes in the cocaine environment depicted actors engaging in a range of using-related behaviors (i.e., smoking crack) whereas the neutral environment contained scenes depicted 3-D aquariums with active aquatic life (baseline measures were obtained following immersion in the neutral environment). Results indicated that craving was significantly elevated during the cocaine-related scenes as compared to baseline. Craving varied by scene content, with scenes depicting active cocaine use eliciting the highest levels of craving. Heart rate was significantly higher in four of the scenes with drug use content and positive affect (i.e., happiness) ratings were significantly lower during cocaine scenes as compared to baseline. Overall, the results suggest that a standardized and stimulus rich virtual reality environment effectively elicits craving and physiologic reactivity. Such technology has potential utility in the development and refinement of exposure-based behavioral and pharmacological interventions for substance use disorders.

  1. Gender differences in response to emotional stress: an assessment across subjective, behavioral, and physiological domains and relations to alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Hong, Kwangik; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-07-01

    Women and men are at risk for different types of stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for depression and anxiety and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders. The present study examines gender differences in emotional and alcohol craving responses to stress that may relate to this gender divergence in disorders. Healthy adult social drinkers (27 men, 27 women) were exposed to individually developed and calibrated stressful, alcohol-related, and neutral-relaxing imagery, 1 imagery per session, on separate days and in random order. Subjective emotions, behavioral/bodily responses, cardiovascular arousal [heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP)], and self-reported alcohol craving were assessed. Women reported and displayed greater sadness and anxiety following stress than men and men had greater diastolic BP response than women. No gender differences in alcohol craving, systolic BP or HR were observed. Subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular measures were correlated in both genders. However, for men, but not women, alcohol craving was associated with greater subjective emotion and behavioral arousal following stress and alcohol cues. These data suggest that men and women respond to stress differently, with women experiencing greater sadness and anxiety, while men show a greater integration of reward motivation (craving) and emotional stress systems. These findings have implications for the gender-related divergence in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for anxiety and depression than men, and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders than women.

  2. Synaptic depression via mGluR1 positive allosteric modulation suppresses cue-induced cocaine craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loweth, Jessica A.; Scheyer, Andrew F.; Milovanovic, Mike; LaCrosse, Amber L.; Flores-Barrera, Eden; Werner, Craig T.; Li, Xuan; Ford, Kerstin A.; Le, Tuan; Olive, M. Foster; Szumlinski, Karen K.; Tseng, Kuei Y.; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Cue-induced cocaine craving is a major cause of relapse in abstinent addicts. In rats, cue-induced craving progressively intensifies (incubates) during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. After ~1 month of withdrawal, incubated craving is mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) that accumulate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We found that decreased mGluR1 surface expression in the NAc precedes and enables CP-AMPAR accumulation. Thus, restoring mGluR1 tone by administering repeated injections of an mGluR1 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) prevented CP-AMPAR accumulation and incubation, whereas blocking mGluR1 transmission at even earlier withdrawal times accelerated CP-AMPAR accumulation. In studies conducted after prolonged withdrawal, when CP-AMPAR levels and cue-induced craving are high, we found that systemic administration of an mGluR1 PAM attenuated the expression of incubated craving by reducing CP-AMPAR transmission in the NAc to control levels. These results demonstrate a strategy whereby recovering addicts could use a systemically active compound to protect against cue-induced relapse. PMID:24270186

  3. Video Analytics for Business Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Porikli, Fatih; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-01-01

    Closed Circuit TeleVision (CCTV) cameras have been increasingly deployed pervasively in public spaces including retail centres and shopping malls. Intelligent video analytics aims to automatically analyze content of massive amount of public space video data and has been one of the most active areas of computer vision research in the last two decades. Current focus of video analytics research has been largely on detecting alarm events and abnormal behaviours for public safety and security applications. However, increasingly CCTV installations have also been exploited for gathering and analyzing business intelligence information, in order to enhance marketing and operational efficiency. For example, in retail environments, surveillance cameras can be utilised to collect statistical information about shopping behaviour and preference for marketing (e.g., how many people entered a shop; how many females/males or which age groups of people showed interests to a particular product; how long did they stay in the sho...

  4. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ... group for me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ...

  5. Video Games and Citizenship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Soetaert, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    ... by exploring a particular aspect of digitization that affects young people, namely video games. They explore the new social spaces which emerge in video game culture and how these spaces relate to community building and citizenship...

  6. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles News Provider Directory Donate Resources Links Videos Podcasts ...

  7. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Provider Directory Donate Resources Links Videos ...

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back Support Groups Is a support group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo ... Support Groups Back Is a support group for me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library ...

  9. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork ... for me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support Back ...

  10. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For ... Family Caregivers Glossary Menu In this section Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For ...

  11. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For ... Family Caregivers Glossary Menu In this section Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For ...

  12. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media ... a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Provider Directory Donate Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars ...

  13. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork Peer ... me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support Back ANetwork ...

  14. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  15. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For Policymakers For Family Caregivers Glossary ... this section Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For Policymakers For Family Caregivers Glossary ...

  16. Effect of Selective Inhibition of Reactivated Nicotine-Associated Memories With Propranolol on Nicotine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan-Xue; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Ya-Yun; Zhang, Li-Bo; Wu, Ping; Huang, Geng-Di; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Yu-Mei; Shaham, Yavin; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    A relapse into nicotine addiction during abstinence often occurs after the reactivation of nicotine reward memories, either by acute exposure to nicotine (a smoking episode) or by smoking-associated conditioned stimuli (CS). Preclinical studies suggest that drug reward memories can undergo memory reconsolidation after being reactivated, during which they can be weakened or erased by pharmacological or behavioral manipulations. However, translational clinical studies using CS-induced memory retrieval-reconsolidation procedures to decrease drug craving reported inconsistent results. To develop and test an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)-induced retrieval-reconsolidation procedure to decrease nicotine craving among people who smoke. A translational rat study and human study in an academic outpatient medical center among 96 male smokers (aged 18- 45 years) to determine the association of propranolol administration within the time window of memory reconsolidation (after retrieval of the nicotine-associated memories by nicotine UCS exposure) with relapse to nicotine-conditioned place preference (CPP) and operant nicotine seeking in rats, and measures of preference to nicotine-associated CS and nicotine craving among people who smoke. The study rats were injected noncontingently with the UCS (nicotine 0.15 mg/kg, subcutaneous) in their home cage, and the human study participants administered a dose of propranolol (40 mg, per os; Zhongnuo Pharma). Nicotine CPP and operant nicotine seeking in rats, and preference and craving ratings for newly learned and preexisting real-life nicotine-associated CS among people who smoke. Sixty-nine male smokers completed the experiment and were included for statistical analysis: 24 in the group that received placebo plus 1 hour plus UCS, 23 who received propranolol plus 1 hour plus UCS, and 22 who received UCS plus 6 hours plus propranolol. In rat relapse models, propranolol injections administered immediately after nicotine UCS

  17. Transmission of compressed video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, H. L.

    1990-09-01

    An overview of video coding is presented. The aim is not to give a technical summary of possible coding techniques, but to address subjects related to video compression in general and to the transmission of compressed video in more detail. Bit rate reduction is in general possible by removing redundant information; removing information the eye does not use anyway; and reducing the quality of the video. The codecs which are used for reducing the bit rate, can be divided into two groups: Constant Bit rate Codecs (CBC's), which keep the bit rate constant, but vary the video quality; and Variable Bit rate Codecs (VBC's), which keep the video quality constant by varying the bit rate. VBC's can be in general reach a higher video quality than CBC's using less bandwidth, but need a transmission system that allows the bandwidth of a connection to fluctuate in time. The current and the next generation of the PSTN does not allow this; ATM might. There are several factors which influence the quality of video: the bit error rate of the transmission channel, slip rate, packet loss rate/packet insertion rate, end-to-end delay, phase shift between voice and video, and bit rate. Based on the bit rate of the coded video, the following classification of coded video can be made: High Definition Television (HDTV); Broadcast Quality Television (BQTV); video conferencing; and video telephony. The properties of these classes are given. The video conferencing and video telephony equipment available now and in the next few years can be divided into three categories: conforming to 1984 CCITT standard for video conferencing; conforming to 1988 CCITT standard; and conforming to no standard.

  18. Desktop video conferencing

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Ray; Roberts, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This guide aims to provide an introduction to Desktop Video Conferencing. You may be familiar with video conferencing, where participants typically book a designated conference room and communicate with another group in a similar room on another site via a large screen display. Desktop video conferencing (DVC), as the name suggests, allows users to video conference from the comfort of their own office, workplace or home via a desktop/laptop Personal Computer. DVC provides live audio and visua...

  19. 47 CFR 79.3 - Video description of video programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Video description of video programming. 79.3... CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.3 Video description of video programming. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section the following definitions shall apply: (1...

  20. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  1. The Relationship of Appetitive, Reproductive and Posterior Pituitary Hormones to Alcoholism and Craving in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder. PMID:22772772

  2. The obsessive compulsive drinking scale is a valid measure of alcohol craving in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jason P; Feeney, Gerald F X; Jack, Alyssa; Young, Ross McD

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol craving is associated with greater alcohol-related problems and less favorable treatment prognosis. The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) is the most widely used alcohol craving instrument. The OCDS has been validated in adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), which typically emerge in early adulthood. This study examines the validity of the OCDS in a nonclinical sample of young adults. Three hundred and nine college students (mean age of 21.8 years, SD = 4.6 years) completed the OCDS, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and measures of alcohol consumption. Subjects were randomly allocated to 2 samples. Construct validity was examined via exploratory factor analysis (n = 155) and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 154). Concurrent validity was assessed using the AUDIT and measures of alcohol consumption. A second, alcohol-dependent sample (mean age 42 years, SD 12 years) from a previously published study (n = 370) was used to assess discriminant validity. A unique young adult OCDS factor structure was validated, consisting of Interference/Control, Frequency of Obsessions, Alcohol Consumption and Resisting Obsessions/Compulsions. The young adult 4-factor structure was significantly associated with the AUDIT and alcohol consumption. The 4 factor OCDS successfully classified nonclinical subjects in 96.9% of cases and the older alcohol-dependent patients in 83.7% of cases. Although the OCDS was able to classify college nonproblem drinkers (AUDIT alcohol craving in young adult populations. In this nonclinical set of students, the OCDS classified nonproblem drinkers well but not problem drinkers. Studies need to further examine the utility of the OCDS in young people with alcohol misuse. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Violent video games affecting our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J A; Lee, J E

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is associated with increased aggression and its sequelae. Unfortunately, the majority of entertainment video games contain violence. Moreover, children of both genders prefer games with violent content. As there is no compulsory legislative standards to limit the type and amount of violence in video games, concerned adults must assume an oversight role.

  4. Teaching Social Studies with Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguth, Brad M.; List, Jonathan S.; Wunderle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Today's youth have grown up immersed in technology and are increasingly relying on video games to solve problems, engage socially, and find entertainment. Yet research and vignettes of teachers actually using video games to advance student learning in social studies is scarce (Hutchinson 2007). This article showcases how social studies…

  5. Differences between craving and health-related quality of life in patients with alcohol dependence with or without dual pathology in outpatient treatment: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Martínez, María; García-Carretero, Miguel Ángel; Gibert, Juan; Palma-Álvarez, Raúl Felipe; Abad, Alfonso Carlos; Sorribes, Marta; Roncero, Carlos

    2018-01-23

    Dual diagnosis is the coexistence of an addictive disorder and another mental disorder. The objective is to estimate cravings and self-reported quality of life in a sample of patients with alcoholic dependence, with or without dual pathology, who attend an outpatient treatment centre. A cross-sectional study of 112 patients (56 dual and 56 non-dual), diagnosed with alcohol dependence according to DSM-IV-TR. The presence of cravings is determined by the Multidimensional Alcohol Craving Scale and quality of life through the SF-36 Health Questionnaire. There are no statistically significant differences in cravings in either subgroup; the latter tend to refer to lower alcohol cravings than non-dual patients. The dual patients have a worse quality of life in all categories evaluated, highlighting a worse quality of life in the categories: social function, emotional role, vitality and general health. Females present a lower quality of life emphasising those of social function and emotional role. No differences were detected in relation to cravings between the 2 groups. In order to perform a correct clinical and therapeutic approach for patients with alcohol dependence, we should consider focusing on the evaluation of cravings and quality of life. In order to perform a correct clinical and therapeutic approach for patients with alcohol dependence, it is necessary to consider cravings and quality of life, since these parameters are important for the evaluation of patients with alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Video Self-Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…

  7. Tracing Sequential Video Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2015-01-01

    With an interest in learning that is set in collaborative situations, the data session presents excerpts from video data produced by two of fifteen students from a class of 5th semester techno-anthropology course. Students used video cameras to capture the time they spent working with a scientist...... video, nature of the interactional space, and material and spatial semiotics....

  8. Developing a Promotional Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  9. Comparison of acceptance-based and standard cognitive-based coping strategies for craving sweets in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M; Hoffman, Kimberly L; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D

    2013-01-01

    Existing strategies for coping with food cravings are of unknown efficacy and rely on principles that have been shown to have paradoxical effects. The present study evaluated novel, acceptance-based strategies for coping with craving by randomly assigning 48 overweight women to either an experimental psychological acceptance-oriented intervention or a standard cognitive reappraisal/distraction intervention. Participants were required to carry a box of sweets on their person for 72 h while abstaining from any consumption of sweets. Results suggested that the acceptance-based coping strategies resulted in lower cravings and reduced consumption, particularly for those who demonstrate greater susceptibility to the presence of food and report a tendency to engage in emotional eating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Written emotional expression during recovery from cocaine dependence: group and individual differences in craving intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasing, Kenneth; Mathur, Deepan; Desouza, Cherilyn

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a prospective, single-blind, parallel group, controlled trial to evaluate effects of written emotional expression in patients receiving intensive treatment for cocaine dependence in a residential-unit setting. Randomization to the emotional expression treatment produced changes in blood pressure and mood during writing sessions, possibly because of its ability to stimulate active coping behavior. At an initial follow-up visit, patients that had received written emotional expression reported lower values for craving intensity and were less likely to self-report use of cocaine. These results may indicate a therapeutic effect of written emotional expression during recovery from cocaine dependence.

  11. A biocultural framework for examining maternal cravings and aversions among pastoral women in east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alyson G; Pike, Ivy L

    2012-01-01

    Food preferences during pregnancy result from a complex set of biocultural interactions with important implications for maternal and child health. This article explores the social context of maternal food choice in marginal environments of East Africa. Biocultural data collected among Turkana and Datoga women living in Kenya and Tanzania indicate there is a significant social context to food choice that influences the types of food that women report craving and the food that is consumed. Our framework argues for a deeper understanding of how culture shapes food preferences and how marginalization can constrain access to favored and healthy foods.

  12. Gender effects on mood and cigarette craving during early abstinence and resumption of smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiansong; Azizian, Allen; Monterosso, John; Domier, Catherine P.; Brody, Arthur L.; London, Edythe D.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2008-01-01

    Women are more likely than men to relapse after initiating abstinence from cigarette smoking. The reasons for this phenomenon are unclear but may relate to negative mood, cigarette craving, or other symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. We addressed this issue in a study of 26 female and 38 male smokers. The Profile of Mood States, Shiffman–Jarvik Withdrawal Scale, and Urge to Smoke Scale were administered twice in each of two test sessions on different days. One session began within 1 hr after sm...

  13. Automated Video Quality Assessment for Deep-Sea Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kalmbach, A.; Sadhu, T.; Branzan Albu, A.; Glotin, H.; Jeffries, M. A.; Bui, A. O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Video provides a rich source of data for geophysical analysis, often supplying detailed information about the environment when other instruments may not. This is especially true of deep-sea environments, where direct visual observations cannot be made. As computer vision techniques improve and volumes of video data increase, automated video analysis is emerging as a practical alternative to labor-intensive manual analysis. Automated techniques can be much more sensitive to video quality than their manual counterparts, so performing quality assessment before doing full analysis is critical to producing valid results.Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories that supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea, including video and still cameras. This network of ocean observatories has produced almost 20,000 hours of video (about 38 hours are recorded each day) and an additional 8,000 hours of logs from remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. We begin by surveying some ways in which deep-sea video poses challenges for automated analysis, including: 1. Non-uniform lighting: Single, directional, light sources produce uneven luminance distributions and shadows; remotely operated lighting equipment are also susceptible to technical failures. 2. Particulate noise: Turbidity and marine snow are often present in underwater video; particles in the water column can have sharper focus and higher contrast than the objects of interest due to their proximity to the light source and can also influence the camera's autofocus and auto white-balance routines. 3. Color distortion (low contrast): The rate of absorption of light in water varies by wavelength, and is higher overall than in air, altering apparent colors and lowering the contrast of objects at a distance.We also describe measures under development at ONC for detecting and mitigating

  14. Designing and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Visual Cue-Induced Craving Assessment Task for Methamphetamine Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ekhtiari

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C TIntroduction: Craving to methamphetamine is a significant health concern and exposure to methamphetamine cues in laboratory can induce craving. In this study, a task designing procedure for evaluating methamphetamine cue-induced craving in laboratory conditions is examined. Methods: First a series of visual cues which could induce craving was identified by 5 discussion sessions between expert clinicians and 10 methamphetamine smokers. Cues were categorized in 4 main clusters and photos were taken for each cue in studio, then 60 most evocative photos were selected and 10 neutral photos were added. In this phase, 50 subjects with methamphetamine dependence, had exposure to cues and rated craving intensity induced by the 72 cues (60 active evocative photos + 10 neutral photos on self report Visual Analogue Scale (ranging from 0-100. In this way, 50 photos with high levels of evocative potency (CICT 50 and 10 photos with the most evocative potency (CICT 10 were obtained and subsequently, the task was designed. Results: The task reliability (internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha which was 91% for (CICT 50 and 71% for (CICT 10. The most craving induced was reported for category Drug use procedure (66.27±30.32 and least report for category Cues associated with drug use (31.38±32.96. Difference in cue-induced craving in (CICT 50 and (CICT 10 were not associated with age, education, income, marital status, employment and sexual activity in the past 30 days prior to study entry. Family living condition was marginally correlated with higher scores in (CICT 50. Age of onset for (opioids, cocaine and methamphetamine was negatively correlated with (CICT 50 and (CICT 10 and age of first opiate use was negatively correlated with (CICT 50. Discussion: Cue-induced craving for methamphetamine may be reliably measured by tasks designed in laboratory and designed assessment tasks can be used in cue reactivity paradigm, and

  15. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more

  16. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  17. Intelligent video surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Belonging to the wider academic field of computer vision, video analytics has aroused a phenomenal surge of interest since the current millennium. Video analytics is intended to solve the problem of the incapability of exploiting video streams in real time for the purpose of detection or anticipation. It involves analyzing the videos using algorithms that detect and track objects of interest over time and that indicate the presence of events or suspect behavior involving these objects.The aims of this book are to highlight the operational attempts of video analytics, to identify possi

  18. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Johns Hopkins Stategies to Increase your Level of Physical Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos ... Drug Information for Patients Arthritis Drug Information Sheets Benefits and Risks of Opioids in Arthritis ... website is intended for educational purposes only. Physicians and other health care professionals are encouraged to consult other sources ...

  20. Putting the brakes on the "drive to eat": Pilot effects of naltrexone and reward-based eating on food cravings among obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E; Laraia, Barbara; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M; Lustig, Robert H; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy; Dallman, Mary; Kiernan, Michaela; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-12-01

    Obese individuals vary in their experience of food cravings and tendency to engage in reward-driven eating, both of which can be modulated by the neural reward system rather than physiological hunger. We examined two predictions in a sample of obese women: (1) whether opioidergic blockade reduced food-craving intensity, and (2) whether opioidergic blockade reduced an association between food-craving intensity and reward-driven eating, which is a trait-like index of three factors (lack of control over eating, lack of satiation, preoccupation with food). Forty-four obese, pre-menopausal women completed the Reward-Based Eating Drive (RED) scale at study start and daily food-craving intensity on 5 days on which they ingested either a pill-placebo (2 days), a 25 mg naltrexone dose (1 day), or a standard 50mg naltrexone dose (2 days). Craving intensity was similar under naltrexone and placebo doses. The association between food-craving intensity and reward-driven eating significantly differed between placebo and 50mg naltrexone doses. Reward-driven eating and craving intensity were significantly positively associated under both placebo doses. As predicted, opioidergic blockade (for both doses 25mg and 50mg naltrexone) reduced the positive association between reward-driven eating and craving intensity to non-significance. Opioidergic blockade did not reduce craving intensity; however, blockade reduced an association between trait-like reward-driven eating and daily food-craving intensity, and may help identify an important endophenotype within obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Flip Video for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsko, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The full-color guide to shooting great video with the Flip Video camera. The inexpensive Flip Video camera is currently one of the hottest must-have gadgets. It's portable and connects easily to any computer to transfer video you shoot onto your PC or Mac. Although the Flip Video camera comes with a quick-start guide, it lacks a how-to manual, and this full-color book fills that void! Packed with full-color screen shots throughout, Flip Video For Dummies shows you how to shoot the best possible footage in a variety of situations. You'll learn how to transfer video to your computer and then edi

  2. Video Marketing: How Important are Videos for the Hospitality Industry in Finland?

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstede, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been many changes to the business environment of many companies. This has led to the development of new marketing forms, such as video marketing. Video marketing is increasingly popular. However, not all companies are successful in their video marketing efforts and researchers struggle to reach consensus in solving certain problems. The popularity and uncertainty of this topic has led to the decision to use it for this research. The objective of this paper is ...

  3. Acupuncture Suppresses Morphine Craving in Progressive Ratio Through the GABA System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong Hyo; Zhao, Rong Jie; Lee, Byung Gwon; Kim, Nam Jun; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young; Gwak, Young S; Lim, Sung Chul; Kim, Jae Su; Lee, Yun Kyu; Lee, Hyun Jong

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies revealed that acupuncture suppressed both morphine self-administration and morphine-seeking behavior after abstinence. Based on these results, this study examined whether acupuncture attenuated morphine-craving under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule and investigated the possible neuronal mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer morphine (0.5 mg/kg) at a fixed ratio for 9 days, and rats who achieved stable infusion were switched to a PR schedule. When animals had taken no more morphine for 1 hour, the number of infusions was defined as the break point (BP). After PR training, animals that had established a stable BP received acupuncture the next day. Acupuncture was applied for 1 minute immediately before the test session. Bicuculline (1.0 mg/kg) and SCH 50911 (2.0 mg/kg) were given 30 minutes prior to acupuncture. The c-Fos levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) were examined. Acupuncture at SI5 reduced the BP significantly. Moreover, the effects of acupuncture were blocked by either bicuculline or SCH 50911. Immunofluorescence revealed that acupuncture at SI5 decreased c-Fos expressions in the VTA and the NAc. This study demonstrates that acupuncture at SI5 is effective for the treatment of morphine-craving and that this effect is mediated via the GABA pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Cobra: A Content-Based Video Retrieval System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem

    An increasing number of large publicly available video libraries results in a demand for techniques that can manipulate the video data based on content. In this paper, we present a content-based video retrieval system called Cobra. The system supports automatic extraction and retrieval of high-level

  5. Video Game Play, Child Diet, and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Jago, Russ; Griffith, Melissa Juliano; Islam, Noemi; Nguyen, Nga; Watson, Kathleen B

    2011-01-01

    ... Serious video games offer promise of innovative channels for effective behavior change. 9 Once a child's attention has been attracted, 10 modeling, 11 tailoring, 12 and feedback 12 can increase personal relevance; in addition, games add fun. 13 Most health-related video games have some positive outcome, 9 and video games have effectively promoted dietary change ...

  6. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs from Video?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30-42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social…

  7. A Comparison of Video Formats for Online Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, Ross A.; Koppel, Nicole B.

    2017-01-01

    The use of video to deliver content to students online has become increasingly popular. However, educators are often plagued with the question of which format to use to deliver asynchronous video material. Whether it is a College or University committing to a common video format or an individual instructor selecting the method that works best for…

  8. Adolescent video game addiction: issues for the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    In the popular press, most of the reported effects of video games appear to centre upon the alleged negative consequences such as increased aggression, medical consequences of excessive play, and addiction. Although in extreme cases, video game playing can be addictive, there are many benefts that children and adolescents can get from playing video games. These can be educational, social, and/or therapeutic. This paper examines various issues about the use of video games in the classroom. Thi...

  9. Ontology based approach for video transmission over the network

    OpenAIRE

    Rachit Mohan Garg; Yamini Sood; Neha Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    With the increase in the bandwidth & the transmission speed over the internet, transmission of multimedia objects like video, audio, images has become an easier work. In this paper we provide an approach that can be useful for transmission of video objects over the internet without much fuzz. The approach provides a ontology based framework that is used to establish an automatic deployment of video transmission system. Further the video is compressed using the structural flow mechanism tha...

  10. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs From Video?

    OpenAIRE

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30–42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social interaction. Study 2 tested whether children could learn verbs from video alone. Study 3 clarified whether the benefits of social interaction remained w...

  11. Evaluating and Implementing JPEG XR Optimized for Video Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lang

    2010-01-01

    This report describes both evaluation and implementation of the new coming image compression standard JPEG XR. The intention is to determine if JPEG XR is an appropriate standard for IP based video surveillance purposes. Video surveillance, especially IP based video surveillance, currently has an increasing role in the security market. To be a good standard for surveillance, the video stream generated by the camera is required to be low bit-rate, low latency on the network and at the same tim...

  12. Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil: validação semântica Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF/Brazil Version: semantic validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar tradução e adaptação transcultural do Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF10, que avalia o craving por maconha em uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODO: O MCQ-SF foi traduzido do inglês para o português, aplicado em 10 sujeitos, submetido ao brainstorming num grupo de três indivíduos para reprodução individual e verbal, item a item. Realizou-se o back-translation, uma versão para o idioma de origem, a partir da primeira tradução e do brainstorming. Logo após, traduziu-se novamente para o português. Um comitê de juízes especialistas analisou todas as traduções. RESULTADOS: Após as considerações do comitê e um estudo-piloto com 30 sujeitos, a versão final do MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil foi construída. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram uma equivalência semântica satisfatória entre as versões. O MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil pode ser útil para avaliar o craving pela maconha nos dependentes dessa substância.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate and adapt culturally the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF10 which evaluates the craving for marijuana in a Brazilian sample. METHOD: The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF was translated from English to Portuguese, administered to 10 subjects, submitted to a brainstorming in a group of three people for individual and verbal reproduction, item by item. Back-translation was executed, a translation for the original language, based on first translation and from brainstorming. Soon after, it was translated again into Portuguese. A committee of specialists analyzed all translations. RESULTS: After the committee considerations and a pilot study with 30 subjects, the final version of MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil was built. CONCLUSION: The results showed a satisfactory semantic equivalence between versions. The MCQ/Versão Brasil can be useful to evaluate the craving for marijuana on the dependents of this substance.

  13. Characterizing popularity dynamics of online videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Shi, Yu-Qiang; Liao, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Online popularity has a major impact on videos, music, news and other contexts in online systems. Characterizing online popularity dynamics is nature to explain the observed properties in terms of the already acquired popularity of each individual. In this paper, we provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the popularity dynamics in two online video-provided websites, namely MovieLens and Netflix. The two collected data sets contain over 100 million records and even span a decade. We characterize that the popularity dynamics of online videos evolve over time, and find that the dynamics of the online video popularity can be characterized by the burst behaviors, typically occurring in the early life span of a video, and later restricting to the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism.

  14. ¡Sólo Se Vive Una Vez! (You Only Live Once): A Pilot Evaluation of Individually Tailored Video Modules Aiming to Increase HIV Testing Among Foreign-Born Latino Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolwick Grieb, Suzanne M; Flores-Miller, Alejandra; Page, Kathleen R

    2017-02-01

    Although Latinos living in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV, the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV prevention, testing, and linkage to care interventions lag behind efforts occurring in other communities. To address sociocultural barriers to testing, we developed a multilevel intervention. This study is a pilot evaluation of the individual-level component of the intervention-animated video modules that address specific barriers to HIV testing common among foreign-born Latino men. We conducted a survey assessing HIV risk and barriers to testing with a convenience sample of 104 foreign-born Latino men in Baltimore, MD, who had not tested for HIV within the past year. Intention to test in the next 3 months was measured before and after viewing an intervention module selected based on survey responses. Fifty-two (50.0%) participants had never tested for HIV. Of the participants who had previously tested for HIV, the mean time since their last test was 3.48 years (SD = 3.55). Participants' intention to test for HIV significantly increased after watching the module (t = -8.28, P Latino men, one of the demographic groups at highest risk for delayed HIV diagnosis in the United States.

  15. Ghrelin system in alcohol-dependent subjects: role of plasma ghrelin levels in alcohol drinking and craving

    OpenAIRE

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Cardone, Silvia; Nesci, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Malandrino, Noemi; Capristo, Esmeralda; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that the gut-brain peptide ghrelin plays an important role in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Human studies show an effect of alcohol on ghrelin levels and a correlation between ghrelin levels and alcohol craving in alcoholics.

  16. The Importance of Conditioned Stimuli in Cigarette and E-Cigarette Craving Reduction by E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heel, Martijn; Van Gucht, Dinska; Vanbrabant, Koen; Baeyens, Frank

    2017-02-15

    This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h. A mixed-effects model clearly showed the importance of nicotine in craving reduction. However, also non-nicotine factors, in particular the sensorimotor component, were shown to contribute to craving reduction. Handling cues interacted with the level (presence/absence) of nicotine: it was only when the standard hand-to-mouth action cues were omitted that the craving reducing effects of nicotine were observed. Effects of aroma or visual cues were not observed, or weak and difficult to interpret, respectively.

  17. Laboratory-based, cue-elicited craving and cue reactivity as predictors of naturally occurring smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia; Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette craving, one hallmark sign of nicotine dependence, is often measured in laboratory settings using cue reactivity methods. How lab measures of cue reactivity relate to real world smoking behavior is unclear, particularly among non-treatment seeking smokers. Within a larger study of hormonal effects on cue reactivity (N=78), we examined the predictive relationship of cue reactivity to smoking, each measured in several ways. Results indicated that cue-evoked craving in response to stressful imagery, and to a lesser extent, in vivo smoking cues, significantly predicted smoking behavior during the week following testing. However, this predictive relationship was absent upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Nicotine dependence may moderate the relationship between cue reactivity and actual smoking, such that this predictive relationship is less robust among highly dependent smokers than among smokers low in nicotine dependence. The question of whether cue-elicited craving predicts smoking among smokers not in treatment is best answered with a qualified yes, depending on how craving is manipulated and measured. Our findings highlight important methodological and theoretical considerations for cue reactivity research.

  18. The Importance of Conditioned Stimuli in Cigarette and E-Cigarette Craving Reduction by E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Van Heel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h. A mixed-effects model clearly showed the importance of nicotine in craving reduction. However, also non-nicotine factors, in particular the sensorimotor component, were shown to contribute to craving reduction. Handling cues interacted with the level (presence/absence of nicotine: it was only when the standard hand-to-mouth action cues were omitted that the craving reducing effects of nicotine were observed. Effects of aroma or visual cues were not observed, or weak and difficult to interpret, respectively.

  19. The Importance of Conditioned Stimuli in Cigarette and E-Cigarette Craving Reduction by E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heel, Martijn; Van Gucht, Dinska; Vanbrabant, Koen; Baeyens, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h. A mixed-effects model clearly showed the importance of nicotine in craving reduction. However, also non-nicotine factors, in particular the sensorimotor component, were shown to contribute to craving reduction. Handling cues interacted with the level (presence/absence) of nicotine: it was only when the standard hand-to-mouth action cues were omitted that the craving reducing effects of nicotine were observed. Effects of aroma or visual cues were not observed, or weak and difficult to interpret, respectively. PMID:28212302

  20. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention