Swing, Edward L; Gentile, Douglas A; Anderson, Craig A; Walsh, David A
Television viewing has been associated with greater subsequent attention problems in children. Few studies have examined the possibility of a similar association between video games and attention problems, and none of these has used a longitudinal design. A sample of 1323 middle childhood participants were assessed during a 13-month period by parent- and child-reported television and video game exposure as well as teacher-reported attention problems. Another sample of 210 late adolescent/early adult participants provided self-reports of television exposure, video game exposure, and attention problems. Exposure to television and video games was associated with greater attention problems. The association of television and video games to attention problems in the middle childhood sample remained significant when earlier attention problems and gender were statistically controlled. The associations of screen media and attention problems were similar across media type (television or video games) and age (middle childhood or late adolescent/early adult). Viewing television and playing video games each are associated with increased subsequent attention problems in childhood. It seems that a similar association among television, video games, and attention problems exists in late adolescence and early adulthood. Research on potential risk factors for attention problems should be expanded to include video games in addition to television.
Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Shim, Mi-suk; Caplovitz, Allison G.
This study examined the links between childhood obesity, activity participation and television and video game use in a nationally representative sample of children (N=2831) ages 1-12 using age-normed body mass index (BMI) ratings. Results indicated that while television use was not related to children's weight status, video game use was. Children…
Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G
Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation.
Mazurek, Micah O; Wenstrup, Colleen
This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children with ASD spent approximately 62% more time watching television and playing video games than in all non-screen activities combined. Compared with TD siblings, children with ASD spent more hours per day playing video games (2.4 vs. 1.6 for boys, and 1.8 vs. 0.8 for girls), and had higher levels of problematic video game use. In contrast, children with ASD spent little time using social media or socially interactive video games.
Calvert, S.L.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Taylor, M.
For many children, substantial amounts of time are devoted almost every day to screen media, including television viewing, video game play, and online Internet activities. This chapter discusses exposure to these types of media activities and some of the ways they influence creativity. In
Mazurek, Micah O.; Wenstrup, Colleen
This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children…
Mitre, Naim; Foster, Randal C; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A
In the present study we investigated the effect of television watching and the use of activity-promoting video games on energy expenditure in obese and lean children. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were watching television, playing a video game on a traditional sedentary video game console, and while playing the same video game on an activity-promoting video game console. Energy expenditure was significantly greater than television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console when children played the video game on the activity-promoting console. When examining movement with accelerometry, children moved significantly more when playing the video game on the Nintendo Wii console. Activity-promoting video games have shown to increase movement, and be an important tool to raise energy expenditure by 50% when compared to sedentary activities of daily living.
Mitrofan, O.; Paul, M.; Weich, S.; Spencer, N.
Background: Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression.\\ud Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video\\ud games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible\\ud associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending\\ud specialist outpatient child and adolescent ...
Robinson, T N; Wilde, M L; Navracruz, L C; Haydel, K F; Varady, A
The relationship between exposure to aggression in the media and children's aggressive behavior is well documented. However, few potential solutions have been evaluated. To assess the effects of reducing television, videotape, and video game use on aggressive behavior and perceptions of a mean and scary world. Randomized, controlled, school-based trial. Two sociodemographically and scholastically matched public elementary schools in San Jose, Calif. Third- and fourth-grade students (mean age, 8.9 years) and their parents or guardians. Children in one elementary school received an 18-lesson, 6-month classroom curriculum to reduce television, videotape, and video game use. In September (preintervention) and April (postintervention) of a single school year, children rated their peers' aggressive behavior and reported their perceptions of the world as a mean and scary place. A 60% random sample of children were observed for physical and verbal aggression on the playground. Parents were interviewed by telephone and reported aggressive and delinquent behaviors on the child behavior checklist. The primary outcome measure was peer ratings of aggressive behavior. Compared with controls, children in the intervention group had statistically significant decreases in peer ratings of aggression (adjusted mean difference, -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.6 to -0.2; P =.03) and observed verbal aggression (adjusted mean difference, -0.10 act per minute per child; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.03; P =.01). Differences in observed physical aggression, parent reports of aggressive behavior, and perceptions of a mean and scary world were not statistically significant but favored the intervention group. An intervention to reduce television, videotape, and video game use decreases aggressive behavior in elementary schoolchildren. These findings support the causal influences of these media on aggression and the potential benefits of reducing children's media use.
Walsh, D A; Gentile, D A
Numerous studies have documented the potential effects on young audiences of violent content in media products, including movies, television programs, and computer and video games. Similar studies have evaluated the effects associated with sexual content and messages. Cumulatively, these effects represent a significant public health risk for increased aggressive and violent behavior, spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and pediatric pregnancy. In partial response to these risks and to public and legislative pressure, the movie, television, and gaming industries have implemented ratings systems intended to provide information about the content and appropriate audiences for different films, shows, and games. To test the validity of the current movie-, television-, and video game-rating systems. Panel study. Participants used the KidScore media evaluation tool, which evaluates films, television shows, and video games on 10 aspects, including the appropriateness of the media product for children based on age. When an entertainment industry rates a product as inappropriate for children, parent raters agree that it is inappropriate for children. However, parent raters disagree with industry usage of many of the ratings designating material suitable for children of different ages. Products rated as appropriate for adolescents are of the greatest concern. The level of disagreement varies from industry to industry and even from rating to rating. Analysis indicates that the amount of violent content and portrayals of violence are the primary markers for disagreement between parent raters and industry ratings. As 1 part of a solution to the complex public health problems posed by violent and sexually explicit media products, ratings can have value if used with caution. Parents and caregivers relying on the ratings systems to guide their children's use of media products should continue to monitor content independently. Industry ratings systems should be revised with input
Mitre, Naim; Foster, Randal C; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A.
Background Screen time continues to be a major contributing factor to sedentariness in children. There have been more creative approaches to increase physical over the last few years. One approach has been through the use of video games. In the present study we investigated the effect of television watching and the use of activity-promoting video games on energy expenditure and movement in lean and obese children. Our primary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement decreases while watching television, in lean and obese children. Our secondary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement increases when playing the same game with an activity-promoting video game console compared to a sedentary video game console, in lean and obese children. Methods Eleven boys (10 ± 1 year) and eight girls (9 ± 1 year) ranging in BMI from 14–29 kg/m2 (eleven lean and eight overweight or obese) were recruited. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were watching television, playing a video game on a traditional sedentary video game console, and while playing the same video game on an activity-promoting video game (Nintendo Wii) console. Results Energy expenditure was significantly greater than television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console when children played the video game on the activity-promoting console(125.3 ± 38.2 Kcal/hr vs. 79.7 ± 20.1 and 79.4 ±15.7, Pvideo games on a sedentary video game console is not different. Activity-promoting video games have shown to increase movement, and be an important tool to raise energy expenditure by 50% when compared to sedentary activities of daily living. PMID:22145458
Walsh, D A; Gentile, D A; Van Brederode, T M
Numerous studies have documented the potential effects on young audiences of violent content in media products, including movies, television programs, and computer and video games. Similar studies have evaluated the effects associated with sexual content and messages. Cumulatively, these effects represent a significant public health risk for increased aggressive and violent behavior, spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and pediatric pregnancy. In partial response to these risks and to public and legislative pressure, the movie, television, and gaming industries have implemented ratings systems intended to provide information about the content and appropriate audiences for different films, shows, and games. We conducted a panel study to test the validity of the current movie, television, and video game rating systems. Participants used the KidScore media evaluation tool, which evaluates films, television shows, and video and computer games on 10 aspects, including the appropriateness of the media product for children on the basis of age. Results revealed that when an entertainment industry rates a product as inappropriate for children, parent raters agree that it is inappropriate for children. However, parent raters disagree with industry usage of many of the ratings designating material suitable for children of different ages. Products rated as appropriate for adolescents are of the greatest concern. The level of disagreement varies from industry to industry and even from rating to rating. Analysis indicates that the amount of violent content and portrayals of violence are the primary markers for disagreement between parent raters and industry ratings. Short-term and long-term recommendations are suggested.
Mitrofan, O; Paul, M; Spencer, N
Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children's aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible. We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications from relevant organizations and for grey literature; scanned bibliographies; hand-searched key journals; and corresponded with authors. We critically appraised all studies. A total of 12 studies: three experiments with children with behavioural and emotional difficulties found increased aggression after watching aggressive as opposed to low-aggressive content television programmes, one found the opposite and two no clear effect, one found such children no more likely than controls to imitate aggressive television characters. One case-control study and one survey found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties watched more television than controls; another did not. Two studies found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more hours of aggressive television programmes than controls. One study on video game use found that young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more minutes of violence and played longer than controls. In a qualitative study children with behavioural and emotional difficulties, but not their parents, did not associate watching television with aggression. All studies had significant methodological flaws. None was based on power calculations. This systematic review found insufficient, contradictory and methodologically flawed evidence on the association between television viewing and video game playing and aggression in children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties. If public health advice is to be evidence
Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas
Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children's aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). In this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7-11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated. Children attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games. There is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children's lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments.
Anyanwu, E; Watson, N A
This research paper reports a case study of two male photosensitive epileptic patients, aged 14 and 16 years old respectively, whose epileptic seizures were often triggered by the flickers from television and video games respectively. The 14-year old patient had no family history of epilepsy, while the 16 year old had a family history of epilepsy. A comprehensive electroencephalogram (EEG), including hyperventilation, intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and pattern stimulation were carried out on them and EEG abnormalities including photoparoxysmal responses (PPR) and generalized myoclonic responses were evoked. A thorough analysis of the EEG morphology of the myclonic responses and the clinical manifestations showed evidence of two separate entitles of seizures namely: visually evoked pattern-myoclonic responses (PTMR) and visually evoked photomyoclonic responses (PMR). PTMR was independent of flash rate and occurred before a PPR and at the same time as the flash rate, while PMR occurred after the PPR and was dependent on flash rate. These findings suggest that "Video Game" epilepsy is probably a pattern sensitive epilepsy, electronic screen being the source of the triggering patterns; hence, the morphology and the family histories and the myoclonic phenomena differ from those of pure photosensitive epilepsy.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide in children which can be attributed to changes in lifestyle such as sedentary habits, television (TV viewing, playing computer games, and consumption of snacks while watching television. The present study was done to find the association between obesity and TV viewing, computer game playing, sedentary lifestyle in children and also with a secondary objective to assess the association between blood pressure and TV/computer game viewing, sedentary lifestyle in children.Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at 4 high schools and Pre University Colleges (PUC’S in and around Mangalore during the study period of 4 days from 6 -12 august 2014. 509 students were enrolled. Information was gathered by asking the subjects to fill up a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on Body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio for all subjects. Blood pressure was measured for all the subjects.Results: It was found that among males 2.7% of students were obese and in females it was 2.3%. There was a significant association between blood pressure and consumption of snacks while watching TV and also between blood pressure and their habit of consumption / buying of snacks/ fast-food advertised in TV. A significant association was found between central obesity (Waist-hip ratio and Waist-height ratio and the number of hours of physical activity per week in schools.Conclusion: There is a need to develop preventive intervention like reducing snack consumption while watching TV and increasing the time dedicated to physical activity.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide in children which can be attributed to changes in lifestyle such as sedentary habits, television (TV viewing, playing computer games, and consumption of snacks while watching television. The present study was done to find the association between obesity and TV viewing, computer game playing, sedentary lifestyle in children and also with a secondary objective to assess the association between blood pressure and TV/computer game viewing, sedentary lifestyle in children. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at 4 high schools and Pre University Colleges (PUC’S in and around Mangalore during the study period of 4 days from 6 -12 august 2014. 509 students were enrolled. Information was gathered by asking the subjects to fill up a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on Body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio for all subjects. Blood pressure was measured for all the subjects. Results: It was found that among males 2.7% of students were obese and in females it was 2.3%. There was a significant association between blood pressure and consumption of snacks while watching TV and also between blood pressure and their habit of consumption / buying of snacks/ fast-food advertised in TV. A significant association was found between central obesity (Waist-hip ratio and Waist-height ratio and the number of hours of physical activity per week in schools. Conclusion: There is a need to develop preventive intervention like reducing snack consumption while watching TV and increasing the time dedicated to physical activity.
Dadeya, Subhash; Dangda, Sonal
To investigate the role of television video games in childhood amblyopia treatment. This prospective, randomized, interventional study included 40 patients between 4-7 years of age, with unilateral amblyopia (visual acuity in amblyopic eye between 1-0.6 LogMAR equivalents) attending the squint clinic at a tertiary eye hospital. All patients were prescribed optimal spectacle correction and occlusion therapy, i.e. full time patching according to patient's age, was initiated after six weeks.; full-time patching according to patient's age was initiated after 6 weeks. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 20 each. Patients in the first group, Group A (control), were prescribed patching alone. Patients in the second group, Group B (study), were made to play action video games, with the help of a commercial television set, along with patching. They attended 12 half-hour sessions each, at weekly intervals. Follow-up assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (both distance and near) and stereoacuity measurements at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks. The mean age of patients was 6.03 ± 1.14 years. The distance BCVA in the amblyopic eye showed a significant improvement at final follow-up (12 weeks) in both groups: from 0.84 ± 0.19 to 0.55 ± 0.21 LogMAReq in Group A and 0.89 ± 0.16 to 0.46 ± 0.22 LogMAReq in Group B. However, improvement in BCVA was significantly better in group B at all visits (P=0.002, 12 weeks). The study group also had a significantly better outcome in terms near visual acuity improvement (P = 0.006, 12 weeks). There was also greater stereoacuity improvement in group B, with 7 patients improving to 100 secs of arc or better. Video games supplemental to occlusion may be considered favorable for visual development in amblyopic children, and the study encourages further research on this subject.
Funk, Jeanne B; Baldacci, Heidi Bechtoldt; Pasold, Tracie; Baumgardner, Jennifer
It is believed that repeated exposure to real-life and to entertainment violence may alter cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes, possibly leading to desensitization. The goal of the present study was to determine if there are relationships between real-life and media violence exposure and desensitization as reflected in related characteristics. One hundred fifty fourth and fifth graders completed measures of real-life violence exposure, media violence exposure, empathy, and attitudes towards violence. Regression analyses indicated that only exposure to video game violence was associated with (lower) empathy. Both video game and movie violence exposure were associated with stronger proviolence attitudes. The active nature of playing video games, intense engagement, and the tendency to be translated into fantasy play may explain negative impact, though causality was not investigated in the present design. The samples' relatively low exposure to real-life violence may have limited the identification of relationships. Although difficult to quantify, desensitization to violence should be further studied using related characteristics as in the present study. Individual differences and causal relationships should also be examined.
Siervo, Mario; Gan, Jason; Fewtrell, Mary S; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Wells, Jonathan C K
Sedentary or near-sedentary activities are associated with overweight/obesity in epidemiological studies. This has traditionally been attributed to physical activity displacement. A little-explored area is whether behavioural stresses alter sensations of appetite and eating behaviour. We examined whether behaviours conducted seated (television viewing, video gaming) induce different eating patterns, associated with differential levels of stress response. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 72 overweight/obese adult males, assigned to three groups (24 per group): (i) non-violent television (control group); (ii) non-violent game (FIFA); (iii) violent game (Call of Duty). Following a standardized breakfast, the 1-h intervention was followed by 25-min rest, with sweet and savoury snacks and drinks available ad libitum. Stress markers (heart rate, blood pressure, visual analogue scale (VAS)) were measured throughout. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and stress by VAS were significantly higher (p games than watching non-violent television, though the two game groups did not differ. Considered separately, only the violent video game group consumed more energy (Δ = 208.3 kcal, 95%CI 16, 400), sweet foods (Δ = 25.9 g, 95%CI 9.9, 41.9) and saturated fat (Δ = 4.36 g, 95%CI 0.76, 7.96) than controls. Playing video games in overweight/obese adult males is associated with an acute stress response relative to watching non-violent television, associated with greater subsequent food intake. These findings highlight the need to focus on the metabolic effects, as well as the energy costs, of activities involving sitting in relation to obesity risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... situations and express your feelings about difficult topics (sex, love, drugs, alcohol, smoking, work, behavior, family life). Teach your kids to question and learn from what they see on screens. Video and Interactive Computer Games Look at the ratings. ...
Ferguson, Christopher J
Research on youth mental health has increasingly indicated the importance of multivariate analyses of multiple risk factors for negative outcomes. Television and video game use have often been posited as potential contributors to attention problems, but previous studies have not always been well-controlled or used well-validated outcome measures. The current study examines the multivariate nature of risk factors for attention problems symptomatic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and poor school performance. A predominantly Hispanic population of 603 children (ages 10-14) and their parents/guardians responded to multiple behavioral measures. Outcome measures included parent and child reported attention problem behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as well as poor school performance as measured by grade point average (GPA). Results found that internal factors such as male gender, antisocial traits, family environment and anxiety best predicted attention problems. School performance was best predicted by family income. Television and video game use, whether total time spent using, or exposure to violent content specifically, did not predict attention problems or GPA. Television and video game use do not appear to be significant predictors of childhood attention problems. Intervention and prevention efforts may be better spent on other risk factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Mierlo, Jan; Van den Bulck, Jan
This study found significant relationships between first- and second-order cultivation measures and TV viewing, but found a relationship with video game play for only two variables in a sample of 322 Flemish 3rd and 6th year secondary school children. This suggests that the absence of a relationship with video game play is not the result of the…
Arvaniti, Fotini; Priftis, Kostas N; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B
Salty-snack consumption, as well as the amount of time children spend watching television or playing video games, have been implicated in the development of asthma; however, results are still conflicting. The aim of this work was to evaluate the association of salty-snack eating and television/video-game viewing with childhood asthma symptoms. Cross-sectional study. Seven hundred children (323 male), 10 to 12 years old, from 18 schools located in the greater area of Athens were enrolled. Children and their parents completed questionnaires, which evaluated, among other things, dietary habits. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for Children and Adolescents) score. The association of children's characteristics with asthma symptoms was performed by calculating the odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Overall lifetime prevalence of asthma symptoms was 23.7% (27.6% boys, 20.4% girls; P=0.03). Forty-eight percent of children reported salty-snack consumption (≥ 1 times/week). Salty-snack consumption was positively associated with the hours of television/video-game viewing (P=0.04) and inversely with the KIDMED score (P=0.02). Consumption of salty snacks (>3 times/week vs never/rare) was associated with a 4.8-times higher likelihood of having asthma symptoms (95% confidence interval: 1.50 to 15.8), irrespective of potential confounders. The associations of salty-snack eating and asthma symptoms were more prominent in children who watched television or played video games >2 hours/day. In addition, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with the likelihood of asthma symptoms. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, such as salty-snack eating and television/video-game viewing were strongly associated with the presence of asthma symptoms. Future interventions and public health messages should be focused on changing these behaviors from the early stages of life. Copyright © 2011
Rostad, Whitney L; Basile, Kathleen C; Clayton, Heather B
With the increasing popularity of mobile Internet devices, the exposure of adolescents to media has significantly increased. There is limited information about associations between the types and frequency of media use and experiences of violence victimization and suicide risk. The current study sought to examine the association of bullying and teen dating violence (TDV) victimization, suicide risk with different types of media use (i.e., television and computer/video game use), and number of total media use hours per school day. Data from the nationally representative 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey ( n = 15,624) were used to examine the association between media use and violence victimization and suicide risk. Logistic regression models generated prevalence ratios adjusted for demographic characteristics and substance use behaviors to identify significant associations between media use and victimization and suicide risk, stratified by gender. Media use was associated with TDV victimization for male students only, while media use was related to experiences of bullying and suicide risk for both male and female students. In addition, limited (2 or fewer hours) and excessive (5 or more hours) media use emerged as significant correlates of suicide risk and bullying victimization, with limited media use associated with decreased risk and excessive media use with increased risk. Comprehensive, cross-cutting efforts to prevent different forms of victimization should take into account media use and its potential association with adolescent victimization and suicide risk. The current study results suggest limiting adolescent media use, as part of comprehensive prevention programming, might relate to reductions in risk for victimization and suicide.
Falbe, J; Willett, W C; Rosner, B; Field, A E
Recent technologies have changed screen time. TV can be viewed anywhere, anytime. Content can be collected via digital recorders and online streaming and viewed on smartphones. Video games are no longer strictly sedentary. We sought to assess the unknown relations between new modes of TV viewing - recorded, online, downloaded and on hand-held devices - and active video games with body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional analysis of the 2011 wave of the Growing Up Today Study 2 cohort. We used gender-specific generalized estimating equations to examine screen time and BMI among 3071 women and 2050 men aged 16-24 years. Among women, each hour/day of online TV (0.47; confidence interval [CI]: 0.12, 0.82) and total non-broadcast TV (0.37; CI: 0.14, 0.61) was associated with higher BMI, as was watching ≥ 1/2 h week -1 of TV on hand-held devices (1.04; CI: 0.32-1.77). Active video games were associated with BMI among women, but not after restricting to those not trying to lose/maintain weight. Broadcast TV was associated with higher BMI (kg m -2 ) among women and men (P < 0.05). Among women, online TV, TV viewed on hand-held devices and the sum of non-broadcast TV time were associated with higher BMI. Broadcast TV was also associated with BMI in women and men. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Jamnik, Matthew R; DiLalla, Lisabeth F
The association between aggressive media and related behavior is complicated, and the role of underlying genetics has not been adequately explored. A better understanding of the role of genetics on the relationship between aggressive media and behavior, especially in young children, is critical. Using a twin/triplets sample (N = 184 children), the authors investigated the association between preschoolers' preferred media choices and their aggressive behaviors. A multimeasure methodology was utilized, examining children's reports of their preferred media games and shows, observed child negativity and aggression in the lab, and parent reports of their own and their children's aggressive behaviors. The results demonstrated a significant relationship between maternal aggression and parent-reported child aggression, especially for boys. Genetic analyses demonstrated significant heritability for children's parent-reported aggressive behaviors, supporting the biological basis of aggression, but not for media aggression preferences. Controlling for genetics, the authors found that the association between media preferences and aggressive behavior may be genetic in origin. These results emphasize the importance of considering shared genetics underlying the relationship between children's aggressive behaviors and their media preferences, as well as environmental influences. By examining preschoolers, the present study provides insight into the importance of media influences in children younger than those previously studied.
or delayed video coverage of the Olympic Games. The Torino Olympic Broadcasting was the first to be filmed entirely in High Definition Television. In the future the use of digital video processing, computer vision, 3D-visualisation and animation techniques allow viewers to watch sports events almost......The Olympic Games is the world´s largest media event and television is the engine that has driven the growth of the Olympic Movement. Increases in broadcast revenue over the past two decades have provided the Olympic Movement with a huge financial base. More networks than ever before broadcast...... the Olympic Games to more countries and territories, with a record number of hours, a significant rise in the total viewing hours, and dramatic increases in live and prime-time coverage. Over 300 channels transmitted 35.000 hours of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. The future of television is digital, which...
Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.
Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracking studies determine the stability and predictability of specific phenomena. This study examined tracking of TV viewing (TV and video game use (VG from middle childhood through early adolescence after adjusting for moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, percentage of body fat (% BF, and maturity. Methods TV viewing and VG use were measured at ages 5, 8, 11, and 13 (n = 434 via parental- and self-report. MVPA was measured using the Actigraph, % BF using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and maturity via Mirwald predictive equations. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE were used to assess stability and logistic regression was used to predict children "at risk" for maintaining sedentary behaviors. Additional models examined tracking only in overfat children (boys ≥ 25% BF; girls ≥ 32% BF. Data were collected from 1998 to 2007 and analyzed in 2010. Results The adjusted stability coefficients (GEE for TV viewing were 0.35 (95% CI = 0.26, 0.44 for boys, 0.32 (0.23, 0.40 for girls, and 0.45 (0.27, 0.64 for overfat. For VG use, the adjusted stability coefficients were 0.14 (0.05, 0.24 for boys, 0.24 (0.10, 0.38 for girls, and 0.29 (0.08, 0.50 for overfat. The adjusted odds ratios (OR for TV viewing were 3.2 (2.0, 5.2 for boys, 2.9 (1.9, 4.6 for girls, and 6.2 (2.2, 17.2 for overfat. For VG use, the OR were 1.8 (1.1, 3.1 for boys, 3.5 (2.1, 5.8 for girls, and 1.9 (0.6, 6.1 for overfat. Conclusions TV viewing and VG use are moderately stable throughout childhood and predictive of later behavior. TV viewing appears to be more stable in younger children than VG use and more predictive of later behavior. Since habitual patterns of sedentarism in young children tend to continue to adolescence, early intervention strategies, particularly to reduce TV viewing, are warranted.
Francis, Shelby L; Stancel, Matthew J; Sernulka-George, Frances D; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M; Janz, Kathleen F
Tracking studies determine the stability and predictability of specific phenomena. This study examined tracking of TV viewing (TV) and video game use (VG) from middle childhood through early adolescence after adjusting for moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), percentage of body fat (% BF), and maturity. TV viewing and VG use were measured at ages 5, 8, 11, and 13 (n = 434) via parental- and self-report. MVPA was measured using the Actigraph, % BF using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and maturity via Mirwald predictive equations. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess stability and logistic regression was used to predict children "at risk" for maintaining sedentary behaviors. Additional models examined tracking only in overfat children (boys ≥ 25% BF; girls ≥ 32% BF). Data were collected from 1998 to 2007 and analyzed in 2010. The adjusted stability coefficients (GEE) for TV viewing were 0.35 (95% CI = 0.26, 0.44) for boys, 0.32 (0.23, 0.40) for girls, and 0.45 (0.27, 0.64) for overfat. For VG use, the adjusted stability coefficients were 0.14 (0.05, 0.24) for boys, 0.24 (0.10, 0.38) for girls, and 0.29 (0.08, 0.50) for overfat. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for TV viewing were 3.2 (2.0, 5.2) for boys, 2.9 (1.9, 4.6) for girls, and 6.2 (2.2, 17.2) for overfat. For VG use, the OR were 1.8 (1.1, 3.1) for boys, 3.5 (2.1, 5.8) for girls, and 1.9 (0.6, 6.1) for overfat. TV viewing and VG use are moderately stable throughout childhood and predictive of later behavior. TV viewing appears to be more stable in younger children than VG use and more predictive of later behavior. Since habitual patterns of sedentarism in young children tend to continue to adolescence, early intervention strategies, particularly to reduce TV viewing, are warranted.
Jackson, K G
TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book presents an extensive examination of the basic television standards and broadcasting spectrum. It discusses the fundamental concepts in analogue and digital circuit theory. It addresses studies in the engineering mathematics, formulas, and calculations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the conductors and insulators, passive components, alternating current circuits; broadcast transmission; radio frequency propagation; electron optics in cathode ray tube; color encoding and decoding systems; television transmitters; and remote supervision of unatten
P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); D. Geerts (David)
textabstractIn recent years social networking and social interactions have challenged old conceptions in the media landscape. Web applications that offer video content, connected television sets and set-top boxes, tablets and smartphones as second screens, and online TV widgets have radically
Cathlena Martin explores in her paper "Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization" selected children's video games. Martin argues that children's video games often act as reinforcement for the games' television and film counterparts and their racializing characteristics and features. In Martin's analysis the video games discussed represent media through which to analyze racial identities and ideologies. In making the case for positive female minority leads in children's video games, ...
Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.
Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)
Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael
Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.
José Borja ARJONA MARTÍN
Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the last five years of audiovisual content distribution over the web, this paper is focused on a study aimed at the description and classification of a wide sample of audiovisual initiatives whose access is carried out by means of the World Wide Web. The purpose of this study is to promote the debate concerning the different names of these incipient media, as well as their categorization and description so that an organised universe of the WebTV phenomenon could be provided. An analysis of formats and content is carried out on the basis of quantitative techniques in order to propose a categorization typology. These formats and content will be studied under three key variables: "Content", "Origin" and "Domain .tv". "Content" will help us define the programmatic lines of our study sample; “Source” refers to the source of a particular item of study (“Native WebTV or WebTV representative of a conventional media and "Domain.tv" will specify the proportion of case studies hosted with domain .tv. The results obtained in this study will offer the researchers and the professionals a comprehensive description of the models currently adopted in the field of video and television on the net.
Harmon, Mark D.; White, Candace
Examines actual use in television news broadcasts of video news releases (VNRs). Finds that all sizes of markets were likely to use VNRs. Finds that the most common use was as a voice-over story in an early evening newscast, and that VNRs associated with children and their safety or health got the greatest number of uses. (SR)
This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...
Funk, Jeanne B
The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.
Robinson, T N; Chen, H L; Killen, J D
Alcohol use is frequently portrayed in television programming and advertising. Exposure to media portrayals of alcohol use may lead to increased drinking. To address this issue, we examined prospectively the associations between media exposure and alcohol use in adolescents. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Six public high schools in San Jose, California. Participants. Ninth-grade students (N = 1533; mean age = 14.6 years). Students reported hours of television, music video, and videotape viewing; computer and video game use; and lifetime and past 30 days' alcohol use at baseline and 18 months later. Associations between baseline media exposure and subsequent alcohol use were examined with multiple logistic regression. During the 18-month follow-up, 36.2% of baseline nondrinkers began drinking and 50.7% of baseline drinkers continued to drink. Onset of drinking was significantly associated with baseline hours of television viewing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01-1.18), music video viewing (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1. 17-1.47), and videotape viewing (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.99), controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, and other media use. Computer and video game use was not significantly associated with the subsequent onset of drinking. Among baseline drinkers, there were no significant associations between baseline media use and maintenance of drinking. Increased television and music video viewing are risk factors for the onset of alcohol use in adolescents. Attempts to prevent adolescent alcohol use should address the adverse influences of alcohol use in the media.
Ivarsson, Malena; Anderson, Martin; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Lindblad, Frank
To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ('third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming--during playing and during the following night--suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer
Huang, Ching-Chung; Lin, Pei-Huo; Lin, Yu-Ming; Weng, Pao-Shan.
This paper deals with the X-radiation from television receivers and video display terminals. The bremsstrahlung production rate was calculated according to the thick target theory, and the transmitted X-radiation was measured by the spectrometry method. The calculated and the measured results were compared and discussed. In addition, evidences were shown that only the highest energy component of the bremsstrahlung can penetrate the cathode ray tube. (author)
Full Text Available Emerging in the UK in the 1980s, Scratch Video established a paradoxical union of mass-media critique, Left-wing politics, and music-video and advertising aesthetics with its use of moving-image appropriation in the medium of videotape. Enabled by innovative professional and consumer video technologies, artists like George Barber, The Gorilla Tapes, and Sandra Goldbacher and Kim Flitcroft deployed a style characterized by the rapid sampling and manipulation of dissociated images drawn from broadcast television. Inspired by the cut-up methods of William Burroughs and the audio sampling practiced by contemporary black American musicians, these artists developed strategies for intervening in the audiovisual archive of television and disseminating its images in new contexts: in galleries and nightclubs, and on home video. Reconceptualizing video's “body,” Scratch's appropriation of televisual images of the human form imagined a new hybrid image of the post-industrial body, a “third body” representing a new convergence of human and machine.
Hmayda, Mounira; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad
Automatic identification of television programs in the TV stream is an important task for operating archives. This article proposes a new spatio-temporal approach to identify the programs in TV stream into two main steps: First, a reference catalogue for video features visual jingles built. We operate the features that characterize the instances of the same program type to identify the different types of programs in the flow of television. The role of video features is to represent the visual invariants for each visual jingle using appropriate automatic descriptors for each television program. On the other hand, programs in television streams are identified by examining the similarity of the video signal for visual grammars in the catalogue. The main idea of the identification process is to compare the visual similarity of the video signal features in the flow of television to the catalogue. After presenting the proposed approach, the paper overviews encouraging experimental results on several streams extracted from different channels and compounds of several programs.
Porter, Guy; Starcevic, Vladan
The aim of this paper is to revisit the controversial issue of the association of violent video games and aggressive behaviour. Several lines of evidence suggest that there is a link between exposure to violent video games and aggressive behaviour. However, methodological shortcomings of research conducted so far make several interpretations of this relationship possible. Thus, aggressive behaviour may be a consequence of playing violent video games, an expression of hostile traits that existed before exposure to these games, and/or it may be a result of several possible combinations of these and other factors. Mental health professionals need to be aware of these potentially negative effects of violent video games when assessing patients who present with aggression. There is a need for prospective, long-term studies similar to those evaluating the effects of television and film violence on children and adolescents.
Bowes, David R.
Video clips are an excellent way to enhance lecture material. Television commercials are a source of video examples that should not be overlooked and they are readily available on the internet. They are familiar, short, self-contained, constantly being created, and often funny. This paper describes several examples of television commercials that…
... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 79 [CG Docket No. 05-231; ET Docket No. 99-254; FCC 08-255] Closed Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television... Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television Receivers, Declaratory...
Falbe, Jennifer; Willett, Walter C; Rosner, Bernard; Gortmaker, Steve L; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Field, Alison E
Youth spend more time with screens than any activity except sleeping. Screen time is a risk factor for obesity, possibly because of the influence of food and beverage advertising on diet. We sought to assess longitudinal relations of screen time [ie, television, electronic games, digital versatile discs (DVDs)/videos, and total screen time] with the 2-y changes in consumption of foods of low nutritional quality (FLNQ) that are commonly advertised on screens [ie, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food, sweets, salty snacks, and the sum of these foods (total FLNQ)] and fruit and vegetables. With the use of 2004, 2006, and 2008 waves of the Growing Up Today Study II, which consisted of a cohort of 6002 female and 4917 male adolescents aged 9-16 y in 2004, we assessed screen time (change and baseline) in relation to the 2-y dietary changes. Regression models included 4604 girls and 3668 boys with complete screen time and diet data on ≥2 consecutive questionnaires. Each hour-per-day increase in television, electronic games, and DVDs/videos was associated with increased intake of total FLNQ (range: 0.10-0.28 servings/d; P food, sweets, and salty snacks (range: 0.02-0.06 servings/d; P food groups and in sensitivity analyses, television was most consistently associated with dietary changes. Increases in screen time were associated with increased consumption of foods and beverages of low nutritional quality and decreased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Our results caution against excessive use of screen media, especially television, in youth. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G; da Silva, A M; Ricci, S; Binnie, C D; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; Segers, J P
With the introduction of Nintendo video-games on a large scale, reports of children having seizures while playing suggested a possible specific, provocative factor. Although 50% of the photosensitive patients are also sensitive to a 50-Hz television, nonphotosensitive patients with a history of video-game seizures were described as well. The question arises whether this is a mere coincidence, provoked by fatigue and stress, is related to the reaction to the television screen itself, or depends on the movement and color of the pictures of this specific game. A European study was performed in four countries and five sites. All patients were selected because of a history of television, video- or computer-game seizures, with a history of sun-light-, discotheque-, or black and white pattern-evoked seizures, or were already known to be sensitive to intermittent photic stimulation. A total of 387 patients were investigated; 220 (75%) were female and 214 (55%) of those were video- or computer-game seizure, were significantly more sensitive to pattern and to the 50-Hz television (chi square, p video- or computer game, 14% proved not to be photosensitive. Although no difference in age or use of medication was found, twice as many men were found in this nonphotosensitive group.
Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Cortis, Cristina; Casella, Rita; Camilleri, Enrica; Pesce, Caterina
This study aimed at determining the amount of Italian television coverage dedicated to men's and women's sport and the number of male and female viewers during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games. AUDITEL-AGB Nielsen Media Research Italia provided the TV airtime data for the sport events broadcast, which were classified into three categories: men-only,…
... description services for television are provided on a secondary audio stream, and typically a consumer can... box. The Commission recently adopted rules requiring apparatus that is designed to receive, play back, or record video programming transmitted simultaneously with sound to make secondary audio streams...
Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.
The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de
Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen
In an effort to more accurately determine nationwide energy consumption, the U.S. Department of Energy has recently commissioned studies with the goal of improving its understanding of the energy use of appliances in the miscellaneous end-use category. This study presents an estimate of the residential energy consumption of two of the most common domestic appliances in the miscellaneous end-use category: color televisions (TVs) and video cassette recorders (VCRs). The authors used a bottom-up approach in estimating national TV and VCR energy consumption. First, they obtained estimates of stock and usage from national surveys, while TV and VCR power measurements and other data were recorded at repair and retail shops. Industry-supplied shipment and sales distributions were then used to minimize bias in the power measurement samples. To estimate national TV and VCR energy consumption values, ranges of power draw and mode usage were created to represent situations in homes with more than one unit. Average energy use values for homes with one unit, two units, etc. were calculated and summed to provide estimates of total national TV and VCR energy consumption.
The success of the television adaptation of Game of Thrones marks a crucial transitional moment in the relationship between cult audiences and the global élite associated with ‘quality television’. By looking not only at the specific changes made to the novels as they were adapted for television,
Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah
From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.
Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah
From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.
Corporate television suffers from at least two "identity crises": departmental isolation, and the lack of a legitimate identity for the corporate video product itself. Video departments are not usually viewed and accepted by the organizational whole as natural evolutions of a historically defined and behaviorally integrated system. The…
The developments in the last ten years in the form of DVD, streaming video, video on demand, interactive television and digital language laboratories call for an assessment of the research into language teaching and learning making use of these technologies and the learning paradigms underpinning them. This paper surveys research on language…
Sotnik, A. V.; Yarishev, S. N.; Korotaev, V. V.
Video data require a very large memory capacity. Optimal ratio quality / volume video encoding method is one of the most actual problem due to the urgent need to transfer large amounts of video over various networks. The technology of digital TV signal compression reduces the amount of data used for video stream representation. Video compression allows effective reduce the stream required for transmission and storage. It is important to take into account the uncertainties caused by compression of the video signal in the case of television measuring systems using. There are a lot digital compression methods. The aim of proposed work is research of video compression influence on the measurement error in television systems. Measurement error of the object parameter is the main characteristic of television measuring systems. Accuracy characterizes the difference between the measured value abd the actual parameter value. Errors caused by the optical system can be selected as a source of error in the television systems measurements. Method of the received video signal processing is also a source of error. Presence of error leads to large distortions in case of compression with constant data stream rate. Presence of errors increases the amount of data required to transmit or record an image frame in case of constant quality. The purpose of the intra-coding is reducing of the spatial redundancy within a frame (or field) of television image. This redundancy caused by the strong correlation between the elements of the image. It is possible to convert an array of image samples into a matrix of coefficients that are not correlated with each other, if one can find corresponding orthogonal transformation. It is possible to apply entropy coding to these uncorrelated coefficients and achieve a reduction in the digital stream. One can select such transformation that most of the matrix coefficients will be almost zero for typical images . Excluding these zero coefficients also
Fylan, F; Harding, G F; Edson, A S; Webb, R M
We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying video-game epilepsy by comparing the flicker- and spatial-frequency ranges over which photic and pattern stimulation elicited photoparoxysmal responses in two different populations: (a) 25 patients with a history of seizures experienced while playing video games; and (b) 25 age- and medication-matched controls with a history of photosensitive epilepsy, but no history of video-game seizures. Abnormality ranges were determined by measuring photoparoxysmal EEG abnormalities as a function of the flicker frequency of patterned and diffuse intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and the spatial frequency of patterns on a raster display. There was no significant difference between the groups in respect of the abnormality ranges elicited by patterned or diffuse IPS or by spatial patterns. When the groups were compared at one specific IPS frequency (-50 Hz), however, the flicker frequency of European television displays, the video-game patients were significantly more likely to be sensitive. The results suggest that video-game seizures are a manifestation of photosensitive epilepsy. The increased sensitivity of video-game patients to IPS at 50 Hz indicates that display flicker may underlie video-game seizures. The similarity in photic- and pattern-stimulation ranges over which abnormalities are elicited in video-game patients and controls suggests that all patients with photosensitive epilepsy may be predisposed toward video-game-induced seizures. Photosensitivity screening should therefore include assessment by using both IPS at 50 Hz and patterns displayed on a television or monitor with a 50-Hz frame rate.
Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G A; Martins da Silva, A; Ricci, S; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; Lopes, J; Bettencourt, M; Oosting, J; Segers, J P
Video game seizures have been reported in photosensitive and non-photosensitive patients with epilepsy. The game Super Mario World, has led to many cases of first seizures. We examined whether this game was indeed more provocative than other programs and whether playing the game added to this effect. We prospectively investigated 352 patients in four European cities, using a standard protocol including testing of a variety of visual stimuli. We correlated historical data on provocative factors in daily life with electroencephalographic laboratory findings. The video game, Super Mario World proved more epileptogenic than standard TV programs and as provocative as programs with flashing lights and patterns. Most striking was the fact that video game-viewing and-playing on the 50 and 100 Hz TV was significantly more provocative than viewing the standard program (P video game Mario World on a 50 Hz TV, appeared to be significantly more provocative than playing this game on the 100 Hz TV (P Children and adolescents with a history of video game seizures are, in the vast majority, photosensitive and should be investigated with standardised photic stimulation. Games and programs with bright background or flashing images are specifically provocative. Playing a video game on a 100 Hz TV is less provocative [published with videosequences].
Full Text Available Background: Insufficient sleep or poor sleep quality affect learning, memory and performance and cause behavioral disorders. Watching television (TV, using computer and internet, playing computer games, and caffeine intake are of factors affecting sleep quality. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality with watching TV, computer games and caffeine intake in adolescents of Minoodar district, Qazvin41T. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 319 adolescents (10 to 18 years old that were selected by multistage cluster random sampling method during 2010-2011. Demographic data and data on duration of playing computer games and watching TV were collected. Food frequency questionnaire and BEARS questionnaire were completed. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, logistic regression analysis and ANOVA. Findings:Mean age was15±2.43 years41T. Of 319 adolescents, 162 (50.8% were female41T. The duration of watching TV or video41T was not significantly different41T between boys and girls. The duration of playing computer or video games41T was statistically different41T between boys and girls. There was no correlation between sleep quality and duration of watching TV or videos in a day, duration of playing computer or video games in a day, and caffeine intake in adolescents. Conclusions: With regards to the results, it seems that there is no association between sleep quality and watching TV, playing computer games and caffeine intake.
Harris, Michael S.
Little empirical research exists in terms of how colleges and universities create their institutional image and brand. In this chapter, the author explores the notion of branding within the context of higher education--and how intercollegiate athletics contributes to it--analyzing the messages universities conveyed during nationally televised bowl…
Serious Games: Video game design techniques for academic and commercial communication, by Christian Bull-Hansen, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Norway. Traditional academic and commercial communication sources, like schools and television, are losing ground to video games. People of all ages spend increasingly more time engaged in virtual worlds and on the Internet, and are becoming used to actively pursuing the information they want to know more about, while rejecting the...
Yu, Yiqing; Liu, Huayong; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Dongru
In this paper, we propose content-based video retrieval, which is a kind of retrieval by its semantical contents. Because video data is composed of multimodal information streams such as video, auditory and textual streams, we describe a strategy of using multimodal analysis for automatic parsing sports video. The paper first defines the basic structure of sports video database system, and then introduces a new approach that integrates visual stream analysis, speech recognition, speech signal processing and text extraction to realize video retrieval. The experimental results for TV sports video of football games indicate that the multimodal analysis is effective for video retrieval by quickly browsing tree-like video clips or inputting keywords within predefined domain.
Field or frame memories are often used in television receivers for video signal processing functions, such as noise reduction and/or flicker reduction. Television receivers also have graphic features such as teletext, menu-driven control systems, multilingual subtitling, an electronic TV-Guide, etc.
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer
We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...... in which 25 educators as part of a digital fabrication and design program were able to critically reflect on their teaching practice....
Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie
To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.
abstractEmerging in the UK in the 1980s, Scratch Video established a paradoxical union of mass-media critique, Left-wing politics, and music-video and advertising aesthetics with its use of moving-image appropriation in the medium of videotape. Enabled by innovative professional and consumer video
Sherman, Barry L.; Dominick, Joseph R.
Describes a study measuring the amount and kind of violence and sex presented in prime time music videos during a seven-week period. Compares sex and violence on music television to known data on conventional TV. (MS)
Full Text Available Background: Sleep plays an important role in health. Reduced levels of attention, learning and memory are of adverse outcomes of sleep disorders in students. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep disturbances with watching TV and satellite and playing video games in 14-17 years old high school students of Qazvin. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 653 high school students (14-17 years old in Qazvin that were selected by multistage cluster random sampling method (2013-2014. Data were collected through Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ and BEARS questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, T-test, ANOVA and logistic regression analysis. Findings: From 653 students, 392 (60% were female. The mean age was 15.73±0.99 years. The most prevalent sleep disturbances were waking up at night (74.4%, daytime sleepiness (69.8%, napping after school (66.6%, and nightmare (51.1%, respectively. Daytime sleepiness, nightmares, sleep after waking up, falling asleep in school, and nap after school time had significant association with watching satellite. Conclusion: With regards to the results, prevalence of sleep disorders was high in high school students of Qazvin and sleep disturbances were associated with duration of watching satellite.
Kojima, Kazuhiko; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Hisada, Kinichi.
Images are very useful to obtain diagnostic informations in medical fields. Also by superimposing two or three images obtained from the same patient, various informations, for example a degree of overlapping and anatomical land mark, which can not be found in only one image, can be often found. In this paper characteristics of our trial color television system for the purpose of superimposing x-ray images and/or radionuclide images are described. This color television system superimposing two images in each different color consists of two monochromatic vidicon cameras and 20 inches conventional color television in which only two simple video amplifier circuits are added. Signals from vidicon cameras are amplified about 40 dB and are directly applied to cathode terminals of color CRT in the television. This system is very simple and economical color displays, and enhance a degree of overlapping and displacement between images. As one of typical clinical applications, pancreas images were superimposed in color by this method. As a result, size and position of pancreas was enhanced. Also x-ray image and radionuclide image were superimposed to find exactly the position of tumors. Furthermore this system was very useful for color display of multinuclides scintigraphy. (author)
Kojima, K; Hiraki, T; Koshida, K; Maekawa, R [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Hisada, K
Images are very useful to obtain diagnostic informations in medical fields. Also by superimposing two or three images obtained from the same patient, various informations, for example a degree of overlapping and anatomical land mark, which can not be found in only one image, can be often found. In this paper characteristics of our trial color television system for the purpose of superimposing x-ray images and/or radionuclide images are described. This color television system superimposing two images in each different color consists of two monochromatic vidicon cameras and 20 inches conventional color television in which only two simple video amplifier circuits are added. Signals from vidicon cameras are amplified about 40 dB and are directly applied to cathode terminals of color CRT in the television. This system is very simple and economical color displays, and enhance a degree of overlapping and displacement between images. As one of typical clinical applications, pancreas images were superimposed in color by this method. As a result, size and position of pancreas was enhanced. Also x-ray image and radionuclide image were superimposed to find exactly the position of tumors. Furthermore this system was very useful for color display of multinuclides scintigraphy.
Sherry, John L.
Cumulates findings across existing empirical research on the effects of violent video games to estimate overall effect size and discern important trends and moderating variables. Suggests there is a smaller effect of violent video games on aggression than has been found with television violence on aggression. (SG)
Munoz, Yupanqui J.; El-Hani, Charbel N.
Video games, as technological and cultural artifacts of considerable influence in the contemporary society, play an important role in the construction of identities, just as other artifacts (e.g., books, newspapers, television) played for a long time. In this paper, we discuss this role by considering video games under two concepts, othering and…
Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio.......This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...
Watching television and using other forms of media such as video games, computers, print, music and movies takes up a surprisingly large amount of our children’s time. U.S. children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleep. According to a recent nationwide report on c...
Smart TVs have been becoming more popular in recent years. They are not entirely new devices, they are rather traditional TVs with current technology and increased functionality. In addition to streaming traditional broadcast content, Smart TVs facilitate access to Internet content and services. Thus, different Internet functionality on Smart TVs is available. For instance, Facebook, different video on demand services or online games. Some Internet functionality can access and uti...
Smart TVs have been becoming more popular in recent years. They are not entirely new devices, they are rather traditional TVs with current technology and increased functionality. In addition to streaming traditional broadcast content, Smart TVs facilitate access to Internet content and services. Thus, different Internet functionality on Smart TVs is available. For instance, Facebook, different video on demand services or online games. Some Internet functionality can access and uti...
Rabinowitz Terry; Chan Philip A
Abstract Background Excessive use of the Internet has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the relationship between video games and ADHD symptoms in adolescents is unknown. Method A survey of adolescents and parents (n = 72 adolescents, 72 parents) was performed assessing daily time spent on the Internet, television, console video games, and Internet video games, and their association with academic and social functioning. Subjects were high school students...
Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna
The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents.
Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah
As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…
L. T. Jordanova
Full Text Available The paper deals with investigations carried out to increase the effectiveness of video-on-demand (VoD systems when cable television networks are used. A comparative analysis of the existing VoD architectures is made with respect to the equipment cost and the traffic load over the central transport network. Through statistical studies the main characteristics of a particular hybrid VoD are determined (such as twenty-four-hour distribution of the video traffic, average inter-arrival time of the VoD requests, average duration of video streams demanded, movies distribution according to the subscribers’ preferences. An algorithm for the videocontent flexible distribution among the distribution hubs is suggested. Thus a higher effectiveness of the system is achieved without significantly increasing the equipment cost.
Bègue, Laurent; Sarda, Elisa; Gentile, Douglas A; Bry, Clementine; Roché, Sebastian
Research has indicated that many video games are saturated with stereotypes of women and that these contents may cultivate sexism. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between video game exposure and sexism for the first time in a large and representative sample. Our aim was also to measure the strength of this association when two other significant and well-studied sources of sexism, television exposure and religiosity, were also included in a multivariate model. A representative sample of 13520 French youth aged 11-19 years completed a survey measuring weekly video game and television exposure, religiosity, and sexist attitudes toward women. Controlling for gender and socioeconomic level, results showed that video game exposure and religiosity were both related to sexism. Implications of these results for future research on sexism in video games are discussed.
Mark J. P. Wolf
Full Text Available This essay asks how religion and theological ideas might be made manifest in video games, and particularly the creation of video games as a religious activity, looking at contemplative experiences in video games, and the creation and world-building of game worlds as a form of Tolkienian subcreation, which itself leads to contemplation regarding the creation of worlds.
Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A
The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.
Dworak, Markus; Schierl, Thomas; Bruns, Thomas; Strüder, Heiko Klaus
Television and computer game consumption are a powerful influence in the lives of most children. Previous evidence has supported the notion that media exposure could impair a variety of behavioral characteristics. Excessive television viewing and computer game playing have been associated with many psychiatric symptoms, especially emotional and behavioral symptoms, somatic complaints, attention problems such as hyperactivity, and family interaction problems. Nevertheless, there is insufficient knowledge about the relationship between singular excessive media consumption on sleep patterns and linked implications on children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of singular excessive television and computer game consumption on sleep patterns and memory performance of children. Eleven school-aged children were recruited for this polysomnographic study. Children were exposed to voluntary excessive television and computer game consumption. In the subsequent night, polysomnographic measurements were conducted to measure sleep-architecture and sleep-continuity parameters. In addition, a visual and verbal memory test was conducted before media stimulation and after the subsequent sleeping period to determine visuospatial and verbal memory performance. Only computer game playing resulted in significant reduced amounts of slow-wave sleep as well as significant declines in verbal memory performance. Prolonged sleep-onset latency and more stage 2 sleep were also detected after previous computer game consumption. No effects on rapid eye movement sleep were observed. Television viewing reduced sleep efficiency significantly but did not affect sleep patterns. The results suggest that television and computer game exposure affect children's sleep and deteriorate verbal cognitive performance, which supports the hypothesis of the negative influence of media consumption on children's sleep, learning, and memory.
Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion
Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms.
Ferguson, Christopher J
The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth.
Mathews, Christine L; Morrell, Holly E R; Molle, Jon E
Up to 23% of people who play video games report symptoms of addiction. Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at increased risk for video game addiction, especially when playing games with more reinforcing properties. The current study tested whether level of video game reinforcement (type of game) places individuals with greater ADHD symptom severity at higher risk for developing video game addiction. Adult video game players (N = 2,801; Mean age = 22.43, SD = 4.70; 93.30% male; 82.80% Caucasian) completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were used to test type of game, ADHD symptom severity, and the interaction between type of game and ADHD symptomatology as predictors of video game addiction severity, after controlling for age, gender, and weekly time spent playing video games. ADHD symptom severity was positively associated with increased addiction severity (b = .73 and .68, ps .05. The relationship between ADHD symptom severity and addiction severity did not depend on the type of video game played or preferred most, ps > .05. Gamers who have greater ADHD symptom severity may be at greater risk for developing symptoms of video game addiction and its negative consequences, regardless of type of video game played or preferred most. Individuals who report ADHD symptomatology and also identify as gamers may benefit from psychoeducation about the potential risk for problematic play.
Burgess, Stephen R.; Stermer, Steven Paul; Burgess, Melinda C. R.
The relations between media consumption, especially TV viewing, and school performance have been extensively examined. However, even though video game playing may have replaced TV viewing as the most frequent form of media usage, relatively little research has examined its relations to school performance, especially in older students. We surveyed…
Almost from its birth, the computer and video gaming industry has done an admirable job of communicating the vision and attempting to convey the experience of traveling through space to millions of gamers from all cultures and demographics. This paper will propose several approaches the 100 Year Starship Study can take to use the power of interactive media to stir interest in the Starship and related projects among a global population. It will examine successful gaming franchises from the past that are relevant to the mission and consider ways in which the Starship Study could cooperate with game development studios to bring the Starship vision to those franchises and thereby to the public. The paper will examine ways in which video games can be used to crowd-source research aspects for the Study, and how video games are already considering many of the same topics that will be examined by this Study. Finally, the paper will propose some mechanisms by which the 100 Year Starship Study can establish very close ties with the gaming industry and foster cooperation in pursuit of the Study's goals.
Funk, Jeanne B.; Buchman, Debra D.
Reviews the literature on: (1) health-related effects of video games (VGs), including seizures, physiologic responses, and musculoskeletal injuries; (2) eye-hand coordination in VGs; (3) psychological adjustment related to VGs, including possible psychopathologies and violence-related effects; and (4) the educational impact of VGs. Also examines…
Denikin Anton A.
Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.
Potvin Kent, Monique; Velkers, Clive
To examine the volume of television toy advertising targeting Canadian children and to determine if it promotes active or sedentary play, targets males or females more frequently, and has changed over time. Data for toy/game advertising from 27 television stations in Toronto for the month of May in 2006 and 2013 were licensed from Neilsen Media Research (Montreal, Quebec, Canada). A content analysis was performed on all ads to determine what age group and gender were targeted and whether physical or sedentary activity was being promoted. Comparisons were made between 2006 and 2013. There were 3.35 toy ads/h/children's specialty station in 2013 (a 15% increase from 2006). About 88% of toy ads promoted sedentary play in 2013, a 27% increase from 2006 levels, while toy ads promoting active play decreased by 33%. In both 2006 and 2013, a greater number of sedentary toy ads targeted males (n = 1519, May 2006; n = 2030, May 2013) compared with females (n = 914, May 2006; n = 1619, May 2013), and between 2006 and 2013, these ads increased significantly for both males and females. Future research should explore whether such advertising influences children's preferences for activities and levels of physical activity.
Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja
Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…
The entire broadcast television industry is the subject of this book. An attempt is made to present history, theory, and anecdotes about television programing, television advertising, television and politics, and network news, focusing all the while on American television, but with consideration given to alternative structures and methods.…
The purpose of this Thesis is to study women as video game consumers through the games that they play. This was done by case studies on the content of five video games from genres that statistically are popular amongst women. To introduce the topic and to build the theoretical framework, the key terms and the video game industry are introduced. The reader is acquainted with theories on consumer behaviour, buying processes and factors that influence our consuming habits. These aspects are...
Rechichi, Caterina; De Mojà, Gilda; Aragona, Pasquale
To examine a possible relationship between exposure to video games/electronic screens and visual issues in children between 3 and 10 years of age. An observational, cross-sectional study of a population of children using video games was employed. All patients between 3 and 10 years of age were recruited at an outpatient unit accredited by the Italian Regional Health Service. Three hundred twenty children (159 boys and 161 girls; mean age = 6.9 ± 2 years) were observed. Ophthalmological examination included assessment of stereoscopic vision on Lang-Stereotests I and II (LANG-STEREOTEST AG, Küsnacht, Switzerland) and identification of the dominant eye using the Dolman method. Furthermore, a questionnaire was used to record asthenopic symptoms and daily exposure to video games and electronic screens. Two groups of children were examined according to the average amount of time spent playing video games daily: children who played video games for less than 30 minutes per day and not every day (control group) and children who played video games for 30 minutes or more every day (video game group). Both groups were then divided into two subgroups: children using other types of electronic screens (eg, televisions, computers, tablets, and smartphones) for less than 3 hours daily (low electronic use subgroup) and children using other types of electronic screens for 3 hours or more per day (high electronic use subgroup). Asthenopia (especially headache, eyelid tic, transient diplopia, and dizziness), absence of fine stereopsis, and refractive errors were statistically more frequent (mainly in the dominant eye) in children in the video game group. These symptoms were frequent and peculiar in the video game group and might be part of a video game vision syndrome that has not been defined yet. It is important to recognize these signs as possible functional disorders to avoid erroneous diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017
Afiouni, Einar Nour; Øvrelid, Leif Julian
This project aims to examine the possibilities of using game theoretic concepts and multi-agent systems in modern video games with real time demands. We have implemented a multi-issue negotiation system for the strategic video game Civilization IV, evaluating different negotiation techniques with a focus on the use of opponent modeling to improve negotiation results.
The Video Game Development program is designed and developed by leaders in the Austin video game development industry, under the direction of the ACC Video Game Advisory Board. Courses are taught by industry video game developers for those who want to become video game developers. The program offers a comprehensive approach towards learning what's…
Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G
There is great concern about the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. The present experimental study was aimed at investigating the differential effects of actively playing vs. passively watching the same violent video game on subsequent aggressive behavior. Fifty-seven children aged 10-13 either played a violent video game (active violent condition), watched the same violent video game (passive violent condition), or played a non-violent video game (active non-violent condition). Aggression was measured through peer nominations of real-life aggressive incidents during a free play session at school. After the active participation of actually playing the violent video game, boys behaved more aggressively than did the boys in the passive game condition. For girls, game condition was not related to aggression. These findings indicate that, specifically for boys, playing a violent video game should lead to more aggression than watching television violence. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin
Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.
Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O
Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to 18 years of age). Parents of these children reported on (1) whether they had specific rules regulating their child's video game use, (2) whether their child had in-room access to a variety of screen-based media devices (television, computer, and video game console), and (3) their child's oppositional behaviors. Multivariate regression models showed that in-room access to a video game console predicted oppositional behavior while controlling for in-room access to other media devices (computer and television) and relevant variables (e.g. average number of video game hours played per day). Additionally, the association between in-room access to a video game console and oppositional behavior was particularly large when parents reported no rules on their child's video game use. The current findings indicate that both access and parental rules regarding video games warrant future experimental and longitudinal research as they relate to problem behavior in boys with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.
Graf, Diana L; Pratt, Lauren V; Hester, Casey N; Short, Kevin R
To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.
This diploma work focus on analysing the markets and marketing of video game industry. After the research of this study, I found out that console game markets are growing dramatically in the recent years. On the other hand, PC game markets (excluding online game markets) are growing slowly due to the problem of illegal copies. So my study will then focus on the development of console game markets and marketing. A new concept called Three Parties is introduced in chapter 5 to help ...
Recognizing the multiplatform and individualized video viewing environment, this study conducted focus groups to delve into reasons behind the choice and use of television over other types of video platforms, and the motives for using social television. The results suggest that the focus group participants feel affection for television as a medium itself — a feeling that is independent of the content available on television. The motives for seeking social television include a sense of communi...
The growing interest in video gaming is matched by a corresponding increase in concerns about the harmful effects on children and adolescents. There are numerous studies on aggression and addiction which spark debates on the negative effects of video gaming. At the same time, there are also studies demonstrating prosocial effects. This paper…
Johnson, Mark M.
The Smithsonian American Art Museum has created and will tour an exhibition on a most unusual but extremely popular art form--"The Art of Video Games." As one of the largest and first of its type, this exhibition will document and explore a 40-year evolution of video games as an artistic medium, with a focus on striking visual effects and the…
Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill; Zerebecki, Chris; Tawadrous, Mina; Stanfield, Brodie; Hogue, Urszula
With television manufacturers developing low-cost stereoscopic 3D displays, a large number of consumers will undoubtedly have access to 3D-capable televisions at home. The availability of 3D technology places the onus on content creators to develop interesting and engaging content. While the technology of stereoscopic displays and content generation are well understood, there are many questions yet to be answered surrounding its effects on the viewer. Effects of stereoscopic display on passive viewers for film are known, however video games are fundamentally different since the viewer/player is actively (rather than passively) engaged in the content. Questions of how stereoscopic viewing affects interaction mechanics have previously been studied in the context of player performance but very few have attempted to quantify the player experience to determine whether stereoscopic 3D has a positive or negative influence on their overall engagement. In this paper we present a preliminary study of the effects stereoscopic 3D have on player engagement in video games. Participants played a video game in two conditions, traditional 2D and stereoscopic 3D and their engagement was quantified using a previously validated self-reporting tool. The results suggest that S3D has a positive effect on immersion, presence, flow, and absorption.
Rushing, Mary E; Sheehan, Daniel J; Davis, Loretta S
Controversy and concern surround the video game playing fascination of children. Scientific reports have explored the negative effects of video games on youth, with a growing number recognizing the actual physical implications of this activity. We offer another reason to discourage children's focus on video games: knuckle pads. A 13-year-old black boy presented with an asymptomatic, slightly hyperpigmented plaque over his right second distal interphalangeal joint. A punch biopsy specimen confirmed knuckle pad as the diagnosis, and a traumatic etiology from video game playing was suspected. Knuckle pads can be painful, cosmetically unappealing, and refractory to treatment. They can now be recognized as yet another potential adverse consequence of chronic video game playing.
Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou
Background: Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Methods: Using 2007 National Survey of…
One of the biggest debates among music educators today is about whether or not video games are a valid educational tool. As far back as the early 1990s, teachers were using games such as Sid Meier's Civilization to reinforce history and social studies concepts, but until recently games that dealt with areas of music education have been few and far…
Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal; Ferguson, Christopher; Bean, Anthony
With proposals to include “gaming disorder” in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and International Compendium of Diseases (ICD), the concept of video game addiction has gained traction. However, many aspects of this concept remain controversial. At present, little clarity has been...... achieved regarding diagnostic criteria and appropriate symptoms. It is unclear if symptoms that involve problematic video gaming behavior should be reified as a new disorder, or are the expression of underlying mental conditions. Nonetheless, the recent proposals around gaming disorder from respected...... and necessity of the overarching construct. This raises multiple concerns. First, the current approaches to understanding “gaming addiction” are rooted in substance abuse research and approaches do not necessarily translate to media consumption. Second, some research has indicated that “video game addiction...
Sloane, Kate; Wilson, Nick; Imlach Gunasekara, Fiona
We aimed to: (i) document the extent and nature of alcohol portrayal in televised music videos in New Zealand in 2010; and (ii) assess trends over time by comparing with a similar 2005 sample. We undertook a content analysis for references to alcohol in 861 music videos shown on a youth-orientated television channel in New Zealand. This was compared with a sample in 2005 (564 music videos on the same channel plus sampling from two other channels). The proportion of alcohol content in the music videos was slightly higher in 2010 than for the same channel in the 2005 sample (19.5% vs. 15.7%) but this difference was not statistically significant. Only in the genre 'Rhythm and Blues' was the increase over time significant (P = 0.015). In both studies, the portrayal of alcohol was significantly more common in music videos where the main artist was international (not from New Zealand). Furthermore, in the music videos with alcohol content, at least a third of the time, alcohol was shown being consumed and the main artist was involved with alcohol. In only 2% (in 2005) and 4% (in 2010) of these videos was the tone explicitly negative towards alcohol. In both these studies, the portrayal of alcohol was relatively common in music videos. Nevertheless, there are various ways that policy makers can denormalise alcohol in youth-orientated media such as music videos or to compensate via other alcohol control measures such as higher alcohol taxes. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Metaphors of medicine are common, such as war, which is evident in much of our language about health-care where patients and healthcare professionals fight disease, or the game, which is one way to frame the nurse-doctor professional relationship. This study analyses six pilot episodes of American (Grey's Anatomy, Hawthorne, Mercy, Nurse Jackie) and Australian (All Saints, RAN) medical television programmes premiering between 1998 and 2009 to assess one way that our contemporary culture understands and constructs professional relationships between nurses and doctors. Analysis shows that these popular television programmes frequently depict conflict, with games, civil war and mutiny between nurses and doctors over patient safety rather than professionals working collaboratively in teams to deliver health-care. Although the benefit of this televised conflict is the implication that nurses are knowledgeable, skilled professionals, the negative connotations include a dysfunctional and dangerous healthcare system, and also ongoing power struggles. Given that popular culture can sometimes influence the public's understanding of real-life nursing practice, it is important to explore what these metaphors of conflict are communicating about the nurse-doctor relationship. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
La lectura por placer: su incidencia en el rendimiento académico, las horas de televisión y las horas de videojuegos. The pleasure of reading: its impact on academic achievement, on TV-watching hours and video games-playing hours
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se ha relacionado el gusto y la afición por la lectura y el tiempo que pasan los alumnos viendo la televisión o jugando a videojuegos en los ratos de ocio, y cómo estas variables correlacionan con el rendimiento académico, medido a través de las notas escolares. La muestra ha sido compuesta por un total de 510 alumnos de los tres ciclos de educación primaria de escuelas públicas y privadas españolas. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante cuestionarios dirigidos a los padres. Los resultados han revelado que la lectura por placer correlaciona de forma positiva con las notas académicas y de forma negativa con las horas de visionado de televisión. This paper relates the pleasure and the fondness for reading to the time students spend watching TV or playing video games in their leisure time, and how these correlate with academic performance, measured by school marks. The sample comprised a total of 510 Spanish Primary School students from public and private schools. Data were obtained through questionnaires administered to parents. The results showed that the pleasure of reading mantained significant and positive relationships with academic marks and correlate negatively with television watching hours.
Stroink, H; Dekker, E; Trenité, D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst
Two girls and one boy suffered seizures caused by television and other visual stimuli from 11, 12 and 12 years of age onwards, respectively. EEG recording revealed that intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) provoked epileptiform activity. Technological progress (video games, computer, disco, car, train) has considerably increased the risk for visually-induced seizures. A comprehensive clinical history with special attention to the environmental circumstances is important. For correct diagnosis an EEG with standardised IPS is necessary. Treatment consists of avoidance of strong visual stimuli. Patients may need prophylaxis with valproic acid, which should only be withdrawn after clear reduction of the EEG response to IPS. Repeating the EEG after the dosage has been lowered will help avoiding unnecessary recurrence of seizures.
Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J
Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.
Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A
Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The advancing digitalization and media convergence demands TV broadcasting companies to adjust their content to various platforms and distribution channels. The internet, as convergent carrier medium, is increasingly taking on a central role for additional media. Classical linear TV is still important, but for some audiences it has been developing from a primary medium to a secondary medium. Owing to the growing melding of classical-linear TV contents with online offerings (e.g. video-on-demand platforms or Web–TV, a great dynamic can be seen which has triggered numerous discussions about the future of TV for some time now. This article will summarize the results of two different audience studies. Film and television shows are meanwhile distributed online via Video-on-Demand platforms such as Netflix or Amazon Prime Video. The first audience study has dealt with the use of VoD-platforms in Germany investigating user rituals, user motivation to watch films and TV shows on these platforms, and the meaning of VoD in everyday life. Most of the participants in this study reported that they mainly watch TV drama series at Netflix or Amazon Prime. Therefore, the second audience study focused the online use of television drama series of individuals and couples elaborating the phenomenon of binge watching. In relating the audience practice to the new structures of the television market the article will shed light on the future of television.
Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..
Drummond, D; Tesnière, A; Hadchouel, A
Playing video games has been associated with several negative effects in children. However, serious games, which are video games designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment, should not be neglected by pediatricians. In the field of public health, some serious games are a means to decrease drug consumption and improve sexual health behavior in adolescents. In schools, serious games can be used to change students' perception of the disease of one of their classmates, or to train students on basic life support. Serious games are also used with patients: they can distract them from a painful procedure, increase their compliance to treatments, or participate in their rehabilitation. Finally, serious games allow healthcare professionals to train on the management of various medical situations without risk. For every field of application, this review presents the rationale of the use of video games, followed by concrete examples of video games and the results of their scientific evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
...] Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video...
...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...
Video games are one of the most popular pasttimes of children and youth alike. The research on effects of playing video games reaches back only two decades, and is marred by suboptimal methodologies and conflicting evidence. Still, some cautious conclusions can be drawn from current research. Violent video games increase aggression, but the effect is significantly lower than with tv violence. More recent studies show a larger effect than older ones, suggesting that newer video games with ...
Weintrop, David; Holbert, Nathan; Horn, Michael S.; Wilensky, Uri
Video games offer an exciting opportunity for learners to engage in computational thinking in informal contexts. This paper describes a genre of learning environments called constructionist video games that are especially well suited for developing learners' computational thinking skills. These games blend features of conventional video games with…
A. Avani; Sh. Jalilolghadr; A. Barikani; A. Javadi; S. Shabbidar; M. Javadi
Background: Insufficient sleep or poor sleep quality affect learning, memory and performance and cause behavioral disorders. Watching television (TV), using computer and internet, playing computer games, and caffeine intake are of factors affecting sleep quality. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality with watching TV, computer games and caffeine intake in adolescents of Minoodar district, Qazvin41T. Methods: This cross sectional study was con...
Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon
the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...
Siervo, M; Sabatini, S; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K
Watching television and playing video game being seated represent sedentary behaviours and increase the risk of weight gain and hypertension. We investigated the acute effects of violent and non-violent video-game playing on blood pressure (BP), appetite perception and food preferences. Forty-eight young, normal-weight men (age: 23.1±1.9 years; body mass index: 22.5±1.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a three-arm, randomized trial. Subjects played a violent video game, a competitive, non-violent video game or watched TV for 1 h. Measurements of BP, stress and appetite perception were recorded before a standardized meal (∼300 kcal) and then repeated every 15 min throughout the intervention. Violent video-game playing was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP (Δ±s.d.=+7.5±5.8 mm Hg; P=0.04) compared with the other two groups. Subjects playing violent video games felt less full (P=0.02) and reported a tendency towards sweet food consumption. Video games involving violence appear to be associated with significant effects on BP and appetite perceptions compared with non-violent gaming or watching TV.
Noting that most children living in Australia have access to a television, video games, and computers and are influenced by the content of their viewing and interactive games, this report examines the impact of media violence on young children. Topics discussed include the recognition of violence on television and video/computer games, reasons for…
Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima
Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. Copyright 2015, NMJI.
Full Text Available The expansion of Digital Television and the convergence between conventional broadcasting and television over IP contributed to the gradual increase of the number of available channels and on demand video content. Moreover, the dissemination of the use of mobile devices like laptops, smartphones and tablets on everyday activities resulted in a shift of the traditional television viewing paradigm from the couch to everywhere, anytime from any device. Although this new scenario enables a great improvement in viewing experiences, it also brings new challenges given the overload of information that the viewer faces. Recommendation systems stand out as a possible solution to help a watcher on the selection of the content that best fits his/her preferences. This paper describes a web based system that helps the user navigating on broadcasted and online television content by implementing recommendations based on collaborative and content based filtering. The algorithms developed estimate the similarity between items and users and predict the rating that a user would assign to a particular item (television program, movie, etc.. To enable interoperability between different systems, programs? characteristics (title, genre, actors, etc. are stored according to the TV-Anytime standard. The set of recommendations produced are presented through a Web Application that allows the user to interact with the system based on the obtained recommendations.
Koenitz, H.; Knoller, N.; Nakatsu, R.; Rauterberg, M.; Ciancarini, P.
In iTV and online video, narrative interaction has long been a Holy Grail for both audiences and creators of these digital audiovisual works. On the one hand, interactive digital narrative promises interactors some exciting opportunities: to enter the world of the story, to affect the story and
Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Neumann, G.; Gartner, K.J.
In the frame of the Programme of the Federal Republic of Germany in Support of the International Atomic Energy Agency a prototype TV-link with high tamper resistance has been developed. The paper describes the technical realization of the authentication method for the transmission of video information
Lorenz, R.; Gleich, T.; Gallinat, J.; Kühn, S.
Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors ...
This digest examines data on video game use by children, explains ratings of video game violence, and reviews research on the effects of video games on children and adolescents. A recent study of seventh and eighth graders found that 65% of males and 57% of females played 1 to 6 hours of video games at home per week, and 38% of males and 16% of…
Summerville, Adam James; Snodgrass, Sam; Mateas, Michael; Ontañón, Santiago
Levels are a key component of many different video games, and a large body of work has been produced on how to procedurally generate game levels. Recently, Machine Learning techniques have been applied to video game level generation towards the purpose of automatically generating levels that have the properties of the training corpus. Towards that end we have made available a corpora of video game levels in an easy to parse format ideal for different machine learning and other game AI researc...
Van Zyl, Abraham
This thesis examines the teaching methods used in three successful educational video games with the goal to provide a concise, practical guide for the proper implementation of educational learning into video games. The main source for analysing the teaching methods of educational games in this thesis is James Paul Gee’s book What Video Games Have To Teach Us About Learning And Literacy (2004). Gee expresses 36 learning principles existing in good games (chapter 4.2). This ideology serves ...
Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie
Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Video gaming is prevalent among college students, and researchers have documented negative consequences from some students' excessive video gaming, but the study of past and current parental influence on college student video gaming is limited. This study collected data from college students from several Midwestern U.S. universities using an…
Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena
We argue that video game play may meet Larson's (2000) criteria for fostering initiative in youth, and thus, may be related to positive outcomes such as flow, cooperation, problem solving, and reduced in-group bias. However, developmental and social psychologists examining adolescent video game use have focused heavily on how video games are…
dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Video Games Â Did They Begin at Brookhaven? Additional Web program led to the pioneering development of video games. William Higinbotham William Higinbotham First Pong, now Space Invaders, next Star Castle Â video games have mesmerized children of at all ages
While video gaming has grown immensely as an industry over the last decade, with growing numbers of gamers around the globe, including women, gaming continues to be a very gendered practice. The apparent gender divide in video gaming has caught the attention of both the gaming industry and educators, generating considerable discussion and…
Justesen, Niels; Bontrager, Philip; Togelius, Julian; Risi, Sebastian
In this article, we review recent Deep Learning advances in the context of how they have been applied to play different types of video games such as first-person shooters, arcade games, and real-time strategy games. We analyze the unique requirements that different game genres pose to a deep learning system and highlight important open challenges in the context of applying these machine learning methods to video games, such as general game playing, dealing with extremely large decision spaces...
Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan
To examine whether television viewing, computer game playing or book reading during meals predicts meal skipping with the aim of watching television, playing computer games or reading books (media meal skipping). A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Analyses were controlled for age, gender and BMI. Data were obtained from a random sample of adolescents in Flanders, Belgium. Seven hundred and ten participants aged 12, 14 and 16 years. Of the participants, 11.8 % skipped meals to watch television, 10.5 % skipped meals to play computer games and 8.2 % skipped meals to read books. Compared with those who did not use these media during meals, the risk of skipping meals in order to watch television was significantly higher for those children who watched television during meals (2.9 times higher in those who watched television during at least one meal a day). The risk of skipping meals for computer game playing was 9.5 times higher in those who played computer games weekly or more while eating, and the risk of meal skipping in order to read books was 22.9 times higher in those who read books during meals less than weekly. The more meals the respondents ate with the entire family, the less likely they were to skip meals to watch television. The use of media during meals predicts meal skipping for using that same medium. Family meals appear to be inversely related to meal skipping for television viewing.
Smaldone, Ronald A.; Thompson, Christina M.; Evans, Monica; Voit, Walter
Imagine a class without lessons, tests and homework, but with missions, quests and teamwork. Video games offer an attractive educational platform because they are designed to be fun and engaging, as opposed to traditional approaches to teaching through lectures and assignments.
For use in multimedia or other environments, a virtual pinball/video arcade game displays one or more computer-generated runner elements, runner inject elements, and runner interactivity elements. It has a programmed computer for simulating movement of the runner elements. This is interfered with by
Jones, Marshall B.
Briefly describes the characteristics of video games and discusses some advantages and disadvantages of their use to measure individual abilities. Relevant research is cited in the areas of stabilization with practice, predictive testing, performance testing, testing under extreme conditions, testing brain-injured persons, and differential…
Eirik Evert Elias Jungar
Full Text Available Streaming video games, that is, live broadcasting playing video games on the internet, is incredibly popular. Millions tune into twitch.tv daily to watch eSport tournaments, their favourite streamer, and chat with other viewers. But all is not rosy in the world of streaming games. Recently, some game developers have aggressively exercised their copyright to, firstly, claim part of the streamers’ revenue, and secondly, control the context in which their game is shown. The article analyzes whether game developers have, and should have, such rights under EU copyright law. Reaching the conclusion that video game streams infringe the game developer’s right to communicate their works to the public, I argue that freedom of expression can and should be used to rein in their rights in certain cases. Subjecting the lawfulness of streams to game developers’ good will risks stifling the expressions of streamers. The streamers, their audience, and even the copyright holders, would be worse off for it.
Howarth, Peter A
The visual stimulus provided by a 3-D stereoscopic display differs from that of the real world because the image provided to each eye is produced on a flat surface. The distance from the screen to the eye remains fixed, providing a single focal distance, but the introduction of disparity between the images allows objects to be located geometrically in front of, or behind, the screen. Unlike in the real world, the stimulus to accommodation and the stimulus to convergence do not match. Although this mismatch is used positively in some forms of Orthoptic treatment, a number of authors have suggested that it could negatively lead to the development of asthenopic symptoms. From knowledge of the zone of clear, comfortable, single binocular vision one can predict that, for people with normal binocular vision, adverse symptoms will not be present if the discrepancy is small, but are likely if it is large, and that what constitutes 'large' and 'small' are idiosyncratic to the individual. The accommodation-convergence mismatch is not, however, the only difference between the natural and the artificial stimuli. In the former case, an object located in front of, or behind, a fixated object will not only be perceived as double if the images fall outside Panum's fusional areas, but it will also be defocused and blurred. In the latter case, however, it is usual for the producers of cinema, TV or computer game content to provide an image that is in focus over the whole of the display, and as a consequence diplopic images will be sharply in focus. The size of Panum's fusional area is spatial frequency-dependent, and because of this the high spatial frequencies present in the diplopic 3-D image will provide a different stimulus to the fusion system from that found naturally. © 2011 The College of Optometrists.
Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Rothen, Stephane; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele
Video games are widely practiced. Questions about their potential health risks arise, including the risk of addiction. If there is at present no official diagnosis of video games addiction, the DSM-5 proposes temporary criteria based on pathological gambling. Video game addiction affects a minority of at risk individuals. The proposed treatments are essentially psychotherapeutic. Video games practices can be non problematic and they may also have potential beneficial effects on individuals. It is therefore recommended, when assessing video games practices, to take into account the positive and negative impacts of their use.
Intervention studies show that if children with disabilities play motion-controlled TV and computer games for training purposes their motivation increases and their training becomes more intensive, but why this happens has not been explained. This article addresses this question with the help of ethnographic material from a public project in…
High-school students are a dominant force in the gaming industry, accounting for annual sales in the millions. Retailers devote large areas of commercial space to keep pace with this lucrative part of the entertainment business. Recognizing the popularity of this phenomenon with the younger generation, it proved an ideal vehicle to explore…
Full Text Available Video game accessibility may not seem of significance to some, and it may sound trivial to anyone who does not play video games. This assumption is false. With the digitalization of our culture, video games are an ever increasing part of our life. They contribute to peer to peer interactions, education, music and the arts. A video game can be created by hundreds of musicians and artists, and they can have production budgets that exceed modern blockbuster films. Inaccessible video games are analogous to movie theaters without closed captioning or accessible facilities. The movement to have accessible video games is small, unorganized and misdirected. Just like the other battles to make society accessible were accomplished through legislation and law, the battle for video game accessibility must be focused toward the law and not the market.
Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M
Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for "Teen") by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2%) received only a content descriptor for blood, and 14 game titles
Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Department of Mechanical Engineering
The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD in Malaysia are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the country. With the increasing of overall TV energy consumption, energy efficiency standards are one of highly effective policies for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. Energy efficiency standards are also capable of reducing consumer's electricity bill and contribute towards positive environmental impacts. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy that can be saved in the residential sector by implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for television sets in Malaysia. Over the past 30 years, television ownership in Malaysian residents has increased from 186,036 units in 1970 to 2,741,640 units in 1991. This figure is expected to reach 6,201,316 units in the year 2010. Hence, efficiency improvement for this appliance will have a significant impact on the future of electricity consumption in this country. (author)
Keri A. Schwab
Full Text Available The purpose of this follow-up study was to learn more about the leisure choices, hobbies, and lifestyles of young adults who had grown up without a television. Study participants responded to an online questionnaire that asked about their health, physical activity habits, hobbies, and level of current television viewing. A mixed methods approach to gathering and analyzing data revealed a picture of young adults who live active lives, watch little television, and appear to have a strong sense of personal agency to direct their lives. Themes of agency, including forethought and intentionality, and self-regulation were evident in the qualitative responses, as well as creation and choosing challenging hobbies or activities. This study provided much information for future research to examine the influence of television on youth development, specifically agency, challenge and life-long habits.
Griffiths, MD; Kuss, DJ; King, DL
Gaming addiction has become a topic of increasing research interest. The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in the number of empirical studies examining various aspects of problematic video game play and video game addiction. This paper begins with a brief past history of how research into video game addiction has changed over the last three decades (i.e., the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s). It then examines more thoroughly the contemporary research literature by analyzing the (i) prev...
...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend... television, TV translator, and Class A television station DTV licensees''). The Commission has also revised...
Fernández Gómez, Carlos; Martí Parreño, José
This research presents a work in progress aiming to map Spanish video games developers’ production in the area of mobile educational video games. A sample of 30 Spanish video games developers was analyzed in order to explore the weight that educational video games for mobile devices represents in their product portfolio. Primary findings suggest that Spanish video games developers’ production of educational video games for mobile devices is very scarce. While 23,3% of the analyzed video games...
Full Text Available The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.
Sharma, Bimala; Cosme Chavez, Rosemary; Jeong, Ae Suk; Nam, Eun Woo
The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.
If you are an artificial intelligence researcher, you should look to video games as ideal testbeds for the work you do. If you are a video game developer, you should look to AI for the technology that makes completely new types of games possible. This chapter lays out the case for both of these propositions. It asks the question "what can video games do for AI", and discusses how in particular general video game playing is the ideal testbed for artificial general intelligence research. It the...
Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E
Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imagery in video games (n = 6), video game playing and smoking behavior (n = 11), video game addiction and tobacco addiction (n = 5) and genre-specific game playing and smoking behavior (n = 3). Tobacco content was present in a subset of video games. The literature is inconclusive as to whether exposure to video games as a single construct is associated with smoking behavior. Four of five studies found an association between video game addiction and smoking. For genre-specific game playing, studies suggest that the type of game played affected association with smoking behavior. Research on how playing video games influences adolescents' perceptions of smoking and smoking behaviors is still in its nascence. Further research is needed to understand how adolescents respond to viewing and manipulating tobacco imagery, and whether engaging in game smoking translates into changes in real-world attitudes or behavior. Smoking imagery in video games may contribute to normalizing adolescent smoking. A large body of research has shown that smoking imagery in a variety of media types contributes to adolescent smoking uptake and the normalization of smoking behavior, and almost 90% of adolescents play video games, yet there has never been a published systematic review of the literature on this important topic. This is the first systematic review to examine the research on tobacco and video games.We found that tobacco imagery is indeed present in video games, the relationship between video game playing and smoking
Fulton, Janet E; Wang, Xuewen; Yore, Michelle M; Carlson, Susan A; Galuska, Deborah A; Caspersen, Carl J
To examine the prevalence of television (TV) viewing, computer use, and their combination and associations with demographic characteristics and body mass index (BMI) among U.S. youth. The 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used. Time spent yesterday sitting and watching television or videos (TV viewing) and using the computer or playing computer games (computer use) were assessed by questionnaire. Prevalence (%) of meeting the U.S. objective for TV viewing (< or =2 hours/day) ranged from 65% to 71%. Prevalence of no computer use (0 hours/day) ranged from 23% to 45%. Non-Hispanic Black youth aged 2 to 15 years were less likely than their non-Hispanic White counterparts to meet the objective for TV viewing. Overweight or obese school-age youth were less likely than their normal weight counterparts to meet the objective for TV viewing. Computer use is prevalent among U.S. youth; more than half of youth used a computer on the previous day. The proportion of youth meeting the U.S. objective for TV viewing is less than the target of 75%. Time spent in sedentary behaviors such as viewing TV may contribute to overweight and obesity among U.S. youth.
Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone
Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training. PMID:25698962
Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone
Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.
Robert C. Lorenz
Full Text Available Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual towards playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training.Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG or control group (CG. Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was conducted using a non-video game related reward task.At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated.This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the ventral striatum in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.
Vessey, J A; Lee, J E
Exposure to media violence is associated with increased aggression and its sequelae. Unfortunately, the majority of entertainment video games contain violence. Moreover, children of both genders prefer games with violent content. As there is no compulsory legislative standards to limit the type and amount of violence in video games, concerned adults must assume an oversight role.
Computer video games have become highly interesting to educators and researchers since their sophistication has improved considerably over the last decade. Studies indicate simple video games touting educational benefits are common in classrooms. However, a need for identifying truly useful games for educational purposes exists. This article…
Chan, Philip A; Rabinowitz, Terry
Excessive use of the Internet has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the relationship between video games and ADHD symptoms in adolescents is unknown. A survey of adolescents and parents (n = 72 adolescents, 72 parents) was performed assessing daily time spent on the Internet, television, console video games, and Internet video games, and their association with academic and social functioning. Subjects were high school students in the ninth and tenth grade. Students were administered a modified Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) and asked questions about exercise, grades, work, and school detentions. Parents were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) and answer questions regarding medical/psychiatric conditions in their child. There was a significant association between time spent playing games for more than one hour a day and YIAS (p video game use. Adolescents who play more than one hour of console or Internet video games may have more or more intense symptoms of ADHD or inattention than those who do not. Given the possible negative effects these conditions may have on scholastic performance, the added consequences of more time spent on video games may also place these individuals at increased risk for problems in school.
Chan, Philip A; Rabinowitz, Terry
Background Excessive use of the Internet has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the relationship between video games and ADHD symptoms in adolescents is unknown. Method A survey of adolescents and parents (n = 72 adolescents, 72 parents) was performed assessing daily time spent on the Internet, television, console video games, and Internet video games, and their association with academic and social functioning. Subjects were high school students in the ninth and tenth grade. Students were administered a modified Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) and asked questions about exercise, grades, work, and school detentions. Parents were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) and answer questions regarding medical/psychiatric conditions in their child. Results There was a significant association between time spent playing games for more than one hour a day and YIAS (p the "Inattention" and "ADHD" components of the CPRS (p ≤ 0.001 and p ≤ 0.020, respectively). No significant association was found between body mass index (BMI), exercise, number of detentions, or the "Oppositional" and "Hyperactivity" components of CPRS and video game use. Conclusion Adolescents who play more than one hour of console or Internet video games may have more or more intense symptoms of ADHD or inattention than those who do not. Given the possible negative effects these conditions may have on scholastic performance, the added consequences of more time spent on video games may also place these individuals at increased risk for problems in school. PMID:17059614
Ivory, James D; Magee, Robert G
Portable media consoles are becoming extremely popular devices for viewing a number of different types of media content, both for entertainment and for educational purposes. Given the increasingly heavy use of portable consoles as an alternative to traditional television-style monitors, it is important to investigate how physiological and psychological effects of portable consoles may differ from those of television-based consoles, because such differences in physiological and psychological responses may precipitate differences in the delivered content's effectiveness. Because portable consoles are popular as a delivery system for multiple types of media content, such as movies and video games, it is also important to investigate whether differences between the effects of portable and television-based consoles are consistent across multiple types of media. This article reports a 2 x 2 (console: portable or television-based x medium: video game or movie) mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent across different media. Results indicate that portable media consoles evoke lower levels of physiological arousal and flow experience and that this effect is consistent for both video games and movies. These findings suggest that even though portable media consoles are often convenient compared to television-based consoles, the convenience may come at a cost in terms of the user experience.
Music is a powerful storytelling device and an essential component in today's movies and interactive games. Communicating Earth science can be enhanced and focused with the proper use of a musical score, particularly in the context of documentary films, television programs, interactive games and museum installations. This presentation presents five simple professional techniques to integrate music, visuals and voice-over narration into a single cohesive story that is emotionally engaging. It also presents five practical tips to improve the success of a musical collaboration. The concepts in question are illustrated with practical audio and video examples from real science projects.
Muñoz, Yupanqui J.; El-Hani, Charbel N.
Video games, as technological and cultural artifacts of considerable influence in the contemporary society, play an important role in the construction of identities, just as other artifacts (e.g., books, newspapers, television) played for a long time. In this paper, we discuss this role by considering video games under two concepts, othering and technopoly, and focus on how these concepts demand that we deepen our understanding of the ethics of video games. We address here how the construction of identities within video games involves othering process, that is, processes through which, when signifying and identifying `Ourselves', we create and marginalize `Others'. Moreover, we discuss how video games can play an important role in the legitimation of the technopoly, understood as a totalitarian regime related to science, technology and their place in our societies. Under these two concepts, understanding the ethics of video games goes beyond the controversy about their violence. The main focus of discussion should lie in how the ethics of video games is related to their part in the formation of the players' citizenship. Examining several examples of electronic games, we consider how video games provide a rich experience in which the player has the opportunity to develop a practical wisdom ( phronesis), which can lead her to be a virtuous being. However, they can be also harmful to the moral experiences of the subjects when they show unethical contents related to othering processes that are not so clearly and openly condemned as violence, as in the cases of sexism, racism or xenophobia. Rather than leading us to conclude that video games needed to be banned or censored, this argument makes us highlight their role in the (science) education of critical, socially responsible, ethical, and politically active citizens, precisely because they encompass othering processes and science, technology, and society relationships.
The topic of this thesis is “Gender Differences in Computer games/ Video games Industry”. Due to rapid development in technology and popularization of computers all around the world, computer games have already become a kind of common entertainment. Because computer games were designed especially for boys at the very beginning, there are still some remaining barriers when training female game designers and expanding game markets among female players.This thesis is mainly based on two studies ...
Full Text Available While video content is often stored in rather large files or broadcasted in continuous streams, users are often interested in retrieving only a particular passage on a topic of interest to them. It is, therefore, necessary to split video documents or streams into shorter segments corresponding to appropriate retrieval units. We propose here a method for the automatic segmentation of TV news videos into stories. A-multiple-descriptor based segmentation approach is proposed. The selected multimodal features are complementary and give good insights about story boundaries. Once extracted, these features are expanded with a local temporal context and combined by an early fusion process. The story boundaries are then predicted using machine learning techniques. We investigate the system by experiments conducted using TRECVID 2003 data and protocol of the story boundary detection task, and we show that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods while requiring a very small amount of manual annotation.
This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…
This paper proposes a teaching method that utilizes video games in computer science education. The primary characteristic of this approach is that it utilizes video games as observational materials. The underlying idea is that by observing the computational behavior of a wide variety of video games, learners will easily grasp the fundamental architecture, theory, and technology of computers. The results of a case study conducted indicate that the method enhances the motivation of students for...
Felix Schröter; Jan-Noël Thon
This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experien...
Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE
INTRODUCTION: Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imager...
Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.
In a plant that employs remote handling techniques for equipment maintenance, operators perform maintenance tasks primarily by using the information from television systems. The efficiency of the television system has a significant impact on remote maintenance task performance. High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number of horizontal scan lines as standard-resolution television (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution NTSC television). The added scan lines dramatically improve the resolution of images on the HDTV monitors. This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (a) high-definition color television, (b) high-definition monochromatic television, (c) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (d) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television
Gender representation in video games is a current sensitive topic in entertainment media. Gender studies in video games look at the difference between the portrayal of female and male characters. Most video games tend to over-represent stereotypes and in general use extensive violence and cruelty (Maietti, 2008). Some video games use wrong, disrespectful and sometimes even violent representations of both genders. This research paper focuses on the current representation of female gender in vi...
Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.
Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mob...
grant, HH&S provides writers and producers with accurate and timely health content for the scripts that not only enhances the drama , but also educates...the fact that today’s generation came of age in a technology rich environment that changed the way they accept and process information. Consequently...to kill: A call to action against TV, movie and video game violence. New York: Crown Archetype. Hampton, B., Altmire, B., Brunjes, B., Jennings, D. M
Pérez-Ciordia, Ignacio; Catalán Fabo, Francisca; Zalacain Nicolay, Fernando; Barriendo Antoñanzas, Maite; Solaegui Diaz de Guereñu, Ramón; Guillén Grima, Francisco
The demand placed on both hospital as well as extrahospital emergency care units currently continues to increase at a growing rate. This study has a twofold objective: the quantification and study of the personal characteristics of the users who are demanding emergency care and assessing whether televised soccer games have any bearing on the utilization of emergency care services. A longitudinal descriptive study (9,723 users demanding care) and study of cases and controls (1,284 users demanding care) according to whether or not a soccer game was being televised by means of a logistic regression model. The associations were quantified by means of the odds ratio (OR). Those dealt with by telephone or in infirmaries were not included in the study. A total 10.6% of the demand involved home visits, 4.8% of this total having been sent to hospital. A total 13.3% of the demand corresponds to individuals visiting from other healthcare districts, a total of 65 being overusers of emergency care (8 or more visits). The month of August (32.3%). Sundays (44.56%) and the 12:00 p.m.-2:00 p.m. timeframe (8.38%) are the times when the greatest demand for care occurs, the differences being statistically significant. Televised soccer games were associated to a 19.8% (p emergency care units has been found to exist, a major part of the demand being concentrated at highly specific points in time. A major degree of care is provided to those visiting from outside their own healthcare districts. Television soccer game broadcasts is associated with the greater utilization of the emergency care services.
Pope, Alan T.; Palsson, Olafur S.
Biofeedback-modulated video games are games that respond to physiological signals as well as mouse, joystick or game controller input; they embody the concept of improving physiological functioning by rewarding specific healthy body signals with success at playing a video game. The NASA patented biofeedback-modulated game method blends biofeedback into popular off-the- shelf video games in such a way that the games do not lose their entertainment value. This method uses physiological signals (e.g., electroencephalogram frequency band ratio) not simply to drive a biofeedback display directly, or periodically modify a task as in other systems, but to continuously modulate parameters (e.g., game character speed and mobility) of a game task in real time while the game task is being performed by other means (e.g., a game controller). Biofeedback-modulated video games represent a new generation of computer and video game environments that train valuable mental skills beyond eye-hand coordination. These psychophysiological training technologies are poised to exploit the revolution in interactive multimedia home entertainment for the personal improvement, not just the diversion, of the user.
Mekuria, R.N.; Stokking, H.M.; Deventer, M.O. van
Inter-destination media (play-out) synchronization for social TV has gained attention from research and industry in recent years. Applications include social TV and interactive game shows. To motivate further research of inter-destination synchronization technologies, pilot measurements of play-out
R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); H.M. Stokking (Hans); M.O. van Deventer (Oskar)
htmlabstractInter-destination media (play-out) synchronization for social TV has gained attention from research and industry in recent years.Applications include social TV and interactive game shows. To motivate further research of inter-destination synchronization technologies, pilot
Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo
This article reports on the evaluation of four methods for transferring video content from a mobile device to a fixed television. The methods have been investigated in a Wizard-of-Oz approach through two consecutive studies. The first experiment aimed at collecting general opinions toward such a ...
P. Olivier (Patrick); P. Wright; T. Bartindale; M. Obrist (Marianna); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); S. Basapur
htmlabstractIt is our great pleasure to introduce the 2014 ACM International Conference on Interactive Experiences for Television and Online Video -- ACM TVX 2014. ACM TVX is a leading annual conference that brings together international researchers and practitioners from a wide range of
Stokking, H.M.; Veenhuizen, A.T.; Kaptein, A.M.; Niamut, O.A.
As TNO, we have developed an Augmented Live Broadcast use case, using components from the FP7 STEER project. In this use case, a television broadcast of a live event is augmented with user generated content. This user generated content consists of videos made by users at the event, and also of
The video gaming industry is an ever-expanding one. According to Reuters, the global net worth of the industry in 2011 was US$65 billion (Reuters, 2011). Every year developers race to deliver the best game ever produced. There are various factors, which render a game successful and a successful formulation of those factors means a satisfying game experience for the players. Immersion, the mental involvement between the game and the player, is one of the broader phenomena, which includes most ...
Sostmann, K; Tolks, D; Fischer, M; Buron, S
Serious Games (SG) are a new medium in the context of e-learning. Serious Games use the multimedial advantages of computer and video games to fulfil the didactic requirements to teach target groups in classical and new learning scenarios.Serious Games for Health (SGH) can be applied in the domains of medical therapy, continuing medical education and in the fields of prevention and health promotion. From a didactic and instructional psychology perspective the impact of Serious Games is based o...
Francisco Julián Martínez Cano
Full Text Available The connection between fiction series and video games is evident, and this relationship drives to new strategies to generate narratives within transmedia context. In this article we try to revise the connection between the two media through current productions, with the intention of identifying the contributions of the video game in the serial narrative universes. Within the context of the transmedia narrative discourses, strategies usually have emerged from the TV series to the video game. Currently this tendency is turning around, giving birth titles that have been fed from the video game as the primary source to draw up their storyline. Identifying the contributions of the video game to the transmedia ecosystem of contemporary audiovisual entertainment products, offers the chance to generate more attractive and innovative designs for the audience.
Király, Orsolya; Tóth, Dénes; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Maraz, Aniko
Video games are more popular than ever and the general public, including parents, educators, and the media, tends to consider intense video gaming fundamentally problematic. To test this hypothesis, participants were recruited via gaming-related websites resulting in a sample of N = 5,222 online video gamers (mean age: 22.2 years, SD = 6.4). Besides assessing gaming time, we administered the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire. Two structural regression models were estimated with both gaming time and problematic gaming as outcome variables. Predictors were psychiatric symptoms in the first, and gaming motives in the second model. Both models yielded adequate fit indices. Psychiatric symptoms had a moderate positive effect on problematic use (β = .46, p gaming time was practically zero (β = -.01, p = .84). In the second model, Escape was the most prominent motive and was moderately to-strongly associated (β = .58, p gaming time was substantially weaker (β = .21, p gaming time and problematic use was weak-to-moderate in both models (r = .26, p gaming time is weakly associated with negative psychological factors such as psychiatric symptoms and Escape motive, which were found to be consistently related to problematic use. Therefore, the amount of gaming time alone appears to be an unreliable predictor of problematic use, which questions the aforementioned idea that intense gaming is essentially problematic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive use of the Internet has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, but the relationship between video games and ADHD symptoms in adolescents is unknown. Method A survey of adolescents and parents (n = 72 adolescents, 72 parents was performed assessing daily time spent on the Internet, television, console video games, and Internet video games, and their association with academic and social functioning. Subjects were high school students in the ninth and tenth grade. Students were administered a modified Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS and asked questions about exercise, grades, work, and school detentions. Parents were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS and answer questions regarding medical/psychiatric conditions in their child. Results There was a significant association between time spent playing games for more than one hour a day and YIAS (p Conclusion Adolescents who play more than one hour of console or Internet video games may have more or more intense symptoms of ADHD or inattention than those who do not. Given the possible negative effects these conditions may have on scholastic performance, the added consequences of more time spent on video games may also place these individuals at increased risk for problems in school.
Video games are pervasive in today's culture, and the time kids spend playing them may seem, from a teacher's perspective, as time that is lost to education. Sometimes, sadly, this is true. But many good video games, although not explicitly educational in focus, provide powerful experiences that are rich fodder for subsequent instruction. Looking…
Maguth, Brad M.; List, Jonathan S.; Wunderle, Matthew
Today's youth have grown up immersed in technology and are increasingly relying on video games to solve problems, engage socially, and find entertainment. Yet research and vignettes of teachers actually using video games to advance student learning in social studies is scarce (Hutchinson 2007). This article showcases how social studies…
Ma, Deqiong; Jones, Graeme
The effect of physical activity on upper limb fractures was examined in this population-based case control study with 321 age- and gender-matched pairs. Sports participation increased fracture risk in boys and decreased risk in girls. Television viewing had a deleterious dose response association with wrist and forearm fractures while light physical activity was protective. The aim of this population-based case control study was to examine the association between television, computer, and video viewing; types and levels of physical activity; and upper limb fractures in children 9-16 years of age. A total of 321 fracture cases and 321 randomly selected individually matched controls were studied. Television, computer, and video viewing and types and levels of physical activity were determined by interview-administered questionnaire. Bone strength was assessed by DXA and metacarpal morphometry. In general, sports participation increased total upper limb fracture risk in boys and decreased risk in girls. Gender-specific risk estimates were significantly different for total, contact, noncontact, and high-risk sports participation as well as four individual sports (soccer, cricket, surfing, and swimming). In multivariate analysis, time spent television, computer, and video viewing in both sexes was positively associated with wrist and forearm fracture risk (OR 1.6/category, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), whereas days involved in light physical activity participation decreased fracture risk (OR 0.8/category, 95% CI: 0.7-1.0). Sports participation increased hand (OR 1.5/sport, 95% CI: 1.1-2.0) and upper arm (OR 29.8/sport, 95% CI: 1.7-535) fracture risk in boys only and decreased wrist and forearm fracture risk in girls only (OR 0.5/sport, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9). Adjustment for bone density and metacarpal morphometry did not alter these associations. There is gender discordance with regard to sports participation and fracture risk in children, which may reflect different approaches to sport
Whitton, Nicola; Maclure, Maggie
Increasingly prevalent educational discourses promote the use of video games in schools and universities. At the same time, populist discourses persist, particularly in print media, which condemn video games because of putative negative effects on behaviour and socialisation. These contested discourses, we suggest, influence the acceptability of…
Kuo, Melissa H.; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of…
Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Vandermeersche, Geert; Rutten, Kris
In their article "Perspectives on Video Games as Art" Jeroen Bourgonjon, Geert Vndermeersche, and Kris Rutten engage in discussing whether or not video games can be considered a form of art. Although this question has already been discussed elaborately, the debate is guided by many different and often conflicting positions. The aim of this article is to revisit this debate by mapping out a range of perspectives on video games as art. The authors explore the relation between games and differ...
Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.
Adam C Oei
Full Text Available Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands.We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours. Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training.Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects.
Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.
Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Conclusion/Significance Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be
Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D
Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects.
Choo, Hyekyung; Gentile, Douglas A; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline; Liau, Albert K
Increase in internet use and video-gaming contributes to public concern on pathological or obsessive play of video games among children and adolescents worldwide. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence of pathological symptoms in video-gaming among Singaporean youth and the psychometric properties of instruments measuring pathological symptoms in video-gaming. A total of 2998 children and adolescents from 6 primary and 6 secondary schools in Singapore responded to a comprehensive survey questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, video-gaming habits, school performance, somatic symptoms, various psychological traits, social functioning and pathological symptoms of video-gaming. After weighting, the survey data were analysed to determine the prevalence of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth and gender differences in the prevalence. The construct validity of instrument used to measure pathological symptoms of video-gaming was tested. Of all the study participants, 8.7% were classified as pathological players with more boys reporting more pathological symptoms than girls. All variables, including impulse control problem, social competence, hostility, academic performance, and damages to social functioning, tested for construct validity, were significantly associated with pathological status, providing good evidence for the construct validity of the instrument used. The prevalence rate of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth is comparable with that from other countries studied thus far, and gender differences are also consistent with the findings of prior research. The positive evidence of construct validity supports the potential use of the instrument for future research and clinical screening on Singapore children and adolescents' pathological video-gaming.
Bean, Anthony Martin; Ferro, Lauren
This study was designed to investigate the aggression levels of college students found in the Northeastern part of the United States following exposure to video games. The 59 participants played their assigned game, Mortal Kombat on Nintendo Wii or Halo 2 on the Xbox, for 45 minutes with a partner. The researchers employed twelve t-tests (alpha adjusted to .004) and three multiple linear regressions to explore the difference of aggression levels in gender, violent video game, and predictors o...
Cowling, Peter I.; Buro, Michael; Bida, Michal; Botea, Adi; Bouzy, Bruno; Butz, Martin V.; Hingston, Philip; Muñoz-Avila, Hector; Nau, Dana; Sipper, Moshe
This chapter arises from the discussions of an experienced international group of researchers interested in the potential for creative application of algorithms for searching finite discrete graphs, which have been highly successful in a wide range of application areas, to address a broad range of problems arising in video games. The chapter first summarises the state of the art in search algorithms for games. It then considers the challenges in implementing these algorithms in video games (p...
Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphné
Here we review the literature examining the perceptual, attentional, and cognitive benefits of playing one sub-type of video games known as ‘action video games,’ as well as the mechanistic underpinnings of these behavioral effects. We then outline evidence indicating the potential usefulness of these commercial off-the-shelf games for practical, real-world applications such as rehabilitation or the training of job-related skills. Finally, we discuss potential core characteristics of action vi...
A new video game in which the player stalks and shoots fellow students and teachers in school settings is drawing fire from school district officials. "School Shooter: North American Tour 2012" is a first-person game that allows the player to move around a school and collect points by killing defenseless students and teachers. The game,…
Thien-bao Thuc Phi
Full Text Available Even video games by Asian creators tend to depict primarily white characters or reference Asian stereotypes such as kung fu fighters or yakuza thugs. Games depicting the Vietnam war are particularly troubling for Asian players expected to identify with white characters. As the game industry continues to expand, its representation of Asians and Asian Americans must change.
Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing
Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. © The Author(s) 2016.
Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game design decisions. This article reports how behavioral science guided the design of a serious video game to prevent Type 2 diabetes and obesity among youth, two health problems increasing in prevalence. It demonstrates how video game designers and behavioral scientists can combine their unique talents to create a highly focused serious video game that entertains while promoting behavior change.
Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.
Beatty, Ian D.
Video games can be very powerful teaching systems, and game designers have become adept at optimizing player engagement while scaffolding development of complex skills and situated knowledge. One implication is that we might create games to teach physics. Another, which I explore here, is that we might learn to improve classroom physics instruction by studying effective games. James Gee, in his book What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy (2007), articulates 36 principles that make good video games highly effective as learning environments. In this theoretical work, I identify 16 themes running through Gee's principles, and explore how these themes and Gee's principles could be applied to the design of an on-campus physics course. I argue that the process pushes us to confront aspects of learning that physics instructors and even physics education researchers generally neglect, and suggest some novel ideas for course design.
En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa.......En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa....
King, Daniel; Delfabbro, Paul; Griffiths, Mark
Excessive video game playing behaviour may be influenced by a variety of factors including the structural characteristics of video games. Structural characteristics refer to those features inherent within the video game itself that may facilitate initiation, development and maintenance of video game playing over time. Numerous structural…
The purpose of this report is to create a business plan for a video game rental store. It includes research on similar companies in other countries, and it determines if the concept would work in Finland. In addition to this, the report also includes research on what steps need to be taken in order to start and run a video game rental business in Finland. The report also goes over the current trends in the video game industry, and takes a look at where the industry is heading. Based...
Glaubke, Christina R.; Miller, Patti; Parker, McCrae A.; Espejo, Eileen
Based on the view that the level of market penetration of video games combined with the high levels of realism portrayed in these games make it important to investigate the messages video games send children, this report details a study of the 10 top-selling video games for each of 6 game systems available in the United States and for personal…
Panagiotakis, Emmanouil; Mok, Kam-Ming; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Bull, Anthony M J
Ankle sprains due to landing on an opponent's foot are common in basketball. There is no analysis to date that provides a quantification of this injury mechanism. The aim of this study was to quantify the kinematics of this specific injury mechanism and relate this to lateral ankle ligament biomechanics. Case series. The model-based image-matching technique was used to quantify calcaneo-fibular-talar kinematics during four ankle inversion sprain injury incidents in televised NBA basketball games. The four incidents follow the same injury pattern in which the players of interest step onto an opponent's foot with significant inversion and a diagnosed ankle injury. A geometric analysis was performed to calculate the in vivo ligament strains and strain rates for the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). Despite the controlled selection of cases, the results show that there are two distinct injury mechanisms: sudden inversion and internal rotation with low levels of plantarflexion; and a similar mechanism without internal rotation. The first of these mechanisms results in high ATFL and CFL strains, whereas the second of these strains the CFL in isolation. The injury mechanism combined with measures of the ligament injury in terms of percentage of strain to failure correlate directly with the severity of the injury quantified by return-to-sport. The opportunity to control excessive internal rotation through proprioceptive training and/or prophylactic footwear or bracing could be utilised to reduce the severity of common ankle injuries in basketball. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Smyth, Mary; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Story, Mary
American Indian children have high rates of overweight and obesity, which may be partially attributable to screen-time behavior. Young children's screen-time behavior is strongly influenced by their environment and their parents' behavior. We explored whether parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home are related to screen time (ie, television, DVD/video, video game, and computer use) among Oglala Lakota youth residing on or near the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. We collected baseline data from 431 child and parent/caregiver pairs who participated in Bright Start, a group-randomized, controlled, school-based obesity prevention trial to reduce excess weight gain. Controlling for demographic characteristics, we used linear regression analysis to assess associations between children's screen time and parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and availability of media-related household resources. The most parsimonious model for explaining child screen time included the children's sex, parental body mass index, parental television watching time, how often the child watched television after school or in the evening, parental perception that the child spent too much time playing video games, how often the parent limited the child's television time, and the presence of a VCR/DVD player or video game player in the home (F(7,367) = 14.67; P strategy for reducing overweight and obesity in American Indian children.
Rice, Grant G., III
Television is a widely adopted source for viewing educational information. Unfortunately, producing a television show on network television can be costly and time consuming. Internet TV offers Extension video content producers the opportunity to create a niche topic channel quickly and at low cost. Internet TV offers viewers a low-cost and…
Video games are very popular among children in the Western world. This study was done in order to investigate if video games had an effect on 49 Swedish students‟ comprehension of English words (grades 7-8). The investigation was based on questionnaire and word test data. The questionnaire aimed to measure with which frequency students were playing video games, and the word test aimed to measure their word comprehension in general. In addition, data from the word test were used to investigate...
Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely
Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents. Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not other physical activity, and when it is not associated with a higher energy intake. The current study therefore examines the association between active video gaming and other energy-balance-related behaviours (EBRBs). Adolescents (12-16 years) with access to an active video game and who reported to spend at least one hour per week in active video gaming were invited to participate in the study. They were asked to complete electronic 24-hour recall diaries on five randomly assigned weekdays and two randomly assigned weekend-days in a one-month period, reporting on time spent playing active and non-active video games and on other EBRBs. Findings indicated that adolescents who reported playing active video games on assessed days also reported spending more time playing non-active video games (Median = 23.6, IQR = 56.8 minutes per week) compared to adolescents who did not report playing active video games on assessed days (Median = 10.0, IQR = 51.3 minutes per week, P games on assessed days, active video game time was positively yet weakly associated with TV/DVD time and snack consumption. Active video game time was not significantly associated with other activities and sugar-sweetened beverages intake. The results suggest that it is unlikely that time spent by adolescents in playing active video games replaces time spent in other physically active behaviours or sedentary activities. Spending more time playing active video games does seem to be associated with a small, but significant increase in intake of snacks. This suggests that interventions aimed at increasing time spent on active video gaming, may have unexpected side effects, thus warranting caution.
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M.; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. We aim ...
Donohue, Sarah E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Mitroff, Stephen R.
Recent research has demonstrated enhanced visual attention and visual perception in individuals with extensive experience playing action video games. These benefits manifest in several realms, but much remains unknown about the ways in which video game experience alters perception and cognition. The current study examined whether video game players’ benefits generalize beyond vision to multisensory processing by presenting video game players and non-video game players auditory and visual stim...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is to design, develop and fabricate a handheld video game console for astronauts during long space flight. This portable hardware runs...
Ruxandra Claudia CHIRCA (NEACȘU
Full Text Available In nowadays' world, technological assistance is no longer confined to its primary purpose of communication or informational support and the boundaries between real and virtual world are becoming increasingly harder to be defined. This is the world of digital natives, today's children, who grow up in a technology-brimming environment and who spend most of their time playing video games. Are these video games constructive in any way? Scientific studies state they are. Video games help children in setting their goals, provide constant feedback and offer immediate rewards, along with the opportunity to collaborate with other players. Furthermore, video games can generate strong emotional reactions, such as joy or fear, and they have a captivating story line, which reveals itself within a realm of elaborate graphics.
Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.
Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294
...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... TV, TV Translator or TV Booster Station, FCC Form 346; 47 CFR 74.793(d); LPTV Out-of-Core Digital... collection requirements: 47 CFR 74.793(d) proposes that certain digital low power and TV translator stations...
Thompson, K M; Haninger, K
Children's exposure to violence, alcohol, tobacco and other substances, and sexual messages in the media are a source of public health concern; however, content in video games commonly played by children has not been quantified. To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence, alcohol, tobacco and other substances, and sex in video games rated E (for "Everyone"), analogous to the G rating of films, which suggests suitability for all audiences. We created a database of all existing E-rated video games available for rent or sale in the United States by April 1, 2001, to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors associated with these games. We played and assessed the content of a convenience sample of 55 E-rated video games released for major home video game consoles between 1985 and 2000. Game genre; duration of violence; number of fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; depiction of alcohol, tobacco and other substances; and sexual content. Based on analysis of the 672 current E-rated video games played on home consoles, 77% were in sports, racing, or action genres and 57% did not receive any content descriptors. We found that 35 of the 55 games we played (64%) involved intentional violence for an average of 30.7% of game play (range, 1.5%-91.2%), and we noted significant differences in the amount of violence among game genres. Injuring characters was rewarded or required for advancement in 33 games (60%). The presence of any content descriptor for violence (n = 23 games) was significantly correlated with the presence of intentional violence in the game (at a 5% significance level based on a 2-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum test, t(53) = 2.59). Notably, 14 of 32 games (44%) that did not receive a content descriptor for violence contained acts of violence. Action and shooting games led to the largest numbers of
Evans, Michael A.; Jones, Brett D.; Akalin, Sehmuz
Because video games are so popular with young people, researchers have explored ways to use game play to engage students in school subjects (Peppler & Kafai, 2007; Rockwell & Kee, 2011; Small, 2011). Motivating students in science is especially important because of declines both in the number of young people who choose science careers and…
An expert on the sociology of video games highlights the power of this medium to popularize violence among children. But few are aware that some of the most technologically potent products are violent war games now being produced at taxpayer expense. These are provided free as a recruiting tool by the United States military. The author contends…
van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.
Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In
Despite the growing number of books designed to radically reconsider the educational value of video games as powerful learning tools, there are very few practical guidelines conveniently available for prospective history and social studies teachers who actually want to use these teaching and learning tools in their classes. As the games and…
Provides options for implementing IPv6 and IPv6 multicast in service provider networks New technologies, viewing paradigms, and content distribution approaches are taking the TV/video services industry by storm. Linear and Nonlinear Video and TV Applications: Using IPv6 and IPv6 Multicast identifies five emerging trends in next-generation delivery of entertainment-quality video. These trends are observable and can be capitalized upon by progressive service providers, telcos, cable operators, and ISPs. This comprehensive guide explores these evolving directions in the TV/v
Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.
Electronic training system based on video game developed to help children afflicted with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) learn to prolong their attention spans. Uses combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and adaptive control to encourage attentiveness. Monitors trainee's brain-wave activity: if EEG signal indicates attention is waning, system increases difficulty of game, forcing trainee to devote more attention to it. Game designed to make trainees want to win and, in so doing, learn to pay attention for longer times.
Héctor Puente Bienvenido
Full Text Available In this article we explore the history of video games (focusing on multiplayer ones, from the perspective of power relationships and the ways in which authority has been excesiced by the game industry and game players over time. From a hierarchical system of power and domain to the increasing flatness of the current structure, we address the systems of control and surveillance. We will finish our display assessing the emergent forms of production and relationships between players and developers.
Slot machine games have become the most popular form of gambling worldwide. In Finland, their pervasiveness in public spaces and popularity makes them one of the most common form of gaming. However, in game studies, gambling games are often regarded as borderline games due to the player’s lack of control. In this thesis I ask whether modern video slot machine games can be considered as games and if so, what similarities there are between them and contemporary video games. To find out if m...
Wolf, Mark J.P.
Video games have moved, possibly surpassing even movies, into a central role in American popular culture in a relatively short time, and today there is increasing evidence that the video game console –to some extent, as much as the personal computer– has emerged as a central media device through which “convergence culture” is taking place. In the world of massively multiplayer online games, new (and very real) economies and cultures have evolved with striking rapidity, while on a very differe...
Characteristics of broadcast educational television for adult audiences are discussed in terms of: style in television, television grammar, and course and resource-type programs. The current British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Adult Literacy Project and the television program "On the Move" are used as examples. (LH)
Dunn, Judy Lee
Presents activities to help teachers address the needs and behaviors of students raised on television; includes resources to help teachers use television productively in the classroom, a send-home reproducible on children and television violence, and notes on an interview with Shari Lewis and television tips for primary students. (SM)
This paper is concerned with one of the impacts of media globalisation and it is a picking of foreign television formats. It analyzes the structure of television programs offered by Czech television broadcasters and its change from 2005 when TV Nova and TV Prima changed their owners to international ones. After the introduction of media globalisation, the paper describes the television formats and then it includes a list of licensed television programs and a comparison of chosen programs with...
Barreto, Daisyane; Vasconcelos, Lucas; Orey, Michael
Purpose: With video games being a source of leisure and learning, educators and researchers alike are interested in understanding children's motivation for playing video games as a way to learn. This study explores student motivation and engagement levels in playing two math video games in the game "Club Penguin." Method: This is a…
Goodman, David; Bradley, Nori L.; Paras, Bradley, Williamson, Ian J.; Bizzochi, James
While the positive uses for video games in an educational setting have also been established, the educational aim is usually made explicit. The goal of this research was to develop a video game wherein the educational aspect was implicitly embedded in the video game, such that the gameing activity remained interesting and relevant. Following a…
Full Text Available The complex and multimedia nature of video games results in several original and derivative works of copyright contained in a single game. Although there is no need to establish a new category of work and the current state of law offers comprehensive protection of the works, it also means there can be many different authors in a single production, so assignment of rights can be difficult.This interrelation of works and their respective authors can also have a negative effect on authors' moral rights, or, more specifically, the right to claim authorship and the right to object to derogatory treatment of the work.This article analyses the current law of the United Kingdom with regard to authorship and ownership of copyright in video games and underlying works before analysing and evaluating the moral rights of video games' contributors.
When discussing the art of video games, three different contexts need to be considered: the 'high' art (video games and the art); commercial video games (video games as the art) and the fan art. Video games are a legitimate artistic medium subject to modifications and recontextualisations in the process of creating a specific experience of the player/user/audience and political action by referring to particular social problems. They represent a high technological medium that increases, with p...
Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto
The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.
Colman, Jason; Gnanayutham, Paul
Video games have been used in a variety of therapeutic and rehabilitative contexts. However, there are health risks associated with playing video games, including the risk of epileptic seizure. Additionally, video games have been criticised for reasons including their portrayal of women and minorities. For games to be accepted as an ethically valid therapeutic tool, these concerns must be addressed. The authors believe that video games can be used as therapeutic tools when used responsibly
Piccioli, Marta; Vigevano, Federico; Buttinelli, Carla; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A
We determined whether epileptic clinical manifestations evoked by playing video games (VG) differ from those evoked by intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) or striped patterns (P). We exposed nine children who had TV- and VG-evoked seizures in daily life to 12 VG after standardized photic stimulation and pattern stimulation. Their EEGs were recorded continuously, analyzed, and then correlated with a video of their behavior. Similar types of clinical signs were seen during VG, P, and IPS, but the signs we observed were more subtle during the VG. Eight patients showed a clear lateralization. A new observation was the lowering of the eyelids to a state of half-closed. Our study suggests that the type of visual stimulus provoking a photoparoxysmal response or seizure is not particularly relevant. The children belonged to different epilepsy groups, and our findings add to the discussion on the boundaries of the epilepsy types.
Marc Palaus; Elena M. Marron; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Diego Redolar-Ripoll
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video ga...
Virginia Hospital Center embarked on a branding effort in hopes of raising customer awareness of the hospital's state-of-the-art technologies in advanced medical care. The campaign launched a new phase of TV spots that highlight the facility's advanced services, such as the computed tomography angiogram, the argon plasma coagulator, and heart valve replacement surgery.
Liming, Drew; Vilorio, Dennis
Video games are not only for play; they also provide work. Making video games is a serious--and big--business. Creating these games is complex and requires the collaboration of many developers, who perform a variety of tasks, from production to programming. They work for both small and large game studios to create games that can be played on many…
Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan
Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…
Kunanusont, Kamolwan; Lucas, Simon M.; Perez-Liebana, Diego
General Video Game Artificial Intelligence is a general game playing framework for Artificial General Intelligence research in the video-games domain. In this paper, we propose for the first time a screen capture learning agent for General Video Game AI framework. A Deep Q-Network algorithm was applied and improved to develop an agent capable of learning to play different games in the framework. After testing this algorithm using various games of different categories and difficulty levels, th...
Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game design decisions. This article reports how behavioral science guided the design of a serious video game to prevent Type 2 diabetes and obesity among you...
Carlos Eduardo Marquioni
Full Text Available The objective of this text is to present some reflections on theinsertion of a new model of television in Brazil (interactive digital TV,adopting the concept of culture as the center to think of the television system.The notion for structure of feeling, by Raymond Williams, opens up atype of new window that helps to understand this new television whichis being implanted.
Elliott, Luther; Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise
AIMS: To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. MEASUREMENTS: Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. FINDINGS: Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of "addictive" video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play.
Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise
Aims To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. Design Nationally representative survey. Setting Online. Participants Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. Measurements Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. Findings Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. Conclusions Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of “addictive” video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play. PMID:23284310
Griffiths, Mark D; Nuyens, Filip
There are many different factors involved in how and why people develop problems with video game playing. One such set of factors concerns the structural characteristics of video games (i.e., the structure, elements, and components of the video games themselves). Much of the research examining the structural characteristics of video games was initially based on research and theorizing from the gambling studies field. The present review briefly overviews the key papers in the field to date. The paper examines a number of areas including (i) similarities in structural characteristics of gambling and video gaming, (ii) structural characteristics in video games, (iii) narrative and flow in video games, (iv) structural characteristic taxonomies for video games, and (v) video game structural characteristics and game design ethics. Many of the studies carried out to date are small-scale, and comprise self-selected convenience samples (typically using self-report surveys or non-ecologically valid laboratory experiments). Based on the small amount of empirical data, it appears that structural features that take a long time to achieve in-game are the ones most associated with problematic video game play (e.g., earning experience points, managing in-game resources, mastering the video game, getting 100% in-game). The study of video games from a structural characteristic perspective is of benefit to many different stakeholders including academic researchers, video game players, and video game designers, as well as those interested in prevention and policymaking by making the games more socially responsible. It is important that researchers understand and recognize the psycho-social effects and impacts that the structural characteristics of video games can have on players, both positive and negative.
King, Daniel L; Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H
There is a paucity of empirical research examining the possible association between gambling and video game play. In two studies, we examined the association between video game playing, erroneous gambling cognitions, and risky gambling behaviour. One hundred and fifteen participants, including 65 electronic gambling machine (EGM) players and 50 regular video game players, were administered a questionnaire that examined video game play, gambling involvement, problem gambling, and beliefs about gambling. We then assessed each groups' performance on a computerised gambling task that involved real money. A post-game survey examined perceptions of the skill and chance involved in the gambling task. The results showed that video game playing itself was not significantly associated with gambling involvement or problem gambling status. However, among those persons who both gambled and played video games, video game playing was uniquely and significantly positively associated with the perception of direct control over chance-based gambling events. Further research is needed to better understand the nature of this association, as it may assist in understanding the impact of emerging digital gambling technologies.
Full Text Available Gender representation in video games is a current sensitive topic in entertainment media. Gender studies in video games look at the difference between the portrayal of female and male characters. Most video games tend to over-represent stereotypes and in general use extensive violence and cruelty (Maietti, 2008. Some video games use wrong, disrespectful and sometimes even violent representations of both genders. This research paper focuses on the current representation of female gender in video games and how they are represented, stereotyped and used as characters in games. Results show that there is a difference between portraying women in the past and present. This research paper is based on previous academic research and results which were achieved with online questionnaire among game players and two interviews with professionals in the field of game design. The results show that there is still negative stereotyping of female gender. However, at the same time, the answers of the respondents show that the target audience of video games desires improvements in presentation of female gender as well as male.
Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea
The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....
Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea
The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....
A literature survey on new developments in the area of video games and psychotherapy of children and adolescents was conducted. Despite the omnipresence of computers and the internet, development of therapeutic games seems rather slow. The video game Treasure Hunt was introduced in 2008 to support treatment of children with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Camp Cope-A-Lot was developed for treatment of anxious children, whereas the self-help game SPARX is directed at depressed adolescents. Rage-Control is a biofeedback game for children with anger problems. The game Zoo U aims to assess and train social skills of primary school children. Ricky and the Spider for young children with obsessive compulsive disorder is meant to support the cognitive-behavioural treatment of these patients. Clash- Back is a French game for adolescents with externalizing problems. Possible reasons for the relatively slow development of therapeutic games are the high methodological demands concerning an evaluation as well as the high costs of game development. Nonetheless, computers and the internet are bound to influence psychotherapy with children and adolescents in the long run.
The last 10-15 years have seen the rise of a loosely defined independent games movement, often promoted as a more authentic type of video game than mainstream big budget video games (Juul 2014). For example, developer Dan Cook claims that “Indie games let me be a fan who is cheering on someone...... of the design and values of mainstream video games. As such, mainstream video games play the role of the morally and aesthetically compromised other, an other from which video games must be saved; an other that independent games are assumed to be rebelling against. In this paper I will analyze independent games...... as a number of specific (and sometimes contradictory) rejections of particular aspects of mainstream video game design. I am examining the game design of selected high-profile independent games, as well as game reviews and developer statement about their games. Here I am presenting general results...
Elliott, Luther; Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise
A nationally representative online survey (n = 3,380) was used to assess the contribution of patterns of video game play to problem video game play (PVGP) symptomatology. Game genre, enjoyment, consumer involvement, time spent gaming (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), and demographic variables were all examined. The study…
...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... Commission's Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power, Television Translator, and Television Booster... Digital Low Power Television Translator, Television Booster Stations, and to Amend Rules for Digital Class...
Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus
This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...
Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S
Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.
The borehole television survey can provide a measure of the orientation, depth, width and aperture of any planar discontinuity intersected by a borehole and a technique is in an advanced stage of development by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) to make such measurements. Much of its practical application to date has been in crystalline rocks (plutons) at research areas pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Disposal Program in Canada. It also has many other engineering applications where bedrock stability is of particular concern. The equipment required to carry out the survey can be readily transported by two panel trucks with trailers. The components consist of a camera probe, control unit, cable storage reel, cable drive, video-tape recorder, TV monitor and two electrical generators. An inclined planar structure intersected by a borehole appears as an elliptical trace on the wall of the borehole. Such an intersection line shows on the TV monitor as a sinusoidal curve with a high point and a low point as the camera rotates through an angle of 360 degrees. The azimuth of the low point, measured by a compass in the camera probe, represents the direction of the dip of the planar structure. The angle of dip is measured midway between the high and low points or is computed from the maximum-to-minimum distance of the sinusoid and the hole diameter. These observations provide the true orientation of the planar structure if the borehole is vertical. However, if the borehole is inclined, direct observations will only provide the apparent orientation. The true orientation must thus be obtained either by means of stereographic projection or spherical trigonometry. A computer program has been written to calculate the true orientation from the apparent orientation. In the field, observation data are recorded directly on a data record sheet for keypunching and input into the computer
Ivory, James D.
Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about games' social function that are often difficult...
... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...
As a media form entwined in the U.S. military-industrial complex, video games continue to celebrate imperialist imagery and Western-centric narratives of the great white explorer (Breger, 2008; Dyer-Witheford & de Peuter, 2009; Geyser & Tshalabala, 2011; Mukherjee, 2016). While much ink has been spilt on the detrimental effects of colonial imagery on those it objectifies and dehumanises, the question is why these games still get made, and what mechanisms are at work in the enjoyment o...
Ruzic-Baf, Maja; Strnak, Hrvoje; Debeljuh, Andrea
The availability of new information and communication technologies to an increasingly younger population, the constant availability of the Internet and the opportunity to search information, to create new types and models of communication, types of acceptance and ways of accepting and coping with the infinite amount of information, the velocity and choice of well-designed marketing products, especially video games, in particular in the last decade, caused a real "gaming boom" among almost al...
Ruzic-Baf, Maja; Strnak, Hrvoje; Debeljuh, Andrea
The availability of new information and communication technologies to an increasingly younger population, the constant availability of the Internet and the opportunity to search information, to create new types and models of communication, types of acceptance and ways of accepting and coping with the infinite amount of information, the velocity and choice of well-designed marketing products, especially video games, in particular in the last decade, caused a real "gaming boom" among...
Granic, Isabela; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E
Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children's and adolescents' lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States. The vast majority of research by psychologists on the effects of "gaming" has been on its negative impact: the potential harm related to violence, addiction, and depression. We recognize the value of that research; however, we argue that a more balanced perspective is needed, one that considers not only the possible negative effects but also the benefits of playing these games. Considering these potential benefits is important, in part, because the nature of these games has changed dramatically in the last decade, becoming increasingly complex, diverse, realistic, and social in nature. A small but significant body of research has begun to emerge, mostly in the last five years, documenting these benefits. In this article, we summarize the research on the positive effects of playing video games, focusing on four main domains: cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social. By integrating insights from developmental, positive, and social psychology, as well as media psychology, we propose some candidate mechanisms by which playing video games may foster real-world psychosocial benefits. Our aim is to provide strong enough evidence and a theoretical rationale to inspire new programs of research on the largely unexplored mental health benefits of gaming. Finally, we end with a call to intervention researchers and practitioners to test the positive uses of video games, and we suggest several promising directions for doing so. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne
Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
. & Squire K. (2004). Design-Based Research: Putting a Stake in the Ground. Journal of Learning Sciences Vol. 13-1. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Majgaard, G. (2014). Teaching Design of Emerging Embodied Technologies......Background. What are the learning potentials of using online video tutorials as educational tools in game programming of Mixed Reality? The paper reports on the first experiences of teaching third semester engineering students design of Mixed Reality using online step-by-step programming video...... production makes video tutorials a promising alternative to paper tutorials. Software and game engine companies such as Unity has already switched to video and other online materials as the primary medium for their tutorials. It is often hard to find up to date thoroughly worked through textbooks on new...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of playing video games among Serbian adolescents, the video game violence and the quality of parental control. We wanted to relate the frequency of playing, the video game violence, the bullying behaviour in schools, and GPA. The study involved boys and girls (N = 578 from four age groups (12, 14, 16, 18 years. Research results have shown that most participants play video games (75.1%. There are significantly more boys than girls among them, as well as more older than younger participants. Parental control is weak; a very small percentage of the sample (4.4% reported that their parents had forbidden them to play a game because of its content. The parents mostly never check which games their children play (50.2 %, and the majority (40.6 % do not even talk with the children about the games they play. GPA is negatively correlated with the frequency of playing (r = -0.228, p<.01 and the frequency remains a significant predictor of GPA even when controlling for age and gender. Those who play more violent games display more bullying behaviour (r=0.403, p<.01. This effect remains significant even when controlling for gender, age, the amount of TV violence and frequency of watching TV. The amount of violence in video games as a predictor has a unique contribution to the explanation of individual differences in bullying; the factor has a small but significant contribution to the explanation of this form of aggressive behaviour.
Diploma thesis "Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?" deals with actuality of risks for children and youth linked to video games. This topic is currently intensively disscused because of cases of high school shootings. There are concerns that violence in video games is connected to rising of children and youth violence. Another risks refered to video games are addiction and obesity. This diploma thesis deals with these risk too. Goal of this thesis is find out if these risks ar...
Cunningham, A. Scott; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.
Psychological studies invariably find a positive relationship between violent video game play and aggression. However, these studies cannot account for either aggressive effects of alternative activities video game playing substitutes for or the possible selection of relatively violent people into playing violent video games. That is, they lack external validity. We investigate the relationship between the prevalence of violent video games and violent crimes. Our results are consistent with t...
In the popular press, most of the reported effects of video games appear to centre upon the alleged negative consequences such as increased aggression, medical consequences of excessive play, and addiction. Although in extreme cases, video game playing can be addictive, there are many benefts that children and adolescents can get from playing video games. These can be educational, social, and/or therapeutic. This paper examines various issues about the use of video games in the classroom. Thi...
Griffiths, MD; Nuyens, F
Purpose of Review: There are many different factors involved in how and why people develop problems with video game playing. One such set of factors concerns the structural characteristics of video games (i.e., the structure, elements, and components of the video games themselves). Much of the research examining the structural characteristics of video games was initially based on research and theorizing from the gambling studies field. The present review briefly overviews the key papers in th...
King, William, Comp.
A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)
Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline
The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…
Chisholm, J; Hickey, C.; Theeuwes, J.; Kingstone, A.
Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players
Ferguson, Christopher J.
The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…
This bachelor thesis focusses on the determination of the brand awareness of product placement in video games. The theoretical part includes information about marketing, product placement and video games. The practical part consists of evaluation of the market research about product placements in video games. Conclusion suggests the most important factors influencing the level brand awareness.
Video games have tremendous potential in mathematics education, yet there is a push to simply add mathematics to a video game without regard to whether the game structure suits the mathematics, and without regard to the level of mathematical thought being learned in the game. Are students practicing facts, or are they problem-solving? This paper…
Klimmt, C.; Hartmann, T.; Frey, A.
This article explores video game enjoyment originated by games' key characteristic, interactivity. An online experiment (N = 500) tested experiences of effectance (perceived influence on the game world) and of being in control as mechanisms that link interactivity to enjoyment. A video game was
Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Stone, L.L.; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I.
The effects of video games on children's psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27-11.43 years old; male = 98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b)
Puche, William S.; Sierra, Javier E.; Moreno, Gustavo A.
The convergence of new technologies in the digital world has made devices with internet connectivity such as televisions, smatphone, Tablet, Blu-ray, game consoles, among others, to increase more and more. Therefore the major research centers are in the task of improving the network performance to mitigate the bottle neck phenomenon regarding capacity and high transmission rates in information and data. The implementation of standard HbbTV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV), and technological platforms OTT (Over the Top), capable of distributing video, audio, TV, and other Internet services via devices connected directly to the cloud. Therefore a model to improve the transmission capacity required by content distribution networks (CDN) for online TV, with high-capacity optical networks is proposed.
Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan
Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other t...
Gil, Richard; Warzynski, Frederic
This paper empirically investigates the relation between vertical integration and video game performance in the U.S. video game industry. For this purpose, we use a widely used data set from NPD on video game montly sales from October 2000 to October 2007. We complement these data with handly collected information on video game developers for all games in the sample and the timing of all mergers and acquisitions during that period. By doing this, we are able to separate vertically integrated ...
Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Stone, L.L.; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I.
The effects of video games on children?s psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27?11.43 years old; male?=?98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b) competitively; likewise, parents reported their children?s psychosocial health. Gaming at time one was associated with increases in emotion problems. Violent gaming was not associated with psychosocial ...
James D. Ivory
Full Text Available Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about games’ social function that are often difficult to reconcile— or even contradictory. Research is also often categorized by topic area, rendering a comprehensive view of video games’ social role across topic areas difficult. This interpretive review presents a novel typology of four identified approaches that categorize much of the quantitative social science video game research conducted to date: “video games as stimulus,” “video games as avocation,” “video games as skill,” and “video games as social environment.” This typology is useful because it provides an organizational structure within which the large and growing number of studies on video games can be categorized, guiding comparisons between studies on different research topics and aiding a more comprehensive understanding of video games’ social role. Categorizing the different approaches to video game research provides a useful heuristic for those critiquing and expanding that research, as well as an understandable entry point for scholars new to video game research. Further, and perhaps more importantly, the typology indicates when topics should be explored using different approaches than usual to shed new light on the topic areas. Lastly, the typology exposes the conceptual disconnects between the different approaches to video game research, allowing researchers to consider new ways to bridge gaps between the different approaches’ strengths and limitations with novel methods.
Fisher, Carla Christine
The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…
Teenagers love video games and other multimedia tools. Sometimes they love them too much, leading to addictive use. A child psychiatry team in Nancy has developed a therapeutic multimedia workshop to contribute to treating teens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Santos, Pedro A.; Romeiro, Patricia; Nunes, Flavio; Hollins, Paul; Riestra, Ruben
Despite the impressive growth of the video game industry in Europe and a growing interest emerging in that industrial sector (e.g. from the European Commission), there is still a knowledge deficiency in respect of its characteristics and regional impact. By mapping the most relevant active
Mishra, Jyoti; Anguera, Joaquin A; Gazzaley, Adam
Sophisticated video games that integrate engaging cognitive training with real-time biosensing and neurostimulation have the potential to optimize cognitive performance in health and disease. We argue that technology development must be paired with rigorous scientific validation and discuss academic and industry opportunities in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Granic, I.; Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children’s and adolescents’ lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States. The vast majority of research by psychologists on the effects of “gaming” has been on its negative impact: the potential harm related to violence,
VanDeventer, Stephanie S.; White, James A.
Investigates the display of expert behavior by seven outstanding video game-playing children ages 10 and 11. Analyzes observation and debriefing transcripts for evidence of self-monitoring, pattern recognition, principled decision making, qualitative thinking, and superior memory, and discusses implications for educators regarding the development…
Green, C S; Bavelier, D
While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coyne, S.M.; Busby, D.; Bushman, B.J.; Gentile, D.A.; Ridge, R.; Stockdale, L.
The current study assessed how playing video games can influence conflict and aggression in relationships. A sample of 1,333 heterosexual couples reported their video game playing habits, conflict regarding the media, and physical and relational aggression (both self and partner directed). Results
Coyne, Sarah M.; Busby, Dean; Bushman, Brad J.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Ridge, Robert; Stockdale, Laura
The current study assessed how playing video games can influence conflict and aggression in relationships. A sample of 1,333 heterosexual couples reported their video game playing habits, conflict regarding the media, and physical and relational aggression (both self and partner directed). Results showed that for men (but not women), time spent…
Huang, Vivian; Young, Michaelia; Fiocco, Alexandra J
Despite consumer growth, few studies have evaluated the cognitive effects of gaming using mobile devices. This study examined the association between video game play platform and cognitive performance. Furthermore, the differential effect of video game genre (action versus nonaction) was explored. Sixty undergraduate students completed a video game experience questionnaire, and we divided them into three groups: mobile video game players (MVGPs), console/computer video game players (CVGPs), and nonvideo game players (NVGPs). Participants completed a cognitive battery to assess executive function, and learning and memory. Controlling for sex and ethnicity, analyses showed that frequent video game play is associated with enhanced executive function, but not learning and memory. MVGPs were significantly more accurate on working memory performances than NVGPs. Both MVGPs and CVGPs were similarly associated with enhanced cognitive function, suggesting that platform does not significantly determine the benefits of frequent video game play. Video game platform was found to differentially associate with preference for action video game genre and motivation for gaming. Exploratory analyses show that sex significantly effects frequent video game play, platform and genre preference, and cognitive function. This study represents a novel exploration of the relationship between mobile video game play and cognition and adds support to the cognitive benefits of frequent video game play.
The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.
Ou, Yanwen; McGlone, Emma Rose; Camm, Christian Fielder; Khan, Omar A
A best evidence topic in surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether playing video games improves surgical performance in laparoscopic procedures. Altogether 142 papers were found using the reported search, of which seven represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The details of the papers were tabulated including relevant outcomes and study weaknesses. We conclude that medical students and experienced laparoscopic surgeons with ongoing video game experience have superior laparoscopic skills for simulated tasks in terms of time to completion, improved efficiency and fewer errors when compared to non-gaming counterparts. There is some evidence that this may be due to better psycho-motor skills in gamers, however further research would be useful to demonstrate whether there is a direct transfer of skills from laparoscopic simulators to the operating table. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marcello Arnaldo Picucci
Full Text Available In the present study a model is proposed offering a comprehensive categorization of video game narrative structures intended as the methods and techniques used by game designers and allowed by the medium to deliver the story content throughout the gameplay in collaboration with the players. A case is first made for the presence of narrative in video games and its growth of importance as a central component in game design. An in-depth analysis ensues focusing on how games tell stories, guided by the criteria of linearity/nonlinearity, interactivity and randomness. Light is shed upon the fundamental architectures through which stories are told as well as the essential boundaries posed by the close link between narrative and game AI.
Weinel, Jonathan; Cunningham, Stuart
In previous work the authors have proposed the concept of 'ASC Simulations': including audio-visual installations and experiences, as well as interactive video game systems, which simulate altered states of consciousness (ASCs) such as dreams and hallucinations. Building on the discussion...... of the authors' previous paper, where a large-scale qualitative study explored the changes to auditory perception that users of various intoxicating substances report, here the authors present three prototype audio mechanisms for simulating hallucinations in a video game. These were designed in the Unity video...... that make up the player character, and in future developments of this type of work we foresee a more advanced, standardised interface that models the senses, emotions and state of consciousness of player avatars....
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia
Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive tendencies. In contrast, evidence on possible positive effects of video game exposure on prosocial tendencies has been relatively sparse. The present research tested and found support for the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial video games increases the accessibility of prosocial thoughts. These results provide support to the predictive validity of the General Learning Model (Buckley & Anderson, 2006) for the effects of exposure to prosocial media on social tendencies. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games can harm but may also benefit social relations.
Chiu, Shao-I; Lee, Jie-Zhi; Huang, Der-Hsiang
Video game addiction in children and teenagers in Taiwan is associated with levels of animosity, social skills, and academic achievement. This study suggests that video game addiction can be statistically predicted on measures of hostility, and a group with high video game addiction has more hostility than others. Both gender and video game addiction are negatively associated with academic achievement. Family function, sensation seeking, gender, and boredom have statistically positive relationships with levels of social skills. Current models of video game addiction do not seem to fit the findings of this study.
Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic
This paper explores graphical design and spatial alignment of visual information and graphical elements into stereoscopically filmed content, e.g. captions, subtitles, and especially more complex elements in 3D-TV productions. The method used is a descriptive analysis of existing computer- and video games that have been adapted for stereoscopic display using semi-automatic rendering techniques (e.g. Nvidia 3D Vision) or games which have been specifically designed for stereoscopic vision. Digital games often feature compelling visual interfaces that combine high usability with creative visual design. We explore selected examples of game interfaces in stereoscopic vision regarding their stereoscopic characteristics, how they draw attention, how we judge effect and comfort and where the interfaces fail. As a result, we propose a list of five aspects which should be considered when designing stereoscopic visual information: explicit information, implicit information, spatial reference, drawing attention, and vertical alignment. We discuss possible consequences, opportunities and challenges for integrating visual information elements into 3D-TV content. This work shall further help to improve current editing systems and identifies a need for future editing systems for 3DTV, e.g., live editing and real-time alignment of visual information into 3D footage.
...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend Rules... translator facilities in the 700 MHz band. These provisions provide procedures for a primary wireless...
... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new low...
Lomax, Jørn Vollan
The video games industry is now one of the biggest entertainment industries in the world. Forb es magazine estimates that the video game industry will sell games for 70 billion dollars by the end of 2015, and the biggest growth is in the mobile market. While most of the video game industry is creating games strictly for entertainment purp oses, there is a growing demand for games that can b e used for other applications. This pap er will lo ok into making games that help chi...
Pezdek, Kathy; Stevens, Ellen
Examines the relationship between preschool children's (n = 96) cognitive processing of video (V) and audio (A) information on television under four conditions: A/V match, A/V mismatch, V alone, and A alone. Results suggest that in regular television programs the video material simply appears to be more salient and more memorable than the audio…
Schenk, Sabrina; Lech, Robert K; Suchan, Boris
Recent research suggests that video game playing is associated with many cognitive benefits. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms mediating such effects, especially with regard to probabilistic categorization learning, which is a widely unexplored area in gaming research. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of probabilistic classification learning in video gamers in comparison to non-gamers. Subjects were scanned in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while performing a modified version of the weather prediction task. Behavioral data yielded evidence for better categorization performance of video gamers, particularly under conditions characterized by stronger uncertainty. Furthermore, a post-experimental questionnaire showed that video gamers had acquired higher declarative knowledge about the card combinations and the related weather outcomes. Functional imaging data revealed for video gamers stronger activation clusters in the hippocampus, the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus as well as in occipital visual areas and in areas related to attentional processes. All these areas are connected with each other and represent critical nodes for semantic memory, visual imagery and cognitive control. Apart from this, and in line with previous studies, both groups showed activation in brain areas that are related to attention and executive functions as well as in the basal ganglia and in memory-associated regions of the medial temporal lobe. These results suggest that playing video games might enhance the usage of declarative knowledge as well as hippocampal involvement and enhances overall learning performance during probabilistic learning. In contrast to non-gamers, video gamers showed better categorization performance, independently of the uncertainty of the condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mikkelsen, Kevin Kjelgren
Most cheating in video games is possible due to information being accessible outside the intended frames of the game developer. The issue of protecting sensitive information have been handled in many areas outside of video games for a long time now. The goal of this paper is to review these information security solutions that are in use in more security concerned areas today and to potentially find transferable approaches that can help protect important and sensitive information in video game...
This thesis deals with the phenomenon of DLC in the context of marketing communication. DLC or downloadable content expanding the basic game, is a relatively new concept in the video game industry and its role is increasingly important in marketing communication in video games. The main focus of this thesis is to map DLC and analyze its importance in marketing communication and public relations of video game titles of various genres. Theoretical part of the thesis is focused on explaining the...
Siti Murtiningsih, Joko Siswanto, M. Mukhtasar Syamsudin
Full Text Available Abstract: Education Problems of Video Games in the Perspective of Jean Baudrillard’s Theory of Simulacra. In the era of digital age, we are witnessing how video games penetrate children’s daily life and it is believed to have some impacts on their cognitive and affective processes. Referring to hermeneutical approach, the present library research seeks to answer the question whether video games create a real identity or simply forge false consciousness in children. In the first step, the data were collected from bibliographical sources that related to data. In the second step, the data were analyzed to examine the pedagogical-philosophical properties of the video games. The results indicate that video games change the way children view the world. Video games present the world as hiper-reality. Bu putting aside the negative values and maximizing the positive ones, the understanding of hiper-reality allows for the inculcation of children. Abstrak: Problem Pendidikan Video Games dalam Perspectif Teori Simulacra Jean Baudrillard. Permainan video games diyakini berdampak positif sekaligus negatif pada proses kognitif dan afektif anak.-anak. Terutama, video games berpengaruh pada proses internalisasi nilai-nilai dan pembentukan identitas mereka. Teknologi virtual yang disajikan oleh video games, seperti didekati oleh teori simulacra Jean Baudrillard, menyuguhkan jebakan akan realitas palsu. Melalui riset pustaka dengan metode "filsafat hermeneutis", dianalisis data untuk membangun refleksi filsafat pendidikan atas permainan video games itu. Hasil penelitian ini menyatakan video games menyuguhkan sebuah hiper-realitas dari simulasi realitas, atau simulacra dalam teori Jean Baudrillard. Simulacra adalah dunia yang terbentuk dari salinan realitas, yang menjadi acuan melebihi realitas asli. Disimpulkan bahwa video games menjadi semacam “ruang konseptual”, yang dibentuk oleh simulacra. Dengan mengenali hakikat hiper-realitas, video games dapat
Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.
While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805
Videogames are one of the most significant developments in the mass arts of recent times. In commercial terms, they are now among the most prominent of the mass arts worldwide. This commercial and cultural success does not exhaust the interest in videogames as a mass art phenomenon because games such as Grand Theft Auto IV and Fallout 3 are structurally radically different from previous forms of mass art. In particular, the ontology of videogames, the nature and identity of their works, and...
Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan
Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other tasks. Consequently, this study compared gamers and nongamers in task switching ability, visual short-term memory, mental rotation, enumeration, and flanker interference, as well as investigated the influence of self-reported problematic video game use. A total of 66 participants completed the experiment, 26 of whom played action video games, including 20 problematic players. The results revealed no significant effect of playing action video games, nor any influence of problematic video game play. This indicates that the previously reported cognitive advantages in video game players may be restricted to specific task features or samples. Furthermore, problematic video game play may not have a detrimental effect on cognitive performance, although this is difficult to ascertain considering the lack of video game player advantage. More research is therefore sorely needed.
Watts , Cody; Sharlin , Ehud; Woytiuk , Peter
International audience; Increasingly, the movements of players' physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based on this unconventional interaction technique re...
Hull, DC; Williams, GA; Griffiths, MD
Aims:\\ud Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video g...
Ortiz de Gortari, AB; Aronsson, K; Griffiths, MD
Video game playing is a popular activity and its enjoyment among frequent players has been associated with absorption and immersion experiences. This paper examines how immersion in the video game environment can influence the player during the game and afterwards (including fantasies, thoughts, and actions). This is what we describe as Game Transfer Phenomena (GTP). GTP occurs when video game elements are associated with real life elements triggering subsequent thoughts, sensations and/or pl...
Full Text Available As a media form entwined in the U.S. military-industrial complex, video games continue to celebrate imperialist imagery and Western-centric narratives of the great white explorer (Breger, 2008; Dyer-Witheford & de Peuter, 2009; Geyser & Tshalabala, 2011; Mukherjee, 2016. While much ink has been spilt on the detrimental effects of colonial imagery on those it objectifies and dehumanises, the question is why these games still get made, and what mechanisms are at work in the enjoyment of empire-themed play experiences. To explore this question, this article develops the concept of ‘casual empire’, suggesting that the wish to play games as a casual pastime expedites the incidental circulation of imperialist ideology. Three examples – 'Resident Evil V' (2009, 'The Conquest: Colonization' (2015 and 'Playing History: Slave Trade' (2013 – are used to demonstrate the production and consumption of casual empire across multiple platforms, genres and player bases. Following a brief contextualisation of postcolonial (game studies, this article addresses casual design, by which I understand game designers’ casual reproduction of inferential racism (Hall, 1995 for the sake of entertainment. I then look at casual play, and players’ attitudes to games as rational commodities continuing a history of commodity racism (McClintock, 1995. Finally, the article investigates the casual involvement of formalist game studies in the construction of imperial values. These three dimensions of the casual – design, play and academia – make up the three pillars of the casual empire that must be challenged to undermine video games’ neocolonialist praxis.
Sanford, Kathy; Madill, Leanna
The rapidly growing phenomenon of video games, along with learning that takes place through video game play, have raised concerns about the negative impact such games are reputed to have on youth, particularly boys. However, there is a disconnect between the discourse that suggests that boys are failing in learning literacy skills, and the…
Klimmt, C.; Rizzo, A.; Vorderer, P.A.; Koch, J.; Fischer, T.
Based on theoretical assumptions from film psychology and their application to video games, the hypothesis is tested that suspense is a major factor in video game enjoyment. A first-person shooter game was experimentally manipulated to create either a low level or a high level of suspense.
Gee, James Paul
The author builds on arguments he has made elsewhere that good commercial video games foster deep learning and problem solving and that such games in fact promote mastery as a form of play. Here he maintains that some good video games engage players with an important type of play, namely of play as discovery, of play as surmising new possibilities…
Klimmt, Christoph; Hartmann, Tilo; Frey, Andreas
This article explores video game enjoyment originated by games' key characteristic, interactivity. An online experiment (N=500) tested experiences of effectance (perceived influence on the game world) and of being in control as mechanisms that link interactivity to enjoyment. A video game was manipulated to either allow normal play, reduce perceived effectance, or reduce perceived control. Enjoyment ratings suggest that effectance is an important factor in video game enjoyment but that the relationship between control of the game situation and enjoyment is more complex.
HAESEN, Mieke; MESKENS, Jan; CONINX, Karin
Finding a suitable video fragment in a vast video archive is mostly a complex task. Even professional users have to skim many hours of stored video data before they find the desired content. In this paper, we present a user-centred software engineering approach that is employed to create a novel news video explorer for TV broadcasting industry. This approach helps to ensure the balance between the tech-nological progress in the field of information retrieval on the one hand and the needs and ...
Frye, Jonathan M.
For decades, game designers and game studies experts have largely sought to understand video game players through a lens of experience and observation. Meanwhile, social science research has focused on the empirical understanding of video game players using a variety of psychological constructs. This study focuses on the creation and evaluation of…
Full Text Available The experience of image culture and convergence era effects on every field of social life, reconfigures the means and its mediations and provokes aesthetics and contents innovations. The webTVs are born as singular environments, characterized by a new way to see and make television. This work points possibilities of use of universities’ webTVs as relevant environments to the vocational training, once they are constituted, potentially, by spaces of experimentation of audiovisual language and multimedia resources and socialization. This article presents results of a study about four universities’ webTVs from Rio de Janeiro city.
Hull, Damien C; Williams, Glenn A; Griffiths, Mark D
Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video game addiction. A total of 110 video game players were surveyed about a game they had recently played by using a 24-item checklist of structural characteristics, an adapted Flow State Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Game Addiction Scale. The study revealed decreases in general happiness had the strongest role in predicting increases in gaming addiction. One of the nine factors of the flow experience was a significant predictor of gaming addiction - perceptions of time being altered during play. The structural characteristic that significantly predicted addiction was its social element with increased sociability being associated with higher levels of addictive-like experiences. Overall, the structural characteristics of video games, elements of the flow experience, and general happiness accounted for 49.2% of the total variance in Game Addiction Scale levels. Implications for interventions are discussed, particularly with regard to making players more aware of time passing and in capitalising on benefits of social features of video game play to guard against addictive-like tendencies among video game players.
Hull, Damien C.; Williams, Glenn A.; Griffiths, Mark D.
Aims: Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video game addiction. Method: A total of 110 video game players were surveyed about a game they had recently played by using a 24-item checklist of structural characteristics, an adapted Flow State Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Game Addiction Scale. Results: The study revealed decreases in general happiness had the strongest role in predicting increases in gaming addiction. One of the nine factors of the flow experience was a significant predictor of gaming addiction – perceptions of time being altered during play. The structural characteristic that significantly predicted addiction was its social element with increased sociability being associated with higher levels of addictive-like experiences. Overall, the structural characteristics of video games, elements of the flow experience, and general happiness accounted for 49.2% of the total variance in Game Addiction Scale levels. Conclusions: Implications for interventions are discussed, particularly with regard to making players more aware of time passing and in capitalising on benefits of social features of video game play to guard against addictive-like tendencies among video game players. PMID:25215196
Welch, Alicia J.
A study assessed the role of various mass media in the day-to-day lives of school-aged children. Research questions dealt with the nature of children's media experiences at home, how use of media impacts school activities, the social context of media use, interior responses to different media, and whether gender or socioeconomic differences among…
Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane
The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games…
Hamlen, Karla R.
Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games…
Full Text Available Videogames are one of the most significant developments in the mass arts of recent times. In commercial terms, they are now among the most prominent of the mass arts worldwide. This commercial and cultural success does not exhaust the interest in videogames as a mass art phenomenon because games such as Grand Theft Auto IV and Fallout 3 are structurally radically different from previous forms of mass art. In particular, the ontology of videogames, the nature and identity of their works, and how they are instanced and evaluated is a departure from the familiar mass arts of film and popular music. This paper explores these differences in an attempt to fit videogames into a theory of mass art, but also to provide guidance on the issues of criticism and evaluation that surely follow from their ontological distinctiveness.
Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; McClure, Auden C; Sargent, James D
Obesity affects health in children and adolescents. Television viewing is an established risk factor for obesity in youth. No prospective study has assessed whether a bedroom television confers an additional risk for obesity in youth. To assess the prospective association between the presence of a bedroom television and change in body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), independent of television viewing, in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. We conducted a random-digit prospective telephone survey that captured children and adolescents from across the United States. Participants included 6522 boys and girls aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were surveyed via telephone about media risk factors for obesity.Weighted regressions assessed adiposity at 2- and 4-year follow-up, controlling for television and movie viewing, video-game playing, parenting, age, sex, race or ethnicity, household income, and parental educational level. Report of having a television in the bedroom at baseline. Age- and sex-adjusted BMI based on self-report and parent report of weight and height at 2- and 4-year follow-up. Distributions for age, sex, race or ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were similar to census estimates for the US population. Sample weighting methods accounted for higher dropout rates among ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Bedroom televisions were reported by 59.1%of participants at baseline, with boys, ethnic minorities, and those of lower socioeconomic status having significantly higher rates. In multivariate analyses, having a bedroom television was associated with an excess BMI of 0.57 (95%CI, 0.31-0.82) and 0.75 (0.38-1.12) at years 2 and 4, respectively, and a BMI gain of 0.24 (0.02-0.45) from years 2 to 4. Having a bedroom television is associated with weight gain beyond the effect of television viewing time. This association could be the result of
Full Text Available Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games.Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass.Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games.Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence.Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies.
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M.; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games. Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence. Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies. PMID:28588464
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games. Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence. Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies.
Dutta, Nirjhar; Pereira, Mark A
The objective of this study was to estimate the mean difference in energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adults between playing active video games (AVGs) compared with traditional video games (TVGs) or rest. A systematic search was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and Academic Search Premier between 1998 and April 2012 for relevant keywords, yielding 15 studies. EE and heart rate (HR) data were extracted, and random effects meta-analysis was performed. EE during AVG play was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29-2.34; I² = 94.2%) kcal/kg/hr higher, or about 108 kcal higher per hour for a 60-kg person, compared with TVG play. Mean HR was 21 (95% CI, 13.7-28.3; I² = 93.4%) beats higher per minute during AVG play compared with TVG play. There was wide variation in the EE and HR estimates across studies because different games were evaluated. Overall metabolic equivalent associated with AVG play was 2.62 (95% CI, 2.25-3.00; I² = 99.2%), equivalent to a light activity level. Most studies had low risk of bias due to proper study design and use of indirect calorimetry to measure EE. AVGs may be used to replace sedentary screen time (eg, television watching or TVG play) with light activity in healthy adults.
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar
While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life.
Carlos Frederico de Brito dAndrea
RESUMO O artigo tem como objetivos: 1) caracterizar os vídeos “amadores” publicados por quatro webTVs (TV Estadão, O Globo Vídeos, TV ZH e TV O Tempo) sobre os protestos de junho de 2013; e 2) discutir em que medida eles se aproximam da noção de "imagens violentas" (JOST, 2007). Discutimos as características das imagens “amadoras” e sua legitimação nas produções audiovisuais de redações jornalísticas convergentes. No estudo empírico, apresentamos as diferentes estratégias de captação e ediçã...
O'Connell, E. A.
The Frontier Scientists National Science Foundation project titled Science in Alaska: Using Multimedia to Support Science Education produced research products in several formats: videos short and long, blogs, social media, a computer game, and a pop-up book. These formats reached distinctly different audiences. Internet users, public TV viewers, gamers, schools, and parents & young children were drawn to Frontier Scientists' research in direct and indirect ways. The analytics (our big data) derived from this media broadcast has given us insight into what works, what doesn't, next steps. We have evidence for what is needed to present science as an interesting, vital, and a necessary component for the general public's daily information diet and as an important tool for scientists to publicize research and to thrive in their careers. Collaborations with scientists at several Universities, USGS, Native organizations, tourism organizations, and Alaska Museums promoted accuracy of videos and increased viewing. For example, Erin Marbarger, at Anchorage Museum, edited, and provided Spark!Lab to test parents & child's interest in the pop-up book titled: The Adventures of Apun the Arctic Fox. Without a marketing budget Frontier Scientist's minimum publicity, during the three year project, still drew an audience. Frontier Scientists was awarded Best Website 2016 by the Alaska Press Club, and won a number of awards for short videos and TV programs.
Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul; Stewart, Iain
Educational outreach plays a vital role in improving the resilience of vulnerable populations at risk from natural disasters. Currently, that activity is undertaken in many guises including the distribution of leaflets and posters, maps, presentations, education sessions and through radio and TV broadcasts. Such tried-and-tested communication modes generally target traditional stakeholder groups, but it is becoming increasingly important to engage with the new generation of learners who, due to advancements in technology, obtain information in ways different to their predecessors. That new generation is defined by a technological way of life and it remains a challenge to keep them motivated. On the eastern Caribbean island of St. Vincent, the La Soufriere Volcano lies in quiescence since the last eruption in 1979. Since then, an entire generation - over 56% of the population (Worldbank, 2015) - has little or no direct experience of a volcanic eruption. The island experiences, more frequently, other hazards (hurricanes, flooding, earthquakes landsliding), such that disaster preparedness measures give less priority to volcanic threats, which are deemed to pose less of a risk. With no accurate predictions to warn of the next eruption, it is especially important to educate residents about the potential of future volcanic hazards on the island, and to motivate them to prepare to mitigate their risk. This research critically examines the application of video games in supporting and enhancing existing public education and outreach programmes for volcanic hazards. St. Vincent's Volcano is a computer game designed to improve awareness and knowledge of the eruptive phenomena from La Soufriere that could pose a threat to residents. Within an interactive and immersive environment, players become acquainted with a 3D model of St. Vincent together with an overlay of the established volcanic hazard map (Robertson, 2005). Players are able to view visualisations of two historical
Moshirnia, Andrew; Israel, Maya
Despite the increasing popularity of many commercial video games, this popularity is not shared by educational video games. Modified video games, however, can bridge the gap in quality between commercial and education video games by embedding educational content into popular commercial video games. This study examined how different information…
M.A. Montagud Climent (Mario); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); F. Boronat (Fernando); D. Marfil (Dani)
htmlabstractThis paper provides an overview of the impact and opportunities provided by Social Media and other social interaction tools when watching TV/video content. The analysis has been conducted from the viewpoints of both individual and shared media experiences between remote users. On the one
Wirth, Werner; Ryffel, Fabian; von Pape, Thilo; Karnowski, Veronika
This study examines the development of video game enjoyment over time. The results of a longitudinal study (N=62) show that enjoyment increases over several sessions. Moreover, results of a multilevel regression model indicate a causal link between the dependent variable video game enjoyment and the predictor variables exploratory behavior, spatial presence, competence, suspense and solution, and simulated experiences of life. These findings are important for video game research because they reveal the antecedents of video game enjoyment in a real-world longitudinal setting. Results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of video game enjoyment under real-world conditions.
Jalink, Maarten B; Goris, Jetse; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O
Recently, there has been a growth in studies supporting the hypothesis that video games have positive effects on basic laparoscopic skills. This review discusses all studies directly related to these effects. A search in the PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed using synonymous terms for video games and laparoscopy. All available articles concerning video games and their effects on skills on any laparoscopic simulator (box trainer, virtual reality, and animal models) were selected. Video game experience has been related to higher baseline laparoscopic skills in different studies. There is currently, however, no standardized method to assess video game experience, making it difficult to compare these studies. Several controlled experiments have, nevertheless, shown that video games cannot only be used to improve laparoscopic basic skills in surgical novices, but are also used as a temporary warming-up before laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Yan; Wang, Ruiping; Cui, Zhen; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin
We address the problem of face video retrieval in TV-series which searches video clips based on the presence of specific character, given one face track of his/her. This is tremendously challenging because on one hand, faces in TV-series are captured in largely uncontrolled conditions with complex appearance variations, and on the other hand retrieval task typically needs efficient representation with low time and space complexity. To handle this problem, we propose a compact and discriminative representation for the huge body of video data, named Compact Video Code (CVC). Our method first models the face track by its sample (i.e., frame) covariance matrix to capture the video data variations in a statistical manner. To incorporate discriminative information and obtain more compact video signature suitable for retrieval, the high-dimensional covariance representation is further encoded as a much lower-dimensional binary vector, which finally yields the proposed CVC. Specifically, each bit of the code, i.e., each dimension of the binary vector, is produced via supervised learning in a max margin framework, which aims to make a balance between the discriminability and stability of the code. Besides, we further extend the descriptive granularity of covariance matrix from traditional pixel-level to more general patchlevel, and proceed to propose a novel hierarchical video representation named Spatial Pyramid Covariance (SPC) along with a fast calculation method. Face retrieval experiments on two challenging TV-series video databases, i.e., the Big Bang Theory and Prison Break, demonstrate the competitiveness of the proposed CVC over state-of-the-art retrieval methods. In addition, as a general video matching algorithm, CVC is also evaluated in traditional video face recognition task on a standard Internet database, i.e., YouTube Celebrities, showing its quite promising performance by using an extremely compact code with only 128 bits.
This research study examines the types of social behaviors portrayed by families in various television series and explores children's impressions of the TV family members. Content analysis of nine family-oriented TV series was employed to describe the ranges of behaviors of fathers, mothers and children on television. Eleven shows from each series…
Roebuck, Andrew J; Dubnyk, Aurora J B; Cochran, David; Mandryk, Regan L; Howland, John G; Harms, Victoria
Research in asymmetrical visuospatial attention has identified a leftward bias in the general population across a variety of measures including visual attention and line-bisection tasks. In addition, increases in rightward collisions, or bumping, during visuospatial navigation tasks have been demonstrated in real world and virtual environments. However, little research has investigated these biases beyond the laboratory. The present study uses a semi-naturalistic approach and the online video game streaming service Twitch to examine navigational errors and assaults as skilled action video game players (n = 60) compete in Counter Strike: Global Offensive. This study showed a significant rightward bias in both fatal assaults and navigational errors. Analysis using the in-game ranking system as a measure of skill failed to show a relationship between bias and skill. These results suggest that a leftward visuospatial bias may exist in skilled players during online video game play. However, the present study was unable to account for some factors such as environmental symmetry and player handedness. In conclusion, video game streaming is a promising method for behavioural research in the future, however further study is required before one can determine whether these results are an artefact of the method applied, or representative of a genuine rightward bias.
Smith, Andrew C
Full Text Available The authors present the prototype design results of an alternative physical educational video gaming input device. The device elicits increased physical activity from the players as compared to the compact gaming controller. Complicated...
Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...
Fernandez , Adrian; Insfran , Emilio; Abrahão , Silvia; Carsí , José ,; Montero , Emanuel
Part 3: Short Papers; International audience; The increasing complexity of video game development highlights the need of design and evaluation methods for enhancing quality and reducing time and cost. In this context, Model-Driven Development approaches seem to be very promising since a video game can be obtained by transforming platform-independent models into platform-specific models that can be in turn transformed into code. Although this approach is started to being used for video game de...
The work presented in this dissertation revolves around the problem of designing artificial intelligence (AI) for video games. This problem becomes increasingly challenging as video games grow in complexity. With modern video games frequently featuring sophisticated and realistic environments, the need for smart and comprehensive agents that understand the various aspects of these environments is pressing. Although machine learning techniques are being successfully applied in a multitude of d...
Ian Graham Ronald Shaw; Barney Warf
Video games are virtual worlds, each with its own, distinctive spatiality. This paper suggests that there are two interrelated conceptual dimensions to the study of video games. First, there are the representational issues concerning the worlds depicted in video games, such as those portraying hypersexualized women or Orientalist depictions of Arab enemies. We suggest, however, that these cultural, sexual, and political representations are not the only forces doing work on the player within t...
Blankenbeckler, Logan Bryan
Over the past few decades, video games have become a popular avenue for dissemination of information and publicity about video games is word-of-mouth sharing. Thus, it is imperative for researchers to examine the social, and individual processes that guide this behavior. Focusing on prerelease sharing behavior specifically, this pair of studies aimed to identify predictors and dimensions of video game information sharing, and explore the impact content characteristics have on individuals' ...
There has been an increasing interest in the debate on the value and relevance using video games for learning. Some of the interest stems from frustration with current educational methods. However, some of this interest also stems from the observations of large numbers of children that play video games. This paper finds that children can learn basic construction skills from playing a video game called World of Goo. The study also employed novel eye-tracking technology to measure endogenous ey...
Siti Murtiningsih, Joko Siswanto, M. Mukhtasar Syamsudin
Abstract: Education Problems of Video Games in the Perspective of Jean Baudrillard’s Theory of Simulacra. In the era of digital age, we are witnessing how video games penetrate children’s daily life and it is believed to have some impacts on their cognitive and affective processes. Referring to hermeneutical approach, the present library research seeks to answer the question whether video games create a real identity or simply forge false consciousness in children. In the first step, the data...
Christou, Georgios; Law, Effie; Geerts, David; Nacke, Lennart; Zaphiris, Panayiotis
The emergence of Online Video Games has led to new ways of socializing with friends. Nowadays a good online game is also associated with the pleasure of socializing and interaction with other players. One cannot play such a game solitarily in a meaningful sense without interacting with the other players. However, there are still no integrated ways of designing and evaluating the inherent sociability of online video games, nor are there methods or guidelines for designing and evaluating social...
Poels, Yorick; Annema, Jan Henk; Zaman, Bieke; Cornillie, Frederik
This paper will report on an ongoing project which aims to develop video games for language learning through a user-centered and evidence-based approach. Therefore, codesign sessions were held with adolescents between 14 and 16 years old, in order to gain insight into their preferences for educational games for language learning. During these sessions, 11 concepts for video games were developed. We noticed a divide between the concepts for games that were oriented towa...
Mac Sithigh, Daithi
The Digital Economy Act 2010, better known for its much-debated copyright provisions, also facilitates major changes to the statutory regulation of computer and video games in the United Kingdom. This article sets out the history of the regulation of game content by the BBFC and the video game industry, reviews the various reports and interventions that led to the 2010 provisions, and considers the implications of various new definitions. The possible separation of film and games is considere...
Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane
The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views.
This thesis explores the roles of popular music in video games. It draws on the analytical tools used in ludomusicology, film music studies and studies of music videos. Unlike other audiovisual media, video games are based on interactivity and a range of narrativity based on genre. Some games focus on gameplay and others are more inclined with telling a good story. Implementation of popular music in video games has history stretching all the way back to the 80's, and is currently becoming an ...
Etter, Darryl; Kamen, Charles; Etter, Kelly; Gore-Felton, Cheryl
Many of the current generation of veterans grew up with video games, including military first-person shooter (MFPS) video games. In MFPS games, players take the role of soldiers engaged in combat in environments modeled on real-life warzones. Exposure to trauma-congruent game content may either serve to exacerbate or to ameliorate posttraumatic symptoms. The current study examined the relationship between MFPS and other shooter video game playing and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among current and former members of the military (N = 111). Results indicated that video game play was very common, and 41.4% of participants reported playing MFPS or other shooter games (shooter players group). The shooter players group reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms than participants who did not play any video or shooter games (nonshooter/nonplayers group; d = 0.44); however, playing shooter games was not predictive of PTSD symptoms after accounting for personality, combat exposure, and social support variables. This may indicate that the same psychosocial factors predict both PTSD and shooter video game play. Although veterans may benefit from the development and use of clinical applications of video games in PTSD treatment, clinical attention should continue to focus on established psychosocial predictors of PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Olson, Janet
Research on immediate effects of background television during mother-infant toy play shows that an operating television in the room disrupts maternal communicative behaviors crucial for infants' vocabulary acquisition. This study is the first to examine associations between frequent background TV/video exposure during mother-infant toy play at…
Walter Richard Boot
Full Text Available Frequent action video game players often outperform non-gamers on measures of perception and cognition, and some studies find that video game practice enhances those abilities. The possibility that video game training transfers broadly to other aspects of cognition is exciting because training on one task rarely improves performance on others. At first glance, the cumulative evidence suggests a strong relationship between gaming experience and other cognitive abilities, but methodological shortcomings call that conclusion into question. We discuss these pitfalls, identify how existing studies succeed or fail in overcoming them, and provide guidelines for more definitive tests of the effects of gaming on cognition.
Weinstein, Aviv Malkiel
Computer game addiction is excessive or compulsive use of computer and video games that may interfere with daily life. It is not clear whether video game playing meets diagnostic criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). First objective is to review the literature on computer and video game addiction over the topics of diagnosis, phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment. Second objective is to describe a brain imaging study measuring dopamine release during computer game playing. Article search of 15 published articles between 2000 and 2009 in Medline and PubMed on computer and video game addiction. Nine abstinent "ecstasy" users and 8 control subjects were scanned at baseline and after performing on a motorbike riding computer game while imaging dopamine release in vivo with [123I] IBZM and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Psycho-physiological mechanisms underlying computer game addiction are mainly stress coping mechanisms, emotional reactions, sensitization, and reward. Computer game playing may lead to long-term changes in the reward circuitry that resemble the effects of substance dependence. The brain imaging study showed that healthy control subjects had reduced dopamine D2 receptor occupancy of 10.5% in the caudate after playing a motorbike riding computer game compared with baseline levels of binding consistent with increased release and binding to its receptors. Ex-chronic "ecstasy" users showed no change in levels of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy after playing this game. This evidence supports the notion that psycho-stimulant users have decreased sensitivity to natural reward. Computer game addicts or gamblers may show reduced dopamine response to stimuli associated with their addiction presumably due to sensitization.
Thompson, Kimberly M; Tepichin, Karen; Haninger, Kevin
To quantify the depiction of violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in video games rated M (for "mature") and to measure agreement between the content observed and the rating information provided to consumers on the game box by the Entertainment Software Rating Board. We created a database of M-rated video game titles, selected a random sample, recorded at least 1 hour of game play, quantitatively assessed the content, performed statistical analyses to describe the content, and compared our observations with the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors and results of our prior studies. Harvard University, Boston, Mass. Authors and 1 hired game player. M-rated video games. Percentages of game play depicting violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; use of profanity in dialogue, song lyrics, or gestures. Although the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors for violence and blood provide a good indication of such content in the game, we identified 45 observations of content that could warrant a content descriptor in 29 games (81%) that lacked these content descriptors. M-rated video games are significantly more likely to contain blood, profanity, and substances; depict more severe injuries to human and nonhuman characters; and have a higher rate of human deaths than video games rated T (for "teen"). Parents and physicians should recognize that popular M-rated video games contain a wide range of unlabeled content and may expose children and adolescents to messages that may negatively influence their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.
Courage, Mary L.; Setliff, Alissa E.
The recent increase in the availability of infant-directed video material (e.g., "Baby Einstein") and the corresponding increase in the amount of time that infants and toddlers spend viewing them have prompted concern among parents and professionals that these media might impede aspects of cognitive and social development. In contrast, supporters…
Héctor Alejandro Galvis Guerrero
This small-scale action-research study examines the perceptions of four students in a military academy in Colombia undergoing the processof using a mainstream video game in their EFL classes instead of classic forms of instruction. The video game used served to approach EFL by means of language exploratory activities designed according to the context present in the video game and the course linguistic objectives. This study was conducted on the grounds that computer technology offers the poss...
Full Text Available The literature provides some evidence that the use of violent video games increases the risk for young people to develop aggressive cognitions and even behaviors. We aimed to verify whether exposure to violent video games is linked to problems of aggression in a sample of Italian children. Four questionnaires were administered to 346 children between 7 and 14 years of age, attending primary and secondary schools in Northern Italy. Variables measured were externalization, quality of interpersonal relationships, aggression, quality of coping strategies, and parental stress. Participants who preferred violent games showed higher scores for externalization and aggression. The use of violent video games and age were linked to higher levels of aggression, coping strategies, and the habitual video game weekly consumption of participants. Our data confirm the role of violent video games as risk factors for problems of aggressive behavior and of externalization in childhood and early adolescence.
Considers characteristics of educational television that militate against effective language learning and argues that further research is needed to ascertain whether language development is promoted by educational television and which programs and formats are best. Research in the United States and suggestions for future research are discussed.…
Baer, Walter S.; And Others
This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…
Ateneo de Manila Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Center for Educational Television.
Information about instructional television (ITV) programing in the Philippines is summarized in this three part document. An outline of the status of the Center for Educational Television, Inc., (CETV) and a description of its current activities and financial support are provided in the first section. A narrative review of both CETV and other…
Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC…
Davies, Bryan; Blake, Edwin
Public concern surrounding the effects video games have on players has inspired a large body of research, and policy makers in China and South Korea have even mandated systems that limit the amount of time players spend in game. The authors present an experiment that evaluates the effectiveness of such policies. They show that forcibly removing players from the game environment causes distress, potentially removing some of the benefits that games provide and producing a desire for more game time. They also show that, with an understanding of player psychology, playtime can be manipulated without significantly changing the user experience or negating the positive effects of video games.
Full Text Available Video games create a virtual space that can be inhabited in various ways by the players. Despite the controversies in which they are constantly included, electronic games bear witness to the modus operandi in our contemporary cognition permeated by technical objects. By focusing the know-how instead of a declarative experience the games open questions in the field of new literacies and problematize the use of technology in teaching practices. From the development of a locative game at the Botanical Garden of Porto Alegre, this article discussed some, methodological, political and theoretical implications arising from the research with video games in the field of cognitive studies. We discuss, finally, three theoretical / methodological implications the practice with video games forces us to think: research the video game through the process of its operation, questioning cognitive policies that organize our everyday and map the complex web of practices that supports the use of technical objects.
Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael
Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to T...
José Miguel Garrido Miranda
Full Text Available In order to investigate the reasons that motivate students to play with strategy video games, an analysis of the observed discourse and practices of fifteen Chilean high school students during collective gaming sessions was conducted. By means of an ethno-methodological analysis, we preceded to identify and saturate emerging categories to determine the interests that impel these students to play. The findings, seen from a pedagogical perspective, suggest that the feeling of being part of a scene, solving increasingly complex situations and positively assessing the uncertainty produced by interaction with this type of environment, can become guiding elements for improving the design of teaching situations supported by the use of digital technologies in the classroom.
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specifi...
Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game…
... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-182; RM-11701; DA 13-1882] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...
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Aaron V Berard
Full Text Available Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT, a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.
Berard, Aaron V; Cain, Matthew S; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka
Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT), a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.
Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia
With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.
Full Text Available The aim of the PotuGame proposal to give a step more on strategies already developed in previous Potu Program (Programa d’Orientació i Transició a la Universitat-UIB. For that we add a new multidisciplinary component that enables high school students, teachers and researchers from UIB to share knowledge of the research conducted using a common language or a common world. Therefore it is considered very appropriate to use the technologies related to the creation of virtual worlds, especially those aimed in online video games as a means to allow vehicle for the transmission of knowledge in an interactive and fun way increasing mass participation of all components of the teaching environment at all levels. Several experiments have been developed and that have been implemented in several virtual worlds. The final tool used was the Unreal SDK.
King, DL; Delfabbro, PH; Griffiths, MD
The structural characteristics of video games may play an important role in explaining why some people play video games to excess. This paper provides a review of the literature on structural features of video games and the psychological experience of playing video games. The dominant view of the appeal of video games is based on operant conditioning theory and the notion that video games satisfy various needs for social interaction and belonging. However, there is a lack of experimental and ...
This paper explores video game trailers, their various forms and the roles they play within video game industry and culture. It offers an overview of the current practice of video game trailer differentiation and proposes a new typology of video game trailers based on their relation to ludic and cinematic aspects of a video game, combining the theory of paratexts, video game performance framework, the interface effect concept, as well as the concept of transmedia storytelling. This typology r...
Tse G. Tan; Jason Teo; Patricia Anthony
Problem statement: The retail sales of computer and video games have grown enormously during the last few years, not just in United States (US), but also all over the world. This is the reason a lot of game developers and academic researchers have focused on game related technologies, such as graphics, audio, physics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) with the goal of creating newer and more fun games. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in game AI for pro...
Hauk, Esther; Immordino, Giovanni; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica; Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica
This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children which is costly and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV's entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural di...
Markey, Patrick M.; Ferguson, Christopher J.
In this excerpt from their new book, "Moral Combat: Why the War on Violent Video Games Is Wrong" (BenBella Books, 2017), the authors present an argument in defense of video games while dispelling the myth that such games lead to real-world violence. The authors define and examine moral panics and provide guidelines for identifying and…
Discusses the importance of positive video game experiences and designs that can create them, including immediacy of feedback, allowing graceful recovery from mistakes, high-quality feedback, and input device mappings. Examines interface complexity. Concludes game designers must treat the interaction between human and video game as a formal…
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ethical implications of video game companies employing psychologists and using psychological research in game design. Design/methodology/approach The author first argues that exploiting psychology in video games may be more ethically
Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B
Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shipman, John M., Jr.
In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…
This Spanish-language digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders…
Full Text Available This paper explores video game trailers, their various forms and the roles they play within video game industry and culture. It offers an overview of the current practice of video game trailer differentiation and proposes a new typology of video game trailers based on their relation to ludic and cinematic aspects of a video game, combining the theory of paratexts, video game performance framework, the interface effect concept, as well as the concept of transmedia storytelling. This typology reflects the historical evolution of a video game trailer and also takes into account current trends in the audiovisual paratexts of video games.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne
Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.
Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F
Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling. This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 healthy male adults (age, 18-23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel Internet video game, "War Rock" (K2 Network, Irvine, CA). Using segments of videotape consisting of 5 contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control, and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a 7-point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. In responding to Internet video game stimuli, compared with neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (false discovery rate Internet video game showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal precentral gyrus, right parietal postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the Internet video game in the subjects who played more Internet video game was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to Internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathologic gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal
Pujol, Jesus; Fenoll, Raquel; Forns, Joan; Harrison, Ben J; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Macià, Dídac; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; González-Ortiz, Sofía; Deus, Joan; Sunyer, Jordi
Despite extensive debate, the proposed benefits and risks of video gaming in young people remain to be empirically clarified, particularly as regards an optimal level of use. In 2,442 children aged 7 to 11 years, we investigated relationships between weekly video game use, selected cognitive abilities, and conduct-related problems. A large subgroup of these children (n = 260) was further examined with magnetic resonance imaging approximately 1 year later to assess the impact of video gaming on brain structure and function. Playing video games for 1 hour per week was associated with faster and more consistent psychomotor responses to visual stimulation. Remarkably, no further change in motor speed was identified in children playing >2 hours per week. By comparison, the weekly time spent gaming was steadily associated with conduct problems, peer conflicts, and reduced prosocial abilities. These negative implications were clearly visible only in children at the extreme of our game-playing distribution, with 9 hours or more of video gaming per week. At a neural level, changes associated with gaming were most evident in basal ganglia white matter and functional connectivity. Significantly better visuomotor skills can be seen in school children playing video games, even with relatively small amounts of use. Frequent weekly use, by contrast, was associated with conduct problems. Further studies are needed to determine whether moderate video gaming causes improved visuomotor skills and whether excessive video gaming causes conduct problems, or whether children who already have these characteristics simply play more video games. Ann Neurol 2016;80:424-433. © 2016 American Neurological Association.
Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P
Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barko, Timothy; Sadler, Troy D.
This paper looks at the conceptual differences between video game learning and traditional classroom and laboratory learning. It explores the notion of virtual experience by comparing a commonly used high school laboratory protocol on DNA extraction with a similar experience provided by a biotechnology themed video game. When considered…
Little is known about how to design serious video games for children. The purpose of this paper is to describe how behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation were incorporated into a serious video game to help children consume more fruit and vegetables, and the extent to which these techn...
Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk
This article examines current research linking exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence. Data from questionnaire, behavioral, and psychophysiologic research are reviewed to determine if exposure to violent video games is a risk factor for desensitization to violence. Real-world implications of desensitization are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donohue, Sarah E; Woldorff, Marty G; Mitroff, Stephen R
Recent research has demonstrated enhanced visual attention and visual perception in individuals with extensive experience playing action video games. These benefits manifest in several realms, but much remains unknown about the ways in which video game experience alters perception and cognition. In the present study, we examined whether video game players' benefits generalize beyond vision to multisensory processing by presenting auditory and visual stimuli within a short temporal window to video game players and non-video game players. Participants performed two discrimination tasks, both of which revealed benefits for video game players: In a simultaneity judgment task, video game players were better able to distinguish whether simple visual and auditory stimuli occurred at the same moment or slightly offset in time, and in a temporal-order judgment task, they revealed an enhanced ability to determine the temporal sequence of multisensory stimuli. These results suggest that people with extensive experience playing video games display benefits that extend beyond the visual modality to also impact multisensory processing.
Hartmann, T.; Möller, I.; Krause, C.
Research has consistently shown that males play violent video games more frequently than females, but factors underlying this gender gap have not been examined to date. This approach examines the assumption that males play violent video games more because they anticipate more enjoyment and less
Anderson, Craig, A.
This article presents a brief overview of existing research on the effects of exposure to violent video games. An updated meta-analysis reveals that exposure to violent video games is significantly linked to increases in aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, and cardiovascular arousal, and to decreases in helping…
Mayo, Merrilea J
Video games have enormous mass appeal, reaching audiences in the hundreds of thousands to millions. They also embed many pedagogical practices known to be effective in other environments. This article reviews the sparse but encouraging data on learning outcomes for video games in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, then reviews the infrastructural obstacles to wider adoption of this new medium.
A growing body of research focuses on the impact of video games and coding on learning. The research often elevates learning the technical skills associated with video games and coding or the importance of problem solving and computational thinking, which are, of course, necessary and relevant. However, the literature less often explores how young…
Based on a significant increase in correspondence to the author from parents, teachers and psychologists concerning "addiction" to online video games like "World of Warcraft", this paper provides a brief overview of the main issues surrounding excessive video game playing among adolescents. As an aid to educational psychologists, and based on two…
Moffat, David C.; Crombie, William; Shabalina, Olga
It is said that playing video games might make people more creative. There is some evidence of an association, but no so far general theory about any psychological causes, or other key factors. In this study, we test the possibility that different sorts of video games may have different effects, on different types of creativity; or none at all.…
Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Tavormina, Romina
The frequent and protracted use of video games with serious personal, family and social consequences is no longer just a pleasant pastime and could lead to mental and physical health problems. Although there is no official recognition of video game addiction on the Internet as a mild mental health disorder, further scientific research is needed.
Ceranoglu, Tolga Atilla
Objective: Video games are used in medical practice during psycho-education in chronic disease management, physical therapy, rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury, and as an adjunct in pain management during medical procedures or cancer chemotherapy. In psychiatric practice, video games aid in social skills training of children with…
The limited number of studies on intergenerational play suggests that not many parents play video games with their children (Lenhart, Jones, & Macgill, 2008). However, when intentionally designed to support intergenerational play, video game could provide an opportunity for parents and children to connect in new and powerful ways, especially…
Whether a population level increase in physical activity (PA) is critical to reduce obesity in youth. Video games are highly popular and active video games (AVGs) have the potential to play a role in promoting youth PA. Studies on AVG play energy expenditure (EE) and maintenance of play in youth wer...
This study attempts to identify the typological-research domain of the extant literature on video games related to college-age samples (18-29 years-of-age). A content analysis of 264 articles, from PsycINFO for these identifiers, was performed. Findings showed that negative or pathological aspects of video gaming, i.e., violence potential,…
Ray, Beverly B.; Powell, Angiline; Jacobsen, Brenda
Despite their popularity with learners, many K-12 teachers are reluctant to use video games as learning tools. Addressing issues surrounding this reluctance is important since the educational use of video games is supported by learning theory and an emerging research base. Specifically, this study adopts exploratory research as a means to examine…
Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L
Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.
Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou
Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Using 2007 National Survey of Children's Health data, we used multivariable logistic regression to identify sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with excessive screen time among 6 to 11- and 12 to 17-year-olds on a typical weekday. For 12 to 17-year-olds only, we used logistic regression to examine the odds of obesity using the same variables as above, with the addition of screen time. Overall, 20.8% of 6 to 11-year-olds and 26.1% of 12 to 17-year-olds had excessive screen time. For both age groups, having a bedroom TV was significantly associated with excessive screen time. For the older age group, the dual scenario of excessive screen time with a bedroom TV had the strongest association with obesity (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.9, 3.2). Given the similar risk factors for excess screen time and having a TV in the bedroom, a public health challenge exists to design interventions to reduce screen time among school-aged youth. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Barko, Timothy; Sadler, Troy D.
This paper looks at the conceptual differences between video game learning and traditional classroom and laboratory learning. It explores the notion of virtual experience by comparing a commonly used high school laboratory protocol on DNA extraction with a similar experience provided by a biotechnology themed video game. When considered conceptually, the notion of virtual experience is not limited to those experiences generated by computer aided technology, as with a video game or computer simulation. The notion of virtuality can apply to many real world experiences as well. It is proposed that the medium of the learning experience, be it video game or classroom, is not an important distinction to consider; instead, we should seek to determine what kinds of meaningful experiences apply for both classrooms and video games.
Lynch, Jeremy; Aughwane, Paul; Hammond, Toby M
Surgical training is rapidly evolving because of reduced training hours and the reduction of training opportunities due to patient safety concerns. There is a popular conception that video game usage might be linked to improved operating ability especially those techniques involving endoscopic modalities. If true this might suggest future directions for training. A search was made of the MEDLINE databases for the MeSH term, "Video Games," combined with the terms "Surgical Procedures, Operative," "Endoscopy," "Robotics," "Education," "Learning," "Simulators," "Computer Simulation," "Psychomotor Performance," and "Surgery, Computer-Assisted,"encompassing all journal articles before November 2009. References of articles were searched for further studies. Twelve relevant journal articles were discovered. Video game usage has been studied in relationship to laparoscopic, gastrointestinal endoscopic, endovascular, and robotic surgery. Video game users acquire endoscopic but not robotic techniques quicker, and training on video games appears to improve performance. Copyright (c) 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jirasatmathakul, P; Poovorawan, Y
The present study was performed in order to determine prevalence and favored types of video games among altogether 679 primary and secondary school children in Thailand. To that end, the authors distributed questionnaires comprising detailed questions as to demographic data, playing frequency, available location and preferred type of video games among the parents of the children and adolescents to be investigated. Consistent with the literature, our results showed an early onset of video game playing (7.6 years), a higher prevalence among boys compared with girls, and a predilection for games invoking some aggressive behavior. In conclusion, although health hazards created by video game playing have remained beyond proof we still recommend parents and teachers to play a more active part as to the choice of games and the time spent playing.
Frydenberg, Frederik; Andersen, Kasper; Risi, Sebastian
-style video games. This paper investigates of how well these modifications perform in general video game playing using the general video game AI (GVG-AI) framework and introduces a new MCTS modification called UCT reverse penalty that penalizes the MCTS controller for exploring recently visited children......While Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) methods have shown promise in a variety of different board games, more complex video games still present significant challenges. Recently, several modifications to the core MCTS algorithm have been proposed with the hope to increase its effectiveness on arcade....... The results of our experiments show that a combination of two MCTS modifications can improve the performance of the vanilla MCTS controller, but the effectiveness of the modifications highly depends on the particular game being played....
Bastide, M.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Lebecq, J.C.; Giaimis, J.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.
The effects of continuous exposure of chick embryos and young chickens to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by video display units (VDUs) and GSM cell phone radiation, either the whole spectrum emitted or attenuated by a copper gauze, were investigated. Permanent exposure to the EMFs radiated by a VDU was associated with significantly increased fetal loss (47-68%) and markedly depressed levels of circulating specific antibodies (lgG), corticosterone and melatonin. We have also shown that under chronic exposure conditions, GSM cell phone radiation was harmful to chick embryos, stressful for healthy mice and, in this species, synergistic with cancer insofar as it depleted stress hormones. The same pathological results were observed after substantial reduction of the microwaves radiated from the cell phone by attenuating them with a copper gauze. (author)
Beatty, Ian D.
In order to facilitate analyzing video games as learning systems and instructional designs as games, we present a theoretical framework that integrates ideas from a broad range of literature. The framework describes games in terms of four layers, all sharing similar structural elements and dynamics: a micro-level game focused on immediate problem-solving and skill development, a macro-level game focused on the experience of the game world and story and identity development, and two meta-level...
This article proposes a particular approach to video game music, advocating the usefulness of genre-based enquiry. Two generic levels are active in video game music: ‘interactive genre’ (the type of game/interactive mechanism) and ‘environmental genre’ (the ‘setting’ of the game). The interaction between these levels produces the game’s music. By examining games within the same interactive genre, even if the environmental genre is markedly different, we can begin to uncover similar concerns, ...
Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Mheen, D. van de
The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study
Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Mheen, H. van de
The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study
This study uses information about in-game strategy use, identified through cluster analysis of actions in an educational video game, to make data-driven modifications to the game in order to reduce construct-irrelevant behavior. The examination of student strategies identified through cluster analysis indicated that (a) it was common for students…
This article explores the identity of youth in relation to the information sources they choose in the constellation of information of video games, using the massively multiplayer online game "World of Warcraft" as an example. From this study, several identities are recognized that are combinations of the participants skill and level in the game,…
Eichenbaum, Adam; Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C. Shawn
The authors review recent research that reveals how today's video games instantiate naturally and effectively many principles psychologists, neuroscientists, and educators believe critical for learning. A large body of research exists showing that the effects of these games are much broader. In fact, some types of commercial games have been…
Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Boer, de M.; Seidell, J.; Vet, de E.
Objective - The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of
Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Boer, M. de; Seidell, J.; Vet, E. de
Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of
Full Text Available Interactive fiction and video games are part of our cultural heritage. As original systems cease to work because of hardware and media failures, methods to preserve obsolete video games for future generations have to be developed. The public interest in early video games is high, as exhibitions, regular magazines on the topic and newspaper articles demonstrate. Moreover, games considered to be classic are rereleased for new generations of gaming hardware. However, with the rapid development of new computer systems, the way games look and are played changes constantly. When trying to preserve console video games one faces problems of classified development documentation, legal aspects and extracting the contents from original media like cartridges with special hardware. Furthermore, special controllers and non-digital items are used to extend the gaming experience making it difficult to preserve the look and feel of console video games.This paper discusses strategies for the digital preservation of console video games. After a short overview of console video game systems, there follows an introduction to digital preservation and related work in common strategies for digital preservation and preserving interactive art. Then different preservation strategies are described with a specific focus on emulation. Finally a case study on console video game preservation is shown which uses the Planets preservation planning approach for evaluating preservation strategies in a documented decision-making process. Experiments are carried out to compare different emulators as well as other approaches, first for a single console video game system, then for different console systems of the same era and finally for systems of all eras. Comparison and discussion of results show that, while emulation works very well in principle for early console video games, various problems exist for the general use as a digital preservation alternative. We show what future work
SF. Lukfianka Sanjaya Purnama; SF. Luthfie Arguby Purnomo; Dyah Nugrahani
This paper attempts to propose ergodic as an approach for video game translation. The word approach here refers to an approach for translation products and to an approach for the translation process. The steps to formulate ergodic as an approach are first, Aarseth’sergodic literature is reviewed to elicit a basis for comprehension toward its relationship with video games and video game translation Secondly, taking the translation of Electronic Arts’Need for Speed: Own the City, Midway’s Morta...
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg
The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...
Trisolini, Daniela Carmen; Petilli, Marco Alessandro; Daini, Roberta
Over the past few years, an increasing number of studies have shown that playing action video games can have positive effects on tasks that involve attention and visuo-spatial cognition (e.g., visual search, enumeration tasks, tracking multiple objects). Although playing action video games can improve several cognitive functions, the intensive interaction with the exciting, challenging, intrinsically stimulating and perceptually appealing game environments may adversely affect other functions, including the ability to maintain attention when the level of stimulation is not as intense. This study investigated whether a relationship existed between action video gaming and sustained attention performance in a sample of 45 Italian teenagers. After completing a questionnaire about their video game habits, participants were divided into Action Video Game Player (AVGP) and Non-Action Video Game Player (NAVGP) groups and underwent cognitive tests. The results confirm previous findings of studies of AVGPs as they had significantly enhanced performance for instantly enumerating a set of items. Nevertheless, we found that the drop in performance over time, typical of a sustained attention task, was significantly greater in the AVGP compared with the NAVGP group. This result is consistent with our hypothesis and demonstrates a negative effect of playing action video games.
Fife, Caroline E; Smith, Latisha A; Maus, Erik A; McCarthy, James J; Koehler, Michelle Z; Hawkins, Trina; Hampson, Neil B
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common after major storms because of loss of electrical power and use of alternate fuel sources for heat and electricity. In past epidemics of hurricane-related CO poisoning, the source has typically been gasoline-powered electrical generators. Although it is typically believed that generators were used to power air conditioning and refrigeration, this report demonstrates an unsuspected reason for their use. After Hurricane Ike's landfall in September 2008, major power outages were associated with an epidemic of CO poisoning from electrical generators, as expected. Staff at Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center treated or telephone-triaged cases from the Houston area. A review of the details of those cases forms the basis of this report. Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center staff treated or triaged 37 individuals exposed to CO from gasoline-powered electrical generators in 13 incidents in the first 36 hours after landfall of the hurricane. Notably, 54% (20 of 37) of the patients were under the age of 18 years. Symptoms ranged from mild to severe, with 1 child dying at the scene. Eleven patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Among 9 incidents in which the reason for generator use was determined, 5 were due to generators powering video games or televisions to watch movies or programs. These 5 incidents in which video games were being powered accounted for 75% (15 of 20) of the pediatric poisonings. Generator-related CO poisoning is indeed common during power outages after hurricanes. However, generators are commonly being used to provide electricity to power entertainment devices for children, such as video games. Additional public education about CO risk is needed, perhaps directed at older children and teenagers through the schools in regions susceptible to hurricanes.
Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Stone, Lisanne L; Burk, William J; Granic, Isabela
The effects of video games on children's psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27-11.43 years old; male = 98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b) competitively; likewise, parents reported their children's psychosocial health. Gaming at time one was associated with increases in emotion problems. Violent gaming was not associated with psychosocial changes. Cooperative gaming was not associated with changes in prosocial behavior. Finally, competitive gaming was associated with decreases in prosocial behavior, but only among children who played video games with high frequency. Thus, gaming frequency was related to increases in internalizing but not externalizing, attention, or peer problems, violent gaming was not associated with increases in externalizing problems, and for children playing approximately 8 h or more per week, frequent competitive gaming may be a risk factor for decreasing prosocial behavior. We argue that replication is needed and that future research should better distinguish between different forms of gaming for more nuanced and generalizable insight.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...
This paper discusses the use of standard television camera tubes as X-ray detectors in X-ray diffraction studies. Standard tubes can be modified to detect X rays by depositing an external X-ray phosphor on the fibre optics face plate either of a highly sensitive television camera tube or of an image intensifier coupled to a camera tube. The author considers various X-ray phosphors and concludes that polycrystalline silver activated ZnS is most suitable for crystallographic applications. In the following sections various types of television camera tubes with adequate light sensitivity for use in an X-ray detection system are described, and also three types of image intensifiers. The digitization of the television output signals and their statistical precision are discussed and the electronic circuitry for the detector system is briefly described. (B.D.)
Harper, Jonathan D; Kaiser, Stefan; Ebrahimi, Kamyar; Lamberton, Gregory R; Hadley, H Roger; Ruckle, Herbert C; Baldwin, D Duane
Prior research has demonstrated that counterintuitive laparoscopic surgical skills are enhanced by experience with video games. A similar relation with robotic surgical skills has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior video-game experience enhances the acquisition of robotic surgical skills. A series of 242 preclinical medical students completed a self-reported video-game questionnaire detailing the frequency, duration, and peak playing time. The 10 students with the highest and lowest video-game exposure completed a follow-up questionnaire further quantifying video game, sports, musical instrument, and craft and hobby exposure. Each subject viewed a training video demonstrating the use of the da Vinci surgical robot in tying knots, followed by 3 minutes of proctored practice time. Subjects then tied knots for 5 minutes while an independent blinded observer recorded the number of knots tied, missed knots, frayed sutures, broken sutures, and mechanical errors. The mean playing time for the 10 game players was 15,136 total hours (range 5,840-30,000 hours). Video-game players tied fewer knots than nonplayers (5.8 v 9.0; P = 0.04). Subjects who had played sports for at least 4 years had fewer mechanical errors (P = 0.04), broke fewer sutures (P = 0.01), and committed fewer total errors (P = 0.01). Similarly, those playing musical instruments longer than 5 years missed fewer knots (P = 0.05). In the extremes of video-game experience tested in this study, game playing was inversely correlated with the ability to learn robotic suturing. This study suggests that advanced surgical skills such as robotic suturing may be learned more quickly by athletes and musicians. Prior extensive video-game exposure had a negative impact on robotic performance.
Parks, Nancy S.
Art education has been in the midst of a transformation shaped by several factors, including changes in contemporary art theories, political and economic factors, and technological developments. Film, music videos, advertisements, video games and other forms of popular culture are shaping how students learn today. Discussions about video gaming…
Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.
Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.
Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.
Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathological gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. PMID:21220070
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar
Background and aims: While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Methods: Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Results: Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. Discussion: The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Conclusions: Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life. PMID:25215212
Full Text Available The authors discuss the role of the map in various game genres, specifically video games. Presented examples illustrate widespread map usage in various ways and forms by the authors of games, both classic and video. The article takes a closer look at the classification and development of video games within the last few decades. Presently, video games use advanced geospatial models and data resources. Users are keen on a detailed representation of the real world. Game authors use advanced visualization technologies, which often are innovative and very attractive. Joint efforts of cartographers, geo-information specialists and game producers can bring interesting effects in the future. Although games are mainly made for entertainment, they are more frequently used for other purposes. There is a growing need for data reliability as well as for some effective means of transmission cartographic content. This opens up a new area of both scientific and implementation activity for cartographers. There is no universally accessible data on the role of cartographers in game production, but apparently it is quite limited at the moment. However, a wider application of cartographic methodology would have a positive effect on the development of games and, conversely, methods and technologies applied by game makers can influence the development of cartography.
Copenhaver, Allen; Mitrofan, Oana; Ferguson, Christopher J
News coverage of video game violence studies has been critiqued for focusing mainly on studies supporting negative effects and failing to report studies that did not find evidence for such effects. These concerns were tested in a sample of 68 published studies using child and adolescent samples. Contrary to our hypotheses, study effect size was not a predictor of either newspaper coverage or publication in journals with a high-impact factor. However, a relationship between poorer study quality and newspaper coverage approached significance. High-impact journals were not found to publish studies with higher quality. Poorer quality studies, which tended to highlight negative findings, also received more citations in scholarly sources. Our findings suggest that negative effects of violent video games exposure in children and adolescents, rather than large effect size or high methodological quality, increase the likelihood of a study being cited in other academic publications and subsequently receiving news media coverage.
Buono, Frank D; Griffiths, Mark D; Sprong, Matthew E; Lloyd, Daniel P; Sullivan, Ryan M; Upton, Thomas D
Background Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was introduced in the DSM-5 as a way of identifying and diagnosing problematic video game play. However, the use of the diagnosis is constrained, as it shares criteria with other addictive orders (e.g., pathological gambling). Aims Further work is required to better understand IGD. One potential avenue of investigation is IGD's relationship to the primary reinforcing behavioral functions. This study explores the relationship between duration of video game play and the reinforcing behavioral functions that may motivate or maintain video gaming. Methods A total of 499 video game players began the online survey, with complete data from 453 participants (85% white and 28% female), were analyzed. Individuals were placed into five groups based on self-reported hours of video gaming per week, and completed the Video Game Functional Assessment - Revised (VGFA-R). Results The results demonstrated the escape and social attention function were significant in predicting duration of video game play, whereas sensory and tangible were not significant. Conclusion Future implications of the VGFA-R and behaviorally based research are discussed.
Eichenbaum, Adam; Bavelier, Daphné; Green, C. Shawn
The authors review recent research that reveals how today’s video games instantiate naturally and effectively many principles psychologists, neuroscientists, and educators believe critical for learning. A large body of research exists showing that the effects of these games are much broader. In fact, some types of commercial games have been proven to enhance basic perceptual and cognitive skills. These effects are significant enough that educators use these games for such practical, real-worl...
Esther Hauk; Giovanni Immordino
This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children, which is costly, and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV’s entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural ...
Jashinsky, Jared; Gay, Jennifer; Hansen, Nathan; Muilenburg, Jessica
Background: TV viewing and computer game use may both limit physical activity, but only TV viewing may promote a poorer diet due to exposure to food advertising and availability of the hands for snacking. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between the different screen times and type 2 diabetes markers among youth.…
According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.
Andersen, Mads Lund; Chimiri, Niklas Alexander; Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Session: Sociomaterial complexities in digital-analog spaces Abstract: Analytical and ethical complexities in video game research A central issue that video game research seldom explicitly articulates is the ethical complexities involved in its empirical and analytical work. The presentation...... explores common research questions posed and analytical foci chosen by video game researchers subscribing to either the media effects tradition, represented by (ref.) or to interdisciplinary Game Studies. Both fields, which tend to depict themselves as polar-opposites, build on ethical assumptions...... of theoretical or analytical arrogance. The relevance of acknowledging and situating ethical complexity becomes pertinent when alternatively taking a sociomaterial perspective on doing empirical and analytical work on video gaming. From an agential realist point of view, for instance, a researcher...
Gwinup, G; Haw, T; Elias, A
Video games are one of the most popular recreational activities among Americans of all ages, especially teenaged boys and young men. Studies of the health hazards of video-game playing have linked seizures, psychologic disturbances, and other health problems with the games. The study reported here measured changes in blood pressure and heart rate that occurred in 23 young men when they played a video game. The mean systolic blood pressure for the entire group was considerably higher during play than before or after and was significantly higher in novice players than in more skilled players. Heart rate was also significantly higher during play. In view of these results, other cardiovascular changes might be expected to occur during video-game playing. Although the changes reported here were minor, even minor cardiovascular alterations could potentially prove serious in persons with cardiovascular disease.
Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan
Advancing age is associated with cognitive decline, which, however, remains a very heterogeneous phenomenon. Indeed, several extrinsic factors seem to modulate the effect of aging on cognition. Recently, several studies have provided evidence that the practice of video games could engender many benefits by favoring the maintenance of cognitive vitality in the elderly. This review of the literature aims to establish a precise inventory of the relations between the various types of video games and cognitive aging, including both sedentary video games (i.e., classics as well as brain training) and active video games (i.e., exergames). The largest benefits seem to be provided by exergames which combine game play with significant physical exercise. This article also tries to define the determinants of the training programs which could be responsible for the observed improvements.
Cler, Gabriel J; Mittelman, Talia; Braden, Maia N; Woodnorth, Geralyn Harvey; Stepp, Cara E
Video games provide a promising platform for rehabilitation of speech disorders. Although video games have been used to train speech perception in foreign language learners and have been proposed for aural rehabilitation, their use in speech therapy has been limited thus far. We present feasibility results from at-home use in a case series of children with velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) using an interactive video game that provided real-time biofeedback to facilitate appropriate nasalization. Five participants were recruited across a range of ages, VPD severities, and VPD etiologies. Participants completed multiple weeks of individual game play with a video game that provides feedback on nasalization measured via nasal accelerometry. Nasalization was assessed before and after training by using nasometry, aerodynamic measures, and expert perceptual judgments. Four participants used the game at home or school, with the remaining participant unwilling to have the nasal accelerometer secured to his nasal skin, perhaps due to his young age. The remaining participants showed a tendency toward decreased nasalization after training, particularly for the words explicitly trained in the video game. Results suggest that video game-based systems may provide a useful rehabilitation platform for providing real-time feedback of speech nasalization in VPD. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5116828.
Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Chein, Jason M
The ability to hold visual information in mind over a brief delay is critical for acquiring information and navigating a complex visual world. Despite the ubiquitous nature of visual working memory (VWM) in our everyday lives, this system is fundamentally limited in capacity. Therefore, the potential to improve VWM through training is a growing area of research. An emerging body of literature suggests that extensive experience playing action video games yields a myriad of perceptual and attentional benefits. Several lines of converging work suggest that action video game play may influence VWM as well. The current study utilized a training paradigm to examine whether action video games cause improvements to the quantity and/or the quality of information stored in VWM. The results suggest that VWM capacity, as measured by a change detection task, is increased after action video game training, as compared with training on a control game, and that some improvement to VWM precision occurs with action game training as well. However, these findings do not appear to extend to a complex span measure of VWM, which is often thought to tap into higher-order executive skills. The VWM improvements seen in individuals trained on an action video game cannot be accounted for by differences in motivation or engagement, differential expectations, or baseline differences in demographics as compared with the control group used. In sum, action video game training represents a potentially unique and engaging platform by which this severely capacity-limited VWM system might be enhanced.
Ceranoglu, Tolga Atilla
Video games are used in medical practice during psycho-education in chronic disease management, physical therapy, rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury, and as an adjunct in pain management during medical procedures or cancer chemotherapy. In psychiatric practice, video games aid in social skills training of children with developmental delays and in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). This most popular children's toy may prove a useful tool in dynamic psychotherapy of youth. The author provides a framework for using video games in psychotherapy by considering the characteristics of video games and describes the ways their use has facilitated various stages of therapeutic process. Just as other play techniques build a relationship and encourage sharing of emotional themes, sitting together in front of a console and screen facilitates a relationship and allows a safe path for the patient's conflict to emerge. During video game play, the therapist may observe thought processes, impulsivity, temperament, decision-making, and sharing, among other aspects of a child's clinical presentation. Several features inherent to video games require a thoughtful approach as resistance and transference in therapy may be elaborated differently in comparison to more traditional toys. Familiarity with the video game content and its dynamics benefits child mental health clinicians in their efforts to help children and their families.
Tortolero, Susan R; Peskin, Melissa F; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan L; Lewis, Terri H; Banspach, Stephen W; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A
Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004-2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ≥2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications.
West, G L; Konishi, K; Diarra, M; Benady-Chorney, J; Drisdelle, B L; Dahmani, L; Sodums, D J; Lepore, F; Jolicoeur, P; Bohbot, V D
The hippocampus is critical to healthy cognition, yet results in the current study show that action video game players have reduced grey matter within the hippocampus. A subsequent randomised longitudinal training experiment demonstrated that first-person shooting games reduce grey matter within the hippocampus in participants using non-spatial memory strategies. Conversely, participants who use hippocampus-dependent spatial strategies showed increased grey matter in the hippocampus after training. A control group that trained on 3D-platform games displayed growth in either the hippocampus or the functionally connected entorhinal cortex. A third study replicated the effect of action video game training on grey matter in the hippocampus. These results show that video games can be beneficial or detrimental to the hippocampal system depending on the navigation strategy that a person employs and the genre of the game.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.155.
Sf. Lukfianka Sanjaya Purnama, Sf. Luthfie Arguby Purnomo, Dyah Nugrahani
Full Text Available This paper attempts to propose ergodic as an approach for video game translation. The word approach here refers to an approach for translation products and to an approach for the translation process. The steps to formulate ergodic as an approach are first, Aarseth’sergodic literature is reviewed to elicit a basis for comprehension toward its relationship with video games and video game translation Secondly, taking the translation of Electronic Arts’Need for Speed: Own the City, Midway’s Mortal Kombat: Unchained, and Konami’s Metal Gear Solid, ergodic based approach for video game translation is formulated. The formulation signifies that ergodic, as an approach for video game translation, revolves around the treatment of video games as a cybertext from which scriptons, textons, and traversal functions as the configurative mechanism influence the selection of translation strategies and the transferability of variables and traversal function, game aesthetics, and ludus and narrative of the games. The challenges countered when treating video games as a cybertext are the necessities for the translators to convey anamorphosis, mechanical and narrative hidden meaning of the analyzed frame, to consider the textonomy of the games, and at the same time to concern on GILT (Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, and Translation.
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.
The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…
Gentile, Douglas, A.; Lynch, Paul, J.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Walsh, David, A.
Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The…
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Anderson, Craig A
This article presents a brief overview of existing research on the effects of exposure to violent video games. An updated meta-analysis reveals that exposure to violent video games is significantly linked to increases in aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, and cardiovascular arousal, and to decreases in helping behaviour. Experimental studies reveal this linkage to be causal. Correlational studies reveal a linkage to serious, real-world types of aggression. Methodologically weaker studies yielded smaller effect sizes than methodologically stronger studies, suggesting that previous meta-analytic studies of violent video games underestimate the true magnitude of observed deleterious effects on behaviour, cognition, and affect.
STEPHEN MOHR; SYED (SHAWON) RAHMAN,
IT security issues are an important aspect for each and every organization within the video game industry. Within the video game industry alone, you might not normally think of security risks being an issue. But as we can and have seen in recent news, no company is immune to security risks no matter how big or how small. While each of these organizations will never be exactly the same as the next, there are common security issues that can and do affect each and every video game company. In or...
Full Text Available Literacy is a complex concept of relevance for both traditional and most recent educational theories. Today, concepts of media literacy are being discussed widely. In this article a simple theoretical model and an action-research project are presented. The research project focuses on a training course aiming at the development and strengthening of critical thinking and communicative skills of young people by way of making use of video games. Practical aspects of how to produce a video game with teens and conceptual aspects towards a "video game literacy" are discussed.
Full Text Available Given the popularity of video games and the influences they may pose on individuals’ psychology and behavior, the present study analyses whether video game playing among university students can be correlated with traits associated with an entrepreneur’s profile, which may, in turn, lead to an entrepreneurial intent. The results of the study reveal that students who do play video games show a higher entrepreneurial intent, this relationship being mediated by several psychological and cognitive characteristics. With regards to the psychological and cognitive factors studied, the results also suggest that a favorable attitude towards playing videogames fosters students’ entrepreneurial potential and has a positive effect on the entrepreneurial intent.
Daniel García Raso
Full Text Available Video games have become a mass culture phenomenon typical of the West Post-Industrial Society as well as an avant-garde narrative medium. The main focus of this paper is to explore and analyze the public image of Archaeology and Prehistory spread by video games and how we can achieve a virtual faithful image of both. Likewise, we are going to proceed to construct an archaeological outline of video games, understanding them as an element of the Contemporary Material Culture and, therefore, subject to being studied by Archaeology.
Full Text Available Australia and New Zealand, like other countries, have unique TV systems and practices that shape the possibilities enabled by emerging technologies, enterprises, behaviors and ideas. This article explores two recent articulations of the concept of television that have motivated ‘end of television’ narratives in the two countries. One is future-oriented – the introduction of online subscription video services from local providers like Fetch TV, Presto, Stan and from March 2015, the international giant Netflix. It draws on a survey of senior people in TV, technology, advertising, production, audience measurement and social media conducted in late 2014 and early 2015. The other is recent history – the switchover from analogue to digital terrestrial television, completed in both countries in December 2013. Digital TV switchover was a global policy implemented in markedly different ways. Television was transformed, though not in the precise ways anticipated. Rather than being in the center of the digital revolution, as the digital TV industry and policy pioneers enthused, broadcast television was, to some extent, overrun by it. The most successful online subscription video service in Australia and New Zealand so far, Netflix, talks up the end of television but serves up a very specific form of it. The article poses a slightly different question to whether or not television is ending: that is, whether, in the post-broadcast, digital era, distinctions between unique TV systems and practices will endure, narrow, dissolve, or morph into new forms of difference.
DeShazo, Jonathan; Harris, Lynne; Turner, Anne; Pratt, Wanda
We have investigated game design and usability for three mobile phone video games designed to deliver diabetes education. The games were refined using focus groups. Six people with diabetes participated in the first focus group and five in the second. Following the focus groups, we incorporated the new findings into the game design, and then conducted a field test to evaluate the games in the context in which they would actually be used. Data were collected remotely about game usage by eight people with diabetes. The testers averaged 45 seconds per question and answered an average of 50 total nutrition questions each. They self-reported playing the game for 10-30 min, which coincided with the measured metrics of the game. Mobile games may represent a promising new way to engage the user and deliver relevant educational content.
Mittelman, Talia; Braden, Maia N.; Woodnorth, Geralyn Harvey; Stepp, Cara E.
Purpose Video games provide a promising platform for rehabilitation of speech disorders. Although video games have been used to train speech perception in foreign language learners and have been proposed for aural rehabilitation, their use in speech therapy has been limited thus far. We present feasibility results from at-home use in a case series of children with velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) using an interactive video game that provided real-time biofeedback to facilitate appropriate nasalization. Method Five participants were recruited across a range of ages, VPD severities, and VPD etiologies. Participants completed multiple weeks of individual game play with a video game that provides feedback on nasalization measured via nasal accelerometry. Nasalization was assessed before and after training by using nasometry, aerodynamic measures, and expert perceptual judgments. Results Four participants used the game at home or school, with the remaining participant unwilling to have the nasal accelerometer secured to his nasal skin, perhaps due to his young age. The remaining participants showed a tendency toward decreased nasalization after training, particularly for the words explicitly trained in the video game. Conclusion Results suggest that video game–based systems may provide a useful rehabilitation platform for providing real-time feedback of speech nasalization in VPD. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5116828 PMID:28655049
Lobel, A.M.; Granic, I.; Stone, L.L.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health
Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E
To assess whether tobacco content found in video games was appropriately labelled for tobacco-related content by the Entertainment and Software Ratings Board (ESRB). Sixty-five gamer participants (self-identified age range 13-50) were interviewed in-person (n=25) or online (n=40) and asked (A) to list favourite games and (B) to name games that they could recall containing tobacco content. The ESRB database was searched for all games mentioned to ascertain whether they had been assigned tobacco-related content descriptors. Games were independently assessed for tobacco content by examining user-created game wiki sites and watching YouTube videos of gameplay. Games with tobacco-related ESRB content descriptors and/or with tobacco imagery verified by researchers were considered to contain tobacco content. Games identified by participants as including tobacco but lacking verifiable tobacco content were treated as not containing tobacco content. Participants recalled playing 140 unique games, of which 118 were listed in the ESRB database. Participants explicitly recalled tobacco content in 31% (37/118) of the games, of which 94% (35/37) included independently verified tobacco content. Only 8% (9/118) of the games had received ESRB tobacco-related content descriptors, but researchers verified that 42% (50/118) contained such content; 42% (49/118) of games were rated 'M' for mature (content deemed appropriate for ages 17+). Of these, 76% (37/49) contained verified tobacco content; however, only 4% (2/49) received ESRB tobacco-related content descriptors. Gamers are exposed to tobacco imagery in many video games. The ESRB is not a reliable source for determining whether video games contain tobacco imagery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Elliott, Luther; Golub, Andrew; Ream, Geoffrey; Dunlap, Eloise
This study assessed how problem video game playing (PVP) varies with game type, or "genre," among adult video gamers. Participants (n=3,380) were adults (18+) who reported playing video games for 1 hour or more during the past week and completed a nationally representative online survey. The survey asked about characteristics of video game use, including titles played in the past year and patterns of (problematic) use. Participants self-reported the extent to which characteristics of PVP (e.g., playing longer than intended) described their game play. Five percent of our sample reported moderate to extreme problems. PVP was concentrated among persons who reported playing first-person shooter, action adventure, role-playing, and gambling games most during the past year. The identification of a subset of game types most associated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of "addictive" video games and those populations at greatest risk of PVP with the ultimate goal of better understanding, preventing, and treating this contemporary mental health problem.
Full Text Available This paper describes the working principle of hybrid broadcast-broadband TV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV - HbbTV. The architecture of HbbTV system is given, the principle of its operation, as well as an overview of HbbTV specification standards that are in use, with their basic characteristics. Here are described the services provided by Hybrid TV. It is also provided an overview of the distribution of HbbTV services in Europe in terms of the number of TV channels that HbbTV services offer, the number of active hybrid TV devices, HbbTV standards which are in use and models of broadcast networks used to distribute HbbTV service.
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.
The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation
Bushman, B.J.; Gibson, B
Experimental studies show that violent video games cause people to behave more aggressively, but how long does the effect last? In most experiments, aggression is measured immediately after gameplay. The present experiment is the first to test the long-term causal effects of violent video games on
Metzger, Scott Alan; Paxton, Richard J.
This article offers a typological framework for analyzing how video games make use of historical elements, shaping the ways players engage with and think about the past. Phenomenologically induced labels are posited for identifying different deployments of and experiences with historical elements in video games, illustrated by examples drawn from…
Song Jin Bao
Full Text Available The existing way of broadcasting and television monitoring has a lot of problems in China. On the basis of the signal technical indicators monitoring in the present broadcasting and television monitoring system, this paper further extends the function of the monitoring network in order to broaden the services of monitoring business and improve the effect and efficiency of monitoring work. The problem of identifying video content and channel in television and related electronic media is conquered at a low cost implementation way and the flexible technology mechanism. The coverage for video content and identification of the channel is expanded. The informative broadcast entries are generated after a series of video processing. The value of the numerous broadcast data is deeply excavated by using big data processing in order to realize a comprehensive, objective and accurate information monitoring for the safe broadcasting of television program.
The aim of this research was to provide a more holistic insight of the video game quality assurance industry to video game industry professionals and prospective employees in order to promote the importance and impact of quality assurance testing in video games. The motive for this thesis came from the author's work experience in video game quality assurance testing, and from realizing how little is known about the industry. The research question was defined as 'what is video game quality ass...