van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.
Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In
Chisholm, Joseph D; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan; Kingstone, Alan
Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players and non-action video game players performed an attentional capture task. The results show that action video game players responded quicker than non-action video game players, both when a target appeared in isolation and when a salient, task-irrelevant distractor was present in the display. Action video game players additionally showed a smaller capture effect than did non-action video game players. When coupled with the findings of previous studies, the collective evidence indicates that extensive experience with action video games may enhance players' top-down attentional control, which, in turn, can modulate the negative effects of bottom-up attentional capture.
Chisholm, J; Hickey, C.; Theeuwes, J.; Kingstone, A.
Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players
Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S
Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.
King, Daniel L; Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H
There is a paucity of empirical research examining the possible association between gambling and video game play. In two studies, we examined the association between video game playing, erroneous gambling cognitions, and risky gambling behaviour. One hundred and fifteen participants, including 65 electronic gambling machine (EGM) players and 50 regular video game players, were administered a questionnaire that examined video game play, gambling involvement, problem gambling, and beliefs about gambling. We then assessed each groups' performance on a computerised gambling task that involved real money. A post-game survey examined perceptions of the skill and chance involved in the gambling task. The results showed that video game playing itself was not significantly associated with gambling involvement or problem gambling status. However, among those persons who both gambled and played video games, video game playing was uniquely and significantly positively associated with the perception of direct control over chance-based gambling events. Further research is needed to better understand the nature of this association, as it may assist in understanding the impact of emerging digital gambling technologies.
Aaron V Berard
Full Text Available Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT, a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.
Berard, Aaron V.; Cain, Matthew S.; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka
Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT), a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning. PMID:25807394
Roebuck, Andrew J; Dubnyk, Aurora J B; Cochran, David; Mandryk, Regan L; Howland, John G; Harms, Victoria
Research in asymmetrical visuospatial attention has identified a leftward bias in the general population across a variety of measures including visual attention and line-bisection tasks. In addition, increases in rightward collisions, or bumping, during visuospatial navigation tasks have been demonstrated in real world and virtual environments. However, little research has investigated these biases beyond the laboratory. The present study uses a semi-naturalistic approach and the online video game streaming service Twitch to examine navigational errors and assaults as skilled action video game players (n = 60) compete in Counter Strike: Global Offensive. This study showed a significant rightward bias in both fatal assaults and navigational errors. Analysis using the in-game ranking system as a measure of skill failed to show a relationship between bias and skill. These results suggest that a leftward visuospatial bias may exist in skilled players during online video game play. However, the present study was unable to account for some factors such as environmental symmetry and player handedness. In conclusion, video game streaming is a promising method for behavioural research in the future, however further study is required before one can determine whether these results are an artefact of the method applied, or representative of a genuine rightward bias.
Becht, I.; Bakkes, S.; Barnes, T.; Bogost, I.
In this paper we demonstrate how behaviour-classification models can improve player position prediction for video game AI. To this end, we propose a novel method named meIRL-BC, which (1) uses maximum-entropy Inverse Reinforcement Learning for the creation of position prediction models , and (2)
Ping Wang; Ping Wang; Xing-Ting Zhu; Xing-Ting Zhu; Zhigang Qi; Zhigang Qi; Silin Huang; Hui-Jie Li; Hui-Jie Li
Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs) and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs) of 60...
Hull, Damien C; Williams, Glenn A; Griffiths, Mark D
Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video game addiction. A total of 110 video game players were surveyed about a game they had recently played by using a 24-item checklist of structural characteristics, an adapted Flow State Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Game Addiction Scale. The study revealed decreases in general happiness had the strongest role in predicting increases in gaming addiction. One of the nine factors of the flow experience was a significant predictor of gaming addiction - perceptions of time being altered during play. The structural characteristic that significantly predicted addiction was its social element with increased sociability being associated with higher levels of addictive-like experiences. Overall, the structural characteristics of video games, elements of the flow experience, and general happiness accounted for 49.2% of the total variance in Game Addiction Scale levels. Implications for interventions are discussed, particularly with regard to making players more aware of time passing and in capitalising on benefits of social features of video game play to guard against addictive-like tendencies among video game players.
Diaz, Ruth L; Wong, Ulric; Hodgins, David C; Chiu, Carina G; Goghari, Vina M
Violent video game playing has been associated with both positive and negative effects on cognition. We examined whether playing two or more hours of violent video games a day, compared to not playing video games, was associated with a different pattern of recognition of five facial emotions, while controlling for general perceptual and cognitive differences that might also occur. Undergraduate students were categorized as violent video game players (n = 83) or non-gamers (n = 69) and completed a facial recognition task, consisting of an emotion recognition condition and a control condition of gender recognition. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires assessing their video game and media consumption, aggression, and mood. Violent video game players recognized fearful faces both more accurately and quickly and disgusted faces less accurately than non-gamers. Desensitization to violence, constant exposure to fear and anxiety during game playing, and the habituation to unpleasant stimuli, are possible mechanisms that could explain these results. Future research should evaluate the effects of violent video game playing on emotion processing and social cognition more broadly. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Holbert, Nathan R.; Wilensky, Uri
While video games have become a source of excitement for educational designers, creating informal game experiences that players can draw on when thinking and reasoning in non-game contexts has proved challenging. In this paper we present a design principle for creating educational video games that enables players to draw on knowledge resources…
Forrest, Cameron J; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H
Research has noted many similarities between video gaming and gambling activities. It has been suggested that video game players may also be attracted to gambling, although there is limited research on this possibility. The present study examined concurrent video gaming and gambling habits in a sample of regular video game players in Australia (N = 485, 84 % male, M age = 25.8). Gambling involvement was found to be a generally unpopular activity among regular video game players. No significant association between frequency of video game play and frequency of gambling was found. Although significant correlations between gaming 'addiction' scores and gambling frequency were identified, age was the only significant predictor of gambling when controlling for all remaining variables. These findings are critically discussed in the context of past research, and future research directions concerning the link between video gaming and gambling are proposed.
Kim, Young Bin; Kang, Shin Jin; Lee, Sang Hyeok; Jung, Jang Young; Kam, Hyeong Ryeol; Lee, Jung; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Joonsoo; Kim, Chang Hun
In this paper, we propose a method for automatically detecting the times during which game players exhibit specific behavior, such as when players commonly show excitement, concentration, immersion, and surprise...
Matthew S Cain
Full Text Available Action video game players have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven attention. To test this we used an anti-cuing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms, non-players (nVGPs showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable location compared with the opposite (more probable location. Video game players (VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms, VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink task. In a version of the attentional blink task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of attentional blink as nVGPs, suggesting that the anti-cuing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.
Kim, Young Bin; Kang, Shin Jin; Lee, Sang Hyeok; Jung, Jang Young; Kam, Hyeong Ryeol; Lee, Jung; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Joonsoo; Kim, Chang Hun
In this paper, we propose a method for automatically detecting the times during which game players exhibit specific behavior, such as when players commonly show excitement, concentration, immersion, and surprise. The proposed method detects such outlying behavior based on the game players’ characteristics. These characteristics are captured non-invasively in a general game environment. In this paper, cameras were used to analyze observed data such as facial expressions and player movements. M...
Bavelier, D; Achtman, R L; Mani, M; Föcker, J
Over the past few years, the very act of playing action video games has been shown to enhance several different aspects of visual selective attention, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate such attentional benefits. A review of the aspects of attention enhanced in action game players suggests there are changes in the mechanisms that control attention allocation and its efficiency (Hubert-Wallander, Green, & Bavelier, 2010). The present study used brain imaging to test this hypothesis by comparing attentional network recruitment and distractor processing in action gamers versus non-gamers as attentional demands increased. Moving distractors were found to elicit lesser activation of the visual motion-sensitive area (MT/MST) in gamers as compared to non-gamers, suggestive of a better early filtering of irrelevant information in gamers. As expected, a fronto-parietal network of areas showed greater recruitment as attentional demands increased in non-gamers. In contrast, gamers barely engaged this network as attentional demands increased. This reduced activity in the fronto-parietal network that is hypothesized to control the flexible allocation of top-down attention is compatible with the proposal that action game players may allocate attentional resources more automatically, possibly allowing more efficient early filtering of irrelevant information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oggins, Jean; Sammis, Jeffrey
In this study, 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft, completed a survey about video game addiction and answered an open-ended question about behaviors they considered characteristic of video game addiction. Responses were coded and correlated with players' self-reports of being addicted to games and scores on a modified video…
Moffat, David C.; Crombie, William; Shabalina, Olga
It is said that playing video games might make people more creative. There is some evidence of an association, but no so far general theory about any psychological causes, or other key factors. In this study, we test the possibility that different sorts of video games may have different effects, on different types of creativity; or none at all.…
Klimmt, Christoph; Schmid, Hannah; Nosper, Andreas; Hartmann, Tilo; Vorderer, Peter
Research on video game violence has focused on the impact of aggression, but has so far neglected the processes and mechanisms underlying the enjoyment of video game violence. The present contribution examines a specific process in this context, namely players' strategies to cope with moral concern
King, Daniel; Delfabbro, Paul; Griffiths, Mark
Video game playing has received increased academic interest over the last few decades, particularly with regard to the psychological understanding of addiction. Based on the many studies carried out by the authors, this paper summarises some of the methodological challenges which may arise when studying video game players, including obstacles…
Young Bin Kim
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method for automatically detecting the times during which game players exhibit specific behavior, such as when players commonly show excitement, concentration, immersion, and surprise. The proposed method detects such outlying behavior based on the game players’ characteristics. These characteristics are captured non-invasively in a general game environment. In this paper, cameras were used to analyze observed data such as facial expressions and player movements. Moreover, multimodal data from the game players (i.e., data regarding adjustments to the volume and the use of the keyboard and mouse was used to analyze high-dimensional game-player data. A support vector machine was used to efficiently detect outlying behaviors. We verified the effectiveness of the proposed method using games from several genres. The recall rate of the outlying behavior pre-identified by industry experts was approximately 70%. The proposed method can also be used for feedback analysis of various interactive content provided in PC environments.
Mohsen Ebrahimzadeh; Sepideh Alavi
.... Participants were 241 male students (age 12–18) randomly assigned to three treatments, namely, Readers who learned vocabulary through intensive reading, Players who learned vocabulary through playing a digital video game, and Watchers who learned...
Bohil, Corey J.; Biocca, Frank A.
This paper argues for the use of cognitive modeling to gain a detailed and dynamic look into user experience during game play. Applying cognitive models to game play data can help researchers understand a player's attentional focus, memory status, learning state, and decision strategies (among other things) as these cognitive processes occurred throughout game play. This is a stark contrast to the common approach of trying to assess the long-term impact of games on cognitive functioning after game play has ended. We describe what cognitive models are, what they can be used for and how game researchers could benefit by adopting these methods. We also provide details of a single model - based on decision field theory - that has been successfUlly applied to data sets from memory, perception, and decision making experiments, and has recently found application in real world scenarios. We examine possibilities for applying this model to game-play data.
Bavelier, D; Achtman, R L; Mani, M; Föcker, J
Over the past few years, the very act of playing action video games has been shown to enhance several different aspects of visual selective attention, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms...
Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan
Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nagorsnick, Marian; Martens, Alke
In modern video games, music can come in different shapes: it can be developed on a very high compositional level, with sophisticated sound elements like in professional film music; it can be developed on a very coarse level, underlying special situations (like danger or attack); it can also be automatically generated by sound engines. However, in…
Buono, Frank D; Sprong, Matthew E; Lloyd, Daniel P; Cutter, Christopher J; Printz, Destiny M B; Sullivan, Ryan M; Moore, Brent A
Video game addiction or Internet game disorder, as proposed by the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition), has similar criterion characteristics to other impulse control disorders. There is limited research examining video game addiction within a behavioral economic framework using delay discounting. The current study evaluated delay-discounting patterns of money and video game play by usual weekly hours of video game play. A total of 104 participants were split into 1 of 3 groups of video game players (low, medium, and high) and were asked to complete a monetary and video game discounting procedure through an online survey. Results showed significant differences between groups within both the monetary (p = 0.003) and video game discounting procedures (p = 0.004). Additionally, a positive linear relationship was noted between the groups across both procedures. The results of the current article reinforce previous findings that more hours of video game use are associated with greater impulsivity and provide implications for future research.
Meryem YILMAZ SOYLU
Full Text Available This study examined differences in self-regulation among college-age expert, moderately expert, and non-expert video game players in playing video games for fun. Winne’s model of self-regulation (Winne, 2001 guided the study. Main assumption of this study was that expert video game players used more processes of self-regulation than the less-expert players. We surveyed 143 college students about their game playing frequency, habits, and use of self-regulation. Data analysis indicated that while playing recreational video games, expert gamers self-regulated more than moderately expert and non-expert players and moderately expert players used more processes of self-regulation than non-experts. Semi-structured interviews also were conducted with selected participants at each of the expertise levels. Qualitative follow-up analyses revealed five themes: 1 characteristics of expert video gamers, 2 conditions for playing a video game, 3 figuring out a game, 4 how gamers act and, 5 game context. Overall, findings indicated that playing a video game is a highly self-regulated activity and that becoming an expert video game player mobilizes multiple sets of self-regulation related skills and processes. These findings are seen as promising for educators desiring to encourage student self-regulation, because they indicate the possibility of supporting students via recreational video games by recognizing that their play includes processes of self-regulation.
Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Bruning, Roger H
This study examined differences in self-regulation among college-age expert, moderately expert, and non-expert video game players in playing video games for fun. Winne's model of self-regulation (Winne, 2001) guided the study. The main assumption of this study was that expert video game players used more processes of self-regulation than the less-expert players. We surveyed 143 college students about their game playing frequency, habits, and use of self-regulation. Data analysis indicated that while playing recreational video games, expert gamers self-regulated more than moderately expert and non-expert players and moderately expert players used more processes of self-regulation than non-experts. Semi-structured interviews also were conducted with selected participants at each of the expertise levels. Qualitative follow-up analyses revealed five themes: (1) characteristics of expert video gamers, (2) conditions for playing a video game, (3) figuring out a game, (4) how gamers act and, (5) game context. Overall, findings indicated that playing a video game is a highly self-regulated activity and that becoming an expert video game player mobilizes multiple sets of self-regulation related skills and processes. These findings are seen as promising for educators desiring to encourage student self-regulation, because they indicate the possibility of supporting students via recreational video games by recognizing that their play includes processes of self-regulation.
Wang, Ping; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Qi, Zhigang; Huang, Silin; Li, Hui-Jie
Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs) and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs) of 60 years of age or older participated in the present study, and there are no significant differences in age (t = 0.62, p = 0.536), gender ratio (t = 1.29, p = 0.206) and years of education (t = 1.92, p = 0.062) between VGPs and NVGPs. The results show that older VGPs present significantly better behavioral performance than NVGPs. Older VGPs activate greater than NVGPs in brain regions, mainly in frontal-parietal areas, including the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the left supramarginal gyrus, the right angular gyrus, the right precuneus and the left paracentral lobule. The present study reveals that video game experiences may have positive influences on older adults in behavioral performance and the underlying brain activation. These results imply the potential role that video games can play as an effective tool to improve cognitive ability in older adults.
Full Text Available Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs of 60 years of age or older participated in the present study, and there are no significant differences in age (t = 0.62, p = 0.536, gender ratio (t = 1.29, p = 0.206 and years of education (t = 1.92, p = 0.062 between VGPs and NVGPs. The results show that older VGPs present significantly better behavioral performance than NVGPs. Older VGPs activate greater than NVGPs in brain regions, mainly in frontal-parietal areas, including the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the left supramarginal gyrus, the right angular gyrus, the right precuneus and the left paracentral lobule. The present study reveals that video game experiences may have positive influences on older adults in behavioral performance and the underlying brain activation. These results imply the potential role that video games can play as an effective tool to improve cognitive ability in older adults.
This thesis examines the motivation of players of video games for their playing, and the strategy of these players for overcoming feelings of depression, using the methods of grounded theory. The first part deals with the approach of sociology and selected studies towards the issue of video games and mental disorders, to which I then relate the findings of my own research at the final chapter. In the second part of this work I present what methodology has been used and how. In the final part ...
Colman, Jason Edward; Briggs, Jim; Turner, Louise; Good, Alice
This paper describes a pilot investigation into the potential for multi-player online video games to be used as a form of therapy for people who have an acquired brain injury. The experimental design is a single-subject research design in “ABAB” form. Participants (n = 3) played a multi-player online video game and periodically took cognitive tests (reaction time, Stroop tests and trail-making tests). Results showed an improvement in reaction time but were inconclusive for the other measures....
Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon
From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...
Hull, DC; Williams, GA; Griffiths, MD
Aims:\\ud Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video g...
Buckley, David; Codina, Charlotte; Bhardwaj, Palvi; Pascalis, Olivier
We used Goldmann kinetic perimetry to compare how training and congenital auditory deprivation may affect the size of the visual field. We measured the ability of action video game players and deaf observers to detect small moving lights at various locations in the central (around 30 degrees from fixation) and peripheral (around 60 degrees ) visual fields. Experiment 1 found that 10 habitual video game players showed significantly larger central and peripheral field areas than 10 controls. In Experiment 2 we found that 13 congenitally deaf observers had significantly larger visual fields than 13 hearing controls for both the peripheral and central fields. Here the greatest differences were found in the lower parts of the fields. Comparison of the two groups showed that whereas VGP players have a more uniform increase in field size in both central and peripheral fields deaf observers show non-uniform increases with greatest increases in lower parts of the visual field.
Full Text Available The study investigated short- and long-term vocabulary retention through a digital video game. Participants were 241 male students (age 12–18 randomly assigned to three treatments, namely, Readers who learned vocabulary through intensive reading, Players who learned vocabulary through playing a digital video game, and Watchers who learned by watching two classmates play the digital video game. Twenty one words (simple and compound nouns were pretested and then followed by the interventions which lasted for five weeks. The same pretest was posttested twice: As a one month and a three months delayed posttest after the study to measure short- and long-term vocabulary retention respectively. Results indicated that the Players and Watchers outperformed the Readers in terms of both short- and long-term vocabulary retention. The Readers were the only group to forget a significant number of words on the three-months delayed posttest. Only the Players’ treatment was equally effective for learning both simple and compound nouns. The Players showed the highest mean score on both posttests and the least drop from the short- to long-term posttest. It is concluded that digital video games can help students retain vocabulary over a longer time period.
You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom. There is even a sweet spot where it all comes together around 20 years of age. At least, as far as game performance goes among 13,000 players of a shooter game like Battlefield 3. When we look at g...
Krishnan, Lavanya; Kang, Albert; Sperling, George; Srinivasan, Ramesh
We investigated the psychophysical and neurophysiological differences between fast-action video game players (specifically first person shooter players, FPS) and non-action players (role-playing game players, RPG) in a visual search task. We measured both successful detections (hit rates) and steady-state visually evoked EEG potentials (SSVEPs). Search difficulty was varied along two dimensions: number of adjacent attended and ignored regions (1, 2 and 4), and presentation rate of novel search arrays (3, 8.6 and 20 Hz). Hit rates decreased with increasing presentation rates and number of regions, with the FPS players performing on average better than the RPG players. The largest differences in hit rate, between groups, occurred when four regions were simultaneously attended. We computed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of SSVEPs and used partial least squares regression to model hit rates, SNRs and their relationship at 3 Hz and 8.6 Hz. The following are the most significant results: RPG players' parietal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating attentional signal enhancement. FPS players' parietal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating distractor suppression. Consistent with these parietal responses, RPG players' frontal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker, increased as task difficulty increased with number of regions; FPS players' frontal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker increased with number of regions. Thus the FPS players appear to employ an active suppression mechanism to deploy selective attention simultaneously to multiple interleaved regions, while RPG primarily use signal enhancement. These results suggest that fast-action gaming can affect neural strategies and the corresponding networks underlying attention, presumably by training mechanisms of distractor suppression.
Yang, G.S.; Huesmann, L.R.; Bushman, B.J.
Previous research has shown that violent video games can increase aggression in players immediately after they play. The present research examines the effects of one subtle cue within violent video games that might moderate these effects-whether the avatar is male or female. One common stereotype is
Mack, David J; Wiesmann, Helene; Ilg, Uwe J
Video games have become both a widespread leisure activity and a substantial field of research. In a variety of tasks, video game players (VGPs) perform better than non-video game players (NVGPs). This difference is most likely explained by an alteration of the basic mechanisms underlying visuospatial attention. More specifically, the present study hypothesizes that VGPs are able to shift attention faster than NVGPs. Such alterations in attention cannot be disentangled from changes in stimulus-response mappings in reaction time based measurements. Therefore, we used a spatial cueing task with varying cue lead times (CLTs) to investigate the speed of covert attention shifts of 98 male participants divided into 36 NVGPs and 62 VGPs based on their weekly gaming time. VGPs exhibited higher peak and mean performance than NVGPs. However, we did not find any differences in the speed of covert attention shifts as measured by the CLT needed to achieve peak performance. Thus, our results clearly rule out faster stimulus-response mappings as an explanation for the higher performance of VGPs in line with previous studies. More importantly, our data do not support the notion of faster attention shifts in VGPs as another possible explanation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan
Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.
Full Text Available Long term video game players (VGPs have been reported to exhibit superior visual and motor skills compared with non-video-game controls (NVGCs. However, the neural basis underlying the enhanced behavioral performance remains largely unknown. To clarify this issue, the present study compared the whiter matter integrity within the corticospinal tracts (CST, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF between the VGPs and the NVGCs using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Compared with the NVGCs, voxel-wise comparisons revealed significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA value in some regions within the left CST, left SLF, bilateral ILF and IFOF in VGPs. Furthermore, higher FA value at the cerebral peduncle level of the left CST predicted faster response in visual attention task. These results suggested that the higher WM integrity in the motor and higher-tier visual pathways is associated with long-term video-game playing, which may contribute to the understanding of the neuromechanism of the effect of video game play on the motor and visual process performance.
Zhang, Yang; Du, Guijin; Yang, Yongxin; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan
Long term video game players (VGPs) exhibit superior visual and motor skills compared with non-video game control subjects (NVGCs). However, the neural basis underlying the enhanced behavioral performance remains largely unknown. To clarify this issue, the present study compared the whiter matter integrity within the corticospinal tracts (CST), the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) between the VGPs and the NVGCs using diffusion tensor imaging. Compared with the NVGCs, voxel-wise comparisons revealed significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA) values in some regions within the left CST, left SLF, bilateral ILF, and IFOF in VGPs. Furthermore, higher FA values in the left CST at the level of cerebral peduncle predicted a faster response in visual attention tasks. These results suggest that higher white matter integrity in the motor and higher-tier visual pathways is associated with long-term video game playing, which may contribute to the understanding on how video game play influences motor and visual performance.
Full Text Available The use of islands and archipelagos as settings in video games has proven enduring and popular: these locations are usually shown to be dangerous places where travel can be difficult. The use of island and archipelago settings in this medium developed along with conventions about water in general being an obstacle to traverse, meaning that player characters that experience islands and archipelagoes are forced to discover ways to travel around, over, and away from them. Islands remain popular settings because they work well with players’ preconceptions about these spaces, with people’s understandings of natural boundaries that make travel difficult, and with game designers’ intent to control player character movement throughout a world that is necessarily constrained by the reach of technology.
Klimmt, C.; Hefner, D.; Vorderer, P.A.
This article introduces an explication of video game players' identification with a game character or role that is based on social-psychological models of self-perception. Contrasting with conventional ("dyadic" ) notions of media user-character relationships (e.g., parasocial interaction or
Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...... they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio....
This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...
Today's youth are situated in a complex information ecology that includes video games and print texts. At the basic level, video game play itself is a form of digital literacy practice. If we widen our focus from the "individual player + technology" to the online communities that play them, we find that video games also lie at the nexus of a…
Stockdale, Laura; Morrison, Robert G; Palumbo, Robert; Garbarino, James; Silton, Rebecca L
Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or nonplayers, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content. Participants completed a self-report measure of empathy as well as an affective stop-signal task that measured implicit attention to emotion and response inhibition during electroencephalography. Frequent players had lower levels of empathy as well as a reduction in brain activity as indicated by P100 and N200/P300 event related potentials. Reduced P100 amplitude evoked by happy facial expressions was observed in frequent players compared to infrequent players, and this effect was moderated by empathy, such that low levels of empathy further reduced P100 amplitudes for happy facial expressions for frequent players compared to infrequent players. Compared to infrequent players, frequent players had reduced N200/P300 amplitude during response inhibition, indicating less neural resources were recruited to inhibit behavior. Results from the present study illustrate that chronic exposure to violent video games modulates empathy and related neural correlates associated with affect and cognition. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Morrison, Robert G; Palumbo, Robert; Garbarino, James; Silton, Rebecca L
Abstract Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or nonplayers, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content. Participants completed a self-report measure of empathy as well as an affective stop-signal task that measured implicit attention to emotion and response inhibition during electroencephalography. Frequent players had lower levels of empathy as well as a reduction in brain activity as indicated by P100 and N200/P300 event related potentials. Reduced P100 amplitude evoked by happy facial expressions was observed in frequent players compared to infrequent players, and this effect was moderated by empathy, such that low levels of empathy further reduced P100 amplitudes for happy facial expressions for frequent players compared to infrequent players. Compared to infrequent players, frequent players had reduced N200/P300 amplitude during response inhibition, indicating less neural resources were recruited to inhibit behavior. Results from the present study illustrate that chronic exposure to violent video games modulates empathy and related neural correlates associated with affect and cognition. PMID:29040750
Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Tippett, Lynette J
Twenty-two experienced action video-game players (AVGPs) and 18 non-VGPs were tested on a pen-and-paper line bisection task that was untimed. Typically, right-handers bisect lines 2 % to the left of true centre, a bias thought to reflect the dominance of the right-hemisphere for visuospatial attention. Expertise may affect this bias, with expert musicians showing no bias in line bisection performance. Our results show that experienced-AVGPs also bisect lines with no bias with their right hand and a significantly reduced bias with their left hand compared to non-AVGPs. Bisections by experienced-AVGPs were also more precise than those of non-AVGPs. These findings show the cognitive proficiencies of experienced-AVGPs can generalize beyond computer based tasks, which resemble their training environment.
Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja
Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…
McLean, L; Griffiths, MD
Research on video game playing has focused mainly on the effects of such games in relation to aggression and attitudes towards perpetrators and towards crime. The present research was designed to investigate gamers’ attitudes towards victims of crimes and incidents that were designed to mirror those portrayed in violent video games. Vignettes were used during interviews to explore 50 participants’ attitudes towards different types of victims. The results indicate that long-term playing of vio...
Yang, Grace S; Huesmann, L Rowell; Bushman, Brad J
Previous research has shown that violent video games can increase aggression in players immediately after they play. The present research examines the effects of one subtle cue within violent video games that might moderate these effects-whether the avatar is male or female. One common stereotype is that males are more aggressive than females. Thus, playing a violent video game as a male avatar, compared to a female avatar, should be more likely to prime aggressive thoughts and inclinations in players and lead to more aggressive behavior afterwards. Male and female university students (N = 242) were randomly assigned to play a violent video game as a male or female avatar. After gameplay, participants gave an ostensible partner who hated spicy food hot sauce to eat. The amount of hot sauce given was used to measure aggression. Consistent with priming theory, results showed that both male and female participants who played a violent game as a male avatar behaved more aggressively afterwards than those who played as female avatar. The priming effects of the male avatar were somewhat stronger for male participants than for female participants, suggesting that male participants identified more with the male avatar than did the female participants. These results are particularly noteworthy because they are consistent with another recent experiment showing that playing a violent game as an avatar with a different stereotypically aggressive attribute (black skin color) stimulates more aggression than playing as an avatar without the stereotypically aggressive attribute (Yang et al., 2014, Social Psychological and Personality Science). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom.
Over the past few years a growing body of research has highlighted the potential for educational video games to foster highly engaged, effective learning in the classroom. These research reports from organizations such as the Federation of American Scientists, the National Science Foundation, and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop…
Thirunarayanan, M. O.; Vilchez, Manuel; Abreu, Liala; Ledesma, Cyntianna; Lopez, Sandra
A survey was conducted in a public, research university located in a large and diverse metropolitan area in the southeastern part of the USA. The purpose of the survey was to determine both the positive and negative personal, educational, social, and work related consequences of playing video games. Nearly two-thirds of the 203 participants in…
The present study investigated vocabulary acquisition through a commercial digital video game compared to a traditional pencil-and-paper treatment. Chosen through cluster sampling, 241 male high school students (age 12-18) participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups. The first group, called Readers,…
Eastin, Matthew S.
Adding depth and breadth to the general aggression model, this paper presents three experiments that test the relationships among user and opponent gender representation, opponent type, presence, and aggressive thoughts from violent video game play. Studies 1 and 2 suggest that females experience greater presence and more aggressive thoughts from…
Mack, David J; Ilg, Uwe J
Video game play has become a common leisure activity all around the world. To reveal possible effects of playing video games, we measured saccades elicited by video game players (VGPs) and non-players (NVGPs...
Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo
Violent video game playing has been linked to a wide range of negative outcomes, especially in adolescents. In the present research, we focused on a potential determinant of adolescents' willingness to play violent video games: social exclusion. We also tested whether exclusion can predict increased aggressiveness following violent video game playing. In two experiments, we predicted that exclusion could increase adolescents' preferences for violent video games and interact with violent game playing fostering adolescents' aggressive inclinations. In Study 1, 121 adolescents (aged 10-18 years) were randomly assigned to a manipulation of social exclusion. Then, they evaluated the violent content of nine different video games (violent, nonviolent, or prosocial) and reported their willingness to play each presented video game. The results showed that excluded participants expressed a greater willingness to play violent games than nonviolent or prosocial games. No such effect was found for included participants. In Study 2, both inclusionary status and video game contents were manipulated. After a manipulation of inclusionary status, 113 adolescents (aged 11-16 years) were randomly assigned to play either a violent or a nonviolent video game. Then, they were given an opportunity to express their aggressive inclinations toward the excluders. Results showed that excluded participants who played a violent game displayed the highest level of aggressive inclinations than participants who were assigned to the other experimental conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that exclusion increases preferences for violent games and that the combination of exclusion and violent game playing fuels aggressive inclinations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Andrew J Latham
Full Text Available Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years. Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented. IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.
A new video game in which the player stalks and shoots fellow students and teachers in school settings is drawing fire from school district officials. "School Shooter: North American Tour 2012" is a first-person game that allows the player to move around a school and collect points by killing defenseless students and teachers. The game,…
Deleuze, Jory; Christiaens, Maxime; Nuyens, Filip; Billieux, Joël
Studies have shown that regular video game use might improve cognitive and social skills. In contrast, other studies have documented the negative outcomes of excessive gaming vis-a-vis health and socioprofessional spheres. Both positive and negative outcomes of video game use were linked to their structural characteristics (i.e., features that make the game appealing or are inducements for all gamers to keep playing regularly). The current study tested whether active video gamers from main ge...
Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Hoffswell, Joseph; Chen, Szu-Wei
Past research provides evidence that embodying a racially stereotyped African American video game character triggers stereotyped thinking among White players. However, the mechanisms through which virtual racial embodiment of a negatively stereotyped character in a video game impacts stereotyped thinking are still unknown. This study expands on past research and utilizes a between-subjects experimental design to test two possible theoretical explanations: the virtual threat effect and presence. On the one hand, embodying a negatively stereotyped African American character may elicit stereotyped thinking among White players due to the mere exposure to the threatening stereotype. According to this explanation, negative affective response to the threatening stimulus predicts stereotyping. On the other hand, the process of embodying, not just observing, the stereotyped African American character suggests that presence in the game may determine how impactful the game imagery is on White players' stereotyping of African Americans. In this case, level of presence would predict stereotyping. The findings of this study advance research by providing evidence of a psychological explanation for the negative effects of embodying a racially stereotyped video game character on players' race-related perceptions. We conceptualize the "virtual threat effect," which may be applied in additional contexts to understand how embodying stereotyped representations of outgroups in virtual environments may negatively affect individuals' perceptions and support of these groups.
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer
We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...
Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Asteriadis, Stylianos
Recognizing players' aective state while playing video games has been the focus of many recent research studies. In this paper we describe the process that has been followed to build a corpus based on game events and recorded video sessions from human players while playing Super Mario Bros. We...... present dierent types of information that have been extracted from game context, player preferences and perception of the game, as well as user features, automatically extracted from video recordings.We run a number of initial experiments to analyse players' behavior while playing video games as a case...
Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M. Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M
%) received only a content descriptor for blood, and 14 game titles (4%) received no content descriptors for violence or blood. In the random sample of 81 T-rated video games we played, 79 games (98%) involved intentional violence for an average of 36% of game play time, and 34 games (42%) contained blood. More than half of the games (51%) depicted 5 or more types of weapons, with players able to select weapons in 48 games (59%). We observed 37 games (46%) that rewarded or required the player to destroy objects, 73 games (90%) that rewarded or required the player to injure characters, and 56 games (69%) that rewarded or required the player to kill. We observed a total of 11,499 character deaths in the 81 games, occurring at an average rate of 122 deaths per hour of game play (range 0 to 1310). This included 5689 human deaths, occurring at an average rate of 61 human deaths per hour of game play (range 0 to 1291). Overall, we identified 44 games (54%) that depicted deaths to nonhuman characters and 51 games (63%) that depicted deaths to human characters, including the player. Conclusions: Content analysis suggests a significant amount of violence, injury, and death in T-rated video games. Given the large amount of violence involving guns and knives, the relative lack of blood suggests that many T-rated video games do not realistically portray the consequences of violence. Physicians and parents should appreciate that T-rated video games may be a source of exposure to violence and some unexpected content for children and adolescents, and that the majority of T-rated video games provide incentives to the players to commit simulated acts of violence. PMID:15208514
Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M
(4%) received no content descriptors for violence or blood. In the random sample of 81 T-rated video games we played, 79 games (98%) involved intentional violence for an average of 36% of game play time, and 34 games (42%) contained blood. More than half of the games (51%) depicted 5 or more types of weapons, with players able to select weapons in 48 games (59%). We observed 37 games (46%) that rewarded or required the player to destroy objects, 73 games (90%) that rewarded or required the player to injure characters, and 56 games (69%) that rewarded or required the player to kill. We observed a total of 11,499 character deaths in the 81 games, occurring at an average rate of 122 deaths per hour of game play (range 0 to 1310). This included 5689 human deaths, occurring at an average rate of 61 human deaths per hour of game play (range 0 to 1291). Overall, we identified 44 games (54%) that depicted deaths to nonhuman characters and 51 games (63%) that depicted deaths to human characters, including the player. Content analysis suggests a significant amount of violence, injury, and death in T-rated video games. Given the large amount of violence involving guns and knives, the relative lack of blood suggests that many T-rated video games do not realistically portray the consequences of violence. Physicians and parents should appreciate that T-rated video games may be a source of exposure to violence and some unexpected content for children and adolescents, and that the majority of T-rated video games provide incentives to the players to commit simulated acts of violence.
Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Soetaert, Ronald
... by exploring a particular aspect of digitization that affects young people, namely video games. They explore the new social spaces which emerge in video game culture and how these spaces relate to community building and citizenship...
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167642.html Can Video Game Playing Cost You Gray Matter? Style of playing ... doesn't prove -- that certain players of action video games may lose gray matter in a part of ...
Karl H. Stingeder
Die These: Videospiele befinden sich auf einer Reise hin zu einem alltäglichen Kulturgut quer durch alle Altersgruppen. Welche Rolle spielen dabei "Casual Games" und "Hardcore Games"? Was ist das "revolutionäre" Element bei so genannten "Casual Games"?
Thien-bao Thuc Phi
Even video games by Asian creators tend to depict primarily white characters or reference Asian stereotypes such as kung fu fighters or yakuza thugs. Games depicting the Vietnam war are particularly troubling for Asian players expected to identify with white characters. As the game industry continues to expand, its representation of Asians and Asian Americans must change.
Thien-bao Thuc Phi
Full Text Available Even video games by Asian creators tend to depict primarily white characters or reference Asian stereotypes such as kung fu fighters or yakuza thugs. Games depicting the Vietnam war are particularly troubling for Asian players expected to identify with white characters. As the game industry continues to expand, its representation of Asians and Asian Americans must change.
Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan
Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…
Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan
Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other tasks. Consequently, this study compared gamers and nongamers in task switching ability, visual short-term memory, mental rotation, enumeration, and flanker interference, as well as investigated the influence of self-reported problematic video game use. A total of 66 participants completed the experiment, 26 of whom played action video games, including 20 problematic players. The results revealed no significant effect of playing action video games, nor any influence of problematic video game play. This indicates that the previously reported cognitive advantages in video game players may be restricted to specific task features or samples. Furthermore, problematic video game play may not have a detrimental effect on cognitive performance, although this is difficult to ascertain considering the lack of video game player advantage. More research is therefore sorely needed.
When discussing the art of video games, three different contexts need to be considered: the 'high' art (video games and the art); commercial video games (video games as the art) and the fan art. Video games are a legitimate artistic medium subject to modifications and recontextualisations in the process of creating a specific experience of the player/user/audience and political action by referring to particular social problems. They represent a high technological medium that increases, with p...
West, Greg L; Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Pratt, Jay
Action video games have been show to affect a variety of visual and cognitive processes. There is, however, little evidence of whether playing video games can also affect motor action. To investigate the potential link between experience playing action video games and changes in oculomotor action, we tested habitual action video game players (VGPs) and non-video game players (NVGPs) in a saccadic trajectory deviation task. We demonstrate that spatial curvature of a saccadic trajectory towards or away from distractor is profoundly different between VGPs and NVGPs. In addition, task performance accuracy improved over time only in VGPs. Results are discussed in the context of the competing interplay between stimulus-driven motor programming and top-down inhibition during oculomotor execution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.
Davies, Bryan; Blake, Edwin
Public concern surrounding the effects video games have on players has inspired a large body of research, and policy makers in China and South Korea have even mandated systems that limit the amount of time players spend in game. The authors present an experiment that evaluates the effectiveness of such policies. They show that forcibly removing players from the game environment causes distress, potentially removing some of the benefits that games provide and producing a desire for more game time. They also show that, with an understanding of player psychology, playtime can be manipulated without significantly changing the user experience or negating the positive effects of video games.
Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta
.... Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings...
Watts, Cody; Sharlin, Ehud; Woytiuk, Peter
International audience; Increasingly, the movements of players' physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based on this unconventional interaction technique re...
Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C. Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F.; Merzenich, Michael M.; Gentile, Douglas A.
The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games ‘damage the brain’ or ‘boost brain power’ do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affe...
Trisolini, Daniela Carmen; Petilli, Marco Alessandro; Daini, Roberta
Over the past few years, an increasing number of studies have shown that playing action video games can have positive effects on tasks that involve attention and visual-spatial cognition (e.g. visual search, enumeration tasks, tracking multiple objects). Although playing action video games can improve several cognitive functions, the intensive interaction with the exciting, challenging, intrinsically-stimulating and perceptually-appealing game environments may adversely affect other functions, including the ability to maintain attention when the level of stimulation is not as intense. This study investigated whether a relationship existed between action video gaming and sustained attention performance in a sample of 45 Italian teenagers. After completing a questionnaire about their video-games habits, participants were divided into Action Video Game Player and Non Action Video Game Player groups and underwent cognitive tests. The results confirm previous findings of studies of Action Video Game Players, as they had significantly enhanced performance for instantly enumerating a set of items. Nevertheless, we found that the drop in performance over time, typical of a sustained attention task, was significantly greater in the Action Video Game Player compared with the Non Action Video Game Player group. This result is consistent with our hypothesis and demonstrates a negative effect of playing action video games.
Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...
Smith, Adrew C
Full Text Available The authors present the prototype design results of an alternative physical educational video gaming input device. The device elicits increased physical activity from the players as compared to the compact gaming controller. Complicated...
Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah
As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…
Huang, Vivian; Young, Michaelia; Fiocco, Alexandra J
Despite consumer growth, few studies have evaluated the cognitive effects of gaming using mobile devices. This study examined the association between video game play platform and cognitive performance. Furthermore, the differential effect of video game genre (action versus nonaction) was explored. Sixty undergraduate students completed a video game experience questionnaire, and we divided them into three groups: mobile video game players (MVGPs), console/computer video game players (CVGPs), and nonvideo game players (NVGPs). Participants completed a cognitive battery to assess executive function, and learning and memory. Controlling for sex and ethnicity, analyses showed that frequent video game play is associated with enhanced executive function, but not learning and memory. MVGPs were significantly more accurate on working memory performances than NVGPs. Both MVGPs and CVGPs were similarly associated with enhanced cognitive function, suggesting that platform does not significantly determine the benefits of frequent video game play. Video game platform was found to differentially associate with preference for action video game genre and motivation for gaming. Exploratory analyses show that sex significantly effects frequent video game play, platform and genre preference, and cognitive function. This study represents a novel exploration of the relationship between mobile video game play and cognition and adds support to the cognitive benefits of frequent video game play.
Schwinn, Steven D.
Video games today give players an unprecedented opportunity to become part of the game. They literally put players in the game. And with rapid technological improvements and endless creativity, games are only becoming more realistic. They are also becoming more violent. Today's games allow players to kill, maim, dismember, and torture victims by…
Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Soetaert, Ronald
In their article "Video Games and Citizenship" Jeroen Bourgonjon and Ronald Soetaert argue that digitization problematizes and broadens our perspective on culture and popular media, and that this has important ramifications for our understanding of citizenship. Bourgonjon and Soetaert respond to the call of Gert Biesta for the contextualized study of young people's practices by exploring a particular aspect of digitization that affects young people, namely video games. They explore the new so...
Griffiths, Mark D; Nuyens, Filip
There are many different factors involved in how and why people develop problems with video game playing. One such set of factors concerns the structural characteristics of video games (i.e., the structure, elements, and components of the video games themselves). Much of the research examining the structural characteristics of video games was initially based on research and theorizing from the gambling studies field. The present review briefly overviews the key papers in the field to date. The paper examines a number of areas including (i) similarities in structural characteristics of gambling and video gaming, (ii) structural characteristics in video games, (iii) narrative and flow in video games, (iv) structural characteristic taxonomies for video games, and (v) video game structural characteristics and game design ethics. Many of the studies carried out to date are small-scale, and comprise self-selected convenience samples (typically using self-report surveys or non-ecologically valid laboratory experiments). Based on the small amount of empirical data, it appears that structural features that take a long time to achieve in-game are the ones most associated with problematic video game play (e.g., earning experience points, managing in-game resources, mastering the video game, getting 100% in-game). The study of video games from a structural characteristic perspective is of benefit to many different stakeholders including academic researchers, video game players, and video game designers, as well as those interested in prevention and policymaking by making the games more socially responsible. It is important that researchers understand and recognize the psycho-social effects and impacts that the structural characteristics of video games can have on players, both positive and negative.
Gee, James Paul
The author builds on arguments he has made elsewhere that good commercial video games foster deep learning and problem solving and that such games in fact promote mastery as a form of play. Here he maintains that some good video games engage players with an important type of play, namely of play as discovery, of play as surmising new possibilities…
Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A
The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.
Beatty, Ian D.
Video games can be very powerful teaching systems, and game designers have become adept at optimizing player engagement while scaffolding development of complex skills and situated knowledge. One implication is that we might create games to teach physics. Another, which I explore here, is that we might learn to improve classroom physics instruction by studying effective games. James Gee, in his book What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy (2007), articulates 36 principles that make good video games highly effective as learning environments. In this theoretical work, I identify 16 themes running through Gee's principles, and explore how these themes and Gee's principles could be applied to the design of an on-campus physics course. I argue that the process pushes us to confront aspects of learning that physics instructors and even physics education researchers generally neglect, and suggest some novel ideas for course design.
Wainess, Richard; Kerr, Deirdre; Koenig, Alan
One of the reasons why commercial video games are popular is that they effectively teach players how to play the game--in many cases as the player plays the game itself. This paper focuses on how to effectively integrate teaching "how to play a game" with teaching an "instructional domain" within a game for learning. By analyzing more than 30…
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.
The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…
Full Text Available Video Game, especially in Indonesia, has been long seeing as kid toy with minimum or no psychological impact to the player. This view is a serious mistake since video game able to transmit violence message to political message into their audience or player. Political message especially is very omnipresent in such game as Red Alert, Generals and others FPS or RTS games. The message on these games is higly political and contains political views the developer has. This writing tries to read the political messages on games like Red Alert and Counter Strike to find myth the developer create or believe and search out why these myths is present. Barthes analysis on semiotics were used to read not only the denotative meaning of the message, but also find the connotative message and finaly find the myths wrapped around the games.
Choo, Hyekyung; Gentile, Douglas A; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline; Liau, Albert K
Increase in internet use and video-gaming contributes to public concern on pathological or obsessive play of video games among children and adolescents worldwide. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence of pathological symptoms in video-gaming among Singaporean youth and the psychometric properties of instruments measuring pathological symptoms in video-gaming. A total of 2998 children and adolescents from 6 primary and 6 secondary schools in Singapore responded to a comprehensive survey questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, video-gaming habits, school performance, somatic symptoms, various psychological traits, social functioning and pathological symptoms of video-gaming. After weighting, the survey data were analysed to determine the prevalence of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth and gender differences in the prevalence. The construct validity of instrument used to measure pathological symptoms of video-gaming was tested. Of all the study participants, 8.7% were classified as pathological players with more boys reporting more pathological symptoms than girls. All variables, including impulse control problem, social competence, hostility, academic performance, and damages to social functioning, tested for construct validity, were significantly associated with pathological status, providing good evidence for the construct validity of the instrument used. The prevalence rate of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth is comparable with that from other countries studied thus far, and gender differences are also consistent with the findings of prior research. The positive evidence of construct validity supports the potential use of the instrument for future research and clinical screening on Singapore children and adolescents' pathological video-gaming.
Almost from its birth, the computer and video gaming industry has done an admirable job of communicating the vision and attempting to convey the experience of traveling through space to millions of gamers from all cultures and demographics. This paper will propose several approaches the 100 Year Starship Study can take to use the power of interactive media to stir interest in the Starship and related projects among a global population. It will examine successful gaming franchises from the past that are relevant to the mission and consider ways in which the Starship Study could cooperate with game development studios to bring the Starship vision to those franchises and thereby to the public. The paper will examine ways in which video games can be used to crowd-source research aspects for the Study, and how video games are already considering many of the same topics that will be examined by this Study. Finally, the paper will propose some mechanisms by which the 100 Year Starship Study can establish very close ties with the gaming industry and foster cooperation in pursuit of the Study's goals.
Juan José Rodríguez Soler
Full Text Available Online Channels in financial institutions allows customers with disabilities to access services in a convenient way for them.However, one of the current challenges of this sector is to improve web accessibility and to incorporate technological resources to provide access to multimedia and video content, which has become a new form of internet communication.The present work shows in detail the strategy followed when designing and developing the new video player used by Bankinter for these purposes.
Ruxandra Claudia CHIRCA (NEACȘU
Full Text Available In nowadays' world, technological assistance is no longer confined to its primary purpose of communication or informational support and the boundaries between real and virtual world are becoming increasingly harder to be defined. This is the world of digital natives, today's children, who grow up in a technology-brimming environment and who spend most of their time playing video games. Are these video games constructive in any way? Scientific studies state they are. Video games help children in setting their goals, provide constant feedback and offer immediate rewards, along with the opportunity to collaborate with other players. Furthermore, video games can generate strong emotional reactions, such as joy or fear, and they have a captivating story line, which reveals itself within a realm of elaborate graphics.
Song, Seungkeun; Kim, Mijin
We present a five-part model of players' rule behaviors in a multiplayer online game (utilization, emergence, usefulness, usefulness-balance, and balance-usefulness). The model was identified through a pilot study involving nine expert players. The model fitness was then verified in a main experiment involving eighteen regular players. Our results showed that the utilization (4 players) and emergence (4 players) models were most frequently used, followed by the balance-usefulness (3 players), usefulness (3 players), and usefulness-balance (2 players) models. The coding scheme for this research was built from video observations and a literature review. We suggest this model is applicable for the implementation of a human-like virtual character's artificial intelligence algorithm in the game editors and the server loader for quality assurance.
Squire, Kurt D.
Interactive digital media, or video games, are a powerful new medium. They offer immersive experiences in which players solve problems. Players learn more than just facts--ways of seeing and understanding problems so that they "become" different kinds of people. "Serious games" coming from business strategy, advergaming, and entertainment gaming…
Paney, Andrew S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…
Ivory, Adrienne Holz
Although the effects of violent video games on aggression in users have been researched extensively and the resulting body of research shows that violent video games can increase aggressive behaviors, aggression-related feelings and thoughts, and physiological arousal, no empirical studies to date have examined whether there are similar and parallel effects of verbal aggression (e.g., profanity) in video game content. A 2 X 2 between-subjects factorial experiment (N = 321) tested the effects ...
Vila, Miguel Angel Sicart
turn their users into blood thirsty zombies with a computer game learnt ability of aiming with deadly precision. The goal of this paper is to pay attention to the ethical nature of computer games, in order to understand better the ways we can evaluate their morality in western cultures providing...... a framework to understand some of these concerns. This paper poses questions about the ontology of games and their ethical meaning, in an attempt to give ethical theory a word in the analysis of computer games....
Denikin Anton A.
Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.
Etter, Darryl; Kamen, Charles; Etter, Kelly; Gore-Felton, Cheryl
Many of the current generation of veterans grew up with video games, including military first-person shooter (MFPS) video games. In MFPS games, players take the role of soldiers engaged in combat in environments modeled on real-life warzones. Exposure to trauma-congruent game content may either serve to exacerbate or to ameliorate posttraumatic symptoms. The current study examined the relationship between MFPS and other shooter video game playing and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among current and former members of the military (N = 111). Results indicated that video game play was very common, and 41.4% of participants reported playing MFPS or other shooter games (shooter players group). The shooter players group reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms than participants who did not play any video or shooter games (nonshooter/nonplayers group; d = 0.44); however, playing shooter games was not predictive of PTSD symptoms after accounting for personality, combat exposure, and social support variables. This may indicate that the same psychosocial factors predict both PTSD and shooter video game play. Although veterans may benefit from the development and use of clinical applications of video games in PTSD treatment, clinical attention should continue to focus on established psychosocial predictors of PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
The purpose of this Thesis is to study women as video game consumers through the games that they play. This was done by case studies on the content of five video games from genres that statistically are popular amongst women. To introduce the topic and to build the theoretical framework, the key terms and the video game industry are introduced. The reader is acquainted with theories on consumer behaviour, buying processes and factors that influence our consuming habits. These aspects are...
Hoffman, Bobby; Nadelson, Louis
A mixed methods design was used to identify factors associated with motivational engagement in video gaming. Self-report instruments were administered to 189 video game players to assess goal orientations, affect, need for cognition, and perceptions of engagement and flow. Simultaneously, a sub-set of 25 participants were interviewed and results…
Weger, Ulrich W; Loughnan, Stephen
...). Does immersive video gaming, during which the player takes on the mantle of an avatar, prompt people to adopt the coldness and rigidity associated with robotic behavior and desensitize them to real-life experience...
Porter, Guy; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Fenech, Pauline
It has been increasingly recognized that some people develop problem video game use, defined here as excessive use of video games resulting in various negative psychosocial and/or physical consequences. The main objectives of the present study were to identify individuals with problem video game use and compare them with those without problem video game use on several variables. An international, anonymous online survey was conducted, using a questionnaire with provisional criteria for problem video game use, which the authors have developed. These criteria reflect the crucial features of problem video game use: preoccupation with and loss of control over playing video games and multiple adverse consequences of this activity. A total of 1945 survey participants completed the survey. Respondents who were identified as problem video game users (n = 156, 8.0%) differed significantly from others (n = 1789) on variables that provided independent, preliminary validation of the provisional criteria for problem video game use. They played longer than planned and with greater frequency, and more often played even though they did not want to and despite believing that they should not do it. Problem video game users were more likely to play certain online role-playing games, found it easier to meet people online, had fewer friends in real life, and more often reported excessive caffeine consumption. People with problem video game use can be identified by means of a questionnaire and on the basis of the present provisional criteria, which require further validation. These findings have implications for recognition of problem video game users among individuals, especially adolescents, who present to mental health services. Mental health professionals need to acknowledge the public health significance of the multiple negative consequences of problem video game use.
King, Daniel Luke; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Zajac, Ian T.
Research has estimated that between 6 to 13% of individuals who play video games do so excessively. However, the methods and definitions used to identify "problem" video game players often vary considerably. This research presents preliminary validation data for a new measure of problematic video game play called the Problem Video Game…
Smeddinck, Jan D.; Gerling, Kathrin M.; Tiemkeo, Saranat
Motion-based video games can have a variety of benefits for the players and are increasingly applied in physical therapy, rehabilitation and prevention for older adults. However, little is known about how this audience experiences playing such games, how the player experience affects the way older adults interact with motion-based games, and how this can relate to therapy goals. In our work, we decompose the player experience of older adults engaging with motion-based games, focusing on the e...
Afiouni, Einar Nour; Øvrelid, Leif Julian
This project aims to examine the possibilities of using game theoretic concepts and multi-agent systems in modern video games with real time demands. We have implemented a multi-issue negotiation system for the strategic video game Civilization IV, evaluating different negotiation techniques with a focus on the use of opponent modeling to improve negotiation results.
Siswanto, Jefry Yosua; Ardianto, Deny Tri; Srisanto, Erandaru
Video game dapat digunakan untuk membawakan sebuah cerita rakyat dari negeri masing-masing.Bagi negara-negara yang industri game-nya belum maju, hal ini dapat digunakan sebagai solusi untuk memperkenalkan cerita rakyat.Untuk itu video game ini dibuat agar setidaknya dapat membantu mengenalkan kembali cerita rakyat Indonesia.Dibuat dengan teknik ilustrasi untuk mempermudah pengenalan dan memberikan daya tarik sendiri.
Full Text Available Gender representation in video games is a current sensitive topic in entertainment media. Gender studies in video games look at the difference between the portrayal of female and male characters. Most video games tend to over-represent stereotypes and in general use extensive violence and cruelty (Maietti, 2008. Some video games use wrong, disrespectful and sometimes even violent representations of both genders. This research paper focuses on the current representation of female gender in video games and how they are represented, stereotyped and used as characters in games. Results show that there is a difference between portraying women in the past and present. This research paper is based on previous academic research and results which were achieved with online questionnaire among game players and two interviews with professionals in the field of game design. The results show that there is still negative stereotyping of female gender. However, at the same time, the answers of the respondents show that the target audience of video games desires improvements in presentation of female gender as well as male.
Pillias, Clément; Robert-Bouchard, Raphaël; Levieux, Guillaume
International audience; In this paper, we present a collaborative game designed for Sifteo Cubes, a new tangible interface for multiplayer games. We discuss how this game exploits the platform's interface to transfer some of the game mechanics into the non-digital world, and how this approach affects both the player's experience and the design process. We present the technical limitations encountered during game development and analyze video recordings of play sessions with regard to the play...
Hasan, Y.; Bègue, L.; Bushman, B.J.
It is well known that violent video games increase aggression, and that stress increases aggression. Many violent video games can be stressful because enemies are trying to kill players. The present study investigates whether violent games increase aggression by inducing stress in players. Stress
Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne
Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
The Video Game Development program is designed and developed by leaders in the Austin video game development industry, under the direction of the ACC Video Game Advisory Board. Courses are taught by industry video game developers for those who want to become video game developers. The program offers a comprehensive approach towards learning what's…
Walter Richard Boot
Full Text Available Frequent action video game players often outperform non-gamers on measures of perception and cognition, and some studies find that video game practice enhances those abilities. The possibility that video game training transfers broadly to other aspects of cognition is exciting because training on one task rarely improves performance on others. At first glance, the cumulative evidence suggests a strong relationship between gaming experience and other cognitive abilities, but methodological shortcomings call that conclusion into question. We discuss these pitfalls, identify how existing studies succeed or fail in overcoming them, and provide guidelines for more definitive tests of the effects of gaming on cognition.
Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin
Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.
According to a national telephone survey by the Pew Internet Project, 99 percent of boys and 94 percent of girls ages 12-17 play computer, Web, portable, or console games; and 50 percent play such games daily. The survey report, Teens, Video Games, and Civics, examines the extent and nature of teens' game playing and sheds some light on the…
Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo
Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ward, Michael R.
Psychologists have found positive correlations between playing violent video games and violent and antisocial attitudes. However, these studies typically do not control for other covariates, particularly sex, that are known to be associated with both video game play and aggression. This study exploits the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which includes questions on video game play and fighting as well as basic demographic information. With both parametric and nonparametric estimators, as there is ...
Metzger, Scott Alan; Paxton, Richard J.
This article offers a typological framework for analyzing how video games make use of historical elements, shaping the ways players engage with and think about the past. Phenomenologically induced labels are posited for identifying different deployments of and experiences with historical elements in video games, illustrated by examples drawn from…
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.
The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation
Mohanty, Soumya D.; Cantu, Sergio
Commercial video games are increasingly using sophisticated physics simulations to create a more immersive experience for players. This also makes them a powerful tool for engaging students in learning physics. We provide some examples to show how commercial off-the-shelf games can be used to teach specific topics in introductory undergraduate physics. The examples are selected from a course taught predominantly through the medium of commercial video games.
Mohanty, Soumya D
Commercial video games are increasingly using sophisticated physics simulations to create a more immersive experience for players. This also makes them a powerful tool for engaging students in learning physics. We provide some examples to show how commercial off-the-shelf games can be used to teach specific topics in introductory undergraduate physics. The examples are selected from a course taught predominantly through the medium of commercial video games.
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specifi...
Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game…
Fischer, Peter; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Greitemeyer, Tobias
Abstract A recent development in video games is that players can design and personalize their own in-game characters. It was predicted that this innovation could lead to elevations in the intensity of the psychological effects of video games. The present study confirmed this hypothesis, revealing that participants who played an aggressive video game using their own, personalized character exhibited higher levels of aggressive behavior than participants who played an aggressive game...
Marcello Arnaldo Picucci
Full Text Available In the present study a model is proposed offering a comprehensive categorization of video game narrative structures intended as the methods and techniques used by game designers and allowed by the medium to deliver the story content throughout the gameplay in collaboration with the players. A case is first made for the presence of narrative in video games and its growth of importance as a central component in game design. An in-depth analysis ensues focusing on how games tell stories, guided by the criteria of linearity/nonlinearity, interactivity and randomness. Light is shed upon the fundamental architectures through which stories are told as well as the essential boundaries posed by the close link between narrative and game AI.
Unsworth, Nash; Redick, Thomas S; McMillan, Brittany D; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W
The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that experienced video-game players outperformed nonplayers on several cognitive-ability measures. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, when analyses examined the full range of subjects at both the task level and the latent-construct level, nearly all of the relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were near zero. These results cast doubt on recent claims that playing video games leads to enhanced cognitive abilities. Statistical and methodological issues with prior studies of video-game experience are discussed along with recommendations for future studies. © The Author(s) 2015.
Carsten ePohl; Wilfried eKunde; Thomas eGanz; Annette eConzelmann; Paul ePauli; Andrea eKiesel
Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behaviour. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal picture...
Thompson, K M; Haninger, K
deaths from violent acts, and we found a significant correlation between the proportion of violent game play and the number of deaths per minute of play. We noted potentially objectionable sexual content in 2 games and the presence of alcohol in 1 game. Content analysis suggests a significant amount of violence in some E-rated video games. The content descriptors provide some information to parents and should be used along with the rating, but the game's genre also appears to play a role in the amount of violent play. Physicians and parents should understand that popular E-rated video games may be a source of exposure to violence and other unexpected content for children and that games may reward the players for violent actions.
... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/hotkeys.html Video Player Keyboard Shortcuts To use the sharing features ... of accessible keyboard shortcuts for our latest Health videos on the MedlinePlus site. These shortcuts allow you ...
Weaver, Andrew J; Lewis, Nicky
This exploratory study was designed to examine how players make moral choices in video games and what effects these choices have on emotional responses to the games. Participants (n=75) filled out a moral foundations questionnaire (MFQ) and then played through the first full act of the video game Fallout 3. Game play was recorded and content analyzed for the moral decisions made. Players also reported their enjoyment of and emotional reactions to the game and reflected on the decisions they made. The majority of players made moral decisions and behaved toward the nonplayer game characters they encountered as if these were actual interpersonal interactions. Individual differences in decision making were predicted by the MFQ. Behaving in antisocial ways did increase guilt, but had no impact on enjoyment.
Johnson, Mark M.
The Smithsonian American Art Museum has created and will tour an exhibition on a most unusual but extremely popular art form--"The Art of Video Games." As one of the largest and first of its type, this exhibition will document and explore a 40-year evolution of video games as an artistic medium, with a focus on striking visual effects and the…
The growing interest in video gaming is matched by a corresponding increase in concerns about the harmful effects on children and adolescents. There are numerous studies on aggression and addiction which spark debates on the negative effects of video gaming. At the same time, there are also studies demonstrating prosocial effects. This paper…
Reeves, Stuart; Greiffenhagen, Christian; Laurier, Eric
Accounts of video game play developed from an ethnomethodological and conversation analytic (EMCA) perspective remain relatively scarce. This study collects together an emerging, if scattered, body of research which focuses on the material, practical "work" of video game players. The study offers an example-driven explication of an EMCA perspective on video game play phenomena. The materials are arranged as a "tactical zoom." We start very much "outside" the game, beginning with a wide view of how massive-multiplayer online games are played within dedicated gaming spaces; here, we find multiple players, machines, and many different sorts of activities going on (besides playing the game). Still remaining somewhat distanced from the play of the game itself, we then take a closer look at the players themselves by examining a notionally simpler setting involving pairs taking part in a football game at a games console. As we draw closer to the technical details of play, we narrow our focus further still to examine a player and spectator situated "at the screen" but jointly analyzing play as the player competes in an online first-person shooter. Finally, we go "inside" the game entirely and look at the conduct of avatars on-screen via screen recordings of a massively multiplayer online game. Having worked through specific examples, we provide an elaboration of a selection of core topics of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis that is used to situate some of the unstated orientations in the presentation of data fragments. In this way, recurrent issues raised in the fragments are shown as coherent, interconnected phenomena. In closing, we suggest caution regarding the way game play phenomena have been analyzed in this study, while remarking on challenges present for the development of further EMCA-oriented research on video game play. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.
Rushing, Mary E; Sheehan, Daniel J; Davis, Loretta S
Controversy and concern surround the video game playing fascination of children. Scientific reports have explored the negative effects of video games on youth, with a growing number recognizing the actual physical implications of this activity. We offer another reason to discourage children's focus on video games: knuckle pads. A 13-year-old black boy presented with an asymptomatic, slightly hyperpigmented plaque over his right second distal interphalangeal joint. A punch biopsy specimen confirmed knuckle pad as the diagnosis, and a traumatic etiology from video game playing was suspected. Knuckle pads can be painful, cosmetically unappealing, and refractory to treatment. They can now be recognized as yet another potential adverse consequence of chronic video game playing.
Work focuses on representation of opponents in first-person shooter video games. It aims to discover tools, which developers of video games use to choose specific enemies for their games and in which way they present them. First-person shooters are used for this purposes because players have closest visual contact with opponents in this genre. The aim of this work is to describe most typical opponents in video games and to find out why this exact enemies are usualyy the most portrayed. Specia...
One of the biggest debates among music educators today is about whether or not video games are a valid educational tool. As far back as the early 1990s, teachers were using games such as Sid Meier's Civilization to reinforce history and social studies concepts, but until recently games that dealt with areas of music education have been few and far…
Full Text Available Video games create a virtual space that can be inhabited in various ways by the players. Despite the controversies in which they are constantly included, electronic games bear witness to the modus operandi in our contemporary cognition permeated by technical objects. By focusing the know-how instead of a declarative experience the games open questions in the field of new literacies and problematize the use of technology in teaching practices. From the development of a locative game at the Botanical Garden of Porto Alegre, this article discussed some, methodological, political and theoretical implications arising from the research with video games in the field of cognitive studies. We discuss, finally, three theoretical / methodological implications the practice with video games forces us to think: research the video game through the process of its operation, questioning cognitive policies that organize our everyday and map the complex web of practices that supports the use of technical objects.
Cathlena Martin explores in her paper "Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization" selected children's video games. Martin argues that children's video games often act as reinforcement for the games' television and film counterparts and their racializing characteristics and features. In Martin's analysis the video games discussed represent media through which to analyze racial identities and ideologies. In making the case for positive female minority leads in children's video games, ...
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg
The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.
Larsen, Lasse Juel
on the subject matter from the catalogue of game theory. All four suggestions exclude the player from the relationship. This paper introduces a phenomenological point of view and includes the player in order to understand the relationship between structure and dressing. It argues that players constitute a bridge......This paper is a search for meaning or to be more precise a study of how meaning is produced between ontology and fiction in computer games. It sets out to investigate the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game representation (dressing) by presenting four suggestions...... or the center which establishes, upholds and renegotiate the relationship between formal game structure and game dressing. It also argues that players’ interaction with both structure and dressing produce meaning and the production of meaning is the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game...
Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal; Ferguson, Christopher; Bean, Anthony
” is not a stable construct and clinical impairment might be low. Third, pathologizing gaming behavior has fallout beyond the therapeutic setting. In light of continuing controversies, it is argued that the currently proposed categories of video game addiction disorders are premature....... and necessity of the overarching construct. This raises multiple concerns. First, the current approaches to understanding “gaming addiction” are rooted in substance abuse research and approaches do not necessarily translate to media consumption. Second, some research has indicated that “video game addiction...
Quick, John M.; Atkinson, Robert K.; Lin, Lijia
A survey study was conducted to better understand how gameplay enjoyment relates to players' personality traits and video game preferences. This study demonstrated that the core design elements of games that lead to enjoyment can be empirically identified. Similarly, it showed that considering personality, an individual characteristic, can produce…
Mohanty, Soumya D.; Cantu, Sergio
Commercial video games are increasingly using sophisticated physics simulations to create a more immersive experience for players. This also makes them a powerful tool for engaging students in learning physics. We provide some examples to show how commercial off-the-shelf games can be used to teach specific topics in introductory undergraduate…
Reese, Debbie Denise; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Kosko, Robert E.
Valid, accessible, reusable methods for instructional video game design and embedded assessment can provide actionable information enhancing individual and collective achievement. Cyberlearning through game-based, metaphor-enhanced learning objects (CyGaMEs) design and embedded assessment quantify player behavior to study knowledge discovery and…
Turner, Nigel E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Ballon, Bruce; Cheung, Joyce T. W.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Henderson, Joanna; Chan, Vincy; Rehm, Jurgen; Hamilton, Hayley; Mann, Robert E.
Video game playing has become a very popular activity among adolescents. Its impact on the mental health and well-being of players is just beginning to be explored. This paper reports on the prevalence of problematic gaming in a representative sample of 2,832 Ontario students in grades 7 to 12. The survey included questions about the school grade,…
Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...
Porter, Guy; Starcevic, Vladan
The aim of this paper is to revisit the controversial issue of the association of violent video games and aggressive behaviour. Several lines of evidence suggest that there is a link between exposure to violent video games and aggressive behaviour. However, methodological shortcomings of research conducted so far make several interpretations of this relationship possible. Thus, aggressive behaviour may be a consequence of playing violent video games, an expression of hostile traits that existed before exposure to these games, and/or it may be a result of several possible combinations of these and other factors. Mental health professionals need to be aware of these potentially negative effects of violent video games when assessing patients who present with aggression. There is a need for prospective, long-term studies similar to those evaluating the effects of television and film violence on children and adolescents.
There are several types of characters in video games: the main protagonist/hero, the countless non-player characters (NPCs), and persistent non-player characters (PNPCs). While there is a substantial body of research about PNPCs from a game design point of view, they have been largely ignored by the academic community from a narrative perspective.…
Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise
This study explored predictors of engagement with specific video game genres, and degree of problem play experienced by players of specific genres, during the early life course. Video game players ages 18–29 (n = 692) were recruited in and around video game retail outlets, arcades, conventions, and other video game related contexts in New York City. Participants completed a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) of contemporaneous demographic and personality measures and a Life-History C...
Over the last decade, buying in-game content with real money has become a more common practice among players in order to unlock exclusive content in video games. Prior research has mainly focused on those functional digital items that provide an advantage to the buyer. This thesis aims to determine the underlying factors that influence video game players to purchase purely aesthetic virtual items.Prior studies on the field of video games, gaming business models and purchasing behaviour were r...
Abstract As video games have become have become more popular and as popular as music and movies, the need for more video game developers have increased also. But even though there are more people developing video games, there still exists usability issues in video games like also in general computer software. The purpose of the thesis is to find out how usa...
Funk, Jeanne B.
Surveyed 357 seventh and eighth graders about video game play and preference. Found that approximately 64% of boys and 56% of girls played one to two hours of video games per week at home; and that, among five categories of video games, those most preferred by the students were games that involved fantasy violence and sports games. (BC)
Thompson, Kimberly M; Tepichin, Karen; Haninger, Kevin
To quantify the depiction of violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in video games rated M (for "mature") and to measure agreement between the content observed and the rating information provided to consumers on the game box by the Entertainment Software Rating Board. We created a database of M-rated video game titles, selected a random sample, recorded at least 1 hour of game play, quantitatively assessed the content, performed statistical analyses to describe the content, and compared our observations with the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors and results of our prior studies. Harvard University, Boston, Mass. Authors and 1 hired game player. M-rated video games. Percentages of game play depicting violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; use of profanity in dialogue, song lyrics, or gestures. Although the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors for violence and blood provide a good indication of such content in the game, we identified 45 observations of content that could warrant a content descriptor in 29 games (81%) that lacked these content descriptors. M-rated video games are significantly more likely to contain blood, profanity, and substances; depict more severe injuries to human and nonhuman characters; and have a higher rate of human deaths than video games rated T (for "teen"). Parents and physicians should recognize that popular M-rated video games contain a wide range of unlabeled content and may expose children and adolescents to messages that may negatively influence their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.
Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A
Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medan Video Game Center construction is intended to facilitate the people who are enthusiast about video game in Medan. This building also can be a place for organized event – event that is related to video game such as video game exhibition, or video game competition. Besides that, Medan Video Game Center construction also as education place which there is contain a video game academy and vehicle simulator room. The building design use double skin façade concept that highlights the supportin...
Magnussen, Rikke; Misfeldt, Morten
Children's great interest in multiplayer games has led to attempts to design educational multiplayer games. In this study, we have studied a test of an educational multiplayer game designed for mathematics education for children aged nine to twelve. In our observations, it became clear that pupils...... transformed the game to accommodate social interaction. With these transformed ways of playing the game, they managed to get to the top of the high score list while avoiding the educational parts of the game. Players transforming educational games to escape learning elements can be a problem when these games...... are used for formal education. In this paper we argue that player transformation of educational games can, however, be the basis of exciting and unconventional learning of valuable things, such as how to transform information technology to better accommodate social interaction....
Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, T B; Rasmussen, L S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate activity profile, aerobic load, and player involvement in two game formats of recreational and elite youth football for two age groups. A total of 152 youth players participated, with 45 U10 players playing 5v5 and 8v8 games, and 41 U13 players playing 8v8...... and 11v11 (20 min) games. Activity profile, heart rate (HR), and technical actions were measured during all games using 10 Hz GPS, video filming, and HR monitors. For U10, no difference was found in total distance covered (1754 ± 237 vs 1771 ± 314 m, P = 0.650, d = 0.06), whereas mean HR (174 ± 10 vs 168...... game format. Playing with fewer players on smaller pitches results...
Drummond, D; Tesnière, A; Hadchouel, A
Playing video games has been associated with several negative effects in children. However, serious games, which are video games designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment, should not be neglected by pediatricians. In the field of public health, some serious games are a means to decrease drug consumption and improve sexual health behavior in adolescents. In schools, serious games can be used to change students' perception of the disease of one of their classmates, or to train students on basic life support. Serious games are also used with patients: they can distract them from a painful procedure, increase their compliance to treatments, or participate in their rehabilitation. Finally, serious games allow healthcare professionals to train on the management of various medical situations without risk. For every field of application, this review presents the rationale of the use of video games, followed by concrete examples of video games and the results of their scientific evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behaviour. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants’ responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is to design, develop and fabricate a handheld video game console for astronauts during long space flight. This portable hardware runs...
Goldstein, Jeffrey; Cajko, Lara; Oosterbroek, Mark; Michielsen, Moniek; Van Houten, Oscar; Salverda, Femke
This study examined the effects of playing video games (Super Tetris) on the reaction time, cognitive/perceptual adaptability, and emotional well-being of 22 noninstitutionalized elderly people aged 69 to 90...
Happ, Christian; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges
Recent findings indicate that events in video games, as well as players' perceptions of game characters, moderate well-established video game effects. This includes the level of identification with game characters, and players' interpretation of whether or not the actions of the characters are conceived as moral. In the present study, it was tested whether manipulating empathy for well-known game characters influences video game effects in a violent beat-'em-up game. As was expected, playing the comic hero Superman led to more prosocial behavior (i.e., returning a lost letter) than playing the evil villain Joker. A similar positive effect was observed for inducing game characters as warm and empathic before playing. Compared to a neutral text, participants in the empathy text condition judged the violence in the game as less justified, irrespective of game character. When looking at hostile perception, an interaction was found between empathy and game character. For Superman, empathy led participants to interpret neutral faces as less aggressive. When playing the evil Joker, however, empathy even increased hostile perception. This is in line with previous findings that empathy may not be positive per se. In fact, it may backfire depending on the interaction of game characters and the empathy players feel for them.
Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J
Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players' performance at the elite level.
Popular culture experience in video games creates avenues to practice information literacy skills and model research in a real-world setting. Video games create a unique popular culture experience where players can invest dozens of hours on one game, create characters to identify with, organize skill sets and plot points, collaborate with people…
Ebrahimzadeh, Mohsen; Alavi, Sepideh
The study examined the effect of a commercial digital video game on high school students' language learning motivation. Participants were 241 male students randomly assigned to one of the following three treatments: Readers, who intensively read the game's story; Players, who played the digital video game; and Watchers, who watched two classmates…
Weintrop, David; Holbert, Nathan; Horn, Michael S.; Wilensky, Uri
Video games offer an exciting opportunity for learners to engage in computational thinking in informal contexts. This paper describes a genre of learning environments called constructionist video games that are especially well suited for developing learners' computational thinking skills. These games blend features of conventional video games with…
Full Text Available In video games the player’s actions shape the narrative of their personal experience, molding what otherwise would be a linear course. This emergent narrative is in a state of constant transformation, dependent on how the player influences it. This paper explores how the players traverse ergodic media such as video games and how narrative emerges from the interactions between them and the system. In a previous text we have proposed three types of traversal in video games (Cardoso & Carvalhais, 2013: 1 that in which the player has the ability to choose between mutually exclusive paths; 2 that in which the player has the ability to expand the narrative; and 3 that in which the traversal is determined by the disposition of the other actors in the game world towards the player and each other. This paper intends to further contribute by adding another one: 4 a type of traversal that is rooted in the exploitation of any flaws and glitches in the system, allowing the player to traverse the game through an overlooked side of the algorithm, journeying through a world of unpredictable behaviours and events, that may ultimately break the game altogether.
OFarrell, Zachary L.
Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.
Efforts to entice and retain player activity within a casino gaming environment require bringing to bear a range of sensory and physical influences. The challenge is to accomplish the operators’ objectives while at the same time ensuring any potential negative effects on the player are minimised. How casinos keep this in balance is at the heart of how the gaming floor works, and assessing such matters is becoming a necessary part of social responsibility.
West, G L; Konishi, K; Diarra, M; Benady-Chorney, J; Drisdelle, B L; Dahmani, L; Sodums, D J; Lepore, F; Jolicoeur, P; Bohbot, V D
The hippocampus is critical to healthy cognition, yet results in the current study show that action video game players have reduced grey matter within the hippocampus. A subsequent randomised longitudinal training experiment demonstrated that first-person shooting games reduce grey matter within the hippocampus in participants using non-spatial memory strategies. Conversely, participants who use hippocampus-dependent spatial strategies showed increased grey matter in the hippocampus after training. A control group that trained on 3D-platform games displayed growth in either the hippocampus or the functionally connected entorhinal cortex. A third study replicated the effect of action video game training on grey matter in the hippocampus. These results show that video games can be beneficial or detrimental to the hippocampal system depending on the navigation strategy that a person employs and the genre of the game.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.155.
Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima
Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. Copyright 2015, NMJI.
Khatib, Firas; Cooper, Seth; Tyka, Michael D; Xu, Kefan; Makedon, Ilya; Popovic, Zoran; Baker, David; Players, Foldit
Foldit is a multiplayer online game in which players collaborate and compete to create accurate protein structure models. For specific hard problems, Foldit player solutions can in some cases outperform state-of-the-art computational methods. However, very little is known about how collaborative gameplay produces these results and whether Foldit player strategies can be formalized and structured so that they can be used by computers. To determine whether high performing player strategies could be collectively codified, we augmented the Foldit gameplay mechanics with tools for players to encode their folding strategies as "recipes" and to share their recipes with other players, who are able to further modify and redistribute them. Here we describe the rapid social evolution of player-developed folding algorithms that took place in the year following the introduction of these tools. Players developed over 5,400 different recipes, both by creating new algorithms and by modifying and recombining successful recipes developed by other players. The most successful recipes rapidly spread through the Foldit player population, and two of the recipes became particularly dominant. Examination of the algorithms encoded in these two recipes revealed a striking similarity to an unpublished algorithm developed by scientists over the same period. Benchmark calculations show that the new algorithm independently discovered by scientists and by Foldit players outperforms previously published methods. Thus, online scientific game frameworks have the potential not only to solve hard scientific problems, but also to discover and formalize effective new strategies and algorithms.
Full Text Available Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg, body height (cm, the arm span (cm and length of the body in the defensive position (cm. The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03 and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04. The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04, the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01, and fouls (p = 0.01. The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.
Passion represents one of the factors involved in online video gaming. However, it remains unclear how passion affects the way gamers are involved in massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). The objective of the present study was to analyze the relationships between passions and motivations for online game playing. A total of 410 MMORPG players completed an online questionnaire including motives for gaming and the Passion Scale. Results indicated that passionate gamers were ...
This research was designed to explore the relationship between violent video game play and attitudes towards victims. As the violent genre of games become more popular and as the graphics and content becomes even more realistic and immersive, there has been concern that this media form offers a different perspective on violence to players than more passive forms of media. Much of the research in the area of violent video game research has focused on changes in players in terms of aggressive b...
Buono, Frank D; Griffiths, Mark D; Sprong, Matthew E; Lloyd, Daniel P; Sullivan, Ryan M; Upton, Thomas D
Background Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was introduced in the DSM-5 as a way of identifying and diagnosing problematic video game play. However, the use of the diagnosis is constrained, as it shares criteria with other addictive orders (e.g., pathological gambling). Aims Further work is required to better understand IGD. One potential avenue of investigation is IGD's relationship to the primary reinforcing behavioral functions. This study explores the relationship between duration of video game play and the reinforcing behavioral functions that may motivate or maintain video gaming. Methods A total of 499 video game players began the online survey, with complete data from 453 participants (85% white and 28% female), were analyzed. Individuals were placed into five groups based on self-reported hours of video gaming per week, and completed the Video Game Functional Assessment - Revised (VGFA-R). Results The results demonstrated the escape and social attention function were significant in predicting duration of video game play, whereas sensory and tangible were not significant. Conclusion Future implications of the VGFA-R and behaviorally based research are discussed.
Hung, Chia Yuan
Despite the growing number of studies on video games, there are still gaps in video game research, especially when it comes to describing the situated (in situ) actions of gameplay. The study explores the locally-produced meaning-making practices of video game players, and analyzes gameplay as it occurs, not as a post hoc, reconstructed event, but…
Andersson, Helena Å.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Heiner-Møller, Anja
The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM...... no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus...
Weaver, James B; Mays, Darren; Sargent Weaver, Stephanie; Kannenberg, Wendi; Hopkins, Gary L; Eroğlu, Doğan; Bernhardt, Jay M
Although considerable research suggests that health-risk factors vary as a function of video-game playing among young people, direct evidence of such linkages among adults is lacking. The goal of this study was to distinguish adult video-game players from nonplayers on the basis of personal and environmental factors. It was hypothesized that adults who play video games, compared to nonplayers, would evidence poorer perceptions of their health, greater reliance on Internet-facilitated social support, more extensive media use, and higher BMI. It was further hypothesized that different patterns of linkages between video-game playing and health-risk factors would emerge by gender. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey was conducted in 2006 with a sample of adults from the Seattle-Tacoma area (n=562), examining health risks; media use behaviors and perceptions, including those related to video-game playing; and demographics. Statistical analyses conducted in 2008 to compare video-game players and nonplayers included bivariate descriptive statistics, stepwise discriminant analysis, and ANOVA. A total of 45.1% of respondents reported playing video games. Female video-game players reported greater depression (M=1.57) and poorer health status (M=3.90) than female nonplayers (depression, M=1.13; health status, M=3.57). Male video-game players reported higher BMI (M=5.31) and more Internet use time (M=2.55) than male nonplayers (BMI, M=5.19; Internet use, M=2.36). The only determinant common to female and male video-game players was greater reliance on the Internet for social support. A number of determinants distinguished video-game players from nonplayers, and these factors differed substantially between men and women. The data illustrate the need for further research among adults to clarify how to use digital opportunities more effectively to promote health and prevent disease.
Full Text Available As a media form entwined in the U.S. military-industrial complex, video games continue to celebrate imperialist imagery and Western-centric narratives of the great white explorer (Breger, 2008; Dyer-Witheford & de Peuter, 2009; Geyser & Tshalabala, 2011; Mukherjee, 2016. While much ink has been spilt on the detrimental effects of colonial imagery on those it objectifies and dehumanises, the question is why these games still get made, and what mechanisms are at work in the enjoyment of empire-themed play experiences. To explore this question, this article develops the concept of ‘casual empire’, suggesting that the wish to play games as a casual pastime expedites the incidental circulation of imperialist ideology. Three examples – 'Resident Evil V' (2009, 'The Conquest: Colonization' (2015 and 'Playing History: Slave Trade' (2013 – are used to demonstrate the production and consumption of casual empire across multiple platforms, genres and player bases. Following a brief contextualisation of postcolonial (game studies, this article addresses casual design, by which I understand game designers’ casual reproduction of inferential racism (Hall, 1995 for the sake of entertainment. I then look at casual play, and players’ attitudes to games as rational commodities continuing a history of commodity racism (McClintock, 1995. Finally, the article investigates the casual involvement of formalist game studies in the construction of imperial values. These three dimensions of the casual – design, play and academia – make up the three pillars of the casual empire that must be challenged to undermine video games’ neocolonialist praxis.
This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…
This digest examines data on video game use by children, explains ratings of video game violence, and reviews research on the effects of video games on children and adolescents. A recent study of seventh and eighth graders found that 65% of males and 57% of females played 1 to 6 hours of video games at home per week, and 38% of males and 16% of…
Craig A. Lindley
Full Text Available Schema theory provides a foundation for the analysis of game play patterns created by players during their interaction with a game. Schema models derived from the analysis of play provide a rich explanatory framework for the cognitive processes underlying game play, as well as detailed hypotheses for the hierarchical structure of pleasures and rewards motivating players. Game engagement is accounted for as a process of schema selection or development, while immersion is explained in terms of levels of attentional demand in schema execution. However, schemas may not only be used to describe play, but might be used actively as cognitive models within a game engine. Predesigned schema models are knowledge representations constituting anticipated or desired learned cognitive outcomes of play. Automated analysis of player schemas and comparison with predesigned target schemas can provide a foundation for a game engine adapting or tuning game mechanics to achieve specific effects of engagement, immersion, and cognitive skill acquisition by players. Hence, schema models may enhance the play experience as well as provide a foundation for achieving explicitly represented pedagogical or therapeutic functions of games.
Hayes, Elizabeth; Silberman, Lauren
Contrary to common belief, several studies have found no relationship between video gaming and obesity or physical inactivity. In fact, video gaming is an untapped resource for enhancing young people's motivation and ability to participate in sports and other movement-based activities. Many popular video games offer sophisticated and engaging…
Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena
We argue that video game play may meet Larson's (2000) criteria for fostering initiative in youth, and thus, may be related to positive outcomes such as flow, cooperation, problem solving, and reduced in-group bias. However, developmental and social psychologists examining adolescent video game use have focused heavily on how video games are…
The study enlightens the effectiveness of Video Game Based Learning in English Grammar at standard VI. A Video Game package was prepared and it consisted of self-learning activities in play way manner which attracted the minds of the young learners. Chief objective: Find out the effectiveness of Video-Game based learning in English grammar.…
Kowert, Rachel; Domahidi, Emese; Quandt, Thorsten
Some researchers believe that online gaming spaces can be socially accommodating environments for socially inhibited individuals, such as the socially inept, socially anxious, or shy. While previous research has examined, and found, significant links between these populations and online video game play, it remains unknown to what extent these spaces are contributing to tangible social benefits for the socially inhibited. The current study addresses this question by evaluating the link between gaming-related friendships and shyness, as quantified by emotional sensitivity. Drawing from a representative sample of German game players, the results indicate that emotionally sensitive players are using online gaming spaces differently from their less emotionally sensitive counterparts and reporting tangible differences in their in-game friendship networks. This suggests that online games hold the potential to be socially advantageous for shy individuals by allowing them to overcome their traditional social difficulties and generate new friendships as well as strengthen old ones.
Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Van Der Steen, Steffie; Hakvoort, Bas; Frencken, Wouter G P; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Applying an established theory of cognitive development-Skill Theory-the current study compares the game-reading skills of youth players selected for a soccer school of a professional soccer club (n = 49) and their non-selected peers (n = 38). Participants described the actions taking place in videos of soccer game plays, and their verbalisations were coded using Skill Theory. Compared to the non-selected players, the selected players generally demonstrated higher levels of complexity in their game-reading, and structured the information of game elements-primarily the player, teammate and field-at higher complexity levels. These results demonstrate how Skill Theory can be used to assess, and distinguish game-reading of youth players with different expertise, a skill important for soccer, but also for other sports.
While video gaming has grown immensely as an industry over the last decade, with growing numbers of gamers around the globe, including women, gaming continues to be a very gendered practice. The apparent gender divide in video gaming has caught the attention of both the gaming industry and educators, generating considerable discussion and…
... and crime in the real world. The researchers probed correlations between crime rates and video games sales, Internet searches for game guides, and the monthly and annual release dates of popular violent games. The researchers reported, "Annual trends in video game sales for the past 33 years were unrelated to violent crime both concurrently and up to 4...
Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael
The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' evaluations of, and reasoning about, gender stereotypes in video games. Female (N = 46) and male (N = 41), predominantly European-American, mean age = 19 years, were interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences of games on the players, and authority jurisdiction over 3 different types of games: games with negative male stereotypes, and games with negative female stereotyp...
Rosser, James C; Lynch, Paul J; Cuddihy, Laurie; Gentile, Douglas A; Klonsky, Jonathan; Merrell, Ronald
Video games have become extensively integrated into popular culture. Anecdotal observations of young surgeons suggest that video game play contributes to performance excellence in laparoscopic surgery. Training benefits for surgeons who play video games should be quantifiable. There is a potential link between video game play and laparoscopic surgical skill and suturing. Cross-sectional analysis of the performance of surgical residents and attending physicians participating in the Rosser Top Gun Laparoscopic Skills and Suturing Program (Top Gun). Three different video game exercises were performed, and surveys were completed to assess past experience with video games and current level of play, and each subject's level of surgical training, number of laparoscopic cases performed, and number of years in medical practice. Academic medical center and surgical training program. Thirty-three residents and attending physicians participating in Top Gun from May 10 to August 24, 2002. The primary outcome measures were compared between participants' laparoscopic skills and suturing capability, video game scores, and video game experience. Past video game play in excess of 3 h/wk correlated with 37% fewer errors (Pvideo game players and 42% better (Pvideo game players made 32% fewer errors (P=.04), performed 24% faster (Pvideo gaming skills, those in the top tertile made 47% fewer errors, performed 39% faster, and scored 41% better (Pvideo game skill and past video game experience are significant predictors of demonstrated laparoscopic skills. Video game skill correlates with laparoscopic surgical skills. Training curricula that include video games may help thin the technical interface between surgeons and screen-mediated applications, such as laparoscopic surgery. Video games may be a practical teaching tool to help train surgeons.
Smaldone, Ronald A.; Thompson, Christina M.; Evans, Monica; Voit, Walter
Imagine a class without lessons, tests and homework, but with missions, quests and teamwork. Video games offer an attractive educational platform because they are designed to be fun and engaging, as opposed to traditional approaches to teaching through lectures and assignments.
Jones, Marshall B.
Briefly describes the characteristics of video games and discusses some advantages and disadvantages of their use to measure individual abilities. Relevant research is cited in the areas of stabilization with practice, predictive testing, performance testing, testing under extreme conditions, testing brain-injured persons, and differential…
Full Text Available This paper proposes a perspective on analyzing video games as film by comparing the interactions of the player with those of a producer or other member in the film-making process. This contrasts with existing methodologies which focus on formal characteristics or narratology. This proposal also provides a method for combining the interactivity of games with the storytelling capacity of cinema without encountering the narrative paradox.
Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J
Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.
Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Rothen, Stephane; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele
Video games are widely practiced. Questions about their potential health risks arise, including the risk of addiction. If there is at present no official diagnosis of video games addiction, the DSM-5 proposes temporary criteria based on pathological gambling. Video game addiction affects a minority of at risk individuals. The proposed treatments are essentially psychotherapeutic. Video games practices can be non problematic and they may also have potential beneficial effects on individuals. It is therefore recommended, when assessing video games practices, to take into account the positive and negative impacts of their use.
Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Therrien-Blanchet, Jean-Marc; Ferland, Marie C.; Th?oret, Hugo; West, Greg L.
Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs) was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) compared to non-video game play...
Beatty, Ian D
In order to facilitate analyzing video games as learning systems and instructional designs as games, we present a theoretical framework that integrates ideas from a broad range of literature. The framework describes games in terms of four layers, all sharing similar structural elements and dynamics: a micro-level game focused on immediate problem-solving and skill development, a macro-level game focused on the experience of the game world and story and identity development, and two meta-level games focused on building or modifying the game and on social interactions around it. Each layer casts gameplay as a co-construction of the game and the player, and contains three dynamical feedback loops: an exploratory learning loop, an intrinsic motivation loop, and an identity loop.
Full Text Available Video games are potential sources of second language input; however, the medium’s fundamental characteristic, interactivity, has not been thoroughly examined in terms of its effect on learning outcomes. This experimental study investigated to what degree, if at all, video game interactivity would help or hinder the noticing and recall of second language vocabulary. Eighty randomly-selected Japanese university undergraduates were paired based on similar English language and game proficiencies. One subject played an English-language music video game for 20 minutes while the paired subject watched the game simultaneously on another monitor. Following gameplay, a vocabulary recall test, a cognitive load measure, an experience questionnaire, and a two-week delayed vocabulary recall test were administered. Results were analyzed using paired samples t-tests and various analyses of variance. Both the players and the watchers of the video game recalled vocabulary from the game, but the players recalled significantly less vocabulary than the watchers. This seems to be a result of the extraneous cognitive load induced by the interactivity of the game; the players perceived the game and its language to be significantly more difficult than the watchers did. Players also reported difficulty simultaneously attending to gameplay and vocabulary. Both players and watchers forgot significant amounts of vocabulary over the course of the study. We relate these findings to theories and studies of vocabulary acquisition and video game-based language learning, and then suggest implications for language teaching and learning with interactive multimedia.
Souders, Dustin J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Moxley, Jerad H
Video game interventions with the aim to improve cognition have shown promise for both younger (e.g., Powers et al., 2013) and older adults (e.g., Toril, Reales, and Ballesteros, 2014). Most studies suggest that fast-paced action games produce the largest benefits, but a recent video game intervention with older adults found that an action game intervention can result in poor adherence (Boot et al., 2013). To increase intervention adherence, we investigated older adult video game preferences that might bolster adherence by having participants play a competitive game (Mario Kart DS) or a cooperative game (Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga) alone or with a partner. Although hypotheses regarding cooperative and multi-player gameplay were not supported, converging evidence suggests multi-player game play may lead to greater enjoyment, which was related to intervention adherence in a previous study (Boot et al., 2013). Insights for gaming intervention studies in older populations are also provided.
Full Text Available Video game accessibility may not seem of significance to some, and it may sound trivial to anyone who does not play video games. This assumption is false. With the digitalization of our culture, video games are an ever increasing part of our life. They contribute to peer to peer interactions, education, music and the arts. A video game can be created by hundreds of musicians and artists, and they can have production budgets that exceed modern blockbuster films. Inaccessible video games are analogous to movie theaters without closed captioning or accessible facilities. The movement to have accessible video games is small, unorganized and misdirected. Just like the other battles to make society accessible were accomplished through legislation and law, the battle for video game accessibility must be focused toward the law and not the market.
In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.
Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja
In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.
Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng
The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…
Near, Christopher E.
Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in “hypersexualized” ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games...
Griffiths, MD; Kuss, DJ; King, DL
Gaming addiction has become a topic of increasing research interest. The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in the number of empirical studies examining various aspects of problematic video game play and video game addiction. This paper begins with a brief past history of how research into video game addiction has changed over the last three decades (i.e., the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s). It then examines more thoroughly the contemporary research literature by analyzing the (i) prev...
There have been MOGAI characters since near the beginning of video games, but their representation has been something of debate and controversy. This paper looks at not only the history of representing MOGAI characters, but the dynamics of how these populations are represented within video games, and analyses how players feel regarding this subject.
Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health...
Klimmt, C.; Hefner, D.; Vorderer, P.A.; Roth, C.; Blake, C.
Two experiments tested the prediction that video game players identify with the character or role they are assigned, which leads to automatic shifts in implicit self-perceptions. Video game identification, thus, is considered as a kind of altered self-experience. In Study 1 (N = 61), participants
Konijn, E.A.; Nije Bijvank, M.; Bushman, B.J.
This study tested the hypothesis that violent video games are especially likely to increase aggression when players identify with violent game characters. Dutch adolescent boys with low education ability (N = 112) were randomly assigned to play a realistic or fantasy violent or nonviolent video
Full Text Available There have been MOGAI characters since near the beginning of video games, but their representation has been something of debate and controversy. This paper looks at not only the history of representing MOGAI characters, but the dynamics of how these populations are represented within video games, and analyses how players feel regarding this subject.
Haninger, Kevin; Thompson, Kimberly M
Children's exposure to violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in the media remains a source of public health concern. However, content in video games played by older children and adolescents has not been quantified or compared with the rating information provided to consumers by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB). To quantify and characterize the content in video games rated T (for "Teen") and to measure the agreement between the content observed in game play and the ESRB-assigned content descriptors displayed on the game box. We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001, to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of ESRB-assigned content descriptors. We randomly sampled 80 video game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, quantitatively assessed the content, and compared the content we observed with the content descriptors assigned by the ESRB. Depictions of violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, and alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; whether injuring or killing characters is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; characterization of gender associated with sexual themes; and use of profanity in dialogue, lyrics, or gestures. Analysis of all content descriptors assigned to the 396 T-rated video game titles showed 373 (94%) received content descriptors for violence, 102 (26%) for blood, 60 (15%) for sexual themes, 57 (14%) for profanity, 26 (7%) for comic mischief, 6 (2%) for substances, and none for gambling. In the random sample of 81 games we played, we found that 79 (98%) involved intentional violence for an average of 36% of game play, 73 (90%) rewarded or required the player to injure characters, 56 (69%) rewarded or required the player to kill, 34 (42%) depicted blood, 22 (27%) depicted sexual themes
Full Text Available As games are becoming an increasingly popular medium in various demographic and professional strata, scholars are discussing their content and how they shape society. However, despite an increase in gender analysis of video games, little has been written about orienting games towards an elderly audience, or game representations of aging and older persons. Games specifically designed for older persons are focused on improving cognitive functions, starting from the assumption that the elderly are in need of special games in order to repair age-related deficits. This repair-focused design philosophy comes at the expense of pursuing a broader understanding of quality of life and non-programmatic entertainment. Games-for-fun that also explicitly target the elderly as an audience are almost invisible. In this article we turn our attention to a powerful elderly feminine character in an AAA game designed for entertainment without a serious mission, namely Flemeth from Dragon Age. We discuss how the game depicts and models older characters: What repertoire of portraits has Flemeth as an old woman, in the Dragon Age games? How does Flemeth contribute to an enlarged repertoire of portrayals of old women in video games? We conclude that Flemeth’s gender and age displays in Dragon Age do not impoverish her portrayal but, on the contrary, turn her into a powerful and complex character, thus offering a model for game design to represent and invite older players.
Fernández Gómez, Carlos; Martí Parreño, José
This research presents a work in progress aiming to map Spanish video games developers’ production in the area of mobile educational video games. A sample of 30 Spanish video games developers was analyzed in order to explore the weight that educational video games for mobile devices represents in their product portfolio. Primary findings suggest that Spanish video games developers’ production of educational video games for mobile devices is very scarce. While 23,3% of the analyzed video games...
Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe I; Baranowski, Janice
Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging...
.... Then, she demonstrates that learning principles built into the video games as proposed by James Gee, are more effective in engaging players in skills needed in the 21st century than many activities...
Syed Muhammad Anwar
Full Text Available The success and wider adaptability of smart phones has given a new dimension to the gaming industry. Due to the wide spectrum of video games, the success of a particular game depends on how efficiently it is able to capture the end users’ attention. This leads to the need to analyse the cognitive aspects of the end user, that is the game player, during game play. A direct window to see how an end user responds to a stimuli is to look at their brain activity. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG is used to record human brain activity during game play. A commercially available EEG headset is used for this purpose giving fourteen channels of recorded EEG brain activity. The aim is to classify a player as expert or novice using the brain activity as the player indulges in the game play. Three different machine learning classifiers have been used to train and test the system. Among the classifiers, naive Bayes has outperformed others with an accuracy of 88 % , when data from all fourteen EEG channels are used. Furthermore, the activity observed on electrodes is statistically analysed and mapped for brain visualizations. The analysis has shown that out of the available fourteen channels, only four channels in the frontal and occipital brain regions show significant activity. Features of these four channels are then used, and the performance parameters of the four-channel classification are compared to the results of the fourteen-channel classification. It has been observed that support vector machine and the naive Bayes give good classification accuracy and processing time, well suited for real-time applications.
Hartmann, T.; Vorderer, P.A.
What makes virtual violence enjoyable rather than aversive? Two 2×2 experiments tested the assumption that moral disengagement cues provided by a violent video game's narrative and game play lessen users' guilt and negative affect, which would otherwise undermine players' enjoyment of the game.
If you are an artificial intelligence researcher, you should look to video games as ideal testbeds for the work you do. If you are a video game developer, you should look to AI for the technology that makes completely new types of games possible. This chapter lays out the case for both of these propositions. It asks the question "what can video games do for AI", and discusses how in particular general video game playing is the ideal testbed for artificial general intelligence research. It the...
Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E
Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imagery in video games (n = 6), video game playing and smoking behavior (n = 11), video game addiction and tobacco addiction (n = 5) and genre-specific game playing and smoking behavior (n = 3). Tobacco content was present in a subset of video games. The literature is inconclusive as to whether exposure to video games as a single construct is associated with smoking behavior. Four of five studies found an association between video game addiction and smoking. For genre-specific game playing, studies suggest that the type of game played affected association with smoking behavior. Research on how playing video games influences adolescents' perceptions of smoking and smoking behaviors is still in its nascence. Further research is needed to understand how adolescents respond to viewing and manipulating tobacco imagery, and whether engaging in game smoking translates into changes in real-world attitudes or behavior. Smoking imagery in video games may contribute to normalizing adolescent smoking. A large body of research has shown that smoking imagery in a variety of media types contributes to adolescent smoking uptake and the normalization of smoking behavior, and almost 90% of adolescents play video games, yet there has never been a published systematic review of the literature on this important topic. This is the first systematic review to examine the research on tobacco and video games.We found that tobacco imagery is indeed present in video games, the relationship between video game playing and smoking
Hjort, Anders; Elbæk, Lars; Henriksen, Kristoffer
it facilitates reflective learning. Video analysis is executed in the (PU) platform by involving the players in the analysis process, in the sense that they are encouraged to tag game actions in video-documented football matches. Following this, players can get virtual feedback from their coach. The philosophy......In the present study, we investigated the introduction of a cloud-based video analysis platform called Player Universe (PU) in a Danish football club. Video analysis is not a new performance-enhancing element in sport, but PU is innovative in the way players and coaches produce footage and how....... The implementation and evaluation of PU took place in the FC Copenhagen (FCK) School of Excellence. Findings show that PU can improve youth football players’ reflection skills through consistent video analyses and tagging, that coaches are important as role models and providers of feedback, and that the use...
Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram
Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Young adults aged 18-35 (N = 97, 50 female) played a Dance Dance Revolution game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterward. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ(2)(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA relationship between engagement and energy expenditure (indirect effect = .138, p = .028), but other mediated effects were not significant. Engagement, enjoyment, and BMI affect energy expended during active video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Computer video games have become highly interesting to educators and researchers since their sophistication has improved considerably over the last decade. Studies indicate simple video games touting educational benefits are common in classrooms. However, a need for identifying truly useful games for educational purposes exists. This article…
Vessey, J A; Lee, J E
Exposure to media violence is associated with increased aggression and its sequelae. Unfortunately, the majority of entertainment video games contain violence. Moreover, children of both genders prefer games with violent content. As there is no compulsory legislative standards to limit the type and amount of violence in video games, concerned adults must assume an oversight role.
Robert C. Lorenz
Full Text Available Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual towards playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training.Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG or control group (CG. Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was conducted using a non-video game related reward task.At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated.This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the ventral striatum in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.
Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone
Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.
Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Tejeiro, Ricardo
Problem use of video games is an increasing risk behaviour. High exposure of adolescents to video games has been linked to a variety of disorders, but the relationship between problem video game playing and emotional welfare is unknown. The aim of the study is to analyse problem video game playing in a sample of adolescents and to determine whether there are differences between online and offline players, in addition to examining its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A sample of adolescents (N = 380) completed self-reports measuring video game use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. We found that 7.4% of females and 30% of males can be considered as playing at problem levels. Online players were almost 12 times more likely to play at high frequency than offline players (χ2 (1, 267) = 72.72, p < .001, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [6.31, 21.43]). Males play more frequently, and play more online (χ2 (1, 267) = 50.85, p < .001, OR = 6.74, 95% CI [3.90, 11.64]), with a clear relationship between problem video game playing and anxiety (r = .24; p < .001). In females, there is a relationship between problem video game playing and depression (r = .19; p < .05). Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the psychological variables involved in problem video game playing. The implementation of strategies is suggested in order to prevent pathological gaming and associated problems.
Bensoussan, A., E-mail: email@example.com [The University of Texas at Dallas, International Center for Decision and Risk Analysis, Jindal School of Management (United States); Chau, M. H. M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Yam, S. C. P., E-mail: email@example.com [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Statistics (Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China) (China)
In this article, we consider mean field games between a dominating player and a group of representative agents, each of which acts similarly and also interacts with each other through a mean field term being substantially influenced by the dominating player. We first provide the general theory and discuss the necessary condition for the optimal controls and equilibrium condition by adopting adjoint equation approach. We then present a special case in the context of linear-quadratic framework, in which a necessary and sufficient condition can be asserted by stochastic maximum principle; we finally establish the sufficient condition that guarantees the unique existence of the equilibrium control. The proof of the convergence result of finite player game to mean field counterpart is provided in Appendix.
Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D
A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called "game addiction"). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use.
Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.
A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called “game addiction”). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use. PMID:24058355
Hutchinson, Claire V; Barrett, Doug J K; Nitka, Aleksander; Raynes, Kerry
A number of studies have shown that training on action video games improves various aspects of visual cognition including selective attention and inhibitory control. Here, we demonstrate that action video game play can also reduce the Simon Effect, and, hence, may have the potential to improve response selection during the planning and execution of goal-directed action. Non-game-players were randomly assigned to one of four groups; two trained on a first-person-shooter game (Call of Duty) on either Microsoft Xbox or Nintendo DS, one trained on a visual training game for Nintendo DS, and a control group who received no training. Response times were used to contrast performance before and after training on a behavioral assay designed to manipulate stimulus-response compatibility (the Simon Task). The results revealed significantly faster response times and a reduced cost of stimulus-response incompatibility in the groups trained on the first-person-shooter game. No benefit of training was observed in the control group or the group trained on the visual training game. These findings are consistent with previous evidence that action game play elicits plastic changes in the neural circuits that serve attentional control, and suggest training may facilitate goal-directed action by improving players' ability to resolve conflict during response selection and execution.
Coulson, Mark; Barnett, Jane; Ferguson, Christopher J.; Gould, Rebecca L.
Factors which may affect how people become attracted to virtual characters were explored in an online survey of players of a recent video role-playing game. Seventy-four participants (33 male) completed a series of questionnaires assessing their personality, motivations for game play, and feelings towards the ten non-player characters (NPCs) with whom they had potentially experienced extensive interactions within the game world. Results suggest that people form real and authentic emotional at...
Full Text Available Wherein Ian Bogost and Simon Ferrari review Nick Dyer-Witheford and Greig de Peuter's 2009 title, Games of Empire: Global Capitalism and Video Games (University of Minnesota Press.
Bourg, David M.
Modern video games use physics to achieve realistic behaviour and special effects. Everything from billiard balls, to flying debris, to tactical fighter jets is simulated in games using fundamental principles of dynamics. This article explores several examples of how physics is used in games. Further, this article describes some of the more important technical details of how physics is actually incorporated in games.
Zivkovic, Z.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem; Langendijk, R.L.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Wilkinson, M.H.F.
This paper addresses the problem of recognizing human actions from video. Particularly, the case of recognizing events in tennis game videos is analyzed. Driven by our domain knowledge, a robust player segmentation algorithm is developed for real video data. Further, we introduce a number of novel
Christy, Katheryn R; Fox, Jesse
To understand how narratives may best be implemented in video game design, first we must understand how players respond to and experience narratives in video games, including their reactions to their player character or avatar. This study looks at the relationship that transportability, self-presence, social presence, and physical presence have with identification with one's avatar. Survey data from 302 participants (151 males, 151 females) were analyzed. Both transportability and self-presence explained a significant amount of variance in avatar identification. We discuss the implications of these findings for future narrative video game research.
This paper proposes a teaching method that utilizes video games in computer science education. The primary characteristic of this approach is that it utilizes video games as observational materials. The underlying idea is that by observing the computational behavior of a wide variety of video games, learners will easily grasp the fundamental architecture, theory, and technology of computers. The results of a case study conducted indicate that the method enhances the motivation of students for...
Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE
INTRODUCTION: Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imager...
Gender representation in video games is a current sensitive topic in entertainment media. Gender studies in video games look at the difference between the portrayal of female and male characters. Most video games tend to over-represent stereotypes and in general use extensive violence and cruelty (Maietti, 2008). Some video games use wrong, disrespectful and sometimes even violent representations of both genders. This research paper focuses on the current representation of female gender in vi...
158 pages This study aims to construct a systematical approach to classification of narrative usage in video games. The most recent dominant approaches of reading a video game text – narratology and ludology - are discussed. By inquiring the place of interactivity and autonomy inside the discourse of video game narrative, a classification is proposed. Consequently six groups of video games are determined, depending on the levels of combination of narration and ludic context. These Six Degr...
Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill; Zerebecki, Chris; Tawadrous, Mina; Stanfield, Brodie; Hogue, Urszula
With television manufacturers developing low-cost stereoscopic 3D displays, a large number of consumers will undoubtedly have access to 3D-capable televisions at home. The availability of 3D technology places the onus on content creators to develop interesting and engaging content. While the technology of stereoscopic displays and content generation are well understood, there are many questions yet to be answered surrounding its effects on the viewer. Effects of stereoscopic display on passive viewers for film are known, however video games are fundamentally different since the viewer/player is actively (rather than passively) engaged in the content. Questions of how stereoscopic viewing affects interaction mechanics have previously been studied in the context of player performance but very few have attempted to quantify the player experience to determine whether stereoscopic 3D has a positive or negative influence on their overall engagement. In this paper we present a preliminary study of the effects stereoscopic 3D have on player engagement in video games. Participants played a video game in two conditions, traditional 2D and stereoscopic 3D and their engagement was quantified using a previously validated self-reporting tool. The results suggest that S3D has a positive effect on immersion, presence, flow, and absorption.
Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; Myrseth, Helga; Skouverøe, Knut Joachim Mår; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle
A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of video game addiction and problematic video game use and their association with physical and mental health. An initial sample comprising 2,500 individuals was randomly selected from the Norwegian National Registry. A total of 816 (34.0 percent) individuals completed and returned the questionnaire. The majority (56.3 percent) of respondents used video games on a regular basis. The prevalence of video game addiction was estimated to be 0.6 percent, with problematic use of video games reported by 4.1 percent of the sample. Gender (male) and age group (young) were strong predictors for problematic use of video games. A higher proportion of high frequency compared with low frequency players preferred massively multiplayer online role-playing games, although the majority of high frequency players preferred other game types. Problematic use of video games was associated with lower scores on life satisfaction and with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Video game use was not associated with reported amount of physical exercise.
Randers, M B; Andersen, T B; Rasmussen, L S; Larsen, M N; Krustrup, P
The purpose of this study was to evaluate activity profile, aerobic load, and player involvement in two game formats of recreational and elite youth football for two age groups. A total of 152 youth players participated, with 45 U10 players playing 5v5 and 8v8 games, and 41 U13 players playing 8v8 and 11v11 (20 min) games. Activity profile, heart rate (HR), and technical actions were measured during all games using 10 Hz GPS, video filming, and HR monitors. For U10, no difference was found in total distance covered (1754 ± 237 vs 1771 ± 314 m, P = 0.650, d = 0.06), whereas mean HR (174 ± 10 vs 168 ± 12 bpm, P = 0.001, d = 0.59) and number of technical actions (65.1 ± 24.0 vs 36.9 ± 20.4, P 0.001, d = 1.27) were higher in 5v5 than in 8v8. For U13, lower total distance covered (1821 ± 325 vs 2038 ± 328 m, P game format. Playing with fewer players on smaller pitches results in minor changes to the physical loading but elevates the technical involvement of youth players both at elite level and recreational level. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie
Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played.
Pope, Alan T.; Palsson, Olafur S.
Biofeedback-modulated video games are games that respond to physiological signals as well as mouse, joystick or game controller input; they embody the concept of improving physiological functioning by rewarding specific healthy body signals with success at playing a video game. The NASA patented biofeedback-modulated game method blends biofeedback into popular off-the- shelf video games in such a way that the games do not lose their entertainment value. This method uses physiological signals (e.g., electroencephalogram frequency band ratio) not simply to drive a biofeedback display directly, or periodically modify a task as in other systems, but to continuously modulate parameters (e.g., game character speed and mobility) of a game task in real time while the game task is being performed by other means (e.g., a game controller). Biofeedback-modulated video games represent a new generation of computer and video game environments that train valuable mental skills beyond eye-hand coordination. These psychophysiological training technologies are poised to exploit the revolution in interactive multimedia home entertainment for the personal improvement, not just the diversion, of the user.
Konijn, E.A.; Nije Bijvank, M.; Bushman, B.J.
This study tested the hypothesis that violent video games are especially likely to increase aggression when players identify with violent game characters. Dutch adolescent boys with low education ability (N = 112) were randomly assigned to play a realistic or fantasy violent or nonviolent video game. Next, they competed with an ostensible partner on a reaction time task in which the winner could blast the loser with loud noise through headphones (the aggression measure). Participants were tol...
Sauer, James D; Drummond, Aaron; Nova, Natalie
The potential influence of video game violence on real-world aggression has generated considerable public and scientific interest. Some previous research suggests that playing violent video games can increase postgame aggression. The generalized aggression model (GAM) attributes this to the generalized activation of aggressive schemata. However, it is unclear whether game mechanics that contextualize and encourage or inhibit in-game violence moderate this relationship. Thus, we examined the effects of reward structures and narrative context in a violent video game on in-game and postgame aggression. Contrary to GAM-based predictions, our manipulations differentially affected in-game and postgame aggression. Reward structures selectively affected in-game aggression, whereas narrative context selectively affected postgame aggression. Players who enacted in-game violence through a heroic character exhibited less postgame aggression than players who enacted comparable levels of in-game violence through an antiheroic character. Effects were not attributable to self-activation or character-identification mechanisms, but were consistent with social-cognitive context effects on the interpretation of behavior. These results contradict the GAM's assertion that violent video games affect aggression through a generalized activation mechanism. From an applied perspective, consumer choices may be aided by considering not just game content, but the context in which content is portrayed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This research investigates the extent to which creative processes can be fostered through computer gaming. It focuses on creative components in games that have been specifically designed for educational purposes: Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL. A behavior analysis for measuring the creative potential of computer game activities and learning outcomes is described. Creative components were measured by examining task motivation and domain-relevant and creativity-relevant skill factors. The research approach applied heuristic checklists in the field of gameplay to analyze the stage of player activities involved in the performance of the task and to examine player experiences with the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS survey. Player experiences were influenced by competency, autonomy, intuitive controls, relatedness and presence. This study examines the impact of these activities on the player experience for evaluating learning outcomes through school records. The study is designed to better understand the creative potential of people who are engaged in learning knowledge and skills during the course while playing video games. The findings show the creative potential that occurred to yield levels of creative performance within game play activities to support learning. The anticipated outcome is knowledge on how video games foster creative thinking as an overview of the Creative Potential of Learning Model (CPLN. CPLN clearly describes the interrelationships between principles of learning and creative potential, the interpretation of the results is indispensable.
Henning, Alexandra; Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael J
This study examined adolescents' attitudes about video games along with their self-reported play frequency. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 361), approximately evenly divided by grade and gender, were surveyed about whether video games have stereotypic images, involve harmful consequences or affect one's attitudes, whether game playing should be regulated by parents or the government, and whether game playing is a personal choice. Adolescents who played video games frequently showed decreased concern about the effects that games with negatively stereotyped images may have on the players' attitudes compared to adolescents who played games infrequently or not at all. With age, adolescents were more likely to view images as negative, but were also less likely to recognize stereotypic images of females as harmful and more likely to judge video-game playing as a personal choice. The paper discusses other findings in relation to research on adolescents' social cognitive judgments.
Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe I; Baranowski, Janice
Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health-related behavior change through December 2006. Most of the articles demonstrated positive health-related changes from playing the video games. Variability in what was reported about the games and measures employed precluded systematically relating characteristics of the games to outcomes. Many of these games merged the immersive, attention-maintaining properties of stories and fantasy, the engaging properties of interactivity, and behavior-change technology (e.g., tailored messages, goal setting). Stories in video games allow for modeling, vicarious identifying experiences, and learning a story's "moral," among other change possibilities. Research is needed on the optimal use of game-based stories, fantasy, interactivity, and behavior change technology in promoting health-related behavior change.
Jones, Isaac; Liu, Huan
Video games and the playing thereof have been a fixture of American culture since their introduction in the arcades of the 1980s. However, it was not until the recent proliferation of broadband connections robust and fast enough to handle live video streaming that players of video games have transitioned from a content consumer role to a content producer role. Simultaneously, the rise of social media has revealed how interpersonal connections drive user engagement and interest. In this work, ...
Full Text Available Classifying the many types of video games is difficult, as their genres and supports are different, but they all have in common that they seek the commitment of the player through exciting emotions and challenges. Since the income of the video game industry exceeds that of the film industry, the field of inducting emotions through video games and virtual environments is attracting more attention. Our theory, widely supported by substantial literature, is that the chromatic stimuli intensity, brightness, and saturation of a video game environment produce an emotional effect on players. We have observed a correlation between the RGB additives color spaces, HSV, HSL, and HSI components of video game images, presented to n=85 participants, and the emotional statements expressed in terms of arousal and valence, recovered in a subjective semantic questionnaire. Our results show a significant correlation between luminance, saturation, lightness, and the emotions of joy, sadness, fear, and serenity experienced by participants viewing 24 video game images. We also show strong correlations between the colorimetric diversity, saliency volume, and stimuli conspicuity and the emotions expressed by the players. These results allow us to propose video game environment development methods in the form of a circumplex model. It is aimed at game designers for developing emotional color scripting.
Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Cruz, Carlos; Velez, John A; Ewoldsen, David R; Bogert, Adam K
Research on video game violence has found largely consistent evidence that violence in video games tends to be associated with an increase in antisocial behavior. However, this body of work has mostly ignored one prominent feature of many violent games: moral decision making. It is possible that the influence of video game violence could change when moral decisions are brought into the context. One way video games change behavior is through changes in players' self-perceptions, a process called identity simulation. In addition, a perspective called moral license predicts that these effects should not necessarily be consistent across behaviors, in that people should try to balance selfishness with keeping the moral high ground across many behaviors. Therefore, moral choices (or immoral choices) in a video game may predict less moral (or more moral) behaviors right after the game. However, later behavior may revert yet again, creating a cycle of pro- and antisocial behaviors. The present experiment asks participants to make moral choices in a video game, and then measures their behavior on two subsequent tasks. Results indicate that taking what participants perceive to be the more moral mind-set in the video game predicts more antisocial behavior on the first task, but more pro-social behavior on the next task. These results support identity simulation and moral license processes in a video game and moral behavior context, and indicate that there may be greater complexity in video game violence effects than previously understood.
Király, Orsolya; Tóth, Dénes; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Maraz, Aniko
Video games are more popular than ever and the general public, including parents, educators, and the media, tends to consider intense video gaming fundamentally problematic. To test this hypothesis, participants were recruited via gaming-related websites resulting in a sample of N = 5,222 online video gamers (mean age: 22.2 years, SD = 6.4). Besides assessing gaming time, we administered the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire. Two structural regression models were estimated with both gaming time and problematic gaming as outcome variables. Predictors were psychiatric symptoms in the first, and gaming motives in the second model. Both models yielded adequate fit indices. Psychiatric symptoms had a moderate positive effect on problematic use (β = .46, p gaming time was practically zero (β = -.01, p = .84). In the second model, Escape was the most prominent motive and was moderately to-strongly associated (β = .58, p gaming time was substantially weaker (β = .21, p gaming time and problematic use was weak-to-moderate in both models (r = .26, p gaming time is weakly associated with negative psychological factors such as psychiatric symptoms and Escape motive, which were found to be consistently related to problematic use. Therefore, the amount of gaming time alone appears to be an unreliable predictor of problematic use, which questions the aforementioned idea that intense gaming is essentially problematic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Levac, Danielle; Pierrynowski, Michael R; Canestraro, Melissa; Gurr, Lindsay; Leonard, Laurean; Neeley, Christyann
There is increasing interest in the use of commercially-available virtual reality video gaming systems within pediatric rehabilitation, yet little is known about the movement characteristics of game play. This study describes quantity and quality of movement during Nintendo Wii and Wii Fit game play, explores differences in these movement characteristics between games and between novice and experienced players, and investigates whether motivation to succeed at the game impacts movement characteristics. Thirty-eight children (aged 7-12) with and without previous game experience played Wii (boxing and tennis) and Wii Fit (ski slalom and soccer heading) games. Force plate data provided center of pressure displacement (quantity) and processed pelvis motion indicated smoothness of pelvic movement (quality). Children rated their motivation to succeed at each game. Movement quantity and quality differed between games (p<.001). Children with previous experience playing Wii Fit games demonstrated greater movement quantity during Wii Fit game play (p<.001); quality of movement did not differ between groups. Motivation to succeed did not influence the relationship between experience and outcomes. Findings enhance clinical understanding of this technology and inform the development of research questions to explore its potential to improve movement skills in children with motor impairments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tang, Wai Yen; Fox, Jesse
Online video games afford co-play and social interaction, often anonymous, among players from around the world. As predicted by the social identity model of deindividuation effects, undesirable behavior is not uncommon in online gaming environments, and online harassment has become a pervasive issue in the gaming community. In this study, we sought to determine what personality traits and game-related variables predicted two types of online aggression in video games: general harassment (e.g., skill-based taunting, insulting others' intelligence) and sexual harassment (e.g., sexist comments, rape threats). Men who play online video games (N = 425) participated in an anonymous online survey. Social dominance orientation and hostile sexism predicted higher levels of both sexual harassment and general harassment in online games. Game involvement and hours of weekly gameplay were additional predictors of general harassment. We discuss implications of online social aggression and online sexual harassment for online gaming. We also apply our findings to the broader understanding of online harassment, cyberaggression, cyberbullying, and other forms of online hostility in computer-mediated communication contexts. Aggr. Behav. 42:513-521, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Whitton, Nicola; Maclure, Maggie
Increasingly prevalent educational discourses promote the use of video games in schools and universities. At the same time, populist discourses persist, particularly in print media, which condemn video games because of putative negative effects on behaviour and socialisation. These contested discourses, we suggest, influence the acceptability of…
Hasan, Youssef; Bègue, Laurent; Bushman, Brad J
It is well known that violent video games increase aggression, and that stress increases aggression. Many violent video games can be stressful because enemies are trying to kill players. The present study investigates whether violent games increase aggression by inducing stress in players. Stress was measured using cardiac coherence, defined as the synchronization of the rhythm of breathing to the rhythm of the heart. We predicted that cardiac coherence would mediate the link between exposure to violent video games and subsequent aggression. Specifically, we predicted that playing a violent video game would decrease cardiac coherence, and that cardiac coherence, in turn, would correlate negatively with aggression. Participants (N = 77) played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. Cardiac coherence was measured before and during game play. After game play, participants had the opportunity to blast a confederate with loud noise through headphones during a reaction time task. The intensity and duration of noise blasts given to the confederate was used to measure aggression. As expected, violent video game players had lower cardiac coherence levels and higher aggression levels than did nonviolent game players. Cardiac coherence, in turn, was negatively related to aggression. This research offers another possible reason why violent games can increase aggression-by inducing stress. Cardiac coherence can be a useful tool to measure stress induced by violent video games. Cardiac coherence has several desirable methodological features as well: it is noninvasive, stable against environmental disturbances, relatively inexpensive, not subject to demand characteristics, and easy to use. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, Doris; Brolund, Thea
This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...
There's no denying that middle school students are interested in video games. With such motivation present, we as teachers should harness this media in a productive way in our classrooms. Students today are much more technologically advanced than ever before, and using video games is one more way to use something from their world as a teaching…
Matsushita, Yuriko; Matsushita, Koji
The paper states that there are negative physical and psychological effects from video games. The physical effects include asthenopia and weight gain. The psychological effects include confusion between reality and fiction, and immature relationships with others. However, video games can also have a therapeutic effect in some cases. Four positive…
Maguth, Brad M.; List, Jonathan S.; Wunderle, Matthew
Today's youth have grown up immersed in technology and are increasingly relying on video games to solve problems, engage socially, and find entertainment. Yet research and vignettes of teachers actually using video games to advance student learning in social studies is scarce (Hutchinson 2007). This article showcases how social studies…
Video games are pervasive in today's culture, and the time kids spend playing them may seem, from a teacher's perspective, as time that is lost to education. Sometimes, sadly, this is true. But many good video games, although not explicitly educational in focus, provide powerful experiences that are rich fodder for subsequent instruction. Looking…
Allain, Rhett; Williams, Richard
Suppose we had a brand new world to study--a world that possibly works with a different set of principles, a non-Newtonian world. Maybe this world is Newtonian, maybe it isn't. This world exists in video games, and it is open for exploration. Most video games try to incorporate realistic physics, but sometimes this does not happen. The obvious…
Dibley, Jeremiah; Parish, Jamie
Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, a research project was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of video games as inquiry-based learning experiences for the science classroom. As a result, the video game, "Creature Control: The Quest for Homeostasis" was developed and field-tested in select middle schools in the United States.…
Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.
Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Conclusion/Significance Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be
Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D
Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects.
Adam C Oei
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours. Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to
Przybylski, Andrew K; Ryan, Richard M; Rigby, C Scott
Six studies, two survey based and four experimental, explored the relations between violent content and people's motivation and enjoyment of video game play. Based on self-determination theory, the authors hypothesized that violence adds little to enjoyment or motivation for typical players once autonomy and competence need satisfactions are considered. As predicted, results from all studies showed that enjoyment, value, and desire for future play were robustly associated with the experience of autonomy and competence in gameplay. Violent content added little unique variance in accounting for these outcomes and was also largely unrelated to need satisfactions. The studies also showed that players high in trait aggression were more likely to prefer or value games with violent contents, even though violent contents did not reliably enhance their game enjoyment or immersion. Discussion focuses on the significance of the current findings for individuals and the understanding of motivation in virtual environments.
Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.
Tapani, J. (Juho)
Competition is so fierce in the video game industry that the companies need to find different angles to make their games stand out from the crowd. Game usability provides one such angle which can result in a better overall user experience. The goals of this research were to find out what usability methods are used in North American video game companies, how the companies define the term “game usability”, and are they utilizing heuristic evaluation. The data was gathered by collecting surv...
Bourg, David M.
Modern video games use physics to achieve realistic behaviour and special effects. Everything from billiard balls, to flying debris, to tactical fighter jets is simulated in games using fundamental principles of dynamics. This article explores several examples of how physics is used in games. Further, this article describes some of the more…
Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphné
Here we review the literature examining the perceptual, attentional, and cognitive benefits of playing one sub-type of video games known as ‘action video games,’ as well as the mechanistic underpinnings of these behavioral effects. We then outline evidence indicating the potential usefulness of these commercial off-the-shelf games for practical, real-world applications such as rehabilitation or the training of job-related skills. Finally, we discuss potential core characteristics of action vi...
Cowling, Peter I.; Buro, Michael; Bida, Michal; Botea, Adi; Bouzy, Bruno; Butz, Martin V.; Hingston, Philip; Muñoz-Avila, Hector; Nau, Dana; Sipper, Moshe
This chapter arises from the discussions of an experienced international group of researchers interested in the potential for creative application of algorithms for searching finite discrete graphs, which have been highly successful in a wide range of application areas, to address a broad range of problems arising in video games. The chapter first summarises the state of the art in search algorithms for games. It then considers the challenges in implementing these algorithms in video games (p...
Wilkinson, Nathan; Ang, Rebecca P; Goh, Dion H
There has been research on the use of offline video games for therapeutic purposes but online video game therapy is still fairly under-researched. Online therapeutic interventions have only recently included a gaming component. Hence, this review represents a timely first step toward taking advantage of these recent technological and cultural innovations, particularly for the treatment of special-needs groups such as the young, the elderly and people with various conditions such as ADHD, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders. A review integrating research findings on two technological advances was conducted: the home computer boom of the 1980s, which triggered a flood of research on therapeutic video games for the treatment of various mental health conditions; and the rise of the internet in the 1990s, which caused computers to be seen as conduits for therapeutic interaction rather than replacements for the therapist. We discuss how video games and the internet can now be combined in therapeutic interventions, as attested by a consideration of pioneering studies. Future research into online video game therapy for mental health concerns might focus on two broad types of game: simple society games, which are accessible and enjoyable to players of all ages, and online worlds, which offer a unique opportunity for narrative content and immersive remote interaction with therapists and fellow patients. Both genres might be used for assessment and training purposes, and provide an unlimited platform for social interaction. The mental health community can benefit from more collaborative efforts between therapists and engineers, making such innovations a reality.
Smohai, Máté; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Király, Orsolya; Mirnics, Zsuzsanna; Vargha, András; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Despite the increasing popularity of video game playing, little is known about the similarities and differences between online and offline video game players. The aims of this study were (i) to test the applicability and the measurement invariance of the previously developed Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) in both online and offline gamers and to (ii) examine the differences in these groups. Video game use habits and POGQ were assessed in a sample of 1,964 (71% male) adolescent videogame players. Those gamers who played at least sometimes in an online context were considered "online gamers," while those who played videogames exclusively offline were considered "offline gamers." Confirmatory factor analysis supported the measurement invariance across online and offline videogame players. According to the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model, online gamers were more likely to score higher on overuse, interpersonal conflict, and social isolation subscales of the POGQ. The results of the present study suggest that online and offline gaming can be assessed using the same psychometric instrument. These findings open the possibility for future research studies concerning problematic video gaming to include participants who exclusively play online or offline games, or both. However, the study also identified important structural features about how online and offline gaming might contribute differently to problematic use. These results provide important information that could be utilized in parental education and the prevention program about the possible detrimental consequences of online vs. offline video gaming.
Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing
Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. © The Author(s) 2016.
Laura Steenbergen; Roberta Sellaro; Ann-Kathrin Stock; Christian Beste; Colzato, Lorenza S.
There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt ...
Chang, Ju-Hui; Zhang, Hongxia
The online game market has been growing rapidly and has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years. The results of a survey conducted in China to explore online game players' attitude formation reveal that (a) the online game player's level of materialism positively influences the motivation for playing, (b) motivation positively influences attitude toward online games, and (c) motivation fully mediates the effects of materialism on attitude.
Chen, Lily Shui-Lien; Tu, Hill Hung-Jen; Wang, Edward Shih-Tse
The DFC Intelligence predicts worldwide online game revenues will reach $9.8 billion by 2009, making online gaming a mainstream recreational activity. Understanding online game player personality traits is therefore important. This study researches the relationship between personality traits and life satisfaction in online game players. Taipei, Taiwan, is the study location, with questionnaire surveys conducted in cyber cafe shops. Multiple regression analysis studies the causal relationship between personality traits and life satisfaction in online game players. The result shows that neuroticism has significant negative influence on life satisfaction. Both openness and conscientiousness have significant positive influence on life satisfaction. Finally, implications for leisure practice and further research are discussed.
Cingiz, Kutay; Flesch, Janos; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Predtetchinski, Arkadi
We study perfect information games played by an infinite sequence of players, each acting only once in the course of the game. We introduce a class of frequency-based minority games and show that these games admit no subgame perfect ϵ-equilibrium for small positive values of ϵ. Furthermore we derive
Marvel, Michele D.
Understanding the factors that affect participation in online games will help educational game designers develop games that maximize participation. This study investigated whether introversion or extroversion, player motivation, and gender affected participation in online games. Participants (n = 400) completed a 50-item questionnaire about…
McCutcheon, Lynn E.; Campbell, Janice D.
Studies the relationship between video game playing and academic achievement. Compares matched groups of community college psychology students, differing in the amount of their game playing. There were no differences between frequent and infrequent players on measures of psychology class attendance, locus of control, or grade point average.…
Corredor, Javier; Gaydos, Matthew; Squire, Kurt
This article explores how learning biological concepts can be facilitated by playing a video game that depicts interactions and processes at the subcellular level. Particularly, this article reviews the effects of a real-time strategy game that requires players to control the behavior of a virus and interact with cell structures in a way that…
Blumberg, Fran C.; Randall, John D.
We examined the problem-solving behaviors that 5th, 6th, and 7th graders used to negotiate a novel recreational video game. Students were characterized as frequent or infrequent players and instructed to think aloud during game play for 20 consecutive minutes. Comments were used to make inferences about the students' problem-solving behaviors…
Blomqvist, Minna T.; Luhtanen, Pekka; Laakso, Lauri; Keskinen, Esko
Reports the development and validation of video-based game-understanding tests in badminton for elementary and secondary students. The tests included different sequences that simulated actual game situations. Players had to solve tactical problems by selecting appropriate solutions and arguments for their decisions. Results suggest that the test…
Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E
Tobacco content has been identified in popular video games played by adolescents. To date, there are no established instruments for categorizing tobacco content. We describe development and demonstrate the use of an instrument to categorize types of tobacco content. Interviews were conducted with 61 participants: 20 adolescents (mean age 17.7), and 41 adults (mean age 23.9), who discussed favorite games and recalled tobacco content. All games mentioned were examined for tobacco content by watching movies of game play on YouTube, examining individual game Wiki sites, and reviewing content descriptors provided by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), Common Sense Media and the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). A typology of tobacco content was created and correlated with gamer recall of tobacco content. Participants together mentioned 366 games, of which 152 were unique. Tobacco content was verified in 39.5% (60/152) of games. Six categories of content were identified, including "no tobacco content." Of games containing tobacco, 88% (53/60) contained at least two categories of content. Games with more categories were associated with greater gamer recall of tobacco content. Tobacco content is present in video games and consciously recalled by players, with higher accuracy of recall associated with games featuring multiple types of tobacco content and more engaging, player-active content. Playing video games is now a daily part of most adolescents' lives. Tobacco content is present in many popular games. Currently there are no published instruments to assist in categorizing tobacco content in video games. This study describes a systematic approach to categorizing tobacco content in video games and demonstrates that games featuring more categories of tobacco content are associated with more accurate gamer recall of the presence of tobacco content when compared with games with fewer categories of content. Understanding the extent of such content will be essential
Cranwell, J.C.; Whitamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo
Abstract To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11?17 years were included as participants. Reported...
Fylan, F; Harding, G F; Edson, A S; Webb, R M
We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying video-game epilepsy by comparing the flicker- and spatial-frequency ranges over which photic and pattern stimulation elicited photoparoxysmal responses in two different populations: (a) 25 patients with a history of seizures experienced while playing video games; and (b) 25 age- and medication-matched controls with a history of photosensitive epilepsy, but no history of video-game seizures. Abnormality ranges were determined by measuring photoparoxysmal EEG abnormalities as a function of the flicker frequency of patterned and diffuse intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and the spatial frequency of patterns on a raster display. There was no significant difference between the groups in respect of the abnormality ranges elicited by patterned or diffuse IPS or by spatial patterns. When the groups were compared at one specific IPS frequency (-50 Hz), however, the flicker frequency of European television displays, the video-game patients were significantly more likely to be sensitive. The results suggest that video-game seizures are a manifestation of photosensitive epilepsy. The increased sensitivity of video-game patients to IPS at 50 Hz indicates that display flicker may underlie video-game seizures. The similarity in photic- and pattern-stimulation ranges over which abnormalities are elicited in video-game patients and controls suggests that all patients with photosensitive epilepsy may be predisposed toward video-game-induced seizures. Photosensitivity screening should therefore include assessment by using both IPS at 50 Hz and patterns displayed on a television or monitor with a 50-Hz frame rate.
Breuer, Johannes; Kowert, Rachel; Festl, Ruth; Quandt, Thorsten
From the oversexualized characters in fighting games, such as Dead or Alive or Ninja Gaiden, to the overuse of the damsel in distress trope in popular titles, such as the Super Mario series, the under- and misrepresentation of females in video games has been well documented in several content analyses. Cultivation theory suggests that long-term exposure to media content can affect perceptions of social realities in a way that they become more similar to the representations in the media and, in turn, impact one's beliefs and attitudes. Previous studies on video games and cultivation have often been cross-sectional or experimental, and the limited longitudinal work in this area has only considered time intervals of up to 1 month. Additionally, previous work in this area has focused on the effects of violent content and relied on self-selected or convenience samples composed mostly of adolescents or college students. Enlisting a 3 year longitudinal design, the present study assessed the relationship between video game use and sexist attitudes, using data from a representative sample of German players aged 14 and older (N=824). Controlling for age and education, it was found that sexist attitudes--measured with a brief scale assessing beliefs about gender roles in society--were not related to the amount of daily video game use or preference for specific genres for both female and male players. Implications for research on sexism in video games and cultivation effects of video games in general are discussed.
Zerebecki, Chris; Stanfield, Brodie; Tawadrous, Mina; Buckstein, Daniel; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill
The film industry has a long history of creating compelling experiences in stereoscopic 3D. Recently, the video game as an artistic medium has matured into an effective way to tell engaging and immersive stories. Given the current push to bring stereoscopic 3D technology into the consumer market there is considerable interest to develop stereoscopic 3D video games. Game developers have largely ignored the need to design their games specifically for stereoscopic 3D and have thus relied on automatic conversion and driver technology. Game developers need to evaluate solutions used in other media, such as film, to correct perceptual problems such as window violations, and modify or create new solutions to work within an interactive framework. In this paper we extend the dynamic floating window technique into the interactive domain enabling the player to position a virtual window in space. Interactively changing the position, size, and the 3D rotation of the virtual window, objects can be made to 'break the mask' dramatically enhancing the stereoscopic effect. By demonstrating that solutions from the film industry can be extended into the interactive space, it is our hope that this initiates further discussion in the game development community to strengthen their story-telling mechanisms in stereoscopic 3D games.
King, Daniel; Delfabbro, Paul; Griffiths, Mark
Excessive video game playing behaviour may be influenced by a variety of factors including the structural characteristics of video games. Structural characteristics refer to those features inherent within the video game itself that may facilitate initiation, development and maintenance of video game playing over time. Numerous structural…
Glaubke, Christina R.; Miller, Patti; Parker, McCrae A.; Espejo, Eileen
Based on the view that the level of market penetration of video games combined with the high levels of realism portrayed in these games make it important to investigate the messages video games send children, this report details a study of the 10 top-selling video games for each of 6 game systems available in the United States and for personal…
Picard, Francois; Estraillier, Pascal
Video games are more and more controlled by the real movements of the player. However, the player is constrained by the system devices, imposing a limited vocabulary of actions associated with a set of unnatural movements. To introduce more entertaining video games to players, a component-based architecture is proposed. It has been acknowledged as the starting point for the development of adaptive applications based on the hypothesis of a high level dialogue between the system and the player. The system adaptability relies on interpretation mechanisms of the player behaviors. These behaviors are defined through the representation of the real movements of the player who freely interacts with the 3D elements composing an immersive virtual environment, following a given game scenario. The efficient interpretation of the player movements relies on the introduction in the system of the management of the scene's context. The contextual information not only helps to determine the true meaning of an observed behavior but also makes the system to adapt its processes regarding this interpretation, while managing its hardware and software resources efficiently. A commercial motion capture interface has been enhanced by the elaboration of such a system.
Ruiz Victoria, Jeronimo; Löffler, Arne Samuel
Background Brand managers often use brand extension as a “lower” risk alternative when introducing new products. A lot of research has been conducted about brand extensions but mostly focusing on fast moving consumer goods, therefore ignoring the impact that this strategy carries on experience goods and more precisely, the video game industry. Video games have turned from a niche product to a global billion dollar market in which brand extensions are a common marketing strategy. There are sev...
Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael
The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' evaluations of, and reasoning about, gender stereotypes in video games. Female (N = 46) and male (N = 41), predominantly European-American, mean age = 19 years, were interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences of games on the players, and authority jurisdiction over 3 different types of games: games with negative male stereotypes, and games with negative female stereotypes, and gender-neutral games. Gender differences were found for how participants evaluated these games. Males were more likely than females to find stereotypes acceptable. Results are discussed in terms of social reasoning, video game playing, and gender differences.
Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael
The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' evaluations of, and reasoning about, gender stereotypes in video games. Female (N = 46) and male (N = 41), predominantly European-American, mean age = 19 years, were interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences of games on the players, and authority jurisdiction over 3 different types of games: games with negative male stereotypes, and games with negative female stereotypes, and gender-neutral games. Gender differences were found for how participants evaluated these games. Males were more likely than females to find stereotypes acceptable. Results are discussed in terms of social reasoning, video game playing, and gender differences. PMID:25722501
Grappiolo, C.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Togelius, J.
We present a technology demonstrator for an adaptive serious game for teaching conflict resolution and discuss the research questions associated with the project. The prototype is a single-player 3D mini-game which simulates a resource management conflict scenario. In order to teach the player how...
Lewis, Melissa L; Weber, René; Bowman, Nicholas David
This paper proposes a new and reliable metric for measuring character attachment (CA), the connection felt by a video game player toward a video game character. Results of construct validity analyses indicate that the proposed CA scale has a significant relationship with self-esteem, addiction, game enjoyment, and time spent playing games; all of these relationships are predicted by theory. Additionally, CA levels for role-playing games differ significantly from CA levels of other character-driven games.
Pratama Wirya Atmaja
satisfaction of its players is the primary mean to measure its quality. One important element of player’s satisfaction is a proper difficulty level, which is neither too easy nor too hard. The current state-of-the-art way to implement it is with Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment (DDA, which allows the difficulty level of a video game to be adjusted at run-time. Currently, the most popular type of DDA is the passive one. Meanwhile, Game Design Document (GDD is an important artefact in the development process of a video game software, and there is still no GDD format that supports the design of passive DDA mechanism. The aim of this research was to find a new GDD format that supports the mechanism. We modified a general purpose GDD format by adding new parts for designing passive DDA mechanism. We tested the usefulness of the modified format in a testing process involving developers and players. The developers developed video games using the modified GDD format and the general purpose one. Their development processes were observed and evaluated to know if there were any difficulties. The resulting video games were played by the players to find which are better in terms of passive DDA mechanism. The result of developer testing showed that the modified format is better than the general purpose one. The result of player testing showed that the video games made with the modified format are better than their counterparts, albeit by an insignificant margin. Based on the results, we declare that the modified GDD format is successful.Keywords: Video game, requirement engineering, game design document, dynamic difficulty adjustment, software development.
Video games are very popular among children in the Western world. This study was done in order to investigate if video games had an effect on 49 Swedish students‟ comprehension of English words (grades 7-8). The investigation was based on questionnaire and word test data. The questionnaire aimed to measure with which frequency students were playing video games, and the word test aimed to measure their word comprehension in general. In addition, data from the word test were used to investigate...
Bouciguez, María José; Santos, Graciela; Abásolo Guerrero, María José
Video games are now a widespread cultural practice, especially among young people, making them an ideal medium for the design of learning processes. In order to design educational technologies that provide teaching support we must first understand the practices developed by the young with computers and especially with video games. The aim of the present study is therefore to learn about the experience and expectations about video games among students, particularly engineering students. The re...
Full Text Available Abstract Background No study has ever explored the prevalence and correlates of video game playing among children in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This study describes patterns and correlates of excessive video game use in a random sample of middle-school students in Iran. Specifically, we examine the relationship between video game playing and psychological well-being, aggressive behaviors, and adolescents' perceived threat of video-computer game playing. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed with a random sample of 444 adolescents recruited from eight middle schools. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics, video gaming behaviors, mental health status, self-reported aggressive behaviors, and perceived side effects of video game playing. Results Overall, participants spent an average of 6.3 hours per week playing video games. Moreover, 47% of participants reported that they had played one or more intensely violent games. Non-gamers reported suffering poorer mental health compared to excessive gamers. Both non-gamers and excessive gamers overall reported suffering poorer mental health compared to low or moderate players. Participants who initiated gaming at younger ages were more likely to score poorer in mental health measures. Participants' self-reported aggressive behaviors were associated with length of gaming. Boys, but not girls, who reported playing video games excessively showed more aggressive behaviors. A multiple binary logistic regression shows that when controlling for other variables, older students, those who perceived less serious side effects of video gaming, and those who have personal computers, were more likely to report that they had played video games excessively. Conclusion Our data show a curvilinear relationship between video game playing and mental health outcomes, with "moderate" gamers faring best and "excessive" gamers showing mild increases in problematic behaviors
Allahverdipour, Hamid; Bazargan, Mohsen; Farhadinasab, Abdollah; Moeini, Babak
No study has ever explored the prevalence and correlates of video game playing among children in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This study describes patterns and correlates of excessive video game use in a random sample of middle-school students in Iran. Specifically, we examine the relationship between video game playing and psychological well-being, aggressive behaviors, and adolescents' perceived threat of video-computer game playing. This cross-sectional study was performed with a random sample of 444 adolescents recruited from eight middle schools. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics, video gaming behaviors, mental health status, self-reported aggressive behaviors, and perceived side effects of video game playing. Overall, participants spent an average of 6.3 hours per week playing video games. Moreover, 47% of participants reported that they had played one or more intensely violent games. Non-gamers reported suffering poorer mental health compared to excessive gamers. Both non-gamers and excessive gamers overall reported suffering poorer mental health compared to low or moderate players. Participants who initiated gaming at younger ages were more likely to score poorer in mental health measures. Participants' self-reported aggressive behaviors were associated with length of gaming. Boys, but not girls, who reported playing video games excessively showed more aggressive behaviors. A multiple binary logistic regression shows that when controlling for other variables, older students, those who perceived less serious side effects of video gaming, and those who have personal computers, were more likely to report that they had played video games excessively. Our data show a curvilinear relationship between video game playing and mental health outcomes, with "moderate" gamers faring best and "excessive" gamers showing mild increases in problematic behaviors. Interestingly, "non-gamers" clearly show the worst outcomes. Therefore
Background No study has ever explored the prevalence and correlates of video game playing among children in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This study describes patterns and correlates of excessive video game use in a random sample of middle-school students in Iran. Specifically, we examine the relationship between video game playing and psychological well-being, aggressive behaviors, and adolescents' perceived threat of video-computer game playing. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed with a random sample of 444 adolescents recruited from eight middle schools. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics, video gaming behaviors, mental health status, self-reported aggressive behaviors, and perceived side effects of video game playing. Results Overall, participants spent an average of 6.3 hours per week playing video games. Moreover, 47% of participants reported that they had played one or more intensely violent games. Non-gamers reported suffering poorer mental health compared to excessive gamers. Both non-gamers and excessive gamers overall reported suffering poorer mental health compared to low or moderate players. Participants who initiated gaming at younger ages were more likely to score poorer in mental health measures. Participants' self-reported aggressive behaviors were associated with length of gaming. Boys, but not girls, who reported playing video games excessively showed more aggressive behaviors. A multiple binary logistic regression shows that when controlling for other variables, older students, those who perceived less serious side effects of video gaming, and those who have personal computers, were more likely to report that they had played video games excessively. Conclusion Our data show a curvilinear relationship between video game playing and mental health outcomes, with "moderate" gamers faring best and "excessive" gamers showing mild increases in problematic behaviors. Interestingly, "non-gamers" clearly
Lo, Shao-Kang; Wang, Chih-Chien; Fang, Wenchang
Many online game players spend inordinate amounts of time in their favorite virtual worlds. A large percentage of these players are teenagers who show behaviors normally associated with physical addiction. Parents, educators, and social scientists are therefore saying that online games are sources of social problems. The authors surveyed 174 Taiwanese college-age online players to collect data on the potential effects of online games on the quality of interpersonal relationships and levels of social anxiety. According to the results, the quality of interpersonal relationships decreased and the amount of social anxiety increased as the amount of time spent playing online games increased.
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M.; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. We aim ...
... Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet KidsHealth / For Parents / Healthy Habits for TV, Video ... negative effects that violent video games can have. Internet Safety Become computer literate. Learn how to block ...
We are always trying to improve learning process by finding new ways to increase motivation, make things easier to understand and last but not least to get better learning results. One method to do that is by creating educational video games. Video games are used in situations that can explain certain situations better, where we can make safe environment for students to experiment new things, to simulate real life situations and last but not least to increase their motivation in learning p...
Soetaert, Ronald; Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Rutten, Kris
In their article "Video Games as Equipment for Living" Ronald Soetaert, Jeroen Bourgonjon, and Kris Rutten postulate that with the emergence of new media there is need of a re-evaluation of all modes of communication and the ways in which literacy is conceptualized. Drawing on the concept of multi-literacy they suggest a rhetorical/ anthropological meta-perspective to describe human beings as symbol using animals and focus on particular symbol systems: narrative, drama, and video games. Speci...
KASTELEIJN‐NOLST TRENITÉ, D.G.; Da Silva, A. M.; Ricci, S; Binnie, C D; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; SEGERS, J.P.
Epilepsia. 1999;40 Suppl 4:70-4. Video-game epilepsy: a European study. Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DG, da Silva AM, Ricci S, Binnie CD, Rubboli G, Tassinari CA, Segers JP. Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland, Heemstede, The Netherlands. Abstract With the introduction of Nintendo video-games on a large scale, reports of children having seizures while playing suggested a possible specific, provocative factor. Although 50% of the photosensitive patients are al...
Full Text Available Action video game playing substantially improves visual performance; however, the source of this improvement remains unclear. Here we use the equivalent external noise technique to characterize the mechanism by which action video games may facilitate performance (Lu & Dosher, 1998. In first study, Action Video Game Players (VGPs and Non-Action Video Game Players (NVGPs performed a foveal orientation identification task at different external noise levels. VGPs showed lower thresholds than NVGPs with a marked difference at different noise levels. Perceptual Template Model fitting indicated that there were an 11% additive noise reduction and a 25% external noise exclusion. The causal effect of action video game playing was confirmed in a following 50 hour training study, This work establishes that playing action video games leads to robust internal addictive and external noise exclusion, consistent with the use of better matched perceptual templates. To investigate the discrepancy between our results and previous fovea perceptual learning research (Lu et al, 2004, same stimuli in previous experiment were used in perceptual learning experiment and we find same perceptual template improvement pattern. This suggest both action video game playing and perceptual learning could lead to better perceptual template.
Croxton, DeVaughn; Kortemeyer, Gerd
Researching informal gameplay can be challenging, since as soon as a formal study design is imposed, it becomes neither casual nor self-motivated. As a case study of a non-invasive design, we analyze publicly posted gameplay videos to assess the effectiveness of a physics educational video game on special relativity. These videos offer unique insights into informal learning through gaming, as players do not only describe the gameplay mechanics, but also explore physics concepts in a think-aloud fashion while they ponder the experience and effects. We find that while this methodology has substantial limitations, it is complementary when it comes to assessing motivations and attitudes, as well as to gathering data on conceptual hurdles.
Despite the growing number of books designed to radically reconsider the educational value of video games as powerful learning tools, there are very few practical guidelines conveniently available for prospective history and social studies teachers who actually want to use these teaching and learning tools in their classes. As the games and…
Trout, Josh; Christie, Brett
As the obesity epidemic in the United States spreads among children and teenagers, due in part to sedentary lifestyles, some physical education programs are using interactive video games to keep students engaged in physical activity. These innovative games make physical activity fun and challenging for both high- and low-skilled students. Although…
An expert on the sociology of video games highlights the power of this medium to popularize violence among children. But few are aware that some of the most technologically potent products are violent war games now being produced at taxpayer expense. These are provided free as a recruiting tool by the United States military. The author contends…
In this article the author explores the construction of place within virtual worlds and, in particular, in video games that appeal widely to children and youths. With the notable exception of "edutainment" titles, gaming and education have traditionally been viewed as separate pursuits. Yet, after school, millions of children and teens spend…
Anagnostou, Kostas; Pappa, Anastasia
In this work, the authors analyze the video game genres' features and investigate potential mappings to specific didactic approaches in the context of Physics education. To guide the analysis, the authors briefly review the main didactic approaches for Physics and identify qualities that can be projected into game features. Based on the…
Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.
Electronic training system based on video game developed to help children afflicted with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) learn to prolong their attention spans. Uses combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and adaptive control to encourage attentiveness. Monitors trainee's brain-wave activity: if EEG signal indicates attention is waning, system increases difficulty of game, forcing trainee to devote more attention to it. Game designed to make trainees want to win and, in so doing, learn to pay attention for longer times.
Chappell, James M; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek
The N-player quantum games are analyzed that use an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment, as the underlying physical setup. In this setup, a player's strategies are not unitary transformations as in alternate quantum game-theoretic frameworks, but a classical choice between two directions along which spin or polarization measurements are made. The players' strategies thus remain identical to their strategies in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game. In the EPR setting the quantum game reduces itself to the corresponding classical game when the shared quantum state reaches zero entanglement. We find the relations for the probability distribution for N-qubit GHZ and W-type states, subject to general measurement directions, from which the expressions for the players' payoffs and mixed Nash equilibrium are determined. Players' N x N payoff matrices are then defined using linear functions so that common two-player games can be easily extended to the N-player case and permit analytic expressions for the Nash equilibrium. As a specific example, we solve the Prisoners' Dilemma game for general N ≥ 2. We find a new property for the game that for an even number of players the payoffs at the Nash equilibrium are equal, whereas for an odd number of players the cooperating players receive higher payoffs. By dispensing with the standard unitary transformations on state vectors in Hilbert space and using instead rotors and multivectors, based on Clifford's geometric algebra (GA), it is shown how the N-player case becomes tractable. The new mathematical approach presented here has wide implications in the areas of quantum information and quantum complexity, as it opens up a powerful way to tractably analyze N-partite qubit interactions.
James M Chappell
Full Text Available The N-player quantum games are analyzed that use an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR experiment, as the underlying physical setup. In this setup, a player's strategies are not unitary transformations as in alternate quantum game-theoretic frameworks, but a classical choice between two directions along which spin or polarization measurements are made. The players' strategies thus remain identical to their strategies in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game. In the EPR setting the quantum game reduces itself to the corresponding classical game when the shared quantum state reaches zero entanglement. We find the relations for the probability distribution for N-qubit GHZ and W-type states, subject to general measurement directions, from which the expressions for the players' payoffs and mixed Nash equilibrium are determined. Players' N x N payoff matrices are then defined using linear functions so that common two-player games can be easily extended to the N-player case and permit analytic expressions for the Nash equilibrium. As a specific example, we solve the Prisoners' Dilemma game for general N ≥ 2. We find a new property for the game that for an even number of players the payoffs at the Nash equilibrium are equal, whereas for an odd number of players the cooperating players receive higher payoffs. By dispensing with the standard unitary transformations on state vectors in Hilbert space and using instead rotors and multivectors, based on Clifford's geometric algebra (GA, it is shown how the N-player case becomes tractable. The new mathematical approach presented here has wide implications in the areas of quantum information and quantum complexity, as it opens up a powerful way to tractably analyze N-partite qubit interactions.
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Friðriksson, Rafn Vídalín; Björnsson, Davíð Þór
In games where players are competing against each other, it can be of interest to ensure that all players are challenged according to their individual skills. In order to investigate such adaptivity to the individual player in physical multi-player games, we developed a game on modular interactive...... tiles which can be used in both single-player and multi-player mode. We implemented simple adaptivity methods and tested these with different user groups including children and adults of both genders. The results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between children...... and adults, and between male and female players. Also, results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between different physical set-ups of the modular interactive tiles, i.e. the interaction depended on the topology of the modular tiles set-up. Changing the physical set...
Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Peng, Shu-Yun; Yang, Chin-Chow
Online game addiction is a new mental disorder. This disorder is difficult to describe because of its comprehensive nature. Many online game players have problems controlling their playing time. They cannot stop playing a game that they enjoy. This research surveyed the past literature on "flow" and time disorder theory. A time distortion experiment was conducted. This research invited 64 children, teenagers, and young adults to investigate player skill and playing time effects on online game break-off. The playing experience and degree of time distortion were measured and analyzed. The results showed that both novice and expert online game players were subject to time distortion. The participants had difficulty breaking off from the game without intrusion by others in the real world. This research also suggests eight questions for self-evaluation for online game addiction.
Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John
preferences for augmented-reality game players. An adaptive mechanism then adjusts controllable game parameters in real time in order to improve the entertainment value of the game for the player. The basic approach presented here applies gradient ascent to the user model to suggest the direction of parameter......A methodology for optimizing player satisfaction in games on the "playware" physical interactive platform is demonstrated in this paper. Previously constructed artificial neural network user models, reported in the literature, map individual playing characteristics to reported entertainment...... adjustment that leads toward games of higher entertainment value. A simple rule set exploits the derivative information to adjust specific game parameters to augment the entertainment value. Those adjustments take place frequently during the game with interadjustment intervals that maintain the user model...
The Expected-Outcome Model of Two-Player Games deals with the expected-outcome model of two-player games, in which the relative merit of game-tree nodes, rather than board positions, is considered. The ambiguity of static evaluation and the problems it generates in the search system are examined and the development of a domain-independent static evaluator is described. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale for the mathematical study of games, followed by a discussion on some previous artificial intelligence (AI) research efforts on game-trees. The nex
A Gaussian mixture clustering model for characterizing football players using the EA Sports' FIFA video game system. [Modelo basado en agrupamiento de mixturas Gaussianas para caracterizar futbolistas utilizando el sistema de videojuegos FIFA de EA Sports].
Full Text Available The generation and availability of football data has increased considerably last decades, mostly due to its popularity and also because of technological advances. Gaussian mixture clustering models represents a novel approach to exploring and analyzing performance data in sports. In this paper, we use principal components analysis in conjunction with a model-based Gaussian clustering method with the purpose of characterizing professional football players. Our model approach is tested using 40 attributes from EA Sports' FIFA video game series system, corresponding to 7705 European players. Clustering results reveal a clear distinction among different performance indicators, representing four different roles in the team. Players were labeled according to these roles and a gradient tree boosting model was used for ranking attributes regarding to its importance. We found that the dribbling skill is the most discriminating variable among the different clustered players’ profiles. Resumen En las últimas décadas se ha visto un incremento considerable en la generación y disponibilidad de datos de fútbol, esto se debe fundamentalmente a la popularidad de este deporte así como a los avances tecnológicos realizados en este campo. Los modelos de agrupamiento basados en mixturas Gaussianas representan un enfoque novedoso para explorar y analizar datos de desempeño deportivo. En el presente trabajo, se lleva a cabo una caracterización de jugadores profesionales de fútbol utilizando técnicas de análisis de componentes principales y agrupamiento basados en mixturas Gaussianas. El modelo presentado es comprobado utilizando datos del sistema de videojuegos FIFA de EA Sports, dichos datos representan 40 atributos correspondientes a 7705 futbolistas europeos. Los resultados del agrupamiento revelan una clara distinción entre algunos indicadores de desempeño, los cuales corresponden a cuatro roles diferentes en el equipo. Consecuentemente, los
Muñoz, Yupanqui J.; El-Hani, Charbel N.
Video games, as technological and cultural artifacts of considerable influence in the contemporary society, play an important role in the construction of identities, just as other artifacts (e.g., books, newspapers, television) played for a long time. In this paper, we discuss this role by considering video games under two concepts, othering and technopoly, and focus on how these concepts demand that we deepen our understanding of the ethics of video games. We address here how the construction of identities within video games involves othering process, that is, processes through which, when signifying and identifying `Ourselves', we create and marginalize `Others'. Moreover, we discuss how video games can play an important role in the legitimation of the technopoly, understood as a totalitarian regime related to science, technology and their place in our societies. Under these two concepts, understanding the ethics of video games goes beyond the controversy about their violence. The main focus of discussion should lie in how the ethics of video games is related to their part in the formation of the players' citizenship. Examining several examples of electronic games, we consider how video games provide a rich experience in which the player has the opportunity to develop a practical wisdom ( phronesis), which can lead her to be a virtuous being. However, they can be also harmful to the moral experiences of the subjects when they show unethical contents related to othering processes that are not so clearly and openly condemned as violence, as in the cases of sexism, racism or xenophobia. Rather than leading us to conclude that video games needed to be banned or censored, this argument makes us highlight their role in the (science) education of critical, socially responsible, ethical, and politically active citizens, precisely because they encompass othering processes and science, technology, and society relationships.
Konijn, Elly A.; Bijvank, Marije Nije; Bushman, Brad J.
This study tested the hypothesis that violent video games are especially likely to increase aggression when players identify with violent game characters. Dutch adolescent boys with low education ability (N=112) were randomly assigned to play a realistic or fantasy violent or nonviolent video game. Next, they competed with an ostensible partner on…
Agiza, H. N.; Elsadany, A. A.
We analyze a nonlinear discrete-time Cournot duopoly game, where players have heterogeneous expectations. Two types of players are considered: boundedly rational and naive expectations. In this study we show that the dynamics of the duopoly game with players whose beliefs are heterogeneous, may become complicated. The model gives more complex chaotic and unpredictable trajectories as a consequence of increasing the speed of adjustment of boundedly rational player. The equilibrium points and local stability of the duopoly game are investigated. As some parameters of the model are varied, the stability of the Nash equilibrium point is lost and the complex (periodic or chaotic) behavior occurs. Numerical simulations are presented to show that players with heterogeneous beliefs make the duopoly game behave chaotically. Also, we get the fractal dimension of the chaotic attractor of our map which is equivalent to the dimension of Henon map.
Kaye, Linda K; Gresty, Claire E; Stubbs-Ennis, Natasha
Gender stereotypes are still reported to exist in digital gaming contexts, despite the fact that participation of females is relatively equal to that of males. The current research explored a number of factors and their impact upon stereotypical perceptions and attitudes toward female players. This included avatar gender, gender identity by gaming context, as well as more general gender-role beliefs. We undertook two studies, each utilizing an online questionnaire targeted toward online players. Study 1 recruited online gamers (N = 489) and compared competence perceptions of players, which varied by player gender (male, female) and avatar gender (male, female), whereby four conditions were established. Overall, player competence was perceived to be highest when male avatars were used, specifically when female players were depicted in this way. Study 2 explored the relationships between male social identity and gender-role beliefs, with sexist attitudes in gaming, and whether this varied by gaming context (massively multiplayer online [MMO] vs. first-person shooter [FPS]). Male online gamers (N = 193) were recruited, of which 112 were MMO players, and 81 were FPS players. It was found that identifying as male social identity was not related to sexist attitudes in either gaming context. However, more general gender-role beliefs were related to sexist attitudes. The findings indicate that although certain stereotypes exist (e.g., competence perceptions), these are not necessarily harvested by players' identities within communities, but may derive through more operational functions such as avatar gender.
Hartanto, Andree; Toh, Wei Xing; Yang, Hwajin
Although prior research suggests that playing video games can improve cognitive abilities, recent empirical studies cast doubt on such findings (Unsworth et al., 2015). To reconcile these inconsistent findings, we focused on the link between video games and task switching. Furthermore, we conceptualized video-game expertise as the onset age of active video-game play rather than the frequency of recent gameplay, as it captures both how long a person has played video games and whether the individual began playing during periods of high cognitive plasticity. We found that the age of active onset better predicted switch and mixing costs than did frequency of recent gameplay; specifically, players who commenced playing video games at an earlier age reaped greater benefits in terms of task switching than did those who started at a later age. Moreover, improving switch costs required a more extensive period of video-game experience than did mixing costs; this finding suggests that certain cognitive abilities benefit from different amounts of video game experience.
King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D
A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms.
Barreto, Daisyane; Vasconcelos, Lucas; Orey, Michael
Purpose: With video games being a source of leisure and learning, educators and researchers alike are interested in understanding children's motivation for playing video games as a way to learn. This study explores student motivation and engagement levels in playing two math video games in the game "Club Penguin." Method: This is a…
Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Jago, Russ; Griffith, Melissa Juliano; Islam, Noemi; Nguyen, Nga; Watson, Kathleen B
... Serious video games offer promise of innovative channels for effective behavior change. 9 Once a child's attention has been attracted, 10 modeling, 11 tailoring, 12 and feedback 12 can increase personal relevance; in addition, games add fun. 13 Most health-related video games have some positive outcome, 9 and video games have effectively promoted dietary change ...
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the number of goal-posts and the positioning of goal-posts used within small-sided games on the frequency of technical actions and offensive scenarios performed by prepubescent players within soccer. The participants were eight male prepubescent soccer players (12.1 ± 0.5 years. The participants were video recorded for 20 min playing four different formats of 4v4 small-sided games: (1 standard two goal game; (2 four goal game, one goal in each corner; (3 two goal game with goal-posts positioned 9.14 m/10 yd infield, scoring only through the back of the goal; (4 four goal-game, one goal positioned 9.14 m/10 yd infield in each corner, scoring through either the front or back of each goal. Chi-squared tests of independence were utilized to statistically explore the impact of the different small-sided game formats. There were significant associations (p < 0.05 observed between the different small-sided game formats and the frequency of turns, dribbles, shots, goals and overlaps performed. For example, players performed more turns in small-sided game format two and more shots during small-sided game format four. It is suggested coaches should consider using a variation of the number and positioning of goal-posts in small-sided games as an effective training tool in the development of prepubescent soccer players. This will enable coaches to vary the focus of sessions, and develop specific technical and tactical actions within a situation similar to that of real match-play.
Tierney, Gregory J; Denvir, Karl; Farrell, Garreth; Simms, Ciaran K
It has been hypothesised that fatigue may be a major factor in tackle-related injury risk in rugby union and hence more injuries occur in the later stages of a game. The aim of this study is to identify changes in ball carrier or tackler proficiency characteristics, using elite level match video data, as player time-in-game increases. Qualitative observational cohort study. Three 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup games were selected for ball carrier and tackler proficiency analysis. Analysis was only conducted on players who started and remained on the field for the entire game. A separate analysis was conducted on 10 randomly selected 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup/Pro 12 games to assess the time distribution of tackles throughout a game. A Chi-square test and one-way way ANOVA with post-hoc testing was conducted to identify significant differences (pgame, respectively. Player time-in-game did not affect tackle proficiency for both the ball carrier and tackler. Any results that showed statistical significance did not indicate a trend of deterioration in proficiency with increased player time-in-game. The time distribution of tackles analysis indicated that more tackles occurring in the final quarter of the game than the first (p=0.04) and second (p=game does not affect tackler or ball carrier tackle technique proficiency at the elite level. More tackles occurring in the final quarter of a game provides an alternative explanation to more tackle-related injuries occurring at this stage. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Colman, Jason; Gnanayutham, Paul
Video games have been used in a variety of therapeutic and rehabilitative contexts. However, there are health risks associated with playing video games, including the risk of epileptic seizure. Additionally, video games have been criticised for reasons including their portrayal of women and minorities. For games to be accepted as an ethically valid therapeutic tool, these concerns must be addressed. The authors believe that video games can be used as therapeutic tools when used responsibly
Safadi, Firas; Fonteneau, Raphael; Ernst, Damien
With modern video games frequently featuring sophisticated and realistic environments, the need for smart and comprehensive agents that understand the various aspects of complex environments is pressing. Since video game AI is often specifically designed for each game, video game AI tools currently focus on allowing video game developers to quickly and efficiently create specific AI. One issue with this approach is that it does not efficiently exploit the numerous similarities that exist betw...
Nata, Vincent Ferian; Hagijanto, Andrian Dektisa; Christianna, Aniendya Christianna
Video game merupakan media hiburan yang dapat dinikmati oleh berbagai kalangan masyarakat, tua atau muda. Video game memiliki konten yang bermacam – macam yang telah disesuaikan dengan target audiencenya. Tetapi terkadang anak – anak memainkan video game dengan konten yang tidak sesuai usia mereka, padahal konten dalam video game telah diatur melalui sistem rating. Hal ini karena kurangnya pengawasan dan pemahaman dari orangtua mengenai video game. Oleh karena itu penulis membuat sebuah multi...
Liming, Drew; Vilorio, Dennis
Video games are not only for play; they also provide work. Making video games is a serious--and big--business. Creating these games is complex and requires the collaboration of many developers, who perform a variety of tasks, from production to programming. They work for both small and large game studios to create games that can be played on many…
Chen, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Hsieh, Jilung
In the latest versions of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), developers have purposefully made guilds part of game environments. Guilds represent a powerful method for giving players a sense of online community, but there is little quantitative data on guild dynamics. To address this topic, we took advantage of a feature found in one of today's most popular MMOGs (World of Warcraft) to collect in-game data: user interfaces that players can modify and refine. In addition to collecting data on in-game player activities, we used this feature to observe and investigate how players join and leave guilds. Data were analyzed for the purpose of identifying factors that propel game-world guild dynamics and evolution. After collecting data for 641,805 avatars on 62 Taiwanese World of Warcraft game servers between February 10 and April 10, 2006, we created five guild type categories (small, large, elite, newbie, and unstable) that have different meanings in terms of in-game group dynamics. By viewing players as the most important resource affecting guild life cycles, it is possible to analyze game worlds as ecosystems consisting of evolving guilds and to study how guild life cycles reflect game world characteristics.
Kunanusont, Kamolwan; Lucas, Simon M.; Perez-Liebana, Diego
General Video Game Artificial Intelligence is a general game playing framework for Artificial General Intelligence research in the video-games domain. In this paper, we propose for the first time a screen capture learning agent for General Video Game AI framework. A Deep Q-Network algorithm was applied and improved to develop an agent capable of learning to play different games in the framework. After testing this algorithm using various games of different categories and difficulty levels, th...
Marc Palaus; Marron, Elena M.; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Diego Redolar-Ripoll
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video ga...
Peng, Wei; Crouse, Julia
Although multiplayer modes are common among contemporary video games, the bulk of game research focuses on the single-player mode. To fill the gap in the literature, the current study investigated the effects of different multiplayer modes on enjoyment, future play motivation, and the actual physical activity intensity in an active video game. One hundred sixty-two participants participated in a one-factor between-subject laboratory experiment with three conditions: (a) single player: play against self pretest score; (b) cooperation with another player in the same physical space; (c) parallel competition with another player in separated physical spaces. We found that parallel competition in separate physical spaces was the optimal mode, since it resulted in both high enjoyment and future play motivation and high physical intensity. Implications for future research on multiplayer mode and play space as well as active video game-based physical activity interventions are discussed.
Zhuang, Guanxi; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Xia
In recent years the game industry has had a huge growth. We've seen new game consoles, great looking games and an increase in the number of people playing them. We are presently in the seventh generation of video games which focuses on consoles released since 2004. For home consoles,the seventh generation began on November 22, 2005 with the release of Xbox 360 and continued with the release of PlayStation 3 on November 11, 2006, and Wii on November 19, 2006. The current generation is having a...
Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise
Aims To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. Design Nationally representative survey. Setting Online. Participants Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. Measurements Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. Findings Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. Conclusions Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of “addictive” video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play. PMID:23284310
Elliott, Luther; Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise
AIMS: To assess the contribution of patterns of video game play, including game genre, involvement, and time spent gaming, to problem use symptomatology. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: Large sample (n=3,380) of adult video gamers in the US. MEASUREMENTS: Problem video game play (PVGP) scale, video game genre typology, use patterns (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), enjoyment, consumer involvement, and background variables. FINDINGS: Study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of "addictive" video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play.
Gee, Elisabeth; Siyahhan, Sinem; Cirell, Anna Montana
While a number of studies have investigated learning associated with video gaming in out-of-school settings, only recently have researchers begun to explore gaming and learning in the contexts of home and family life. This paper discusses three different frameworks within which we can situate video games and learning at home: (a) video gaming as…
This thesis deals with online computer games and their influence on the lifestyle of players. The work is divided into 2 parts ─ theoretical and research. The theoretical part describes the basic information about the history of computer games and the Internet, the distribution of computer games, addictive behavior on the Internet and computer games as well as problems that can cause excessive use of computers. In the research part, I tried to find answers to research questions. The aim of th...
Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Yong Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Renshaw, Perry F
Brain responses, particularly within the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices, to Internet video-game cues in college students are similar to those observed in patients with substance dependence in response to the substance-related cues. In this study, we report changes in brain activity between baseline and following 6 weeks of Internet video-game play. We hypothesized that subjects with high levels of self-reported craving for Internet video-game play would be associated with increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, particularly the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. Twenty-one healthy university students were recruited. At baseline and after a 6-week period of Internet video-game play, brain activity during presentation of video-game cues was assessed using 3T blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Craving for Internet video-game play was assessed by self-report on a 7-point visual analogue scale following cue presentation. During a standardized 6-week video-game play period, brain activity in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex of the excessive Internet game-playing group (EIGP) increased in response to Internet video-game cues. In contrast, activity observed in the general player group (GP) was not changed or decreased. In addition, the change of craving for Internet video games was positively correlated with the change in activity of the anterior cingulate in all subjects. These changes in frontal-lobe activity with extended video-game play may be similar to those observed during the early stages of addiction.
The last 10-15 years have seen the rise of a loosely defined independent games movement, often promoted as a more authentic type of video game than mainstream big budget video games (Juul 2014). For example, developer Dan Cook claims that “Indie games let me be a fan who is cheering on someone...... of the design and values of mainstream video games. As such, mainstream video games play the role of the morally and aesthetically compromised other, an other from which video games must be saved; an other that independent games are assumed to be rebelling against. In this paper I will analyze independent games...... as a number of specific (and sometimes contradictory) rejections of particular aspects of mainstream video game design. I am examining the game design of selected high-profile independent games, as well as game reviews and developer statement about their games. Here I am presenting general results...
A literature survey on new developments in the area of video games and psychotherapy of children and adolescents was conducted. Despite the omnipresence of computers and the internet, development of therapeutic games seems rather slow. The video game Treasure Hunt was introduced in 2008 to support treatment of children with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Camp Cope-A-Lot was developed for treatment of anxious children, whereas the self-help game SPARX is directed at depressed adolescents. Rage-Control is a biofeedback game for children with anger problems. The game Zoo U aims to assess and train social skills of primary school children. Ricky and the Spider for young children with obsessive compulsive disorder is meant to support the cognitive-behavioural treatment of these patients. Clash- Back is a French game for adolescents with externalizing problems. Possible reasons for the relatively slow development of therapeutic games are the high methodological demands concerning an evaluation as well as the high costs of game development. Nonetheless, computers and the internet are bound to influence psychotherapy with children and adolescents in the long run.
Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.; Dervin, Brenda
As with “new media” fifty years ago, today's “new media” are scrutinized from the uses and gratifications perspective to understand peoples’ reasons for engaging with them. The new media of interest in this paper are digital games. Research is in the early stages with this medium, exploring player...... at digital games in aggregate, not differentiating between game playing situations. This study measured the game playing gratifications and feature preferences of male and female players for three game playing situations: playing a game players liked, one they disliked, and one they desired. Generally...... gratifications from game playing and preferences for game playing features. This research has consistently found gender differences for both, with men more preferring competition gratifications and violent games, and women preferring socializing gratifications and puzzles. Past research has mostly looked...
Elliott, Luther; Ream, Geoffrey; McGinsky, Elizabeth; Dunlap, Eloise
A nationally representative online survey (n = 3,380) was used to assess the contribution of patterns of video game play to problem video game play (PVGP) symptomatology. Game genre, enjoyment, consumer involvement, time spent gaming (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), and demographic variables were all examined. The study…
Weinel, Jonathan; Cunningham, Stuart
In previous work the authors have proposed the concept of 'ASC Simulations': including audio-visual installations and experiences, as well as interactive video game systems, which simulate altered states of consciousness (ASCs) such as dreams and hallucinations. Building on the discussion...... of the authors' previous paper, where a large-scale qualitative study explored the changes to auditory perception that users of various intoxicating substances report, here the authors present three prototype audio mechanisms for simulating hallucinations in a video game. These were designed in the Unity video...... game engine as an early proof-of-concept. The first mechanism simulates 'selective auditory attention' to different sound sources, by attenuating the amplitude of unattended sources. The second simulates 'enhanced sounds', by adjusting perceived brightness through filtering. The third simulates...
Martinez-Hernandez, Kermin Joel
The chemistry-based computer video game is a multidisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and computer graphics and technology fields developed to explore the use of video games as a possible learning tool. This innovative approach aims to integrate elements of commercial video game and authentic chemistry context environments into a learning experience through gameplay. The project consists of three areas: development, assessment, and implementation. However, the foci of this study were the development and assessment of the computer video game including possible learning outcomes and game design elements. A chemistry-based game using a mixed genre of a single player first-person game embedded with action-adventure and puzzle components was developed to determine if students' level of understanding of chemistry concepts change after gameplay intervention. Three phases have been completed to assess students' understanding of chemistry concepts prior and after gameplay intervention. Two main assessment instruments (pre/post open-ended content survey and individual semi-structured interviews) were used to assess student understanding of concepts. In addition, game design elements were evaluated for future development phases. Preliminary analyses of the interview data suggest that students were able to understand most of the chemistry challenges presented in the game and the game served as a review for previously learned concepts as well as a way to apply such previous knowledge. To guarantee a better understanding of the chemistry concepts, additions such as debriefing and feedback about the content presented in the game seem to be needed. The use of visuals in the game to represent chemical processes, game genre, and game idea appear to be the game design elements that students like the most about the current computer video game.
Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G A; Martins da Silva, A; Ricci, S; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; Lopes, J; Bettencourt, M; Oosting, J; Segers, J P
Video game seizures have been reported in photosensitive and non-photosensitive patients with epilepsy. The game Super Mario World, has led to many cases of first seizures. We examined whether this game was indeed more provocative than other programs and whether playing the game added to this effect. We prospectively investigated 352 patients in four European cities, using a standard protocol including testing of a variety of visual stimuli. We correlated historical data on provocative factors in daily life with electroencephalographic laboratory findings. The video game, Super Mario World proved more epileptogenic than standard TV programs and as provocative as programs with flashing lights and patterns. Most striking was the fact that video game-viewing and-playing on the 50 and 100 Hz TV was significantly more provocative than viewing the standard program (P history of TV-, VG- or CG-seizures, 85% of them showed epileptiform discharges in response to photic stimulation, 44% to patterns, 59% to 50 Hz TV and 29% to 100 Hz TV. Children and adolescents with a history of video game seizures are, in the vast majority, photosensitive and should be investigated with standardised photic stimulation. Games and programs with bright background or flashing images are specifically provocative. Playing a video game on a 100 Hz TV is less provocative [published with videosequences].
Ivory, James D.
Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about games' social function that are often difficult...
... News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...
Marc Palaus; Elena M. Marron; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Diego Redolar-Ripoll
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study...
Granic, Isabela; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E
Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children's and adolescents' lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States. The vast majority of research by psychologists on the effects of "gaming" has been on its negative impact: the potential harm related to violence, addiction, and depression. We recognize the value of that research; however, we argue that a more balanced perspective is needed, one that considers not only the possible negative effects but also the benefits of playing these games. Considering these potential benefits is important, in part, because the nature of these games has changed dramatically in the last decade, becoming increasingly complex, diverse, realistic, and social in nature. A small but significant body of research has begun to emerge, mostly in the last five years, documenting these benefits. In this article, we summarize the research on the positive effects of playing video games, focusing on four main domains: cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social. By integrating insights from developmental, positive, and social psychology, as well as media psychology, we propose some candidate mechanisms by which playing video games may foster real-world psychosocial benefits. Our aim is to provide strong enough evidence and a theoretical rationale to inspire new programs of research on the largely unexplored mental health benefits of gaming. Finally, we end with a call to intervention researchers and practitioners to test the positive uses of video games, and we suggest several promising directions for doing so. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Video games have become a central part of Western popular culture, and while the academic study of the medium has progressed greatly in the past decade, analysis of games is still profoundly underdeveloped in comparison to analysis of other popular media such as film and television. Moreover, in the context of a highly mediated society characterized by volunteer-based militaries, direct experience with the reality of warfare is rare, and for the majority of citizens, war is something that is ...
Ruzic-Baf, Maja; Strnak, Hrvoje; Debeljuh, Andrea
The availability of new information and communication technologies to an increasingly younger population, the constant availability of the Internet and the opportunity to search information, to create new types and models of communication, types of acceptance and ways of accepting and coping with the infinite amount of information, the velocity and choice of well-designed marketing products, especially video games, in particular in the last decade, caused a real "gaming boom" among almost al...
In this paper, a cooperative game has been considered, where there is a coalition between rational players in an uncertain environment. The uncertainty occurs in terms of the quality of the raw material. The pay-offs of the players are influenced by the degree of satisfaction. Pay-offs are considered as interval numbers.
Hubacek, Pavel; Park, Sunoo
In this work we apply methods from cryptography to enable mutually distrusting players to implement broad classes of mediated equilibria of strategic games without trusted mediation. Our implementation uses a pre-play 'cheap talk' phase, consisting of non- binding communication between players pr...
Cunningham, A. Scott; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.
Psychological studies invariably find a positive relationship between violent video game play and aggression. However, these studies cannot account for either aggressive effects of alternative activities video game playing substitutes for or the possible selection of relatively violent people into playing violent video games. That is, they lack external validity. We investigate the relationship between the prevalence of violent video games and violent crimes. Our results are consistent with t...
In the popular press, most of the reported effects of video games appear to centre upon the alleged negative consequences such as increased aggression, medical consequences of excessive play, and addiction. Although in extreme cases, video game playing can be addictive, there are many benefts that children and adolescents can get from playing video games. These can be educational, social, and/or therapeutic. This paper examines various issues about the use of video games in the classroom. Thi...
Griffiths, MD; Nuyens, F
Purpose of Review: There are many different factors involved in how and why people develop problems with video game playing. One such set of factors concerns the structural characteristics of video games (i.e., the structure, elements, and components of the video games themselves). Much of the research examining the structural characteristics of video games was initially based on research and theorizing from the gambling studies field. The present review briefly overviews the key papers in th...
There is little research on music and audio in video games. What theory exists relies heavily upon borrowing concepts from similar fields such as film music. The empirical research conducted has been varied in scope, but small in number. This thesis explores the current state of theory and research in video game music and audio. In order to investigate if music can affect performance in a video game, an experiment was conducted. Participants were asked to play the popular video game Tetris...
Diploma thesis "Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?" deals with actuality of risks for children and youth linked to video games. This topic is currently intensively disscused because of cases of high school shootings. There are concerns that violence in video games is connected to rising of children and youth violence. Another risks refered to video games are addiction and obesity. This diploma thesis deals with these risk too. Goal of this thesis is find out if these risks ar...
Barnett, Anthony; Cerin, Ester; Baranowski, Tom
A population level increase in physical activity (PA) is critical to reduce obesity in youth. Video games are highly popular and active video games (AVGs) have the potential to play a role in promoting youth PA. Studies on AVG play energy expenditure (EE) and maintenance of play in youth were systematically identified in the published literature and assessed for quality and informational value. Nine studies measuring AVG play EE were identified. The meta-analytic estimates of average METs across these studies were 3.1 (95% CI: 2.6, 3.6) to 3.2 (95% CI: 2.7, 3.7). No games elicited an average EE above the 6 MET threshold for vigorous EE. Observed differences between studies were likely due to the different types of games used, rather than age or gender. Four studies related to maintenance of play were identified. Most studies reported AVG use declined over time. Studies were of low-to-medium quality. AVGs are capable of generating EE in youth to attain PA guidelines. Few studies have assessed sustainability of AVG play, which appears to diminish after a short period of time for most players. Better-quality future research must address how AVG play could be maintained over longer periods of time.
Ferguson, Christopher J; Trigani, Benjamin; Pilato, Steven; Miller, Stephanie; Foley, Kimberly; Barr, Hayley
The impact of violent video games (VVGs) on youth remains unclear given inconsistent results in past literature. Most previous experimental studies have been done with college students, not youth. The current study examined the impact of VVGs in an experimental study of teens (12-18). Participants were randomized to play either a violent or non-violent video game. Teens also reported their levels of stress and hostility both before and after video game play. Hostility levels neither decreased nor increased following violent game play, and Bayesian analyzes confirmed that results are supportive of the null hypothesis. By contrast, VVG exposure increased stress, but only for girls. The impact of VVGs on teen hostility is minimal. However, players unfamiliar with such games may find them unpleasant. These results are put into the context of Uses and Gratifications Theory with suggestions for how medical professionals should address the issue of VVG play with concerned parents.
Foley, Louise; Maddison, Ralph
There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to promote physical activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an intervention to increase physical activity in children. Compared with traditional nonactive video games, active video games elicited greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body composition in children; however, methodological limitations prevent definitive conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.
Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline
The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…
This bachelor thesis focusses on the determination of the brand awareness of product placement in video games. The theoretical part includes information about marketing, product placement and video games. The practical part consists of evaluation of the market research about product placements in video games. Conclusion suggests the most important factors influencing the level brand awareness.
Ferguson, Christopher J.
The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…
negotiation via mediator. Math Forum Spl. 21: 33–40. Borkotokey S and Rupok Neog 2012 Allocating profit among rational players in a fuzzy coalition: A game theoretic model. Group Decis. Negot. 21: 439–459. Branzei R, Dimitrov D and Tijs S 2004 Hypercubes and compromise values for cooperative fuzzy games. Eur.
José Antonio ORTEGA CARRILLO
Full Text Available A high percentage of video-games now in the market have contents related with physical and psychological violence. There are investigations that show that this kind of games is mainly used by children and adolescents. This fact reinitiates the polemic of the possible influence in the formation of their personality and, very specially, in the construction of the value scale that will direct their present and future behaviour as citizens. This paper shows the partial results of a recent research in which adult players related with the education area (future teachers analyzed critically the axiological component of a very important group of video-games which are important in the sales lists. For that purpose, a very specific scale has been used, with indicators related to the argument, the initial and final videos, the protagonist’s behaviour, the stenography, clothes, actions and partial and final results obtained by players.
Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Stone, L.L.; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I.
The effects of video games on children's psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27-11.43 years old; male = 98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b)
Video games have tremendous potential in mathematics education, yet there is a push to simply add mathematics to a video game without regard to whether the game structure suits the mathematics, and without regard to the level of mathematical thought being learned in the game. Are students practicing facts, or are they problem-solving? This paper…
Klimmt, C.; Hartmann, T.; Frey, A.
This article explores video game enjoyment originated by games' key characteristic, interactivity. An online experiment (N = 500) tested experiences of effectance (perceived influence on the game world) and of being in control as mechanisms that link interactivity to enjoyment. A video game was
Sue, Damian; Ray, Pradeep; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Vichitvanichphong, Suchada
For individuals, especially older adults, playing video games is a promising tool for improving their driving skills. The ease of use, wide availability, and interactivity of gaming consoles make them an attractive simulation tool. The objective of this study was to look at the feasibility and effects of installing video game consoles in the homes of individuals looking to improve their driving skills. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the effect of playing video games on improving driving skills. An observatory study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using an Xbox 360 Kinect console for improving driving skills. Twenty-nine articles, which discuss the implementation of video games in improving driving skills were found in literature. On our study, it was found the Xbox 360 with Kinect is capable of improving physical and mental activities. Xbox Video games were introduced to engage players in physical, visual and cognitive activities including endurance, postural sway, reaction time, eyesight, eye movement, attention and concentration, difficulties with orientation, and semantic fluency. However, manual dexterity, visuo-spatial perception and binocular vision could not be addressed by these games. It was observed that Xbox Kinect (by incorporating Kinect sensor facilities) combines physical, visual and cognitive engagement of players. These results were consistent with those from the literature review. From the research that has been carried out, we can conclude that video game consoles are a viable solution for improving user's physical and mental state. In future we propose to carry a thorough evaluation of the effects of video games on driving skills in elderly people.
Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Stone, L L; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I.
The effects of video games on children?s psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27?11.43 years old; male?=?98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b) competitively; likewise, parents reported their children?s psychosocial health. Gaming at time one was associated with increases in emotion problems. Violent gaming was not associated with psychosocial ...
Coyne, Sarah M.; Busby, Dean; Bushman, Brad J.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Ridge, Robert; Stockdale, Laura
The current study assessed how playing video games can influence conflict and aggression in relationships. A sample of 1,333 heterosexual couples reported their video game playing habits, conflict regarding the media, and physical and relational aggression (both self and partner directed). Results showed that for men (but not women), time spent…
Coyne, S.M.; Busby, D.; Bushman, B.J.; Gentile, D.A.; Ridge, R.; Stockdale, L.
The current study assessed how playing video games can influence conflict and aggression in relationships. A sample of 1,333 heterosexual couples reported their video game playing habits, conflict regarding the media, and physical and relational aggression (both self and partner directed). Results
Sell, Katie; Lillie, Tia; Taylor, Julie
Objective: Researchers have yet to explore the effect of physically interactive video game playing on energy expenditure, despite its potential for meeting current minimal daily activity and energy expenditure recommendations. Participants and Methods: Nineteen male college students-12 experienced "Dance Dance Revolution" (DDR) players and 7…
Ventura, Matthew; Shute, Valerie; Zhao, Weinan
An online performance-based measure of persistence was developed using anagrams and riddles. Persistence was measured by recording the time spent on unsolved anagrams and riddles. Time spent on unsolved problems was correlated to a self-report measure of persistence. Additionally, frequent video game players spent longer times on unsolved problems…
Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.
Describes the Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system for modifying attention deficits, which takes the concept of biofeedback one step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brain waves indicate that attention is waning. Notes contributions of this technology to neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on…
James D. Ivory
Full Text Available Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about games’ social function that are often difficult to reconcile— or even contradictory. Research is also often categorized by topic area, rendering a comprehensive view of video games’ social role across topic areas difficult. This interpretive review presents a novel typology of four identified approaches that categorize much of the quantitative social science video game research conducted to date: “video games as stimulus,” “video games as avocation,” “video games as skill,” and “video games as social environment.” This typology is useful because it provides an organizational structure within which the large and growing number of studies on video games can be categorized, guiding comparisons between studies on different research topics and aiding a more comprehensive understanding of video games’ social role. Categorizing the different approaches to video game research provides a useful heuristic for those critiquing and expanding that research, as well as an understandable entry point for scholars new to video game research. Further, and perhaps more importantly, the typology indicates when topics should be explored using different approaches than usual to shed new light on the topic areas. Lastly, the typology exposes the conceptual disconnects between the different approaches to video game research, allowing researchers to consider new ways to bridge gaps between the different approaches’ strengths and limitations with novel methods.
Lorenza S Colzato
Full Text Available The interest in the influence of videogame experience on our daily life is constantly growing. “First Person Shooter” (FPS games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to switch back and forth between different subtasks. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive control tasks. Video game players (VGPs and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs performed on a task switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of cognitive flexibility. As predicted, VGPs showed smaller switching costs (i.e., greater cognitive flexibility than NVGPs. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games promotes cognitive flexibility.
Lobel, Adam; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C M E
Healthy emotion regulation is crucial for navigating stressful situations. Interoceptive awareness-the awareness of one's internal states-is important for such healthy regulation. Given the propensity for video games to induce stress, the associations between in-game and real world emotion regulation strategies during duress are worth exploring. We therefore present a method for measuring the interoceptive awareness of negative affect during stressful video game play, and investigate whether individual differences in this ability relate to emotion regulation strategies. Twenty-six proficient video game players were recruited to play a session of the video game Starcraft II in the lab. Players' physiological and subjective states of in-game negative arousal were measured consecutively. A comparison of these measures was used to calculate players' interoceptive awareness of real time in-game arousal. The relation between interoceptive awareness and a suite of emotion regulation strategies was then investigated. We observed a positive relation between in-game interoceptive awareness and the self-reported tendency to actively seek a resolution to negative affect. A positive trend was also observed between interoceptive awareness and the self-reported tendency to seek instrumental social support. Findings are discussed in terms of the relative effectiveness of different emotion regulation strategies for aiding in-game success. We further discuss the benefits and limitations of this pilot testing. In all, we hope to inspire future research into the associations between in-game arousal and emotion regulation strategies used in everyday life.
Gaspar, John G; Neider, Mark B; Crowell, James A; Lutz, Aubrey; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F
A high-fidelity street crossing simulator was used to test the hypothesis that experienced action video game players are less vulnerable than non-gamers to dual task costs in complex tasks. Previous research has shown that action video game players outperform nonplayers on many single task measures of perception and attention. It is unclear, however, whether action video game players outperform nonplayers in complex, divided attention tasks. Experienced action video game players and nongamers completed a street crossing task in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants walked on a manual treadmill to cross the street. During some crossings, a cognitively demanding working memory task was added. Dividing attention resulted in more collisions and increased decision making time. Of importance, these dual task costs were equivalent for the action video game players and the nongamers. These results suggest that action video game players are equally susceptible to the costs of dividing attention in a complex task. Perceptual and attentional benefits associated with action video game experience may not translate to performance benefits in complex, real-world tasks.
Mishra, Jyoti; Anguera, Joaquin A; Gazzaley, Adam
Sophisticated video games that integrate engaging cognitive training with real-time biosensing and neurostimulation have the potential to optimize cognitive performance in health and disease. We argue that technology development must be paired with rigorous scientific validation and discuss academic and industry opportunities in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fontana, Leonard; Beckerman, Adela
This article describes a project that incorporated interactive technology to teach violence prevention knowledge and skills to second grade students. The educational video games presented lessons consisting of animated characters in a story, accompanied by a number of exercises. The research issue was whether students would develop an appreciation…
VanDeventer, Stephanie S.; White, James A.
Investigates the display of expert behavior by seven outstanding video game-playing children ages 10 and 11. Analyzes observation and debriefing transcripts for evidence of self-monitoring, pattern recognition, principled decision making, qualitative thinking, and superior memory, and discusses implications for educators regarding the development…
Granic, I.; Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children’s and adolescents’ lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States. The vast majority of research by psychologists on the effects of “gaming” has been on its negative impact: the potential harm related to violence,
Teenagers love video games and other multimedia tools. Sometimes they love them too much, leading to addictive use. A child psychiatry team in Nancy has developed a therapeutic multimedia workshop to contribute to treating teens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Fisher, Carla Christine
The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…
Green, C S; Bavelier, D
While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gross, M. Scott
This article provides a review of some of the currently available literature surrounding the academic study of video games. Many of these theoretical methods have been used to study film and television and are discussed here in order to frame the need for further examination of video games. Suggestions for the use of video games in the classroom…
Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul; Stewart, Iain
Educational outreach plays a vital role in improving the resilience of vulnerable populations at risk from natural disasters. Currently, that activity is undertaken in many guises including the distribution of leaflets and posters, maps, presentations, education sessions and through radio and TV broadcasts. Such tried-and-tested communication modes generally target traditional stakeholder groups, but it is becoming increasingly important to engage with the new generation of learners who, due to advancements in technology, obtain information in ways different to their predecessors. That new generation is defined by a technological way of life and it remains a challenge to keep them motivated. On the eastern Caribbean island of St. Vincent, the La Soufriere Volcano lies in quiescence since the last eruption in 1979. Since then, an entire generation - over 56% of the population (Worldbank, 2015) - has little or no direct experience of a volcanic eruption. The island experiences, more frequently, other hazards (hurricanes, flooding, earthquakes landsliding), such that disaster preparedness measures give less priority to volcanic threats, which are deemed to pose less of a risk. With no accurate predictions to warn of the next eruption, it is especially important to educate residents about the potential of future volcanic hazards on the island, and to motivate them to prepare to mitigate their risk. This research critically examines the application of video games in supporting and enhancing existing public education and outreach programmes for volcanic hazards. St. Vincent's Volcano is a computer game designed to improve awareness and knowledge of the eruptive phenomena from La Soufriere that could pose a threat to residents. Within an interactive and immersive environment, players become acquainted with a 3D model of St. Vincent together with an overlay of the established volcanic hazard map (Robertson, 2005). Players are able to view visualisations of two historical
Stamenkovic, Dusan; Jacevic, Milan; Wildfeuer, Janina
The paper is aimed at proving the hypothesis that multimodal construction in video games can follow specific discursive aims in the process of persuading game players. In order to prove this, we have performed a multifaceted analysis which elaborated the ways in which different modalities...... in a representative video game combine so as to convince the player to act, play, and perhaps think accordingly. The multimodal approach employed in the paper combines the notion of discourse aims and the rhetorical and argumentative structure of Metal Gear Solid (Kojima, 1998), and analyses different narrative...... strategies and verbal cues, as well as the overall interface, control, and gameplay. The results suggest that verbal and textual cues combine with audio-visual elements and highly specific gameplay strategies in order to refrain the player from killing enemies. This might indicate that video games are likely...
There are a need to find some characteristics of a game which has positive effects for the players. Those characteristics can be formulated as the example of a good game. This paper will analyze the opinion and produce the conclusion from a survey of playing "Dumb Ways to Die to generate a positive game model.
Schonau-Fog, Henrik; Bjorner, Thomas
In order to explore one aspect of the engaging nature of computer games, this study will propose a method that aims at classifying the experience of engagement in video games. Inspired by a literature review, we will focus on the fundamental causes of engagement that motivate a player so much that he or she wants to continue playing. By organizing…
Wood, Richard T. A.; Gupta, Rina; Griffiths, Mark
Video games and gambling often contain very similar elements with both providing intermittent rewards and elements of randomness. Furthermore, at a psychological and behavioral level, slot machine gambling, video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling and video game playing share many of the same features. Despite the similarities between video game…
Ou, Yanwen; McGlone, Emma Rose; Camm, Christian Fielder; Khan, Omar A
A best evidence topic in surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether playing video games improves surgical performance in laparoscopic procedures. Altogether 142 papers were found using the reported search, of which seven represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The details of the papers were tabulated including relevant outcomes and study weaknesses. We conclude that medical students and experienced laparoscopic surgeons with ongoing video game experience have superior laparoscopic skills for simulated tasks in terms of time to completion, improved efficiency and fewer errors when compared to non-gaming counterparts. There is some evidence that this may be due to better psycho-motor skills in gamers, however further research would be useful to demonstrate whether there is a direct transfer of skills from laparoscopic simulators to the operating table. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dalbo, Vincent J
Declines in high-intensity activity during game play (in-game approach) and performance tests measured pre- and postgame (across-game approach) have been used to assess player fatigue in basketball. However, a direct comparison of these approaches is not available. Consequently, this study examined the commonality between in- and across-game jump fatigue during simulated basketball game play. Australian, state-level, junior male basketball players (n = 10; 16.6 ± 1.1 y, 182.4 ± 4.3 cm, 68.3 ± 10.2 kg) completed 4 × 10-min standardized quarters of simulated basketball game play. In-game jump height during game play was measured using video analysis, while across-game jump height was determined pre-, mid-, and postgame play using an in-ground force platform. Jump height was determined using the flight-time method, with jump decrement calculated for each approach across the first half, second half, and entire game. A greater jump decrement was apparent for the in-game approach than for the across-game approach in the first half (37.1% ± 11.6% vs 1.7% ± 6.2%; P = .005; d = 3.81, large), while nonsignificant, large differences were evident between approaches in the second half (d = 1.14) and entire game (d = 1.83). Nonsignificant associations were evident between in-game and across-game jump decrement, with shared variances of 3-26%. Large differences and a low commonality were observed between in- and across-game jump fatigue during basketball game play, suggesting that these approaches measure different constructs. Based on our findings, it is not recommended that basketball coaches use these approaches interchangeably to monitor player fatigue across the season.
Ghuman, D; Griffiths, MD
One key limitation with the contemporary online gaming research literature is that much of the published research has tended to examine only one genre of games (i.e., Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games). Three relatively little studied online games are First Person Shooter (FPS) Games, Role Play Games (RPG) and Real Time Strategy (RTS) Games. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine player behaviour and characteristics in these three different online gaming genres. More spec...
Reed, Nick; Taha, Tim; Greenwald, Richard; Keightley, Michelle
Despite the growing popularity of ice hockey among female youth and interest in the biomechanics of head impacts in sport, the head impacts sustained by this population have yet to be characterized. To describe the number of, biomechanical characteristics of, and exposure to head impacts of female youth ice hockey players during competition and to investigate the influences of player and game characteristics on head impacts. Cohort study. Twenty-seven female youth ice hockey players (mean age = 12.5 ± 0.52 years) wore instrumented ice hockey helmets during 66 ice hockey games over a 3-year period. Data specific to player, game, and biomechanical head impact characteristics were recorded. A multiple regression analysis identified factors most associated with head impacts of greater frequency and severity. A total of 436 total head impacts were sustained during 6924 minutes of active ice hockey participation (0.9 ± 0.6 impacts per player per game; range, 0-2.1). A higher body mass index (BMI) significantly predicted a higher number of head impacts sustained per game (P = .008). Linear acceleration of head impacts was greater in older players and those who played the forward position, had a greater BMI, and spent more time on the ice (P = .008), whereas greater rotational acceleration was present in older players who had a greater BMI and played the forward position (P = .008). During tournament games, increased ice time predicted increased severity of head impacts (P = .03). This study reveals for the first time that head impacts are occurring in female youth ice hockey players, albeit at a lower rate and severity than in male youth ice hockey players, despite the lack of intentional body checking.
Fuster, Héctor; Chamarro, Andrés; Carbonell, Xavier; Vallerand, Robert J
Passion represents one of the factors involved in online video gaming. However, it remains unclear how passion affects the way gamers are involved in massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). The objective of the present study was to analyze the relationships between passions and motivations for online game playing. A total of 410 MMORPG players completed an online questionnaire including motives for gaming and the Passion Scale. Results indicated that passionate gamers were interested in relating with others through the game and exhibited a high degree of interest in discovery of the game, gaining leadership and prestige but little interest in escape from reality. However, some differences were observed with respect to the role of the two types of passion in the different types of motivation. Specifically, harmonious passion (HP) predicted higher levels of exploration, socialization, and achievement, in that order, while obsessive passion (OP) predicted higher levels of dissociation, achievement, and socialization. The present findings suggest that HP and OP predict different ways of engaging in MMORPGs and confirm that passion is a useful construct to help understand different motivational patterns demonstrated by MMORPG players.
Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D; Chappell, Darren; Davies, Mark N O
There is little doubt that video game playing is a psychological and social phenomenon. This paper outlines the main structural characteristics of video game playing (i.e., those characteristics that either induce gaming in the first place or are inducements to continue gaming irrespective of the individual's psychological, physiological, or socio-economic status). This online study is the first ever to assess what structural characteristics (if any) are important to a group of self-selected video game players (n = 382). The main variables examined were sound, graphics, background and setting, duration of game, rate of play, advancement rate, use of humor, control options, game dynamics, winning and losing features, character development, brand assurance, and multi-player features. Although there were many major gender differences, one of the main overall findings was the importance of a high degree of realism (i.e., realistic sound, graphics, and setting). Other important characteristics included a rapid absorption rate, character development, the ability to customize the game, and multiplayer features. Suggestions for future research are outlined.
Gaydos, Matthew J.
This paper presents a series of studies detailing the research and development of the educational science video game "Citizen Science." It documents the design process, beginning with the initial grant and ending with a case study of two teachers who used the game in their classrooms. Following a design-based research approach, this…
Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G; da Silva, A M; Ricci, S; Binnie, C D; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; Segers, J P
With the introduction of Nintendo video-games on a large scale, reports of children having seizures while playing suggested a possible specific, provocative factor. Although 50% of the photosensitive patients are also sensitive to a 50-Hz television, nonphotosensitive patients with a history of video-game seizures were described as well. The question arises whether this is a mere coincidence, provoked by fatigue and stress, is related to the reaction to the television screen itself, or depends on the movement and color of the pictures of this specific game. A European study was performed in four countries and five sites. All patients were selected because of a history of television, video- or computer-game seizures, with a history of sun-light-, discotheque-, or black and white pattern-evoked seizures, or were already known to be sensitive to intermittent photic stimulation. A total of 387 patients were investigated; 220 (75%) were female and 214 (55%) of those were Super Mario World and a standard relatively nonprovocative TV program, both on a 50- and 100-Hz television. Regardless of the distance, Super Mario World proved to be more provocative than the standard program (Wilcoxon, p computer-game seizure, were significantly more sensitive to pattern and to the 50-Hz television (chi square, p Super Mario, compared with the standard program (Wilcoxon, p = 0.001) and more sensitive with playing versus viewing (p = 0.016). Of the patients who were referred because of seizures in front of the television, or evoked by a video- or computer game, 14% proved not to be photosensitive. Although no difference in age or use of medication was found, twice as many men were found in this nonphotosensitive group.
Chiu, Shao-I; Lee, Jie-Zhi; Huang, Der-Hsiang
Video game addiction in children and teenagers in Taiwan is associated with levels of animosity, social skills, and academic achievement. This study suggests that video game addiction can be statistically predicted on measures of hostility, and a group with high video game addiction has more hostility than others. Both gender and video game addiction are negatively associated with academic achievement. Family function, sensation seeking, gender, and boredom have statistically positive relationships with levels of social skills. Current models of video game addiction do not seem to fit the findings of this study.
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia
Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive tendencies. In contrast, evidence on possible positive effects of video game exposure on prosocial tendencies has been relatively sparse. The present research tested and found support for the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial video games increases the accessibility of prosocial thoughts. These results provide support to the predictive validity of the General Learning Model (Buckley & Anderson, 2006) for the effects of exposure to prosocial media on social tendencies. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games can harm but may also benefit social relations.
Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The mobile internet expands the immersive potential of storytelling by introducing electronic games powered by portable, location-aware interfaces. Mobile gaming has become the latest iteration in a decades-long evolution of electronic games that seek to empower the player not just as an avatar in a gameworld but also as a co-author of that gameworld, alongside the game’s original designers. Location-aware interfaces allow players to implicate places in the physical world as part of their gameworld (and vice versa for the first time. In addition to empowering the player as a co-author in the process of constructing a compelling gameworld, then, mobile games eschew linear narrative structures in favor of a cooperative storytelling process that is reliant in part on the player’s experience of place. While such an author-player “worldmaking” approach to storytelling is not new, mobile games evolve the process beyond what has yet been possible within the technical and physical constraints of the traditional video gaming format. Location-aware interfaces allow mobile games to extend the worldmaking process beyond the screen and into the physical world, co-opting the player’s sensory experiences of real-world places as potential storytelling tools. In our essay, we theorize the unique storytelling potential of mobile games while describing our experience attempting to harness that potential through the design and implementation of our hybrid-reality game University of Death.
Cummings, Hope M; Vandewater, Elizabeth A
To examine the notion that playing video games is negatively related to the time adolescents spend in more developmentally appropriate activities. Nonexperimental study. Survey data collected during the 2002-2003 school year. A nationally representative sample of 1491 children aged 10 to 19 years. Main Outcome Measure Twenty-four-hour time-use diaries were collected on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day, both randomly chosen. Time-use diaries were used to determine adolescents' time spent playing video games, with parents and friends, reading and doing homework, and in sports and active leisure. Differences in time spent between game players and nonplayers as well as the magnitude of the relationships among game time and activity time among adolescent game players were assessed. Thirty-six percent of adolescents (80% of boys and 20% of girls) played video games. On average, gamers played for an hour on the weekdays and an hour and a half on the weekends. Compared with nongamers, adolescent gamers spent 30% less time reading and 34% less time doing homework. Among gamers (both genders), time spent playing video games without parents or friends was negatively related to time spent with parents and friends in other activities. Although gamers and nongamers did not differ in the amount of time they spent interacting with family and friends, concerns regarding gamers' neglect of school responsibilities (reading and homework) are warranted. Although only a small percentage of girls played video games, our findings suggest that playing video games may have different social implications for girls than for boys.
Mellecker, Robin R; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A; McManus, Alison M
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the addition of a motor component to video gaming alters energy consumption. To address this problem we used an experimental manipulation design with 9-13 year olds incorporating 'seated video game' and 'activity enhanced video game' conditions, whilst allowing snacks ad libitum. No difference in snacking between the two video gaming conditions was apparent. The children consumed 374 and 383kcalh(-1) during seated and activity enhanced video gaming, respectively. A secondary purpose was to examine consistency of energy intake during free choice video game play. We found no difference in energy intake between four 1h free choice video gaming sessions. Snacking energy intake whilst video gaming was 166% more than the calories required during resting conditions. This study has shown that the addition of a motor component to the video game environment does not alter snack energy intake. However, the high calorific consumption during both seated and activity enhanced video game play highlights the need for an active attempt to restrict snacking whilst playing video games.
This study suggests that fighting against different types of opponents in video games (e.g., human opponents vs. monster opponents) may lead to different emotional responses and moral judgments toward game characters. Based on Bandura's moral disengagement theory, this study proposes that shooting at monster opponents makes game players feel less guilty and judge the player-controlled character as more morally justified. An experiment was conducted in which participants played shooting games with either human opponents or monster opponents. The results show that when playing against monster opponents, participants felt both less ashamed and less guilty, reported enjoying the game more, and judged their character as more justified than participants who played against human opponents.
Teng, Ching-I; Lo, Shao-Kang; Wang, Pe-Cheng
This study investigated how different adolescent players acquire game information and the criteria they use in choosing online games and found that (1) current players generally use comprehensive information sources more than potential players do; (2) current players rely on free trials and smooth display of motion graphics as choice criteria more than potential players do; (3) potential players rely on the look of advertisements more than current players do; (4) both current and potential players most likely use word-of-mouth and gaming programs on TV as information sources; and (5) endorser attractiveness is ranked the least important among six choice criteria by both current and potential players.
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia
Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved
Schenk, Sabrina; Lech, Robert K; Suchan, Boris
Recent research suggests that video game playing is associated with many cognitive benefits. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms mediating such effects, especially with regard to probabilistic categorization learning, which is a widely unexplored area in gaming research. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of probabilistic classification learning in video gamers in comparison to non-gamers. Subjects were scanned in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while performing a modified version of the weather prediction task. Behavioral data yielded evidence for better categorization performance of video gamers, particularly under conditions characterized by stronger uncertainty. Furthermore, a post-experimental questionnaire showed that video gamers had acquired higher declarative knowledge about the card combinations and the related weather outcomes. Functional imaging data revealed for video gamers stronger activation clusters in the hippocampus, the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus as well as in occipital visual areas and in areas related to attentional processes. All these areas are connected with each other and represent critical nodes for semantic memory, visual imagery and cognitive control. Apart from this, and in line with previous studies, both groups showed activation in brain areas that are related to attention and executive functions as well as in the basal ganglia and in memory-associated regions of the medial temporal lobe. These results suggest that playing video games might enhance the usage of declarative knowledge as well as hippocampal involvement and enhances overall learning performance during probabilistic learning. In contrast to non-gamers, video gamers showed better categorization performance, independently of the uncertainty of the condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ohannessian, Robin; Yaghobian, Sarina; Verger, Pierre; Vanhems, Philippe
Vaccination is an effective and proven method of preventing infectious diseases. However, uptake has not been optimal with available vaccines partly due to vaccination hesitancy. Various public health approaches have adressed vaccination hesitancy. Serious video games involving vaccination may represent an innovative public health approach. The aim of this study was to identify, describe, and review existing serious video games on vaccination. A systematic review was performed. Various databases were used to find data on vaccination-related serious video games published from January 1st 2000 to May 15th 2015. Data including featured medical and vaccination content, publication characteristics and games classification were collected for each identified serious game. Sixteen serious video games involved in vaccination were identified. All games were developed in high-income countries between 2003 and 2014. The majority of games were available online and were sponsored by educational/health institutions. All games were free of charge to users. Edugame was the most prevalent serious game subcategory. Twelve games were infectious disease-specific and the majority concerned influenza. The main objective of the games was disease control with a collective perspective. Utilization data was available for two games. Two games were formally evaluated. The use of serious video games for vaccination is an innovative tool for public health. Evaluation of vaccination related serious video games should be encouraged to demonstrate their efficacy and utility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.
While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805
Lisón, Juan F; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Escobar, Patricia; Bruñó, Alejandro; Lurbe, Empar; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa
Recent strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour in children include replacing sedentary screen time for active video games. Active video game studies have focused principally on the metabolic consumption of a single player, with physiological and psychological responses of opponent-based multiplayer games to be further evaluated. To determine whether adding a competitive component to playing active video games impacts physiological and psychological responses in players. Sixty-two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents, nine to 14 years years of age, completed three conditions (8 min each) in random order: treadmill walking, and single and opponent-based Kinect active video games. Affect, arousal, rate of perceived exertion, heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve were measured for each participant and condition. Kinect conditions revealed significantly higher heart rate, percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion and arousal when compared with treadmill walking (Pvideo games improved children's psychological responses (affect and rate of perceived exertion) compared with single play, providing a solution that may contribute toward improved adherence to physical activity.
Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta
The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717
Full Text Available The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs over non-players (NVGPs and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.
Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta
The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.
Bediou, Benoit; Adams, Deanne M; Mayer, Richard E; Tipton, Elizabeth; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne
The ubiquity of video games in today's society has led to significant interest in their impact on the brain and behavior and in the possibility of harnessing games for good. The present meta-analyses focus on one specific game genre that has been of particular interest to the scientific community-action video games, and cover the period 2000-2015. To assess the long-lasting impact of action video game play on various domains of cognition, we first consider cross-sectional studies that inform us about the cognitive profile of habitual action video game players, and document a positive average effect of about half a standard deviation (g = 0.55). We then turn to long-term intervention studies that inform us about the possibility of causally inducing changes in cognition via playing action video games, and show a smaller average effect of a third of a standard deviation (g = 0.34). Because only intervention studies using other commercially available video game genres as controls were included, this latter result highlights the fact that not all games equally impact cognition. Moderator analyses indicated that action video game play robustly enhances the domains of top-down attention and spatial cognition, with encouraging signs for perception. Publication bias remains, however, a threat with average effects in the published literature estimated to be 30% larger than in the full literature. As a result, we encourage the field to conduct larger cohort studies and more intervention studies, especially those with more than 30 hours of training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Gobet, Fernand; Johnston, Stephen J; Ferrufino, Gabriella; Johnston, Matthew; Jones, Michael B; Molyneux, Antonia; Terzis, Argyrios; Weeden, Luke
Previous research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has suggested that long term exposure to this type of game might lead to an enhancement of cognitive skills that transfer to non-gaming cognitive tasks. However, these results have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to test the presence of positive cognitive transfer from action video games to two cognitive tasks. More specifically, this study investigated the effects that participants' expertise and genre specialization have on cognitive improvements in one task unrelated to video gaming (a flanker task) and one related task (change detection task with both control and genre-specific images). This study was unique in three ways. Firstly, it analyzed a continuum of expertise levels, which has yet to be investigated in research into the cognitive benefits of video gaming. Secondly, it explored genre-specific skill developments on these tasks by comparing Action and Strategy video game players (VGPs). Thirdly, it used a very tight experiment design, including the experimenter being blind to expertise level and genre specialization of the participant. Ninety-two university students aged between 18 and 30 (M = 21.25) were recruited through opportunistic sampling and were grouped by video game specialization and expertise level. While the results of the flanker task were consistent with previous research (i.e., effect of congruence), there was no effect of expertise, and the action gamers failed to outperform the strategy gamers. Additionally, contrary to expectation, there was no interaction between genre specialization and image type in the change detection task, again demonstrating no expertise effect. The lack of effects for game specialization and expertise goes against previous research on the positive effects of action video gaming on other cognitive tasks.
Koji Kondo’s music is among the most recognized video game music ever written. As the composer for both Super Mario Bros. (Nintendo, 1984) and The Legend of Zelda (Nintendo, 1986), he has received international fame and recognition for his game compositions. With The Legend of Zelda series, Kondo has managed to create new music for each iteration of the series while maintaining a sense of unity across the series as a whole. Through the use of motivic and prolongational analysis, this article ...
Adams, Barbara J; Margaron, Franklin; Kaplan, Brian J
The video game industry has become increasingly popular over recent years, offering photorealistic simulations of various scenarios while requiring motor, visual, and cognitive coordination. Video game players outperform nonplayers on different visual tasks and are faster and more accurate on laparoscopic simulators. The same qualities found in video game players are highly desired in surgeons. Our investigation aims to evaluate the effect of video game play on the development of fine motor and visual skills. Specifically, we plan to examine if handheld video devices offer the same improvement in laparoscopic skill as traditional simulators, with less cost and more accessibility. We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved study, including categorical surgical residents and preliminary interns at our institution. The residents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 study arms, including a traditional laparoscopic simulator, XBOX 360 gaming console, or Nintendo DS handheld gaming system. After an introduction survey and baseline timed test using a laparoscopic surgery box trainer, residents were given 6 weeks to practice on their respective consoles. At the conclusion of the study, the residents were tested again on the simulator and completed a final survey. A total of 31 residents were included in the study, representing equal distribution of each class level. The XBOX 360 group spent more time on their console weekly (6 hours per week) compared with the simulator (2 hours per week), and Nintendo groups (3 hours per week). There was a significant difference in the improvement of the tested time among the 3 groups, with the XBOX 360 group showing the greatest improvement (p = 0.052). The residents in the laparoscopic simulator arm (n = 11) improved 4.6 seconds, the XBOX group (n = 10) improved 17.7 seconds, and the Nintendo DS group (n = 10) improved 11.8 seconds. Residents who played more than 10 hours of video games weekly had the fastest times on the simulator
Ferguson, Christopher John
Video game violence has become a highly politicized issue for scientists and the general public. There is continuing concern that playing violent video games may increase the risk of aggression in players. Less often discussed is the possibility that playing violent video games may promote certain positive developments, particularly related to visuospatial cognition. The objective of the current article was to conduct a meta-analytic review of studies that examine the impact of violent video games on both aggressive behavior and visuospatial cognition in order to understand the full impact of such games. A detailed literature search was used to identify peer-reviewed articles addressing violent video game effects. Effect sizes r (a common measure of effect size based on the correlational coefficient) were calculated for all included studies. Effect sizes were adjusted for observed publication bias. Results indicated that publication bias was a problem for studies of both aggressive behavior and visuospatial cognition. Once corrected for publication bias, studies of video game violence provided no support for the hypothesis that violent video game playing is associated with higher aggression. However playing violent video games remained related to higher visuospatial cognition (r (x) = 0.36). Results from the current analysis did not support the conclusion that violent video game playing leads to aggressive behavior. However, violent video game playing was associated with higher visuospatial cognition. It may be advisable to reframe the violent video game debate in reference to potential costs and benefits of this medium.
Mitre, Naim; Foster, Randal C; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A.
Background Screen time continues to be a major contributing factor to sedentariness in children. There have been more creative approaches to increase physical over the last few years. One approach has been through the use of video games. In the present study we investigated the effect of television watching and the use of activity-promoting video games on energy expenditure and movement in lean and obese children. Our primary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement decreases while watching television, in lean and obese children. Our secondary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement increases when playing the same game with an activity-promoting video game console compared to a sedentary video game console, in lean and obese children. Methods Eleven boys (10 ± 1 year) and eight girls (9 ± 1 year) ranging in BMI from 14–29 kg/m2 (eleven lean and eight overweight or obese) were recruited. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were watching television, playing a video game on a traditional sedentary video game console, and while playing the same video game on an activity-promoting video game (Nintendo Wii) console. Results Energy expenditure was significantly greater than television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console when children played the video game on the activity-promoting console(125.3 ± 38.2 Kcal/hr vs. 79.7 ± 20.1 and 79.4 ±15.7, Pvideo games on a sedentary video game console is not different. Activity-promoting video games have shown to increase movement, and be an important tool to raise energy expenditure by 50% when compared to sedentary activities of daily living. PMID:22145458
Full Text Available Digital games have been frequently used to illustrate the new organisational frameworks that are based on persuading users to carry out tasks and assignments not traditionally associated with them. However coined, ‘user-innovation’ (von Hippel, 2005, ‘crowdsourcing’ (Howe, 2008 or ‘pro-am revolution’ (Leadbeater and Miller, 2004, contemporary examples of this phenomena always include digital games. A closer look at the recent open innovation manifestos reveals that the oft-cited examples come almost entirely from PC games while console games remain mostly non-existent in these texts. It is clear that PC and console games differ both in use and in the cultures they create (Taylor, 2007. Equally, the technological and economic backgrounds of the market sectors have their differences (Kerr, 2006.The concept of LittleBigPlanet, a console game inherently dependent on player production, challenges the neat binary of some much cited arguments about tethered appliances. The first set of research questions rises from this observation. What are the technical and economic constraints and affordances the console as a platform uses to position the productive activities of players? How do these differ from the forms of player production typical of PC gaming (see Sotamaa, 2007a; and Sotamaa, 2007b?
Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S
.... However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types...
Full Text Available Serious gaming is used as a means for improving organizational teamwork, yet little is known about the effect of individual game elements constituting serious games. This paper presents a game design experiment aimed at generating knowledge on designing game elements for teamwork. In previous work, we suggested that interaction- and goal-driven rules could guide interdependence and teamwork strategies. Based on this finding, for the present experiment we developed two versions of multiplayer Breakout, varying in rule-sets, designed to elicit player strategies of either dependent competition or dependent cooperation. Results showed that the two rule-sets could generate distinct reported player experiences and observable distinct player behaviors that could be further discriminated into four patterns: expected patterns of helping and ignoring, and unexpected patterns of agreeing and obstructing. Classic game theory was applied to understand the four behavior patterns and made us conclude that goal-driven rules steered players towards competition and cooperation. Interaction rules, in contrast, mainly stimulated dependent competitive behavior, e.g. obstructing each other. Since different types of rules thus led to different player behavior, discriminating in game design between interaction- and goal-driven rules seems relevant. Moreover, our research showed that game theory proved to be useful for understanding goal-driven rules.
Corredor, Javier; Gaydos, Matthew; Squire, Kurt
This article explores how learning biological concepts can be facilitated by playing a video game that depicts interactions and processes at the subcellular level. Particularly, this article reviews the effects of a real-time strategy game that requires players to control the behavior of a virus and interact with cell structures in a way that resembles the actual behavior of biological agents. The evaluation of the video game presented here aims at showing that video games have representational advantages that facilitate the construction of dynamic mental models. Ultimately, the article shows that when video game's characteristics come in contact with expert knowledge during game design, the game becomes an excellent medium for supporting the learning of disciplinary content related to dynamic processes. In particular, results show that students who participated in a game-based intervention aimed at teaching biology described a higher number of temporal-dependent interactions as measured by the coding of verbal protocols and drawings than students who used texts and diagrams to learn the same topic.
Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.
Janssen, Anna; Shaw, Tim; Goodyear, Peter
Video and computer games for education have been of interest to researchers for several decades. Over the last half decade, researchers in the health sector have also begun exploring the value of this medium. However, there are still many gaps in the literature regarding the effective use of video and computer games in medical education, particularly in relation to how learners interact with the platform, and how the games can be used to enhance collaboration. The objective of the study is to evaluate a team-based digital game as an educational tool for engaging learners and supporting knowledge consolidation in postgraduate medical education. A mixed methodology will be used in order to establish efficacy and level of motivation provided by a team-based digital game. Second-year medical students will be recruited as participants to complete 3 matches of the game at spaced intervals, in 2 evenly distributed teams. Prior to playing the game, participants will complete an Internet survey to establish baseline data. After playing the game, participants will voluntarily complete a semistructured interview to establish motivation and player engagement. Additionally, metrics collected from the game platform will be analyzed to determine efficacy. The research is in the preliminary stages, but thus far a total of 54 participants have been recruited into the study. Additionally, a content development group has been convened to develop appropriate content for the platform. Video and computer games have been demonstrated to have value for educational purposes. Significantly less research has addressed how the medium can be effectively utilized in the health sector. Preliminary data from this study would suggest there is an interest in games for learning in the medical student body. As such, it is beneficial to undertake further research into how these games teach and engage learners in order to evaluate their role in tertiary and postgraduate medical education in the future.
Shaw, Tim; Goodyear, Peter
Background Video and computer games for education have been of interest to researchers for several decades. Over the last half decade, researchers in the health sector have also begun exploring the value of this medium. However, there are still many gaps in the literature regarding the effective use of video and computer games in medical education, particularly in relation to how learners interact with the platform, and how the games can be used to enhance collaboration. Objective The objective of the study is to evaluate a team-based digital game as an educational tool for engaging learners and supporting knowledge consolidation in postgraduate medical education. Methods A mixed methodology will be used in order to establish efficacy and level of motivation provided by a team-based digital game. Second-year medical students will be recruited as participants to complete 3 matches of the game at spaced intervals, in 2 evenly distributed teams. Prior to playing the game, participants will complete an Internet survey to establish baseline data. After playing the game, participants will voluntarily complete a semistructured interview to establish motivation and player engagement. Additionally, metrics collected from the game platform will be analyzed to determine efficacy. Results The research is in the preliminary stages, but thus far a total of 54 participants have been recruited into the study. Additionally, a content development group has been convened to develop appropriate content for the platform. Conclusions Video and computer games have been demonstrated to have value for educational purposes. Significantly less research has addressed how the medium can be effectively utilized in the health sector. Preliminary data from this study would suggest there is an interest in games for learning in the medical student body. As such, it is beneficial to undertake further research into how these games teach and engage learners in order to evaluate their role in tertiary
Sanford, Kathy; Madill, Leanna
The rapidly growing phenomenon of video games, along with learning that takes place through video game play, have raised concerns about the negative impact such games are reputed to have on youth, particularly boys. However, there is a disconnect between the discourse that suggests that boys are failing in learning literacy skills, and the…
Holmgård, Christoffer; Liapis, Antonios; Togelius, Julian
’s internal decision making processes. Such agents can then be used to interpret human decision making, as personas and playtesting tools in the game design process, as baselines for adapting agents to mimic classes of human players, or as believable, human-like opponents. This argument is explored...... in a crowdsourced decision making experiment, in which the decisions of human players are recorded in a small-scale dungeon themed puzzle game. Human decisions are compared to the decisions of a number of a priori defined “archetypical” agent-personas, and the humans are characterized by their likeness...
Full Text Available The growing interest in video games and the related increase in sedentary lifestyles among adolescents has encouraged researchers to look for alternative strategies replacing the passive time in front of the screen with the active one. The solution was found in active video games (AVG, which require physical activity from the player. Given encouraging results about the impact of AVG on healthy lifestyle, subsequent studies were expanded to cover the area of motor abilities and sports performance. The purpose of our article is to determine whether the use of AVG can improve sport performance, bring progress in sports and rehabilitation.
Menif, Alexandre; Jacopin, Eric; Cazenave, Tristan
International audience; This article describes SHPE (Simple Hierarchical Planning Engine), a hierarchical task network planning system designed to generate dynamic behaviours for real-time video games. SHPE is based on a combination of domain compilation and procedural task application/decomposition techniques in order to compute plans in a very short time-frame. The planner has been able to return relevant plans in less than three milliseconds for several problem instances of the SimpleFPS p...
Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane
The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games…
Hamlen, Karla R.
Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games…
Full Text Available Videogames are one of the most significant developments in the mass arts of recent times. In commercial terms, they are now among the most prominent of the mass arts worldwide. This commercial and cultural success does not exhaust the interest in videogames as a mass art phenomenon because games such as Grand Theft Auto IV and Fallout 3 are structurally radically different from previous forms of mass art. In particular, the ontology of videogames, the nature and identity of their works, and how they are instanced and evaluated is a departure from the familiar mass arts of film and popular music. This paper explores these differences in an attempt to fit videogames into a theory of mass art, but also to provide guidance on the issues of criticism and evaluation that surely follow from their ontological distinctiveness.
Full Text Available This article summarises our Ph.D. thesis – an analytical view on the player-game relationship through the lens of an action-oriented framework, centred on fundamental entities defined as actors, entities through which action is enacted in the game and of which the player and the game system are a part of. With this in mind, the grounding principles of this framework are seeded in a transition of action into experience, based on communicational systems that structure the dynamic formation of networks of actors from which distinct behaviours emerge, which, in turn, promote the enactment of diverse sequences of events establishing narrative, which is a source of experience of the player. Chronology, responsiveness, thinking and actuation, transcoding, focus, depth, and traversal are the 7 dimensions we unveiled through the lens of this action-oriented framework. This work proposes that video games can be regarded as action-based artefacts and a call to awareness for game designers that when designing for action they are working with the foundations on which video games are built upon.
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M.; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games. Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence. Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies. PMID:28588464
Full Text Available Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games.Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass.Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games.Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence.Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies.
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games. Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence. Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies.
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar
While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life.
Hilosky, Alexandra Borzillo
American students are not developing the science inquiry skills needed to solve complex 21st century problems, thus impacting the workforce. In 2009, American high school students ranked 21 out of 26 in the category of problem-solving according to the Program for International Student Assessment. Serious video games have powerful epistemic value and are beneficial with respect to enhancing inquiry, effective problem-solving. The purpose of this correlational, quantitative study was to test Gee's assumption regarding the cycle of thinking (routinization, automatization, and deroutinization) by determining whether players status was a significant predictor of science inquiry scores, controlling for age, gender, and major. The 156 non-random volunteers who participated in this study were enrolled in a 2-year college in the northeastern U.S. Multiple regression analyses revealed that major was the strongest overall (significant) predictor, b = -.84, t(149) = -3.70, p video games scored .48 points higher than non-players of serious video games regardless of age, gender, and major, which supports previous studies that have found significant differences in scientific inquiry abilities related to forming hypotheses and identifying problems based on serious video game play. Recommendations include using serious games as instructional tools and to assess student learning (formative and summative), especially among non-traditional learners.
Moshirnia, Andrew; Israel, Maya
Despite the increasing popularity of many commercial video games, this popularity is not shared by educational video games. Modified video games, however, can bridge the gap in quality between commercial and education video games by embedding educational content into popular commercial video games. This study examined how different information…
Jalink, Maarten B; Goris, Jetse; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O
Recently, there has been a growth in studies supporting the hypothesis that video games have positive effects on basic laparoscopic skills. This review discusses all studies directly related to these effects. A search in the PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed using synonymous terms for video games and laparoscopy. All available articles concerning video games and their effects on skills on any laparoscopic simulator (box trainer, virtual reality, and animal models) were selected. Video game experience has been related to higher baseline laparoscopic skills in different studies. There is currently, however, no standardized method to assess video game experience, making it difficult to compare these studies. Several controlled experiments have, nevertheless, shown that video games cannot only be used to improve laparoscopic basic skills in surgical novices, but are also used as a temporary warming-up before laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xiaohui; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian
The current study systematically reviews and summarizes the existing literature of game acceptance, identifies the core determinants, and evaluates the strength of the relationships in the extended technology acceptance model. Moreover, this study segments video games into two categories: hedonic and utilitarian and examines player acceptance of these two types separately. Through a meta-analysis of 50 articles, we find that perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), and perceived enjoyment (PE) significantly associate with attitude and behavioral intention. PE is the dominant predictor of hedonic game acceptance, while PEOU and PU are the main determinants of utilitarian game acceptance. Furthermore, we find that respondent type and game platform are significant moderators. Findings of this study provide critical insights into the phenomenon of game acceptance and suggest directions for future research.
Andrew James Latham
Full Text Available Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favourite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements.
Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.
Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712
Tortolero, Susan R.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Lewis, Terri H.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A.
Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among y...
Alexandra PERJU-MITRAN; Andreea E. BUDACIA
Given the popularity of video games and the influences they may pose on individuals’ psychology and behavior, the present study analyses whether video game playing among university students can be correlated with traits associated with an entrepreneur’s profile, which may, in turn, lead to an entrepreneurial intent. The results of the study reveal that students who do play video games show a higher entrepreneurial intent, this relationship being mediated by several psychological and cognitiv...
The work presented in this dissertation revolves around the problem of designing artificial intelligence (AI) for video games. This problem becomes increasingly challenging as video games grow in complexity. With modern video games frequently featuring sophisticated and realistic environments, the need for smart and comprehensive agents that understand the various aspects of these environments is pressing. Although machine learning techniques are being successfully applied in a multitude of d...
Weinstein, Aviv Malkiel
Computer game addiction is excessive or compulsive use of computer and video games that may interfere with daily life. It is not clear whether video game playing meets diagnostic criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). First objective is to review the literature on computer and video game addiction over the topics of diagnosis, phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment. Second objective is to describe a brain imaging study measuring dopamine release during computer game playing. Article search of 15 published articles between 2000 and 2009 in Medline and PubMed on computer and video game addiction. Nine abstinent "ecstasy" users and 8 control subjects were scanned at baseline and after performing on a motorbike riding computer game while imaging dopamine release in vivo with [123I] IBZM and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Psycho-physiological mechanisms underlying computer game addiction are mainly stress coping mechanisms, emotional reactions, sensitization, and reward. Computer game playing may lead to long-term changes in the reward circuitry that resemble the effects of substance dependence. The brain imaging study showed that healthy control subjects had reduced dopamine D2 receptor occupancy of 10.5% in the caudate after playing a motorbike riding computer game compared with baseline levels of binding consistent with increased release and binding to its receptors. Ex-chronic "ecstasy" users showed no change in levels of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy after playing this game. This evidence supports the notion that psycho-stimulant users have decreased sensitivity to natural reward. Computer game addicts or gamblers may show reduced dopamine response to stimuli associated with their addiction presumably due to sensitization.
Grizzard, Matthew; Tamborini, Ron; Lewis, Robert J; Wang, Lu; Prabhu, Sujay
Several researchers have demonstrated that the virtual behaviors committed in a video game can elicit feelings of guilt. Researchers have proposed that such guilt could have prosocial consequences. However, this proposition has not been supported with empirical evidence. The current study examined this issue in a 2×2 (video game play vs. real world recollection×guilt vs. control) experiment. Participants were first randomly assigned to either play a video game or complete a memory recall task. Next, participants were randomly assigned to either a guilt-inducing condition (game play as a terrorist/recall of acts that induce guilt) or a control condition (game play as a UN soldier/recall of acts that do not induce guilt). Results of the study indicate several important findings. First, the current results replicate previous research indicating that immoral virtual behaviors are capable of eliciting guilt. Second, and more importantly, the guilt elicited by game play led to intuition-specific increases in the salience of violated moral foundations. These findings indicate that committing "immoral" virtual behaviors in a video game can lead to increased moral sensitivity of the player. The potential prosocial benefits of these findings are discussed.
Miltersen, Peter Bro
Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for two-player extensive-form zero-sum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Their algorithm has been used by AI researchers for cons...
Lieberman, Debra A
The July 2012 issue of the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology includes a special symposium called "Serious Games for Diabetes, Obesity, and Healthy Lifestyle." As part of the symposium, this article focuses on health behavior change video games that are designed to improve and support players' diabetes self-management. Other symposium articles include one that recommends theory-based approaches to the design of health games and identifies areas in which additional research is needed, followed by five research articles presenting studies of the design and effectiveness of games and game technologies that require physical activity in order to play. This article briefly describes 14 diabetes self-management video games, and, when available, cites research findings on their effectiveness. The games were found by searching the Health Games Research online searchable database, three bibliographic databases (ACM Digital Library, PubMed, and Social Sciences Databases of CSA Illumina), and the Google search engine, using the search terms "diabetes" and "game." Games were selected if they addressed diabetes self-management skills. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between effectiveness in games one-to-one and achievements in games two-to-two and expert estimation of competence to qualified game of young women volleyball players. Usefulness for the qualified game was stated by the independent experts' method, and the efficiency of individual and group activities by the achievements in games 1x1 and 2x2. The results of the study were calculated into rank and were correlated with each other. It was pro...
Zhang, Xuemin; Yan, Bin; Shu, Hua
Based on the previous researches, Flanker compatibility effect paradigm was applied to explore the degree where people process the visual information presented on to-be-ignored locations. In present study, this paradigm was used to investigate attention distribution of Video Game Players (VGPs) and Non Video Game Players (NVGPs). The results suggested, under low perceptual load, VGPs tried to focus their attention on the task at-hand whereas the NVGPs tried to explore the adjacent locations with the left-over resources from the research task; however, under high perceptual load, the players would process the visual information at the adjacent locations of the target with the left-over resources, because they had comparatively greater attention capability, whereas the non-players focused their attention on the target locations to finish the search task. To conclude, the present study suggested that action video game play could not only enhance the attention capacity but also cause a different way of attention distribution in different perceptual load situations.
Poels, Yorick; Annema, Jan Henk; Zaman, Bieke; Cornillie, Frederik
This paper will report on an ongoing project which aims to develop video games for language learning through a user-centered and evidence-based approach. Therefore, codesign sessions were held with adolescents between 14 and 16 years old, in order to gain insight into their preferences for educational games for language learning. During these sessions, 11 concepts for video games were developed. We noticed a divide between the concepts for games that were oriented towa...
Full Text Available Using the quantum game formalism in 3-player system, we calculate the Nash equilibrium in quantum Prisoners’ Dilemma by increasing parameters of unitary operator. Since, the entanglement plays an important role in quantum states of particles quantum game, actually its effect on the obtained results of Nash equilibrium is investigated. It is shown that increasing the parameters enhances the game payoff function.
ELLIOTT, LUTHER; Golub, Andrew; Ream, Geoffrey; DUNLAP, ELOISE
This study assessed how problem video game playing (PVP) varies with game type, or “genre,” among adult video gamers. Participants (n=3,380) were adults (18+) who reported playing video games for 1 hour or more during the past week and completed a nationally representative online survey. The survey asked about characteristics of video game use, including titles played in the past year and patterns of (problematic) use. Participants self-reported the extent to which characteristics of PVP (e.g...
Adam Eichenbaum; Daphne Bavelier; C Shawn Green
The authors review recent research that reveals how today's video games instantiate naturally and effectively many principles psychologists, neuroscientists, and educators believe critical for learning...
This thesis explores the roles of popular music in video games. It draws on the analytical tools used in ludomusicology, film music studies and studies of music videos. Unlike other audiovisual media, video games are based on interactivity and a range of narrativity based on genre. Some games focus on gameplay and others are more inclined with telling a good story. Implementation of popular music in video games has history stretching all the way back to the 80's, and is currently becoming an ...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aims The aim of the present study was to analyze the differences in wheelchair tennis game statistics between winning and losing sets. Methods Data were collected from the 139 sets of 64 matches played by 64 males' players in the 2012 Paralympics Games. The variables studied were grouped in four groups: variables related to serve, to return, to winners and errors, and to net point. Data was collected from official website of the Paralympics Games. A univariate (Wilcoxon test and multivariate (discriminant analysis of data was done to the study the four groups of variable in relation to the result of the set (win or lose. Results The result showed that winning players commit fewer errors and achieved more winning shots than losing players. Conclusion The values presented could be used as a reference for practice and competition in wheelchair tennis players.
Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula
Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games.
I. What is usability and why should I care?A. Overview chapter Isbister and Schaffer (Editors)Introduces key concepts and positions book for primary audiences: game developers andstudents aspiring to work in game development. Addresses key concerns that developersmay have about adopting usability, and sets a broad road map of what is to come in thebook.B. Interview with Tobi Saulnier of 1st PlayableA discussion with the CEO of a small game studio about why and how she uses usabilitytechniques in her development.C. Interview with Don Norman of Nielsen Norman groupA discussion with one of the pr
Blumberg, Fran C; Sokol, Lori M
The authors examined gender differences in the cognitive strategies that children use when they learn how to play a video game. They interviewed 2nd- and 5th-grade boys and girls about how often they played video games and what they did "when learning how to play a video game." The children's responses to the latter question were categorized as either internally or externally oriented (i.e., reading a manual vs. asking for help, respectively). The results indicated that more frequent players and older children were more likely to cite internally based strategies. No main effects of gender were found for the proportions of the internally vs. externally based strategies that were cited.
Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern
This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points. PMID:25426936
Full Text Available This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne
Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: 1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and 2) playing action video games (a particular sub-type of video game). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, while playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. As these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impact of technology use on attention. Across four experiments (AX-CPT, N-back, Task-switching and Filter task), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we show that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking occasionally performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together this study shows that media consumption can have complex and counter-intuitive effects on attentional control. PMID:26474982
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne
Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.
Full Text Available The aim of the PotuGame proposal to give a step more on strategies already developed in previous Potu Program (Programa d’Orientació i Transició a la Universitat-UIB. For that we add a new multidisciplinary component that enables high school students, teachers and researchers from UIB to share knowledge of the research conducted using a common language or a common world. Therefore it is considered very appropriate to use the technologies related to the creation of virtual worlds, especially those aimed in online video games as a means to allow vehicle for the transmission of knowledge in an interactive and fun way increasing mass participation of all components of the teaching environment at all levels. Several experiments have been developed and that have been implemented in several virtual worlds. The final tool used was the Unreal SDK.
Full Text Available The literature provides some evidence that the use of violent video games increases the risk for young people to develop aggressive cognitions and even behaviors. We aimed to verify whether exposure to violent video games is linked to problems of aggression in a sample of Italian children. Four questionnaires were administered to 346 children between 7 and 14 years of age, attending primary and secondary schools in Northern Italy. Variables measured were externalization, quality of interpersonal relationships, aggression, quality of coping strategies, and parental stress. Participants who preferred violent games showed higher scores for externalization and aggression. The use of violent video games and age were linked to higher levels of aggression, coping strategies, and the habitual video game weekly consumption of participants. Our data confirm the role of violent video games as risk factors for problems of aggressive behavior and of externalization in childhood and early adolescence.
José Miguel Garrido Miranda
Full Text Available In order to investigate the reasons that motivate students to play with strategy video games, an analysis of the observed discourse and practices of fifteen Chilean high school students during collective gaming sessions was conducted. By means of an ethno-methodological analysis, we preceded to identify and saturate emerging categories to determine the interests that impel these students to play. The findings, seen from a pedagogical perspective, suggest that the feeling of being part of a scene, solving increasingly complex situations and positively assessing the uncertainty produced by interaction with this type of environment, can become guiding elements for improving the design of teaching situations supported by the use of digital technologies in the classroom.