WorldWideScience

Sample records for video diabetic retinopathy

  1. Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rates for Diabetic Retinopathy by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Hispanic Americans age 50 and older are at high risk for ... Prevalent Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy (in thousands) by Age, Race/Ethnicity In 2012, the majority (68 percent) of Americans ...

  2. What Is Diabetic Retinopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Diabetic Retinopathy Sections What Is Diabetic Retinopathy? Diabetic Retinopathy ... Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator What Is Diabetic Retinopathy? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Retinopatía ...

  3. Diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrinos, Efstratios; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2007-11-23

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of blindness in the UK, with older people and those with worse diabetic control, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia being most at risk. Diabetic retinopathy can cause microaneurysms, haemorrhages, exudates, changes to blood vessels, and retinal thickening. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetic retinopathy? What are the effects of treatments for vitreous haemorrhage? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November March 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 29 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation, focal and grid laser photocoagulation for maculopathy, corticosteroids for macular oedema, and vitrectomy for vitreous haemorrhage.

  4. Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease > Facts About Diabetic Eye Disease Facts About Diabetic Eye Disease Points to Remember Diabetic eye disease ... existing therapies for different patient groups. What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease can affect many ...

  5. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alicia J.; Joglekar, Mugdha V.; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Keech, Anthony C.; O'Neal, David N.; Januszewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  6. Diabetic Retinopathy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is one of the common complications of diabetes. Unfortunately, in many cases the patient is not aware of any symptoms until it is too late for effective treatment. Through analysis of evoked potential response of the retina, the optical nerve, and the optical brain center, a way will be paved for early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and prognosis during the treatment process. In this paper, we present an artificial-neural-network-based method to classify diabetic retinopathy subjects according to changes in visual evoked potential spectral components and an anatomically realistic computer model of the human eye under normal and retinopathy conditions in a virtual environment using 3D Max Studio and Windows Movie Maker.

  7. Surgical management of diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Alexandre Sabrosa; Almyr Sávio Sabrosa; Katia Cocaro Gouvea; Paiva Gonçalves Filho

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among the working population in the developed world. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy increases with duration of diabetes, and nearly 100 percent of patients with type I diabetes and more than 60 percent of those with type II have some signs of diabetic retinopathy after 20 years.A number of approaches have proved to be useful in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, such as laser photocoagulation and tight systemic control of bloo...

  8. [Diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E.R.; Rasmussen, K.L.; Laugesen, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    significant predictor of progression (odds ratio = 1.75, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.82). Progression of retinopathy also tended to be associated with type 1 diabetes and long diabetes duration. CONCLUSION: The risk of progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy was considerable, especially...... among women with high HbA1c values in early pregnancy. A few women developed proliferations, macular oedema and reduction of visual acuity. Development of sight-threatening alterations during pregnancy remains a clinical problem Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/8......INTRODUCTION: The aim was to evaluate the prevalence and progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy in women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dilated fundal photography was performed at approximately 10 and 28 gestational weeks in 58 and 18 women with type 1 and type...

  9. Biomarkers of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Tan, Kara-Anne; Phua, Val; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Wong, Chee Wai; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of acquired vision loss, is a microvascular complication of diabetes. While traditional risk factors for diabetic retinopathy including longer duration of diabetes, poor blood glucose control, and dyslipidemia are helpful in stratifying patient's risk for developing retinopathy, many patients without these traditional risk factors develop DR; furthermore, there are persons with long diabetes duration who do not develop DR. Thus, identifying biomarkers to predict DR or to determine therapeutic response is important. A biomarker can be defined as a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. Incorporation of biomarkers into risk stratification of persons with diabetes would likely aid in early diagnosis and guide treatment methods for those with DR or with worsening DR. Systemic biomarkers of DR include serum measures including genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics biomarkers. Ocular biomarkers including tears and vitreous and retinal vascular structural changes have also been studied extensively to prognosticate the risk of DR development. The current studies on biomarkers are limited by the need for larger sample sizes, cross-validation in different populations and ethnic groups, and time-efficient and cost-effective analytical techniques. Future research is important to explore novel DR biomarkers that are non-invasive, rapid, economical, and accurate to help reduce the incidence and progression of DR in people with diabetes.

  10. Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Diabetic Retinopathy Sections What Is Diabetic Retinopathy? Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis ... Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Leer en Español: Simulador: Retinopatía Diabética ...

  11. Diabetic retinopathy in acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Azzoug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although growth hormone (GH has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR, DR is deemed to be rare in patients with GH excess. Our aim was to study its prevalence in subjects with acromegaly suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM, to analyze its characteristics, and to look for predictive factors such as age at diagnosis, GH concentration and duration, DM duration, DM control, and family background. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with acromegaly and DM (21 males, 19 females, median age = 50 years, underwent a systematic ophthalmological examination with dilated funduscopy to seek diabetic retinopathy. Results: Among this population, 05 (12.5% had DR. It was at an early stage or background retinopathy in 3 cases and at a more advanced stage or proliferative retinopathy in 2 cases. We did not find any correlation with age at diagnosis, GH levels and duration, DM duration and family history of DM, but poor glycemic control seems to play a role although statistical analysis showed borderline significance. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that prevalence of DR in patients with acromegaly is 12.5%, and it is slight or moderate. Among studied factors, only poor glycemic control seems to be implicated in its development.

  12. Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Johnny; Kern, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of anti-inflammatory therapies have been found to significantly inhibit development of different aspects of DR in animal models. Herein, we review the inflammatory mediators and their relationship to early and late DR, and discuss the potential of anti-inflammatory approaches to inhibit development of different stages of the retinopathy. We focus primarily on information derived from in vivo studies, supplementing with information from in vitro studies were important. PMID:21635964

  13. Diabetic retinopathy (treatment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Quresh Amir; Ross, Adam; Chu, Colin Jonathan

    2011-05-25

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of blindness in the UK, with older people and those with worse diabetes control, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia being most at risk. Diabetic retinopathy can cause microaneurysms, haemorrhages, exudates, changes to blood vessels, and retinal thickening. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetic retinopathy? What are the effects of treatments for vitreous haemorrhage? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation, focal and grid laser photocoagulation for maculopathy, corticosteroids for macular oedema, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, and vitrectomy for vitreous haemorrhage.

  14. Systemic Medical Management of Diabetic Retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Lingam; Tien Yin Wong

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has assumed epidemic proportions and as a consequence, diabetic retinopathy is expected to be a major societal problem across the world. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects the vision by way of proliferative disease that results in vitreous hemorrhage and traction retinal detachment or by way of diabetic maculopathy (DME). The present-day management of diabetic retinopathy revolves around screening the diabetics for evidence of retinopathy and treating the retinopathy wit...

  15. Automatic diabetic retinopathy classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, María. A.; Arbeláez, Pablo A.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a disease in which the retina is damaged due to augmentation in the blood pressure of small vessels. DR is the major cause of blindness for diabetics. It has been shown that early diagnosis can play a major role in prevention of visual loss and blindness. This work proposes a computer based approach for the detection of DR in back-of-the-eye images based on the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our CNN uses deep architectures to classify Back-of-the-eye Retinal Photographs (BRP) in 5 stages of DR. Our method combines several preprocessing images of BRP to obtain an ACA score of 50.5%. Furthermore, we explore subproblems by training a larger CNN of our main classification task.

  16. Serum lipids and diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Shoja; Mahdavi M; Manaviat MR

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease in human and retinopathy is one of the most common complications. Etiology of this complication is yet unknown but one of the factors that can be effective on its production or progression is serum lipid. We aim to study the relationship between different degrees of diabetic retinopathy and serum lipids levels. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study designed to study over 37 patients with diabetes mellitus type o...

  17. Serum lipids and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja MR

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease in human and retinopathy is one of the most common complications. Etiology of this complication is yet unknown but one of the factors that can be effective on its production or progression is serum lipid. We aim to study the relationship between different degrees of diabetic retinopathy and serum lipids levels. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study designed to study over 37 patients with diabetes mellitus type one and 157 patients with diabetes mellitus type two. Former was selected as sensus and latter was selected randomly from diabetic patients attending the diabetes clinic in Yazd during 2002. Inclusion criteria was duration of diabetes at least seven years from diagnosis. Statistical analysis performed by SPSS package edition 11 and wit statistical tests as Chi square, Fisher Exact and ANOVA. Results: Among 194 cases, 74 cases were males and 120 females. 90 cases (46.4% have normal total serum cholesterol and 104 (53.6% hypercholestrolemia. In case of triglyceride 94 cases (48.4% have normal serum triglyceride and 100 (51.6% hypertriglyceridemia. Distribution of different degrees of diabetic retinopathy was statistically significant due to cholesterol and triglycerides (P-Value<0.05. In different groups of sex, diabetic retinopathy was more prevalent if there was hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia. This was correct about different groups of age and type of diabetes. This means that in different groups of age and type of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy was more prevalent if there was hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy is higher in cases with hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia than cases with normal serum triglyceride or cholesterole.

  18. Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Gayton, Emma L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Flanagan, Declan W.; Adler, Amanda I.

    Background: We have evaluated the evidence for the association between intake and blood levels of micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy requires significant clinical input and specialist ophthalmologic care. Micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and

  19. Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1, and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease.

  20. Diabetic retinopathy (DR: everybody's business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Yorston

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is on the increase worldwide, due mainly to the rise in the number of people with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common because:* People are living longer, and diabetes is more prevalent in older people.* As people increasingly migrate to urban areas, exercise less, eat more, and eat less healthy food, more people are becoming obese – a primary cause of type 2 diabetes.Diabetes increases the risk of a range of eye diseases, including cataract, but the main cause of blindness associated with diabetes is diabetic retinopathy (DR. DR usually develops between ten and twenty years after the onset of diabetes, and develops faster when diabetes is undiagnosed and untreated.People with DR whose sight is at risk can be treated, most commonly with laser, to prevent visual impairment and blindness. Sadly, there is no treatment that can restore vision that has already been lost.

  1. The Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Nigel M.; Giardini, Mario E.; Bastawrous, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Complications of diabetes mellitus, namely diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy, are the leading cause of blindness in working aged people. Sufferers can avoid blindness if identified early via retinal imaging. Systematic screening of the diabetic population has been shown to greatly reduce the prevalence and incidence of blindness within the population. Many national screening programs have digital fundus photography as their basis. In the past 5 years several techniques and adapters have been developed that allow digital fundus photography to be performed using smartphones. We review recent progress in smartphone-based fundus imaging and discuss its potential for integration into national systematic diabetic retinopathy screening programs. Some systems have produced promising initial results with respect to their agreement with reference standards. However further multisite trialling of such systems’ use within implementable screening workflows is required if an evidence base strong enough to affect policy change is to be established. If this were to occur national diabetic retinopathy screening would, for the first time, become possible in low- and middle-income settings where cost and availability of trained eye care personnel are currently key barriers to implementation. As diabetes prevalence and incidence is increasing sharply in these settings, the impact on global blindness could be profound. PMID:26596630

  2. Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen metabolism is essential for sustaining aerobic life, and normal cellular homeostasis works on a fine balance between the formation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Oxidative stress, a cytopathic consequence of excessive production of ROS and the suppression of ROS removal by antioxidant defense system, is implicated in the development of many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes and its complications. Retinopathy, a debilitating microvascular complication of diabetes, is the leading cause of acquired blindness in developed countries. Many diabetes-induced metabolic abnormalities are implicated in its development, and appear to be influenced by elevated oxidative stress; however the exact mechanism of its development remains elusive. Increased superoxide concentration is considered as a causal link between elevated glucose and the other metabolic abnormalities important in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Animal studies have shown that antioxidants have beneficial effects on the development of retinopathy, but the results from very limited clinical trials are somewhat ambiguous. Although antioxidants are being used for other chronic diseases, controlled clinical trials are warranted to investigate potential beneficial effects of antioxidants in the development of retinopathy in diabetic patients.

  3. Awareness of diabetic retinopathy among patients with diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness worldwide. The associated loss of productivity and quality of life of the patients with diabetic retinopathy will lead to additional socioeconomic burden. This study aims to determine the level of awareness of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients. Materials ...

  4. The Danish Registry of Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nis; Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard; Schielke, Katja Christina

    2016-01-01

    with respect to age, sex, best corrected visual acuity, screening frequency, grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy at each visit, progression/regression of diabetic eye disease, and prevalence of blindness were obtained. Data analysis from DiaBase's latest annual report (2014-2015) indicates...... that the prevalence of no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy is 78%, 18%, and 4%, respectively. The percentage of patients without diabetic maculopathy is 97%. The proportion of patients with regression of diabetic retinopathy (20%) is greater than......, although the number of patients newly diagnosed with diabetes has been increasing in Denmark. DiaBase is a useful tool to observe the quality of screening, prevalence, and progression/regression of diabetic eye disease....

  5. [Retinophotography--screening method in diabetic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidescu, Livia; Ignat, Florica; Preda, Mirela; Damian, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the modern screening method for diabetic retinopathy-the retino-photography. We present our experience on this issue, regarding the patients with diabetic retinopathy screened in Diabetic Eye Department, Ophthalmology Clinic Craiova, between October 2002-June 2005.

  6. Screening for diabetic retinopathy | Rice | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good glucose control and the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia remain the key strategies in preventing diabetic retinopathy and its progression. Unfortunately, some degree of retinopathy will eventually develop in almost all type 1 diabetics and over 60% of type 2 diabetics over a 20-year period.

  7. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  8. Acute phase serum proteins in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum concentration of various acute phase reactants were studied in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with and without retinopathy and in control subjects. The serum levels of haptoglobin was elevated in diabetics with retinopathy and the levels were highest in those with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The levels of serum albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1 antitrypsin and caeruloplasmin were not significantly different between the patients with retinopathy and controls. Haptoglobin increases serum viscosity and this could be the mechanism by which it plays a role in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. These preliminary observations need to be confirmed by studies based on larger number of patients. Longitudinal studies on acute phase reactants in various stages of development of diabetic retinopathy would also provide valuable information.

  9. Diabetic retinopathy in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Burn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that between 2010 and 2030 there will be a 98% increase in the number of adults in sub-Saharan Africa with diabetes.1 This is just one aspect of the epidemic of non-communicable diseases facing sub-Saharan Africa, driven by urbanisation, ageing, and changes to lifestyle and environment. The diabetes epidemic poses a significant challenge to health services, as non-communicable conditions should be managed by multi-disciplinary teams, with prevention as a primary aim.

  10. Op-power in diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Torren (Kors)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe present study is mainly concerned with the role of the OPs in diagnosing early diabetic retinopathy. In 1966 Simonsen had already found a clear relation between background diabetic retinopathy and the disappearance of OPs at the ascending limb of the b-wave of the ERG. Many

  11. Recognising and managing diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hall

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of diabetic retinopathy (DR depends on accurately recognising or classifying the different types of DR and knowing what treatment to give the patient.DR has clinical signs which can be seen with an ophthalmoscope or with a slit lamp and a 90- or 78-dioptre lens. The advantage of the slit lamp is that it allows you to visualise the retina with both eyes. This stereoscopic vision provides a sense of depth which aids diagnosis, particularly of macular oedema. Other aids to DR diagnosis are fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography.

  12. Systemic medical management of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Gopal; Wong, Tien Yin

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has assumed epidemic proportions and as a consequence, diabetic retinopathy is expected to be a major societal problem across the world. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects the vision by way of proliferative disease that results in vitreous hemorrhage and traction retinal detachment or by way of diabetic maculopathy (DME). The present-day management of diabetic retinopathy revolves around screening the diabetics for evidence of retinopathy and treating the retinopathy with laser photocoagulation. DME is treated with laser photocoagulation and/or intra- vitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents or steroids. Laser remains the mainstay of treatment and is potentially destructive. Systemic management aims at preventing or delaying the onset of retinopathy; reversing the early retinopathy; or delaying the progression of established retinopathy. Evidence from multiple studies has confirmed the protective role of rigid control of blood glucose and blood pressure. The evidence for lipid control versus maculopathy was less definitive. However, the use of fenofibrates (originally used for lowering serum lipids) has shown a benefit on both proliferative disease and maculopathy outside their lipid-lowering effect. Other drugs being tried are the Protein Kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, other peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) agonists, Forsoklin (which binds GLUT 1 receptor), minocycline (for its anti inflammatory effect), and Celecoxib (Cox-2 inhibitor).

  13. Diabetic Retinopathy Grading by Digital Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hajeb Mohammad Alipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. As manual analysis and diagnosis of large amount of images are time consuming, automatic detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy are desired. In this paper, we use fundus fluorescein angiography and color fundus images simultaneously, extract 6 features employing curvelet transform, and feed them to support vector machine in order to determine diabetic retinopathy severity stages. These features are area of blood vessels, area, regularity of foveal avascular zone, and the number of micro-aneurisms therein, total number of micro-aneurisms, and area of exudates. In order to extract exudates and vessels, we respectively modify curvelet coefficients of color fundus images and angiograms. The end points of extracted vessels in predefined region of interest based on optic disk are connected together to segment foveal avascular zone region. To extract micro-aneurisms from angiogram, first extracted vessels are subtracted from original image, and after removing detected background by morphological operators and enhancing bright small pixels, micro-aneurisms are detected. 70 patients were involved in this study to classify diabetic retinopathy into 3 groups, that is, (1 no diabetic retinopathy, (2 mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, (3 severe nonproliferative/proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and our simulations show that the proposed system has sensitivity and specificity of 100% for grading.

  14. Diabetic retinopathy screening using deep neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Nishanthan; Hong, Sheng Chiong; Sime, Mary J; Wilson, Graham A

    2017-09-07

    There is a burgeoning interest in the use of deep neural network in diabetic retinal screening. To determine whether a deep neural network could satisfactorily detect diabetic retinopathy that requires referral to an ophthalmologist from a local diabetic retinal screening programme and an international database. Retrospective audit. Diabetic retinal photos from Otago database photographed during October 2016 (485 photos), and 1200 photos from Messidor international database. Receiver operating characteristic curve to illustrate the ability of a deep neural network to identify referable diabetic retinopathy (moderate or worse diabetic retinopathy or exudates within one disc diameter of the fovea). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity. For detecting referable diabetic retinopathy, the deep neural network had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.901 (95% confidence interval 0.807-0.995), with 84.6% sensitivity and 79.7% specificity for Otago and 0.980 (95% confidence interval 0.973-0.986), with 96.0% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity for Messidor. This study has shown that a deep neural network can detect referable diabetic retinopathy with sensitivities and specificities close to or better than 80% from both an international and a domestic (New Zealand) database. We believe that deep neural networks can be integrated into community screening once they can successfully detect both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Oshitari

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Toshiyuki Oshitari1,2, Natsuyo Hata1, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kimitsu Central Hospital, Kisarazu City, Chiba, JapanAbstract: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Many recent studies have shown that ER stress is related to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, and with the death of pancreatic β-cells, insulin resistance, and the death of the vascular cells in the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is a major complication of diabetes and results in death of both neural and vascular cells. Because the death of the neurons directly affects visual function, the precise mechanism causing the death of neurons in early diabetic retinopathy must be determined. The ideal therapy for preventing the onset and the progression of diabetic retinopathy would be to treat the factors involved with both the vascular and neuronal abnormalities in diabetic retinopathy. In this review, we present evidence that ER stress is involved in the death of both retinal neurons and vascular cells in diabetic eyes, and thus reducing or blocking ER stress may be a potential therapy for preventing the onset and the progression of diabetic retinopathy.Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum stress, diabetic retinopathy, vascular cell death, neuronal cell death

  16. 'Teaching corner': Management of Diabetic Retinopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease and management of established retinopathy to prevent or mitigate visual loss. There are significant challenges to .... Observational data from the Early Treatment of Diabetic. Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) suggest that ... telemedicine links, as used by the English national screening programme27, has the potential to ...

  17. Predictors of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    type 2 diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) and nephropathy represent one of the leading causes of visual impairment[1] .... diabetic kidney disease. The study protocol ... hip ratio), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum creatinine ...

  18. Diabetic retinopathy: A predictor of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia El Demerdash

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy is a good predictor of coronary artery disease that exceeds the conventional risk factors. Diabetics with retinopathy would benefit from early coronary angiography and diabetic retinocoronary clinics are warranted.

  19. Genetic components in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhudatta Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a serious complication of diabetes, which is fast reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. While tight glycemic control remains the standard of care for preventing the progression of DR, better insights into DR etiology require understanding its genetic basis, which in turn may assist in the design of novel treatments. During the last decade, genomic medicine is increasingly being applied to common multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and age-related macular degeneration. The contribution of genetics to the initiation and progression of DR has been recognized for some time, but the involvement of specific genes and genetic variants remains elusive. Several investigations are currently underway for identifying DR susceptibility loci through linkage studies, candidate gene approaches, and genome-wide association studies. Advent of next generation sequencing and high throughput genomic technologies, development of novel bioinformatics tools and collaborations among research teams should facilitate such investigations. Here, we review the current state of genetic studies in DR and discuss reported findings in the context of biochemical, cell biological and therapeutic advances. We propose the development of a consortium in India for genetic studies with large cohorts of patients and controls from limited geographical areas to stratify the impact of the environment. Uniform guidelines should be established for clinical phenotyping and data collection. These studies would permit identification of genetic loci for DR susceptibility in the Indian population and should be valuable for better diagnosis and prognosis, and for clinical management of this blinding disease.

  20. The Adenosinergic System in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vindeirinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurodegenerative and inflammatory environment that is prevalent in the diabetic eye is a key player in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. The adenosinergic system is widely regarded as a significant modulator of neurotransmission and the inflammatory response, through the actions of the four types of adenosine receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R, and thus could be revealed as a potential player in the events unfolding in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we review the studies that explore the impact of diabetic conditions on the retinal adenosinergic system, as well as the role of the said system in ameliorating or exacerbating those conditions. The experimental results described suggest that this system is heavily affected by diabetic conditions and that the modulation of its components could reveal potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, particularly in the early stages of the disease.

  1. The Danish registry of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Varis Nis; Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard; Schielke, Katja Christina

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To monitor the development of diabetic eye disease in Denmark and to evaluate the accessibility and effectiveness of diabetic eye screening programs with focus on interregional variations. Target population: The target population includes all patients diagnosed with diabetes....... Denmark (5.5 million inhabitants) has ~320,000 diabetes patients with an annual increase of 27,000 newly diagnosed patients. The Danish Registry of Diabetic Retinopathy (DiaBase) collects data on all diabetes patients aged ≥18 years who attend screening for diabetic eye disease in hospital eye departments...... and in private ophthalmological practice. In 2014-2015, DiaBase included data collected from 77,968 diabetes patients. Main variables: The main variables provide data for calculation of performance indicators to monitor the quality of diabetic eye screening and development of diabetic retinopathy. Data...

  2. Assessment of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macula oedema was 30.4% and 8.7% respectively. There was a positive association between diabetic retinopathy and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed Africans with type 2 diabetes in ...

  3. New Therapeutic Approaches in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Kamyar; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Relhan, Nidhi; Kishor, Krishna S.; Flynn Jr, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. It affects a substantial proportion of US adults over age 40. The condition is a leading cause of visual loss. Much attention has been given to expanding the role of current treatments along with investigating various novel therapies and drug delivery methods. In the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), intravitreal pharmacotherapies, especially anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents, have gained popularity. Currently, anti-VEGF agents are often used as first-line agents in center-involved DME, with recent data suggesting that among these agents, aflibercept leads to better visual outcomes in patients with worse baseline visual acuities. While photocoagulation remains the standard treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), recent FDA approvals of ranibizumab and aflibercept in the management of diabetic retinopathy associated with DME may suggest a potential for pharmacologic treatments of PDR as well. Novel therapies, including small interfering RNAs, chemokines, kallikrein-kinin inhibitors, and various anti-angiogenic agents, are currently being evaluated for the management of diabetic retinopathy and DME. In addition to these strategies, novel drug delivery methods such as sustained-release implants and refillable reservoir implants are either under active evaluation or have recently gained FDA approval. This review provides an update on the novel developments in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26676668

  4. Predictors of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Microalbuminuria is an independent predictor of retinopathy, so absence of microalbuminuria may tend clinician not to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Aim: The aim of our study was to estimate prevalence of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes who have normoalbuminuria, and to study predictors for DR, ...

  5. Oral Carnosine Supplementation Prevents Vascular Damage in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfister, Frederick; Riedl, Eva; Wang, Qian; vom Hagen, Franziska; Deinzer, Martina; Harmsen, Martin Conrad; Molema, Grietje; Yard, Benito; Feng, Yuxi; Hammes, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims: Pericyte loss, vasoregression and neuroglial activation are characteristic changes in incipient diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the effect of the antioxidant and antiglycating dipeptide carnosine was studied on the development of experimental diabetic retinopathy.

  6. Vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the clinical effect of vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS: The clinical data of 55 cases(65 eyes, underwent vitrectomy, membrane peeling, endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil or C3F8 injection, were retrospectively studied. During 6 months to 1 year follow-up period, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, retinal conditions and complications were observed.RESULTS: All 65 eyes received vitrectomy, of which silicone oil was tamponaded in 32 eyes, C3F8 was injected in 8 eyes, BBS was filled in 25 eyes. Visual improvement achieved in 42 eyes. Two eyes were manually vision, form count fingers to 0.05 in 18 eyes, >0.05-0.1 in 28 eyes, >0.1-0.3 in 12 eyes and >0.3 in 5 eyes. Retinal hole was occurred in 7 eyes, limitations fibrosis membrane remained in 8 eyes, retinal detachment appeared in 5 eyes, IOP increased in 18 eyes, vitreous hemorrhage relapsed in 12 eyes, 36 eyes received supplemental photocoagulation treatment 1-3 times after operation.CONCLUSION:Vitrectomy combined endophotocoagulation is an effective treatment for PDR. Silicone oil tamponade can limit the hemorrhage.

  7. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  8. Using Anti-VEGF in Diabetic Retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Marashi, Ameen

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelium growth factor is the main pathological factor in diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME), Anti-VEGF agents are safe and effective in DME treatment, there are multiple Anti-VEGF agents, choosing between them is essential to individualize treatment for each patient to achieve the optimum results.

  9. Pattern of diabetic retinopathy in Kano, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    do glycosylated hemoglobin level which was a more objective means of assessing long-term control rather than current fasting blood sugar level which only give an ... that 8.3% of those with NVG had diabetic eye disease.[29] There is a huge time limit between onset of diabetes mellitus and development of retinopathy.

  10. Structural neurodegeneration correlates with early diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik; Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Peto, Tunde

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine differences in structural and functional neurodegenerative measurements between patients with no and early diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we examined 103 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In 7-field fundus photographs acquired with Top...

  11. Evidence-based therapy of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerle, S; Kroll, P

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is often misunderstood as 'cookbook medicine with standard recipes' that does not take clinical experience into account. It is, however, supposed to be a basis for decision making in caring for individual patients under consideration of patients' preferences. This seems to be very important, since diabetic retinopathy continues to be the most frequent cause of vision loss in working age adults with negative consequences for patients' quality of life and for health economics. The most important evidence-based therapy for diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy is laser coagulation. Vitrectomy for proliferative stages has also been proven effective by clinical studies. For more recent treatment options like triamcinolone injection and vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema there is a lower level of evidence so far. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study was the first to show the effectiveness of panfundus laser coagulation for a larger group of patients. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study in turn serves as a basis for laser coagulation of retinopathy and maculopathy. The Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study could show the advantages of timely vitrectomy. Both the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study could show the value of intensive blood glucose control. Evidence-based medicine on the basis of the studies mentioned above is practiced quite self-evidently in ophthalmo-diabetology. It should be regarded as a helpful tool for special therapeutic situations which still leaves room for one's personal clinical experience to be included. It is somewhat problematic that the term evidence-based medicine seems to be restricted to the results of large randomized studies, because even special problems and very individual, difficult therapeutic questions can be placed on an evidence-based foundation, although at a lower level of evidence, using today's modern means of literature research. Copyright (c

  12. Characteristics of patients with diabetic retinopathy in Gaborone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a cause of preventable blindness globally and is an increasing public health problem in the developing countries. The Botswana National Screening Programme for diabetic retinopathy was launched in October 2009. We report the descriptive epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy in ...

  13. Multicolor Scanning Laser Imaging in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad S Z; Carrim, Zia Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in individuals younger than 60 years. Screening for retinopathy is undertaken using conventional color fundus photography and relies on the identification of hemorrhages, vascular abnormalities, exudates, and cotton-wool spots. These can sometimes be difficult to identify. Multicolor scanning laser imaging, a new imaging modality, may have a role in improving screening outcomes, as well as facilitating treatment decisions. Observational case series comprising two patients with known diabetes who were referred for further examination after color fundus photography revealed abnormal findings. Multicolor scanning laser imaging was undertaken. Features of retinal disease from each modality were compared. Multicolor scanning laser imaging provides superior visualization of retinal anatomy and pathology, thereby facilitating risk stratification and treatment decisions. Multicolor scanning laser imaging is a novel imaging technique offering the potential for improving the reliability of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Validation studies are warranted.

  14. Awareness of Diabetic Retinopathy amongst Diabetic Patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient awareness of diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors should aid compliance with risk control measures, and help drive patient demand for retinopathy screening. Method: This is a cross sectional study conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All consenting adult patients seen at the ...

  15. Predictors of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The risk of DR exists in patients with type 2 diabetes even in normoalbuminuric individuals. Close monitoring is particularly needed if patients have longer duration of diabetes, hypertension, anemia, or high normal albuminuria. Keywords: Albuminuria, Diabetic retinopathy, Predictors, Type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

  16. Pregnancy-induced sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Laugesen, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the progression of diabetic retinopathy in pregnant women with diabetes offered tight glycaemic and blood pressure control.......To determine the progression of diabetic retinopathy in pregnant women with diabetes offered tight glycaemic and blood pressure control....

  17. Progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy in women with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K.L.; Laugesen, C.S.; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2010-01-01

    We studied the progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy in women with type 2 diabetes.......We studied the progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy in women with type 2 diabetes....

  18. Oxidative stress in diabetic patients with retinopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as ulcers, neuropathy, and nephropathy which are known to affect oxidative stress parameters were excluded from the study. Any subject receiving antioxidant ... Oxidative stress in diabetic patients with retinopathy. After obtaining written consent, with 8 h of fasting,. 10 ml of venous blood was collected from the median.

  19. Pattern of diabetic retinopathy in Kano, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    America, age-related macular degeneration(ARMD) and DR represent the major cause of low vision.[9]. Advances made in treatment of DR particularly in developed countries have not matched the large number of patients affected and DR has remained a major health problem.[10] The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in ...

  20. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber...... and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Likewise, the retinal metabolism can be evaluated by retinal oximetry, and higher retinal venular oxygen saturation has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic retinopathy. So far, most studies have been cross-sectional, but these can only...... disclose associations and are not able to separate cause from effect or to establish the predictive value of retinal vascular dysfunction with respect to long-term complications. Likewise, retinal markers have not been investigated as markers of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic...

  1. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-31

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial characteristics, incidence and progression of retinopathy, visual acuity, quality of life

  2. Diabetic Retinopathy: Animal Models, Therapies, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is one of the major complications of diabetes. Although great efforts have been made to uncover the mechanisms underlying the pathology of DR, the exact causes of DR remain largely unknown. Because of multifactor involvement in DR etiology, currently no effective therapeutic treatments for DR are available. In this paper, we review the pathology of DR, commonly used animal models, and novel therapeutic approaches. Perspectives and future directions for DR treatment are discussed.

  3. Prospects for angiotensin receptor blockers in diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2007-01-01

    Retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and is an important cause of blindness worldwide. Clinical trials have demonstrated that tight metabolic control inhibits the progression of retinopathy. Good blood pressure control has been shown to be protective...... in type 2 diabetes, and it may also reduce proliferative retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. However, such control is often difficult to achieve in clinical practice, and may be associated with problems such as hypoglycaemia. New therapies are therefore needed to reduce the risk of retinopathy....... There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and this has led to interest in RAS inhibitors as agents to prevent retinopathy. Several trials have suggested that ACE inhibitor therapy can inhibit progression of retinopathy...

  4. Predictors of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Sciences 15.0 version software (Chicago, IL, USA).The continuous variables expressed as means (SD and Student's t‑test or Mann–Whitney test were ..... Rodriguez J, et al. Risk factors for Type II diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a mexican‑american population: Proyecto VER. Am J Ophthalmol 2002;134:390‑8. 5.

  5. [Retino-photography--screening method for diabetic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidescu, Livia; Ignat, Florica; Preda, Mirela; Damian, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the modern screening method for diabetic retinopathy--the retino-photography. We are presenting our experience on this issue, regarding the patients with diabetes retinopathy examined in Diabetic Eye Department, Ophthalmology Clinic Craiova, between October 2002-June 2005.

  6. Clinical features of diabetes retinopathy in elderly patients with type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-29

    Nov 29, 2014 ... Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of diabetes retinopathy (DR) in ... Conclusions: Diabetes retinopathy in elderly diabetes patients in Northern Chinese is prevalent and associated with ..... Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) Eye Study 4.

  7. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  8. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana V. Do

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure.OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes.METHODS:Search methods: We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria: We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis: Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We

  9. Connexin channel and its role in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sayon; Jiang, Jean X; Li, An-Fei; Kim, Dongjoon

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this devastating ocular complication. The early stage of diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the loss of various cell types in the retina, namely endothelial cells and pericytes. As the disease progresses, vascular leakage, a clinical hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, becomes evident and may eventually lead to diabetic macular edema, the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy. Substantial evidence indicates that the disruption of connexin-mediated cellular communication plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Yet, it is unclear how altered communication via connexin channel mediated cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular microenvironment is linked to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Recent observations suggest the possibility that connexin hemichannels may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy by allowing communication between cells and the microenvironment. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that connexin channels may be involved in regulating retinal vascular permeability. These cellular events are coordinated at least in part via connexin-mediated intercellular communication and the maintenance of retinal vascular homeostasis. This review highlights the effect of high glucose and diabetic condition on connexin channels and their impact on the development of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of diabetic maculopathy and level of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic-Arsovska, M

    2006-12-01

    One of the retinal changes during diabetic disease is appearance of diabetic maculopathy, which main characteristic is development of edema in the area of m.lutea. It is the main cause of decrease in vision and is found in about 10% of diabetic patients. The aim of this paper is to determine the frequency of diabetic maculopathy, prevalence of the found type of maculopathy and correlation with retinopathy level. the study comprised consecutive type 2 diabetic patients referred to the Unit for Laser Photocoagulation of the Clinic for Eye Diseases by ophthalmologists from other health centers. A total number of 86 patients were recruited in the study. Both ophthalmoscopic and biomicroscopic examinations of eye fundus as well as fluorescein angiography were performed. Grading of severity and level of both maculopathy and retinopathy has been done according to International Classification. A high presence of maculopathy in the examined patients (89.5%) was found as a result of previous high selection of diabetic patients by their ophthalmologists. The high selection has also an impact on correlation of diabetic maculopathy onset and disease duration, where parallelism with its appearance was registered, but this could also suggest that retinal microvascular changes appear very early, prior to clinical manifestation of diabetes. Diabetic maculopathy was most frequently found in preproliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (93.6% and 95.3%). Severe forms of diabetic maculopathy with huge edema, numerous hard exudates and significant zones of capillary "drop out" of foveal capillary net are also associated with preproliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The most frequent type of diabetic maculopahty was the mixed one, where in addition to exudative characteristics, elements of ischemia and diffuse leakage were also found in 56% of the cases. Diabetic maculopathy is only one of the manifestations of diabetic disease and it is the main cause of

  11. Diabetic retinopathy: pathogenesis, clinical grading, management and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, L Z; Comyn, O; Peto, T; Tadros, C; Ng, E; Sivaprasad, S; Hykin, P G

    2013-06-01

    Decades of research into the pathophysiology and management of diabetic retinopathy have revolutionized our understanding of the disease process. Diabetic retinopathy is now more accurately defined as a neurovascular rather than a microvascular disease as neurodegenerative disease precedes and coexists with microvascular changes. However, the complexities of the pathways involved in different stages of disease severity continue to remain a challenging issue for drug discovery. Currently, laser photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy, but is gradually being superseded for diabetic macular oedema. However, it is destructive and at best results in a gradual but modest improvement in vision in the long term. So, diabetic retinopathy remains the most prevalent cause of visual impairment in the working-age population despite established screening programmes, early diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The recent discovery of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor is revolutionizing the management of diabetic retinopathy, particularly diabetic macular oedema. However, not all patients respond to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, reinforcing the fact that diabetic retinopathy is a multifactorial disease. Studies are still required to improve our understanding of how retinal structure correlates with visual function. It is hoped that these will lead to better characterization of the disease phenotype based on treatment responses to different agents and allow an algorithm to be developed that will guide the management of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema at different stages of severity. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  12. SERUM MAGNESIUM, LIPID PROFILE AND GLYCATED HAEMOGLOBIN IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Vusikala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic retinopathy is one of the important microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus of long duration. Alterations in trace metals like magnesium and lipid profile was observed in diabetic retinopathy with hyperglycaemic status. AIM The study was taken up to assess the role of magnesium, lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin in diabetic retinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 80 subjects between 40-65 years were included in the study. Group 1 includes 20 age and sex matched healthy controls. Group 2 includes 30 cases of Diabetes mellitus without retinopathy. Group 3 includes 30 cases of Diabetes mellitus with retinopathy. RESULTS Magnesium was found to be significantly low in the diabetic group with retinopathy. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated in the diabetic group with retinopathy. Fasting and Postprandial plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels confirmed the glycaemic status of each of the groups. CONCLUSIONS Hypomagnesemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridemia was observed in diabetic retinopathy along with increased levels of glycated haemoglobin in our study.

  13. Diabetic Retinopathy: Vascular and Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, F.; Cancarini, A.; dell'Omo, R.; Rezzola, S.; Romano, M. R.; Costagliola, C.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of visual impairment in the working-age population of the Western world. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and several vascular, inflammatory, and neuronal mechanisms are involved. Inflammation mediates structural and molecular alterations associated with DR. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory pathways associated with DR are not completely characterized. Previous studies indicate that tissue hypoxia and dysregulation of immune responses associated with diabetes mellitus can induce increased expression of numerous vitreous mediators responsible for DR development. Thus, analysis of vitreous humor obtained from diabetic patients has made it possible to identify some of the mediators (cytokines, chemokines, and other factors) responsible for DR pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to better understand the relationship between inflammation and DR. Herein the main vitreous-related factors triggering the occurrence of retinal complication in diabetes are highlighted. PMID:26137497

  14. A Review on Recent Developments for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javeria Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is caused by the retinal micro vasculature which may be formed as a result of diabetes mellitus. Blindness may appear as a result of unchecked and severe cases of diabetic retinopathy. Manual inspection of fundus images to check morphological changes in microaneurysms, exudates, blood vessels, hemorrhages, and macula is a very time-consuming and tedious work. It can be made easily with the help of computer-aided system and intervariability for the observer. In this paper, several techniques for detecting microaneurysms, hemorrhages, and exudates are discussed for ultimate detection of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Blood vessels detection techniques are also discussed for the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, the paper elaborates a discussion on the experiments accessed by authors for the detection of diabetic retinopathy. This work will be helpful for the researchers and technical persons who want to utilize the ongoing research in this area.

  15. Learning ensemble classifiers for diabetic retinopathy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Emran; Błaszczyński, Jerzy; Moreno, Antonio; Valls, Aida; Romero-Aroca, Pedro; de la Riva-Fernández, Sofia; Słowiński, Roman

    2017-10-06

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common comorbidities of diabetes. Unfortunately, the recommended annual screening of the eye fundus of diabetic patients is too resource-consuming. Therefore, it is necessary to develop tools that may help doctors to determine the risk of each patient to attain this condition, so that patients with a low risk may be screened less frequently and the use of resources can be improved. This paper explores the use of two kinds of ensemble classifiers learned from data: fuzzy random forest and dominance-based rough set balanced rule ensemble. These classifiers use a small set of attributes which represent main risk factors to determine whether a patient is in risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. The levels of specificity and sensitivity obtained in the presented study are over 80%. This study is thus a first successful step towards the construction of a personalized decision support system that could help physicians in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Erythrocyte phospholipid and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehrer, Philippe; Saab, Sarah; Berdeaux, Olivier; Isaïco, Rodica; Grégoire, Stéphane; Cabaret, Stéphanie; Bron, Alain M; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Bretillon, Lionel; Acar, Niyazi

    2014-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) including docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are suspected to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. LCPUFAs are known to be preferentially concentrated in specific phospholipids termed as plasmalogens. This study was aimed to highlight potential changes in the metabolism of phospholipids, and particularly plasmalogens, and LCPUFAs at various stages of diabetic retinopathy in humans. We performed lipidomic analyses on red blood cell membranes from controls and mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with or without retinopathy. The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes was determined by gas chromatography and the phospholipid structure was determined by liquid chromatography equipped with an electrospray ionisation source and coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS/MS). A significant decrease in levels of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in erythrocytes of diabetic patients with or without retinopathy was observed. The origin of this decrease was a loss of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine phospholipids esterified with these LCPUFAs. In diabetic patients without retinopathy, this change was balanced by an increase in the levels of several phosphatidyl-choline species. No influence of diabetes nor of diabetic retinopathy was observed on the concentrations of plasmalogen-type phospholipids. Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy were associated with a reduction of erythrocyte LCPUFAs in phosphatidyl-ethanolamines. The increase of the amounts of phosphatidyl-choline species in erythrocytes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy might be a compensatory mechanism for the loss of LC-PUFA-rich phosphatidyl-ethanolamines.

  17. Erythrocyte phospholipid and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Koehrer

    Full Text Available Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs including docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are suspected to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. LCPUFAs are known to be preferentially concentrated in specific phospholipids termed as plasmalogens. This study was aimed to highlight potential changes in the metabolism of phospholipids, and particularly plasmalogens, and LCPUFAs at various stages of diabetic retinopathy in humans.We performed lipidomic analyses on red blood cell membranes from controls and mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with or without retinopathy. The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes was determined by gas chromatography and the phospholipid structure was determined by liquid chromatography equipped with an electrospray ionisation source and coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS/MS. A significant decrease in levels of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in erythrocytes of diabetic patients with or without retinopathy was observed. The origin of this decrease was a loss of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine phospholipids esterified with these LCPUFAs. In diabetic patients without retinopathy, this change was balanced by an increase in the levels of several phosphatidyl-choline species. No influence of diabetes nor of diabetic retinopathy was observed on the concentrations of plasmalogen-type phospholipids.Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy were associated with a reduction of erythrocyte LCPUFAs in phosphatidyl-ethanolamines. The increase of the amounts of phosphatidyl-choline species in erythrocytes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy might be a compensatory mechanism for the loss of LC-PUFA-rich phosphatidyl-ethanolamines.

  18. Screening for diabetic retinopathy in primary care with a mobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-12-01

    Dec 1, 2007 ... significant contribution to the burden of disease. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of adult blindness, and screening can reduce the incidence. This project aimed to ... in 7% for laser treatment and in 4% for other specialist services. ... of patients already have retinopathy when type 2 diabetes is.

  19. ROCK as a Therapeutic Target of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Arita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing global prevalence of diabetes is a critical problem for public health. In particular, diabetic retinopathy, a prevalent ocular complication of diabetes mellitus, causes severe vision loss in working population. A better understanding of the pathogenesis and the development of new pharmacologic treatments are needed. This paper describes the relevance between Rho/ROCK pathway and the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy from its early to late stages. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of ROCK inhibitor in the total management of diabetic retinopathy is discussed.

  20. Evaluation of the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy A Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Carl

    1973-01-01

    Evaluated is the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (blindness due to ruptured vessels of the retina as a side effect of diabetes), and described is a research project comparing two types of photocoagulation treatment. (DB)

  1. barriers to an effective diabetic retinopathy service in ibadan, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , lack of treatment infrastructure including lasers and laser maintenance and lack of national policies and low government priority.3 All these act as barriers to management of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. The North Jutland County Diabetic Retinopathy Study (NCDRS). Population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, L.L.; Lervang, H.H.; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    reflect the treatment and population composition of a previous era. Studies of the present diabetic population are therefore in demand. Methods: The present cross–section study included 656 type 1 and 328 type 2 diabetic subjects undergoing diabetic retinopathy screening. Crude prevalence rates....... The prevalence of diabetic maculopathy also increased up to retinopathy level 3 followed by decrease. Less frequently occuring retinal manifestations occured at frequences in the range of 0.0–2.5 % and were only observed at retinopathy level 3 and 4. Conclusions: The prevalence of proliferative retinopathy......Abstract Purpose: Several population based studies have reported blood glucose levels and blood pressure to be risk factors for the development of proliferativ retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy. Despite their importance, these studies were initiated more than two decades ago and may therefore...

  3. Diabetic retinopathy is a neurodegenerative disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Stephanie K; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    Since 1875, controversy has ensued over whether ocular diabetic complications are primarily vasculopathic or neuropathic in nature. Here, we discuss the historical context by which diabetic retinopathy (DR) came to be considered a primary vasculopathy, in contrast to more recent data suggesting the importance of diabetic retinal neurodegeneration (DRN) as the primary manifestation of ocular diabetic damage. Unsurprisingly, DRN parallels other diabetic complications related to neuropathy. In general, there are three possible relationships between microvascular DR and DRN: i) microvasculopathy causes neurodegeneration; ii) neurodegeneration causes microvasculopathy or iii) they are mutually independent. The authors' group has recently produced experimental data showing that DRN precedes even the earliest manifestations of DR microvasculopathy. In combination with earlier studies showing that focal implicit time delays predicted future development of DR microvasculopathy in the same location, relationships i) and iii) are unlikely. As such, ii) is the most likely relationship: DRN is a cause of DR. Granted, additional studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and elucidate the mechanism of diabetes-induced neurodegeneration. We conclude this review by proposing experimental approaches to test the hypothesis that DRN causes DR. If confirmed, this new paradigm may lead to earlier detection of ocular diabetic damage and earlier treatment of early DR, thereby preventing visual loss in people with diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. ROLE OF LIPID PROFILE IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    OpenAIRE

    Jagannadha Phaneendra; Vusikala; Imran Ahmed 21

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major metabolic disease associated with macrovascular and microvascular complications. Diabetic retinopathy is a highly specific vascular complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and is emerging as one of the causes of blindness in both developing and developed countries. Alteration in lipid levels in diabetics is hypothesized to be one of the risk factor in causation of retinopathy in DR subjects. The present study was to elucidate the role of serum lipids ...

  5. [The risk of blindness in diabetic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Mohamed Amin; Craiu, Andreea-Mádálina

    2010-01-01

    A good control of blood sugar <110 mg/dl, HbA1c <7%, diastolic BP <80 mmHg and systolic BP <140 mmHg, cholesterol <200 mg/dl, triglycerides <150 mg/dl are the best way to set a limit to the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Progression of DR leads finally to blindness! Blindness is visual acuity less than 3/60 with the best possible correction. Low-vision is a visual acuity less than 6/18, but equal to or better than 3/60, best possible correction in the better eye.

  6. Retinopathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zuabi, Homoud; Al-Tammar, Yaqoub; Al-Moataz, Reem; Al-Sabti, Khalid; Wani, Vivek B; Hamama, Fahad; Mohammad, Hanan; Al-Suwayan, Mai H

    2005-01-01

    To study the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its association with risk factors in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients in two primary care diabetic clinics in Kuwait. All newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending Ferdous and Yarmouk Health Care Diabetic Clinics in Farwaniya and Asma Health Areas, respectively, during the period of January 2002 to July 2004 were examined for the presence of diabetic retinopathy by color fundus photographs. Risk factors such as sex, age, hypertension, nephropathy, hyperglycemia, level of glycated hemoglobin, microalbuminuria and hyperlipidemia were evaluated by statistical analysis for their possible association with the presence of diabetic retinopathy at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. Of the 92 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients studied, diabetic retinopathy was present in 7 (7.6%) patients. Two of the 7 patients had maculopathy that needed treatment by photocoagulation. High glycated hemoglobin in 51 patients (55.4%), microalbuminuria in 25 (27.2%), hypertension in 29 (315%), hyperlipidemia in 69 (75%), obesity in 45 (48.9%) and overweight in 37(40.2%) were noted in the study population. Microalbuminuria was weakly associated with the presence of retinopathy (p = 0.08) at the time of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors were not statistically significant. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 7.6% among the study population. Maculopathy was present in 2 of the 7 patients needing photocoagulation.

  7. Retinopathy and microalbuminuria in type II diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja Mohammad R

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of retinopathy and microalbuminuria and their correlation in type II diabetic patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study 590 patients suffering from diabetis type II were examined. Fundoscopy was performed by practising ophthalmologist. The ratio of urinary albumin to creatinine was assessed by clinitek 100 (Bayer corporation–USA. HbA1C, height and weight also were measured. Results The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 39.3% (232 patients, 5.4% of which showed to be prolifrative diabetic retinopathy (PDR. The diabetic retinopathy had significant inverse correlation with body mass index (BMI (P = 0.02. HbA1C was higher in patients with PDR (mean = 10.5% than in patients with no signs of retinopathy (mean = 9.5% and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 25.9% while 14.5% of the patients revealed to have macroalbuminuria. As expected, diabetic retinopathy and renal involvement were highly positively correlated. (P = 0.001. Conclusion Microalbuminuria is associated with diabetic retinopathy in type II diabetic patients and is a reliable marker of retinopathy.

  8. Retinopathy and microalbuminuria in type II diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaviat, Masoud R; Afkhami, Mohammad; Shoja, Mohammad R

    2004-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of retinopathy and microalbuminuria and their correlation in type II diabetic patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study 590 patients suffering from diabetis type II were examined. Fundoscopy was performed by practising ophthalmologist. The ratio of urinary albumin to creatinine was assessed by clinitek 100 (Bayer corporation–USA). HbA1C, height and weight also were measured. Results The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 39.3% (232 patients), 5.4% of which showed to be prolifrative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The diabetic retinopathy had significant inverse correlation with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.02). HbA1C was higher in patients with PDR (mean = 10.5%) than in patients with no signs of retinopathy (mean = 9.5%) and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 25.9% while 14.5% of the patients revealed to have macroalbuminuria. As expected, diabetic retinopathy and renal involvement were highly positively correlated. (P = 0.001). Conclusion Microalbuminuria is associated with diabetic retinopathy in type II diabetic patients and is a reliable marker of retinopathy. PMID:15228626

  9. Diabetic retinopathy in a remote Indigenous primary healthcare population: a Central Australian diabetic retinopathy screening study in the Telehealth Eye and Associated Medical Services Network project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, L; Jenkins, A; Keech, A; Ryan, C; Brown, A; Boffa, J; Bursell, S

    2018-02-06

    To determine diabetic retinopathy prevalence and severity among remote Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional diabetic retinopathy screening study of Indigenous adults with Type 2 diabetes was conducted by locally trained non-ophthalmic retinal imagers in a remote Aboriginal community-controlled primary healthcare clinic in Central Australia and certified non-ophthalmic graders in a retinal grading centre in Melbourne, Australia. The main outcome measure was prevalence of any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Among 301 participants (33% male), gradable image rates were 78.7% (n =237) for diabetic retinopathy and 83.1% (n =250) for diabetic macular oedema, and 77.7% (n =234) were gradable for both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. For the gradable subset, the median (range) age was 48 (19-86) years and known diabetes duration 9.0 (0-24) years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 47% (n =110) and for diabetic macular oedema it was 14.4% (n =36). In the fully gradable imaging studies, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy prevalence was 16.2% (n =38): 14.1% (n =33) for clinically significant macular oedema, 1.3% (n =3) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.9% (n =2) for both. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy had been treated in 78% of detected cases. A novel telemedicine diabetic retinopathy screening service detected a higher prevalence of 'any' diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in a remote primary care setting than reported in earlier surveys among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Whether the observed high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was attributable to greater detection, increasing diabetic retinopathy prevalence, local factors, or a combination of these requires further investigation and, potentially, specific primary care guidelines for diabetic retinopathy management in remote Australia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

  10. Human Genetics of Diabetic Retinopathy: Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. K. Ng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a most severe microvascular complication which, if left unchecked, can be sight-threatening. With the global prevalence of diabetes being relentlessly projected to rise to 438 million subjects by 2030, DR will undoubtedly pose a major public health concern. Efforts to unravel the human genetics of DR have been undertaken using the candidate gene and linkage approaches, while GWAS efforts are still lacking. Aside from evidence for a few genes including aldose reductase and vascular endothelial growth factor, the genetics of DR remain poorly elucidated. Nevertheless, the promise of impactful scientific discoveries may be realized if concerted and collaborative efforts are mounted to identify the genes for DR. Harnessing new genetic technologies and resources such as the upcoming 1000 Genomes Project will help advance this field of research, and potentially lead to a rich harvest of insights into the biological mechanisms underlying this debilitating complication.

  11. Ultra-wide-field imaging in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Tsui, Irena; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2017-10-01

    Since 1991, 7-field images captured with 30-50 degree cameras in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study were the gold standard for fundus imaging to study diabetic retinopathy. Ultra-wide-field images cover significantly more area (up to 82%) of the fundus and with ocular steering can in many cases image 100% of the fundus ("panretinal"). Recent advances in image analysis of ultra-wide-field imaging allow for precise measurements of the peripheral retinal lesions. There is a growing consensus in the literature that ultra-wide-field imaging improves detection of peripheral lesions in diabetic retinopathy and leads to more accurate classification of the disease. There is discordance among studies, however, on the correlation between peripheral diabetic lesions and diabetic macular edema and optimal management strategies to treat diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring of Diabetic Retinopathy in relation to Bariatric Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Troels; Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Svenningsen, Annette Lykke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the need for closer perioperative monitoring of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS: Prospective observational clinical study of 56 patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery. The patients were...... examined with 7-field fundus images and optical coherence tomography scans 2 weeks before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery. Worsening was defined as a two-step change in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy scale or appearance or worsening of macular edema...... preoperatively where HbA1c was 6.4 ± 1.9 %. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic retinopathy was clinically stable after bariatric surgery, and none of the observed changes would have resulted in a changed screening interval at our center. This supports adherence to regular diabetic retinopathy screening guidelines following...

  13. Is diabetic retinopathy related to subclinical cardiovascular disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, R; Cheung, N; Islam, FMA; Klein, R; Klein, BEK; Cotch, MF; Sharrett, AR; O'leary, D; Wong, TY

    2011-01-01

    Objective Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clinical CVD. Design Population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Participants Nine hundred twenty-seven persons with diabetes without clinical CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Diabetic retinopathy was ascertaine...

  14. Angiogenic Factors and Cytokines in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abcouwer, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight-threatening complication of both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. The recent success of treatments inhibiting the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) demonstrates that specific targeting of a growth factor responsible for vascular permeability and growth is an effective means of treating DR-associated vascular dysfunction, edema and angiogenesis. This has stimulated research of alternative therapeutic targets involved in the control of retinal vascular function. However, additional treatment options and preventative measures are still needed and these require a greater understanding of the pathological mechanisms leading to the disturbance of retinal tissue homeostasis in DR. Although severe DR can be treated as a vascular disease, abundant data suggests that inflammation is also occurring in the diabetic retina.Thus, anti-inflammatory therapies may also be useful for treatment and prevention of DR. Herein, the evidence for altered expression of angiogenic factors and cytokines in DR is reviewed and possible mechanisms by which the expression of VEGF and cytokines may be increased in the diabetic retina are examined. In addition, the potential role for microglial activation in diabetic retinal neuroinflammation is explored. PMID:24319628

  15. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bostak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type II diabetes mellitus and carries with it the threat of blindness. Accurate information regarding the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors is important in the prevention of its development and of the visual impairment caused by this complication. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients with type II diabetes mellitus. We have also evaluated the association of diabetic retinopathy with clinical and biochemical variables. In a cross-sectional study, 152 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus were referred from two outpatient clinics in Tehran for ophthalmologic exam to detect retinopathy. Indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed and data regarding risk factors were extracted from routine medical records. Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 13.8 %( 21 cases: three cases with microaneurysm only, 10 with mild, 5 with moderate and 2 with severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Only one patient had advanced proliferative retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with age, duration of disease, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure. Diabetic retinopathy is common in newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus patients. Ophthalmologic consultation is essential at the time of diagnosis for all patients.

  16. Results of a diabetic retinopathy screening. Risk markers analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancochea, G; Martín Sánchez, M D

    2016-01-01

    To identify risk markers for retinopathy in patients from our geographic area, and to compare them with those published in other studies. To design a screening interval strategy, taking into account these results, and compare it with intervals suggested in published studies. Cross-sectional observational study on 383 diabetic patients with no previous retinopathy diagnosis, who were screened for diabetic retinopathy. An analysis was made on the possible association between patient factors and presence of retinopathy. A greater probability for finding retinopathy in diabetic patients was associated to insulin treatment in our study, with a statistical significance level of 95%. In patients with less than 10year onset of their diabetes, only mild retinopathy without macular oedema was found. Insulin treatment and time of onset of diabetes should be taken into account when designing efficient screening strategies for diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Retinal Imaging Techniques for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James Kang Hao; Cheung, Carol Y.; Sim, Shaun Sebastian; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, demand for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening platforms is steeply increasing. Early detection and treatment of DR are key public health interventions that can greatly reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Current DR screening programs typically employ retinal fundus photography, which relies on skilled readers for manual DR assessment. However, this is labor-intensive and suffers from inconsistency across sites. Hence, there has been a recent proliferation of automated retinal image analysis software that may potentially alleviate this burden cost-effectively. Furthermore, current screening programs based on 2-dimensional fundus photography do not effectively screen for diabetic macular edema (DME). Optical coherence tomography is becoming increasingly recognized as the reference standard for DME assessment and can potentially provide a cost-effective solution for improving DME detection in large-scale DR screening programs. Current screening techniques are also unable to image the peripheral retina and require pharmacological pupil dilation; ultra-widefield imaging and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, which address these drawbacks, possess great potential. In this review, we summarize the current DR screening methods using various retinal imaging techniques, and also outline future possibilities. Advances in retinal imaging techniques can potentially transform the management of patients with diabetes, providing savings in health care costs and resources. PMID:26830491

  18. Retinopathy in non diabetics, diabetic retinopathy and oxidative stress:a new phenotype in Central Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Longo-Mbenza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the rates of retinopathy without diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR, associated with some markers of oxidative stress, antioxidants and cardiometabolic risk factors.METHODS: We determined the prevalence of DR in 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients, that of retinopathy in 50 non diabetics, the levels of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, lipids, 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, gamma-glutamyl transferase GT (GGT, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, uric acid, creatinine, albumin, total antioxidant status (TAOS, zinc, selenium, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, glucose, apolipoprotein B (ApoB.RESULTS: The prevalences of DR at 53y and Rtp at 62y were 44% (n=66 and 10% (n=5, respectively. The highest levels of 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG, TBARS, SOD, and OxLDL were in DR. The lowest levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, TAOS, and vitamin E were in DR. In the case-control study discriminant analysis, the levels of vitamin C, vitamin D, ApoB, 8-OHdG, creatinine, Zn, vitamin E, and WC distinguished significantly non-diabetics without DR (controls, T2DM patients without DR and T2DM patients with DR.CONCLUSION: Anticipation of DR onset is significantly associated with the exageration of oxidative stress biomarkers or decrease of antioxidants in African type 2 diabetics. Prevention of oxidative stress and abdominal obesity is needed. Supplementation in vitamin C, D, and E should be recommended as complement therapies of T2DM.

  19. Treatment of severe proliferative retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, C G; Hardy, K J

    1999-01-01

    Strict blood glucose control, early detection and surveillance of diabetic retinopathy by means of validated screening programmes, and judicious use of laser photocoagulation can greatly reduce the risk of visual loss in diabetes. Some patients however, have aggressive neovascular disease resistant to laser treatment, or present at a late stage with advanced fibroproliferative disease, and may progress rapidly to blindness. In the elderly with Type 2 disease, diabetic maculopathy is more common and requires a different therapeutic approach. The present article describes two diabetic patients and discusses the management of patients with severe proliferative retinopathy or diabetic maculopathy. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Current approaches to the management of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana Yul'evna Demidova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review reflects the current status of the diabetic retinopathy treatment problem and describes the results of the largest trials on epidemiology, screening and the risk factors for complications. In addition, this article describes the current approaches and treatment options for diabetic retinopathy, including a description of fenofibroic acid with its mechanism of action and data from clinical trials. This article also contains information on antiangiogenic agents for intravitreal administration.

  1. The North Jutland County Diabetic Retinopathy Study (NCDRS): population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Loumann; Lervang, Hans-Henrik; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Background: Several population-based studies have reported blood glucose levels and blood pressure to be risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy. These studies were initiated more than two decades ago and may therefore reflect the treatment and population composition of a previous...... era, suggesting new studies of the present population with diabetes. Aim and methods: This cross-section study included 656 people with type 1 diabetes and 328 with type 2 diabetes. Crude prevalence rates of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, clinically significant macular oedema and several specific...... retinal lesions were assessed, together with their association to a simplified and internationally approved retinal grading. Results: The point prevalence of proliferative retinopathy was found to be 0.8% and 0.3% for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Equivalent prevalence rates of clinically significant...

  2. Factors Associated With Progression Of Diabetic Retinopathy, A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a progressive sight threatening diabetic complication. The prognosis seems to be related to largely modifiable risk factors. Objectives: The aim of the study was to identify factors that could be associated with progression of DR. among adult diabetic patients attending primary health ...

  3. DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY USING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Priya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is an eye disease caused by the complication of diabetes and we should detect it early for effective treatment. As diabetes progresses, the vision of a patient may start to deteriorate and lead to diabetic retinopathy. As a result, two groups were identified, namely non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR. In this paper, to diagnose diabetic retinopathy, three models like Probabilistic Neural network (PNN, Bayesian Classification and Support vector machine (SVM are described and their performances are compared. The amount of the disease spread in the retina can be identified by extracting the features of the retina. The features like blood vessels, haemmoraghes of NPDR image and exudates of PDR image are extracted from the raw images using the image processing techniques and fed to the classifier for classification. A total of 350 fundus images were used, out of which 100 were used for training and 250 images were used for testing. Experimental results show that PNN has an accuracy of 89.6 % Bayes Classifier has an accuracy of 94.4% and SVM has an accuracy of 97.6%. This infers that the SVM model outperforms all other models. Also our system is also run on 130 images available from “DIARETDB0: Evaluation Database and Methodology for Diabetic Retinopathy” and the results show that PNN has an accuracy of 87.69% Bayes Classifier has an accuracy of 90.76% and SVM has an accuracy of 95.38%.

  4. Medical management of diabetic retinopathy: fenofibrate and ACCORD Eye studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A D; Dodson, P M

    2011-07-01

    The approach of all ophthalmologists, diabetologists and general practitioners seeing patients with diabetic retinopathy should be that good control of blood glucose, blood pressure and plasma lipids are all essential components of modern medical management. The more recent data on the use of fenofibrate in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) and The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Eye studies is reviewed. In FIELD, fenofibrate (200 mg/day) reduced the requirements for laser therapy and prevented disease progression in patients with pre-existing diabetic retinopathy. In ACCORD Eye, fenofibrate (160 mg daily) with simvastatin resulted in a 40% reduction in the odds of retinopathy progressing over 4 years, compared with simvastatin alone. This occurred with an increase in HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in the serum triglyceride level in the fenofibrate group, as compared with the placebo group, and was independent of glycaemic control. We believe fenofibrate is effective in preventing progression of established diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and should be considered for patients with pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and/or diabetic maculopathy, particularly in those with macular oedema requiring laser.

  5. [New concepts on diabetic retinopathy: neural versus vascular damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrarbassa, Pedro Durães; Dias, Alana Ferreira Gomes; Vieira, Marcio Fragoso

    2008-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of irreversible legal blindness in working-age adults. The number of people worldwide at risk of developing vision loss from diabetes is predicted to double over the next 30 years. Some elements suggest that neurodegenerative changes occur beyond vascular damage. These changes include increased apoptosis, glial cell reactivity, microglial activation, and altered glutamate metabolism, and could explain some of the functional abnormalities that begin soon after the onset of diabetes, as early changes in electroretinogram. This review article will present some evidences that point out neurodegeneration as a possible initial event in diabetic retinopathy.

  6. A needs assessment of people living with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, C. E.; Hall, A. B.; Kok, G; Mallya, J.; Courtright, P

    2016-01-01

    Background The Kilimanjaro Diabetic Programme was initiated in response to the needs of people living with diabetes (PWLD) to identify barriers to uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy, to improve management of diabetes, and establish an affordable, sustainable eye screening and treatment programme for diabetic retinopathy. Intervention Mapping was used as the framework for the needs assessment. Methods A mixed methods approach was used. Five psychometric measures, Diabetes Knowledge Q...

  7. Ultrastructure of neurovascular changes in human diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Taurone, Samanta; Spoletini, Marialuisa; Biró, Zsolt; Varsányi, Balázs; Scuderi, Gianluca; Orlando, Maria Patrizia; Turchetta, Rosaria; Micera, Alessandra; Artico, Marco

    2017-12-01

    The previous concept regarding diabetic retinopathy assigned a primary role to hyperglycemia-induced microvascular alterations, while neuronal and glial abnormalities were considered to be secondary to either ischemia or exudation. The aim of this study was to reveal the potential role of neuronal and glial cells in initial and advanced alterations of the retinopathy in human type 2 diabetes. Electron microscopy and histochemical studies were performed on 38 surgically removed human eyes (28 obtained from diabetic patients and 10 from non-diabetic patients). Morphometric analysis of basement membrane material and lipids was performed. An accumulation of metabolic by-products was found in the capillary wall with aging: this aspect was significantly more pronounced in diabetics. Müller glial cells were found to contribute to alterations of the capillary wall and to occlusion, as well as to the development of proliferative retinopathy and cystoid degeneration of the retina. Our results showed morphological evidence regarding the role of neuronal and glial cells in the pathology of diabetic retinopathy, prior and in addition to microangiopathy. These morphological findings support a neurovascular pathogenesis at the origin of diabetic retinopathy, thus the current treatment approach should be completed by neuroprotective measures.

  8. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is associated with microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Boelter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in working-age individuals. Diabetic patients with proteinuria or those on dialysis usually present severe forms of diabetic retinopathy, but the association of diabetic retinopathy with early stages of diabetic nephropathy has not been entirely established. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1214 type 2 diabetic patients to determine whether microalbuminuria is associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in these patients. Patients were evaluated by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and grouped according to the presence or absence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The agreement of diabetic retinopathy classification performed by ophthalmoscopy and by stereoscopic color fundus photographs was 95.1% (kappa = 0.735; P < 0.001. Demographic information, smoking history, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, glycemic and lipid profile, and urinary albumin were evaluated. On multiple regression analysis, diabetic nephropathy (OR = 5.18, 95% CI = 2.91-9.22, P < 0.001, insulin use (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.47-4.31, P = 0.001 and diabetes duration (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, P = 0.011 were positively associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and body mass index (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.96, P < 0.001 was negatively associated with it. When patients with macroalbuminuria and on dialysis were excluded, microalbuminuria (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.56-6.98, P = 0.002 remained associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, type 2 diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy more often presented renal involvement, including urinary albumin excretion within the microalbuminuria range. Therefore, all patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy should undergo an evaluation of renal function including urinary albumin measurements.

  9. Deep image mining for diabetic retinopathy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwenolé; Charrière, Katia; Boudi, Yassine; Cochener, Béatrice; Lamard, Mathieu

    2017-07-01

    Deep learning is quickly becoming the leading methodology for medical image analysis. Given a large medical archive, where each image is associated with a diagnosis, efficient pathology detectors or classifiers can be trained with virtually no expert knowledge about the target pathologies. However, deep learning algorithms, including the popular ConvNets, are black boxes: little is known about the local patterns analyzed by ConvNets to make a decision at the image level. A solution is proposed in this paper to create heatmaps showing which pixels in images play a role in the image-level predictions. In other words, a ConvNet trained for image-level classification can be used to detect lesions as well. A generalization of the backpropagation method is proposed in order to train ConvNets that produce high-quality heatmaps. The proposed solution is applied to diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening in a dataset of almost 90,000 fundus photographs from the 2015 Kaggle Diabetic Retinopathy competition and a private dataset of almost 110,000 photographs (e-ophtha). For the task of detecting referable DR, very good detection performance was achieved: Az=0.954 in Kaggle's dataset and Az=0.949 in e-ophtha. Performance was also evaluated at the image level and at the lesion level in the DiaretDB1 dataset, where four types of lesions are manually segmented: microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates and cotton-wool spots. For the task of detecting images containing these four lesion types, the proposed detector, which was trained to detect referable DR, outperforms recent algorithms trained to detect those lesions specifically, with pixel-level supervision. At the lesion level, the proposed detector outperforms heatmap generation algorithms for ConvNets. This detector is part of the Messidor® system for mobile eye pathology screening. Because it does not rely on expert knowledge or manual segmentation for detecting relevant patterns, the proposed solution is a promising image mining

  10. Patient Attitudes Toward Telemedicine for Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valikodath, Nita G; Leveque, Thellea K; Wang, Sophia Y; Lee, Paul P; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Hansen, Sean O; Woodward, Maria A

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of new-onset blindness in adults. Telemedicine is a validated, cost-effective method to improve monitoring. However, little is known of patients' attitudes toward telemedicine for DR. Our study explores factors that influence patients' attitudes toward participating in telemedicine. Ninety seven participants in a university and the Veterans Administration setting completed a survey. Only people with diabetes mellitus (DM) were included. The main outcome was willingness to participate in telemedicine. The other outcomes were perceived convenience and impact on the patient-physician relationship. Participants reported demographic information, comorbidities, and access to healthcare. Analysis was performed with t-tests and multivariable logistic regression. Demographic factors were not associated with the outcomes (all p > 0.05). Patients had decreased odds of willingness if they valued the patient-physician relationship (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.08, confidence interval [CI] = 0.02-0.35, p = 0.001) or had a longer duration of diabetes (adjusted OR = 0.93, CI = 0.88-0.99, p = 0.02). Patients had increased odds of willingness if they perceived increased convenience (adjusted OR = 8.10, CI = 1.77-36.97, p = 0.01) or had more systemic comorbidities (adjusted OR = 1.85, CI = 1.10-3.11, p = 0.02). It is critical to understand the attitudes of people with DM where telemedicine shows promise for disease management and end-organ damage prevention. Patients' attitudes are influenced by their health and perceptions, but not by their demographics. Receptive patients focus on convenience, whereas unreceptive patients strongly value their patient-physician relationships or have long-standing DM. Telemedicine monitoring should be designed for people who are in need and receptive to telemedicine.

  11. [Pro-inflammatory serum cytokines in diabetic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Da Mota, Sergio Eustolio; Soto-Bahena, José Juan; Viveros-Sandoval, Martha Eva; Cardiel-Ríos, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in diabetic retinopathy. There is conflicting evidence about their serum elevation in this condition and that they also may be possible serum inflammatory biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy. To evaluate the presence of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants in the serum of patients with and without diabetic retinopathy. Comparative case series with 36 patients divided into three groups were included: 12 patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy (group 1), 12 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (group 2), and 12 healthy patients as a control group. Serum levels of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in all patients: TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers measurements were also performed, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in group 1 (TNF-α: 19.4 ± 10.9 pg/ml, IL-6: 5.75 ± 7 pg/ml) compared to the other two groups, although the difference was statistically significant only in the case of TNF-α (group 1: 19.4 ± 10.9 pg/ml, group 2: 14 ± 4.3 pg/ml and control: 8.49 ± 3.69 pg/ml, p = 0.001). There were no differences among pro-inflammatory biomarkers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein. among the three groups (p > 0.05). Pro-- inflammatory serum cytokine levels were higher in the diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy group. Larger studies are warranted to establish the real impact of this finding. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Local retinal sensitivity in relation to specific retinopathy lesions in diabetic macular oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Wael; Hasler, Pascal; Sander, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and recently diagnosed untreated DMO. Investigations included microperimetry, fluorescein angiography, colour fundus photography, and OCT. All measures and gradings were made for each of the nine fields of an early treatment diabetic retinopathy study macula template...

  13. PLVAP in diabetic retinopathy: A gatekeeper of angiogenesis and vascular permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiśniewska-Kruk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, approximately 4 million people worldwide experience blindness or severe vision loss caused by diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a multifactorial disease that can progress from minor changes in vascular permeability, into a proliferative retinal disorder. The increasing

  14. Awareness of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkar, May M; Haddad, Mera F; Gammoh, Yazan S

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the level of awareness of diabetic retinopathy among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered an important factor for early diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness of diabetic retinopathy among a sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Jordan. The study period was from August to December 2015. The sample was selected randomly from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the general population in three main cities of Jordan (Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa). A questionnaire was distributed to 237 participants with diabetes to assess their awareness and knowledge of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. The questionnaire included questions to assess awareness about diabetic retinopathy, sources of knowledge about the disease, and patients' knowledge and compliance with available treatments and routine eye examinations. Patients were also questioned about the barriers that may interfere with early eye examination. A total of 237 participants (107 [45.1%] females and 130 [54.9%] males) with type 2 diabetes were interviewed. Mean age±SD for the study population was 54.51±10.28 years. Of the study population, 88.2% were aware that diabetes can affect the eyes and 81% reported that diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness. Higher level of patients' awareness of diabetic retinopathy was related to higher level of formal education (pdiabetic retinopathy as reported by 47.3% patients was general practitioners. Patients' compliance with diabetes management was relatively high; however, their compliance with routine retinal assessment was poor, with only a total of 29.5% of participants having had an eye examination in the previous year. Awareness of the nature and consequences of diabetic retinopathy among patients with diabetes in Jordan is relatively high. However, patients' motivation to undergo retinal assessment was poor in the sample, thus hindering early diagnosis and management.

  15. Evaluation the index of ophthalmic arteries in diabetic patients with retinopathy compared to diabetic patients without retinopathy using color Doppler ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghasem Hanafi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye complication in diabetic patients that early detection of this complication is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate ophthalmic artery index in diabetic retinopathy by Doppler ultrasound. . In this cross-sectional study, 64 patients were studied in 4 groups (healthy, diabetic without retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy. Resistance index (RI and Pulsatile Index (PI were assessed by color Doppler ultrasound. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test and ROC curve. RI in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy has the highest mean (0.83 and the lowest mean was observed in healthy subjects (0.54 (P <0.001 as well as in PI, the highest rate was in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy (1.41 and the lowest was in healthy subjects (0.92 (P <0.001. The results of our study showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy of RI and PI in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy in the best cut-off points (0.645 and 1.0175 respectively were 100%.Ophthalmic artery index RI and PI was significantly increased in patients with diabetic retinopathy and the sensitivity and specificity for detection retinopathy was 100%. Color Doppler ultrasound method is more efficient for screening diabetic patients with retinopathy.

  16. OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesper, Peter L; Soetikno, Brian T; Zhang, Hao F; Fawzi, Amani A

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques have increased our understanding of diabetic retinopathy, an important microvascular complication of diabetes. OCT angiography is a non-invasive method that visualizes the retinal vasculature by detecting motion contrast from flowing blood. Visible-light OCT shows promise as a novel technique for quantifying retinal hypoxia by measuring the retinal oxygen delivery and metabolic rates. In this article, we discuss recent insights provided by these techniques into the vascular pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy. The next milestones for these modalities are large multicenter studies to establish consensus on the most reliable and consistent outcome parameters to study diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Chua, Chua Kuang; Lim, Choo Min; Ng, E Y K; Laude, Augustinus

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus may cause alterations in the retinal microvasculature leading to diabetic retinopathy. Unchecked, advanced diabetic retinopathy may lead to blindness. It can be tedious and time consuming to decipher subtle morphological changes in optic disk, microaneurysms, hemorrhage, blood vessels, macula, and exudates through manual inspection of fundus images. A computer aided diagnosis system can significantly reduce the burden on the ophthalmologists and may alleviate the inter and intra observer variability. This review discusses the available methods of various retinal feature extractions and automated analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... VI, VIII, XII, and XIV collagen were newly identified. Diabetic BM thickening appears to involve qualitative alterations of specific BM markers at an advanced disease stage, with the appearance of DR....

  19. Association of serum and vitreous concentrations of osteoprotegerin with diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gehua; Ji, Xiaoyan; Jin, Ji; Bu, Shuyang

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Osteoprotegerin, a recently identified glycoprotein belonging to the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been implicated to be correlated with angiogenesis. This study aims to determine whether serum and vitreous concentrations of osteoprotegerin are associated with diabetic retinopathy. This study consisted of 254 diabetic patients (100 without diabetic retinopathy, 64 with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 90 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy) and 62 control subjects. Serum and vitreous concentrations of osteoprotegerin were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients were significantly elevated compared with those of the other three groups. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients showed elevated concentrations of serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin compared with patients without diabetic retinopathy. In addition, control subjects had significantly lower serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin concentrations compared with diabetic patients without retinopathy, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients and proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. Serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin concentrations are associated with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Clinical features of diabetes retinopathy in elderly patients with type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-29

    Nov 29, 2014 ... Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of diabetes retinopathy (DR) in elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Northern Chinese. Materials and Methods: 595 eligible subjects (263 men, 332 women) assisted by the community health service center.

  1. Assessment of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed black African patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the associated risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study. Setting: Eye clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Africans aged 20 years ...

  2. Diabetic Retinopathy in Nnewi, Nigeria | Nwosu | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic retinopathy is not rare in Nigerians. Diabetics should be educated on the ocular complications of the disease. Since laser and vitreo-retinal surgery will reduce visual loss in the patients, these facilities should be provided in eye hospitals in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology Vol. 8, No.1 (August 2000): pp ...

  3. Prevalence And Factors Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy, A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains one of the major causes of vision loss and blindness in young adults despite the availability of effective treatment. Objective: To determine the prevalence of DR among adult diabetic patients attending primary health care centers in Kuwait and to identify factors that could be ...

  4. Clinical features of diabetes retinopathy in elderly patients with type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of diabetes retinopathy (DR) in elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Northern Chinese. Materials and Methods: 595 eligible subjects (263 men, 332 women) assisted by the community health service center in Beijing, China ...

  5. Early visual cortical structural changes in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fábio S; Pereira, João M S; Reis, Aldina; Sanches, Mafalda; Duarte, João V; Gomes, Leonor; Moreno, Carolina; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    It is known that diabetic patients have changes in cortical morphometry as compared to controls, but it remains to be clarified whether the visual cortex is a disease target, even when diabetes complications such as retinopathy are absent. Therefore, we compared type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy with control subjects using magnetic resonance imaging to assess visual cortical changes when retinal damage is not yet present. We performed T1-weighted imaging in 24 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy and 27 age- and gender-matched controls to compare gray matter changes in the occipital cortex between groups using voxel based morphometry. Patients without diabetic retinopathy showed reduced gray matter volume in the occipital lobe when compared with controls. Reduced gray matter volume in the occipital cortex was found in diabetic patients without retinal damage. We conclude that cortical early visual processing regions may be affected in diabetic patients even before retinal damage occurs.

  6. Impairment of Colour Vision in Diabetes with No Retinopathy: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SNDREAMS- II, Report 3)

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmi Gella; Rajiv Raman; Vaitheeswaran Kulothungan; Swakshyar Saumya Pal; Suganeswari Ganesan; Tarun Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess impairment of colour vision in type 2 diabetics with no diabetic retinopathy and elucidate associated risk factors in a population-based cross-sectional study. Methods This is part of Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II) which was conducted between 2007?2010. FM 100 hue-test was performed in 253 subjects with no clinical evidence of diabetic retinopathy. All subjects underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation includin...

  7. Diabetic retinopathy in type two diabetic patients: Epidemiology and modern view on the pathogenesis. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vorobieva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of late microvascular complications — diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy — in type 2 diabetic pa- tients is associated with higher invalidization risk and lethality. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in people of work- ing age in developed countries. Classical approach to diabetic retinal damage pathogenesis is widened and considered at the molecular level in terms of cell interactions during angiogenesis. In this literal review the actual epidemiological data is presented along with therole of angiogenic factors in diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy pathogenesis.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS IN TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The study objective was to examine the effect of glycaemic control and variations on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR among the diabetes mellitus patients visiting Medicine and Ophthalmology OPD Sapthagiri Medical college, Bangalore. MATERIALS AND METHODS 10 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and 70 persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus, visiting the Medicine OPD of Sapthagiri Medical College and referred to Ophthalmology department of the above to detect the Diabetic Retinopathy changes in a diabetes mellitus management programme conducted for 3 months in Bangalore, participated in the study. Patients who were followed up for 6 months the same above were also included in the study. Analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the risk factors, incidence and progression of Diabetic Retinopathy among Diabetes Mellitus patients and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES To determine the risk factors associated with it, stage of retinopathy diagnosed at presentation, management of it, and final visual outcome. The prevention is by strict glycaemic control, prompt use of anti-diabetic drugs and regular exercises. These included age and gender-adjusted prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, 1 and correlation of prevalence with history-based risk factors. RESULTS The three months cumulative incidence of DR was 58 %in type I diabetes mellitus and 42 % among type II Diabetes mellitus. After controlling for known risk factors for DR,1 a high baseline haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, ethnicity, age, type of diabetes mellitus, duration were associated with the incidence of referable DR in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rate of diabetes in urban Bangalore 28.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in general population was 3.5% (95% CI. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the population with diabetes

  9. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  10. Epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jun; Chen, Baihua

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), which arises as a result of an increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus, has gradually become a common disease. Due to its complex pathogenesis, the treatment means of DR are very limited. The findings of several studies have shown that instituting tight glycemic control in diabetic patients does not immediately benefit the progression of retinopathy, and the benefits of good control persist beyond the period of good glycemic control. This has led to the concept of persistent epigenetic changes. Epigenetics has now become an increasingly important area of biomedical research. Recently, important roles of various epigenetic mechanisms have been identified in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the epigenetics and epigenetic mechanisms in diabetes and diabetes complications, and the focus is on the emerging evidence for aberrant epigenetic mechanisms in DR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Diabetic Retinopathy Barometer Study: Global perspectives on access to and experiences of diabetic retinopathy screening and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavan, D; Makaroff, L; da Rocha Fernandes, J; Sylvanowicz, M; Ackland, P; Conlon, J; Chaney, D; Malhi, A; Barratt, J

    2017-07-01

    To assess the level of awareness, prevention and treatment of Diabetic Eye Disease (DED) comprising Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Diabetic Macula Edema (DME) retinopathy among adults with diabetes and health professionals. The Diabetic Retinopathy Barometer Study consisted of a qualitative study, which consisted of semi-structured interviews, and a quantitative study using online surveys for adults with diabetes and for health professionals. A total of 4340 adults with diabetes and 2329 health professionals participated in the surveys. Diabetic eye disease (DED) without macular edema (DME) was reported by 19.5% of adults with diabetes and a further 7.6% reported that they had DME. Although 94% of adults with diabetes saw a health care professional for their diabetes, only 79% had ever had an eye examination for DED, and 23% had not had an eye examination in the last year. Moreover, 65% of the ophthalmologists surveyed reported that most patients presented when visual problems had already occurred. Overall, 62% of people with DED had received treatment. Of these, 74% had laser therapy, 29% surgery and 24% anti-VEGF therapy. Strategic investment is required to enhance patient education and professional training on the importance of regular eye examinations; and in providing accessible DR screening programmes and proactive treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical coherence tomography angiography discerns preclinical diabetic retinopathy in eyes of patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan; Yang, Dawei; Huang, Zhongning; Zeng, Yunkao; Wang, Jun; Hu, Yunyan; Zhang, Liang

    2018-02-16

    To investigate changes in retinal vascular plexuses and choriocapillaris in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) without diabetic retinopathy (DR) and healthy controls using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A total of 71 DM2 and 67 healthy control subjects were included. All subjects underwent OCTA examination (RTVue-XR Avanti; Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA). Average vessel density in superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP) and choriocapillaris, parafoveal vessel density in SCP and DCP, FAZ area (mm 2 ) in SCP, microaneurysms and capillary nonperfusion were taken into analysis. Parafoveal vessel density in both SCP and DCP decreased in the eyes without clinical DR compared to normal controls (p Diabetic patients with no signs of DR also had a significant reduction in average vessel density of SCP, DCP and choriocapillaris (p diabetic eyes, and capillary nonperfusion was noted in 18 of 71 diabetic eyes. We demonstrated that OCTA can identify preclinical DR before the manifestation of clinically apparent retinopathy in diabetic eyes. DM2 patients without DR have SCP, DCP and choriocapillaris impairment. Our results suggested that OCTA might be a promising tool for regular screening of diabetic eyes for DR.

  13. [Computer program for medical records of patients with diabetic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidescu, Livia; Ignat, Florica; Popescu, G L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to point out the advantages or the computerised evidence in patients with diabetic retinopathy examined in "Diabetic Eye Department" from Ophthalmology Clinic Craiova. This program represents a new national performance regarding the evidence of the diabetic patients clinic examination. The main characteristics of our program are the accessibility and the coherence; the utility of this program has been demonstrated by long term use and the big number of patents recorded.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors associated with retinopathy in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duration of diabetes mellitus (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, p value ˂ 0.001) and lower serum creatinine (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.00, p value 0.025). The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 28.4%. Longer duration of diabetes mellitus and lower serum creatinine, which is a marker of renal damage, were independent risk ...

  15. Medical management of diabetic retinopathy: fenofibrate and ACCORD Eye studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, A. D.; Dodson, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    The approach of all ophthalmologists, diabetologists and general practitioners seeing patients with diabetic retinopathy should be that good control of blood glucose, blood pressure and plasma lipids are all essential components of modern medical management. The more recent data on the use of fenofibrate in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) and The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Eye studies is reviewed. In FIELD, fenofibrate (200 m...

  16. Rates of progression in diabetic retinopathy during different time periods: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Tien Y; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Klein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviews rates of progression of diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and/or severe visual loss (SVL) and temporal trends.......This meta-analysis reviews rates of progression of diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and/or severe visual loss (SVL) and temporal trends....

  17. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type II diabetic patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in known diabetic patients attending the diabetes outpatient department ... regular medication, diet and exercise to avoid development and progress of DR. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus ... Type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM II) is a chronic progressive condition which is ...

  18. Influence of serum lipids on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and macular oedema: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular genetics Study-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Raman, Rajiv; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Swaminathan, Gayathri; Sharma, Tarun

    2017-12-01

    The importance of lipids on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy has not been studied in the Indian population. To elucidate the influence of serum lipid control on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Population-based longitudinal observational study in a hospital setting. Eight hundred ninety subjects were examined at baseline and follow-up. Diabetic retinopathy was graded per Modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scales; 45°, 4-field dilated stereoscopic digital photography was performed with an additional 30°, 7-field for those who had retinopathy. Macular oedema was evaluated per Proposed International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Oedema Disease Severity Scales. Association of serum lipids and incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Poor control of total cholesterol was associated with the incidence of sight-threatening retinopathy (odds ratio = 7.2 [95% confidence interval: 1.5-34.3], P = 0.012) and macular oedema (odds ratio = 5.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.4-27.4], P = 0.037) after adjusting for potential confounders. Poor control of triglycerides was associated with progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio = 3.2 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-10.5], P = 0.048). Risk for incident macular oedema (P = 0.041) and progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.028) was greater when all lipid types were abnormal. Poor control of lipids is a risk factor for incidence of and progression to late stages of retinopathy. Abnormal levels of all lipid types are associated with risk of incident macular oedema and progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Calcium dobesilate in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Ricardo P; Hannaert, Patrick; Chiavaroli, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of diabetic retinopathy is still increasing in developed countries. Tight glycemic control and laser therapy reduce vision loss and blindness, but do not reverse existing ocular damage and only slow the progression of the disease. New pharmacologic agents that are currently under development and are specifically directed against clearly defined biochemical targets (i.e. aldose reductase inhibitors and protein kinase C-beta inhibitors) have failed to demonstrate significant efficacy in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in clinical trials. In contrast, calcium dobesilate (2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonate), which was discovered more than 40 years ago and is registered for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in more than 20 countries remains, to our knowledge, the only angioprotective agent that reduces the progression of this disease. An overall review of published studies involving calcium dobesilate (CLS 2210) depicts a rather 'non-specific' compound acting moderately, but significantly, on the various and complex disorders that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have shown that calcium dobesilate is a potent antioxidant, particularly against the highly damaging hydroxyl radical. In addition, it improves diabetic endothelial dysfunction, reduces apoptosis, and slows vascular cell proliferation.

  20. Language barrier and its relationship to diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingfeng; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Chiang, Pei-Chia Peggy; Anuar, Ainur Rahman; Ding, Jie; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien Y

    2012-09-13

    Language barrier is an important determinant of health care access and health. We examined the associations of English proficiency with type-2 diabetes (T2DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asian Indians living in Singapore, an urban city where English is the predominant language of communication. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. T2DM was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5%, use of diabetic medication or a physician diagnosis of diabetes. Retinal photographs were graded for the severity of DR including vision-threatening DR (VTDR). Presenting visual impairment (VI) was defined as LogMAR visual acuity > 0.30 in the better-seeing eye. English proficiency at the time of interview was assessed. The analyses included 2,289 (72.1%) English-speaking and 885 (27.9%) Tamil-speaking Indians. Tamil-speaking Indians had significantly higher prevalence of T2DM (46.2 vs. 34.7%, p Social policies and health interventions that address language-related health disparities may help reduce the public health impact of T2DM in societies with heterogeneous populations.

  1. [Epidemiology and regional differences of diabetic retinopathy in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarião, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves; Arantes, Tiago Eugênio Faria de; Figueiroa Filho, Natanael Cavalcanti; Urtiga, Ricardo de Deus; Florêncio, Telma Lúcia Tabosa; Arcoverde, Ana Lúcia de Andrade Lima

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy among patients cared for in a screening program in Pernambuco, Brazil, comparing regional differences between urban and rural zones. The charts of 2,223 diabetic patients (1,568 females and 655 males; mean age 59.3 +/- 12.0 years; mean duration of diabetes 8.1 +/- 6.3 years) that took part in a screening program for diabetic retinopathy at Altino Ventura Foundation from June 2004 to June 2005 were reviewed for the presence of the disease. Patients were divided into two groups: group I, patients living in Recife and the metropolitan area; group II, patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state. In group I, 477 (24.2%) patients had diabetic retinophathy, while in group II, 89 (39.4%) patients (pdescentralization actions are recommended for improvement of screening quality in patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state.

  2. Risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes patients at teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abougalambou, Salwa Selim Ibrahim; Abougalambou, Ayman S

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in the United States and it is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in adults aged 20-74. It is estimated that about 20% of patients with type 2 DM have evidence of diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis with diabetes. To evaluate the prevalence of DR and to determine risk factors related to diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes patients attending endocrinology clinics at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The study design was observational prospective longitudinal follow-up study, the study was conducted with sample of 1077 type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatient recruited via attended the diabetes clinics at HUSM. Diagnosis of retinopathy is based on finding the diagnostic signs of retinopathy on eye exams by fundoscopy. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent variables that affect the development of retinopathy. The prevalence of retinopathy was 39.3%. It has been noticed from this study findings, that the progression of retinopathy is been influenced by five independent risk factors such as duration of diabetes, presence neuropathy, total cholesterol at second and third visit and createnine clearance. DR is highly prevalent among type 2 DM. The progression of retinopathy is been influenced by five independent risk factors such as duration of diabetes, presence neuropathy, total cholesterol at second and third visit and createnine clearance. DR is a serious diabetic complication and public health strategies are required in order to reduce its risk factors and decrease its prevalence. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Workflow: Potential for Smartphone Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Nigel M; Giardini, Mario E; Bastawrous, Andrew

    2015-11-23

    Complications of diabetes mellitus, namely diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy, are the leading cause of blindness in working aged people. Sufferers can avoid blindness if identified early via retinal imaging. Systematic screening of the diabetic population has been shown to greatly reduce the prevalence and incidence of blindness within the population. Many national screening programs have digital fundus photography as their basis. In the past 5 years several techniques and adapters have been developed that allow digital fundus photography to be performed using smartphones. We review recent progress in smartphone-based fundus imaging and discuss its potential for integration into national systematic diabetic retinopathy screening programs. Some systems have produced promising initial results with respect to their agreement with reference standards. However further multisite trialling of such systems' use within implementable screening workflows is required if an evidence base strong enough to affect policy change is to be established. If this were to occur national diabetic retinopathy screening would, for the first time, become possible in low- and middle-income settings where cost and availability of trained eye care personnel are currently key barriers to implementation. As diabetes prevalence and incidence is increasing sharply in these settings, the impact on global blindness could be profound. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. RETINOPATHY IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND SERUM MAGNESIUM LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Experimental studies in animals and cross - sectional studies in humans have suggested that low serum magnesium levels might lead to type 2diabetes; however, this association has not been examined prospectively. METHODS: A total of randomly selected 100 diagnosed cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus admitted in Medicine wards, were taken for study considering the inclusion an d exclusion criteria. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed by direct fundoscopy. Serum magnesium was measured by calmagite dye method. RESULTS : Patients with diabetic retinopathy (n=30 were found to have lower mean serum magnesium level (1.6mg/dl than those without retinopathy (n=74, Mg= 2mg/dl. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. This comparison was statistically significant (P value < 0.05 There was no significant association between low serum magnesium level with respect to age, sex , duration of diabetes. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION : In this study, it was observed that poor glycemic control among diabetics was significantly associated with low serum magnesium. There was strong association which was statistically significant between l ow serum magnesium and diabetic retinopathy. Hence it is observed that the low serum magnesium may have an adverse bearing on complications and morbidity in patients of diabetes. Because hypomagnesemia has been linked to various micro- and macrovascular co mplications, a better understanding of Mg metabolism and efforts to minimize hypomagnesemia in the routine management of diabetes are warranted. In view of above observations and results of earlier studies done, the treatment of the patients with diabetes would require a multidisciplinary approach whereby every potential complicating factor must be monitored closely and treated

  5. Awareness of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakkar MM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available May M Bakkar,1 Mera F Haddad,1 Yazan S Gammoh2 1Department of Allied Medical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Department of Optometry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan Background: Increasing the level of awareness of diabetic retinopathy among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered an important factor for early diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness of diabetic retinopathy among a sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Jordan. Patients and methods: The study period was from August to December 2015. The sample was selected randomly from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the general population in three main cities of Jordan (Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. A questionnaire was distributed to 237 participants with diabetes to assess their awareness and knowledge of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. The questionnaire included questions to assess awareness about diabetic retinopathy, sources of knowledge about the disease, and patients’ knowledge and compliance with available treatments and routine eye examinations. Patients were also questioned about the barriers that may interfere with early eye examination. Results: A total of 237 participants (107 [45.1%] females and 130 [54.9%] males with type 2 diabetes were interviewed. Mean age±SD for the study population was 54.51±10.28 years. Of the study population, 88.2% were aware that diabetes can affect the eyes and 81% reported that diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness. Higher level of patients’ awareness of diabetic retinopathy was related to higher level of formal education (p<0.05. The main source of information about diabetic retinopathy as reported by 47.3% patients was general practitioners. Patients’ compliance with diabetes management was relatively high; however, their

  6. barriers to an effective diabetic retinopathy service in ibadan, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    availability of an argon laser machine and a vitrectomy machine (both donated to the hospital). The proportion of diabetics with retinopathy in the clinic was 42.1% which is higher than .... recording was done with an encrypted digital Dictaphone and was transcribed. The recording in Yoruba was transcribed and translated to.

  7. Incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy within a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. In South Africa, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the fourth leading cause of blindness, after cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration; and visual impairment, after refractive errors, cataracts and glaucoma; and the third leading cause of severe visual impairment, after refractive errors and cataracts ...

  8. Oxidative stress in diabetic patients with retinopathy | Kundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to analyze and correlate oxidative stress marker, Malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidants (erythrocyte glutathione, vitamin C) along with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. Materials and Methods: The study population ...

  9. Nondiabetic retinal pathology - prevalence in diabetic retinopathy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nathan; Jackson, Claire; Spurling, Geoffrey; Cranstoun, Peter

    2011-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of photographic signs of nondiabetic retinal pathology in Australian general practice patients with diabetes. Three hundred and seven patients with diabetes underwent retinal photography at two general practices, one of which was an indigenous health centre. The images were assessed for signs of pathology by an ophthalmologist. Signs of nondiabetic retinal pathology were detected in 31% of subjects with adequate photographs. Features suspicious of glaucoma were detected in 7.7% of subjects. Other abnormalities detected included signs of age related macular degeneration (1.9%), epiretinal membranes (2.4%), vascular pathology (9.6%), chorioretinal lesions (2.9%), and congenital disc anomalies (2.9%). Indigenous Australian patients were more likely to have signs of retinal pathology and glaucoma. Signs of nondiabetic retinal pathology were frequently encountered. In high risk groups, general practice based diabetic retinopathy screening may reduce the incidence of preventable visual impairment, beyond the benefits of detection of diabetic retinopathy alone.

  10. Microvascular retinopathy in subjects without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Kessel, Line; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2012-01-01

    tolerance testing, clinical and laboratory examinations, non-invasive ocular lens fluorometry and seven-field fundus photography. Results: Retinopathy was present in 8.3% (CI(95) 6.3-10.3%) of subjects. Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.032), increasing body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.014) and wider...

  11. The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Known Diabetic Population in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S K; Pant, B P; Subedi, P

    2016-01-01

    Background The worldwide prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was found to be 34.6%. WHO estimates that DR is responsible for 4.8% of the 37 million cases of blindness throughout the world. In a study undertaken in urban population in Nepal, M.D. Bhattarai found the prevalence of diabetes among people aged 20 years and above to be 14.6% and the prevalence among people aged 40 years and above to be 19%. Studies on DR, to our knowledge, have mostly been hospital based in Nepal. Little information is available about prevalence of DR at the community level in Nepal. Objective To investigate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors among known diabetic population of Nepal. Method A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among individuals aged 30 and more using cluster sampling method. The study sites were Kathmandu metropolitan city and Birgunj sub-metropolitan city. A sample size of 5400 was calculated assuming 5% prevalence rate with 95% confidence level, 5% worst acceptable level and 1.5 cluster sampling design effect. Study participants were interviewed, anthropometric measurements and fundus photograph was taken from participants with diabetes. Fundus photographs were used to grade retinopathy. Result Around 12% of the respondents were diabetic, mean age 55.43±11.86 years, of which slightly more than half were females (50.2%). Among these diabetic respondents 9.9% had some forms of diabetic retinopathy, mean age 54.08±10.34 years, 56.7% were male. When severe grade of retinopathy in any eye was considered as overall grade of retinopathy for the individual, prevalence of Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy, Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and complete vision loss was found to be 9.1%, 0.5% and 0.3%. Prevalence of Diabetic Macular Edema was 5.5%. Duration of diabetes, family history of diabetes and blood pressure at the day of survey was found to be associated with having any retinopathy. Conclusion Diabetic retinopathy

  12. [Diabetes self-management and its association with diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Yang, Xiu-fen; Deng, Yu; Gu, Hong; Ren, Xue-tao; Xu, Jun; Ma, Kai; Liu, Ning-pu

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the association of diabetic self-management with the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional study. Recruited patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Desheng community of urban Beijing between November 2009 and May 2011. All patients were surveyed using a standardized questionnaire and underwent detailed ophthalmic examination. Patients were classified into DR group or diabetic without retinopathy (DWR) group according to the grading of fundus color photographs using the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standard grading protocol. In the DR group, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was further defined. The overall levels of diabetes self-management in the study population were assessed and compared for the differences between DR and DWR, PDR and NPDR groups. One thousand one hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited. The prevalence of DR was 32.1% (353/1100) in the study population. Sixty-three percent (652/1035) of patients had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level less than 7.0%. The majority of patients (85.4%, 916/1072) conducted a diet control, 77.3% (827/1070) exercised, 56.0% (609/1088) monitored blood glucose regularly, 56.8% (416/733) detected HbA1c more than once every six months, 71.7% (762/1062) had ophthalmologic examination after the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 47.9% (525/1097) had mydriatic check-up. Increased risk of DR was associated with longer duration of diabetes (more than 10 years) (OR = 3.90, 95% CI:2.97-5.51, P obedience to diet control (OR = 1.72, 95% CI:1.22-2.43, P obedience to diet control and less exercise, which suggest that lower level of diabetic self-management increased the risk of DR.

  13. Correlation of various serum biomarkers with the severity of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, M; Raghavulu, B V; Annapurna, A; Avinash, P; Chandi, Vishala; Swathi, N; Wasim

    2017-11-01

    Hyperglycemia induced inflammation and angiogenic factors are implicated as a contributor to the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are inflammatory cytokines which induce retinal VEGF and are involved in the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Therefore the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between diabetic retinopathy and systemic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with T2DM, with or without diabetic retinopathy were included in the study. Serum inflammatory cytokines, vascular growth factor were studied in different stages of DR. Patients with T2DM with and without diabetic retinopathy were compared. Patients with diabetic retinopathy had increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines CRP, TNF-alpha, as well as VEGF compared to serum levels of diabetic patients without retinopathy. T2DM patients with retinopathy have higher levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines and VEGF compared to patients without retinopathy. These proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors are involved in the progression of DR and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The results showed the importance of inflammation and vascular endothelial growth factor in the progression of NPDR and PDR. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of intravitreal pharmacotherapies including antivascular endothelial growth factor and corticosteroid agents on diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykoff, Charles C

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is common and increasing in prevalence. Pharmacologic management of diabetic macular edema (DME) has improved tremendously over the last decade with the use of two families of intravitreally administered medications: antivascular endothelial growth factor-specific agents and corticosteroids. Clinical evaluation of these pharmaceuticals has demonstrated that they can have a substantial impact on diabetic retinopathy severity levels and the underlying retinal vasculature itself. Phase 3 trials employing ranibizumab, aflibercept, and fluocinolone acetonide enrolling eyes with center-involving DME causing visual acuity loss have demonstrated impressive alteration of the natural history of progressive diabetic retinopathy worsening over time through blunted progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy, improving diabetic retinopathy severity levels, and slowing progressive retinal nonperfusion, the underlying disease process central to diabetic retinopathy itself. Accumulating data indicate that the threshold to initiate ocular-specific pharmacologic treatment for diabetic retinopathy, previously predominately limited to eyes with visual loss because of center-involved DME or proliferative diabetic retinopathy, is being lowered to earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Ongoing clinical trials and secondary analyses continue to further explore the impact and durability of vascular endothelial growth factor blockade and corticosteroids on modification of diabetic retinopathy and the underlying retinal vasculature itself.

  15. Macular micropseudocysts in early stages of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Gemma; Pierro, Luisa; de Benedetto, Umberto; Margari, Sergio; Gagliardi, Marco; Maestranzi, Gisella; Calori, Giliola; Lorenzi, Mara; Lattanzio, Rosangela

    2011-01-01

    To identify by noninvasive means early retinal abnormalities that may predict diabetic macular edema. The authors analyzed retrospectively data from consecutive patients with Type 1 (n = 16) or Type 2 (n = 23) diabetes who presented for routine follow-up of early retinopathy, had no clinical signs or symptoms of diabetic macular edema, and were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Age- and gender-matched nondiabetic subjects provided normative data. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed in the macular region of diabetic patients small hyporeflective areas (median diameter, 55 μm) contained within discrete retinal layers that we named micropseudocysts (MPCs). Micropseudocysts are associated with vascular leakage. The patients showing MPCs had more frequently systemic hypertension and increased central foveal thickness than those without MPCs. The association with increased central foveal thickness was only in the patients with Type 2 diabetes. Macular MPCs in patients with mild diabetic retinopathy appear to reflect leakage and can precede macular thickening. The association of MPCs with increased central foveal thickness in patients with Type 2 diabetes, but not in patients with Type 1 diabetes, points to a greater tendency to retinal fluid accumulation in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Studies in larger cohorts will determine the usefulness of MPCs in strategies to abort diabetic macular edema.

  16. Quality of Life in People with Diabetic Retinopathy: Indian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Datson Marian; Shah, Amish; D'Souza, May; Simon, Paul; George, Thomas; D'Souza, Nameeth; Suresh, Sucharitha; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2017-04-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a well-known consequence of long standing and poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Several studies have demonstrated both a qualitative and quantitative reduction in health related quality of life in persons with DR. But no such study has been done in the Indian population. To assess health related and vision related quality of life in people with DR. The present study included two groups of patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Cases included 97 patients with DR. The control group (n=26) consisted of diabetic cases with no clinically detectable DR changes. After taking informed consent, health and vision related quality of life was assessed using National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). Demographic information, social history and diabetic history were also obtained from all patients. DR was graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification. Of the 97 cases with DR, 42.3% were females. Of the 26 controls, 53.8% were females. The mean±SD age in years of the cases was 55.09±9.56 and controls were 54.12±13.01. The mean±SD of DM in years for the cases was 10.98±5.62 and for controls was 6.69±2.29. There were statistically significant (pQuality of life was significantly lower in diabetics with DR when compared with those without DR with maximum effect seen on general health, general vision and mental health. Quality of life decreased as the duration of retinopathy and severity of retinopathy increased.

  17. Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Approaches to Delay Neuronal Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kad?ubowska, Joanna; Malaguarnera, Lucia; W??, Piotr; Zorena, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research the complex pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) has not been fully elucidated. For many years it has been thought that diabetic retinopathy manifests only with microangiopathic lesions, which are totally responsible for the loss of vision in diabetic patients. In view of the current knowledge on the microangiopathic changes in the fundus of the eye, diabetic retinopathy is perceived as a neurodegenerative disease. Several clinical tools are available t...

  18. Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population: Proyecto VER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S K; Klein, R; Rodriguez, J; Muñoz, B; Broman, A T; Sanchez, R; Snyder, R

    2001-07-01

    The prevalence rate of diabetes is probably higher in Hispanics than in Caucasians, although there is controversy about differences in the risk of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence rates of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a population-based study of Hispanics aged > or = 40 years. Proyecto VER is a random sample of Hispanic populations aged > or = 40 years in Arizona. A total of 4,774 individuals (71.6% of the eligible sample) completed the examinations. Diabetes was defined as self-report of a physician diagnosis or HbA(1c) value of > or = 7.0%. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed on stereo fundus photographs of fields 1, 2, and 4. The prevalence rate of diabetes in the Hispanic community (individuals > or = 40 years of age) was 22%. The prevalence rate of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was 48%; 32% had moderate to severe nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy. DR increased with increasing duration of diabetes and increasing level of HbA(1c). The prevalence rate of DR-like changes in the sample of individuals without diabetic retinopathy was 15% and was not associated with hypertension, systolic blood pressure, or diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence rate of diabetes in this population of Hispanics is high, almost twice that of Caucasians. The prevalence rate of DR is high but similar to reports in a Caucasian population. The prevalence rate of 9% moderate to severe retinopathy in the newly diagnosed group suggests that efforts to improve detection and treatment of diabetes in Hispanics may be warranted.

  19. Relation of retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to other diabetic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the correlation between systemic complications and diabetic retinopathy in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS: Seven hundred and two hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes were included. All patients were divided into two groups according to with or without retinopathy: NDR group and DR group. DR group was divided into group non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRand group proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR. The relation between DR and other complications of diabetes, including diabetic macrovascular complications, diabetic nephropathy(DN, diabetic peripheral neuropathy(DPN, peripheral vascular disease of diabetes mellitus(PVD, diabetic foot(DF, diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA, was analyzed.RESULTS: The development of DR was related to hypertension, hyperlipemia, carotid atherosclerosis and plaque, lower extremity arteriosclerosis and plaque, DN, DPN, DF and PVD. PDR was closely associated with hypertension and DPN. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DR increased in the diabetic patients with systemic complications, especially, the increase of prevalence of PDR in the patients with hypertension and DPN. Vascular endothelial injury and microcirculatory disturbance are the common pathologic base for DR and other complications. Therefore, it is important to carry out the regular fundus examination in the diabetic patients, especially in those with systemic complication, in order to decrease the rate of blindness.

  20. The prevalence of retinopathy in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Eydis; Andersson, Dan K G; Dedorsson, Inger; Stefánsson, Einar

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for, retinopathy in a geographically defined population with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with a control group of subjects without diabetes, matched by age, sex and residence in order to find the retinopathy attributable to type 2 diabetes. The study populations are, on one hand, a prevalence cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes resident in the community of Laxå, Sweden, and on the other a control group, matched by age, gender and residence with those with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Retinopathy was graded from fundus photographs using a modification of the Early Treatment Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) adaptation of the modified Airlie House classification of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Any retinopathy was found in 34.6% in the type 2 diabetes cohort and in 8.8% in the control group without diabetes. Among the diabetic patients, any retinopathy was significantly associated with duration of diabetes (p = 0.0001), HbA1c (p = 0.0056), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0091) and lower serum cholesterol (p = 0.0197) in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Having retinopathy in the control group was associated only with systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0014) in logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes in Laxå, Sweden, was similar or somewhat lower compared with other studies in the Nordic countries. The prevalence of retinopathy in a control group without diabetes equalled numbers from population studies worldwide. Our study indicates that the retinopathy that can be attributed to hyperglycaemia in the diabetic state is less common than is usually accounted for. A considerable fraction of retinopathy in subjects with diabetes may instead be due to other factors such as hypertension and should thus be treated correspondingly. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by Blackwell Publishing

  1. Comparisons of serum miRNA expression profiles in patients with diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianping; Wang, Jufang; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Han, Liyuan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of serum miRNAs in diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum miRNA expression profiles from diabetic retinopathy cases (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic retinopathy) and type 2 diabetes mellitus controls (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without diabetic retinopathy) were examined by miRNA-specific microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the significantly differentially expressed serum miRNAs from the microarray analysis of 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and 45 age-, sex-, body mass index- and duration-of-diabetes-matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. The relative changes in serum miRNA expression levels were analyzed using the 2-ΔΔCt method. A total of 5 diabetic retinopathy cases and 5 type 2 diabetes mellitus controls were included in the miRNA-specific microarray analysis. The serum levels of miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p differed significantly between the two groups in the screening stage; however, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction did not reveal significant differences in miRNA expression for 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and their matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. Our findings indicate that miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p may not play important roles in the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm our findings.

  2. Disease risk factor control and drug intervention in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy(DRis one of the common and serious complications of diabetes, which also the main causes of visual impairment in patients with diabetes, and its incidence has been increasing. With the in-depth study of the pathogenesis of DR, through the control of risk factors including blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid, as well as the application of a variety of drugs, the prevention and cure of DR achieved a certain effect. In this paper, we make a review of the present status and progress in recent years on the DR control risk factors and drug intervention.

  3. Diabetic retinopathy - the Ophthalmology Society of Southern Africa screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S

    2013-06-10

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) not only allows for detection of microvascular complications, but for detection of other comorbidities. Recent advances in digital camera technology have improved screening for DR and many countries have established systems that screen all diabetics for DR annually. However, South Africa has lagged behind due to pressures at the primary care level, with the result that many diabetics are not screened. In response, the Ophthalmology Society of Southern Africa has developed a low-cost 'scorecard' system for a national DR screening programme.

  4. Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in Africa: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, P I; MacCormick, I J C; Harding, S P; Bastawrous, A; Beare, N A V; Garner, P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim To summarize findings from studies reporting the prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy in African countries in light of the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Methods Using a predefined search strategy, we systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation index and Conference Proceedings Citation index, African Index Medicus and the grey literature database ‘OpenSIGLE’ for studies published between January 1990 and February 2011. Included studies reported prevalence or incidence of diabetic retinopathy or diabetic maculopathy of subjects with diabetes resident in African countries. Results Sixty-two studies from 21 countries were included: three population-based surveys; two cohort studies; five case–control studies; 32 diabetes clinic-based, nine eye clinic-based and 11 other hospital-based surveys. Included studies varied considerably in terms of patient selection, method of assessing the eye and retinopathy classification. In population-based studies, the reported prevalence range in patients with diabetes for diabetic retinopathy was 30.2 to 31.6%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy 0.9 to 1.3%, and any maculopathy 1.2 to 4.5%. In diabetes clinic-based surveys, the reported prevalence range for diabetic retinopathy was 7.0 to 62.4%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy 0 to 6.9%, and any maculopathy 1.2 to 31.1%. No obvious association between prevalence and income level of the country was detected. Conclusions Large, community-based cross-sectional and cohort studies are needed to investigate rates and determinants of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, incidence and progression in Africa. Consensus is needed on the most appropriate methods of identification and classification of retinopathy for research and clinical practice. Estimates of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy are comparable with recent European and American studies. PMID:22817387

  5. [Communication subsystem design of tele-screening system for diabetic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Pan, Lin; Zheng, Shaohua; Yu, Lun

    2013-12-01

    A design scheme of a tele-screening system for diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been proposed, especially the communication subsystem. The scheme uses serial communication module consisting of ARM 7 microcontroller and relays to connect remote computer and fundus camera, and also uses C++ programming language based on MFC to design the communication software consisting of therapy and diagnostic information module, video/audio surveillance module and fundus camera control module. The scheme possesses universal property in some remote medical treatment systems which are similar to the system.

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Not Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy or Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Uazman; Amjad, Yasar; Chan, Anges Wan Shan; Asghar, Omar; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Malik, Rayaz A

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies suggest a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and both diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy. We have performed a cross-sectional study in adults with types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. The relationship between the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was evaluated using logistic regression analyses in the presence of demographic and clinical covariates. 657 adults with diabetes were stratified based on retinopathy grading: No Diabetic Retinopathy (39%), Background Diabetic Retinopathy (37%), Preproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (21%), and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (3%), respectively. There were no differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) between the groups (15.3 ± 9.0 versus 16.4 ± 10.5 versus 15.9 ± 10.4 versus 15.7 ± 8.5 ng/mL, P = NS). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between the severity of retinopathy and serum 25(OH)D. Furthermore, there was no difference in serum 25(OH)D between those with (n = 94, 14%) and those without (n = 563, 86%) Diabetic Maculopathy (16.2 ± 10.0 versus 15.8 ± 9.8, P = NS) and no relationship was demonstrated by logistic regression analyses between the two variables. This study has found no association between serum 25(OH)D and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy or maculopathy.

  7. One-year progression of diabetic subclinical macular edema in eyes with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the 1-year progression of retinal thickness (RT) increase occurring in eyes with subclinical macular edema in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Forty-eight type 2 diabetic eyes/patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR; levels 20 and 35 in the Early Treatment...

  8. Sixteen-year Incidence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in a Nationwide Cohort of Young Danish Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca Broe

    Design of study: Prospective cohort-study Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess long-term incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and associated risk factors in a Danish population-based cohort of young type 1 diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty...... percent of all Danish type 1 diabetic patients below the age of 18 (n=1033) were examined in 1986-89. In 1995, baseline retinopathy was graded and other risk factors were assessed in 324 patients (31.4% of the original cohort). Of these, 132 (40.7%) were re-examined at follow-up in 2011. At baseline two...... and diabetes duration. Results: The mean age and diabetes duration at baseline were 21.1±3.1 and 13.3±3.5 years, respectively. At baseline 31.8% had no retinopathy, 67.4% had non-PDR and 0.8% had PDR. At follow-up, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 96.9%. Thirty-eight patients with no DR at baseline...

  9. Diabetic retinopathy: retina-specific methods for maintenance of diabetic rodents and evaluation of vascular histopathology and molecular abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Alexander; Liu, Haitao; Lee, Chieh Allen; Du, Yunpeng; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment, which continues to increase in prevalence as more and more people develop diabetes. Despite the importance of vision, the retina is one of the smallest tissues in the body, and specialized techniques to study the retinopathy have been developed. This chapter will summarize several methods used to (i) induce diabetes, (ii) maintain the diabetic animals throughout the months required for the development of typical vascular histopathology, (iii) evaluate vascular histopathology of diabetic retinopathy, and (iv) quantitate abnormalities implicated in the development of the retinopathy. PMID:26331759

  10. A study of red blood cell deformability in diabetic retinopathy using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Thomas J.; Richards, Christopher J.; Bhatnagar, Rhythm; Pavesio, Carlos; Agrawal, Rupesh; Jones, Philip H.

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) in which high blood sugar levels cause swelling, leaking and occlusions in the blood vessels of the retina, often resulting in a loss of sight. The microvascular system requires red blood cells (RBCs) to undergo significant cellular deformation in order to pass through vessels whose diameters are significantly smaller than their own. There is evidence to suggest that DM impairs the deformability of RBCs, and this loss of deformability has been associated with diabetic kidney disease (or nephropathy) - another microvascular complication of DM. However, it remains unclear whether reduced deformability of RBCs correlates with the presence of DR. Here we present an investigation into the deformability of RBCs in patients with diabetic retinopathy using optical tweezers. To extract a value for the deformability of RBCs we use a dual-trap optical tweezers set-up to stretch individual RBCs. RBCs are trapped directly (i.e. without micro-bead handles), so rotate to assume a `side-on' orientation. Video microscopy is used to record the deformation events, and shape analysis software is used to determine parameters such as initial and maximum RBC length, allowing us to calculate the deformability for each RBC. A small decrease in deformability of diabetes cells subject to this stretching protocol is observed when compared to control cells. We also report on initial results on three dimensional imaging of individual RBCs using defocussing microscopy.

  11. Green laser photocoagulator for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An all-solid-state green laser photocoagulator at 532 nm with output power varying from 100 mW to 1 W in a step of 10 mW and exposure time varying from 50 ms to 1000 ms in a step of 10 ms is developed for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The output power stability is better than ± 1.5% with a nearly diffraction-limited ...

  12. Endothelial perturbation: a link between non-dipping and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Jeppesen, Peter; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz

    2007-01-01

    -six subjects, stratified to 4 gender-, age-, and duration-matched groups of 19 subjects each, were studied (group A: non-diabetic subjects; group B to D, type 2 diabetic subjects; group B: no retinopathy; group C: minimal background retinopathy; group D: diabetic maculopathy). All subjects underwent a 24-hour...

  13. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  14. Retinal micropseudocysts in diabetic retinopathy: prospective functional and anatomic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Raimondo; Cennamo, Gilda; Finelli, Maria Luisa; Bonavolontà, Paola; Greco, Giovanni Maria; de Crecchio, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, progression and functional predictive value of retinal micropseudocysts (MPCs) in diabetic patients. Prospective controlled observational study. From among all the type 2 diabetic patients evaluated during a period of 5 months between September 2009 and January 2010, we enrolled all patients with retinal MPCs at spectral-domain scanning laser ophthalmoscope/optical coherence tomography (SD-SLO/OCT) not previously treated for diabetic retinopathy. Forty diabetic patients without MPCs served as the control group. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), macular sensitivity and stability of fixation at SD-SLO/OCT microperimetry were measured monthly for 12 months. 22/156 patients with type 2 diabetes (14.1%, 32 eyes) met the inclusion criteria. The 95% confidence interval for the prevalence estimate of MPCs was 12.3-16.6%. Mean BCVA, CRT and central retinal sensitivity at baseline were 77.53 ± 2.2 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters, 242.31 ± 31.0 µm and 15.95 ± 0.61 dB, respectively. Fixation was stable in all cases. Compared to the control group, eyes with MPCs had similar BCVA but greater CRT (p = 0.01) and reduced macular sensitivity (p = 0.001) at baseline and at each follow-up visit. Over time, CRT remained stable in eyes with MPCs, whereas macular sensitivity progressively decreased. MPCs in diabetic retinopathy are associated, temporally or causally, with a progressive reduction of macular sensitivity despite a stable BCVA, CRT and fixation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Gupta, Bhaskar; Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne; Evans, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The alarming rise in diabetes prevalence is a global public health and economic problem. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common complication of diabetes and the leading cause of blindness among working-age populations in the Western world. Screening and prompt treatment of diabetic retinopathy are not top priorities in many regions of the world, because the impacts of other causes of preventable blindness remain an issue. Ethnicity is a complex, independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy. Observations from white populations cannot be extrapolated fully to other ethnic groups. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy, and clinically significant macular edema are higher in people of South Asian, African, Latin American, and indigenous tribal descent compared to the white population. Although all ethnic groups are susceptible to the established risk factors of diabetic retinopathy-such as length of exposure and severity of hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia-ethnic-specific risk factors also may influence these rates. Such risk factors may include differential susceptibility to conventional risk factors, insulin resistance, differences in anthropometric measurements, truncal obesity, urbanization, variations in access to healthcare systems, genetic susceptibility, and epigenetics. The rates of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy appear to be declining in the United States, supporting the observation that better medical management of diabetes and prompt treatment of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy substantially improve the long-term diabetic retinopathy incidence; studies from other parts of the world are limited and do not mirror this finding, however. We examine the ethnicity and region-based prevalence of diabetic retinopathy around the world and highlight the need to reinforce ethnicity-based screening and treatment thresholds in diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. The impact of diabetic retinopathy on participation in daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Hassell, Jennifer B; Keeffe, Jill E

    2004-01-01

    To determine the restriction of participation in daily activities of people with diabetic retinopathy using the Impact of Vision Impairment questionnaire. Individuals with diabetic retinopathy and a visual acuity (VA) worse than 20/40 or 6/12 in the better eye were eligible. Participants answered demographic questions and had VA information abstracted from medical records. If VA information was unavailable, it was assessed by an orthoptist. All participants completed the Impact of Vision Impairment questionnaire, which was either self-administered or interviewer administered. The physical and mental health components were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form (SF-12) questionnaire. Forty-five participants (mean age, 67.5 years) were recruited, with almost 70% (30/45) recording a VA worse than 20/60 or 6/18 in the better eye. The median duration of vision loss was 2.0 years. The highest restriction was reported for the Leisure and Work, Mobility, and Consumer and Social Interaction domains (mean, 3.0, 2.8, and 2.8, respectively), compared with the Emotional Reaction to Visual Loss and Household and Personal Care domains (mean, 2.3 and 2.1, respectively) (PImpact of Vision Impairment questionnaire scores (partial correlations, 0.29-0.41; P< or =.03). Low-vision rehabilitation services aiming to improve outdoor mobility, print reading, participation in leisure activities, and psychological health may be an effective strategy to help people with diabetic retinopathy increase their participation in daily activities.

  17. Role of early screening for diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a major public health problem in India. It is estimated that there were 40 million persons with diabetes in India in 2007 and this number is predicted to rise to almost 70 million by 2025. The impact of rapid urbanization, industrialization and lifestyle changes has led to an increasing trend in prevalence of diabetes and its associated complications such as neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases (cardiac, cerebral and peripheral and retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a important cause of avoidable blindness in India. Treatment interventions at early stages of diabetic retinopathy can reduce burden of blindness due to diabetic retinopathy. With the available cost-effective methods of early screening, appropriate strategies/models need to be developed. Such models need to have a well-developed mode for screening, diagnosis and referral at each hierarchal level beginning from primary health centers to specialized institutes for eye care. The National Program for Control of Blindness of India recommends opportunistic screening for identification of diabetic retinopathy. Every opportunity of contact with high-risk cases for diabetes and/or diabetic retinopathy should be utilized for screening, diagnosis and referral. All the stakeholders including the private sector will need to play a role. Along with this, awareness generation and behavior change amongst the diabetics and care support systems should also be part of the overall model. A major role can be played by community participation and improving the health seeking behavior among diabetics in order to reach a larger population and increasing the compliance for continued care.

  18. Impact of Diabetic Retinopathy on Health-related Quality of Life in Iranian Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinia, Cyrus; Mohammadi, Seyed-Farzad; Lashay, Alireza; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-01-01

    To extract utility values of diabetic retinopathy on a perfect health and perfect vision scales for Iranians with both types diabetes. In this investigation, 150 untreated patients with diabetic retinopathy consecutively were examined and interviewed in Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, a tertiary referral center in the Iranian health care system. Utility values based on patients-reported outcome measures, standard gamble, time trade off and visual analogue scale approaches, were estimated. Considering all three utility elicitation methods were valid, diabetic retinopathy patients, on average reported the 0.95 (±0.03), 0.85 (±0.15) and 0.80 (±0.30) standard policy scale utility according to standard gamble, TTO and VAT respectively. In all three-studied approach, diabetic retinopathy had more disutility in higher levels of disease and had more disutility in the presence of both maculopathy and vasculopathy compared with one of them. Evidence show that share of macular edema in imposing disutility was maximum in early stage and exponentially decreased with advancing the severity of diabetic retinopathy. Study indicated utility scores in DR-experienced Iranian patients were highest with the SG and lowest with the VAT method. The proffered utility-elicitation method in Iranian patient populations could be the TTO approach. The novel model we employed for DR takes the effects of diabetic macular edema and vascularization into account separately, and can provide a better estimate of the QoL for these patients.

  19. Comparison between Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study 7-field retinal photos and non-mydriatic, mydriatic and mydriatic steered widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for assessment of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Malin L; Broe, Rebecca; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To compare non-mydriatic, mydriatic and steered mydriatic widefield retinal images with mydriatic 7-field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)-standards in grading diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: We examined 95 patients (190 eyes) with type 1 diabetes. A non-mydriatic, a m......AIMS: To compare non-mydriatic, mydriatic and steered mydriatic widefield retinal images with mydriatic 7-field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)-standards in grading diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: We examined 95 patients (190 eyes) with type 1 diabetes. A non......-level agreement were 99.0%, 98.9% and 99.5%, respectively. Non-mydriatic matched mydriatic widefield images almost fully with exact and one-level agreement of 96.8% and 100.0%, respectively. Mydriatic steered images resulted in higher grading in 24 eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Widefield images matched 7-field images...

  20. [Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic foot syndrome in patients of a sub-Saharan megacity (Kinshasa, DR Congo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, S; Stoll, D; Bambi, M T; Kilangalanga, J; Guthoff, R F

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide especially in developing countries. Foot ulcerations in patients with diabetic neuropathy have a high impact in the overall amputation rate. In the present study we looked for the severity of diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetic foot syndrome in a diabetic care unit in a sub-Sahara megacity (Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo). Forty-one patients with diabetes-related foot ulcerations (26 male, 15 female, mean age 45.6 years) were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent visual acuity evaluation and slit lamp biomicroscopy. Incidence and stage of retinopathy were evaluated by retinal funduscopy and documented by fundus photography. Twenty-seven eyes showed no signs of diabetic retinopathy. Forty-seven eyes were diagnosed as non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (16 mild, 16 moderate, 15 severe). Seven eyes showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. One patient had a unilateral central venous occlusion. In this case the classification of diabetic retinopathy was not possible because of the massive retinal bleedings. It was evident that there is a considerable discrepancy between partly extensive foot ulcerations and only mild to moderate diabetic retinopathy in most of the patients. This indicates that neuropathy-induced foot problems and microangiopathy-induced diabetic retinopathy are diabetic complications whose formal pathogenesis is only loosely correlated. Additional risk factors in local African conditions compared to Europe may play a major role in this discrepancy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Epidemiology, risk factors and management of paediatric diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Marla B; Starita, Carla; Huang, Kui

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, is rarely expressed at a level greater than background retinopathy during childhood and adolescence. Epidemiological studies in paediatric diabetic patients together with data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial have demonstrated the importance of glycaemic control in delaying or preventing the development of DR; thus, the incidence of DR has declined somewhat over the past two decades. Both prepubertal and postpubertal years with diabetes contribute to the overall probability of DR development. In addition to duration of disease and degree of glycaemic control, other risk factors for DR development include elevated blood pressure, lipid profiles, serum levels of advanced glycation endproducts, evidence for early stage atherosclerosis, increased calibre of retinal blood vessels and several genetic factors, such as enzymes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Annual screening is recommended, with mydriatic stereoscopic fundus photography being the most sensitive detection method. Both pathophysiology and treatment in paediatric populations are essentially the same as described for adult populations, with treatment usually not required until adulthood is reached.

  2. Improved visual function in IDDM patients with unchanged cumulative incidence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, K; Jacobsen, P; Rossing, P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in visual acuity and the cumulative incidence of diabetic retinopathy in a clinic-based observational follow-up study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All patients visiting Hvidore Hospital in 1984 whose diagnosis of IDDM had been made before 41 years of age and between...... retinopathy, maculopathy, and laser-treated retinopathy 15 years after onset of diabetes were, respectively, 13+/-3, 11+/-3, and 12+/-3 in group A; 16+/-3, 12+/-3, and 21+/-4 in group B; 11+/-3, 5+/-2, and 12+/-3 in group C, respectively (NS). The development of proliferative retinopathy was associated...... with the degree of retinopathy and albuminuria at baseline and the mean HbA1c during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed an improvement in visual acuity with increasing calendar year of diabetes onset but an unchanged cumulative incidence of diabetic retinopathy....

  3. Metabolic factors in the development of retinopathy of juvenile-onset type I diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosla P

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five patients of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM were investigated for the effect of various metabolic factors on retinopathy. The severity of retinopathy increased with duration and age of onset of IDDM. Degree of glycaemia (fasting blood sugar, FBS was similar in patients with or without retinopathy. All IDDM patients as a group showed severe carbohydrate intolerance with lower basal and post glucose serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI levels and serum C-peptide radioimmunoreactivity (CPR as compared to controls. The insulin secretory response was similar in no retinopathy, mild retinopathy and severe retinopathy groups. Patients with retinopathy had higher incidence of hyperlipidemia but mean serum levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were similar. This study does not suggest a direct relationship between the various metabolic factors studied and retinopathy due to IDDM

  4. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type II diabetic patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type II diabetic patients in a health facility in Karachi, Pakistan. ... and, therefore, emphasis should be on the education of the local population of New Karachi Township on how to attain euglycemic state with regular medication, diet and exercise to avoid development and progress of DR.

  5. Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2008-01-01

    .01 (95% CI 0.72-1.42) and 2.04 (1.43-2.91) for patients with non-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy respectively at baseline compared with patients with no retinopathy. After adjusting for proteinuria, HR among patients with proliferative retinopathy lost statistical significance, but still...... remained 1.48 (95% CI 0.98-2.23). The 10 year survival rate of patients who had proliferative retinopathy as well as proteinuria at baseline was 22.2% and significantly lower (pproteinuria only (70.3%), proliferative retinopathy only (79.0%) or neither (86.6%). CONCLUSIONS....../INTERPRETATION: Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients. In combination they act even more strongly. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy did not affect survival rate....

  6. Diabetic Retinopathy in Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study of Women with Pregestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife M. Egan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this observational study was to evaluate screening and progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes attending five antenatal centres along the Irish Atlantic seaboard. An adequate frequency of screening was defined as at least two retinal evaluations in separate trimesters. Progression was defined as at least one stage of deterioration of diabetic retinopathy and/or development of diabetic macular edema on at least one eye. Women with pregestational diabetes who delivered after 22 gestational weeks (n=307 were included. In total, 185 (60.3% had an adequate number of retinal examinations. Attendance at prepregnancy care was associated with receiving adequate screening (odds ratio 6.23; CI 3.39–11.46 (P<0.001. Among those who received adequate evaluations (n=185, 48 (25.9% had retinopathy progression. Increasing booking systolic blood pressure (OR 1.03, CI 1.01–1.06, P=0.02 and greater drop in HbA1c between first and third trimesters of pregnancy (OR 2.05, CI 1.09–3.87, P=0.03 significantly increased the odds of progression. A significant proportion of women continue to demonstrate retinopathy progression during pregnancy. This study highlights the role of prepregnancy care and the importance of close monitoring during pregnancy and identifies those patients at the highest risk for retinopathy progression.

  7. Diabetic retinopathy in pregnancy: a population-based study of women with pregestational diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Egan, Aoife M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this observational study was to evaluate screening and progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes attending five antenatal centres along the Irish Atlantic seaboard. An adequate frequency of screening was defined as at least two retinal evaluations in separate trimesters. Progression was defined as at least one stage of deterioration of diabetic retinopathy and\\/or development of diabetic macular edema on at least one eye. Women with pregestational diabetes who delivered after 22 gestational weeks (n = 307) were included. In total, 185 (60.3%) had an adequate number of retinal examinations. Attendance at prepregnancy care was associated with receiving adequate screening (odds ratio 6.23; CI 3.39-11.46 (P < 0.001)). Among those who received adequate evaluations (n = 185), 48 (25.9%) had retinopathy progression. Increasing booking systolic blood pressure (OR 1.03, CI 1.01-1.06, P = 0.02) and greater drop in HbA1c between first and third trimesters of pregnancy (OR 2.05, CI 1.09-3.87, P = 0.03) significantly increased the odds of progression. A significant proportion of women continue to demonstrate retinopathy progression during pregnancy. This study highlights the role of prepregnancy care and the importance of close monitoring during pregnancy and identifies those patients at the highest risk for retinopathy progression.

  8. Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) for Diabetic Retinopathy: The 2010 GLADAOF Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, J. Fernando; Sanchez, Juan G.; Lasave, Andres F.; Wu, Lihteh; Maia, Mauricio; Bonafonte, Sergio; Brito, Miguel; Alezzandrini, Arturo A.; Restrepo, Natalia; Berrocal, Maria H.; Saravia, Mario; Farah, Michel Eid; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Morales-Canton, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates multiple benefits of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) on diabetic retinopathy (DR) including diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) at 24 months of followup. This is a retrospective multicenter interventional comparative case series of intravitreal injections of 1.25 or 2.5 mg of bevacizumab for DME, PDR without tractional retinal detachment (TRD), and patients who experienced the development or progression of TRD after an intravitreal injection of 1.25 or 2.5 mg of bevacizumab before vitrectomy for the management of PDR. The results indicate that IVB injections may have a beneficial effect on macular thickness and visual acuity (VA) in diffuse DME. Therefore, in the future this new therapy could complement focal/grid laser photocoagulation in DME. In PDR, this new option could be an adjuvant agent to panretina photocoagulation so that more selective therapy may be applied. Finally, TRD in PDR may occur or progress after IVB used as an adjuvant to vitrectomy. Surgery should be performed 4 days after IVB. Most patients had poorly controlled diabetes mellitus associated with elevated HbA1c, insulin administration, PDR refractory to panretinal photocoagulation, and longer time between IVB and vitrectomy. PMID:21584260

  9. Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin for Diabetic Retinopathy: The 2010 GLADAOF Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernando Arevalo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates multiple benefits of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB on diabetic retinopathy (DR including diabetic macular edema (DME and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR at 24 months of followup. This is a retrospective multicenter interventional comparative case series of intravitreal injections of 1.25 or 2.5 mg of bevacizumab for DME, PDR without tractional retinal detachment (TRD, and patients who experienced the development or progression of TRD after an intravitreal injection of 1.25 or 2.5 mg of bevacizumab before vitrectomy for the management of PDR. The results indicate that IVB injections may have a beneficial effect on macular thickness and visual acuity (VA in diffuse DME. Therefore, in the future this new therapy could complement focal/grid laser photocoagulation in DME. In PDR, this new option could be an adjuvant agent to panretina photocoagulation so that more selective therapy may be applied. Finally, TRD in PDR may occur or progress after IVB used as an adjuvant to vitrectomy. Surgery should be performed 4 days after IVB. Most patients had poorly controlled diabetes mellitus associated with elevated HbA1c, insulin administration, PDR refractory to panretinal photocoagulation, and longer time between IVB and vitrectomy.

  10. Prevalence and 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy among Danish type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2009-01-01

    was not associated with baseline duration of diabetes, proteinuria, smoking, body mass index, maculopathy or systolic or diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Retinopathy among long-surviving type 1 diabetic patients is almost universal. Proliferative retinopathy was found in half of these patients...

  11. Oxidative stress in diabetic patients with retinopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to induce oxidative stress along with deranging various metabolisms; one of the late complications of .... History and physical data were obtained from both groups of cases and controls. Systolic ... disorders, cardiac diseases, stroke, gestational. DM, and complications related to ...

  12. Impairment of Colour Vision in Diabetes with No Retinopathy: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SNDREAMS- II, Report 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gella, Laxmi; Raman, Rajiv; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Pal, Swakshyar Saumya; Ganesan, Suganeswari; Sharma, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    To assess impairment of colour vision in type 2 diabetics with no diabetic retinopathy and elucidate associated risk factors in a population-based cross-sectional study. This is part of Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II) which was conducted between 2007-2010. FM 100 hue-test was performed in 253 subjects with no clinical evidence of diabetic retinopathy. All subjects underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including cataract grading using LOCS III and 45° 4-field stereoscopic fundus photography. Various ocular and systemic risk factors for impairment of colour vision (ICV) were assessed in subjects with diabetes but no retinopathy. P value of diabetes with no retinopathy was 39.5% (CI: 33.5-45.5). The mean total error score in the study sample was 197.77 ± 100 (range: 19-583). The risk factors for ICV in the study were women OR: 1.79 (1.00-3.18), increased resting heart rate OR: 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and increased intraocular pressure OR: 1.12 (1.00-1.24). Significant protective factor was serum high-density lipoprotein OR: 0.96 (0.93-0.99). Acquired ICV is an early indicator of neurodegenerative changes in the retina. ICV found in diabetic subjects without retinopathy may be of non-vascular etiology.

  13. Screening for diabetic retinopathy: the optometrist’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldebasi YH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yousef H Aldebasi, Priya R Reddy, Vishakh G Nair, Mohammad Ijaz Ahmed Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraidah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a micro-vascular complication of diabetes affecting nearly all persons with a duration of diabetes of ≥15 years; and is the most common cause of blindness in the working-age adult population in developed countries. Vision loss results mainly from macular edema, macular capillary nonperfusion, vitreous hemorrhage, and tractional retinal detachment. Timely and appropriate care at early stages of DR can significantly reduce visual loss over time, improve patients’ quality of life, and reduce the financial burden associated with the complications of visual impairment. Treatment modalities such as retinal photocoagulation, intraocular injections of pharmacological agents, and vitreo-retinal surgery have been effective in the management of DR. Optometry is a health care profession that is concerned with eyes and related structures, vision, and the visual system. Apart from refraction and visual rehabilitation, optometrists have a wide range of roles to play in DR management by performing new visual acuity tests, detecting DR early using dilated ophthalmoscopy and if required imaging modalities, monitoring disease progression, providing timely follow-up examinations and management which are critical for early diagnosis and intervention, making referral for concurrent care when indicated, and, above all, educating the patient. The optometrist's participation in the shared care of DR management regimen is likely to result in improvement in patient outcomes. This review is aimed at highlighting what primary-care optometrists are doing to manage this sight-threatening disease, what they can and should do to improve their competence in providing eye care to patients with diabetes, and what guidelines they need to follow to improve

  14. Vascular Changes and Neurodegeneration in the Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Karoline Boegeberg; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik; Grauslund, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Neurodegeneration is an early component of diabetic retinopathy (DR). It is unclear whether neurodegeneration is an independent factor or a consequence of damaged retinal vasculature. The aims of this study were to review the literature concerning neurodegeneration in diabetic...

  15. The role of retinopathy distribution and other lesion types for the definition of examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Giovanni; Erlandsen, Mogens; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-06-01

    It has previously been shown that the intervals between screening examinations for diabetic retinopathy can be optimized by including individual risk factors for the development of the disease in the risk assessment. However, in some cases, the risk model calculating the screening interval may recommend a different interval than an experienced clinician. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of factors unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the distribution of lesions for discrepancies between decisions made by the clinician and the risk model. Therefore, fundus photographs from 90 screening examinations where the recommendations of the clinician and a risk model had been discrepant were evaluated. Forty features were defined to describe the type and location of the lesions, and classification and ranking techniques were used to assess whether the features could predict the discrepancy between the grader and the risk model. Suspicion of tumours, retinal degeneration and vascular diseases other than diabetic retinopathy could explain why the clinician recommended shorter examination intervals than the model. Additionally, the regional distribution of microaneurysms/dot haemorrhages was important for defining a photograph as belonging to the group where both the clinician and the risk model had recommended a short screening interval as opposed to the other decision alternatives. Features unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the regional distribution of retinal lesions may affect the recommendation of the examination interval during screening for diabetic retinopathy. The development of automated computerized algorithms for extracting information about the type and location of retinal lesions could be expected to further optimize examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A needs assessment of people living with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Claudette E; Hall, Anthony B; Kok, Gerjo; Mallya, Joyse; Courtright, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The Kilimanjaro Diabetic Programme was initiated in response to the needs of people living with diabetes (PWLD) to identify barriers to uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy, to improve management of diabetes, and establish an affordable, sustainable eye screening and treatment programme for diabetic retinopathy. Intervention Mapping was used as the framework for the needs assessment. A mixed methods approach was used. Five psychometric measures, Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire, Diabetes Health Beliefs, Self-Efficacy scale, Problem Areas in Diabetes scale, and Hopkins Scale Checklist-25 and a structured interview relating to self-efficacy, addressing disclosure of living with diabetes and life-style changes were used to triangulate the quantitative findings. These were administered to 26 PWLD presenting to rural district hospitals. The interviewees demonstrated low levels of perceived stigma regarding disclosure of living with diabetes and high levels of self-efficacy in raising community awareness of diabetes, seeking on going treatment from Western medicine over traditional healers and in seeking care on sick days. Self-efficacy was high for adjusting diet, although comprehensive dietary knowledge was poor. Negative emotions expressed at diagnosis, changes in life style and altered quality of life were reflected in high levels of anxiety and depression. Low levels of stigma surrounding living with diabetes were linked to a desire to raise community awareness of diabetes, help others live with diabetes and to secure social support to access hospital services. Confusion over what constituted a healthy diet showed the importance of comprehensive, accessible diabetes education, essential to ensuring good glycaemic control, and preventing diabetic complications, including diabetic retinopathy. Low levels of self-efficacy along with high levels of anxiety and depression may have a negative impact on the uptake of screening for Diabetic Retinopathy. The findings

  17. Alteration of melatonin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikichi T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiichi Hikichi1, Naohiro Tateda2, Toshiaki Miura31Department of Ophthalmology, Ohtsuka Eye Hospital, Sapporo; 2Asahikawa National College of Technology, Asahikawa; 3Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of plasma melatonin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy.Methods: Plasma melatonin levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in 56 patients. Patients were divided into a diabetic group (30 patients and a nondiabetic group (26 patients. The diabetic group was divided further into a proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group (n = 14 and a nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR group (n = 16. Plasma melatonin levels obtained at midnight and 3 am were compared between the groups.Results: Nighttime melatonin levels were significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (P < 0.03 and lower in the PDR group than in the nondiabetic and NPDR groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.03, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the nondiabetic and NPDR groups. The daytime melatonin level did not significantly differ between the nondiabetic and diabetic groups or between the nondiabetic, NPDR, and PDR groups.Conclusion: The nighttime melatonin level is altered in patients with diabetes and PDR but not in diabetic patients without PDR. Although patients with PDR may have various dysfunctions that affect melatonin secretion more severely, advanced dysfunction of retinal light perception may cause altered melatonin secretion. Alteration of melatonin secretion may accelerate further occurrence of complications in diabetic patients.Keywords: circadian rhythm, diabetes, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, melatonin

  18. Cost-effectiveness of Different Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquel, Francisco J; Hendrick, Andrew M; Ryan, Martha; Cason, Emily; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2015-12-29

    Current screening strategies aimed at detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) historically have poor compliance, but advancements in technology can enable improved access to care. Nearly 80% of all persons with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), highlighting the importance of a cost effective screening program. Establishing mechanisms to reach populations with geographic and financial barriers to access is essential to prevent visual disability. Teleretinal programs leverage technology to improve access and reduce cost. The quality of currently employed screening modalities depends on many variables including the instrument used, use of pupillary mydriasis, number of photographic fields, and the qualifications of the photographer and image interpreter. Recent telemedicine and newer technological approaches have been introduced, but data for these technologies is yet limited. We present results of a systematic review of studies evaluating cost-effectiveness of DR screening, and discuss potential relevance for LMICs. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in Northland, New Zealand: 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papali'i-Curtin, Alistair T; Dalziel, David M

    2013-09-27

    To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in the Northland Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme. Retrospective analysis of the latest and most severe retinopathy and maculopathy grades from each patient in the programme. Data from 7098 screenings from 5647 diabetics were obtained, which represented approximately 77% of the total number of diagnosed diabetics in Northland. The two main ethnic groups in our study were New Zealand European (56.5%) and Maori (39.3%). Retinopathy was present in 19% of the Northland diabetic screening population: 13.6% had minimal non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 5.4% had NPDR and 0.4% had Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR). Ethnicity data for NPDR was 57% Maori, 38% European, and PDR 50% Maori, 45% European. Maculopathy was present in 11%. Maculopathy requiring treatment was present in 1.4% (Maori 48%, European 44%). The mean failure-to-attend rate was 31%. Rates of retinopathy and maculopathy detected by the Northland screening programme were comparable to rates reported in Waikato, lower than Wellington rates and lower than international averages. Maori were over-represented in patients with retinopathy and maculopathy, but underrepresented within the screening population. The success of this programme was undermined by the high failure-to-attend rate despite attempts to improve access.

  20. Assessing Framingham cardiovascular risk scores in subjects with diabetes and their correlation with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali R Damkondwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the Framingham cardiovascular risk assessment scores in subjects with diabetes and their association with diabetic retinopathy in subjects with diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this population-based prospective study, subjects with diabetes were recruited (n=1248; age ≥40 years. The Framingham cardiovascular risk scores were calculated for 1248 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The scores were classified as high risk (>10%, and low risk (<10%. Results: Out of the 1248 subjects, 830 (66.5% patients had a low risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD in 10 years and 418 (33.5% had a high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. The risk of developing CVD was more in males than females (56.8% vs. 7% The prevalence of both diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening retinopathy was more in the high-risk group (21% and 4.5%, respectively. The risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy were similar in both the groups (low vs. high - duration of diabetes (OR 1.14 vs. 1.08, higher HbA1c (OR 1.24 vs. 1.22, presence of macro- and microalbuminuria (OR 10.17 vs. 6.12 for macro-albuminuria and use of insulin (OR 2.06 vs. 4.38. The additional risk factors in the high-risk group were presence of anemia (OR 2.65 and higher serum high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (OR 1.05. Conclusion: Framingham risk scoring, a global risk assessment tool to predict the 10-year risk of developing CVD, can also predict the occurrence and type of diabetic retinopathy. Those patients with high CVD scores should be followed up more frequently and treated adequately. This also warrants good interaction between the treating physician/cardiologist and the ophthalmologist.

  1. Tear fluid proteomics multimarkers for diabetic retinopathy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Zsolt; Peto, Tunde; Csosz, Eva; Tukacs, Edit; Molnar, Agnes; Maros-Szabo, Zsuzsanna; Berta, Andras; Tozser, Jozsef; Hajdu, Andras; Nagy, Valeria; Domokos, Balint; Csutak, Adrienne

    2013-08-07

    The aim of the project was to develop a novel method for diabetic retinopathy screening based on the examination of tear fluid biomarker changes. In order to evaluate the usability of protein biomarkers for pre-screening purposes several different approaches were used, including machine learning algorithms. All persons involved in the study had diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was diagnosed by capturing 7-field fundus images, evaluated by two independent ophthalmologists. 165 eyes were examined (from 119 patients), 55 were diagnosed healthy and 110 images showed signs of DR. Tear samples were taken from all eyes and state-of-the-art nano-HPLC coupled ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry protein identification was performed on all samples. Applicability of protein biomarkers was evaluated by six different optimally parameterized machine learning algorithms: Support Vector Machine, Recursive Partitioning, Random Forest, Naive Bayes, Logistic Regression, K-Nearest Neighbor. Out of the six investigated machine learning algorithms the result of Recursive Partitioning proved to be the most accurate. The performance of the system realizing the above algorithm reached 74% sensitivity and 48% specificity. Protein biomarkers selected and classified with machine learning algorithms alone are at present not recommended for screening purposes because of low specificity and sensitivity values. This tool can be potentially used to improve the results of image processing methods as a complementary tool in automatic or semiautomatic systems.

  2. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Practice Guidelines: Customized for Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Safi, Sare; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Azarmina, Mohsen; Moradian, Siamak; Entezari, Morteza; Nourinia, Ramin; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Shirvani, Armin; Shahraz, Saeid; Ramezani, Alireza; Dehghan, Mohammad Hossein; Shahsavari, Mohsen; Soheilian, Masoud; Nikkhah, Homayoun; Ziaei, Hossein; Behboudi, Hasan; Farrahi, Fereydoun; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Parvaresh, Mohammad Mehdi; Fesharaki, Hamid; Abrishami, Majid; Shoeibi, Nasser; Rahimi, Mansour; Javadzadeh, Alireza; Karkhaneh, Reza; Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad; Manaviat, Masoud Reza; Maleki, Alireza; Kheiri, Bahareh; Golbafian, Faegheh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To customize clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Iranian population. Methods: Three DR CPGs (The Royal College of Ophthalmologists 2013, American Academy of Ophthalmology [Preferred Practice Pattern 2012], and Australian Diabetes Society 2008) were selected from the literature using the AGREE tool. Clinical questions were designed and summarized into four tables by the customization team. The components of the clinical questions along with pertinent recommendations extracted from the above-mentioned CPGs; details of the supporting articles and their levels of evidence; clinical recommendations considering clinical benefits, cost and side effects; and revised recommendations based on customization capability (applicability, acceptability, external validity) were recorded in 4 tables, respectively. Customized recommendations were sent to the faculty members of all universities across the country to score the recommendations from 1 to 9. Results: Agreed recommendations were accepted as the final recommendations while the non-agreed ones were approved after revision. Eventually, 29 customized recommendations under three major categories consisting of screening, diagnosis and treatment of DR were developed along with their sources and levels of evidence. Conclusion: This customized CPGs for management of DR can be used to standardize the referral pathway, diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27994809

  3. Analysis of correlation between dry eye and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the correlation between dry eye and different degrees of diabetic retinopathy(DRin type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, 340 patients(340 eyeswith type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Tear film function tests including tear meniscus height, tear film breakup time(BUT, fluorescein staining, Schirmer Ⅰ test were performed followed by surveying questionnaires about dry eye. Retinal status was evaluated by retinal color photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy exam with dilated pupils to evaluate DR and whether companied by macular edema. RESULTS: The prevalence of dry eye was 49.41%. The mean duration of diabetes in patients with dry eye was 11.15±7.07a, while 6.92±5.45a without dry eye(PCONCLUSION: Dry eye was more prevalent in people with type 2 diabetes. The incidence of dry eye increased gradually with the occurrence and development of diabetic retinopathy.

  4. Asymmetric severity of diabetic retinopathy in Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashima T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Kashima, Hideo Akiyama, Shoji KishiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Gunma 371-8511, JapanAbstract: A 30-year-old female patient was referred to our institution due to vitreous hemorrhage. Best corrected visual acuity of her right and left eyes at her initial visit was 10/20 and 20/20, respectively. Although hypochromic iris was observed in the superior iris between the 10 and 2 o’clock positions in her right eye, her entire left eye exhibited hypochromic iris. Hypopigmentation of the fundus was seen in the superior part of her right eye. This eye also had a huge neovascularization on the optic disc that was 7 discs in diameter. Conversely, her left fundi showed hypopigmentation of the fundus in the entire region of the left eye, and dot hemorrhages were observed all over the left fundi, although no neovascularization could be seen microscopically. Fluorescein angiography showed a huge neovascularization in the right eye and a tiny neovascularization in the left eye. Gene analysis revealed the presence of the PAX3 gene homeobox domain mutation, which led to her being diagnosed as Waardenburg syndrome type 1. Magnetic resonance angiography showed there was no obstructive region at either of the internal carotid arteries and ophthalmic arteries. The severity of the diabetic retinopathy appeared to be correlated with the degree of hypopigmentation in the posterior fundus. We speculate that hypopigmentation of the fundus in Waardenburg syndrome may be responsible for the reduction in retinal metabolism, which led to a reduction in oxygen consumption and prevented further aggravation of the diabetic retinopathy. Only laser treatments using short wavelengths was effective in this case. While the extinction coefficient for hemoglobin when using green light is higher than when using yellow light, the differences between these wavelengths tend to disappear when oxygenated hemoglobin is present. To the best of

  5. Validation of Smartphone Based Retinal Photography for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Rajalakshmi

    Full Text Available To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of "fundus on phone' (FOP camera, a smartphone based retinal imaging system, as a screening tool for diabetic retinopathy (DR detection and DR severity in comparison with 7-standard field digital retinal photography.Single-site, prospective, comparative, instrument validation study.301 patients (602 eyes with type 2 diabetes underwent standard seven-field digital fundus photography with both Carl Zeiss fundus camera and indigenous FOP at a tertiary care diabetes centre in South India. Grading of DR was performed by two independent retina specialists using modified Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study grading system. Sight threatening DR (STDR was defined by the presence of proliferative DR(PDR or diabetic macular edema. The sensitivity, specificity and image quality were assessed.The mean age of the participants was 53.5 ±9.6 years and mean duration of diabetes 12.5±7.3 years. The Zeiss camera showed that 43.9% had non-proliferative DR(NPDR and 15.3% had PDR while the FOP camera showed that 40.2% had NPDR and 15.3% had PDR. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting any DR by FOP was 92.7% (95%CI 87.8-96.1 and 98.4% (95%CI 94.3-99.8 respectively and the kappa (ĸ agreement was 0.90 (95%CI-0.85-0.95 p<0.001 while for STDR, the sensitivity was 87.9% (95%CI 83.2-92.9, specificity 94.9% (95%CI 89.7-98.2 and ĸ agreement was 0.80 (95%CI 0.71-0.89 p<0.001, compared to conventional photography.Retinal photography using FOP camera is effective for screening and diagnosis of DR and STDR with high sensitivity and specificity and has substantial agreement with conventional retinal photography.

  6. Validation of Smartphone Based Retinal Photography for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, Ramachandran; Arulmalar, Subramanian; Usha, Manoharan; Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Kareemuddin, Khaji Syed; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of "fundus on phone' (FOP) camera, a smartphone based retinal imaging system, as a screening tool for diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection and DR severity in comparison with 7-standard field digital retinal photography. Single-site, prospective, comparative, instrument validation study. 301 patients (602 eyes) with type 2 diabetes underwent standard seven-field digital fundus photography with both Carl Zeiss fundus camera and indigenous FOP at a tertiary care diabetes centre in South India. Grading of DR was performed by two independent retina specialists using modified Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study grading system. Sight threatening DR (STDR) was defined by the presence of proliferative DR(PDR) or diabetic macular edema. The sensitivity, specificity and image quality were assessed. The mean age of the participants was 53.5 ±9.6 years and mean duration of diabetes 12.5±7.3 years. The Zeiss camera showed that 43.9% had non-proliferative DR(NPDR) and 15.3% had PDR while the FOP camera showed that 40.2% had NPDR and 15.3% had PDR. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting any DR by FOP was 92.7% (95%CI 87.8-96.1) and 98.4% (95%CI 94.3-99.8) respectively and the kappa (ĸ) agreement was 0.90 (95%CI-0.85-0.95 p<0.001) while for STDR, the sensitivity was 87.9% (95%CI 83.2-92.9), specificity 94.9% (95%CI 89.7-98.2) and ĸ agreement was 0.80 (95%CI 0.71-0.89 p<0.001), compared to conventional photography. Retinal photography using FOP camera is effective for screening and diagnosis of DR and STDR with high sensitivity and specificity and has substantial agreement with conventional retinal photography.

  7. Association between diabetic retinopathy and subclinical atherosclerosis in China: Results from a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Teng, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the association of diabetic retinopathy with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional community-based study was performed among 1607 patients aged 40 years or older in Shanghai. Non-mydriatic digital fundus photography examination was used in diabetic retinopathy detection. Presence of elevated carotid intima-media thickness or carotid plaque was defined as subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 15.1% in total patients. Patients with diabetic retinopathy were more likely to have elevated carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque and subclinical atherosclerosis than those without diabetic retinopathy (37.9% vs 30.7%, 57.6% vs 49.6% and 64.6% vs 57.1%, respectively). The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increased odds of subclinical atherosclerosis (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-3.60) after full adjustments. The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetics in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy: Knowledge, Attitude, Practice (KAP) among Diabetic Patients in A Tertiary Eye Care Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Nithin Keshav; John, Deepa; Rebekah, Grace; Kujur, Evon Selina; Paul, Padma; John, Sheeja Susan

    2017-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is becoming an increasingly important cause of visual impairment in India. Many diabetic patients who come to our centre have undetected, advanced diabetic retinopathy. If diabetic retinopathy had been detected earlier in these patients, irreversible visual impairment could have been prevented. To document Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) patterns of diabetic patients regarding diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, to determine association between them, and to identify barriers to compliance with follow up and treatment regimes. This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional study, conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology at Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, over a six-month period from June 2013 to November 2013. Two hundred and eighty eight diabetic patients, who fulfilled the eligibility criteria, were included in the study. KAP of patients was assessed using a 45-point, verbally administered questionnaire. Patients were placed in different categories, such as, 'good/ poor' knowledge, 'positive/negative' attitude and 'good/poor' practice. Data were analysed using Chi-square test and binary logistic regression, as appropriate. The proportion of patients with 'good/poor' knowledge, 'positive/negative' attitude and 'good/poor' practice, and the association between KAP were studied. Barriers to compliance with follow up/treatment regimes were identified. Out of the 288 patients in the study, 42% had good knowledge about diabetes, but only 4.5% had good knowledge about retinopathy. Good knowledge about diabetes was significantly associated with positive attitude towards diabetes and good practice patterns regarding retinopathy; awareness of retinopathy was also significantly associated with good practice. A total of 61.1% of patients did not have periodic eye examination; most common barrier identified was lack of awareness about the necessity for this (38.5%). Good knowledge about the disease was significantly associated

  9. Lipoprotein(a as a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Rupali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To estimate serum lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without diabetic retinopathy and to determine the correlation, if any, between serum Lp(a levels and severity of diabetic retinopathy. Materials and Methods: The study included a total of 200 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus out of which 100 patients who had no retinopathy served as the control group and 100 patients with diabetic retinopathy formed the study group. A detailed fundus examination was done with dilated pupil. The Lp(a levels were measured quantitatively in fasting venous samples by an immunoturbidimetric method using commercially available kits (Clonital. Statistical Analysis Used: Group comparisons involving qualitative measures were carried out using Chi square test. ANOVA procedure was applied for comparing group means. Logistic regression analysis was performed for independent factors associated with diabetic retinopathy. Results: The average Lp(a levels in the study group (68.5 mg/dl were significantly higher than in the control group (25.1 mg/dl ( P < 0.001. The Lp(a levels were found to increase with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions: Serum Lp(a levels are significantly raised in patients with diabetic retinopathy as compared to those with no retinopathy.

  10. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress is associated with severity of diabetic retinopathy and retinal structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shashi; Saxena, Sandeep; Srivastav, Khushboo; Shukla, Rajendra K; Mishra, Nibha; Meyer, Carsten H; Kruzliak, Peter; Khanna, Vinay K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine plasma nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in diabetic retinopathy and its association with severity of disease. Prospective observational study. A total of 60 consecutive cases and 20 healthy controls were included. Severity of retinopathy was graded according to early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) classification. Photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band (ISel) disruption and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alteration were graded using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Data were statistically analyzed. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, NO assay and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured using standard protocol. Increased severity of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increase in plasma levels of LPO (P diabetic retinopathy. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that increased plasma LPO, NO and decreased GSH levels are associated with in vivo structural changes in inner segment ellipsoid and RPE. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Long-term mortality and retinopathy in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauslund, Jakob

    2010-05-01

    retinopathy in 1981-1982 and 2007-2008. At follow-up, 97.0% had DR and 42.9% of all patients without PDR at baseline developed this during the follow-up period. Patients who had had a poor glycaemic regulation as well as those who had NPDR at baseline were more likely to develop PDR than the remaining patients. On the other hand, other risk factors such as high blood pressure and proteinuria did not predict PDR. In the comparative study between ETDRS seven standard field 30 degrees stereoscopic colour films and nine field 45 degrees monoscopic digital colour images, 43 eyes of 43 patients were examined in 2008. A poor correlation was found between the two methods: only 29.3% were graded alike. In the remaining, the level of DR was graded higher in the digital photos. Among these, PDR was detected in three eyes using digital photos but remained undetected on all films. This suggests that digital photos with wide fields are the best way to detect DR in long-term type 1 diabetic patients. Overall, it is concluded that mortality is still higher among type 1 diabetic patients. This depends, among other things, on glycaemic regulation, lipid status and, partly, renal dysfunction. Diabetic retinopathy is almost universal in long-term type 1 diabetic patients, and almost half of all patients will develop PDR in 25 years. Nine field digital photos provide the best grading of retinopathy in long-term type 1 diabetic patients.

  12. Automatic detection of retinal anatomy to assist diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Grampian Diabetes Retinal Screening Programme, Woolmanhill Hospital, Aberdeen, AB25 1LD (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Grampian Diabetes Retinal Screening Programme, Woolmanhill Hospital, Aberdeen, AB25 1LD (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-21

    Screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy are being introduced in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. These require large numbers of retinal images to be manually graded for the presence of disease. Automation of image grading would have a number of benefits. However, an important prerequisite for automation is the accurate location of the main anatomical features in the image, notably the optic disc and the fovea. The locations of these features are necessary so that lesion significance, image field of view and image clarity can be assessed. This paper describes methods for the robust location of the optic disc and fovea. The elliptical form of the major retinal blood vessels is used to obtain approximate locations, which are refined based on the circular edge of the optic disc and the local darkening at the fovea. The methods have been tested on 1056 sequential images from a retinal screening programme. Positional accuracy was better than 0.5 of a disc diameter in 98.4% of cases for optic disc location, and in 96.5% of cases for fovea location. The methods are sufficiently accurate to form an important and effective component of an automated image grading system for diabetic retinopathy screening.

  13. Spatial distribution of early red lesions is a risk factor for development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Giovanni; Assheton, Phil; Calivá, Francesco; Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterised by morphological lesions related to disturbances in retinal blood flow. It has previously been shown that the early development of retinal lesions temporal to the fovea may predict the development of treatment-requiring diabetic maculopathy. The aim of this study was to map accurately the area where lesions could predict progression to vision-threatening retinopathy. The predictive value of the location of the earliest red lesions representing haemorrhages and/or microaneurysms was studied by comparing their occurrence in a group of individuals later developing vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy with that in a group matched with respect to diabetes type, age, sex and age of onset of diabetes mellitus who did not develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy during a similar observation period. The probability of progression to vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy was higher in a circular area temporal to the fovea, and the occurrence of the first lesions in this area was predictive of the development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. The calculated peak value showed that the risk of progression was 39.5% higher than the average. There was no significant difference in the early distribution of lesions in participants later developing diabetic maculopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The location of early red lesions in diabetic retinopathy is predictive of whether or not individuals will later develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. This evidence should be incorporated into risk models used to recommend control intervals in screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy.

  14. Serum and aqueous humor concentrations of interleukin-27 in diabetic retinopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssen, Maha E; El-Hussiny, Mona Abo Bakr; El-Kannishy, Amr; Sabry, Dalia; El Mahdy, Rasha; Shaker, Mohamed E

    2017-07-24

    Interleukin (IL)-27 has been reported to possess anti- and proinflammatory properties in several immune related-disorders, but its role in diabetic retinopathy is still elusive. Here, we aimed to (i) evaluate IL-27 concentrations in serum and aqueous humor of diabetic patients with or without retinopathy and (ii) test whether IL-27 is correlated with some risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. The study comprised 60 diabetic patients with and without retinopathy along with 20 healthy controls. Serum and aqueous humor concentrations of IL-27 were assessed by ELISA. The mean of IL-27 concentration in aqueous humor in patients with diabetic retinopathy (6.7 ± 2.7 ng/L) was significantly elevated in comparison with either diabetic patients without retinopathy (4.6 ± 0.5 ng/L) or healthy control group (4.1 ± 0.8 ng/L). Besides, IL-27 concentration in aqueous humor was positively correlated with serum glucose, lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Based on this study, IL-27 is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and positively correlates with the disorder progression.

  15. Visual Evoked Potential to Assess Retinopathy in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari Kumar, K V S; Ahmad, F M H; Sood, Sandeep; Mansingh, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated for early retinopathy using the visual evoked potential (VEP) in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. All patients with GDM and type 2 diabetes seen between June and October of 2014 were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients with secondary diabetes, ocular or major illness were excluded from the study. VEP was recorded in both eyes to derive prominent positive peak latency (P100), amplitude and initial negative deflection (N75) latency. The data were compared with 10 gestational age-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance. Appropriate statistical methods were used for comparison among the 3 groups. The study participants (40 with GDM, 10 with type 2 diabetes, 10 with normal glucose tolerance) had a median (25th to 75th interquartile range) age of 26 (24.3, 30) years, a gestational age of 24.5 (21, 27) weeks and weights of 66.8 (63.4, 71.5) kg. The P100 latencies were comparable among the 3 groups (p=0.0577). However, patients with any diabetes (GDM and type 2 diabetes) had prolonged P100 latencies (p=0.0139) and low P100 amplitudes (p=0.0391) in comparison to controls. P100 latency showed a direct correlation with hyperglycemia (p=0.0118). Our data showed that VEP abnormalities are detectable even in the short-term hyperglycemia of GDM and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almdal, T P; Handlos, L N; Valerius, M; Juul, E; Nielsen, K E; Vistisen, D; Nielsen, L B; Sheikh, A; Belhadj, M; Nadir, D; Zinai, S; Raposo, J; Lund-Andersen, H; Witte, D R

    2014-03-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol) and in individuals with HbA(1c) >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of choroidal thickness with early stages of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the correlation between choroidal thickness (CT and the early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We divided 83 diabetic patients (51-80 years of age; 50 females into non diabetic retinopathy group (NDR and mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR group, and compared them with 26 non-diabetic control subjects (51-78 years of age; 16 females. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT and parafoveal choroidal thickness (PFCT were measured using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT. Ocular health status, disease duration, body mass index, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c were recorded. RESULTS: The mean ages of the NDR, NPDR, and control groups were 68.0±6.9y, 67.8±6.4y, and 65.1±6.3y, respectively (P=0.17. Pearson correlation of the right and left eyes for the control subjects was 0.95 and for the NDR subjects was 0.93. SFCT for the right eyes of the controls was 252.77± 41.10 μm, which was significantly thicker than that of the right eyes in NDR group (221.51±46.56 μm and the worse eyes of the NPDR group (207.18±61.87 μm; ANOVA, P<0.01. In the diabetic patients pooled together, age was the only variable significantly associated with SFCT (multiple linear regression analysis, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: CT decreased significantly in the NDR and mild/moderate NPDR eyes compared with the control eyes. Age is significantly associated with SFCT in the diabetic patients. Diabetic choroidopathy may be present before clinical retinopathy.

  18. Association among low whole blood viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and diabetic retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, C; Scarinci, F; Scorcia, V; Bruzzichessi, D; Fiorentino, R; Randazzo, G; Scorcia, G; Gnasso, A

    2011-01-01

    Haemorheological variables influence endothelial function through the release of several factors. Clinical studies have described an association among blood viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and macro-angiopathy. Few data are reported about the association between haemorheological variables and micro-angiopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between these variables and retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes. 111 men, 79 postmenopausal women, and 95 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Haematocrit and haemoglobin were measured by standard methods. Blood viscosity was calculated according to the formula (0.12× haematocrit)+(0.17× (plasma proteins-2.07)). Subjects were grouped according to the presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy, while the severity of retinopathy was classified according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and whole blood viscosity were significantly lower in subjects with retinopathy compared to subjects without retinopathy in both sexes. These variables significantly decreased with increasing severity of retinopathy. A multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the independent inverse association among viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and retinopathy (p<0.01). Results demonstrate the association among low viscosity, haemoglobin, haematocrit and diabetic retinopathy. The mechanisms responsible for this association can be hypothesised. Reduced haemoglobin might cause direct organ damage. Low blood viscosity, through the reduction of shear stress, might inhibit the anti-atherogenic functions of endothelial cells.

  19. Animal Models of Diabetic Retinopathy: Summary and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication associated with chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Although clinical assessment and retinal autopsy of diabetic patients provide information on the features and progression of DR, its underlying pathophysiological mechanism cannot be deduced. In order to have a better understanding of the development of DR at the molecular and cellular levels, a variety of animal models have been developed. They include pharmacological induction of hyperglycemia and spontaneous diabetic rodents as well as models of angiogenesis without diabetes (to compensate for the absence of proliferative DR symptoms). In this review, we summarize the existing protocols to induce diabetes using STZ. We also describe and compare the pathological presentations, in both morphological and functional aspects, of the currently available DR animal models. The advantages and disadvantages of using different animals, ranging from zebrafish, rodents to other higher-order mammals, are also discussed. Until now, there is no single model that displays all the clinical features of DR as seen in human. Yet, with the understanding of the pathological findings in these animal models, researchers can select the most suitable models for mechanistic studies or drug screening. PMID:24286086

  20. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Piippo, Niina; Kinnunen, Kati; Hytti, Maria; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2017-12-01

    Innate immunity and dysregulation of inflammatory processes play a role in vascular diseases like atherosclerosis or diabetes. Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat Receptor containing a Pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes are pro-inflammatory signalling complexes that were found in 2002. In addition to pathogens and other extracellular threats, they can be activated by various endogenous danger signals. The purpose of this study was to find out whether NLRP3 activation occurs in patients with sight-threatening forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Inflammasome components NLRP3 and caspase-1, inflammasome-related pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acute-phase cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as adaptive immunity-related cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were measured from the vitreous samples of 15 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (non-PDR) and 23 proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) was determined using the Western blot technique. Inflammasome components were present in the vitreous of DR patients. Along with VEGF, the levels of caspase-1 and IL-18 were significantly increased, especially in PDR eyes. Interestingly, clearly higher levels of NLRP3 were found in the PDR eyes with tractional retinal detachment (TRD) than from PDR eyes with fully attached retina. There were no significant differences in the amounts of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ that were detectable in the vitreous of both non-PDR and PDR patients. Our results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation can be associated especially with the pathogenesis of PDR. The lack of differences in TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ also alludes that acute inflammation or T-cell-mediated responses do not dominate in PDR pathogenesis. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation

  1. Development of a screening tool for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Bency, Mayur Joseph; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Amod

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition of the eye of diabetic patients where the retina is damaged because of long-term diabetes. The condition deteriorates towards irreversible blindness in extreme cases of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is important to prevent blindness. Regular screening of fundus images of diabetic patients could be helpful in preventing blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose techniques for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images using several shape and texture features computed from detected microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages. The classification accuracy is reported in terms of the area (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic curve using 200 fundus images from the MESSIDOR database. The value of Az for classifying normal images versus mild, moderate, and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is 0:9106. The value of Az for classification of mild NPDR versus moderate and severe NPDR is 0:8372. The Az value for classification of moderate NPDR and severe NPDR is 0:9750.

  2. Does renin-angiotensin system blockade have a role in preventing diabetic retinopathy? A clinical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjølie, A K; Dodson, P; Hobbs, F R R

    2011-01-01

    been identified in the eye and found to be upregulated in retinopathy. This has led to specific interest in the role of RAS blockade in retinopathy prevention. The recent DIRECT programme assessed use of the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although...

  3. Protective Effects of Fufang Xueshuantong on Diabetic Retinopathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Fufang Xueshuantong (FXT on diabetic retinopathy in rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. One week after STZ, FXT 0.525 g/kg or 1.05 g/kg was administrated to the rats by intragastric gavage (ig once daily consecutively for 24 weeks. The control rats and untreated STZ rats received vehicle the same way. At the end of the experiment, the erythrocyte aggregation and blood viscosity were assayed. The retina vessel morphology was observed in retinal digestive preparations. Expression of occludin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in retina was measured by western blotting. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF in retina was detected by immunohistochemistry. The activity of aldose reductase in retina was investigated with a NADPH oxidation method. The results showed that, in STZ rats, there were distinct lesions in retinal vessel, including decrease of pericytes and increase of acellular capillaries, together with dilatation of retinal veins. The expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 increased, while the expression of PEDF and occludin decreased. The activity of aldose reductase elevated, and the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation also increased after STZ stimulation. FXT 0.525 g/kg and 1.05 g/kg demonstrated significant protective effects against STZ induced microvessel lesion in the retina with increased pericytes and reduced acellular capillaries. FXT also reduced the expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 and enhanced the expression of PEDF and occludin in STZ insulted rats. The activity of aldose reductase, the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation also decreased after FXT treatment. The results demonstrated that FXT has protective effect on STZ induced diabetic retinopathy

  4. Visual functions and disability in diabetic retinopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Kaiti, Raju

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to find correlations between visual functions and visual disabilities in patients with diabetic retinopathy. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 38 visually impaired diabetic retinopathy subjects at the Low Vision Clinic of B.P. Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Kathmandu. The subjects underwent assessment of distance and near visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and central and peripheral visual fields. The visual disabilities of each subject in their daily lives were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis between visual functions and visual disabilities index was assessed. The majority of subjects (42.1%) were of the age group 60-70 years. Best corrected visual acuity was found to be 0.73±0.2 in the better eye and 0.93±0.27 in the worse eye, which was significantly different at p=0.002. Visual disability scores were significantly higher for legibility of letters (1.2±0.3) and sentences (1.4±0.4), and least for clothing (0.7±0.3). Visual disability index for legibility of letters and sentences was significantly correlated with near visual acuity and peripheral visual field. Contrast sensitivity was also significantly correlated with the visual disability index, and total scores. Impairment of near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and peripheral visual field correlated significantly with different types of visual disability. Hence, these clinical tests should be an integral part of the visual assessment of diabetic eyes. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Why does diabetic retinopathy happen, and how can we stop it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ockrim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a complication of diabetes. We can prevent DR both by preventing diabetes (primary prevention and by improving the management of diabetes to slow down the onset, and reduce the severity, of DR (secondary prevention.

  6. [Retinopathy and angiopathy in diabetes of fifty to sixty years duration (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, F

    1977-11-01

    A report is given on ten (seven female, three male) diabetis with uncommonly long duration of the disease. Diabetes had become manifest at an early age (mostly childhood) and, then, had continued for a period of fifty to sixty-one years. Eight patients suffer from retinopathy, two are free from it. Only three cases show nephropathy of moderate development and inconspicuous progression. Coronary sclerosis, peripheral sclerosis, and neuropathy recede with time. There is a surprising discrepancy of findings concerning retinopathy - on the one hand: simple retinopathy tending to spontaneous regression; on the other hand: malignant proliferating retinopathy. Uncommon also is the tarrying behaviour of nephropathy.

  7. Is Smoking a Risk Factor for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaedt Thorlund, Mie; Borg Madsen, Mette; Green, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate if smoking was a risk factor for proliferative retinopathy (PDR) in a 25-year follow-up study. Methods: 201 persons from a population-based cohort of Danish type 1 diabetic patients were examined at baseline and again 25 years later. At both examinations the patients...... were asked about their smoking habits. The level of retinopathy was evaluated by ophthalmoscopy at baseline and by nine 45-degree colour field fundus photos at the follow-up. Results: In multivariate analyses there was a trend that current smokers at baseline were more likely to develop PDR...

  8. Glycomic characterization of basal tears and changes with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Khuong, Terry; Everest-Dass, Arun V; Kautto, Liisa; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P; Packer, Nicolle H

    2015-03-01

    As a secreted fluid, the state of tear glycosylation is particularly important in the role of immunity of the ocular surface. Tears are a valuable source of non-invasive biomarkers for disease and there are continued efforts to characterize their components thoroughly. In this study, a small volume of basal tears (5 μL) was collected from healthy controls, patients with diabetes without retinopathy and patients with diabetes and retinopathy. The detailed N- and O-linked tear protein glycome was characterized and the relative abundance of each structure determined. Of the 50 N-linked glycans found, 89% were complex with 50% containing a bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, 65% containing a core fucose whilst 33% were sialylated. Of the 8 O-linked glycans detected, 3 were of cores 1 and 5 of core 2 type, with a majority of them being sialylated (90%). Additionally, these glycan structures were profiled across the three diabetic disease groups. Whilst the higher abundant structures did not alter across the three groups, only five low abundance N-linked glycans and 1 O-linked glycan did alter with the onset of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy (DR). These results suggest the conservation of glycan types on basal tear proteins between individuals and point to only small changes in glycan expression on the proteins in tears with the development of diabetes and DR. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Disturbance of Inorganic Phosphate Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus: Its Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vorum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early in the progression of diabetes, a paradoxical metabolic imbalance in inorganic phosphate (Pi occurs that may lead to reduced high energy phosphate and tissue hypoxia. These changes take place in the cells and tissues in which the entry of glucose is not controlled by insulin, particularly in poorly regulated diabetes patients in whom long-term vascular complications are more likely. Various conditions are involved in this disturbance in Pi. First, the homeostatic function of the kidneys is suboptimal in diabetes, because elevated blood glucose concentrations depolarize the brush border membrane for Pi reabsorption and lead to lack of intracellular phosphate and hyperphosphaturia. Second, during hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic intervals, high amounts of glucose enter muscle and fat tissues, which are insulin sensitive. Intracellular glucose is metabolized by phosphorylation, which leads to a reduction in plasma Pi, and subsequent deleterious effects on glucose metabolism in insulin insensitive tissues. Hypophosphatemia is closely related to a decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP in the aging process and in uremia. Any interruption of optimal ATP production might lead to cell injury and possible cell death, and evidence will be provided herein that such cell death does occur in diabetic retinopathy. Based on this information, the mechanism of capillary microaneurysms formation in diabetic retinopathy and the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy must be reevaluated.

  10. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-10-30

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  11. Periodontitis is associated with diabetic retinopathy in non-obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Su Jeong; Lee, Seong-Su; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-04-01

    Patients with diabetes retinopathy appear to show increased susceptibility to periodontal disease. This study was performed to assess the relationship between periodontitis and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in a large probability sample of the Korean population. A subgroup analysis was performed using body mass index periodontitis and presence of retinopathy categorized by body mass index (periodontitis and diabetic retinopathy after adjustment with variables, including age, sex, smoking, drinking, exercise, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, HbA1c, and duration of diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of periodontitis in individuals who had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy were 1.193 [0.757-1.881] for the whole population after adjustments with confounding factors. Subgroup analysis after adjustments with confounding factors showed that the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of prevalence were 2.206 [1.114-4.366] and 0.588 [0.326-1.061] among participants with body mass index periodontitis in non-obese diabetic Korean adults after adjustment with confounding variables. Our findings suggest that when a periodontist finds the presence of periodontitis in non-obese diabetic patients, timely evaluation of the patient's ophthalmic evaluation should be 44 recommended.

  12. Effectiveness of screening in preventing blindness due to diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, C S; Ngugi, N; Lovelock, L; Taylor, R

    2003-03-01

    Diabetes remains the commonest cause of blindness in the working age population of the UK, but little information exists about the individuals who are currently losing sight from this cause. We determined the current blindness incidence (1998-2000) in Newcastle Health District and the clinical characteristics of these patients. Data were collected for 1998-2000 from the Royal National Institute for the Blind Liaison Office of the Newcastle Ophthalmology Department. The Ophthalmology Clinic notes on each individual were retrieved to verify clinical details, including previous eye diagnosis, dates of previous laser photocoagulation and eye surgery. The diabetes clinical records were studied to obtain information on type and duration of diabetes, blood pressure, HbA1c and other biochemical parameters. To ensure completeness of data, details of all patients registered blind attending the Newcastle Diabetic Centre were examined. Twenty-eight patients were registered blind due to diabetes and 26 partially sighted during this period. The annual incidence of blindness and partial sightedness due to diabetes in the Newcastle district were 0.35 and 0.56 per 1000, respectively. The average ages in the two groups were 65.9 +/- 12.5 and 67.2 +/- 12.3 years and duration of diabetes 15.5 +/- 13.9 and 15.3 +/- 10.6 years, respectively. Proliferative retinopathy accounted for 30 and maculopathy for 24 registrations. The times from ophthalmology referral to registration were 6.2 +/- 3.5 and 4.4 +/- 3.3 years in these groups, respectively. No cases resulted from false-negative screening. In Newcastle district, where the retinal screening programme has been running since 1986, the rates of blindness and partial sightedness are less than one-third of those reported in the surveys prior to 1997, confirming that objectives of the St Vincent's declarations are being achieved.

  13. Common pathophysiology affecting diabetic retinopathy and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Li, Zhaoming; Lu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in adults. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra of midbrain. Evidences suggest that diabetic patients tend to show higher incidence of PD, advocating a shared mechanism between both the diseases. Interestingly, disruption of the dopaminergic system, which is an important causative factor in PD, has also been observed in DR. It is reported that retinal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels are downregulated, and dopaminergic amacrine cells appear to be degenerating in the animal models of DR. Further, injecting the diabetic mice with dopamine-restoring or dopamine-activating drugs already used to treat PD can restore dopamine levels and significantly improve diabetes-associated visual dysfunction in the early stage. Conversely, drugs already in use for insulin resistance also show protective effects in PD. Furthermore, α-Synuclein pathology of PD can be induced solely by high glucose in diabetic animal models. In conclusion, these findings establish an important role of dopamine deficiency as a common contributing factor in DR and PD. The changes in the ocular of diabetes involve dopamine metabolism disturbance, mimicking PD at the molecular level. Consequently, we could consider DR as at least partially the PD like molecular pathology in the eye. Importantly, indicating that dopamine decrease may play a role in DR will lead to a better understanding of the high rate of comorbidity reported between diabetes and PD, and reveal new therapeutic avenues for DR and other disorders that involve dopamine deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectrally optimal illuminations for diabetic retinopathy detection in retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, Piotr; Fält, Pauli; Penttinen, Niko; Ylitepsa, Pasi; Laaksonen, Lauri; Lensu, Lasse; Hauta-Kasari, Markku; Uusitalo, Hannu

    2017-04-01

    Retinal photography is a standard method for recording retinal diseases for subsequent analysis and diagnosis. However, the currently used white light or red-free retinal imaging does not necessarily provide the best possible visibility of different types of retinal lesions, important when developing diagnostic tools for handheld devices, such as smartphones. Using specifically designed illumination, the visibility and contrast of retinal lesions could be improved. In this study, spectrally optimal illuminations for diabetic retinopathy lesion visualization are implemented using a spectrally tunable light source based on digital micromirror device. The applicability of this method was tested in vivo by taking retinal monochrome images from the eyes of five diabetic volunteers and two non-diabetic control subjects. For comparison to existing methods, we evaluated the contrast of retinal images taken with our method and red-free illumination. The preliminary results show that the use of optimal illuminations improved the contrast of diabetic lesions in retinal images by 30-70%, compared to the traditional red-free illumination imaging.

  15. Effects of RAS inhibitors on diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Shi-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Yan, Sheng-Li; Wang, Yan-Gang

    2015-04-01

    Results of several studies have shown a possible beneficial effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors on diabetic retinopathy, but the findings were contradictory. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of RAS inhibitors on diabetic retinopathy. We identified relevant publications in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials, and abstracts from main annual meetings. Only randomised controlled trials comparing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) monotherapy with other antihypertensive drugs or placebo in type 1 or type 2 diabetes were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The primary outcomes were progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy in all patients and several subgroups. Risk ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95% CIs were pooled. We also did a network meta-analysis to assess the effect of different antihypertensive drugs on diabetic retinopathy by ranking order. This study is registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), number CRD42013004548. 21 randomised clinical trials with 13,823 participants were included in the meta-analysis. RAS inhibitors were associated with reduced risk of progression (absolute risk difference -3%, 95% CI -5 to -1; pooled RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.95; p=0.002) and increased possibility of regression of diabetic retinopathy (8%, 1-16; RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.19-1.61; p=0.00002). In normotensive patients, RAS inhibitors decreased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression (0.81, 0.69-0.94; p=0.007) and increased possibility of regression (1.43, 1.14-1.79; p=0.002). In hypertensive patients, RAS inhibitors were not associated with difference in risk of progression of diabetic retinopathy (0.93, 0.79-1.10; p=0.42) or possibility of diabetic retinopathy regression (2.21, 0.92-5.31; p=0.08). ACE inhibitors were associated with reduced risk of diabetic retinopathy progression (0.84, 0

  16. Planning diabetic retinopathy services – lessons from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gomez-Bastar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization encourages the promotion and development of programmes for the prevention, detection, and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR. Such programmes must identify effective strategies and technology so that they can be adapted to the situation in each part of the world. Programmes must also be monitored and continuously improved.The guidelines discussed in this article were developed by experts brought together during workshops hosted by the VISION 2020 Latin America technical subcommittee on DR and technical support was provided by the Pan-American Asociation of Ophthalmology (PAAO. Although these guidelines have been developed for Latin America, we hope that the principles they contain will provide a good starting point for the planning of DR services in other low- and middle-income countries.

  17. Telemedicine in diabetic retinopathy: Access to rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraprasad Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a growing concern in India. The first step in management of DR is timely screening. With 10% prevalence in rural India, 11 million people are likely to have DR by the year 2030. With limited resources and skilled manpower, it will not be possible to have routine eye examination to identify and treat these patients on a regular basis. Telemedicine is a possible answer in these situations where patients could be remotely screened and appropriately advised. With the advent of several technological advances such as low cost hand-held nonmydriatic camera, increased capabilities of the smartphones to take external eye and retinal photographs coupled with improving broadband connectivity; teleophthalmology in the management of DR could be a reality in the not too distant future.

  18. Crowdsourcing and Automated Retinal Image Analysis for Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Lucy I; Wang, Xueyang; Friedman, David S; Brady, Christopher J

    2017-09-23

    As the number of people with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the USA is expected to increase threefold by 2050, the need to reduce health care costs associated with screening for this treatable disease is ever present. Crowdsourcing and automated retinal image analysis (ARIA) are two areas where new technology has been applied to reduce costs in screening for DR. This paper reviews the current literature surrounding these new technologies. Crowdsourcing has high sensitivity for normal vs abnormal images; however, when multiple categories for severity of DR are added, specificity is reduced. ARIAs have higher sensitivity and specificity, and some commercial ARIA programs are already in use. Deep learning enhanced ARIAs appear to offer even more improvement in ARIA grading accuracy. The utilization of crowdsourcing and ARIAs may be a key to reducing the time and cost burden of processing images from DR screening.

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors Protect against Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kun Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a principal mediator of signal transduction in the cell, and disruption of its normal function (a mechanism known as ER stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases. ER stress has been demonstrated to contribute to onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR by induction of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways. Recent studies have begun to describe the gene expression profile of ER stress-related genes in DR; moreover, genes that play a protective role against DR have been identified. P58IPK was determined to be able to reduce retinal vascular leakage under high glucose conditions, thus protecting retinal cells. It has also been found by our lab that ER-associated protein degradation factors exhibit significantly different expression patterns in rat retinas under sustained high glucose conditions. Future research based upon these collective genomic findings will contribute to our overall understanding of DR pathogenesis as well as identify potential therapeutic targets.

  20. [Evaluation of a screening programme for diabetic retinopathy (DODIA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Massin, Pascale; Audran, Ghislaine; Ben Mehidi, Amina; Bernit, Blandine; Bouée, Stéphane; Bouhassira, Myriam; Bourovitch, Jean-Claude; Erginay, Ali; Eschwege, Evelyne; Jamet, Marina; Marre, Michel; Nougairède, Michel; Tcherny-Lessenot, Stéphanie

    2007-06-15

    In France, 43% to 63% of diabetics have an annual fundoscopy. Do the new screening tools, coupled with teletransmission of the images, allow for satisfying ophthalmological screening? It is an important matter given the foreseeable reduction in the number of French ophthalmologists in the forthcoming years. To measure the quality of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR), in the framework of a network, by the provision of a retinograph by numeric camera (with teletransmission of the images and centralised interpretation), in a screening centre located in town. The study evaluated the quality of screening obtained in two comparable groups of general practitioners, one using the retinograph and the other using the classical method of screening by ophthalmologist. The screening was targeted at diabetics who had not had a fundoscopy in the preceding year, nor had known DR or a treating ophthalmologist (for the retinography group only). 667 patients were sampled in the retinography group (456 included) and 707 in the control group (426 included) between 1/04/02 and 1/11/02; 417 patients were followed until the end of the study in the 2 groups. A screening examination was considered effective if it was performed within the six months following its request, and by the presence of a report in the file of the general practitioner. The percentage of patients thus screened was 74% in the retinography group and 71,5% in the other group (not significant). 16% of diabetics in the retinography group had DR compared with 10% of patients in the control group. The analysis of the level of satisfaction of patients tended to show a preference for the system of screening by fundal photography. In the framework of a healthcare network, the availability of a retinograph by numeric camera, with the interpretation of photos by teletransmission of the images, obtained a high level of quality of screening for diabetic retinopathy that was at least as good as that obtained by a healthcare

  1. [Management pattern of diabetes mellitus and prevention and control of diabetic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yan-nian

    2010-02-01

    The Bureau of Disease Prevention and Control, National Ministry of Health, recently released a project for the management of diabetes mellitus along with a technical operational manual. This is a landmark event in the prevention and management of ocular fundus diseases in China. This project will be carried out through collaboration of general hospitals, community health service units, and disease prevention and control organizations. It provides an excellent platform for the prevention and control of diabetic retinopathy. In order to prevent and control this disease, we should follow the patient-centered principle, which includes establishing individual health files, providing consultation for patients, performing screening of diabetic retinopathy, and providing lifelong regular examinations, follow-up and prompt treatments. We should also insist on the combination of prevention, treatment and scientific study to take advantage of a wide array of population resources for studying the pathogenesis and risk factors involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy, and making new contributions in the prevention of blindness due to diabetes.

  2. Pericyte migration - A novel mechanism of pericyte loss in experimental diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfister, Frederick; Feng, Yuxi; Hagen, Franziska vom; Hoffmann, Sigrid; Molema, Grietje; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Shani, Moshe; Deutsch, Urban; Hammes, Hans-Peter

    OBJECTIVE-The mechanism underlying pericyte loss during incipient diabetic retinopathy remains controversial. Hyperglycemia induces angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) transcription, which modulates capillary pericyte coverage. In this study, we assessed loss of pericyte subgroups and the contribution of Ang-2

  3. Marrow-derived cells regulate the development of early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Guangyuan; Veenstra, Alexander A; Talahalli, Ramaprasad R; Wang, Xiaoqi; Gubitosi-Klug, Rose A; Sheibani, Nader; Kern, Timothy S

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that marrow-derived cells, and specifically proinflammatory proteins in those cells, play a critical role in the development of diabetes-induced retinopathy and tactile allodynia was investigated...

  4. Clinical efficacy of integrative therapy in the treatment of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Wen Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the clinical efficacy of integrative therapy in the treatment of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Ninety patients(90 eyesin our hospital with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy were randomly divided into three groups. All three groups were treated with diabetes drugs to control blood sugar. The first group was treated with western medicine, the second group was treated with Chinese medicine decoction Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCMtreatment, and the third group was treated with the combination of those two methods. All patients were recorded and analyzed changes of clinical effects after 6 courses of treatment. RESULTS: After 6 courses of treatment, the total efficacy rate of the third group was 86%, markedly higher than that of the first group(57%, PPPCONCLUSION: Integrative treatment of diabetic retinopathy could effectively improve the therapeutic effect in patients with non-proliferative retinopathy.

  5. Impairment of Colour Vision in Diabetes with No Retinopathy: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SNDREAMS- II, Report 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Gella

    Full Text Available To assess impairment of colour vision in type 2 diabetics with no diabetic retinopathy and elucidate associated risk factors in a population-based cross-sectional study.This is part of Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II which was conducted between 2007-2010. FM 100 hue-test was performed in 253 subjects with no clinical evidence of diabetic retinopathy. All subjects underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including cataract grading using LOCS III and 45° 4-field stereoscopic fundus photography. Various ocular and systemic risk factors for impairment of colour vision (ICV were assessed in subjects with diabetes but no retinopathy. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The mean age of the study sample was 57.08 ± 9.21 (range: 44-86 years. Gender adjusted prevalence of ICV among subjects with diabetes with no retinopathy was 39.5% (CI: 33.5-45.5. The mean total error score in the study sample was 197.77 ± 100 (range: 19-583. The risk factors for ICV in the study were women OR: 1.79 (1.00-3.18, increased resting heart rate OR: 1.04 (1.01-1.07 and increased intraocular pressure OR: 1.12 (1.00-1.24. Significant protective factor was serum high-density lipoprotein OR: 0.96 (0.93-0.99.Acquired ICV is an early indicator of neurodegenerative changes in the retina. ICV found in diabetic subjects without retinopathy may be of non-vascular etiology.

  6. Effective and accurate screening for diabetic retinopathy using a 60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures were prevalence of any retinopathy and presence of referable (severe) retinopathy. Inter-observer agreement was measured using the kappa statistic, and sensitivity and specificity of the screener were evaluated. Results. The prevalence of retinopathy at the clinic was approximately 30%, but only about ...

  7. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer changes in preclinical diabetic retinopathy: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Chen

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular neurodegenerative disorder in diabetic patients. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer changes have been described in patients with preclinical diabetic retinopathy, but study results have been inconsistent.To assess changes in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in diabetic patients with preclinical diabetic retinopathy.A literature search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library. Case-control studies on RNFL thickness in preclinical diabetic retinopathy patients and healthy controls were retrieved. A meta-analysis of weighted mean difference and a sensitivity analysis were performed using RevMan 5.2 software.Thirteen case-control studies containing 668 diabetic patients and 556 healthy controls were selected. Peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly reduced in patients with preclinical diabetic retinopathy compared to healthy controls in studies applying Optical Coherence Tomography (-2.88 μm, 95%CI: -4.44 to -1.32, P = 0.0003 and in studies applying Scanning Laser Polarimeter (-4.21 μm, 95%CI: -6.45 to -1.97, P = 0.0002. Reduction of RNFL thickness was significant in the superior quadrant (-3.79 μm, 95%CI: -7.08 to -0.50, P = 0.02, the inferior quadrant (-2.99 μm, 95%CI: -5.44 to -0.54, P = 0.02 and the nasal quadrant (-2.88 μm, 95%CI: -4.93 to -0.82, P = 0.006, but was not significant in the temporal quadrant (-1.22 μm, 95%CI: -3.21 to 0.76, P = 0.23, in diabetic patients.Peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly decreased in preclinical diabetic retinopathy patients compared to healthy control. Neurodegenerative changes due to preclinical diabetic retinopathy need more attention.

  8. Comparison of Manual Refraction Versus Autorefraction in 60 Diabetic Retinopathy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shirzadi, Keyvan; Shahraki, Kourosh; Yahaghi, Emad; Makateb, Ali; Khosravifard, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the comparison of manual refraction versus autorefraction in diabetic retinopathy patients. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at the Be?sat Army Hospital from 2013-2015. In the present study differences between two common refractometry methods (manual refractometry and Auto refractometry) in diagnosis and follow up of retinopathy in patients affected with diabetes is investigated. Results: Our results showed that there is a significant...

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Retinopathy in Individuals Without Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Richard; Sim, Xueling; Li, Xiaohui; Cotch, Mary Frances; Ikram, Kamran; Holliday, Elizabeth; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara; Jonasson, Fridbert; Klein, Barbara; Launer, Lenore; Smith, Albert Vernon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cheung, Ning; Hewit, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mild retinopathy (microaneurysms or dot-blot hemorrhages) is observed in persons without diabetes or hypertension and may reflect microvascular disease in other organs. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mild retinopathy in persons without diabetes. Methods: A working group agreed on phenotype harmonization, covariate selection and analytic plans for within-cohort GWAS. An inverse-variance weighted fixed effects meta-analysis was performed with GWAS results fro...

  10. Myopia is Inversely Associated With the Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the South Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Daniel L; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Chen, Rebecca; Lin, Shan C

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. Recent studies have suggested that myopia may be negatively correlated with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. We sought to further investigate the association between refractive error and the likelihood of having diabetic retinopathy in a cross-sectional, population-based study of the South Korean population. Cross-sectional study. Data were included from right eyes of 13 424 participants who were 40 years and older with gradable fundus photographs of the Fourth and the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using standard fundus photographs. Autorefraction data were collected to calculate spherical equivalent of refraction in diopters (D) and further classified into 4 groups: hyperopia (≥1.0 D), emmetropia (-0.99 D to 0.99 D), mild myopia (-1.0 D to -2.99 D), and moderate to high myopia (≤-3.0 D). Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. A multivariate model was used to evaluate the association between the diagnosis of any diabetic retinopathy and the refractive status. Mild myopia and moderate to high myopia groups were negatively associated with development of any diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio [OR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.97 and OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.88, respectively). In addition, for every 1 D increase in spherical equivalent, there was a 30% increase of having diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.08-1.58). Our results from a population-based study suggest that myopic status is associated with lower odds of having diabetic retinopathy in the South Korean population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra J. Eszes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients’ satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants’ experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software. Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening.

  12. Current approaches and perspectives in the medical treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Massimo; Allione, Attilio

    2004-08-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of visual loss in industrialized countries. Its classification includes preclinical, nonproliferative (mild, moderate, and severe or preproliferative diabetic retinopathy) and proliferative stages (low risk, high risk, and advanced). Diabetic maculopathy (exudative, edematous, or ischemic) may be associated with either nonproliferative or proliferative retinopathy. Prevention requires the tightest possible control of both blood glucose and blood pressure. Laser photocoagulation remains the only procedure recommended for severe nonproliferative or proliferative retinopathy and maculopathy. Since it reduces legal blindness by more than 90% in proliferative retinopathy and prevents severe sight loss in diabetic maculopathy, photocoagulation is probably one of the most effective forms of treatment known today. Less destructive approaches are desirable, however, and those currently under phase 3 trial include blockade of angiotensin receptors, the beta-isoform of protein kinase C, and growth hormone secretion by long-acting analogues of somatostatin. Evidence from past randomized controlled studies does not support a role for inhibitors of platelet aggregation, aldose reductase, and advanced glycosylation end products in the prevention/treatment of retinopathy. Future approaches might include the use of thiamine and its analogues in the primary and secondary prevention of early retinopathy and blockers of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor in more advanced stages.

  13. The impact of diabetic retinopathy: perspectives from patient focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Karin S; Margolis, Mary Kay; Kennedy-Martin, Tessa; Baker, Timothy M; Klein, Ronald; Paul, Matthew D; Revicki, Dennis A

    2004-08-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects 50-85% of people with diabetes and may result in visual impairment or blindness. This exploratory qualitative research was conducted to evaluate the symptom experience of DR, its impact on daily activities and health-related quality of life (HRQL), and the applicability of two vision-specific questionnaires. Four focus groups (n = 15) were conducted with people with DR to explore their symptom experience and the impact on functioning and HRQL. Adults with type I or II diabetes and mild, moderate or severe non-proliferative DR (NPDR) or proliferative DR (PDR) were recruited. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Participants described a range of symptoms and impact. Difficulty driving, especially at night, and trouble reading were noted with all levels of severity. Participants with PDR and decreased visual acuity have foregone many other important life aspects such as work, reading and sports. For the severely affected, diabetic care activities (e.g. exercising, reading nutritional labels, preparing insulin injections and glucose testing) were difficult to accomplish. Loss of independence, especially mobility and increased fear of accidents, had a profound impact on social activities. For those patients who had not experienced other complications of diabetes, the threat of vision loss was the most devastating. The loss of independence and mobility associated with decreased visual functioning and visual loss were major concerns. Moderate, severe NPDR and PDR associated with visual impairment have a significant impact on HRQL, particularly in the areas of independence, mobility, leisure and self-care activities.

  14. The DPP4 Inhibitor Linagliptin Protects from Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Dietrich

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 inhibitors improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, however, their influence on the retinal neurovascular unit remains unclear.Vasculo- and neuroprotective effects were assessed in experimental diabetic retinopathy and high glucose-cultivated C. elegans, respectively. In STZ-diabetic Wistar rats (diabetes duration of 24 weeks, DPP4 activity (fluorometric assay, GLP-1 (ELISA, methylglyoxal (LC-MS/MS, acellular capillaries and pericytes (quantitative retinal morphometry, SDF-1a and heme oxygenase-1 (ELISA, HMGB-1, Iba1 and Thy1.1 (immunohistochemistry, nuclei in the ganglion cell layer, GFAP (western blot, and IL-1beta, Icam1, Cxcr4, catalase and beta-actin (quantitative RT-PCR were determined. In C. elegans, neuronal function was determined using worm tracking software.Linagliptin decreased DPP4 activity by 77% and resulted in an 11.5-fold increase in active GLP-1. Blood glucose and HbA1c were reduced by 13% and 14% and retinal methylglyoxal by 66%. The increase in acellular capillaries was diminished by 70% and linagliptin prevented the loss of pericytes and retinal ganglion cells. The rise in Iba-1 positive microglia was reduced by 73% with linagliptin. In addition, the increase in retinal Il1b expression was decreased by 65%. As a functional correlate, impairment of motility (body bending frequency was significantly prevented in C. elegans.Our data suggest that linagliptin has a protective effect on the microvasculature of the diabetic retina, most likely due to a combination of neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of linagliptin on the neurovascular unit.

  15. Agreement between photographic screening and hospital biomicroscopy grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Rachel; Sallam, Ahmed; Jones, Vanessa; Donachie, Paul H J; Scanlon, Peter H; Stratton, Irene M; Johnston, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    To examine the level of agreement and reasons for disagreement between grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy using mydriatic digital photographs in a diabetic retinopathy screening service (DRSS) and hospital eye service (HES). English NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme grades for diabetic retinopathy prospectively recorded on a hospital electronic medical record were compared to the grades from the DRSS event that prompted referral. In cases of disagreement, images were reviewed. Data for 1,501 patients (3,002 eyes) referred between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed. The HES retinopathy grades were R0 (no retinopathy) in 341 eyes, R1 (background retinopathy) in 1,712 eyes, R2 (pre-proliferative retinopathy) in 821 eyes, and R3 (proliferative retinopathy) in 128 eyes. The DRSS grades were in agreement in 2,309 eyes (76.9%), recorded a lower grade in 227 eyes, and recorded a higher grade in 466 eyes. Agreement was substantial (κ = 0.65). The commonest cause for disagreement was overgrading of R1 as R2 by hospital clinicians. The HES maculopathy grades were M0 (no maculopathy) in 2,267 eyes and M1 (maculopathy) in 735 eyes. The DRSS were in agreement in 2,111 eyes (70.2%), recorded a lower grade in 106 eyes, and recorded a higher grade in 785 eyes. Agreement was fair (κ = 0.39). The commonest cause for disagreement was hospital clinicians missing fine exudates. This study establishes a benchmark standard for agreement between HES and DRSS grading. Review of DRSS and grading reports images for newly referred patients is likely to improve levels of agreement, particularly for diabetic retinopathy, and should be strongly encouraged.

  16. The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Its Relationship with Microalbuminuria in Type2 Diabetic Patients at Diabetes Center of Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eslami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in western developed countries and developing countries, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. One of the vascular complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. Given the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its complications in patients with type 2 diabetes, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of retinopathy in diabetic patients and to determine the relationship between microalbuminuria and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Hamadan. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study in which 284 medical records of patients referred to the Diabetes Center of Hamadan were studied whose eye examinations were recorded and their laboratory tests have been measured at a laboratory center. Then, the data obtained from the average of experiments during the last year and examinations carried out were entered in the check list and the statistical results of the data were analyzed and the relationship between microalbuminuria and retinopathy was evaluated. Results: In our study, 284 patients were studied. 154 (54.22% of the patients in our study had retinopathy. In persons who had retinopathy, 36.36% of patients were with mild NPDR, 27.92% with moderate NPDR, 7.79% with severe NPDR and 27.92% had PDR. In our study, 32.04% of patients had microalbuminuria, and of these, 80.21% also had retinopathy. There was a significant relationship between retinopathy and microalbuminuria. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of retinopathy in our study is about 54 percent, which is relatively a higher prevalence than that in other similar studies. Also, due to the strong correlation between the presence of microalbuminuria and retinopathy and also duration of diabetes, a closer look at diabetic patients for microalbuminuria in periodic eye examinations is recommended. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016

  17. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation and the progression of retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Gall, Mari-Anne; Tarnow, L

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To study whether microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with the presence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 328) attending a diabetes clinic were followed for 10 years and examined annually during......E-selectin), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) and inflammatory activity (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) were determined. RESULTS: The prevalence of retinopathy was 33.8%. The median diabetes duration at baseline was 7 years (interquartile range 2-12 years). The highest tertiles of baseline urinary.......65 (1.21-2.25). CONCLUSIONS: In this population of patients with Type 2 diabetes who attended a diabetes clinic, there was some evidence for a role of endothelial dysfunction in the progression of retinopathy. We could not demonstrate a role for low-grade inflammation. Our study emphasizes...

  18. Association between alcohol consumption and diabetic retinopathy and visual acuity-the AdRem Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, C. C.; Stolk, R. P.; Adler, A. I.; Patel, A.; Chalmers, J.; Neal, B.; Poulter, N.; Harrap, S.; Woodward, M.; Marre, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Beulens, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and diabetic retinopathy and deterioration of visual acuity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a cohort analysis of 1239 participants with Type 2 diabetes aged 55-81 years enrolled in the AdRem study, a sub-study

  19. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy: Advancing from Bench towards Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Leer Blindbæk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Likewise, the retinal metabolism can be evaluated by retinal oximetry, and higher retinal venular oxygen saturation has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic retinopathy. So far, most studies have been cross-sectional, but these can only disclose associations and are not able to separate cause from effect or to establish the predictive value of retinal vascular dysfunction with respect to long-term complications. Likewise, retinal markers have not been investigated as markers of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The Department of Ophthalmology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, has a strong tradition of studying the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. In the present paper, we demonstrate the importance of the retinal vasculature not only as predictors of long-term microvasculopathy but also as markers of treatment outcome in sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in well-established population-based cohorts of patients with diabetes.

  20. Risk Factors and Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Maramureş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MOCIRAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We looked for the factors which can be adjust in order to reduce the frequency and severity of diabetic retinopathy in Maramureş County, Romania. Methods: We done a cross-sectional study of 1269 persons with diabetes mellitus registered in the healthcare system in Maramureş. The signs of diabetic retinopathy were ascertained from retinal digital photographs. We analyzed different parameters: demographics (age, gender, smoking status, alcohol use, living areas, socioeconomic status; physical measurements (body mass index BMI, abdominal circumference; laboratory measurements (glycemic control, lipid profile, the degree of proteinuria diabetes characteristics (duration, type, other complications and characteristics of comorbid diseases.Results: The total number of patients with retinopathy was 246. From these 94 (38.2% have mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR 78 (31.7% have moderate NPDR, 52 (21.1% have severe NPDR and 22 (9.0% have proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR. Among our patients 3.2% had maculopathy (0.6% mild, 0.6% moderate and 2.0% severe. The risk factors associated with severity of retinopahy were: diabetes duration (p=0.000, HbA1c (p=0.005, presence of nephropathy (p=0.004, presence of polineuropathy (p=0.002. Risk factors associated with severity of maculopathy was presence of nephropathy (p=0.000.Conclusions: A positive correlation between diabetes duration and diabetes control and severity of retinopathy was found. Severity of retinopathy was higher in the presence of nephropathy and polineuropathy. Severity of maculopathy was higher in the presence of nefropathy.

  1. Retinopathy risk factors in type II diabetic patients using factor analysis and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazhibi, Mahdi; Sarrafzade, Sheida; Amini, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Incidence and prevalence of diabetes are increasing in developing countries as well as in Iran. Retinopathy is the most common chronic disorder in diabetic patients. In this study, we used the information of diabetic patients' reports that refer to endocrine and metabolism research center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences to determine diabetic retinopathy risk factors. We used factor analysis to extract retinopathy's factors. Factor analysis is using to analyze multivariate data, in which a large number of dependent variables summarize into the fewer independent factors. Factor analysis is applied, in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, separately. To investigate the efficacy of factor analysis, we used discriminant analysis. We investigated 3535 diabetic patients whose prevalence of retinopathy was 53.4%. Six factors were extracted in each group (i.e. diabetic and nondiabetic groups). These six factors were explained 69.5% and 69.6% of total variance in diabetic and nondiabetic groups, respectively. Using original variables such as sex, weight, blood sugar control method, and some laboratory variables, the correct classification rate of discriminant analysis was identified as 67.4%. However, it decreased to 49.5% by using extracted factors. Retinopathy is one of the important disorders in diabetic patients that involves a large number of variables and can affect its incidence. By the method of factor analysis, we summarize diabetic retinopathy risk factors. Factor analysis is applied separately, in two diabetic and nondiabetic group. In this way, 10 variables were summarized into the six factors. Discriminant analysis was used to investigate the efficacy of factor analysis. Although factor analysis is a powerful way to reduce the number of variables, in this study did not worked very well.

  2. Higher Prevalence of Retinopathy in Diabetic Patients of South Asian Ethnicity Compared With White Europeans in the Community

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Neil T.; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Reynold, Dilini R.; Bush, Kate; Sankaranarayanan, Sailesh; Bellary, Srikanth; Barnett, Anthony H.; Kumar, Sudhesh; O'Hare, J. Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy among U.K. residents of South Asian or white European ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?This was a community-based cross-sectional study involving 10 general practices; 1,035 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied: 421 of South Asian and 614 of white European ethnicity. Diabetic retinopathy, sight-threatening retinopathy, maculopathy, and previous laser photocoagulation therapy wer...

  3. Is Diabetic Retinopathy Related to Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Ryo; Cheung, Ning; Islam, FM Amirul; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara EK; Cotch, Mary Frances; Sharrett, A Richey; O’Leary, Daniel; Wong, Tien Y.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. Our study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clinical CVD. DESIGN Population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study PARTICIPANTS Nine hundred and twenty seven persons with diabetes without clinical CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS DR was ascertained from retinal photographs according to modification of the Airlie House Classification system. Vision threatening DR (VTDR) was defined as severe non-proliferative DR, proliferative DR or clinically significant macular edema. Subclinical CVD measures were assessed and defined as follows: high coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, defined as CAC score≥400; low ankle-brachial index (ABI), defined as ABI25% stenosis or presence of carotid plaque. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between DR and subclinical CVD measures. RESULTS The prevalence of DR and VTDR in this sample was 30.0% and 7.2%, respectively. VTDR was associated with a high CAC score (odds ratio [OR] 2.33, 95% condifence interval [CI] 1.15–4.73), low ABI (OR 2.54; 95%CI, 1.08–5.99) and high ABI (OR 12.6, 95% CI, 1.14, 140.6), after adjusting for risk factors including hemoglobin A1c level and duration of diabetes. The association between VTDR and high CAC score remained significant after further adjustment for hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive and cholesterol-lowering medications. DR was not significantly associated with measures of carotid artery disease. CONCLUSIONS In persons with diabetes without a history of clinical CVD, the presence of advanced stage of DR is associated with subclinical coronary artery disease. These findings emphasize the need to be careful about the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for the treatment of DR. PMID:21168222

  4. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENT TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AT INTERNAL MEDICINE POLICLINIC SANGLAH HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sintia Anggia Sari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE One of the complications that can occur in microvaskular diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy. This research was carried out to know the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients type 2 diabetes mellitus at internal divison of Sanglah Hospital. The method used is cross sectional by collecting data from the questionnaire and secondary data of medical record patient's type 2 DM. On this research acquired 111 patients (35.1% with diabetic retinopathy and (64,9% nonretinopathy. In the group with good level of HbA1c (<6.5% the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy obtained 53.2%, in the group of patients with moderate level of HbA1c (6.5-8% as much as 22.5%, and in the group of patients with HbA1c bad level (>8% as much as 24.3%. The prevalence of the occurrence of DM complications in the diabetic retinopathy is still high, and a good level of HbA1c does not guarantee a person can’t have complication because the complication can also happens are affected by hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, and duration of DM. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Approaches to Delay Neuronal Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadłubowska, Joanna; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Wąż, Piotr; Zorena, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research the complex pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) has not been fully elucidated. For many years it has been thought that diabetic retinopathy manifests only with microangiopathic lesions, which are totally responsible for the loss of vision in diabetic patients. In view of the current knowledge on the microangiopathic changes in the fundus of the eye, diabetic retinopathy is perceived as a neurodegenerative disease. Several clinical tools are available to detect neuronal dysfunction at early stages of diabetes. Many functional changes in the retina can be identified before vascular pathology develops, suggesting that they result from a direct effect of diabetes on the neural retina. In the course of diabetes there is a chronic loss of retinal neurons due to increased frequency of apoptosis. The neuronal apoptosis begins very early in the course of diabetes. This observation has led to suggestions that precautions against DR should be implemented immediately after diabetes is diagnosed. Neurodegeneration cannot be reversed; therefore treatments preventing neuronal cell loss in the retina need to be developed to protect diabetic patients. This review is an attempt to summarize what is currently known about the mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis in the context of diabetic retinopathy and vascular degeneration as well as about potential treatments of DR.

  6. Web-based screening for diabetic retinopathy in a primary care population: The EyeCheck Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Suttorp-Schulten, M.S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ATA category 2 Web-based screening for diabetic retinopathy in a primary care population in the Netherlands. A total of 1,676 patients in a primary care setting, with diabetes, without known diabetic retinopathy, and without previous

  7. Automated grading for diabetic retinopathy: a large-scale audit using arbitration by clinical experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alan D; Goatman, Keith A; Philip, Sam; Prescott, Gordon J; Sharp, Peter F; Olson, John A

    2010-12-01

    Automated grading software has the potential to reduce the manual grading workload within diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. This audit was undertaken at the request of Scotland's National Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Collaborative to assess whether the introduction of automated grading software into the national screening programme would be safe, robust and effective. Automated grading, performed by software for image quality assessment and for microaneurysm/dot haemorrhage detection, was carried out on 78,601 images, obtained from 33,535 consecutive patients, which had been manually graded at one of two regional diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. Cases where the automated grading software assessment indicated gradable images with no disease but the screening programme indicated ungradable images or disease more severe than mild retinopathy were arbitrated by seven senior ophthalmologists. 100% (180/180) of patients with proliferative retinopathy, 100% (324/324) with referable background retinopathy, 100% (193/193) with observable background retinopathy, 97.3% (1099/1130) with referable maculopathy, 99.2% (384/387) with observable maculopathy and 99.8% (1824/1827) with ungradable images were detected by the software. The automated grading software operated to previously published results when applied to a large, unselected population attending two regional screening programmes. Manual grading workload reduction would be 36.3%.

  8. Polymorphisms in the CTSH gene may influence the progression of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen U; Sandahl, Kristian; Nielsen, Lotte B

    2015-01-01

    DR level between baseline and follow-up in the worst eye at baseline. Patients were graded on a modified version of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale, and 20 SNPs were genotyped in 130 of the 185 patients. RESULTS: We found the CTSH/rs3825932 variant (C > T) was associated......BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing globally, and as a consequence, more patients are affected by microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). The aim of this study was to elucidate possible associations between diabetes-related single...

  9. Frequency of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors in Khartoum, Sudan: population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas S Elwali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the frequency and associated risk factors of diabetic retinopathy among Sudanese individuals with diabetes attending Makka Eye complex in Khartoum, Sudan. METHODS: The cross sectional hospital based study recruited 316 individuals with diabetes from Makkah Eye Complex Retina Clinic. Standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, medical history and life style characteristics. Blood samples were taken to measure HbA1c and lipid profile. Fundus and slit lamp examination were performed for screening of diabetic retinopathy. RESULTS: Among 316 participants, 187 (59.2% were males and 129 (40.8% were females. The mean age of participants was 58.7±10.5y. The overall frequency of retinopathy was 261 (82.6%. The percentages of the total participants with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR were 126 (39.9% and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR were 135 (42.7%. Importantly, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM (72.2% of more than 10y, being on oral hypoglycaemic drugs (versus insulin, and hypertension were all significant risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (P=0.00, 0.01 and 0.00 respectively. Complications of diabetes like diabetic foot (17.7%, history of amputation (6.7% and clinically significant macular edema (CSME (47.4% of the eyes were all significant risk factors (P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that duration of diabetes, hypertension and CSME were found to be absolute risk factors (P=0.007, 0.003 and 0.000 respectively. Duration of DM of more than 10y have more than double risk (OR=2.8, while having hypertension triples the risk of retinopathy (OR=3.1. CONCLUSION: High rates of diabetic retinopathy are noted among individuals with diabetes attending Makkah Eye hospital in capital Khartoum. Urgent strategies are needed to monitor and treat hypertension and optimize diabetes control in individuals with diabetes. More investment in diabetes services is urgently needed.

  10. Comparison of standardized clinical classification with fundus photograph grading for the assessment of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Lovato, James F; Hubbard, Larry; Davis, Matthew D; Esser, Barbara A; Ambrosius, Walter T; Chew, Emily Y; Greven, Craig; Perdue, Letitia H; Wong, Wai T; Condren, Audree; Wilkinson, Charles P; Agrón, Elvira; Adler, Sharon; Danis, Ronald P

    2013-01-01

    To compare evaluation by clinical examination with image grading at a reading center for the classification of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) and Family Investigations of Nephropathy in Diabetes (FIND) had similar methods of clinical and fundus photograph evaluation. For analysis purposes, the photographic grading scales were condensed to correspond to the clinical scales, and agreement between clinicians and reading center classification were compared. Six thousand nine hundred and two eyes of ACCORD participants and 3,638 eyes of FIND participants were analyzed for agreement (percent, kappa) on diabetic retinopathy on a 5-level scale. Exact agreement between clinicians and reading center on diabetic retinopathy severity category was 69% in ACCORD and 74% in FIND (kappa 0.42 and 0.65). Sensitivities of the clinical grading to identify the presence of mild nonproliferative retinopathy or worse were 0.53 in ACCORD and 0.84 in FIND. Specificities were 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Diabetic macular edema agreement in 6,649 eyes of ACCORD participants and 3,366 eyes of FIND participants was similar (kappa 0.35 and 0.41). Sensitivities of the clinical grading to identify diabetic macular edema were 0.44 and 0.53 and specificities were 0.99 and 0.94, respectively. The results support the use of clinical information for defining broad severity categories but not for documenting small-to-moderate changes in diabetic retinopathy over time.

  11. Preferences of people with diabetes for diabetic retinopathy screening: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, S T; Edwards, R T; Fargher, E A; Luzio, S D; Thomas, R L; Owens, D R

    2012-07-01

    The ever-increasing prevalence of diabetes places pressure on the provision of diabetic retinopathy screening services. As the first study of its kind, we aimed to determine preferences for diabetic retinopathy screening in people with diabetes and to examine the trade-offs between frequency of screening and other service attributes. A questionnaire including a discrete choice experiment was administered to people (n = 198) attending diabetic retinopathy screening at eight clinics across Wales, United Kingdom. The discrete choice experiment contained eight pairwise choices in which screening provision was described by five attributes: frequency of screening; travel time; results time; ability of screening to detect other changes; and explanation of results. Data were analysed using logistic regression techniques. We gained a response rate of 86.4% from the 198 questionnaires administered at clinics; 160 complete responses were analysed. Respondents valued four out of the five attributes [ability of screening to detect other changes (P = 0.000), explanation of results (P = 0.024), frequency of screening (P = 0.000) and travel time (P = 0.007)]. Results time was insignificant (P = 0.122). Respondents were willing to wait an additional 12, 2 and 1 month between screening tests to have a test that was able to detect additional changes, to have their results explained in person rather than by letter and to have a 15-min reduction in travel time, respectively. Respondents were willing to accept a longer screening interval, as long as preferences for other attributes of service provision (ability of screening to detect other changes, explanation of results and travel time) were made available. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  12. Delayed progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy by Litchi chinensis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2017-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aqueous fruit pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis (APLC) on parameters which leads to diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The objective of the study is to evaluate the APLC for in vivo antioxidant activity and its role in inhibiting the polyol pathway and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The diabetic animals were treated with L. chinensis for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress by protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and polyolpathway by aldose reductase (AR) in lens homogenates, alterations in protein carbonyl content (PCO) and AGEs in both serum and lens the APLC-treated diabetic rats were compared against diabetic control rats. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp bio microscope and classified into four stages. Fundoscope test and retinal histopathology were done for assessing retinopathy. Statistically significant reduction in glucose, and elevation of protein content, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and decreased levels of AR and PCO in lens homogenate and significant reduction in AGEs serum and lens homogenate were observed. Slit lamp examination, fundoscope, and histopathology showed improvement in retinal changes in APLC-treated rats compared to diabetic control animals. The treatment with APLC found to delay the progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy, which might be due to its antioxidant activity, because of the presence of active phytochemicals in APLC.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic maculopathy, and its relationship to diabetic retinopathy in elderly Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Teiko; Iimuro, Satoshi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Sone, Hirohito; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Ito, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy in Japanese patients older than 65 years-of-age with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, to determine the relationship between the severity of retinopathy and maculopathy, and the risk factors for these conditions in Japanese patients with the same characteristics. This was a cross-sectional study carried out at the enrolment of patients who participated in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 960 eyes of 960 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who were ≥ 65 years-of-age were analyzed. Our data showed that there was a correlation between the severity of retinopathy and the severity of maculopathy. The risk factors for the severity of retinopathy were different from the risk factors for the severity of maculopathy. The age, duration of diabetes, systemic pulse pressure, fasting insulin, insulin treatment of diabetes, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio and history of cerebrovascular disease all contributed significantly to the severity of retinopathy. The duration of diabetes, insulin treatment and microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio were correlated with the severity of maculopathy. The risk factors related to diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ≥ 65 years were different from that in other countries. Our data also showed that the certain risk factors for retinopathy differ from those associated with maculopathy. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afkhami-Ardekani Mohammad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to assess the prevalence of dry eye syndrome and diabetic retinopathy (DR in type 2 diabetic patients and their contributing factors. Methods 199 type 2 diabetic patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center were consecutively selected. All Subjects were assessed by questionnaire about other diseases and drugs. Dry eye syndrome was assessed with Tear break up time tests and Schirmer. All the subjects underwent indirect ophthalmoscopy and retinal color photography. DR was graded according to early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy (ETDRS criteria. Results Of 199 subjects, 108 patients (54.3% suffer from dry eye syndrome. Although dry eye syndrome was more common in older and female patients, this association was not significant. But there was significantly association between dry eye syndrome and duration of diabetes (P = 0.01. Dry eye syndrome was more frequent in diabetic patients with DR (P = 0.02. DR was found in 140 patients (70.35%, which included 34 patients (17.1% with mild non proliferative DR (NPDR, 34 patients (17.1% with moderate NPDR, 22 patients (11.1% with severe NPDR and 25 patients (25.1% with proliferative DR (PDR. There were significant relation between age, sex and duration of diabetes and DR. Conclusion In this study the prevalence of dry eye syndrome was 54.3%. Diabetes and dry eyes appear to have a common association. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish an etiologic relationship. However, examination for dry eye should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  15. Automatic screening and classification of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy using fuzzy image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Sarni Suhaila; Palade, Vasile; Shuttleworth, James; Jayne, Chrisina

    2016-12-01

    Digital retinal imaging is a challenging screening method for which effective, robust and cost-effective approaches are still to be developed. Regular screening for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy diseases is necessary in order to identify the group at risk of visual impairment. This paper presents a novel automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in eye fundus images by employing fuzzy image processing techniques. The paper first introduces the existing systems for diabetic retinopathy screening, with an emphasis on the maculopathy detection methods. The proposed medical decision support system consists of four parts, namely: image acquisition, image preprocessing including four retinal structures localisation, feature extraction and the classification of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy. A combination of fuzzy image processing techniques, the Circular Hough Transform and several feature extraction methods are implemented in the proposed system. The paper also presents a novel technique for the macula region localisation in order to detect the maculopathy. In addition to the proposed detection system, the paper highlights a novel online dataset and it presents the dataset collection, the expert diagnosis process and the advantages of our online database compared to other public eye fundus image databases for diabetic retinopathy purposes.

  16. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy at presentation to screening services in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damato, Erika M; Murray, Neil; Szetu, John; Sikivou, Biu Telaite; Emma, Stephanie; McGhee, Charles N J

    2014-10-01

    To report the spectrum of retinopathy at first presentation to photoscreening services, to determine the proportion of patients that present with sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR), and to raise awareness of the burden of diabetic eye disease in Fiji. This retrospective observational cohort study used data from the initial visit of all new patients presenting to the diabetes retinal screening service at the Pacific Eye Institute in Fiji over the 3-month period between July and September 2012. Patients were assessed using a detailed questionnaire regarding diabetes type, duration of disease, medications, complications and co-morbidities, and blood sugar control. Patients subsequently underwent non-mydriatic fundus photography according to Pacific diabetes retinal screening guidelines. Images were graded at the time of acquisition, and data were entered onto a computerized database. For the purposes of this study, information regarding retinopathy grading, visual acuity and patient demographics was used. A total of 522 new patients were screened over the 3-month period. STDR was observed in 27% of patients, with 15% observed to have bilateral STDR. Diabetes control was generally poor. Blindness and visual impairment were observed in 2.7% and 6.7% of the cohort, respectively. Severe and advanced diabetic retinopathy was present in this population presenting to screening. This was observed 4 years after the formal expansion of the screening services and reflects the high prevalence of diabetes in the population. The need for increased public awareness and greater resource allocation into diabetes and its complications is emphasized.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the development of diabetic retinopathy and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Kowluru, Renu A

    2010-09-01

    In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, retinal mitochondria become dysfunctional resulting in accelerated apoptosis of its capillary cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) is considered critical in cell integrity and cell survival, and diabetes activates MMP2 in the retina and its capillary cells. This study aims at elucidating the mechanism by which MMP2 contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Using isolated bovine retinal endothelial cells, the effect of regulation of MMP2 (by its siRNA and pharmacological inhibitor) on superoxide accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction was evaluated. The effect of inhibiting diabetes-induced retinal superoxide accumulation on MMP2 and its regulators was investigated in diabetic mice overexpressing mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Inhibition of MMP2 ameliorated glucose-induced increase in mitochondrial superoxide and membrane permeability, prevented cytochrome c leakage from the mitochondria, and inhibited capillary cell apoptosis. Overexpression of MnSOD protected the retina from diabetes-induced increase in MMP2 and its membrane activator (MT1-MMP), and decrease in its tissue inhibitor (TIMP-2). These results implicate that, in diabetes, MMP2 activates apoptosis of retinal capillary cells by mitochondrial dysfunction increasing their membrane permeability. Understanding the role of MMP2 in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy should help lay ground for MMP2-targeted therapy to retard the development of retinopathy in diabetic patients.

  18. Diabetic retinopathy: loss of neuroretinal adaptation to the diabetic metabolic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abcouwer, Steven F.; Gardner, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) impairs vision of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, associated with vascular dysfunction and occlusion, retinal edema, hemorrhage, and inappropriate growth of new blood vessels. The recent success of biologic treatments targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) demonstrates that treating the vascular aspects in the later stages of the disease can preserve vision in many patients. It would also be highly desirable to prevent the onset of the disease or arrest its progression at a stage preceding the appearance of overt microvascular pathologies. The progression of DR is not necessarily linear but may follow a series of steps that evolve over the course of multiple years. Abundant data suggest that diabetes affects the entire neurovascular unit of the retina, with an early loss of neurovascular coupling, gradual neurodegeneration, gliosis, and neuroinflammation before observable vascular pathologies. In this article, we consider the pathology of diabetic retinopathy from the point of view that diabetes causes measurable dysfunctions in the complex integral network of cell types that produce and maintain human vision. PMID:24673341

  19. The prognosis of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes since 1996-1998: the Skaraborg Diabetes Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garberg, Grete; Lövestam-Adrian, Monica; Nasic, Salmir; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the main reason for visual impairment among patients of working ages. The aim of this paper was to investigate the prognosis of eye complications in patients with diabetes during 10 years of follow-up and contributing risk factors. Data from ophthalmological records (occurrence of retinopathy and laser treatment and visual acuity), and clinical data (blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), and antihypertensive treatment) from the Skaraborg Diabetes Register were retrieved in the Skaraborg Screening Program of 1,258 patients diagnosed during 1996-1998. Kaplan Meyer survival analysis and Log Rank test were used to analyze eye complications in 773 patients with type 2 diabetes and ≤70 years at diagnosis. Visual acuity was above the limit for driving license in 96 % of 548 patients and only nineteen patients were treated by laser. At diagnosis of diabetes, mean HbA1c was 6.7 ± 1.7 % (59 ± 7.1 mmol/mol), and systolic blood pressure was 142.9 ± 0.7 mmHg; neither changed significantly during follow-up. Retinopathy appeared about 1 year, and maculopathy 2 years earlier, if HbA1c ≥ 7 % (63 mmol/mol) at diagnosis (p maculopathy during follow-up. Antihypertensive treatment, probably a proxy for regular controls and early detection of diabetes, was associated with less retinopathy.

  20. Automated diabetic retinopathy imaging in Indian eyes: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of an automated retinal image grading system in diabetic retinopathy (DR screening. Materials and Methods: Color fundus images of patients of a DR screening project were analyzed for the purpose of the study. For each eye two set of images were acquired, one centerd on the disk and the other centerd on the macula. All images were processed by automated DR screening software (Retmarker. The results were compared to ophthalmologist grading of the same set of photographs. Results: 5780 images of 1445 patients were analyzed. Patients were screened into two categories DR or no DR. Image quality was high, medium and low in 71 (4.91%, 1117 (77.30% and 257 (17.78% patients respectively. Specificity and sensitivity for detecting DR in the high, medium and low group were (0.59, 0.91; (0.11, 0.95 and (0.93, 0.14. Conclusion: Automated retinal image screening system for DR had a high sensitivity in high and medium quality images. Automated DR grading software′s hold promise in future screening programs.

  1. Automated diabetic retinopathy imaging in Indian eyes: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rupak; Lobo, Aneesha; Pal, Bikramjeet P; Oliveira, Carlos Manta; Raman, Rajiv; Sharma, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of an automated retinal image grading system in diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening. Materials and Methods: Color fundus images of patients of a DR screening project were analyzed for the purpose of the study. For each eye two set of images were acquired, one centerd on the disk and the other centerd on the macula. All images were processed by automated DR screening software (Retmarker). The results were compared to ophthalmologist grading of the same set of photographs. Results: 5780 images of 1445 patients were analyzed. Patients were screened into two categories DR or no DR. Image quality was high, medium and low in 71 (4.91%), 1117 (77.30%) and 257 (17.78%) patients respectively. Specificity and sensitivity for detecting DR in the high, medium and low group were (0.59, 0.91); (0.11, 0.95) and (0.93, 0.14). Conclusion: Automated retinal image screening system for DR had a high sensitivity in high and medium quality images. Automated DR grading software's hold promise in future screening programs. PMID:25579354

  2. Neuroprotection as a Therapeutic Target for Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial progressive disease of the retina and a leading cause of vision loss. DR has long been regarded as a vascular disorder, although neuronal death and visual impairment appear before vascular lesions, suggesting an important role played by neurodegeneration in DR and the appropriateness of neuroprotective strategies. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main target of current therapies, is likely to be one of the first responses to retinal hyperglycemic stress and VEGF may represent an important survival factor in early phases of DR. Of central importance for clinical trials is the detection of retinal neurodegeneration in the clinical setting, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography seems the most indicated technique. Many substances have been tested in animal studies for their neuroprotective properties and for possible use in humans. Perhaps, the most intriguing perspective is the use of endogenous neuroprotective substances or nutraceuticals. Together, the data point to the central role of neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of DR and indicate neuroprotection as an effective strategy for treating this disease. However, clinical trials to determine not only the effectiveness and safety but also the compliance of a noninvasive route of drug administration are needed. PMID:27123463

  3. Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel Therapies for Treating Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Mark T; Antonetti, David A

    2016-09-07

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults, and is projected to be a significant future health concern due to the rising incidence of diabetes. The recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies has revolutionized the treatment of diabetic retinopathy but a significant subset of patients fail to respond to treatment. Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines other than VEGF may contribute to the disease process. The current review examines the presence of non-VEGF cytokines in the eyes of patients with diabetic retinopathy and highlights mechanistic pathways in relevant animal models. Finally, novel drug targets including components of the kinin-kallikrein system and emerging treatments such as anti-HPTP (human protein tyrosine phosphatase) β antibodies are discussed. Recognition of non-VEGF contributions to disease pathogenesis may lead to novel therapeutics to enhance existing treatments for patients who do not respond to anti-VEGF therapies.

  4. Building Classification System to Predict Risk factors of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Text mining

    OpenAIRE

    T.Sudha,; S.Sagar Imambi

    2010-01-01

    This Making medical decisions such as diagnosing the diseases that cause a patient’s illness is often a complex task. The Diabetic retinopathy is one of the complications of diabetes and Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common causes of blindness. Unfortunately, in many cases the patient is not aware of any symptoms until it is too late for effective treatment. Analysis of the evoked potential response of the retina, optical nerve and optical brain centre will pave a way for early diag...

  5. Application of random forests methods to diabetic retinopathy classification analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Casanova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States and world-wide. DR is a silent disease that may go unnoticed until it is too late for effective treatment. Therefore, early detection could improve the chances of therapeutic interventions that would alleviate its effects. METHODOLOGY: Graded fundus photography and systemic data from 3443 ACCORD-Eye Study participants were used to estimate Random Forest (RF and logistic regression classifiers. We studied the impact of sample size on classifier performance and the possibility of using RF generated class conditional probabilities as metrics describing DR risk. RF measures of variable importance are used to detect factors that affect classification performance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both types of data were informative when discriminating participants with or without DR. RF based models produced much higher classification accuracy than those based on logistic regression. Combining both types of data did not increase accuracy but did increase statistical discrimination of healthy participants who subsequently did or did not have DR events during four years of follow-up. RF variable importance criteria revealed that microaneurysms counts in both eyes seemed to play the most important role in discrimination among the graded fundus variables, while the number of medicines and diabetes duration were the most relevant among the systemic variables. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We have introduced RF methods to DR classification analyses based on fundus photography data. In addition, we propose an approach to DR risk assessment based on metrics derived from graded fundus photography and systemic data. Our results suggest that RF methods could be a valuable tool to diagnose DR diagnosis and evaluate its progression.

  6. Serum Magnesium Concentration Is Inversely Associated with Albuminuria and Retinopathy among Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Gu, Yuying; Guo, Meixiang; Chen, Peihong; Wang, Hongtao; Yu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the association between serum magnesium levels and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes. Methods. Patients with diabetes were recruited between April 2012 and January 2015. All patients received an assay of serum magnesium concentration, were screened for 24 h albumin excretion rate, and underwent nonmydriatic fundus photography. Albuminuria and retinopathy were defined accordingly. A total of 3,100 patients with normal serum magnesium levels were included in this study. Results. Patients with albuminuria and/or retinopathy had lower levels of serum magnesium than patients without these complications (P albuminuria, isolated retinopathy, and combined albuminuria and retinopathy decreased as the concentration of serum magnesium increased. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratio for isolated albuminuria, isolated retinopathy, and concomitant albuminuria and retinopathy decreased by approximately 20% for every 0.1 mmol/L increase in serum magnesium concentration. Conclusion. Serum magnesium levels were negatively associated with the risk of diabetic microvascular complications among patients with serum magnesium levels within the normal range.

  7. Serum Magnesium Concentration Is Inversely Associated with Albuminuria and Retinopathy among Patients with Diabetes

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    Jun Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between serum magnesium levels and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes. Methods. Patients with diabetes were recruited between April 2012 and January 2015. All patients received an assay of serum magnesium concentration, were screened for 24 h albumin excretion rate, and underwent nonmydriatic fundus photography. Albuminuria and retinopathy were defined accordingly. A total of 3,100 patients with normal serum magnesium levels were included in this study. Results. Patients with albuminuria and/or retinopathy had lower levels of serum magnesium than patients without these complications (P<0.001. The prevalence of isolated albuminuria, isolated retinopathy, and combined albuminuria and retinopathy decreased as the concentration of serum magnesium increased. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratio for isolated albuminuria, isolated retinopathy, and concomitant albuminuria and retinopathy decreased by approximately 20% for every 0.1 mmol/L increase in serum magnesium concentration. Conclusion. Serum magnesium levels were negatively associated with the risk of diabetic microvascular complications among patients with serum magnesium levels within the normal range.

  8. Receptor for advanced glycation end product expression in experimental diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yumei; Hagen, Filanziska Vom; Pfister, Frederick; Bierhaus, Angelika; Feng, Yuxi; Gans, Reinhold; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Schleicher, E; Somoza,; Shieberle, P

    2008-01-01

    The advanced glycation end product (AGE)-receptor for AGE (RAGE) pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular damage. The special distribution of RAGE and its engagement has an impact on the development of diabetic retinopathy. In the present study, we used immunofluorescence

  9. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Is it a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, A; Zbiba, W; Bouayed, E; Korbi, M; Ghrairi, H

    2016-02-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. We performed a comparative study including 60 type 2 diabetics separated into 2 groups: a 1st group composed of 20 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and a 2nd group composed of 40 patients without this syndrome. The two groups were matched for age and length of diabetes. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. In both groups, the mean patient age was 59 years, the diabetes had been present for an average of 10 years, and the HbA1c was 10%. Diabetic retinopathy was diagnosed in 11 patients from the 1st group (55%) and 6 cases from the 2nd group (15%) (P=0.03). Non-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy were found in 7 cases (35%) and 4 cases (20%), respectively, in the 1st group and in 3 cases (7.5%) in the 2nd group for both types (P=0.03 and P=0.042, respectively). Diabetic macular edema was observed in 4 patients (20%) in the 1st group and 2 patients (5%) in the 2nd group (P=0.04). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is an independent risk factor for the appearance and aggravation of diabetic retinopathy. This underscores the importance of systematic screening for, and timely management of, sleep apnea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Classification of diabetic retinopathy using fractal dimension analysis of eye fundus image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Diah Wahyu; Juniati, Dwi

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder when pancreas produce inadequate insulin or a condition when body resist insulin action, so the blood glucose level is high. One of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy which can lead to a vision problem. Diabetic retinopathy can be recognized by an abnormality in eye fundus. Those abnormalities are characterized by microaneurysms, hemorrhage, hard exudate, cotton wool spots, and venous's changes. The diabetic retinopathy is classified depends on the conditions of abnormality in eye fundus, that is grade 1 if there is a microaneurysm only in the eye fundus; grade 2, if there are a microaneurysm and a hemorrhage in eye fundus; and grade 3: if there are microaneurysm, hemorrhage, and neovascularization in the eye fundus. This study proposed a method and a process of eye fundus image to classify of diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The first phase was image segmentation process using green channel, CLAHE, morphological opening, matched filter, masking, and morphological opening binary image. After segmentation process, its fractal dimension was calculated using box-counting method and the values of fractal dimension were analyzed to make a classification of diabetic retinopathy. Tests carried out by used k-fold cross validation method with k=5. In each test used 10 different grade K of KNN. The accuracy of the result of this method is 89,17% with K=3 or K=4, it was the best results than others K value. Based on this results, it can be concluded that the classification of diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis and KNN had a good performance.

  11. TNF-Alpha Levels in Tears: A Novel Biomarker to Assess the Degree of Diabetic Retinopathy

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    C. Costagliola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We assess the level of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha in tear fluids and other serum parameters associated with diabetes in different degrees of diabetic retinopathy. We have performed a prospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Study population consisted of 16 healthy subjects (controls and 32 type 2 diabetic patients: 16 affected by proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and 16 with nonproliferative retinopathy (NDPR, background/preproliferative. Body mass index, urinary albumin, blood glucose, HbA1c, and tear levels of TNF-alpha were measured in all subjects. The value of glycaemia, microalbuminurea, and Body mass index in diabetic retinopathy groups were higher than those in control group (. Glycemia in NPDR: 6.6 mmol/L (range: 5.8–6.3; in PDR: 6.7 mmol/L (range: 6.1–7.2; in control: 5.7 mmol/L (range: 4.9–6.1; microalbuminurea in NPDR: 10.6 mg/L (range: 5.6–20; in PDR: 25.2 mg/L (range: 17–40; in control: 5.3 mg/L (range: 2.6–10; Body mass index in NPDR: 26 Kg/m2 (range: 20.3–40; in PDR: 28 Kg/m2 (range 20.3–52; in control: 21 Kg/m2 (range 19–26. The TNF-alpha concentrations in tears increase with the severity of pathology and were lower in control group than in diabetic subjects. In the end, the level of TNF-alpha is highly correlated with severity of diabetic retinopathy and with nephropathy. Tear fluid collection may be a useful noninvasive method for the detection of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and effect of calcium dobesilate

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    Yu-Min Gui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and effect of calcium dobesilate. Methods: A total of 120 diabetic retinopathy patients treated in our hospital from January 2010 to September 2015 were enrolled in this article. The serum endoplasmic reticulum stress protein and interleukin protein expression levels were analyzed before and after calcium dobesilate treatment. A total of 55 cases of healthy subjects receiving physical examination in our hospital during the same period were taken as control group. Results: Serum endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins PERK, CHOP and IRE as well as interleukin proteins IL1, IL2, IL6 and IL10 expression significantly increased, serum MDA level significantly increased while SOD, CAT and GSHpx levels significantly decreased in diabetic retinopathy patients, and compared with control group (P<0.01; after calcium dobesilate treatment, above factors were significantly restored (P<0.01. Conclusions: Diabetic retinopathy is closely related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium dobesilate treatment may improve diabetic retinopathy by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  13. Retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with type 1 diabetes with no or mild diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondi, Klemens; Wozniak, Piotr A; Howorka, Kinga; Bata, Ahmed M; Aschinger, Gerold C; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina; Witkowska, Katarzyna J; Hommer, Anton; Schmidl, Doreen; Werkmeister, René M; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with diabetes with no or mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. A total of 24 participants with type 1 diabetes and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were included in this cross-sectional study. Retinal oxygen extraction was measured by combining total retinal blood flow measurements using a custom-built bi-directional Doppler optical coherence tomography system with measurements of oxygen saturation using spectroscopic reflectometry. Based on previously published mathematical modelling, the oxygen content in retinal vessels and total retinal oxygen extraction were calculated. Total retinal blood flow was higher in diabetic participants (46.4 ± 7.4 μl/min) than in healthy volunteers (40.4 ± 5.3 μl/min, p = 0.002 between groups). Oxygen content in retinal arteries was comparable between the two groups, but oxygen content in retinal veins was higher in participants with diabetes (0.15 ± 0.02 ml O2/ml) compared with healthy control participants (0.13 ± 0.02 ml O2/ml, p diabetes compared with healthy volunteers (total retinal oxygen extraction 1.40 ± 0.44 vs 1.70 ± 0.47 μl O2/min, respectively, p = 0.03). Our data indicate early retinal hypoxia in individuals with type 1 diabetes with no or mild diabetic retinopathy as compared with healthy control individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the potential of the technique in risk stratification and treatment monitoring. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01843114.

  14. [Multifactor analysis on proliferative retinopathy in elderly patients with type II diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P L; Yao, Y; Yang, Z

    1997-10-01

    To evaluate the importance of different risk factors and their mutual interactions in the occurrence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in the elderly patients with type II diabetes, an investigation was carried out on the relationship between PDR and various risk factors in 98 elderly cases of type II diabetes by way of stepwise regression analysis method. Results showed: (1) the average course of PDR was longer than that of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (P 2) multifactor analysis showed that BUN was one of the most important variables positively correlated with PDR, second to it in orders were the course of diabetes militus, GHbA1c, hypertention, proteinuria and urine microalbumin and TC. To prevent the occurrence and progress of PDR in the elderly patients with type II diabetes, it is important not only to control blood sugar, but to control blood pressure and relieve renal damage.

  15. Relationship between vitreous and serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels, control of diabetes and microalbuminuria in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahariv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nader Baharivand1, Nosratollah Zarghami2, Farid Panahi3, Yazdan Dokht Ghafari M3, Ali Mahdavi Fard1, Abbas Mohajeri21Department of Ophthalmology, Nikookari Eye Hospital, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Radiopharmacy, Drug Applied Research Center, 3Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: Diabetic retinopathy is a serious microvascular disorder of the retina. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression, induced by high glucose levels and hypoxia, is a main feature in retinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitreous and serum VEGF levels and control of diabetes and microalbuminuria in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.Methods: Sixty-five patients were enrolled in this case-control study, comprising 30 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (cases and 35 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (controls. The vitreous VEGF level was compared with the serum VEGF level in both groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, and stage of nephropathy and retinopathy were also measured in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and the relationship between these parameters and serum and vitreous VEGF levels was investigated.Results: Mean vitreous and serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in cases compared with controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.011, respectively. There was also a significant correlation between vitreous and serum VEGF levels (P = 0.012, r = 0.453. VEGF levels in patients with well controlled blood glucose (P = 0.039, on drug treatment (P = 0.045 and at an early stage of nephropathy (P = 0.042 were significantly lower. There was a significant correlation between VEGF and albumin to creatinine ratio (P = 0.017, r = 0.432.Conclusion: Serum and vitreous VEGF levels was significantly lower in patients on oral therapy, in those with well controlled glycemia, and in those with

  16. Screening in Primary Care for Diabetic Retinopathy, Maculopathy and Visual Loss in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Elizabeth M; Rheeder, Paul; Roux, Polla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy and visual loss in primary care patients and to identify associated risk factors. We conducted a cluster randomised trial at primary care clinics in the Tshwane district in South Africa. Grades of retinopathy and maculopathy (with fundus camera) and visual acuity (Snellen chart) were assessed and, using mobile screening and teleophthalmology, clinical and biochemical testing was conducted to obtain information about glycaemic control and microvascular complications. The prevalence rates for any retinopathy, preproliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy were 24.9, 19.5 and 5.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates of diabetic maculopathy, observable maculopathy and referable maculopathy were 20.8, 11.8 and 9.0%, respectively. The presence of retinopathy was associated with high body mass index, systolic blood pressure, being on insulin treatment, high HbA1c and the presence of neuropathy. High systolic blood pressure, being on insulin treatment, high HbA1c level and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as well as the presence of albuminuria were significant in predicting any diabetic maculopathy. Laser photocoagulation was given to 8.3% of patients from the mobile unit and 12% of patients were referred to the nearest hospital with an outpatient eye clinic for follow-up treatment of various other eye conditions. Using the WHO categories, the study found that 78.1% of diabetes patients had normal vision, 19.3% were visually impaired and 2.2% were severely impaired or blind. High prevalence rates for diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy and visual loss were found and associations were identified. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Diabetic Retinopathy and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Jae-Seung Yun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and diabetic retinopathy (DR in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe used a cross-sectional design to examine 167 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. All patients underwent biochemical and ophthalmological examination. We assessed endothelial dysfunction by a flow-mediated vasodilation method of the brachial artery. Changes in vasodilation (flow-mediated vasodilatation, %FMD were expressed as percent change over baseline values.ResultsThe mean±standard deviation of patient age was 54.1±8.6 years. The %FMD was significantly lower in patients with DR than without DR. The prevalence of retinopathy decreased across increasing tertiles of %FMD. After adjusting for patients' age, sex, diabetes duration, use of insulin, use of antihypertensive, antiplatelet, and lipid lowering medications, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and urinary albumin excretion, participants with a reduced %FMD were more likely to have DR (odds ratio, 11.819; 95% confidence interval, 2.201 to 63.461; P=0.004, comparing the lowest and highest tertiles of %FMD.ConclusionEndothelial dysfunction was associated with DR, which was most apparent when the endothelial dysfunction was severe. Our study provides insights into the possible mechanism of the influence of endothelial dysfunction on the development of DR.

  18. An integrated index for the identification of diabetic retinopathy stages using texture parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Ng, E Y K; Tan, Jen-Hong; Sree, S Vinitha; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2012-06-01

    Diabetes is a condition of increase in the blood sugar level higher than the normal range. Prolonged diabetes damages the small blood vessels in the retina resulting in diabetic retinopathy (DR). DR progresses with time without any noticeable symptoms until the damage has occurred. Hence, it is very beneficial to have the regular cost effective eye screening for the diabetes subjects. This paper documents a system that can be used for automatic mass screenings of diabetic retinopathy. Four classes are identified: normal retina, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and macular edema (ME). We used 238 retinal fundus images in our analysis. Five different texture features such as homogeneity, correlation, short run emphasis, long run emphasis, and run percentage were extracted from the digital fundus images. These features were fed into a support vector machine classifier (SVM) for automatic classification. SVM classifier of different kernel functions (linear, radial basis function, polynomial of order 1, 2, and 3) was studied. Receiver operation characteristics (ROC) curves were plotted to select the best classifier. Our proposed system is able to identify the unknown class with an accuracy of 85.2%, and sensitivity, specificity, and area under curve (AUC) of 98.9%, 89.5%, and 0.972 respectively using SVM classifier with polynomial kernel of order 3. We have also proposed a new integrated DR index (IDRI) using different features, which is able to identify the different classes with 100% accuracy.

  19. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Polymorphism (V16A is Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Slovene (Caucasians Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Globočnik Petrovič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial data indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Two candidate genes that affect the oxidative stress are manganese mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the V16A polymorphism of the Mn-SOD gene and the 4a/b polymorphism of the eNOS gene in the development of diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrates reduced grey matter density on brain MRI in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, A. M.; Simsek, S.; Remijnse, P. L.; Veltman, D. J.; Biessels, G. J.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; Snoek, F. J.; Heine, R. J.; Rombouts, S. A. R. B.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In addition to nephropathy, retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy, a microvascular complication of type 1 diabetes that may be tentatively referred to as 'diabetic encephalopathy' has gained increasing attention. There is growing evidence that lowered cognitive performance in

  1. TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR BLOCKERS ON DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

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    Chakravarthy K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is the most common microvascular complication of Diabetes Mellitus (DM and is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults of patients with type 1 and 2 DM. Large observational and randomised studies shown that optimal blood glucose and blood pressure control halt or regress the disease and limit the risk of progression to the proliferative stage and visual loss. Recently, evidence has also emerged that Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS inhibitors may electively prevent or delay progression of retinopathy by acting on local RAS. Thus, metabolic and blood pressure control by RAS inhibition is to prevent or limit the onset of retinopathy and its progression towards visual-threatening stages. The aim of the study is to categorise and analyse grading of DR who are on currently ACE and ARBs unchanged for at least 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS 178 patients with type 1 and 2 DM of both genders on ARBs and ACEI unchanged for at least 2 years are divided into two groups as follows- 1. ARB group, which includesa 28 patients on losartan (50 mg. b 32 patients on losartan (50 mg + hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg. c 28 patients on telmisartan (40 mg. d 32 patients on telmisartan (40 mg + hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg. 2. ACE inhibitor group includesa 30 patients on enalapril (5 mg. b 28 patients on ramipril (2.5 mg + hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg. Retinopathy grading assessed by indirect ophthalmoscope and comparison of retinopathy grading between ARBs and ACEI groups have done. Two-tailed Chi-square test, GraphPad Prism Software used for statistical calculations. RESULTS Losartan and telmisartan (ARB group showed significant protection from diabetic retinopathy than enalapril and ramipril (ACEI group (p<0.05. CONCLUSION ARBs help in preventing the progression of DR and vision loss in those belonging to mild and moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy patients.

  2. Risk factors for Type II diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a mexican-american population: Proyecto VER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila K; Munoz, Beatriz; Klein, Ronald; Broman, Aimee T; Sanchez, Rosario; Rodriguez, Jorge; Snyder, Robert

    2002-09-01

    Risk factors for type II diabetes and diabetic retinopathy were determined in a population-based study of Mexican-Americans. Proyecto VER (Vision, Evaluation, and Research) is a cross-sectional study in a random sample of the self-described Hispanic populations in Tucson and Nogales, Arizona, age 40 and older. Of 6,659 eligible subjects, 4,774 (72%) participated in the home questionnaire and clinic visit. Diabetes was defined as self-report of a physician diagnosis or hemoglobin A(1c) value of > or = 7.0%. Only type II diabetes was included. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed on stereo fundus photographs of all persons with diabetes. Questions were asked about demographic, personal, socioeconomic, and diabetes related variables. 1023 (21.4%) of the sample had type II diabetes, and 68% were in the low-income group (annual income less than $20,000). Diabetes was associated with Native-American ancestry, higher acculturation, low income, less education, and increasing body mass index after age and gender adjustment. Persons with previously undiscovered diabetes were more likely to have no regular source of care, no insurance, and currently smoke compared with persons with known diabetes. Only low income was related to proliferative retinopathy, once adjusted for other factors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.93, 95%, confidence limitations [CL] = 1.31-11.80). Several socioeconomic and other factors were associated with diabetes, but few were related to diabetic retinopathy. Persons in the low-income group appeared to be at greater risk of diabetes and the ocular complications of diabetes compared with those with more income. Further longitudinal studies in this population are needed to confirm the associations.

  3. Is hypertension a major independent risk factor for retinopathy in type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Deckert, T

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension is an established risk factor for retinopathy. Whether it is an independent risk factor or acts only by association with nephropathy is not known. Therefore, we studied 273 Type 1 diabetic patients. They were divided into four groups. Group 1 (n = 55) were normotensive...... and normoalbuminuric, group 2 (n = 51) had hypertension but were normoalbuminuric, group 3 (n = 33) had nephropathy but were normotensive, and group 4 (n = 134) had nephropathy and hypertension. Hypertensive patients with normoalbuminuria (blood pressure 146 +/- 19 (+/-SD)/87 +/- 12 mmHg) had the same prevalence...... of retinopathy as normoalbuminuric normotensive patients (123 +/- 12/75 +/- 5 mmHg). Hypertensive nephropathic patients (blood pressure 147 +/- 18/87 +/- 8 mmHg) had more retinopathy than hypertensive normoalbuminuric patients despite similar blood pressure (normal retina/advanced retinopathy: 3%/73% vs 46...

  4. Detection of diabetic retinopathy and other microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Malin Lundberg

    Forekomsten af type 1 diabetes er stigende og diabetisk retinopati er fortsat en af de primære årsager til nedsat syn blandt personer i den arbejdsdygtige alder. Derudover er andre mikrovaskulære komplikationer som diabetisk nefropati og neuropati blandt de primære årsager til nedsat nyrefunktion......, dialysebehandling, fodsår og amputationer. Optimal kontrol af blodsukker og blodtryk kan nedsætte risikoen for eller forsinke udviklingen af sene mikrovaskulære komplikationer. Derudover har sen debut alder og kortere varighed af diabetes vist sig at være beskyttende for udviklingen af mikrovaskulære komplikationer...... fotografering af nethinden i forhold til guldstandarden med syv sammensatte felter defineret i studiet: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) (Artikel II). Derudover har vi brugt en nyere metode til at undersøge kargeometrien i nethinden for at se om en suboptimal konfiguration i nethindens kar er...

  5. Role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vorobyeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the progressive vision reduction at diabetes mellitus (DM is diabetic retinopathy (DR. When type 2 diabetes combined with hypertension (Ht, it increases the risk of vision loss by 25 times. In the pathogenesis of DR is important to endothelial dysfunction and a variety of biochemical processes (an excess of intracellular sorbitol, non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, oxidative stress. there is a decrease in generation vasodilating factors, nitric oxide, with a simultaneous increase of endothelin, which causes vasoconstriction. Key processes underlying the development of DR, such as increased vascular permeability, edema, neovasculariza- tion, inflammation and associated with the effects of kallikrein-kinin system. In the pathogenesis of DR can be involved independent intraocular renin-angiotensin system, which is an important mediator of angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability. Damage to the endothelium of retinal vessels leads to ischemia of the retina. there is growth and development of newly formed blood vessels, which may provoke recurrent bleeding.

  6. Visual function assessment after vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Cai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the visual function prognosis after vitrectomy for patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRat stage Ⅵ and the impacting factors and to evaluate visual function using multifocal electroretinogram(mfERG. METHODS: One hundred and thirteen cases(130 eyeswith PDR at stage VI treated with standard vitreoretinal surgery were retrospectively analyzed. According to the OCT examination before surgeries and ocular fundus during surgeries, the reviewed cases were divided into two groups: patients with traction retinal detachment and maculopathy(99 cases with 113 eyesand without maculopathy(14 cases with 17 eyes. Eyes underwent OCT and mfERG examination. Visual acuity preoperative and postoperative, mfERGP1 wave amplitudes, morphology features of macular,complications and prognoses were analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of improved visual acuity postoperatively was 63.1%(82/130. The vision was 0.05 or better in 19 eyes(14.6%preoperatively, and in 61 eyes(46.9%postoperatively, in which the vision of 56 eyes were >0.1. In patients without maculopathy, the rate of visual improvements were 88.2% and there were 94.1% with the vision >0.1, which were both better than patients with significant maculopathy group(59.3% and 35.4%, and the differences were significant(PPPCONCLUSION: The visual function of eyes with PDR at stage VI is improved after vitrectomy. The amplitude densities of P1 wave in the 6 rings increase markedly after vitrectomy, and they turn to be better with time. The improvement of visual function in severe PDR without maculopathy group is better than that in severe PDR with maculopathy group after vitrectomy.

  7. Body Mass Index: A Risk Factor for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR progression. The study included 545 patients with type 2 diabetes. According to DR status, they were divided into three groups: group 1 (no retinopathy; n=296, group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n=118, and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n=131. Patients without DR were younger than those with signs of retinopathy at time of diabetes onset whilst diabetes duration was longer in groups with severe NPDR and PDR. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, hypertension, and cholesterol. Statistical analyses showed that the progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 26.50 ± 2.70, gr. 2: 28.11 ± 3.00, gr. 3: 28.69 ± 2.50; P<0.01. We observed a significant deterioration of HbA1c and a significant increase in cholesterol and hypertension with an increase in BMI. Correlation between BMI and triglycerides was not significant. Thus, BMI in correlation with HbA1c cholesterol and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 2 diabetes and may serve as a predictive factor for the development of this important cause of visual loss in developed countries.

  8. An automated retinal imaging method for the early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S Wilfred; Rajan, S Edward

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of long-term diabetes and is the major cause for eyesight loss due to changes in blood vessels of the retina. Major vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy is highly preventable with regular screening and timely intervention at the earlier stages. Retinal blood vessel segmentation methods help to identify the successive stages of such sight threatening diseases like diabetes. To develop and test a novel retinal imaging method which segments the blood vessels automatically from retinal images, which helps the ophthalmologists in the diagnosis and follow-up of diabetic retinopathy. This method segments each image pixel as vessel or nonvessel, which in turn, used for automatic recognition of the vasculature in retinal images. Retinal blood vessels were identified by means of a multilayer perceptron neural network, for which the inputs were derived from the Gabor and moment invariants-based features. Back propagation algorithm, which provides an efficient technique to change the weights in a feed forward network, is utilized in our method. Quantitative results of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were obtained in our method and the measured accuracy of our segmentation algorithm was 95.3%, which is better than that presented by state-of-the-art approaches. The evaluation procedure used and the demonstrated effectiveness of our automated retinal imaging method proves itself as the most powerful tool to diagnose diabetic retinopathy in the earlier stages.

  9. Conjunctival impression cytology in non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Citirik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the integrity of the ocular surfaces of subjects with and without diabetes with no conjunctival and dry eye signs and symptoms and compare conjunctival impression cytology findings in diabetics with non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.METHODS: Conjunctival impression cytology was performed on 43 eyes of 43 subjects with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR, 42 eyes of 42 subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, and 30 eyes of 30 control subjects. Impression cytology specimens of each group were graded and scored in the range 0-3 according to Nelson’s method.RESULTS: There were 45 (52.9% women and 40 (47.1% men. The mean age of the patients was 59.6±9.3y (range, 43-76y in NPDR group and 58.0±8.8y (range, 41-85y in PDR group. Cases with NPDR and PDR showed statistically significant higher impression cytology scores than control group (P<0.05. There was no difference between the NPDR and PDR patients for impression cytology grading scores.CONCLUSION: It is determined that impression cytology grades are altered in patients with NPDR and PDR. Consequently, we suggest that there might be an association between the impression cytology grading scores and the severity of diabetic retinopathy

  10. Association of MTHFR gene C677T mutation with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Serbulent; Karakus, Nevin; Inanir, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variants have been associated with vasculopathy that has been linked to diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between MTHFR gene C677T mutation and DPN and evaluate if there is an association with clinical features in a relatively large cohort of Turkish patients. The study included 230 patients affected by DPN and 282 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for the MTHFR gene C677T mutation. The genotype and allele frequencies of the C677T mutation showed statistically significant differences between the patients with DPN and the controls (p=0.003 and p=0.002, respectively). After the patients with DPN were stratified according to clinical and demographic characteristics, a significant association was observed between the C677T mutation and history of retinopathy (p=0.039). A high association between the MTHFR gene C677T mutation and DPN was observed in the present study. In addition, history of retinopathy was associated with the MTHFR C677T mutation in patients with DPN.

  11. Duplex Color Doppler Evaluation of Retinal Arterial Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects without Retinopathy

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    Mashah Binte Amin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a vascular disorder affecting the microvasculature of retina. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of retina. If untreated, it may lead to blindness which is usually preventable if retinopathy is diagnosed early and treated promptly. In ophthalmology, color Doppler imaging is a new method that enables us to assess the orbital vasculature. It allows for simultaneous two dimensional anatomical and Doppler evaluations of hemodynamic characteristics of retinal artery. Objective: To observe the difference between Doppler flow velocity indices (peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and resistive index of retinal artery in type 2 diabetic subjects without retinopathy and those of normal controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out in the department of Radiology and Imaging, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM in collaboration with Ophthalmology Outpatient Department, BIRDEM, Dhaka from July 2011 to June 2013. Eighty diabetic patients without retinopathy aged 27–68 years were enrolled as cases and age and sex matched 80 healthy subjects were selected as controls. Type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetics with retinopathy, hypertensive and dyslipidemic subjects were excluded from the study. All the selected subjects underwent duplex Doppler ultrasonography of both eyes using 5 to 7.5 MHZ linear phase transducer. Duplex color Doppler findings including spectral analysis (PSV, EDV and RI were recorded. Unpaired t test was done to compare blood flow velocity indices of retinal artery in type 2 diabetic patients without retinopathy and that of healthy control subjects. p value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Majority (42.5% and 47.5% of subjects were in 4th decade of life in both groups with predominance of males. The mean duration of diabetes was 4.56 ± 2.1 years. Mean peak systolic

  12. Elevation of serum apelin-13 associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Jun-Hui Du

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare apelin-13, a ligand of G-protein-coupled receptor which has been shown to be involved in retinal angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF serum levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with or without retinopathy, and to investigate the relationship between the serum concentration of apelin-13 and diabetes retinopathy.METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with T2DM were enrolled. Of the 69 patients, 16 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group, 23 had non-PDR (NPDR group and 30 had no retinopathy (T2DM group. Subjects’ information, including demographics, medical history, and use of medications were recorded. Their serum samples were collected for measuring the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum lipid and glycosylated hemoglobin. Apelin-13 and VEGF serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the differences among these groups. Chi-square test was used to assess categorical variables. Correlations between variables were investigated by Spearman rho correlation test and stepwise regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed through SPSS 17.0 software.RESULTS:Sex, age, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, CRP, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c have no significantly difference in the three groups. Serum level of apelin-13 was significantly elevated in PDR group as compared with T2DM group (P=0.041. Differences of VEGF serum concentration in the three groups were statistically significant (P=0.007, P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively. Spearman rho correlation test showed that serum apelin-13 was positively correlated with BMI, serum triglycerides, VEGF, but not with age, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, CRP, HbA1c and total-cholesterol. Stepwise regression analysis showed that BMI also significantly associated with serum apelin-13 (P=0.002, while VEGF and serum triglycerides were irrelevant.CONCLUSION: This study elucidated a

  13. Bullous Exudative Retinal Detachment after Retinal Pattern Scan Laser Photocoagulation in Diabetic Retinopathy

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    Shohei Nishikawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser retinal photocoagulation is the gold standard treatment for diabetic retinopathy. We describe 3 cases in which bullous exudative retinal detachment (ERD developed after pattern scan laser photocoagulation (PASCAL in diabetic retinopathy. ERD spontaneously resolved in all 3 cases with various visual courses. This case series highlights 2 key points: first, ERD can occur regardless of gender, age, glycemic control, or vitreous status and despite a moderate number of laser shots, even with PASCAL; second, ERD in nonvitrectomized eyes may cause irreversible visual loss, even if the ERD resolves within 1 month.

  14. Semaglutide, reduction in HbA1c and the risk of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Bain, Stephen C; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2018-01-01

    - a 2-year, preapproval cardiovascular outcomes trial - semaglutide was associated with a significant increase in the risk of diabetic retinopathy complications (DRC) versus placebo. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) data from across the SUSTAIN trials were evaluated and post hoc analyses of the SUSTAIN 6 data...... control at baseline, and treated with insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Early worsening of DR is a known phenomenon associated with the rapidity and magnitude of improvement in glycaemic control with insulin; the DRC findings in SUSTAIN 6 are consistent with this. Guidance regarding the early worsening of DR...... is recommended with insulin; similar recommendations may be appropriate for semaglutide....

  15. Identification of Diabetic Retinopathy Genes through a Genome-Wide Association Study among Mexican-Americans from Starr County, Texas

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    Yi-Ping Fu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic loci for severe diabetic retinopathy, 286 Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes from Starr County, Texas, completed physical examinations including fundus photography for diabetic retinopathy grading. Individuals with moderate-to-severe non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy were defined as cases. Direct genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100 K Set, and SNPs passing quality control criteria were used to impute markers available in HapMap Phase III Mexican population (MXL in Los Angeles, California. Two directly genotyped markers were associated with severe diabetic retinopathy at a P-value less than .0001: SNP rs2300782 (P=6.04×10−5 mapped to an intron region of CAMK4 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV on chromosome 5, and SNP rs10519765 (P=6.21×10−5 on chromosomal 15q13 in the FMN1 (formin 1 gene. Using well-imputed markers based on the HapMap III Mexican population, we identified an additional 32 SNPs located in 11 chromosomal regions with nominal association with severe diabetic retinopathy at P-value less than .0001. None of these markers were located in traditional candidate genes for diabetic retinopathy or diabetes itself. However, these signals implicate genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and cell adhesion for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Current trends in the pharmacotherapy of diabetic retinopathy

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    B Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is one of the most debilitating disorders of microvasculature of the retina and one of the leading causes of vision loss among the working class worldwide. At present, intravitreal anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids and anti-angiogenesis (anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor agents are being used as wide options for the pharmacotherapy of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME. Anti-inflammatory agents (Triamcinolone acetonide and other agents have shown evidence-based clinical benefits in various randomized clinical trials for the treatment of DR and DME, and also shown improvement in best corrected visual acuity. However, direct intravitreal injections are associated with serious side-effects like cataract and elevation of Intra Ocular Pressure. Despite this, corticosteroid therapy has been effective for DR and DME, therefore current focus is on the development of novel intravitreal steroid delivery devices that release a small quantity over a prolonged period of time. In addition to corticosteroids, anti-angiogenic agents are found to be effective for the treatment of DR and DME. The most popular target of these agents is the subfamily of proteins known as VEGF, whose over-expression is believed to play a role in numerous diseases including DR and Age-related Macular Degeneration. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin® and Ranibizumab (Lucentis® are gaining popularity as a clinical adjunct to panretinal photocoagulation in patients with proliferative DR. Moreover, Lucentis has been recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for macular edema following retinal vein occlusion. Further, systemic agents (specially, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and anti-hypertensive agents have shown beneficial results in reducing the progression of DR. In conclusion, it can be stated that for the present scenario systematic use of available pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to laser photocoagulation, which is gold

  17. Current trends in the pharmacotherapy of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Gupta, S K; Saxena, R; Srivastava, S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most debilitating disorders of microvasculature of the retina and one of the leading causes of vision loss among the working class worldwide. At present, intravitreal anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids) and anti-angiogenesis (anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) agents are being used as wide options for the pharmacotherapy of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME). Anti-inflammatory agents (Triamcinolone acetonide and other agents) have shown evidence-based clinical benefits in various randomized clinical trials for the treatment of DR and DME, and also shown improvement in best corrected visual acuity. However, direct intravitreal injections are associated with serious side-effects like cataract and elevation of Intra Ocular Pressure. Despite this, corticosteroid therapy has been effective for DR and DME, therefore current focus is on the development of novel intravitreal steroid delivery devices that release a small quantity over a prolonged period of time. In addition to corticosteroids, anti-angiogenic agents are found to be effective for the treatment of DR and DME. The most popular target of these agents is the subfamily of proteins known as VEGF, whose over-expression is believed to play a role in numerous diseases including DR and Age-related Macular Degeneration. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®) and Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) are gaining popularity as a clinical adjunct to panretinal photocoagulation in patients with proliferative DR. Moreover, Lucentis has been recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for macular edema following retinal vein occlusion. Further, systemic agents (specially, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and anti-hypertensive agents) have shown beneficial results in reducing the progression of DR. In conclusion, it can be stated that for the present scenario systematic use of available pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to laser photocoagulation, which is gold standard therapy

  18. Advances in retinal imaging for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Colin Siang Hui; Chew, Milton Cher Yong; Lim, Louis Wei Yi; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME) are leading causes of blindness throughout the world, and cause significant visual morbidity. Ocular imaging has played a significant role in the management of diabetic eye disease, and the advent of advanced imaging modalities will be of great value as our understanding of diabetic eye diseases increase, and the management options become increasingly varied and complex. Color fundus photography has established roles in screening for diabetic eye disease, early detection of progression, and monitoring of treatment response. Fluorescein angiography (FA) detects areas of capillary nonperfusion, as well as leakage from both microaneurysms and neovascularization. Recent advances in retinal imaging modalities complement traditional fundus photography and provide invaluable new information for clinicians. Ultra-widefield imaging, which can be used to produce both color fundus photographs and FAs, now allows unprecedented views of the posterior pole. The pathologies that are detected in the periphery of the retina have the potential to change the grading of disease severity, and may be of prognostic significance to disease progression. Studies have shown that peripheral ischemia may be related to the presence and severity of DME. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides structural detail of the retina, and the quantitative and qualitative features are useful in the monitoring of diabetic eye disease. A relatively recent innovation, OCT angiography, produces images of the fine blood vessels at the macula and optic disc, without the need for contrast agents. This paper will review the roles of each of these imaging modalities for diabetic eye disease.

  19. Ocular surface changes in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

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    Yan Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect and analyze the changes on ocular surface and tear function in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, an advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR, using conventional ophthalmic tests and the high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscopy. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with type II diabetes were selected. Based on the diagnostic criteria and stage classification of DR, the patients were divided into the non-DR (NDR group and the PDR group. Thirty-six patients with cataract but no other ocular and systemic disease were included as non-diabetic controls. All the patients were subjected to the conventional clinical tests of corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I Test, and corneal fluorescein staining. The non-invasive tear film break-up time (NIBUT and tear interferometry were conducted by a Tearscope Plus. The morphology of corneal epithelia and nerve fibers was examined using the high-resolution confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The NDR group exhibited significantly declined corneal sensitivity and Schirmer I test value, as compared to the non-diabetic controls (P< 0.001. The PDR group showed significantly reduced corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test value, and NIBUT in comparison to the non-diabetic controls (P < 0.001. Corneal fluorescein staining revealed the progressively injured corneal epithelia in the PDR patients. Moreover, significant decrease in the corneal epithelial density and morphological abnormalities in the corneal epithelia and nerve fibers were also observed in the PDR patients. CONCLUSION: Ocular surface changes, including blunted corneal sensitivity, reduced tear secretion, tear film dysfunction, progressive loss of corneal epithelia and degeneration of nerve fibers, are common in type II diabetic patients, particularly in the diabetic patients with PDR. The corneal sensitivity, fluorescein staining scores, and the density of corneal epithelial cells and nerve fibers in the diabetic

  20. Calcium dobesilate attenuates vascular injury and the progression of diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Eugenia; Ganado, Patricia; Sanz, Mercedes; Zeini, Miriam; Ruiz, Emilio; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, Ana I; Salazar, Juan J; Ramírez, Jose M; Rojas, Blanca; Hoz, Rosa de; Tejerina, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a highly specific vascular complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Calcium dobesilate (DOBE) has been tested in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy showing a slowdown of the progression of the disease after long-term oral treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of DOBE on vascular and diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided into three groups (n = 30). Group 0 (GO): nondiabetic rats. Group 1 (G1): 14 months of insulin treatment after diabetes development. Group 2 (G2): 14 months of insulin treatment after diabetes development plus DOBE (500 mg/kg/day). At the end of the treatment, vascular reactivity was tested. The study of the vascularization of the retina was performed on wholemounts of trypsin retinal digest preparations and retinal sections. Relaxation induced by acetylcholine decreased in the aorta arteries from diabetic rats but it was restored to control values in the DOBE-treated group (71.8 +/- 4.5%, 53.3 +/- 0.5%, 67.4 +/- 4.6% in group 0, 1 and 2 respectively). DOBE treatment also restored noradrenaline (1.08 +/- 0.05 g, 1.70 +/- 0.08 g, 1.13 +/- 0.05 g in group 0, 1 and 2 respectively) and caffeine-induced contractions. Diabetic state did not cause any alteration in mesenteric arteries. The analysis of the retinal digests showed vascular tortuosity, acellular capillaries, focal accumulations of capillaries and reduction of the number of pericytes in G1. The vascular changes observed in G2 seem to be intermediate between the control and the diabetic rats. We showed that long-term treatment with DOBE attenuated the progression of diabetic retinopathy and the alterations in vascular reactivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The relationship of retinal vascular calibre to diabetes and retinopathy: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikellis, G; Wang, J J; Tapp, R; Simpson, R; Mitchell, P; Zimmet, P Z; Shaw, J; Wong, T Y

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship of retinal vascular calibre with glucose intolerance, diabetes and retinopathy in a population-based cohort. The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study recruited adults aged > or =25 years old from across Australia. Participants were classified using an oral glucose tolerance test as having normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), known diabetes or newly diagnosed diabetes. Digital retinal photographs were taken of all participants with diabetes, IGT and IFG, and a sample of those with NGT, and graded for the presence of retinopathy. Retinal vascular calibre was measured from photographs by a computer-assisted method. Of the 1,998 participants with gradable retinal images, 16% had known diabetes, 17% newly diagnosed diabetes, 42% IGT, 6% IFG and 19% NGT. After multivariable adjustment, retinal arteriolar calibre was significantly larger in people with known diabetes (178.9 microm) compared with participants with NGT (174.6 microm, p = 0.02), IGT/IFG (175.5 microm, p = 0.02) or newly diagnosed diabetes (175.6 microm, p = 0.047). One SD increase in mean arteriolar calibre was associated with higher odds of diabetes compared with NGT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.06-1.55). After multivariable adjustment, each SD increase in venular calibre was associated with higher odds of having retinopathy in persons with IGT/IFG (OR = 1.78, 95%CI = 1.36-2.34) or in persons with diabetes (OR = 1.68, 95%CI = 1.23-2.29). Diabetes is associated with larger retinal arteriolar calibre and retinopathy with larger retinal venular calibre. The contrasting associations may reflect different underlying pathophysiological processes in the natural history of diabetes.

  2. Association of serum lipids with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes

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    Puspalata Agroiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 140 type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR were enrolled in the study from diabetic clinic during May 2011 till June 2012 to determine correlation between severity of DR with serum lipid and other modifiable risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Information including age, sex, height, body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was collected from each patient. Fasting plasma sugar, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride level (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1 C , creatinine, and 24 h urinary albumin excretion was done for each patient. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was measured by modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation. Patients were divided in five groups according to retinopathy status based on early treatment DR study (ETDRS disease severity level. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS statistical software (version 17.0 for Windows. The alpha level was set at P = 0.05 for all tests. Statistically significant positive correlation between severity of DR with systolic blood pressure P = 0.005 (r = 0.974, diastolic blood pressure P = 0.001(r = 0.994, LDL P = 0.005 (r = 0.976, TG P = 0.001 (r = 0.990, and 24 h urinary albumin P = 0.004 (r = 0.977 was documented. DR was also strongly positively correlated with smoking P = 0.017 (r = 0.941 and duration of diabetes P = 0.003 (r = 0.981. There was strong inverse correlation of DR with HDL P = 0.001 (r = −0.994 and eGFR P = 0.002 (r = −0.987. Serum lipids were significantly correlated with severity of DR.

  3. Corneal and Retinal Neuronal Degeneration in Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Dehghani, Cirous; Pritchard, Nicola; Edwards, Katie; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2017-12-01

    To examine the neuronal structural integrity of cornea and retina as markers for neuronal degeneration in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Participants were recruited from the broader Brisbane community, Queensland, Australia. Two hundred forty-one participants (187 with diabetes and 54 nondiabetic controls) were examined. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. Corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), corneal nerve branch density (CNBD), corneal nerve fiber tortuosity (CNFT), full retinal thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), focal (FLV) and global loss volumes (GLV), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular measures were examined. The central zone (P = 0.174), parafoveal thickness (P = 0.090), perifovea (P = 0.592), RNFL (P = 0.866), GCC (P = 0.798), and GCC GLV (P = 0.338) did not differ significantly between the groups. In comparison to the control group, those with very mild NPDR and those with mild NPDR had significantly higher focal loss in GCC volume (P = 0.036). CNFL was significantly lower in those with mild NPDR (P = 0.004) in comparison to the control group and those with no DR. The CNBD (P = 0.094) and CNFT (P = 0.458) did not differ between the groups. Both corneal and retinal neuronal degeneration may occur in early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Further studies are required to examine these potential markers for neuronal degeneration in the absence of clinical signs of DR.

  4. Teleophthalmology assessment of diabetic retinopathy fundus images: smartphone versus standard office computer workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sajeesh; Wang, Erh-Hsuan; Pokabla, Michael J; Noecker, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic capability of a smartphone handset compared with a standard office computer workstation for teleophthalmology fundus photo assessments of diabetic retinopathy. Eligible, consenting participants' fundus images were acquired using a non-mydriatic camera. These images along with other medical data were transmitted 20 miles away through the Internet (gold standard) and also through an iPhone(®) (Apple, Cupertino, CA) to two ophthalmologists, who independently compared the images. The κ coefficient between the gold standard workstation display and iPhone images to detect retinopathy-related changes for both readers was more than 0.9. The image quality of the iPhone was scored high by the ophthalmologists. Ophthalmic images transmitted through both smartphone and Internet techniques match well with each other. Despite current limitations, smartphones could represent as a tool for fundus photo assessments of diabetic retinopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the economic and clinical feasibility of smartphones in ophthalmology.

  5. Diabetic retinopathy: more patients, less laser: a longitudinal population-based study in Tayside, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, James H; Wilson, Peter J; Leese, Graham P; McAlpine, Ritchie; MacEwen, Caroline J; Ellis, John D

    2008-06-01

    We aim to correlate the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy requiring laser treatment with the control of risk factors in the diabetic population of Tayside, Scotland, for the years 2001-2006. Retinal laser treatment, retinal screening, and diabetes care databases were linked for calendar years 2001-2006. Primary end points were the numbers of patients undergoing first or any laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy or maculopathy. Mean A1C and blood pressure and retinal screening rates were followed over the study period. Over 6 years, the number of patients with diabetes in Tayside increased from 9,694 to 15,207 (57% increase). The number of patients receiving laser treatment decreased from 222 to 138 and first laser treatments decreased from 100 (1.03% of diabetic population) to 56 (0.37%). The number of patients with type 2 diabetes treated for maculopathy decreased from 180 in 2001 to 103 in 2006 (43% reduction, P = 0.03). Mean A1C decreased for type 1 and type 2 diabetic populations (P blood pressure was observed in type 2 diabetic patients (P Laser treatment for diabetic maculopathy in type 2 diabetic patients has decreased in Tayside over a six-year period, despite an increased prevalence of diabetes and increased screening effort. We propose that earlier identification of type 2 diabetes and improved risk factor control has reduced the incidence of maculopathy severe enough to require laser treatment.

  6. Clinical evaluation of Ginkgo biloba extract for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract(GBEfor the patients with mild or moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR. METHODS: Randomized controlled study. A total of 80 patients(150 eyeswith mild or moderate NPDR were divided into two groups: the control group(39 patients with 72 eyesand the treatment group(41 patients with 78 eyes. Patients in the control group were given 100mg enteric-coated aspirin tablets, orally, once per day. Based on the above treatment, the treated group was added with GBT 2mL, orally, three times per day. Patients were followed up for 6mo, and the overall curative effect, visual acuity, visual field mean defect, the result of fundus fluorescein angiography, serum lipid levels, platelet aggregation rate and platelet adhesion rate were measured and evaluated. RESULTS: After treatments, the total effective rate in the treatment group was 75.6% and significantly higher than that(58.7%in the control group(Z=2.6002, P=0.0047. Compared with the control group, the treatment group was found to have higher visual acuity and less visual field mean defect significantly(t=-2.01,P=0.0477; t=4.06,P=0.0001; the numbers of retinal micro-aneurysms and areas of retinal hemorrhage significantly decreased(t=7.86,Pt=3.13,P=0.0024; the serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in treatment group significantly decreased, the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased(t=2.25,P=0.0270; t=3.41,P=0.0010; t=3.34,P=0.0013; t=3.76,P=0.0003; t=-3.30,P=0.0014; platelet aggregation rate and platelet adhesion rate were significantly lower(t=4.31,Pt=4.93,PCONCLUSION: The results show that GBT for treatment of mild and moderate NPDR has a definite effect.

  7. Fatores de risco para retinopatia diabética Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Boelter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A retinopatia diabética (RD é uma complicação crônica do diabete melito (DM que, após 20 anos de duração de diabete melito, ocorre em 99% dos pacientes com diabete melito tipo 1 e em 60% dos pacientes com diabete melito tipo 2, sendo a principal causa de cegueira em adultos. Níveis de glicose e pressão arterial elevados, junto com longo tempo de duração do DM, são os principais fatores de risco. Os fatores de risco para retinopatia diabética podem ser classificados como genéticos e não genéticos, onde estão incluídos aqueles relacionados ou não ao diabete melito, ambientais e oculares. O controle dos fatores de risco conhecidos e o tratamento adequado são a principal base do manejo da retinopatia diabética. O objetivo desta revisão é fornecer ao oftalmologista uma informação atualizada destes fatores, com ênfase no aspecto preventivo de perdas visuais no paciente com diabete melito.Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM. After 20 years of diabetes duration Diabetic retinopathy, occurs in 90% of the type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and in 60% of the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, being the main cause of blindness in adults. High glicemia and blood pressure levels, along with the long diabetes mellitus duration, are the main risk factors for diabetes mellitus Diabetic retinopathy. Other factors can also be associated with the loss of vision that occurs in diabetes mellitus. The risk factors can be classified as genetical or non-genetical, the latter including factors related or not to diabetes mellitus, environmental and ocular. Control of the known risk factors and effective treatment are the main basis of the Diabetic retinopathy management. The aim of this review is to provide to the ophthalmologist an up to date information of these factors, with emphasis in the preventive aspects of the visual loss in the patients with diabetes mellitus.

  8. A Novel Image Recuperation Approach for Diagnosing and Ranking Retinopathy Disease Level Using Diabetic Fundus Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Retinal fundus images are widely used in diagnosing and providing treatment for several eye diseases. Prior works using retinal fundus images detected the presence of exudation with the aid of publicly available dataset using extensive segmentation process. Though it was proved to be computationally efficient, it failed to create a diabetic retinopathy feature selection system for transparently diagnosing the disease state. Also the diagnosis of diseases did not employ machine learning methods to categorize candidate fundus images into true positive and true negative ratio. Several candidate fundus images did not include more detailed feature selection technique for diabetic retinopathy. To apply machine learning methods and classify the candidate fundus images on the basis of sliding window a method called, Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation (DFIR) is designed in this paper. The initial phase of DFIR method select the feature of optic cup in digital retinal fundus images based on Sliding Window Approach. With this, the disease state for diabetic retinopathy is assessed. The feature selection in DFIR method uses collection of sliding windows to obtain the features based on the histogram value. The histogram based feature selection with the aid of Group Sparsity Non-overlapping function provides more detailed information of features. Using Support Vector Model in the second phase, the DFIR method based on Spiral Basis Function effectively ranks the diabetic retinopathy diseases. The ranking of disease level for each candidate set provides a much promising result for developing practically automated diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system. Experimental work on digital fundus images using the DFIR method performs research on the factors such as sensitivity, specificity rate, ranking efficiency and feature selection time. PMID:25974230

  9. VISUAL OUTCOME POST RETINAL LASER PHOTOCOAGULATION IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrunda Gangadhar Morepatil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a global epidemic with significant morbidity. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is the specific microvascular complication of DM and affects 1 in 3 persons with DM. DR remain a leading cause of vision loss in working adult populations. Patients with severe levels of DR are reported to have poorer quality of life and reduced levels of physical, emotional and social wellbeing and they utilise more healthcare resources. The aim of the study is to determine the visual outcome of laser treatment in diabetic retinopathy patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 eyes of 60 patients with diabetic retinopathy in different stages were subjected to retinal laser photocoagulation using double frequency Nd:YAG laser. Focal laser was used in 9 eyes, panretinal photocoagulation was done in 55 eyes, grid and panretinal photocoagulation was done in 32 eyes and grid and focal laser was done in 2 eyes. The best corrected visual acuity was noted and fundus examination was carried out prior to photocoagulation and at follow up visits. At last follow up, results were assessed. Design- Prospective, non-comparative study. RESULTS Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in 82 eyes. Following laser treatment, best corrected visual acuity improved in 17%, remained static in 81% and deteriorated in 2%. Maculopathy improved in 11%, remained static in 89%. After laser BCVA in PDR improved in 6% and remained unchanged in 94%. In male patients following laser BCVA improved in 11%, remained static in 87% and in females BCVA improved in 23% and remained static in 74%. CONCLUSION Our study concludes that retinal laser photocoagulation plays an important role in stabilisation of vision in patients with diabetic retinopathy. There was no gender or age-related bias in the results of study. HbA1c value has no predictive role in visual outcome post retinal laser photocoagulation.

  10. Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in people aged 50 years and older in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gábor; Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor L; Szalai, Irén; Lukács, Regina; Pék, Anita; Tóth, Georgina Z; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Z; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the population aged 50 years and older in Hungary, and to assess the coverage of diabetic eye care services. In total, 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected. The standardised rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) with the diabetic retinopathy module (DRM) was used. Participants were classified as having DM if they were known to have DM or if their random blood glucose level was ≥200 mg/dL. Dilated fundus examination and Scottish DR grading were performed. In total, 3523 (95.9%) out of 3675 eligible subjects were examined. And 705 (20.0%) out of 3523 had known (661) or newly diagnosed DM (44). Twenty per cent of participants with known DM had a blood glucose level ≥200 mg/dL, and 27.4% had never had an ophthalmological examination for DR. Prevalence of DR and/or maculopathy was 20.7% and prevalence of sight-threatening DR (STDR) was 4.3% in one or both eyes among participants with DM. Prevalence of DM was in line with findings of other RAAB+DRM surveys and slightly lower than the unpublished earlier age-matched Hungarian estimate. Prevalence of DR was slightly lower than expected. The prevalence of STDR was low in people aged 50 years and older in Hungary compared with the results of other RAAB with DRM surveys. DR screening coverage was low. To prevent severe complications of DM and possible concomitant visual loss, the coverage of ophthalmic examinations in patients with DM should be increased. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Analysis on relative factors of the incidence and development of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xian Ma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relative factors of the incidence and development of diabetic retinopathy(DR.METHODS: The retinopathy of the 631 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DMwas examined by ophthalmoscopy and fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, and the relative factors which possibly associate with the incidence and development of DR were collected.RESULTS: There were 205 patients with DR, the morbidity rate of DR was 32.5%(95%CI:28.82%-36.15%, the nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRand proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRwere 134 cases occupying 21.2%(95%CI: 18.04%-24.44%and 71 cases occupying 11.3%(95%CI: 8.78%-13.72%of the patients with DR, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that income, living environment, whether treatment by insulin, combined with diabetic nephropathy(DN, combined with diabetic peripheral neuropathy(DPN, hold on exercise, course of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose(FPG, 2 hours' postprandial plasma glucose(2hPG, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c, systolic blood pressure(SBP, total cholesterol(TC, urinary albumin excretion rate(UAER, serum creatinine(SCr, and blood urea nitrogen(BUNwere significant different among the patients without DR, the patients with NPDR and the patients with PDR(PPPP0.01.CONCLUSION: There was a high morbidity rate of DR in patients with patients with type 2 diabetes. The longer course of diabetes, high HbA1c, and without exercise were the independent development factors of DR, whether combined with DN, combined with DPN and UAER were indices for the incidence and development of DR.

  12. Effective and accurate screening for diabetic retinopathy using a 60º ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To establish whether an experienced endocrinologist could screen accurately for diabetic retinopathy using mydriatic 60° fundus photographs compared with a reference standard, viz. the combined highest scores of two experienced ophthalmologists. Design. Retrospective review of 60° colour transparency ...

  13. Temporal changes in retinal vascular parameters associated with successful panretinal photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Thomas Lee; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Yin

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate changes in retinal vascular geometry over time after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Thirty-seven eyes with PDR were included. Wide-field fluorescein angiography (Optomap, Optos PLC., Dunfermlin...

  14. Clinical effect of Xueshuantong combined with calcium dobesilate on visual field defect caused by diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Yun Xiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To research the clinical curative effect of Xueshuantong combined with calcium dobesilate on visual field defect caused by diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Sixty-four cases with diabetic retinopathy treated in our hospital patients were selected as the research objects. They were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group was treated with Xueshuantong, and the observation group was treated with combined treatment of calcium dobesilate. After 5mo, the clinical efficacy was compared between the two groups of diabetic retinopathy, and before and after treatment fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and visual field changes, observation of patients with adverse reactions and recurrence were performed. RESULTS: The condition of patients was improved, and the effective rate of treatment group was 97%, and higher than that of the control group 78%, the differences were statistically significant(PPPPCONCLUSION: The patients with diabetic retinopathy treated with Xueshuantong combined with calcium dobesilate achieve satisfactory effect, and it can effectively reduce the recurrence rate and the adverse reactions, and improve the clinical symptoms. It would be widely applied in clinical practice.

  15. Diagnostic thresholds for diabetes: the association of retinopathy and albuminuria with glycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapp, R J; Zimmet, P Z; Harper, C A

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA1c with retinopathy and microalbuminuria using both deciles of glycaemia and change point models, to validate current diagnostic criteria for diabetes and to identify therapeutic thresholds for glycaemic...

  16. The assessment of disability related to vision performance-based measure in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrian, Kevin J; Lorenzana, Luciano L; Lankaranian, Dara; Dugar, Jyoti; Wizov, Sheryl S; Spaeth, George L

    2010-05-01

    To validate a third-generation performance-based measure of visual function titled "Assessment of Disability Related to Vision" (ADREV) in a study population of patients with diabetic retinopathy. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients with nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy, free from ocular comorbidity, were recruited from a single institute and completed the ADREV, the 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ-25), and a clinical ophthalmic examination. Correlation, regression, and bootstrap analysis were conducted to determine the relationship between ADREV scoring and each of the study's clinical and self-report measures of visual ability, while controlling for potential confounders. Ninety-one patients with diabetic retinopathy completed the study and analysis showed that the ADREV total and subscale scores shared a stronger relationship with the clinical measures of visual function than did the VFQ total and subscale scores. Regression analysis revealed that binocular visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and better eye visual field were the best predictors of ADREV performance. The ADREV performance measure is a valid instrument for the assessment of disability related to vision in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, the assessments provided by ADREV were more related to traditional clinical indicators of visual impairment than were the results of the self-report measure, specifically the VFQ-25. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating Factors Associated with Depression of Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy Patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujuan Xu

    Full Text Available To assess the depression status of type 2 diabetic retinopathy patients in Nantong China and to identify factors associated with depression.Two hundred and ninety-four patients with type 2 diabetic retinopathy were recruited from the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. The severity of DR was measured in the worse eye. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; the quality of life was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36. The logistic regression analyses were used to identify the independent factors of depression.The mean age of the study subjects was 57.77 years (SD: 9.64. Approximately 35.7% of subjects reported depressive symptoms (n = 105.Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that female gender (p = 0.014, low monthly income (p = 0.01, poor vision in the better eye (P = 0.002, laser treatment history (p = 0.01 were significant risk factors for depression. The quality of life of individuals with CES-D score<16 was significantly better compared with individuals with CES-D score≥16.The reported depressive symptoms among type 2 diabetic retinopathy population is higher in Nantong China. Gender, salary, vision acuity and treatment history were important risk factors linked to this disorder in the Chinese type 2 diabetic retinopathy population from Nantong. More attention by medical care personnel needs to be paid to the psychological health of this population.

  18. The case for intraocular delivery of PPAR agonists in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, Maxwell P

    2012-09-01

    Systemic therapeutics targeting the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we provide a rationale for the use of these therapeutics as intraocular agents. In addition, we introduce the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and describe their functions in response to the drugs.

  19. Retinopathy and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, Natalie A; Pfeffer, Marc A; Skali, Hicham; McGill, Janet B; Rossert, Jerome; Olson, Kurt A; Weinrauch, Larry; Cooper, Mark E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Rossing, Peter; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy is an established microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but its independent relationship with macrovascular and other microvascular complications is less well defined across the spectrum of kidney disease in T2DM. We examined the prognostic value of

  20. Diabetic retinopathy at the Yaoundé Central Hospital in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We carried out a cross-sectional analytical survey using data from patients who had done Fluorescein Angiography at the Yaounde Central Hospital Diabetic Retinopathy Prevention and Management Project between October 2007 and January 2010 to identify the risk factors, incidence and severity of different types of ...

  1. Role of altered coagulation-fibrinolytic system in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Tapan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-05-01

    The implications of altered coagulation-fibrinolytic system in the pathophysiology of several vascular disorders, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, have been well researched upon and established. However, its role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy has not been explored much. Since a decade, it is known that hyperglycemia is associated with a hypercoagulated state and the various impairments it causes are well acknowledged as independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. But recent studies suggest that the hypercoagulative state and diminished fibrinolytic responses might also alter retinal homeostasis and induce several deleterious molecular changes in retinal cells which aggravate the already existing hyperglycemia-induced pathological conditions and thereby lead to the progression of diabetic retinopathy. The major mediators of coagulation-fibrinolytic system whose concentration or activity get altered during hyperglycemia include fibrinogen, antithrombin-III (AT-III), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Inhibiting the pathways by which these altered mediators get involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy can serve as potential targets for the development of an adjuvant novel alternative therapy for diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intra- and intergrader reliability of semiautomatic measurements of fundus fluorescein angiography leakage in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Thomas Lee; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik; Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard

    2015-01-01

    Design of study: Cross-sectional image grading study. Purpose: Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) is the gold-standard treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Fundus fluorescein angiography leakage (FFAL) is often used as a marker of disease activity, but evaluation of the difference...

  3. The Prize Is Healthy Eyes: Using Games to Educate about Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri N.; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a program for prevention of diabetic retinopathy (DR) that was designed for Extension in collaboration with optometrists. The program was created to increase knowledge and awareness about risk factors for DR and included a game and take-home materials. Participants were asked to play a game similar to Wheel of Fortune. A…

  4. Assessing diabetic retinopathy using two-field digital photography and the influence of JPEG-comoression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, C; Hardus, PLLJ; Hooymans, JMM

    Objective: To study the effectiveness of two digital 50degrees photographic fields per eye, stored compressed or integrally, in the grading of diabetic retinopathy, in comparison to 35-mm colour slides. Subjects and methods: Two-field digital non-stereoscopic retinal photographs and two-field 35-mm

  5. Marked reductions in visual impairment due to diabetic retinopathy achieved by efficient screening and timely treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Nina; Aikkila, Riittaliisa; Korpelainen, Juha; Keskitalo, Antti; Kurikka, Anne; Falck, Aura; Bloigu, Risto; Alanko, Hannu

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes and needs to be diagnosed early to prevent severe sight-threatening retinopathy. Digital photography with telemedicine connections is a novel way to deliver cost-effective, accessible screening to remote areas. Screening for DR in a mobile eye examination unit (EyeMo) is compared to traditional service models (i.e. local municipal services or a commercial service provider). The quality of images, delays from screening to treatment, the stage of DR, coverage of screening and the rate of visual impairment due to DR are evaluated. EyeMo utilizes telemedicine technology. The electronic databases of the hospital and information from the Finnish Register of Visual Impairment were used to determine delays and the rate of visual impairment. Fourteen thousand eight hundred and sixty-six fundus photographs were taken in EyeMo in 2007-2011. Coverage reached 78% of potential clients. No DR was detected in 43%, mild background retinopathy in 23%, moderate or severe background retinopathy in 31% and proliferative retinopathy in 3% of the evaluations. The quality of images was higher (p visual impairment due to DR decreased by 86% in the area covered by EyeMo, and the change compared favourably to the situation in the entire Finland (p visual damage. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Automatic detection of retinal exudates in fundus images of diabetic retinopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Partovi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes and can lead to several retinal abnormalities including microaneurysms, exudates, dot and blot hemorrhages, and cotton wool spots. Automated early detection of these abnormalities could limit the severity of the disease and assist ophthalmologists in investigating and treating the disease more efficiently. Segmentation of retinal image features provides the basis for automated assessment. In this study, exudates lesion on retinopathy retinal images was segmented by different image processing techniques. The objective of this study is detection of the exudates regions on retinal images of retinopathy patients by different image processing techniques. Methods: A total of 30 color images from retinopathy patients were selected for this study. The images were taken by Topcon TRC-50 IX mydriatic camera and saves with TIFF format with a resolution of 500 × 752 pixels. The morphological function was applied on intensity components of hue saturation intensity (HSI space. To detect the exudates regions, thresholding was performed on all images and the exudates region was segmented. To optimize the detection efficiency, the binary morphological functions were applied. Finally, the exudates regions were quantified and evaluated for further statistical purposes. Results: The average of sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 98%, and accuracy of 97% was obtained. Conclusion: The results showed that our approach can identify the exudate regions in retinopathy images.

  7. The Role of Microglia in Diabetic Retinopathy: Inflammation, Microvasculature Defects and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, which appears in one third of all diabetic patients and is a prominent cause of vision loss. First discovered as a microvascular disease, intensive research in the field identified inflammation and neurodegeneration to be part of diabetic retinopathy. Microglia, the resident monocytes of the retina, are activated due to a complex interplay between the different cell types of the retina and diverse pathological pathways. The trigger for developing diabetic retinopathy is diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, accompanied by leukostasis and vascular leakages. Transcriptional changes in activated microglia, mediated via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways, results in release of various pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, caspases and glutamate. Activated microglia additionally increased proliferation and migration. Among other consequences, these changes in microglia severely affected retinal neurons, causing increased apoptosis and subsequent thinning of the nerve fiber layer, resulting in visual loss. New potential therapeutics need to interfere with these diabetic complications even before changes in the retina are diagnosed, to prevent neuronal apoptosis and blindness in patients. PMID:29301251

  8. Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy in type 2 diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Deutsch, Lydia; Klemm, Matthias; Jentsch, Susanne; Hammer, Martin; Peters, Sven; Haueisen, Jens; Müller, Ulrich A.; Dawczynski, Jens

    2015-06-01

    The time-resolved autofluorescence of the eye is used for the detection of metabolic alteration in diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy. One eye from 37 phakic and 11 pseudophakic patients with type 2 diabetes, and one eye from 25 phakic and 23 pseudophakic healthy subjects were included in the study. After a three-exponential fit of the decay of autofluorescence, histograms of lifetimes τi, amplitudes αi, and relative contributions Qi were statistically compared between corresponding groups in two spectral channels (490diabetic patients and age-matched controls (p450 ps, and the shift of τ3 from ˜3000 to 3700 ps in ch1 of diabetic patients when compared with healthy subjects indicate an increased production of free flavin adenine dinucleotide, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), and, probably, a change from free to protein-bound reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at the fundus. AGE also accumulated in the crystalline lens.

  9. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Without Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karti, Omer; Nalbantoglu, Ozlem; Abali, Saygin; Ayhan, Ziya; Tunc, Selma; Kusbeci, Tuncay; Ozkan, Behzat

    2017-06-01

    Early diabetic retinal changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without diabetic retinopathy (DR) were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Sixty children with T1DM without DR and 60 normal children were enrolled in the study. SD-OCT was used to measure the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) thicknesses in all participants. The GC-IPL thickness was significantly decreased in all quadrants except the superior-nasal quadrant in children with diabetes (P .05). There was a decreased GC-IPL thickness in children with T1DM without DR, suggesting that T1DM has an early neurodegenerative effect on retinal ganglion cells that occurs when the vascular component of DR is absent. SD-OCT may be more useful than ophthalmoscopic evaluation for detecting the earlier retinal structural changes of diabetes. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:473-477.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Quantitative analysis of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes: identification of prognostic parameters for developing visual loss secondary to diabetic maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Marianne Nørgaard; Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To describe whether quantitative assessment of early changes in the morphology of retinopathy lesions can predict development of vision-threatening diabetic maculopathy. Methods: We used a nested case-control study, and we studied 11 type 2 diabetes patients who had developed visual loss...... secondary to diabetic maculopathy. For each diabetes patient, we also studied three matched control patients who had been followed for a comparable period of time without developing visual loss. Fundus photographs describing the early development of retinopathy were digitized and subjected to a full manual...... from the fovea and the optic disc. Results: In patients who developed visual loss secondary to diabetic maculopathy there was significant early progression in the total area and number of haemorrhages and exudates. The haemorrhages had progressed in all retinal areas except the area around the optic...

  11. Screening for diabetic retinopathy in primary care with a mobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of 400 patients screened 84% had a significantly reduced visual acuity, 63% had retinopathy (22% severe nonproliferative, 6% proliferative and 15% maculopathy), 2% of eyes could not be screened and 14% of patients required dilatation. Referral was necessary in 27% of cases for cataracts, in 7% for laser treatment ...

  12. Healthcare costs associated with progressive diabetic retinopathy among National Health Insurance enrollees in Taiwan, 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Ming-Tsu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and one of the major causes of adult visual impairment in national surveys in Taiwan. This study aimed to identify the healthcare costs of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program on behalf of diabetic patients with stable or progressive retinopathy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 4,988 medication-using diabetic retinopathy subjects ≥ 40 years of age under National Health Insurance Program coverage between 2000 and 2004. Study cohort subjects were recorded as having diabetic retinopathy according to ICD-9-CM codes. States of diabetic retinopathy were strategically divided into stable and progressive categories according to subjects' conditions at follow-up in 2004. Expenditures were calculated and compared for the years 2000 and 2004. Results During the 4-year follow-up (2000 through 2004, 4,116 subjects (82.5% of 4,988 diabetic subjects were in the stable category, and 872 (17.5% were in the progressive category. Average costs of those in the normal category increased by US $48 from US $1921 in 2000 to US $1969 in 2004 (p = 0.594, whereas costs for those progressing from normal to non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR increased by US $1760, from US $1566 in 2000 to US $3326 in 2004 (p Conclusions This large-scale longitudinal study provides evidence that increased healthcare costs are associated with progressive diabetic retinopathy among diabetic NHI enrollees in Taiwan.

  13. Retinal sensitivity changes associated with diabetic neuropathy in the absence of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neriyanuri, Srividya; Pardhan, Shahina; Gella, Laxmi; Pal, Sakshyar Saumya; Ganesan, Suganeswari; Sharma, Tarun; Raman, Rajiv

    2017-09-01

    To explore any relationship between the markers of early retinal neuronal damage and peripheral diabetic neuropathy in subjects with no diabetic retinopathy (DR). A cross-sectional study in which type 2 diabetic subjects (n=743) without DR were studied. Visual functions including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour vision, retinal sensitivity using microperimeter and retinal thicknesses by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were measured. Vibration perception thresholds of greater than or equal to 20 µV, measured by sensitometer using a biothesiometer probe, were defined as having peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Statistical analyses were performed using independent t-test, multivariate logistic regression and Pearson's correlation. Of 743 subjects who had no DR, 24.9% had diabetic neuropathy. Independent comparisons among subjects who had diabetic neuropathy compared with those who did not showed statistically significant retinal nerve fibre layer thinning (p=0.01), reduced contrast sensitivity (p=0.0001), reduced retinal sensitivity (p=0.03), impaired colour vision (p=0.04) and reduced visual acuity (p=0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed significant association between the mean retinal sensitivity (measured using a microperimeter) and diabetic neuropathy (adjusted OR (95% CI): 0.76 (0.60 to 0.95), p=0.01). Significant association of neuroretinal dysfunction with the presence of diabetic neuropathy was noted among subjects with no DR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Serum Magnesium Concentration Is Inversely Associated with Albuminuria and Retinopathy among Patients with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Lu; Yuying Gu; Meixiang Guo; Peihong Chen; Hongtao Wang; Xuemei Yu

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the association between serum magnesium levels and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes. Methods. Patients with diabetes were recruited between April 2012 and January 2015. All patients received an assay of serum magnesium concentration, were screened for 24?h albumin excretion rate, and underwent nonmydriatic fundus photography. Albuminuria and retinopathy were defined accordingly. A total of 3,100 patients with normal serum magnesium levels were inclu...

  15. Attenuated levels of pro-inflammatory markers in diabetic retinopathy patients undergoing treatment with antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xiang Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the circulating levels of activated nuclear factor kappa B p65 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in diabetic retinopathy patients who were taking antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive drugs. METHODS: In total, 235 healthy controls and 371 Type 2 diabetic patients [171 without retinopathy (DNR and 200 patients with retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy] were recruited for this study. Plasma and the nuclear fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated for the quantification of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and nuclear factor kappa B p65 levels, respectively. RESULTS: Non-medicated diabetic retinopathy patients had significantly higher levels of activated nuclear factor kappa B p65 and plasma monocyte chemotactic protein-1 than DNR patients. Diabetic retinopathy patients who were taking antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive drugs showed significant reductions in both the nuclear factor kappa B p65 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels compared with the non-medicated patients. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the significant attenuation of both the nuclear factor kappa B p65 and circulating monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in diabetic retinopathy patients taking antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive drugs.

  16. Prevalence of systemic co-morbidities in patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy

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    Pradeep Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Though diabetes affects multiple organs, most studies highlight the occurence of only one complication in isolation. We conducted a hospital-based study to estimate the co-existence of significant systemic co-morbid conditions in patients with varying grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods : A total of 170 consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy were prospectively recruited for the study between June 2009 to June 2010 at a tertiary care eye centre in north India. Retinopathy was graded by fundus biomicroscopy and fundus photography and classified into three categories (mild-moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy requiring only laser and proliferative retinopathy requiring surgery. Nephropathy was classified by calculating the six variable estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR for all patients. Nerve conduction studies and clinical assessment were used to determine presence of neuropathy. Co-existence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease was also ascertained. Results : The percentages of patients with overt nephropathy in the three groups were 19.2, 38.0 and 41.2, respectively. Significant linear trends were observed for serum creatinine (P=0.004, albumin (P=0.017 and eGFR (P=0.030. A higher per cent had abnormal nerve conduction on electrophysiology than that diagnosed clinically (65.4 vs. 44.2, 76.0 vs. 40.0 and 64.8 vs. 48.6, respectively. The odds ratio (95% CI for co-existence of nephropathy, neuropathy, CVA (cerebrovascular accidents and PVD (peripheral vascular disease was 2.9, 0.9, 4.8 and 3.5, respectively. Independent of retinopathy severity, patients with clinically significant macular oedema (CSME had a higher percentage of nephropathy ( p0 < 0.005. Interpretation & conclusions : The co-existence of overt nephropathy, nerve conduction based neuropathy and macrovascular co-morbidity in patients with early grades of diabetic retinopathy was significant

  17. Management of diabetic retinopathy: could lipid-lowering be a worthwhile treatment modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, P M

    2009-05-01

    Diabetic eye disease confers substantial burden on the patient quality of life. Current therapeutic strategies indicate an unmet clinical need for preventive therapy. Tight control of blood pressure and glycaemia are mandatory components of primary prevention strategies, but are insufficient to eliminate risk in all patients. A body of evidence supports a role for lipid-modifying therapy in reducing the diabetic retinopathy endpoints. Although inconclusive for statin therapy, results from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study show beneficial effects of fenofibrate in reducing the requirement for laser therapy, and particularly in preventing disease progression in patients with pre-existing diabetic retinopathy. However, there is a need for confirmation of these findings in large prospective studies with progression of retinopathy as the primary endpoint, such as the ACCORD-EYE (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes-EYE) study, and in a clinical trial specifically conducted for diabetic maculopathy. In addition, elucidation of the mechanism(s) of effect of fenofibrate is indicated.

  18. Diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis and the ameliorating effects of melatonin; involvement of autophagy, inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdashtian, Ehsan; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Yousefi, Bahman; Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Reiter, Russel J; Safa, Majid; Ghaznavi, Habib; Naseripour, Masood

    2018-01-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), remains as one of the major causes of vision loss worldwide. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the adhesion of leukocytes to retinal capillaries are initial events in DR development. Inflammation, ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy are major causative factors involved in the pathogenesis of DR. Diabetes associated hyperglycemia leads to mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction culminating in a rise in ROS generation. Since mitochondria are the major source of ROS production, oxidative stress induced by mitochondrial dysfunction also contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Autophagy increases in the retina of diabetic patients and is regulated by ER stress, oxidative stress and inflammation-related pathways. Autophagy functions as a double-edged sword in DR. Under mild stress, autophagic activity can lead to cell survival while during severe stress, dysregulated autophagy results in massive cell death and may have a role in initiation and exacerbation of DR. Melatonin and its metabolites play protective roles against inflammation, ER stress and oxidative stress due to their direct free radical scavenger activities and indirect antioxidant activity via the stimulation antioxidant enzymes including glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Melatonin also acts as a cell survival agent by modulating autophagy in various cell types and under different conditions through amelioration of oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammation. Herein, we review the possible effects of melatonin on diabetic retinopathy, focusing on its ability to regulate autophagy processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetic Retinopathy, General Preventive Strategies, and Novel Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Sher Zaman; Kumar, Selva; Ismail, Ikram Shah Bin

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of people with diabetes worldwide suggests that diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) will continue to be sight threatening factors. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is a widespread cause of visual impairment in the world and a range of hyperglycemia-linked pathways have been implicated in the initiation and progression of this condition. Despite understanding the polyol pathway flux, activation of protein kinase C (KPC) isoforms, increased hexosamine pathway flux, and increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation, pathogenic mechanisms underlying diabetes induced vision loss are not fully understood. The purpose of this paper is to review molecular mechanisms that regulate cell survival and apoptosis of retinal cells and discuss new and exciting therapeutic targets with comparison to the old and inefficient preventive strategies. This review highlights the recent advancements in understanding hyperglycemia-induced biochemical and molecular alterations, systemic metabolic factors, and aberrant activation of signaling cascades that ultimately lead to activation of a number of transcription factors causing functional and structural damage to retinal cells. It also reviews the established interventions and emerging molecular targets to avert diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors. PMID:25105142

  20. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study (SN--DREAMS III: Study design and research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Chinmaya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the methodology of the Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study III, an ongoing epidemiological study to estimate the prevalence of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy in rural population of Kanchipuram and Thiravallur districts of Tamil Nadu, India and to elucidate the clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and genetic risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in this rural population. Methods Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study III will be a mobile van based epidemiological study; 11,760 participants aged ≥ 40 years will be recruited from the study areas. Eligible subjects will undergo blood sugar estimation to diagnose Diabetes. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test will be done to conform diabetes. All subjects with diabetes will undergo complete information of knowledge, aptitude and practice of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, Diet questionnaire, demographic data, socioeconomic status, physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and risk of sleep apnoea. A detailed medical and ocular history, a comprehensive eye examination including refraction, slit lamp biomicroscopy examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, digital stereo fundus photography and ultrasound of eye will be done in the mobile van. Blood will be collected for biochemical investigations including blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, urea and creatinine, genetic study. Urine will be collected for microalbuminuria. All fundus photographs will be graded at base hospital. Participants who need treatment will be sent to the base hospital. A computerized database is created for the records. Conclusion The study is expected to provide an estimate of the prevalence of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy and also a better understanding of the genetic, anthropometric and socio-economic risk factors associated with Diabetic

  1. Serum TNF-Alpha Level Predicts Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Children

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    Katarzyna Zorena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was identification of the immunologic markers of the damage to the eye apparatus at early stages of diabetes mellitus (DM type 1 children. One hundred and eleven children with DM type 1 were divided into two groups: those with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR and without retinopathy. All the children had their daily urine albumin excretion, HbA1c, C-peptide measured, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, and ophthalmologic examination. Levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 in serum were measured by ELISA tests (Quantikine High Sensitivity Human by R&D Systems, Minneapolis, Minn, USA. The NPDR children demonstrated a significantly longer duration of the disease in addition to higher HbA1c, albumin excretion rate, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, as well as TNF-α and IL-6 levels than those without retinopathy. The logistic regression revealed that the risk of NPDR was strongly dependent on TNF-α [(OR 4.01; 95%CI 2.01–7.96]. TNF-α appears to be the most significant predictor among the analyzed parameters of damage to the eye apparatus. The early introduction of the TNF-α antagonists to the treatment of young patients with DM type 1 who show high serum activity of the TNF-α may prevent them from development of diabetic retinopathy.

  2. Pycnogenol improves microcirculation, retinal edema, and visual acuity in early diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwalt, Robert; Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Di Renzo, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Ricci, Andrea; Dugall, Mark; Cacchio, Marisa; Schönlau, Frank

    2009-12-01

    The growing numbers of diabetes cases in the developed world are followed by increasing numbers of people diagnosed with diabetic complications. Diabetic microangiopathies in the eye lead to the development of retinopathy involving gradual loss of vision. Previous studies with Pycnogenol showed effectiveness for stopping progression of preproliferative stages of retinopathy. The aim of our study was to show protective effects of Pycnogenol in early stages of retinopathy, characterized by mild to moderate retinal edema in the absence of hemorrhages or hard exudates in the macula center. Following treatment with Pycnogenol (24 patients) for 3 months, retinal edema score (dilated ophthalmology) and retinal thickness (high resolution ultrasound) showed statistically significant improvement as compared to the placebo group (22 patients), which showed negligible changes to baseline. Laser Doppler flow velocity measurements at the central retinal artery showed a statistically significant increase from 34 to 44 cm/s in the Pycnogenol group as compared to marginal effects in the control group. The major positive observation of this study is the visual improvement, which was subjectively perceived by 18 out of 24 patients in the Pycnogenol group. Testing of visual acuity using the Snellen chart showed a significant improvement from baseline 14/20 to 17/20 already, after 2 months treatment, whereas no change was found in the control group. Pycnogenol taken at this early stage of retinopathy may enhance retinal blood circulation accompanied by regression of edema, which favorably improves vision of patients.

  3. Trends in diabetic retinopathy and related medical practices among type 2 diabetes patients: Results from the National Insurance Service Survey 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Su Jeong; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Kyung Seek; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Cheol-Young; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up; Ko, Kyung-Soo

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the temporal changes in the prevalence, screening rate, visual impairments and treatment patterns of diabetic retinopathy in the Korean population over 8 years. This was a retrospective population-based study of Korean national health insurance beneficiaries aged 30 years or older with type 2 diabetes, obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Claims database from 2006 to 2013 (n = 1,655,495 in 2006 and 2,720,777 in 2013). The annual prevalence rates of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, dilated fundus examinations, visual impairment, laser treatment and vitrectomy, as determined based on diagnostic and treatment codes, were analyzed. There was a steady increase in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, from 14.3% in 2006 to 15.9% in 2013. However, the incidence of new diabetic retinopathy cases decreased from 6.7/100 person-years in 2006 to 5.6 in 2013. Approximately 98% of patients underwent at least one dilated fundus examination during the follow-up period. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy peaked in the 60-69 years age group. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was higher in female than in male diabetes patients. The proportion of patients who underwent an annual dilated fundus examination improved from 24.3% in 2006 to 30.0% in 2013. Among patients with diabetic retinopathy, constant decreases in the proportions of those who received laser treatment (11.4% in 2006 to 6.9% in 2013) and who underwent vitrectomy (2.4% in 2006 to 1.7% in 2013) were noted. Additionally, a decreasing trend in the prevalence of visual impairment was noted among the patients with diabetic retinopathy, from 2% (4,820/237,267) in 2006 to 0.08% (3,572/431,964) in 2013. Although there was a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes in the Korean population in the past decade, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy remained stable during the study period. However, just three out of 10 patients with diabetes underwent regular annual

  4. Advances in retinal imaging for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Siang Hui Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME are leading causes of blindness throughout the world, and cause significant visual morbidity. Ocular imaging has played a significant role in the management of diabetic eye disease, and the advent of advanced imaging modalities will be of great value as our understanding of diabetic eye diseases increase, and the management options become increasingly varied and complex. Color fundus photography has established roles in screening for diabetic eye disease, early detection of progression, and monitoring of treatment response. Fluorescein angiography (FA detects areas of capillary nonperfusion, as well as leakage from both microaneurysms and neovascularization. Recent advances in retinal imaging modalities complement traditional fundus photography and provide invaluable new information for clinicians. Ultra-widefield imaging, which can be used to produce both color fundus photographs and FAs, now allows unprecedented views of the posterior pole. The pathologies that are detected in the periphery of the retina have the potential to change the grading of disease severity, and may be of prognostic significance to disease progression. Studies have shown that peripheral ischemia may be related to the presence and severity of DME. Optical coherence tomography (OCT provides structural detail of the retina, and the quantitative and qualitative features are useful in the monitoring of diabetic eye disease. A relatively recent innovation, OCT angiography, produces images of the fine blood vessels at the macula and optic disc, without the need for contrast agents. This paper will review the roles of each of these imaging modalities for diabetic eye disease.

  5. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Blindness in Indonesian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, Muhammad Bayu; Widyaputri, Felicia; Agni, Angela Nurini; Wardhana, Firman Setya; Kotha, Satyaprabha; Gupta, Prateek; Widayanti, Tri Wahyu; Haryanto, Supanji; Widyaningrum, Rifa; Wong, Tien Yin; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wang, Jie Jin

    2017-09-01

    To report the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and DR-related blindness in an Indonesian population with type 2 diabetes. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Community health centers. We recruited 1184 people aged older than 30 years with type 2 diabetes residing in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Multistage, clustered random sampling based on regencies and districts in Jogjakarta was used. Detailed interviews, general and eye examinations, and anthropometric measurement were performed. Disc- and macula-centered retinal photographs were taken to assess DR. The definition of DR followed a modified Airlie House classification system and was categorized into mild, moderate, and vision-threatening DR (VTDR). Prevalence and severity of DR. The median (range) age and diabetes duration of participants was 59 (52-65) and 4 (2-9) years. The prevalence of DR was 43.1% (95% confidence interval 39.6%-46.6%), with mild, moderate, and severe NPDR and PDR to be 9.41%, 7.46%, 11.1%, and 12.1%, respectively. The prevalence of VTDR was 26.3% (23.1%-29.5%). Longer diabetes duration, higher fasting glucose, presence of hypertension, and foot ulcers were associated with DR and VTDR. The prevalence of bilateral blindness was 4% and 7.7% in persons with DR and VTDR. This study reports a high prevalence of any DR and VTDR among Indonesian adults with type 2 diabetes in urban and rural areas: approximately 1 in 4 adults with diabetes had VTDR and 1 in 12 of those with VTDR was bilaterally blind, suggesting the need for appropriate screening and management of DR among the Indonesian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Retinal blood flow is increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with advanced stages of retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Ton; van Duinkerken, Eelco; Verbraak, Frank D; Polak, Bettine C P; Ringens, Peter J; Diamant, Michaela; Moll, Annette C

    2016-05-26

    Diabetic retinopathy (DRP) is a common microvascular complication seen in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The effects of T1DM and concomitant (proliferative) DRP on retinal blood flow are currently unclear. Therefore, we measured retinal vascular blood flow in T1DM patients with and without DRP and non-diabetic controls. We further assessed the acute effects of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal microvascular bloodflow in eight patients with diabetes. Thirty-three T1DM patients with proliferative DRP, previously treated with panretinal photocoagulation (pDRP), 11 T1DM patients with untreated non-proliferative retinopathy (npDRP) and 32 T1DM patients without DRP (nDRP) were compared with 44 non-diabetic gender-matched controls. Using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry (HRF, Heidelberg) blood flow in the retinal microvasculature was measured temporal and nasal of the optic disc and averaged into one flow value per eye. The right eye was used as a default for further analyses. Eight patients with novel proliferative retinopathy (4 T1DM and 4 with type 2 diabetes) were measured before and several months after photocoagulation. Between-group differences in retinal blood flow were assessed using ANOVA corrected for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni). Retinal blood flow was higher in the treated pDRP compared with the nDRP group and controls (all P Bonferroni linear trend for blood flow with lowest blood flow in the control group and highest in the pDRP group (P-for-trend  0.05). Using regression analysis, no variables were found as predictors of retinal blood flow. In comparison with controls and nDRP patients, retinal blood flow significantly increased in the pDRP group, which previously underwent photocoagulation treatment, but not in the npDRP patients. These changes may be a consequence of a failing vascular autoregulation in advanced diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Increased Vitreous Shedding of Microparticles in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Stimulates Endothelial Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahed, Sadri; Leroyer, Aurélie S.; Benzerroug, Mounir; Gaucher, David; Georgescu, Adriana; Picaud, Serge; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Gaudric, Alain; Tedgui, Alain; Massin, Pascale; Boulanger, Chantal M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetic retinopathy is associated with progressive retinal capillary activation and proliferation, leading to vision impairment and blindness. Microparticles are submicron membrane vesicles with biological activities, released following cell activation or apoptosis. We tested the hypothesis that proangiogenic microparticles accumulate in vitreous fluid in diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Levels and cellular origin of vitreous and plasma microparticles from control (n = 26) and diabetic (n = 104) patients were analyzed by flow cytometry, and their proangiogenic activity was assessed by in vitro thymidine incorporation and neovessel formation in subcutaneous Matrigel plugs in mice. RESULTS Microparticles of endothelial, platelet, photoreceptor, and microglial origin were identified in vitreous samples. Levels of photoreceptor and microglial microparticles were undetectable in plasmas but were comparable in diabetic and control vitreous samples. Vitreous platelet and endothelial microparticles levels were increased in diabetic patients and decreased following panretinal laser photocoagulation or intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injection in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The ratio of vitreous to plasma microparticle levels was calculated to estimate local formation versus potential plasma leakage. In PDR, the endothelial microparticles ratio—but not that for platelet—was greater than 1.0, indicating local formation of endothelial microparticles from retinal vessels and permeation of platelet microparticles from plasma. Isolated vitreous microparticles stimulated by 1.6-fold endothelial proliferation and increased new vessel formation in mice. CONCLUSIONS The present study demonstrates that vitreous fluid contains shed membrane microparticles of endothelial, platelet, and retinal origin. Vitreous microparticles levels are increased in patients with diabetic retinopathy, where they could contribute to disease

  8. Microaneurysm count as a predictor of long-term progression in diabetic retinopathy in young patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Malin Lundberg; Broe, R; Frydkjaer-Olsen, U

    2015-01-01

    ), and incident diabetic macula edema (DME). RESULTS: We included 138 patients (138 eyes). Of these, 58 had no retinopathy and 80 had MAs only. At follow-up, rates of two-step progression of DR, progression to PDR and incident DME were 52.9, 21.7, and 10.1 %, respectively. In logistic regression models, MA count...

  9. Is peak expiratory flow rate a predictor of complications in diabetes? The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B E; Moss, S E; Klein, R; Cruickshanks, K J

    2001-01-01

    The Objective of this study was to determine whether peak expiratory flow rate is a predictor of complications of diabetes. Peak expiratory flow rate was measured at the 10-year follow-up (third examination) of a cohort of persons with younger-onset diabetes. The relationships of progression of diabetic retinopathy by two steps, progression to proliferative retinopathy and of incidences of macular edema, sore or ulcers on feet or ankles, lower extremity amputation, proteinuria, and cardiovascular disease 4 years after this examination with respect to peak expiratory flow rate were evaluated. Study procedures including measurements of blood pressure, height and weight, grading of fundus photographs, peak expiratory flow rate, urinalysis, and medical history were performed according to standard protocols. Peak expiratory flow rate was not associated in univariate analyses with progression of retinopathy, incidences of proliferative retinopathy, macular edema or lower extremity amputation, sores or ulcers on feet or ankles, gross proteinuria, or self-reported cardiovascular disease. However, when using multivariable models to include the effects of other risk factors, peak expiratory flow rate was significantly associated with the combined incidences of sores or ulcers on feet and ankles, or lower extremity amputations (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88). These data suggest that peak expiratory flow rate is a predictor of subsequent complications in the lower extremities in those with long duration of younger-onset diabetes. Evaluating this association in an incipient cohort would illuminate whether the relationship we found is likely to be causal.

  10. Sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy in non-diabetic men and women: The Tromso Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.; Lindekleiv, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in a nondiabetic population. Methods: The study population included 5869 participants without diabetes aged 38-87years from the TromsO Eye Study, a substudy of the population-based TromsO Study in Norway. Retinal images from both...... eyes were graded for retinopathy. We collected data on risk factors from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews. The cross-sectional relationship between potential risk factors and retinopathy was assessed using logistic regression analysis....... Results: The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 14.8%. Men had a higher prevalence of retinopathy compared with women (15.9% versus 14.0%, p=0.04). In men, retinopathy was associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.04) and HbA1c (OR per %, 1.41; 95% CI, 1...

  11. Characterization of Retinal Disease Progression in a 1-Year Longitudinal Study of Eyes With Mild Nonproliferative Retinopathy in Diabetes Type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, Luisa; Bandello, Francesco; Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica; Egan, Catherine; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Menon, Geeta; Massin, Pascale; Verbraak, Frank D.; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Martinez, Jose P.; Jürgens, Ignasi; Smets, Erica; Coriat, Caroline; Wiedemann, Peter; Ágoas, Victor; Querques, Giuseppe; Holz, Frank G.; Nunes, Sandrina; Neves, Catarina; Cunha-Vaz, José; Ribeiro, Luísa; Figueira, João; Pires, Isabel; Leal, Sérgio; Simão, Silvia; Santos, Ana Rita; Simões, Isabel; Souied, Eric H.; Boston, Hayley; Degli Esposti, Simona; Rocco, Vincent; Mathysen, Danny G. P.; Erginay, Ali; Fleckenstein, Monika; Cacciamani, Andrea; Parravano, Mariacristina; Cosimi, Pamela; Mourits, M.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Wezel, M.; Jansen-Kok, C.; Althoff, A.; de Vries, D.; Stam, M.; Jochmann, Claudia; Koch, Christian; Vollhardt, Daniela; Tilgner, Christina; Pinto, Gama; Camacho, Pedro; Vila, Daniel; Morilla, Antonio; Gonzalez, Lluis; Martínez, Victor; Pedrós, Gemma; García, Mireia; Aradilla, Yolanda; Martínez, Alexia; Escudé, Raimon; Midena, Edoardo; Martini, Ferdinando; Urban, Francesca; Daniele, Anna Rita; Martinez, Jose; Fernandez-Lopez, Ester; Fandiño, Adriana; Carmen, M.; Jord, Pablo Perez; Chandran, Manju; North, Lorraine; Robson, Deana; Chekuri, Maheswari; Lattanzio, Rosangela; del Turco, Claudia; Alto, Giorgio; Buzzotta, Alessio; Marelli, Marta; Ribecca, Antonella; Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne; Schwartz, Christian; Pita, Rui; Ecsodi, Joana; Simões, Sónia; Costa, Miguel; Martinho, Cecília; Fernandes, Rita

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify eyes of patients with diabetes type 2 that show progression of retinal disease within a 1-year period using noninvasive techniques. METHODS. Three hundred seventy-four type 2 diabetic patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy

  12. Downregulated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Tapan; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions. However, in diabetic retinopathy (a neuromicrovascular disorder involving immense neuronal degeneration), BDNF fails to provide enough neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced retinal neuronal apoptosis. This review describes the prime reasons for the downregulation of BDNF-mediated neuroprotective actions during hyperglycemia, which renders retinal neurons vulnerable to damaging stimuli, leading to diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrieving clinically relevant diabetic retinopathy images using a multi-class multiple-instance framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandakkar, Parag S.; Venkatesan, Ragav; Li, Baoxin

    2013-02-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a vision-threatening complication from diabetes mellitus, a medical condition that is rising globally. Unfortunately, many patients are unaware of this complication because of absence of symptoms. Regular screening of DR is necessary to detect the condition for timely treatment. Content-based image retrieval, using archived and diagnosed fundus (retinal) camera DR images can improve screening efficiency of DR. This content-based image retrieval study focuses on two DR clinical findings, microaneurysm and neovascularization, which are clinical signs of non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The authors propose a multi-class multiple-instance image retrieval framework which deploys a modified color correlogram and statistics of steerable Gaussian Filter responses, for retrieving clinically relevant images from a database of DR fundus image database.

  14. Digital Algorithmic Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scoring System (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakter, Jason S; Schneebaum, Jeffrey W; Shah, Sabah A

    2015-01-01

    To develop a new diabetic retinopathy severity scoring system and to determine if it can monitor changes from baseline as well as identify precise features that have changed over time. Such a grading system could potentially provide an understanding of the impact of treatments utilizing an algorithmic scoring technique. The traditional ETDRS grading system was examined and a flow algorithm based on the grading approach was created. All visual comparative assessment points, relying on identification of features in relation to prior standard photographic images, were evaluated and quantified. A new grading form was created that provided fields that captured all relevant features required for determining the ETDRS grading score. A computer software algorithm was developed that examines all entered fields and calculates the appropriate diabetic severity score. This diabetic retinopathy scoring algorithm system was successful in generating a severity score comparable to traditional methods of grading images. Validation with traditionally graded images was performed, demonstrating that in a majority of cases, the severity scores were comparable. The algorithmic grading system was then used to analyze images obtained in a large clinical study of diabetic macular edema, resulting in data regarding baseline scoring values, as well as detailed features of the microvasculature that drove the severity scoring results, and changes seen during the trial. This new algorithmic diabetic severity scoring system provides a means to monitor the progression or regression of retinopathy with therapeutic intervention as well as assess the individual microvascular features that may be modified over the course of treatment.

  15. Serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meiling; Wang, Jing; Wei, Yuqin; Lu, Qingle; Huang, Baohua

    2016-10-01

    Fibulin-1, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is closely correlated with angiogenesis. The purpose of this investigation is to determine serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations in diabetic retinopathy (DR). This cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a population of 154 diabetic patients (54 without DR, 42 with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and 58 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)) and 49 control subjects. The diabetic group showed higher serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations than the controls. Serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations in PDR patients were significantly elevated compared with those in the other 3 groups. NPDR patients showed elevated levels of serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations compared with patients without DR. Logistic regression analysis revealed that serum and vitreous fibulin-1 were risk factors for developing DR. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum fibulin-1 was correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose and vitreous fibulin-1. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis showed that vitreous fibulin-1 was correlated with SBP, DBP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum fibulin-1. Serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations are elevated under DR condition. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  16. Evaluating the use of a scanning laser-derived oedema index to grade diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Caroline J; Park, Serena J K; McGhee, Charles N J; Gamble, Greg; Donaldson, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the Heidelburg Retina Tomograph II (HRTII) retinal module as a tool for grading severity of retinopathy in a diabetic retinal screening and treatment service. Seventy-seven consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes underwent scanning laser tomography using the HRTII. Scan data were analysed using the proprietary macular module software and oedema indices calculated for each of nine topographic macular zones. Two consultant ophthalmologists, masked to the result of the HRTII scans, graded each subject for severity of retinopathy and presence of macular oedema. The oedema indices were analysed statistically to determine whether these correlated with severity of retinopathy and presence of macular oedema. There is an increased oedema index in severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the outer temporal zone compared with lesser grades of diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.001). In patients with clinically detectable macular oedema, the oedema index from the 500-microm-diameter central zone was significantly higher than those without (P = 0.03). The scanning laser-derived oedema index differentiated between moderate and severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in this series and detected diabetic macular oedema. Further development of this technology may provide an important tool to supplement retinal photographic surveillance in eye clinics overwhelmed by an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

  17. An estimation of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in adults in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Rosie Claire Hewitt; Oliver, Genevieve Frances; Sharma, Manoj; Pinto, Basilio Martins; Jeronimo, Belmerio; Pereira, Bernadete; Magno, Julia; Motta, Lara Alexandra; Verma, Nitin; Shephard, Mark

    2015-06-18

    Once considered an affliction of people in high-income countries, diabetes mellitus is increasingly seen as a global epidemic. However, for many countries very little is known about the prevalence of diabetes and its complications. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of diabetes, and diabetic retinopathy, in adults in Timor-Leste. From March 2013 to May 2014, adult patients being assessed for cataract surgery at the Sentru Matan Nasional (National Eye Centre) in Dili, Timor-Leste had a point-of-care HbA1c measurement performed on the DCA Vantage device (Siemens Ltd) under a quality framework. A diagnostic cut-off of 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) HbA1c was used for diagnosis of diabetes. Ocular examination, blood pressure, demographic and general health data were also collected. Diabetic retinopathy assessment was carried out by ophthalmologists. A total of 283 people [mean age 63.6 years (range 20-90 years)] were tested and examined during the study period. Forty-three people (15.2%) were found to have diabetes, with a mean HbA1c of 9.5% (77 mmol/mol). Of these, 27 (62.9%) were newly diagnosed, with a mean HbA1c of 9.7% (83 mmol/mol) and a range of 6.6-14% (49-130 mmol/mol). Nearly half (48.1%) of people newly diagnosed with diabetes had an HbA1c over 10.0% (86 mmol/mol). Of those with known diabetes, only 68.8% were receiving any treatment. Mean HbA1c for treated patients was 9.9% (85 mmol/mol). Diabetic retinopathy was identified in 18.6% of people with diabetes, of whom half had no previous diagnosis of diabetes. This study estimates the prevalence of diabetes at 15% in adults in Timor-Leste, a substantial proportion of whom have evidence of diabetic retinopathy. This is consistent with regional estimates. With the majority of patients undiagnosed, and management of people known to have diabetes largely inadequate, point-of-care testing is a valuable tool to assist with diabetes case detection and management. Whilst only a preliminary estimate, our data provides

  18. Danish nationwide data reveal a link between diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Petrovski, Beáta Éva; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    medication and the DM complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and nephropathy. Results. A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed. The overall incidence rate of new-onset glaucoma patients was 0.07 per 1000 person-years for the reference population compared to 36...... per 1000 person-years for all diagnosed DM cases. Patients treated with DM drugs had about two times higher relative risk of glaucoma, when adjusting for a range of factors. The presence of DR alone or in combination with nephropathy increased the risk of glaucoma. Conclusions. The present study...... reports a strong association between DM and onset of glaucoma treatment in the entire Danish population....

  19. Danish Nationwide Data Reveal a Link between Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Petrovski, Beata Eva; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    medication and the DM complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and nephropathy. Results. A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed. The overall incidence rate of new-onset glaucoma patients was 0.07 per 1000 person-years for the reference population compared to 36...... per 1000 person-years for all diagnosed DM cases. Patients treated with DM drugs had about two times higher relative risk of glaucoma, when adjusting for a range of factors. The presence of DR alone or in combination with nephropathy increased the risk of glaucoma. Conclusions. The present study...... reports a strong association between DM and onset of glaucoma treatment in the entire Danish population....

  20. Retinal microaneurysm count predicts progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy. Post-hoc results from the DIRECT Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjølie, A K; Klein, R; Porta, M; Orchard, T; Fuller, J; Parving, H H; Bilous, R; Aldington, S; Chaturvedi, N

    2011-03-01

    To study the association between baseline retinal microaneurysm score and progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy, and response to treatment with candesartan in people with diabetes. This was a multicenter randomized clinical trial. The progression analysis included 893 patients with Type 1 diabetes and 526 patients with Type 2 diabetes with retinal microaneurysms only at baseline. For regression, 438 with Type 1 and 216 with Type 2 diabetes qualified. Microaneurysms were scored from yearly retinal photographs according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) protocol. Retinopathy progression and regression was defined as two or more step change on the ETDRS scale from baseline. Patients were normoalbuminuric, and normotensive with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes or treated hypertensive with Type 2 diabetes. They were randomized to treatment with candesartan 32 mg daily or placebo and followed for 4.6 years. A higher microaneurysm score at baseline predicted an increased risk of retinopathy progression (HR per microaneurysm score 1.08, P diabetes; HR 1.07, P = 0.0174 in Type 2 diabetes) and reduced the likelihood of regression (HR 0.79, P diabetes; HR 0.85, P = 0.0009 in Type 2 diabetes), all adjusted for baseline variables and treatment. Candesartan reduced the risk of microaneurysm score progression. Microaneurysm counts are important prognostic indicators for worsening of retinopathy, thus microaneurysms are not benign. Treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors is effective in the early stages and may improve mild diabetic retinopathy. Microaneurysm scores may be useful surrogate endpoints in clinical trials. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  1. Changes in retinal venular oxygen saturation predict activity of proliferative diabetic retinopathy 3 months after panretinal photocoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Thomas Lee; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Yin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a severe blinding condition. We investigated whether retinal metabolism, measured by retinal oximetry, may predict PDR activity after panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP). METHODS: We performed a prospective, interventional, clinical...

  2. The 16-year incidence, progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy in a young population-based Danish cohort with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broe, Rebecca; Rasmussen, Malin Lundberg; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the long-term incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and associated risk factors in young Danish patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In 1987-89, a pediatric cohort involving approximately 75...... % of all children with Type 1 diabetes in Denmark 1 %) were re-studied with retinopathy graded and all relevant diabetic parameters assessed. Of those, 185 (54.6 %) were evaluated again in 2011 for the same clinical parameters. All retinal images...... were graded using modified early treatment of DR study for 1995 and 2011. In 1995, mean age was 21.0 years and mean diabetes duration 13.5 years. The 16-year incidence of proliferative retinopathy, 2-step progression and 2-step regression of DR was 31.0, 64.4 and 0.0 %, respectively, while...

  3. Tang Wang Ming Mu Granule Attenuates Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxia; Lv, Haibo; Gan, Jiakuan; Ren, Junguo; Liu, Jianxun

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to determine the influence of Tang Wang Ming Mu granule (TWMM) on the diabetic retinopathy of diabetic rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: normal control, diabetes model(DM), diabetes with TWMM (3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 g/kg) treatment, the positive control treatment groups of Qi Ming granules and Calcium dobesilate capsules. All rats were treated for 8 weeks. The levels of body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in blood were measured to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of TWMM. Furthermore, malondialdehyde (MDA), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum were measured to study effects of TWMM on oxidative stress and inflammatory in DM2 rats. VEGF, JAK/STAT signaling pathway and SOCS3 in retina was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: TWMM and the positive control drugs Qi Ming and Calcium dobesilate showed a remarkable suppression of retinal neovascularization and amelioration of retinal internal limiting membrane morphology. Moreover, TWMM significantly decreased HbA1c, MDA, ICAM-1, and VEGF levels in serum of diabetic rats. However, Qi Ming granules showed significantly reduced MDA and VEGF levels (P dobesilate showed significantly reduced MDA and ICAM-1levels (P dobesilate significantly increased SOCS3 in retina. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the diabetic retina protective effect of TWMM might be related to antiinflammatory, antioxidative, upregulation of SOCS3 expression, inhibition of the JAK/STAT/VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:29311988

  4. Tang Wang Ming Mu Granule Attenuates Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to determine the influence of Tang Wang Ming Mu granule (TWMM on the diabetic retinopathy of diabetic rats.Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: normal control, diabetes model(DM, diabetes with TWMM (3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 g/kg treatment, the positive control treatment groups of Qi Ming granules and Calcium dobesilate capsules. All rats were treated for 8 weeks. The levels of body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c in blood were measured to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of TWMM. Furthermore, malondialdehyde (MDA, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in serum were measured to study effects of TWMM on oxidative stress and inflammatory in DM2 rats. VEGF, JAK/STAT signaling pathway and SOCS3 in retina was detected by immunohistochemistry.Results: TWMM and the positive control drugs Qi Ming and Calcium dobesilate showed a remarkable suppression of retinal neovascularization and amelioration of retinal internal limiting membrane morphology. Moreover, TWMM significantly decreased HbA1c, MDA, ICAM-1, and VEGF levels in serum of diabetic rats. However, Qi Ming granules showed significantly reduced MDA and VEGF levels (P < 0.01, and P < 0.05, respectively, Calcium dobesilate showed significantly reduced MDA and ICAM-1levels (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively in serum. All drug- treated DM2 rats showed significantly lower levels of VEGF, JAK2, P-JAK2, STAT3, and P-STAT3 in retina than DM group, while TWMM and Calcium dobesilate significantly increased SOCS3 in retina.Conclusion: Our data suggest that the diabetic retina protective effect of TWMM might be related to antiinflammatory, antioxidative, upregulation of SOCS3 expression, inhibition of the JAK/STAT/VEGF signaling pathway.

  5. Whole exome sequencing identification of novel candidate genes in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Cindy; Sanchez, Angie V; Shen, Lishuang; Davoudi, Samaneh; Ahmadi, Tina; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Chen, Ching J; Hancock, Heather; Penman, Alan; Hoadley, Suzanne; Consugar, Mark; Restrepo, Carlos; Shah, Vinay A; Arboleda-Velasquez, Joseph F; Sobrin, Lucia; Gai, Xiaowu; Kim, Leo A

    2017-05-09

    Rare or novel gene variants in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy may contribute to disease development. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on patients at the phenotypic extremes of diabetic retinal complications: 57 patients diagnosed with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) as cases and 13 patients with no diabetic retinopathy despite at least 10years of type 2 diabetes as controls. Thirty-one out of the 57 cases and all 13 controls were from the African American Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Study (AA). The rest of the cases were of mixed ethnicities (ME). WES identified 721 candidate genes with rare or novel non-synonymous variants found in at least one case with PDR and not present in any controls. After filtering for genes with null alleles in greater than two cases, 28 candidate genes were identified in our ME cases and 16 genes were identified in our AA cases. Our analysis showed rare and novel variants within these genes that could contribute to the development of PDR, including rare non-synonymous variants in FAM132A, SLC5A9, ZNF600, and TMEM217. We also found previously unidentified variants in VEGFB and APOB. We found that VEGFB, VPS13B, PHF21A, NAT1, ZNF600, PKHD1L1 expression was reduced in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) cultured under high glucose conditions. In an exome sequence analysis of patients with PDR, we identified variants in genes that could contribute to pathogenesis. Six of these genes were further validated and found to have reduced expression in HRECs under high glucose conditions, suggestive of an important role in the development of PDR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and Validation of a Deep Learning System for Diabetic Retinopathy and Related Eye Diseases Using Retinal Images From Multiethnic Populations With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Lim, Gilbert; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Quang, Nguyen D; Gan, Alfred; Hamzah, Haslina; Garcia-Franco, Renata; San Yeo, Ian Yew; Lee, Shu Yen; Wong, Edmund Yick Mun; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Baskaran, Mani; Ibrahim, Farah; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Finkelstein, Eric A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Ian Y; Bressler, Neil M; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Varma, Rohit; Jonas, Jost B; He, Ming Guang; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Gemmy Chui Ming; Aung, Tin; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong Li; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-12-12

    A deep learning system (DLS) is a machine learning technology with potential for screening diabetic retinopathy and related eye diseases. To evaluate the performance of a DLS in detecting referable diabetic retinopathy, vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy, possible glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in community and clinic-based multiethnic populations with diabetes. Diagnostic performance of a DLS for diabetic retinopathy and related eye diseases was evaluated using 494 661 retinal images. A DLS was trained for detecting diabetic retinopathy (using 76 370 images), possible glaucoma (125 189 images), and AMD (72 610 images), and performance of DLS was evaluated for detecting diabetic retinopathy (using 112 648 images), possible glaucoma (71 896 images), and AMD (35 948 images). Training of the DLS was completed in May 2016, and validation of the DLS was completed in May 2017 for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy (moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or worse) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or worse) using a primary validation data set in the Singapore National Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program and 10 multiethnic cohorts with diabetes. Use of a deep learning system. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and sensitivity and specificity of the DLS with professional graders (retinal specialists, general ophthalmologists, trained graders, or optometrists) as the reference standard. In the primary validation dataset (n = 14 880 patients; 71 896 images; mean [SD] age, 60.2 [2.2] years; 54.6% men), the prevalence of referable diabetic retinopathy was 3.0%; vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy, 0.6%; possible glaucoma, 0.1%; and AMD, 2.5%. The AUC of the DLS for referable diabetic retinopathy was 0.936 (95% CI, 0.925-0.943), sensitivity was 90.5% (95% CI, 87.3%-93.0%), and specificity was 91.6% (95% CI, 91.0%-92.2%). For

  7. Elevated plasma levels of copeptin linked to diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Wu, Xiao-Xuan; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Xiao

    2017-02-15

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) system has been postulated to play a role in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus in human and animal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of plasma copeptin in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Plasma copeptin concentrations were determined in 281 patients with T2DM. At baseline, demographic and clinical information including presence of DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR) was collected. The relationship between copeptin and DR or VTDR was investigated using logistic regression. T2DM participants with DR or VTDR had significantly higher plasma copeptin concentrations on admission (P copeptin of 0.784 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.724-0.844) and 0.834 (95% CI 0.781-0.904), respectively, which were superior to those for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (DR AUC 0.736, 95% CI 0.676-0.797; VTDR AUC 0.754, 95% CI 0.703-0.828; P copeptin concentrations ≥28.6 pmol/L (>3rd quartile) to be an independent marker of DR (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.04-6.79; P copeptin concentrations were an independent marker of DR and VDTR in Chinese patients with T2DM, suggesting a possible role of copeptin in the pathogenesis of DR complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual Acuity, Retinal Sensitivity, and Macular Thickness Changes in Diabetic Patients without Diabetic Retinopathy after Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spela Stunf Pukl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Functional and morphological macular study after cataract surgery in a group of diabetics without diabetic retinopathy compared to nondiabetics to evaluate the effect of surgical oxidative stress on diabetic retina. Methods. Prospective, comparative study. Preoperative eye exam, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA measured by ETDRS letters, and optical coherence tomography (OCT were followed by standard cataract surgery. The follow-up visits at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively included BCVA, OCT, and microperimetry, to analyze changes within and between the groups. Results. The BCVA improved significantly in diabetics and controls: 64.2 to 81.0 and 61.9 to 82.1 ETDRS at 6 months, respectively. The central macula at OCT significantly thickened in both groups, while the central 5 fields, corresponding to the microperimetry area, subclinically thickened from 284.20 to 291.18 μm at 6 months only in diabetics (p=0.026. A matching slight decrease in the microperimetry sensitivity from 1 to 6 months was found also only in diabetics, with mean average difference −0.75 dB (p=0.04. Conclusion. Underlying diabetes does not influence the surgical outcome in diabetics without diabetic retinopathy. However, slight thickening of wider macula and corresponding decrease in retinal sensitivity observed in diabetics 6 months postoperatively might influence visual function on long term.

  9. Does tight control of systemic factors help in the management of diabetic retinopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, Ramachandran; Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the leading causes of preventable blindness, is associated with many systemic factors that contribute to the development and progression of this microvascular complication of diabetes. While the duration of diabetes is the major risk factor for the development of DR, the main modifiable systemic risk factors for development and progression of DR are hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This review article looks at the evidence that control of these systemic factors has significant benefits in delaying the onset and progression of DR. PMID:26953026

  10. Is chronic kidney disease associated with diabetic retinopathy in Asian adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Foo, Valencia Hui Xian; Ikram, M Kamran; Huang, Huiqi; Lim, Su Chi; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Yin

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is commonly associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Few studies have demonstrated that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with DR. However, it is not clear if CKD in the absence of albuminuria is associated with DR. We included 301 participants with diabetes (Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged ≥24 years who participated in the Singapore Prospective Study Program (2003-2007). Retinal photographs taken from both eyes were graded for DR using the modified Airlie House Classification. We examined the association of CKD defined by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Surgical management of retinal diseases: proliferative diabetic retinopathy and traction retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Iñigo, Yousef J; Acabá, Luis A; Berrocal, Maria H

    2014-01-01

    Current indications for pars plana vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) include vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment (TRD), combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (CTRRD), diabetic macular edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction, and anterior segment neovascularization with media opacities. This chapter will review the indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincision surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for PDR, TRD, and CTRRD. With the availability of new microincision vitrectomy technology, wide-angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from PDR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Diabetic retinopathy and visual disabilities among patients in a rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelia Zilda Lourenço de Camargo Bittencourt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and to evaluate the management of patients with visual disabilities attending at the CEPRE Rehabilitation Program of University of Campinas. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out based on medical records of patients with visual disabilities attending a vision rehabilitation program. The following variables were studied: gender, age, marital status, level of schooling, social security status, origin, type and cause of visual disability and vision rehabilitation actions. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 155 patients, 55.5% males, aged between 12 and 88 years, mean age 41 years old, 34.8% were blind and 65.2% with low vision disability. Of those blind patients, 81.8% reported acquired blindness, and the leading cause was diabetic retinopathy (33.3%, followed by glaucoma (16.6%, and retinal detachment (15.0%. Of those patients with low vision disability, 14.9% had diabetic retinopathy, 14.9% hereditary syndromes, and 10.9% age-related macular degeneration. Vision rehabilitation therapy included interdisciplinary team consultations helping patients go through the mourning process for the loss or impairment of vision, and promoting the enhancement of their skills for performing activities of daily living independently. The management of patients with low vision was also focused on vision rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: The health of the eyes of patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes is at risk. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was found to be a cause for visual disability, suggesting the need to assess these patients' access to health care and rehabilitation and promote health education for changing habits and improving quality of life.

  13. Detection of retinal capillary nonperfusion in fundus fluorescein angiogram of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Nikfarjam, Shima; Javadzadeh, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Retinal capillary nonperfusion (CNP) is one of the retinal vascular diseases in diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients. As there is no comprehensive detection technique to recognize CNP areas, we proposed a different method for computing detection of ischemic retina, non-perfused (NP) regions, in fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA) images. Whilst major vessels appear as ridges, non-perfused areas are usually observed as ponds that are surrounded by healthy capillaries in FFA images. A new technique using homomorphic filtering to correct light illumination and detect the ponds surrounded in healthy capillaries on FFA images was designed and applied on DR fundus images. These images were acquired from the diabetic patients who had referred to the Nikookari hospital and were diagnosed for diabetic retinopathy during one year. Our strategy was screening the whole image with a fixed window size, which is small enough to enclose areas with identified topographic characteristics. To discard false nominees, we also performed a thresholding operation on the screen and marked images. To validate its performance we applied our detection algorithm on 41 FFA diabetic retinopathy fundus images in which the CNP areas were manually delineated by three clinical experts. Lesions were found as smooth regions with very high uniformity, low entropy, and small intensity variations in FFA images. The results of automated detection method were compared with manually marked CNP areas so achieved sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 78%, and accuracy of 91%.The result was present as a Receiver operating character (ROC) curve, which has an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.796 with 95% confidence intervals. This technique introduced a new automated detection algorithm to recognize non-perfusion lesions on FFA. This has potential to assist detecting and managing of ischemic retina and may be incorporated into automated grading diabetic retinopathy structures.

  14. Diagnosing and Ranking Retinopathy Disease Level Using Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, K.; Alli Rajendran, P.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal fundus images are widely used in diagnosing different types of eye diseases. The existing methods such as Feature Based Macular Edema Detection (FMED) and Optimally Adjusted Morphological Operator (OAMO) effectively detected the presence of exudation in fundus images and identified the true positive ratio of exudates detection, respectively. These mechanically detected exudates did not include more detailed feature selection technique to the system for detection of diabetic retinopathy. To categorize the exudates, Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation (DFIR) method based on sliding window approach is developed in this work to select the features of optic cup in digital retinal fundus images. The DFIR feature selection uses collection of sliding windows with varying range to obtain the features based on the histogram value using Group Sparsity Nonoverlapping Function. Using support vector model in the second phase, the DFIR method based on Spiral Basis Function effectively ranks the diabetic retinopathy disease level. The ranking of disease level on each candidate set provides a much promising result for developing practically automated and assisted diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system. Experimental work on digital fundus images using the DFIR method performs research on the factors such as sensitivity, ranking efficiency, and feature selection time. PMID:25945362

  15. Significance of the antiangiogenic mechanisms of thalidomide in the therapy of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Tapan; Kaur, Ishneet; Goel, Heena; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is an ocular complication associated with the chronic endocrine disorder of diabetes mellitus. Angiogenesis is adjudged as a prime modulatory event in this complication. The formation of new blood vessels on the pre-existing vasculature gives rise to an abundance of anatomical and physiological alterations which ultimately results in vision loss. The drastic consequences of this complication prompt the obligation of developing effective therapies for its cure. The existing therapy mainly includes destructive techniques such as laser photocoagulation. Owing to the various drawbacks associated with this technique, there is a need to develop alternative therapies which could halt the progression of diabetic retinopathy without causing considerable damage to the retinal cells. One such possible alternative treatment being researched upon is the antiangiogenic therapy. Since angiogenesis is a critical event during the progression of this disorder, targeting this event may perhaps prove effective in its treatment. Amongst several antiangiogenic agents, thalidomide holds a reputable position due to its effectiveness in terminating angiogenesis during various pathological conditions. This review focuses on the diverse molecular mechanisms proposed to explain the antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide and their applicability in diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of macular function by membrane differential filtration in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, C; Widder, R A; Soudavar, F; Walter, P; Brunner, R; Borberg, H

    2001-01-01

    Alterations of blood rheology are assumed to substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Membrane differential filtration (MDF) is an extracorporeal treatment which is able to optimize rheological parameters by eliminating high molecular weight proteins and lipoproteins from the blood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of repetitive MDF on visual function in diabetic retinopathy. 11 patients (11 eyes) with nonproliferative or inactive proliferative diabetic retinopathy underwent three treatment cycles during a mean period of 18 weeks. The best corrected visual acuity served as the main parameter of the study. The measurement of visual acuity, visual field, biochemical and rheological parameters was carried out 24 hours pre and post each treatment cycle and at follow up. The mean follow up time was 9 weeks during the post treatment period. Compared to baseline examination the visual acuity improved stepwise by a mean value of 1.4 lines (p = 0.02) after the last treatment and remained stable at follow up (1.3 lines, p laser treatment to influence the clinical course of diabetic maculopathy. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Efficacy observation on multiple wave length laser for diabetic retinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Tian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the efficacy of the multiple wave length laser in treating diabetic retinopathy combined with central retinal vein occlusion. METHODS:Totally 95 cases(100 eyeswith diabetic retinopathy combined with central retinal vein occlusion were treated by multiple wave length laser. Krypton yellow laser was used for macular edema in focal photocoagulation and diffuse photocoagulation. For peripheral retina, krypton green or krypton red laser were used. Visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. The patients were followed up for 12 to 48wk. In this study, change in visual acuity and macular edema were observed in both groups, and statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS:The effective rate was 61.2% in diffuse macular edema group and 86.3% in focal macular edema group. The general effective rate of later was higher than the former, while the treatment effect had significant statistical difference(PCONCLUSION: Multiple wave length laser is an effective and safe way to treat diabetic macular edema of diabetic retinopathy combined with central retinal vein occlusion,which is worth widely applying in clinical practice.

  18. Dyslipidemia and lipid peroxidation of Saudi type 2 diabetics with proliferative retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldebasi, Yousef H; Mohieldein, Abdelmarouf H; Almansour, Yousef S; Almutairi, Barakat L

    2013-06-01

    To assess lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetics with proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and investigate the association between these biochemical parameters and PDR. This study was conducted between June 2011 and February 2012 in the Research Laboratory, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Qasssim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study included 54 patients with type 2 diabetes (21 with PDR and 33 controls) and 30 healthy subjects. The biochemical parameters were measured using standard laboratory procedures. Patients with PDR characterized by significantly (p<0.05) increased levels of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), plasma malondialdehyde; decreased levels of serum high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1); positive correlation of malondialdehyde with triglyceride, but negative with HDL-C, Apo A1. In logistic regression, malondialdehyde, LDL-C, and Apo A1 were not associated with PDR. However, triglyceride (OR = 1.745; p=0.000), total cholesterol (OR = 0.079; p=0.000), and HDL-C (OR = 10.676; p=0.000) were independent risk factors for developing PDR. Dyslipidemia and lipid peroxidation may play a role in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Patients with PDR displayed marked lipid abnormalities and increased lipid peroxidation. The control of lipid alterations through glycemic control and/or lipid lowering medication is required for type 2 diabetics at least to postpone or prevent loss of vision from retinopathy.

  19. Diabetic retinopathy and complexity of retinal surgery in a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos-Medina, Laura Fanny; Hurtado-Noriega, Blanca Esmeralda; Lima-Gómez, Virgilio

    2012-01-01

    Usual retinal surgery (vitrectomy or surgery for retinal detachment) may require additional procedures to deal with complex cases, which increase time and resource use and delay access to treatment. We undertook this study to identify the proportion of primary retinal surgeries that required complex procedures and the associated causes. We carried out an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study. Patients with primary retinal surgery were evaluated (January 2007-December 2010). The proportion and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of preoperative diagnosis and cause of the disease requiring retinal surgery as well as the causes for complex retinal surgery were identified. Complex retinal surgery was defined as that requiring lens extraction, intraocular lens implantation, heavy perfluorocarbon liquids, silicone oil tamponade or intravitreal drugs, in addition to the usual surgical retinal procedure. The proportion of complex retinal surgeries was compared among preoperative diagnoses and among causes (χ(2), odds ratio [OR]). We studied 338 eyes. Mean age of subjects was 53.7 years, and there were 49% females. The most common diagnoses were vitreous hemorrhage (27.2%) and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (24.6%). The most common cause was diabetes (50.6%); 273 eyes required complex surgery (80.8%, 95% CI: 76.6-85). The proportion did not differ among diagnoses but was higher in diabetic retinopathy (89%, p diabetic retinopathy increased by 3-fold the probability of requiring these complex procedures. Early treatment of diabetic retinopathy may reduce the proportion of complex retinal surgery by 56%.

  20. Predictors for attending annual eye screening for diabetic retinopathy amongst patients with diabetes in an urban community of Beijing

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    Yan-Hong Zou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To gain a better understanding of possible factors that may influence the decision of diabetes persons to participate in annual eye screening in an urban community setting of China. METHODS: A structured interview including questions on attendance of eye screening, knowledge and awareness of diabetic retinopathy was conducted. The presence and degree of retinopathy were assessed using two field non-mydriatic retinal photography. RESULTS: Totally 720 diabetes persons were recruited and 519 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. In this urban setting of Beijing, among diabetes patients of average of 10y duration, 77% confirmed having undergone at least one eye examination and 61% reported having at least one eye examination with dilated pupil. As for the last 12mo, the number decreased to 210 (47% and 131 (30% separately. Most of the participants (95% were aware that diabetes could affect their vision and that regular eye examination was necessary. Very few of them (12% however were aware that the early stages of diabetic retinopathy presented without symptoms of vision loss. Having attended patient education on diabetes was effective in building awareness about diabetic eye disease and was a significant positive predictor for attending eye screening [education in a year, Adj. OR=0.47 (0.29-0.74, P<0.001, education years ago, Adj. OR=0.56 (0.33-0.96, P=0.036]. The duration of disease also increased the likelihood of having undergone eye screening (Adj. OR=0.96, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Being exposed to education about the complications of diabetes increases the probability of attending diabetic eye screening. An appropriate patient knowledge building strategy should be made available to patients from the time of diagnosis.

  1. Higher titers of anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG in diabetic retinopathy: a cross-sectional study.

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    Banaee, Touka; Daneshvar Kakhki, Ramin; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Farzadnia, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    Chronic inflammation has a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Infection with intracellular organisms may incite chronic inflammation. This study was conducted to investigate the association between previous infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (an intracellular microorganism) and diabetic retinopathy. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (30-60 years old) and age-matched normal controls were recruited. Patients with history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, recent pulmonary infection and the presence of age-related macular degeneration were excluded from the study. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed. Fasting blood sugar and haemoglobin levels were measured in diabetic patients and controls, and HgbA1c , blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and 24-h urine protein were measured in diabetic patients. Anti-C. pneumoniae IgG (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was measured in the sera of all participants. A total of 215 type 2 diabetic patients and 243 normal healthy controls were included. Anti-C. pneumoniae IgG titers were higher in patients affected by diabetic retinopathy than participants without retinopathy (74.78 ± 33.38 vs 66.18 ± 31.40, p = 0.028). Diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy also had higher titers than diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (74.78 ± 33.38 vs 66.11 ± 33.41, p = 0.042). Of different variables including age, body mass index, haemoglobin level, glycated haemoglobin level, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure and blood urea nitrogen, only age (r = 0.17; p = 0.001) and body mass index (r = 0.15; p = 0.003) were correlated with anti-C. pneumoniae IgG levels. In regression analysis, the presence of diabetic retinopathy was still a determinant of the antibody level (p = 0.03). Anti-C. pneumoniae IgG titers were higher in patients with diabetic retinopathy, which may indicate a role of this infection in the pathogenesis of diabetic

  2. Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Parravano, Mariacristina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Ducoli, Pietro; Stirpe, Mario; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    To illustrate a noninvasive method to analyze the retinal capillary lumen caliber in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Adaptive optics imaging of the retinal capillaries were acquired in two parafoveal regions of interest in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and unaffected controls. Measures of the retinal capillary lumen caliber were quantified using an algorithm written in Matlab by an independent observer in a masked manner. Comparison of the adaptive optics images with red-free and color wide fundus retinography images was also assessed. Eight eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (eight patients, study group), no macular edema, and preserved visual acuity and eight control eyes (eight healthy volunteers; control group) were analyzed. The repeatability of capillary lumen caliber measurements was 0.22 μm (3.5%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.12 and 0.31 μm in the study group. It was 0.30 μm (4.1%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.16 and 0.43 μm in the control group. The average capillary lumen caliber was significantly narrower in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (6.27 ± 1.63 μm) than in the control eyes (7.31 ± 1.59 μm, P = 0.002). The authors demonstrated a noninvasive method to analyze, with micrometric scale of resolution, the lumen of retinal capillaries. The parafoveal capillaries were narrower in patients with Type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy than in healthy subjects, showing the potential capability of adaptive optics imaging to detect pathologic variations of the retinal microvascular structures in vaso-occlusive diseases.

  3. The prevalence of retinopathy in an unselected population of type 2 diabetes patients from Arhus County, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Marianne N; Kristensen, Jette K; Lauritzen, Torsten; Bek, Toke

    2004-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and the causes of visual impairment in an unselected population of type 2 diabetes patients, and to describe the risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy in this population. A total of 10 851 type 2 diabetes patients were identified in the county of Arhus. A representative sample of 378 patients underwent a routine ocular examination, including fundus photography. Blood pressure and serum haemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and apolipoprotein a were measured. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the type 2 diabetes population was 31.5%. In all, 2.9% had proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 5.3% had clinically significant macular oedema. Of the latter, 8/20 (40%) were newly identified and had not yet been laser-treated. There was a positive correlation between severity of retinopathy and duration of diabetes, HbA(1c), systolic blood pressure and treatment with insulin. None of the patients had social blindness (visual acuity maculopathy had not been referred for timely photocoagulation treatment.

  4. Diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors at the university hospital in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, Lizette

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors in diabetic patients attending the eye clinic at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). This was a prospective cohort study of diabetic outpatients attending the Eye Clinic at the UHWI. Data were collected on age, gender, type of diabetes mellitus (DM), type of diabetic retinopathy, other ocular diseases, visual acuity, blood glucose and blood pressure. There were 104 patients (208 eyes) recruited for this study. There were 58.6% (61/104) females (mean age 53.6 ± 11.9 years) and 41.4% (43/104) males (mean age 61.7 ± 12.1 years). Type II DM was present in 68.3% (56% were females) of the patients and Type I DM was present in 31.7% (69.7% were females). Most patients (66%) were compliant with their diabetic medications. The mean blood glucose was 11.4 ± 5.3 mmol/L. Elevated blood pressure (Jamaica has a high frequency of PDR which is more common in Type I diabetics and females. This was associated with poor glucose and blood pressure control.

  5. Retinal hemodynamic influence of compound xueshuantong capsule on nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy after laser photocoagulation

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    Yu-Yan Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe retinal hemodynamic influence of compound xueshuantong capsule on nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRafter laser photocoagulation. METHODS: A total of 41 patients(72 eyeswith NPDR after laser photocoagulation were enrolled in this study. They were all given compound xueshuantong capsule, and used color Doppler flow imaging for detection of retinal hemodynamics. RESULTS: After treatment, patients with retinal blood perfusion significantly improved; central retinal arterial peak systolic velocity(PSV, end-diastolic velocity(EDVand medial velocity(Vmwere increased, while the resistance index(RIdecreased. The difference have statistical significance(PCONCLUSION: Compound xueshuantong capsule can improve retinal blood perfusion for nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy after laser photocoagulation, which is related to improvement of visual prognosis.

  6. Latest progress of BIGH3 gene in corneal diseases and diabetic retinopathy

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    Fan-Qian Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BIGH3 gene plays an important role in ocular diseases. On the one hand, it is closely related to the occurrence of corneal diseases. BIGH3 gene can inhibit corneal neovascularization, lead to corneal dystrophy, participate in keratoconus formation. On the other hand, it can lead to the formation of neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy. The latest experiments show that TGF beta secreted by macrophages can promote the expression of BIGH3 mRNA and BIGH3 protein, and promote apoptosis of retinal endothelial cells and pericytes, which leads to the formation of neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy. This article will describe the new progress of BIGH3 gene in ocular diseases from several aspects as mentioned above.

  7. CORRELATION OF HBA1C WITH SIGHT-THREATENING DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (STDR IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Ranjini Kotancher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness in the world with India being set to emerge as the diabetic capital of the world. Visual disability from diabetes is a significant health problem, but its morbidity is largely preventable and treatable. HbA1c (glycosylated haemoglobin is the best indicator of glycaemic control. It has long been known to predict the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Our aim is to evaluate the correlation of STDR in type 2 diabetes mellitus with HbA1c levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, among 250 randomly selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and they were grouped into STDR, non-STDR and no diabetic retinopathy based on ophthalmoscopy. HbA1c level was estimated and its correlation was analysed using SPSS software version 17.0. Association of STDR with duration of diabetes and Body Mass Index (BMI were also studied. RESULTS Out of 250 patients studied, mean age was 58.98 with 126 males and 124 females and there was increased incidence of STDR in males. 104 patients with STDR had HbA1c value of more than 8, high incidence of STDR were noted with increasing levels of HbA1c and the correlation was statistically significant (p = 0.02. 74.1% of patients had STDR in the group with duration of diabetes 11 to 15 years, 90.90% in more than 21 years group compared to 43% in the 5 years group. Increase in duration of diabetes was found to be significantly associated with higher incidence of STDR (p = 0.01. Incidence of STDR were more in patients with normal BMI (p = 0.03. CONCLUSION Poor diabetic control as noted by high HbA1c level and longer duration of diabetes were significantly associated with sightthreatening diabetic retinopathy. Patients with STDR and high HbA1c levels have to be referred for appropriate evaluation and treatment at the earliest to prevent blindness.

  8. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Alexander A; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S

    2013-01-01

    Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1), a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF), a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2) by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  9. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

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    Alexander A Veenstra

    Full Text Available Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1, a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF, a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2 by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  10. Molecular Markers of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool of the Future?

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    Priyia ePusparajah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is among the leading causes of new onset blindness in adults. Effective treatment may delay the onset and progression of this disease provided it is diagnosed early. At present retinopathy can only be diagnosed via formal examination of the eye by a trained specialist, which limits the population that can be effectively screened. An easily accessible, reliable screening biomarker of diabetic retinopathy would be of tremendous benefit in detecting the population in need of further assessment and treatment. This review highlights specific biomarkers that show promise as screening markers to detect early diabetic retinopathy or even to detect patients at increased risk of DR at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. The pathobiology of DR is complex and multifactorial giving rise to a wide array of potential biomarkers. This review provides an overview of these pathways and looks at older markers such as advanced glycation end products(AGEs, inflammatory markers, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF as well as other newer proteins with a role in the pathogenesis of DR including neuroprotective factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF; SA100A12, pentraxin 3, brain natriuretic peptide, apelin 3 and chemerin as well as various metabolites such as lipoprotein A, folate and homocysteine. We also consider the possible role of proteins identified through proteomics work whose levels are altered in the sera of patients with DR as screening markers though their role in pathophysiology remains to be characterized. The role of microRNA as a promising new screening marker is also discussed.

  11. Targeting carbonic anhydrase to treat diabetic retinopathy: Emerging evidences and encouraging results

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    Weiwei, Zhang [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Hu, Renming, E-mail: taylorzww@gmail.com [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2009-12-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among working-age populations in developed countries. Current treatment options are limited to tight glycemic, blood pressure control and destructive laser surgery. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes involving in the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Emerging evidences reveal CA inhibitors hold the promise for the treatment of DR. This article summarizes encouraging results from clinical and animal studies, and reviews the possible mechanisms.

  12. Fulminant proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the non-photocoagulated eye following acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Liuna; Herbort, Carl P

    2016-12-01

    Management of diabetic retinopathy should follow more strict and aggressive rules in patients at risk for severe acute renal impairment. Such patients should be identified and possibly prophylactically laser treated to avoid the severe consequences demonstrated in this case report. A 34-year-old type 2 diabetes patient with a stabilized diabetic retinopathy developed acute and severe retinal decompensation within weeks after acute renal failure complicated his chronic stable renal impairment. Fluorescein angiographic and optical coherence tomographic illustrations of the rapid evolution of the retinal condition are presented. The patient had previously been treated with panretinal photocoagulation in his left eye. After 8 years of regular 6-monthly checked stability, he developed rapid-onset proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema in his right eye within 3 months of his last ocular check-up. Fluorescein angiography showed neovessels and major ischemic areas. Emergency panretinal photocoagulation and a sub-Tenon's injection were necessary to achieve control of the situation with regression of neovessels and complete regression of macular edema. This case shows that it is imperative for nephrologists to be well informed about a patient's ocular situation in order to give timely information to the ophthalmologist who can intervene to protect the retina in case of renal failure. On the other hand, the ophthalmologist should be familiar with the renal function of his patient with renal impairment so that he can decide to perform prophylactic retinal panphotocoagulation that should be imperatively considered even without strict indications in patients with renal impairment at risk for further deterioration of renal function, in order to prevent such explosive ischemic and proliferative retinopathy putting vision at risk.

  13. The effects of renal transplantation on diabetic retinopathy: Clinical course and visual outcomes

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    Rupak Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To elucidate the clinical course of diabetic retinopathy (DR after renal transplantation (RT in a hospital based cohort. Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 eyes of 28 patients, who had DR and end stage renal disease (ESRD due to diabetes and had undergone RT, were included in this study. Diagnosis and management of DR was carried out according to early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS guidelines. DR outcome was defined as worsening if there was >2 step increase in the grade of DR or need for intervention such as laser (macular or pan retinal or vitreoretinal surgery, improvement for <2 step change while stabilization was defined if DR remained within these two limits. Results: The mean age of the patients were 48.9 years. The mean duration of diabetes in the study group was 12.7 years. The patients were followed-up for a mean period of 52.2 ± 43.6 months. The pre-transplant mean Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.4876 log MAR units and post-transplant mean BCVA was 0.4858 (P = 0.05. However, there was a significant visual improvement in first 20 months of renal transplant (P = 0.03. Worsening of DR was noted in 16 (32% eyes whereas improvement was seen in 4 (8%. However, majority of eyes 30 (60% had stable retinopathy at the final follow-up. Conclusions: RT stabilized the retinopathy status in the majority of patients although in a minor subset the disease course was unpredictable.

  14. Loss of Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells in Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Elisabeth Anne; Hannibal, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Photo-entrainment of the circadian clock is mediated by melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) located in the retina. Patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR) show impairment of light regulated circadian activity such as sleep disorders, altered blood pressure...... nuclear layer (INL), respectively. Conclusions: Our findings show that DR affects the expression of mRGCs in the human retina and could explain the abnormal circadian activity observed in patients with DR....

  15. Long-term mortality and retinopathy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing in Denmark as well as the rest of the world. Due to diabetes-related micro- and macrovascular complications, the morbidity and the mortality is higher among type 1 diabetic patients. The aim of this thesis was to examine a population-based cohort...... of 727 type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, with an onset of diabetes before 1 July 1973 in order to: (1) Evaluate the all-cause mortality rates and the influence of sex, duration of diabetes and calendar year of diagnosis in a 33-year follow-up (Paper I). (2) Examine glycaemic regulation...... of DR was graded higher in the digital photos. Among these, PDR was detected in three eyes using digital photos but remained undetected on all films. This suggests that digital photos with wide fields are the best way to detect DR in long-term type 1 diabetic patients. Overall, it is concluded...

  16. Effects of puerarin treatment on hemodynamics and blood rheology in diabetic retinopathy patients

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    Yi-Qun Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the treatment effect of puerarin on ophthalmic artery blood velocity and blood rheology in patients with diabetic retinopathy, and provide experience for clinical medication. METHODS: Eighty-six patients with diabetic retinopathy were selected in our hospital from February 2010 to December 2012. They were randomly divided into study group and control group, each group of 43 cases. The two groups were taken blood glucose and symptomatic treatment, while study group were given to puerarin based on the therapy. Recording two groups of patients in hemodynamics and blood rheology in 1 month before and after the treatment, and make a contrast. RESULTS: Before treatment, the two group in blood rheology indexes, was not statistically significant(P>0.05; after treatment, patients in the study group of the hematocrit, the whole blood viscosity at low shear rate, plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation index were lower than those in the control group, the differences were statistically significant(PP>0.05; after treatment, Peak systolic velocity(PSVand end diastolic velocity(EDVin study group were higher than those in the control group, but the resistance index(RIwas lower than that in control group, the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: Puerarin can improve hemodynamics and hemorheology in patients with diabetic retinopathy, and can protect the central retinal artery function.

  17. Prognosis of VEGF inhibitors combined with laser therapy in patients with diabetic retinopathy

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    Wei-Xiong Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the prognosis effects of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFinhibitors combined with laser therapy in patients with diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Totally 120 patients(129 eyeswith diabetic retinopathy were selected from September 2014 to December 2015 in our Hospital. According to the random distribution, all patients were divided into inhibitor-laser group(60 case with 65 eyesand laser group(60 case with 64 eyes. The laser group was treated with conventional laser treatments. Inhibitor-laser group patients were given VEGF inhibitors treatment besides laser. The international standard was used to charted the visual acuity and enzyme-linked immunosorbent(ELISAwas used to detect the plasma VEGF levels. All patients were followed up for 6mo, analyzed before and after the treatment for curative effect, the lesion center concave thickness(CMT, retinal neovascularization leakage area(RNV, plasma VEGF levels and adverse reactions, and the best corrected visual acuity(BCVAbefore and 1, 3, 6mo after treatment.RESULTS: Efficient rate of inhibitor-laser group was obviously higher than that of the laser group, with statistical difference(PPPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: VEGF inhibitors combined with laser therapy can effectively improve the curative effect of patients with diabetic retinopathy. It can effectively improve the retinal thickness and leakage of new blood vessels, and the patient's vision, with good security.

  18. Retinal reperfusion in diabetic retinopathy following treatment with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ariana M; Rusu, Irene; Orlin, Anton; Gupta, Mrinali P; Coombs, Peter; D'Amico, Donald J; Kiss, Szilárd

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report peripheral reperfusion of ischemic areas of the retina on ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections in patients treated for diabetic retinopathy. This study is a retrospective review of 16 eyes of 15 patients with diabetic retinopathy, who received anti-VEGF intravitreal injections and underwent pre- and postinjection UWFA. The main outcome measured was the presence of reperfusion in postinjection UWFA images in areas of the retina that demonstrated nonperfusion in preinjection images. Images were analyzed for reperfusion qualitatively and quantitatively by two graders. Twelve of 16 eyes (75%) or 11 of 15 patients (73.3%) demonstrated reperfusion following anti-VEGF injection. On UWFA, reperfusion was detected both within the field of 7-standard field (7SF) fluorescein angiography and in the periphery outside the 7SF. Four of 16 eyes or 4 of 15 patients did not demonstrate reperfusion, one of which had extensive scarring from prior panretinal photocoagulation. In patients with diabetic retinopathy, treatment with anti-VEGF agents can be associated with reperfusion of areas of nonperfusion, as demonstrated by UWFA.

  19. Advanced glycation end products assessed by skin autofluorescence in type 1 diabetics are associated with nephropathy, but not retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabroux, S; Canouï-Poitrine, F; Reffet, S; Mills-Joncour, G; Morelon, E; Colin, C; Thivolet, C

    2010-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. For this reason, a non-invasive tool using skin autofluorescence (AF) quantification that correlates with levels of tissue AGEs has been developed. The present study aimed to assess whether or not skin AF is associated with microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). All consecutive patients with T1D (n=133) had three AF measures taken on the forearm, using illumination with a fluorescent tube, all on the same day after breakfast or lunch. Potential associations between skin AF levels and microvascular complications, age, diabetes duration and health status were then assessed using a multivariate linear-regression model. On age-adjusted analyses, diabetes duration, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy were significantly associated with skin AF levels (all P<0.001). AF levels increased significantly with severity in both retinopathy and nephropathy (P<0.001). After adjusting for age, diabetes duration, HbA(1c), smoking, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, the association of AF levels remained significant with nephropathy and neuropathy, but not with retinopathy and diabetes duration. This study suggests an independent association between skin AF levels and diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy, but not retinopathy, in T1D patients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the ability of skin AF levels to predict microangiopathy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raum, Philipp; Lamparter, Julia; Ponto, Katharina A; Peto, Tunde; Hoehn, René; Schulz, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac) in Germany. The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010) of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types) was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955-0.992]; p = 0.006) arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190-3.044]; p = 0.0072) and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504-7.206]; p = 0.0029). DR (all stages) and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068-1.114]; pdiabetic retinal disease in Germany [corrected].Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Role of Electrophysiology in the Early Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pescosolido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy is a severe and common complication of diabetes, representing a leading cause of blindness among working-age people in developed countries. It is estimated that the number of people with diabetic retinopathy (DR will increase from 126.6 million in 2011 to 191 million by 2030. The pathology seems to be characterized not only by the involvement of retinal microvessels but also by a real neuropathy of central nervous system, similar to what happens to the peripheral nerves, particularly affected by diabetes. The neurophysiological techniques help to assess retinal and nervous (optic tract function. Electroretinography (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEP allow a more detailed study of the visual function and of the possible effects that diabetes can have on the visual function. These techniques have an important role both in the clinic and in research: the central nervous system, in fact, has received much less attention than the peripheral one in the study of the complications of diabetes. These techniques are safe, repeatable, quick, and objective. In addition, both the ERG (especially the oscillatory potentials and the flicker-ERG and VEP have proved to be successful tools for the early diagnosis of the disease and, potentially, for the ophthalmologic follow-up of diabetic patients.

  2. Association of A1C and fasting plasma glucose levels with diabetic retinopathy prevalence in the U.S. population: Implications for diabetes diagnostic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yiling J; Gregg, Edward W; Geiss, Linda S; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Williams, Desmond E; Zhang, Xinzhi; Albright, Ann L; Cowie, Catherine C; Klein, Ronald; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2009-11-01

    To examine the association of A1C levels and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with diabetic retinopathy in the U.S. population and to compare the ability of the two glycemic measures to discriminate between people with and without retinopathy. This study included 1,066 individuals aged >or=40 years from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A1C, FPG, and 45 degrees color digital retinal images were assessed. Retinopathy was defined as a level >or=14 on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. We used joinpoint regression to identify linear inflections of prevalence of retinopathy in the association between A1C and FPG. The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 11%, which is appreciably lower than the prevalence in people with diagnosed diabetes (36%). There was a sharp increase in retinopathy prevalence in those with A1C >or=5.5% or FPG >or=5.8 mmol/l. After excluding 144 people using hypoglycemic medication, the change points for the greatest increase in retinopathy prevalence were A1C 5.5% and FPG 7.0 mmol/l. The coefficients of variation were 15.6 for A1C and 28.8 for FPG. Based on the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves, A1C was a stronger discriminator of retinopathy (0.71 [95% CI 0.66-0.76]) than FPG (0.65 [0.60 - 0.70], P for difference = 0.009). The steepest increase in retinopathy prevalence occurs among individuals with A1C >or=5.5% and FPG >or=5.8 mmol/l. A1C discriminates prevalence of retinopathy better than FPG.

  3. Lipotoxicity augments glucotoxicity-induced mitochondrial damage in the development of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binit; Kowluru, Anjan; Kowluru, Renu A

    2015-05-01

    Although hyperglycemia is the main instigator in the development of diabetic retinopathy, dyslipidemia is also considered to play an important role. In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, cytosolic NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) is activated before retinal mitochondria are damaged. Our aim was to investigate the effect of lipids in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate) and activities of Nox2 (by a lucigenin-based method) and Rac1 (by G-LISA) were quantified in retinal endothelial cells incubated with 50 μM palmitate in 5 mM glucose (lipotoxicity) or 20 mM glucose (glucolipotoxicity) for 6 to 96 hours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage was evaluated by extended-length PCR and its transcription by quantifying cytochrome b transcripts. Within 6 hours of exposure of endothelial cells to lipotoxicity, or glucotoxicity (20 mM glucose, without palmitate), significant increase in ROS, Nox2, and Rac1 was observed, which was exacerbated by glucolipotoxic insult. At 48 hours, neither lipotoxicity nor glucotoxicity had any effect on mtDNA and its transcription, but glucolipotoxicity significantly damaged mtDNA and decreased cytochrome b transcripts, and at 96 hours, glucotoxicity and glucolipotoxicity produced similar detrimental effects on mitochondrial damage. Although during initial exposure, lipotoxic or glucotoxic insult produces similar increase in ROS, addition of lipotoxicity in a glucotoxic environment further exacerbates ROS production, and also accelerates their damaging effects on mitochondrial homeostasis. Thus, modulation of Nox2 by pharmacological agents in prediabetic patients with dyslipidemia could retard the development of retinopathy before their hyperglycemia is observable.

  4. Retinal ganglion cell complex changes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in diabetic patients without retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Hegazy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the ganglion cell complex (GCC thickness in diabetic eyes without retinopathy. METHODS: Two groups included 45 diabetic eyes without retinopathy and 21 non diabetic eyes. All subjects underwent full medical and ophthalmological history, full ophthalmological examination, measuring GCC thickness and central foveal thickness (CFT using the RTVue® spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, and HbA1C level. RESULTS: GCC focal loss volume (FLV% was significantly more in diabetic eyes (22.2% below normal than normal eyes (P=0.024. No statistically significant difference was found between the diabetic group and the control group regarding GCC global loss volume (GLV% (P=0.160. CFT was positively correlated to the average, superior and inferior GCC (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.001 respectively and negatively correlated to GLV% and FLV% (P=0.002 and 0.031 respectively in diabetic eyes. C/D ratio in diabetic eyes was negatively correlated to average, superior and inferior GCC (P=0.015, 0.007 and 0.017 respectively. The FLV% was negatively correlated to the refraction and level of HbA1c (P=0.019 and 0.013 respectively and positively correlated to the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA in logMAR in diabetic group (P=0.004. CONCLUSION: Significant GCC thinning in diabetes predates retinal vasculopathy, which is mainly focal rather than diffuse. It has no preference to either the superior or inferior halves of the macula. Increase of myopic error is significantly accompanied with increased focal GCC loss. GCC loss is accompanied with increased C/D ratio in diabetic eyes.

  5. Segmentation of retinal blood vessels using artificial neural networks for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder S.; Kaur, Sukhpreet

    2017-06-01

    There are various eye diseases in the patients suffering from the diabetes which includes Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Hypertension etc. These all are the most common sight threatening eye diseases due to the changes in the blood vessel structure. The proposed method using supervised methods concluded that the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels can be performed accurately using neural networks training. It uses features which include Gray level features; Moment Invariant based features, Gabor filtering, Intensity feature, Vesselness feature for feature vector computation. Then the feature vector is calculated using only the prominent features.

  6. Retinal vessel caliber as a potential marker of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    , CRVE and the arterio-venous (AV) ratio. All measurements were performed by a certified grader. Results: Median age and duration of diabetes were 52 years and 20 years, respectively, and 65% were male. Median HbA1c was 63 mmol/mol, and the blood pressure was 155/82 mmHg. There were no differences......Title of abstract: Retinal vessel caliber as a potential marker of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy Design of study: Three months prospective, interventional clinical study. Purpose: The retinal vascular tree can be measured non-invasively and summarized...

  7. Diagnosis System for Diabetic Retinopathy and Glaucoma Screening to Prevent Vision Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sundhara Raja DHANUSHKODI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR and glaucoma are two most common retinal disorders that are major causes of blindness in diabetic patients. DR caused in retinal images due to the damage in retinal blood vessels, which leads to the formation of hemorrhages spread over the entire region of retina. Glaucoma is caused due to hypertension in diabetic patients. Both DR and glaucoma affects the vision loss in diabetic patients. Hence, a computer aided development of diagnosis system for Diabetic retinopathy and Glaucoma screening is proposed in this paper to prevent vision loss. Method: The diagnosis system of DR consists of two stages namely detection and segmentation of fovea and hemorrhages. The diagnosis system of glaucoma screening consists of three stages namely blood vessel segmentation, Extraction of optic disc (OD and optic cup (OC region and determination of rim area between OD and OC. Results: The specificity and accuracy for hemorrhages detection is found to be 98.47% and 98.09% respectively. The accuracy for OD detection is found to be 99.3%. This outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion: In this paper, the diagnosis system is developed to classify the DR and glaucoma screening in to mild, moderate and severe respectively.

  8. Development of Diagnostic Biomarkers for Detecting Diabetic Retinopathy at Early Stages Using Quantitative Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwa Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a common microvascular complication caused by diabetes mellitus (DM and is a leading cause of vision impairment and loss among adults. Here, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis to discover biomarkers for DR. First, to identify biomarker candidates that are specifically expressed in human vitreous, we performed data-mining on both previously published DR-related studies and our experimental data; 96 proteins were then selected. To confirm and validate the selected biomarker candidates, candidates were selected, confirmed, and validated using plasma from diabetic patients without DR (No DR and diabetics with mild or moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Mi or Mo NPDR using semiquantitative multiple reaction monitoring (SQ-MRM and stable-isotope dilution multiple reaction monitoring (SID-MRM. Additionally, we performed a multiplex assay using 15 biomarker candidates identified in the SID-MRM analysis, which resulted in merged AUC values of 0.99 (No DR versus Mo NPDR and 0.93 (No DR versus Mi and Mo NPDR. Although further validation with a larger sample size is needed, the 4-protein marker panel (APO4, C7, CLU, and ITIH2 could represent a useful multibiomarker model for detecting the early stages of DR.

  9. TLR7 deficiency contributes to attenuated diabetic retinopathy via inhibition of inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yun-Ru; Li, Zi-Jing; Zeng, Peng; Lan, Yu-Qing

    2017-11-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes, resulting in neuronal dysfunction, retinal vascular leakage, and apoptosis within the retina. Innate immunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related complications. The toll-like receptors (TLRs), central to innate immunity, are essential participants in the progression and pathogenesis of the disease and its complications. In the study, streptozotocin (STZ) was combined with whole-body hypoxia for quicker induction of early-stage diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the wild type (WT) and TLR7-knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice. The effects of TLR7 were also investigated in fructose-treated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In the retinas of WT/DR mice, abnormal a-wave and b-wave activity, hyperfluorescence, and reduced retinal thickness were observed. DR development was associated with enhanced TLR7 expression, whose deletion dramatically reduced VEGF expression levels. And the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and IL-12, was highly reduced by TLR7-deficiency in DR mice. Consistently, WT/DR mice exhibited higher phosphorylation of IκB kinase α (IKKα), inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which were found to be down-regulated in KO/DR mice. Similarly, DR-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation was blocked by TLR7-knockout. In vitro, fructose incubation-triggered inflammation was reversed by TLR7 knockdown, accompanied with inactivated NF-κB and MAPKs pathways. And reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in TLR7-knockdown cells with fructose treatment. Together, inhibiting TLR7 suppressed diabetic retinopathy by reducing inflammation and suggested a potential application in clinics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Using Markov Chains to predict the natural progression of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Srikanth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the natural progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was an observational study of 153 cases with type 2 diabetes from 2010 to 2013. The state of patient was noted at end of each year and transition matrices were developed to model movement between years. Patients who progressed to severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR were treated. Markov Chains and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: We modelled the transition of 153 patients from NPDR to blindness on an annual basis. At the end of year 3, we compared results from the Markov model versus actual data. The results from Chi-square test confirmed that there was statistically no significant difference (P=0.70 which provided assurance that the model was robust to estimate mean sojourn times. The key finding was that a patient entering the system in mild NPDR state is expected to stay in that state for 5y followed by 1.07y in moderate NPDR, be in the severe NPDR state for 1.33y before moving into PDR for roughly 8y. It is therefore expected that such a patient entering the model in a state of mild NPDR will enter blindness after 15.29y. CONCLUSION: Patients stay for long time periods in mild NPDR before transitioning into moderate NPDR. However, they move rapidly from moderate NPDR to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and stay in that state for long periods before transitioning into blindness.

  11. Minocycline inhibits PARP‑1 expression and decreases apoptosis in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Chen, Yongdong; Wu, Qiang; Jia, Lili; Du, Xinhua

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of minocycline on diabetic retinopathy‑associated cellular apoptosis. A total of 40 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used as a diabetic retinopathy model following injection with streptozotocin. Among the 34 rats in which the diabetes model was successfully established, 24 rats were divided into two experimental groups: I and II (T1 and T2, respectively), and orally administered with various doses of minocycline. The remaining 10 rats served as the diabetic retinopathy control group. An additional group of 10 healthy SD rats with comparable weight served as normal controls. The rats in T1 and T2 groups were treated daily for eight consecutive weeks with minocycline at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase‑1 (PARP‑1) were subsequently measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expression levels of poly‑ADP‑ribose were measured by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Retinal morphology was observed following hematoxylin and eosin staining, and retinal cell apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and caspase‑3 activity assays. The amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) b‑wave and oscillary potentials (OPs) were measured using visual electrophysiology, and compared among the four groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that in the diabetic rats, retinal PARP‑1 gene expression was markedly upregulated, the number of apoptotic cells and the activity levels of caspase‑3 were increased, and the amplitude of the ERG b‑wave and the OPs were markedly lower as compared with the normal rats. Following treatment with minocycline, the abnormal expression of PARP‑1 in the retina was inhibited, and cellular apoptosis was decreased. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that PARP

  12. A quantitative analysis of diabetic retinopathy screening in a regional treatment centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    James, M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the current diabetic retinopathy screening infrastructure and implications on workload for a designated treatment centre following roll-out of a national screening programme. A combination of chart analysis and patient questionnaire was undertaken over a 4-week period in 2011 at Cork University Hospital (CUH). Data were collected on 97 patients and categorized. as demographic, medical, and screening-related. The majority of patients (80; 82.5%} had either no retinopathy or background retinopathy only. One (1.0%) patient was deemed to be ungradable due to dense cataract, while 6 (6.2%) patients had non-diabetic ocular pathology requiring follow-up. Only 11% were screened through retinal photography. In all, 74 (76.3%) patients were deemed suitable for community rather than hospital screening. Digital retinal photography is an underused screening resource Significant numbers of patients could be discharged from hospital-based to community screening to offset the increased workload expected from the national screening programme.

  13. Red Lesion Detection Using Dynamic Shape Features for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoud, Lama; Hurtut, Thomas; Chelbi, Jihed; Cheriet, Farida; Langlois, J M Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The development of an automatic telemedicine system for computer-aided screening and grading of diabetic retinopathy depends on reliable detection of retinal lesions in fundus images. In this paper, a novel method for automatic detection of both microaneurysms and hemorrhages in color fundus images is described and validated. The main contribution is a new set of shape features, called Dynamic Shape Features, that do not require precise segmentation of the regions to be classified. These features represent the evolution of the shape during image flooding and allow to discriminate between lesions and vessel segments. The method is validated per-lesion and per-image using six databases, four of which are publicly available. It proves to be robust with respect to variability in image resolution, quality and acquisition system. On the Retinopathy Online Challenge's database, the method achieves a FROC score of 0.420 which ranks it fourth. On the Messidor database, when detecting images with diabetic retinopathy, the proposed method achieves an area under the ROC curve of 0.899, comparable to the score of human experts, and it outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.

  14. Effect of obstructive sleep apnoea on diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, W B; Jadhakhan, F; Taheri, S; Chen, Y F; Adab, P; Thomas, G N

    2016-02-01

    To summarize the association between obstructive sleep apnoea and diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy, and to examine the effects of oxygen desaturation index, mean and minimum oxygen saturation and time spent with maculopathy. A systematic search was performed for papers published from inception to January 2014 in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews using indexed terms and free text. Additional searches were carried out for grey literature. Two authors conducted the study selection and quality assessment. Data extraction was performed by the main author and checked by the other authors. One cohort study and 15 cross-sectional studies were included for narrative synthesis and three for meta-analyses. There was no convincing evidence that obstructive sleep apnoea was associated with diabetic retinopathy, although some evidence suggested that obstructive sleep apnoea was associated with greater severity of diabetic retinopathy and advanced diabetic retinopathy in people with Type 2 diabetes. Only six studies examined the impact of obstructive sleep apnoea on diabetic maculopathy and our narrative review suggests there is an association in Type 2 diabetes. Oxygen desaturation index, mean oxygen saturation or time spent with maculopathy; however, there was evidence from both narrative synthesis and meta-analysis that minimum oxygen saturation had an impact on diabetic retinopathy (pooled odds ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.95; I(2) = 0%). There is a need for large cohort studies with long-term follow-up data to examine the long-term effects of obstructive sleep apnoea and other sleep variables on advanced retinal disease in diabetes. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  15. Serum uric acid levels are associated with increased risk of newly developed diabetic retinopathy among Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study (diabetes distress and care registry at Tenri [DDCRT 13]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Hirohito; Okamura, Shintaro; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Tsujii, Satoru; Ishii, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    We assessed the prospective association between baseline serum uric acid levels and consequent risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. Data for 1839 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy were obtained from a Japanese diabetes registry. A Cox proportional hazards model with time-varying exposure information by sex was used and adjusted for potential confounders to assess the independent correlations between baseline serum uric acid levels and incidence rate of diabetic retinopathy. Newly developed diabetic retinopathy was recognized in 188 patients (10.2%) during the observation period of 2 years. Compared to the first serum uric acid quartile level, the multivariate adjusted hazards ratio for diabetic retinopathy development in male patients was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.14-3.41; P = .015), 1.92 (95% CI, 1.18-3.13; P = .008), and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.40-3.37; P = .001) for the second, third, and fourth serum uric acid quartile levels, respectively. But this was not the case with female patients. Higher serum uric acid levels were associated with increased risk of developing diabetic retinopathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes, but not in female patients. Serum uric acid may be a useful biomarker for predicting the future risk of developing diabetic retinopathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Compound Danshen Dripping Pill for Treating Early Diabetic Retinopathy: A Randomized, Double-Dummy, Double-Blind Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Qin, Yali; Yuan, Wei; Deng, Hui; Zhang, Youhua; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-dummy, double-blind study was to observe the therapeutic effects of compound Danshen dripping pill (CDDP) in treating early diabetic retinopathy (DR). All the 57 type 2 diabetes cases in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) stage were divided into two groups randomly: 28 cases treated with CDDP as the treated group and 29 cases treated with calcium dobesilate as the control group. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the treated group was significantly improved after treatment when compared to that before treatment (P dobesilate for NPDR. In future DR treatments, CDDP may function as the auxiliary drug. PMID:26457110

  17. Characterization of a Novel Polymorphism in PPARG Regulatory Region Associated with Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma polymorphisms have been widely associated with type 2 diabetes, although their role in the pathogenesis of vascular complications is not yet demonstrated. In this study, a cohort of 211 type 2 diabetes, 205 obese, and 254 control individuals was genotyped for Pro12Ala, C1431T, C-2821T polymorphisms, and for a newly identified polymorphism (A-2819G. The above-mentioned polymorphisms were analyzed by gene-specific PCR and direct sequencing of all samples. A significant difference was found for -2819G frequency when patients with type 2 diabetes—particularly diabetic women with the proliferative retinopathy—were compared with healthy control individuals. In conclusion, we identified a novel polymorphism, A-2819G, in PPARG gene, and we found it to be associated with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy in diabetic females. In the analyzed population, this variant represents a genetic risk factor for developing the diabetic retinopathy, whereas Pro12Ala and C1431T do not.

  18. Geographic Information Systems Mapping of Diabetic Retinopathy in an Ocular Telemedicine Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Pooja D; Forbes, Lauren; McDaniel, Philip; Viera, Anthony; Garg, Seema

    2017-07-01

    Minimal information exists on the use of geographic information systems mapping for visualizing access barriers to eye care for patients with diabetes. To use geographic information systems mapping techniques to visualize (1) the locations of patients participating in the North Carolina Diabetic Retinopathy Telemedicine Network, (2) the locations of primary care clinicians and ophthalmologists across the state, and (3) the travel times associated with traveling to the 5 primary care clinics in our study. Cross-sectional study conducted from January 6, 2014, to November 1, 2015, at 5 Area Health Education Center primary care clinics that serve rural and underserved populations in North Carolina. In total, 1787 patients with diabetes received retinal screening photographs with remote expert interpretation to determine the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. Participants included patients 18 years or older with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who presented to these 5 clinics for their routine diabetes care. Development of qualitative maps illustrating the density of patients with diabetes and their distribution around the 5 North Carolina Diabetic Retinopathy Telemedicine Network sites by zip code and the density of ophthalmologists and primary care clinicians by zip code relative to US Census Urban Areas. A travel time map was also created using road network analysis to determine all areas that can be reached by car in a user-specified amount of time. Mean (SD) age of patients was 55.4 (12.7) years. Women made up 62.7% of the study population. The study included more African American patients (55.4%) compared with white (35.5%) and Hispanic (5.8%) patients. The mean (SD) hemoglobin A1c level was 7.8% (2.4%) (to convert to proportion of total hemoglobin, multiply by 0.01), and the mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 9.2 (8.2) years. Whereas the clinics located in Greensboro, Asheville, and Fayetteville screened patients from more immediate surrounding areas, the

  19. Association of serum levels of anti-myeloperoxidase antibody with retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shivani; Saxena, Sandeep; Prasad, Senthamizh; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Bhasker, Shashi Kumar; Das, Siddharth; Krasnik, Vladimir; Caprnda, Martin; Opatrilova, Radka; Kruzliak, Peter

    2017-05-01

    To study the association of serum levels of anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibody with retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption in diabetic retinopathy. Consecutive patients with type 2 DM [diabetes mellitus with no retinopathy (NODR; n=20); non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR; n=18); proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n=16)] and healthy controls (n=20) between the ages of 40 and 65years were included. Disruption of EZ was graded by spectral domain optical coherence tomography as no disruption of EZ and disrupted EZ. The serum levels of anti-MPO antibody was analyzed using standard protocol. Association between the variables was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. A significant difference was found between the serum levels of anti-MPO antibody in various study groups (panti-MPO antibody [adjusted odd's ratio (AOR)=1.079, CI 1.010-1.124, p=0.04]. A significant positive correlation was found between logMAR visual acuity and grade of disruption (AOR=1.008, CI 1.006-5.688, p=0.04). An increased serum anti-MPO antibody levels is associated with retinal photoreceptor EZ disruption and decreased visual acuity in diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. VISUALIZATION FROM INTRAOPERATIVE SWEPT-SOURCE MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN VITRECTOMY FOR COMPLICATIONS OF PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Hesham; Chen, Xi; Zevallos-Carrasco, Oscar M; Viehland, Christian; Dandrige, Alexandria; Sarin, Neeru; Mahmoud, Tamer H; Vajzovic, Lejla; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2018-01-10

    To evaluate the use of live volumetric (4D) intraoperative swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography in vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications. In this prospective study, we analyzed a subgroup of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications who required vitrectomy and who were imaged by the research swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography system. In near real time, images were displayed in stereo heads-up display facilitating intraoperative surgeon feedback. Postoperative review included scoring image quality, identifying different diabetic retinopathy-associated pathologies and reviewing the intraoperatively documented surgeon feedback. Twenty eyes were included. Indications for vitrectomy were tractional retinal detachment (16 eyes), combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (2 eyes), and vitreous hemorrhage (2 eyes). Useful, good-quality 2D (B-scans) and 4D images were obtained in 16/20 eyes (80%). In these eyes, multiple diabetic retinopathy complications could be imaged. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography provided surgical guidance, e.g., in identifying dissection planes under fibrovascular membranes, and in determining residual membranes and traction that would benefit from additional peeling. In 4/20 eyes (20%), acceptable images were captured, but they were not useful due to high tractional retinal detachment elevation which was challenging for imaging. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography can provide important guidance during surgery for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications through intraoperative identification of different complications and facilitation of intraoperative decision making.

  1. The Association of Haptoglobin Gene Variants and Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqun Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Introduction. To collectively evaluate the association between haptoglobin (Hp gene variants and diabetic retinopathy (DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was performed for eligible studies. After inclusion and exclusion selection as well as quality assessment, those studies meeting quality standards were included. In this study, diabetic patients with retinopathy were selected as the case group and those ones without DR were treated as the control group. The recessive model, allele model, additive model, heterozygote model, and homozygote model were utilized to investigate the association of three Hp gene variants and DR. Subgroup analysis on different severity of DR including nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR was also conducted. Results. Six trials from different regions were finally included. A total of 1145 subjects containing 564 T2DM patients with retinopathy were included. The recessive model, allele model, additive model, and homozygote model results showed that Hp gene variants were not associated with DR, NPDR, and PDR. However, the heterozygote model indicated the association of Hp gene variants with DR. Conclusions. No association was found between the Hp gene variants and PDR and NPDR. More studies are required to verify these findings.

  2. Strategies of digital fundus photography for screening diabetic retinopathy in a diabetic population in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiyuan; Zou, Yanhong; Liu, Ningpu; Jiang, Li; Ren, Xuetao; Jia, Wei; Snellingen, Torkel; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Liu, Xipu

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of mydriasis and different field strategies on technical failure, probability to refer diabetic retinopathy (DR, sensitivity) and probability not to refer patients without DR (specificity) of digital photography in screening with a fundus camera. A total of 531 patients with diabetes underwent fundus photography with cross-combinations of mydriasis/nonmydriasis and single-field/two-field strategies, followed by slit lamp biomicroscopic examination by a trained ophthalmologist. Fundus photographs were graded independently by another experienced ophthalmologist. Calculations were first based on cases with non-gradable images treated as being referred and then with them excluded. Percentages of DR and referable DR in this patient cohort were 22.4% and 7.7%, respectively, based on slit lamp biomicroscopic examination. Mydriasis significantly reduced the technical failure rate from 27.1% to 8.3% under a single-field strategy, and from 28.2% to 8.9% under a two-field strategy. As compared to the single-field strategy, the two-field strategy increased sensitivity from 75.6% to 87.8% without mydriasis and from 73.2% to 90.2% with mydriasis. Mydriasis increased specificity from 68.8% to 84.3% in the single-field strategy and from 64.7% to 81.6% in the two-field strategy. Had the subjects with non-gradable images been excluded, the two-field strategy without mydriasis reported sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 91.6%. Both mydriasis and the two-field strategy are useful in photographic screening tests. Technical failure should be taken into consideration when screening strategies for DR are determined.

  3. Current Trends in the Monitoring and Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Raczyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR in young adults have significantly improved in recent years. Research methods have widened significantly, for example, by introducing spectral optical tomography of the eye. Invasive diagnostics, for example, fluorescein angiography, are done less frequently. The early introduction of an insulin pump to improve the administration of insulin is likely to delay the development of diabetic retinopathy, which is particularly important for young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The first years of diabetes occurring during childhood and youth are the most appropriate to introduce proper therapeutic intervention before any irreversible changes in the eyes appear. The treatment of DR includes increased metabolic control, laserotherapy, pharmacological treatment (antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory treatment, enzymatic vitreolysis, and intravitreal injections, and surgery. This paper summarizes the up-to-date developments in the diagnostics and treatment of DR. In the literature search, authors used online databases, PubMed, and clinitrials.gov and browsed through individual ophthalmology journals, books, and leading pharmaceutical company websites.

  4. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Saba; Azam, Aisha; Maqsood, Sundus Ijaz; Muslim, Irfan; Bashir, Shaheena; Fazal, Nosheen; Riaz, Moeen; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Ishaq, Mazhar; Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Qamar, Raheel; Azam, Maleeha

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR) as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID) polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion) polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–3.36]) and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR) (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098–4.620]), while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR). PMID:26658948

  5. Neuroprotective Effect of Hydroxytyrosol in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy: Relationship with Cardiovascular Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Correa, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María Dolores; Márquez-Estrada, Lucía; López-Villodres, Juan Antonio; Reyes, José Julio; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; De La Cruz, José Pedro

    2018-01-24

    The aim of the study was to test the neuroprotective effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on experimental diabetic retinopathy. Animals were divided in four groups: (1) control nondiabetic rats, (2) streptozotocin-diabetic rats (DR), (3) DR treated with 1 mg/kg/day p.o. HT, and (4) DR treated with 5 mg/kg/day p.o. HT. Treatment with HT was started 7 days before inducing diabetes and was maintained for 2 months. In the DR group, total area occupied by extracellular matrix was increased, area occupied by retinal cells was decreased; both returned to near-control values in DR rats treated with HT. The number of retinal ganglion cells in DR was significantly lower (44%) than in the control group, and this decrease was smaller after HT treatment (34% and 9.1%). Linear regression analysis showed that prostacyclin, platelet aggregation, peroxynitrites, and the dose of 5 mg/kg/day HT significantly influenced retinal ganglion cell count. In conclusion, HT exerted a neuroprotective effect on diabetic retinopathy, and this effect correlated significantly with changes in some cardiovascular biomarkers.

  6. Prevalence of Diabetic retinopathy in Kashmir, India -A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Qureshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among Kashmiri population. MaterialandMethod Inacross-sectionalhospitalbasedstudy,500patientswith established diabetes who attended eye OPD at Govt Medical College Srinagar were evaluated for the presence or absence of retinopathy. Relevant clinical examination was done and the findings were recorded at one point of time. No follow-up findings of the patients were included in this study. Direct Ophthalmoscope (Heinzand slit lamp bio-microscope (Zeiss were used for examination. Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS was used for statistical analysis. p60 yrs of age and 49 patients (36.2% were between 40-68 yrs of age. 33 (24.5% were males and 102 (75.5% were females. 30 patients (12.8% with diabetes of = 15 yr. Mild DR was present in 67 (37.4% patients, moderate to severe DR in 46 (9.2% patients, proliferative DR in 5(1% patients and diabetic maculopathy in 17(3.4%patients. Patients who were managed with insulin, either alone or with oral hypoglycemic drugs, had more prevalence of DR. Conclusion The present study concluded that DR is highly prevalent in this part of the world and needs early detection and appropriate treatment to prevent blindness due to this condition.

  7. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Saleem

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI = 1.04-3.36] and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098-4.620], while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR.

  8. Current trends in the monitoring and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyńska, Dorota; Zorena, Katarzyna; Urban, Beata; Zalewski, Dominik; Skorek, Andrzej; Malukiewicz, Grażyna; Sikorski, Bartosz L

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in young adults have significantly improved in recent years. Research methods have widened significantly, for example, by introducing spectral optical tomography of the eye. Invasive diagnostics, for example, fluorescein angiography, are done less frequently. The early introduction of an insulin pump to improve the administration of insulin is likely to delay the development of diabetic retinopathy, which is particularly important for young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The first years of diabetes occurring during childhood and youth are the most appropriate to introduce proper therapeutic intervention before any irreversible changes in the eyes appear. The treatment of DR includes increased metabolic control, laserotherapy, pharmacological treatment (antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory treatment, enzymatic vitreolysis, and intravitreal injections), and surgery. This paper summarizes the up-to-date developments in the diagnostics and treatment of DR. In the literature search, authors used online databases, PubMed, and clinitrials.gov and browsed through individual ophthalmology journals, books, and leading pharmaceutical company websites.

  9. Updating diabetic retinopathy screening lists using automatic extraction from GP patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, P H; Provins, E K; Craske, S; Chave, S J; Aldington, S J; Martin, C N; Stratton, I M

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy screening services aim to reduce the risk of sight loss amongst patients with diabetes. The rising incidence of diabetes in England and the operational need to ensure the accuracy and timeliness of screening lists led to a pilot study of electronic extraction of data from primary care. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of updating the single collated list of patients eligible for diabetic eye screening using extracts from electronic patient records in primary care. The Gloucestershire Diabetic Eye Screening Programme (GDESP) provides screening for 85 General Practices in the county. Of these, 54 using Egton Medical Information Systems (EMIS) practice management system software agreed to participate in this study. The screening list held in 2009 by the Gloucestershire DESP of 14,209 patients known to have diabetes was audited against a list created with automatic extraction from General Practice records of patients marked with the diabetes Read Code C10. Those subsequently screened and referred to the Hospital Eye service were followed up. The Gloucestershire DESP manual list covering the 54 EMIS practices comprised 14,771 people with diabetes. The audit process identified an additional 709 (4.8%) patients coded C10, including 23 diagnosed more than 5 years ago, and 20 patients under the age of 20 who were diagnosed more than a year ago. Automatic extraction of data from General Practice identified 709 patients coded as having diabetes not previously known to the Gloucestershire DESP.

  10. Influence of Age at Diagnosis and Time-Dependent Risk Factors on the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forga, Luis; Goñi, María José; Ibáñez, Berta; Cambra, Koldo; García-Mouriz, Marta; Iriarte, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine the influence of age at onset of type 1 diabetes and of traditional vascular risk factors on the development of diabetic retinopathy, in a cohort of patients who have been followed up after onset. Methods. Observational, retrospective study. The cohort consists of 989 patients who were followed up after diagnosis for a mean of 10.1 (SD: 6.8) years. The influence of age at diagnosis, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, sex, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, and smoking is analyzed using Cox univariate and multivariate models with fixed and time-dependent variables. Results. 135 patients (13.7%) developed diabetic retinopathy. The cumulative incidence was 0.7, 5.9, and 21.8% at 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up, respectively. Compared to the group with onset at age 44 years, respectively. During follow-up we also observed an association between diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The rate of diabetic retinopathy is higher in patients who were older at type 1 diabetes diagnosis. In addition, we confirmed the influence of glycemic control, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure on the occurrence of retinopathy.

  11. Influence of Age at Diagnosis and Time-Dependent Risk Factors on the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Forga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the influence of age at onset of type 1 diabetes and of traditional vascular risk factors on the development of diabetic retinopathy, in a cohort of patients who have been followed up after onset. Methods. Observational, retrospective study. The cohort consists of 989 patients who were followed up after diagnosis for a mean of 10.1 (SD: 6.8 years. The influence of age at diagnosis, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, sex, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, and smoking is analyzed using Cox univariate and multivariate models with fixed and time-dependent variables. Results. 135 patients (13.7% developed diabetic retinopathy. The cumulative incidence was 0.7, 5.9, and 21.8% at 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up, respectively. Compared to the group with onset at age 44 years, respectively. During follow-up we also observed an association between diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The rate of diabetic retinopathy is higher in patients who were older at type 1 diabetes diagnosis. In addition, we confirmed the influence of glycemic control, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure on the occurrence of retinopathy.

  12. Prevalence of retinopathy among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus: the Sri Lanka diabetes and Cardiovascular Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil

    2014-08-20

    At present there are no large scale nationally-representative studies from Sri Lanka on the prevalence and associations of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for DR in a community-based nationally-representative sample of adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus from Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional community-based national study among 5,000 adults (≥18 years) was conducted in Sri Lanka, using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Ophthalmological evaluation of patients with 'known' diabetes (previously diagnosed at a government hospital or by a registered medical practitioner) was done using indirect ophthalmoscopy. A binary-logistic regression analysis was performed with 'presence of DR' as the dichotomous dependent variable and other independent covariates. Crude prevalence of diabetes was 12.0% (n = 536), of which 344 were patients with 'known' diabetes. Mean age was 56.4 ± 10.9 years and 37.3% were males. Prevalence of any degree of DR was 27.4% (Males-30.5%, Females-25.6%; p = 0.41). In patients with DR, majority had NPDR (93.4%), while 5.3% had maculopathy. Patients with DR had a significantly longer duration of diabetes than those without. In the binary-logistic regression analysis in all adults duration of diabetes (OR:1.07), current smoking (OR:1.67) and peripheral neuropathy (OR:1.72) all were significantly associated with DR. Nearly 1/3rd of Sri Lankan adults with self-reported diabetes are having retinopathy. DR was associated with diabetes duration, cigarette smoking and peripheral neuropathy. However, further prospective follow up studies are required to establish causality for identified risk factors.

  13. Factors Associated With Progression Of Diabetic Retinopathy, A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basically univariate analyses were followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of 704 diabetic patients participated in the study 216 were diagnosed as having DR with an overall 30.7% prevalence rate. Among 216 patients with DR, 33 were diagnosed as PDR (4.7%) and 183 were diagnosed as NPDR ...

  14. Screening for diabetic retinopathy in primary care with a mobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A SWOT analysis of the pilot project was completed and recommendations were made on how to integrate it into the district health system. Conclusion. Screening with a fundal camera improved the quality of care for diabetic patients and is feasible in the South African public sector, primary care setting. A single technician ...

  15. [Screening for diabetic retinopathy by non-mydriatic retinal camera in the region of Fez].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, M; Marrakchi, M; Benatiya, I A; Tahri, H

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to determine the benefits of screening by non-mydriatic retinal camera in the Fez region and to present the results of this screening. We report a prospective study of 430 diabetic patients, or 860 eyes, compiled between December 2012 and June 2013 in the Dokkarat health center, "integrated referral center for management of diabetes and hypertension" in the region of Fez. All patients underwent an examination by non-mydriatic fundus camera, obtaining two digital images per eye. The photos are taken by a nurse and a general practitioner. Interpretation of the images was performed in the ophthalmology department of the Hassan II University Medical Center of Fez. A total of 430 patients were screened (78.4% female, 21.6% male). The mean age was 54.7 years (range, 10-80 years). The average duration of diabetes was 7.7 years (±5.9). Most patients had type 2 diabetes (94%). Insulin therapy was found in 35.3%. The mean HbA1c (obtained from 421 patients) was 8.21%. 38,8% of patients had never consulted an ophthalmologist before. The fundus photographs were not interpretable for at least one eye in 75 cases (17.4%). Among the interpretable images, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was 44.6%. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in at least one eye in 2.5% and diabetic maculopathy in 32 cases (9%). After screening, 69% of patients with DR were seen by the ophthalmologist. These data confirm the benefits of screening by non-mydriatic retinal camera, because it helps reintegrate patients into the healthcare system and thus provides a real benefit in terms of public health and prevention of complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Catalase therapy corrects oxidative stress-induced pathophysiology in incipient diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Courtney R; Roberts, Robin; Krentz, Kendra A; Bissig, David; Talreja, Deepa; Kumar, Ashok; Terlecky, Stanley R; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-05-01

    Preclinical studies have highlighted retinal oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated whether a treatment designed to enhance cellular catalase reduces oxidative stress in retinal cells cultured in high glucose and in diabetic mice corrects an imaging biomarker responsive to antioxidant therapy (manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [MEMRI]). Human retinal Müller and pigment epithelial cells were chronically exposed to normal or high glucose levels and treated with a cell-penetrating derivative of the peroxisomal enzyme catalase (called CAT-SKL). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were measured using a quantitative fluorescence-based assay. For in vivo studies, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic C57Bl/6 mice were treated subcutaneously once a week for 3 to 4 months with CAT-SKL; untreated age-matched nondiabetic controls and untreated diabetic mice also were studied. MEMRI was used to analytically assess the efficacy of CAT-SKL treatment on diabetes-evoked oxidative stress-related pathophysiology in vivo. Similar analyses were performed with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase. After catalase transduction, high glucose-induced peroxide production was significantly lowered in both human retinal cell lines. In diabetic mice in vivo, subnormal intraretinal uptake of manganese was significantly improved by catalase supplementation. In addition, in the peroxisome-rich liver of treated mice catalase enzyme activity increased and oxidative damage (as measured by lipid peroxidation) declined. On the other hand, DFMO was largely without effect in these in vitro or in vivo assays. This proof-of-concept study raises the possibility that augmentation of catalase is a therapy for treating the retinal oxidative stress associated with diabetic retinopathy.

  17. Prevalence and 15-year incidence of retinopathy and associated characteristics in middle-aged and elderly diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko, L; Goldbourt, U; Michaelson, I C; Shapiro, A; Yaari, S

    1983-01-01

    We examined 178 men for the presence of diabetic retinopathy during 1978-80. They had been part of a group of 205 men from the Jerusalem area, diagnosed as being diabetic or having an abnormal glucose tolerance test in the Israel Ischaemic Heart Disease Project, a 5-year epidemiological investigation of Israeli male government employees. Seventy-four (42%) had diabetic retinopathy as determined by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, 3-mirror contact lens examination, and fundus photography. Those with and without retinopathy were compared for clinical, biochemical, behavioural, and biographical variables measured subsequently in 1963, 1965, and 1968. We found no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to antecedent Quetelet index, blood pressure, peripheral vascular disease, blood lipids, haematocrits, smoking habits, area of birth, and education. Statistically significant differences between men with and without retinopathy were found for severity of carbohydrate metabolic intolerance at identification, duration of the metabolic abnormality, age, casual glucose values, and serum uric acid levels. Low serum uric acid appears to precede the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and to decline further as the disease progresses. PMID:6639910

  18. Clock genes and behavioral responses to light are altered in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouaoui, Hasna; Coutanson, Christine; Cooper, Howard M; Bennis, Mohamed; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are altered in retinal pathologies. Using a streptozotocin-induced (STZ) model of diabetes, we investigated the impact of diabetic retinopathy on non-visual functions by analyzing ipRGCs morphology and light-induced c-Fos and Period 1-2 clock genes in the central clock (SCN). The ability of STZ-diabetic mice to entrain to light was challenged by exposure animals to 1) successive light/dark (LD) cycle of decreasing or increasing light intensities during the light phase and 2) 6-h advance of the LD cycle. Our results show that diabetes induces morphological changes of ipRGCs, including soma swelling and dendritic varicosities, with no reduction in their total number, associated with decreased c-Fos and clock genes induction by light in the SCN at 12 weeks post-onset of diabetes. In addition, STZ-diabetic mice exhibited a reduction of overall locomotor activity, a decrease of circadian sensitivity to light at low intensities, and a delay in the time to re-entrain after a phase advance of the LD cycle. These novel findings demonstrate that diabetes alters clock genes and behavioral responses of the circadian timing system to light and suggest that diabetic patients may show an increased propensity for circadian disturbances, in particular when they are exposed to chronobiological challenges.

  19. Clock genes and behavioral responses to light are altered in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Lahouaoui

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells (ipRGCs are altered in retinal pathologies. Using a streptozotocin-induced (STZ model of diabetes, we investigated the impact of diabetic retinopathy on non-visual functions by analyzing ipRGCs morphology and light-induced c-Fos and Period 1-2 clock genes in the central clock (SCN. The ability of STZ-diabetic mice to entrain to light was challenged by exposure animals to 1 successive light/dark (LD cycle of decreasing or increasing light intensities during the light phase and 2 6-h advance of the LD cycle. Our results show that diabetes induces morphological changes of ipRGCs, including soma swelling and dendritic varicosities, with no reduction in their total number, associated with decreased c-Fos and clock genes induction by light in the SCN at 12 weeks post-onset of diabetes. In addition, STZ-diabetic mice exhibited a reduction of overall locomotor activity, a decrease of circadian sensitivity to light at low intensities, and a delay in the time to re-entrain after a phase advance of the LD cycle. These novel findings demonstrate that diabetes alters clock genes and behavioral responses of the circadian timing system to light and suggest that diabetic patients may show an increased propensity for circadian disturbances, in particular when they are exposed to chronobiological challenges.

  20. Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy by Preventing Retinal Inflammation and Tight Junction Protein Decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zengyang; Gong, Chenyuan; Lu, Bin; Yang, Li; Sheng, Yuchen; Ji, Lili; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to observe the alleviation of the ethanol extract of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. (DC), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on DR and its engaged mechanism. After DC (30 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated, the breakdown of blood retinal barrier (BRB) in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats was attenuated by DC. Decreased retinal mRNA expression of tight junction proteins (including occludin and claudin-1) in diabetic rats was also reversed by DC. Western blot analysis and retinal immunofluorescence staining results further confirmed that DC reversed the decreased expression of occludin and claudin-1 proteins in diabetic rats. DC reduced the increased retinal mRNA expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin- (IL-) 6, and IL-1β in diabetic rats. In addition, DC alleviated the increased 1 and phosphorylated p65, IκB, and IκB kinase (IKK) in diabetic rats. DC also reduced the increased serum levels of TNFα, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-10 in diabetic rats. Therefore, DC can alleviate DR by inhibiting retinal inflammation and preventing the decrease of tight junction proteins, such as occludin and claudin-1. PMID:25685822

  1. Clock Genes and Behavioral Responses to Light Are Altered in a Mouse Model of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouaoui, Hasna; Coutanson, Christine; Cooper, Howard M.; Bennis, Mohamed; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are altered in retinal pathologies. Using a streptozotocin-induced (STZ) model of diabetes, we investigated the impact of diabetic retinopathy on non-visual functions by analyzing ipRGCs morphology and light-induced c-Fos and Period 1–2 clock genes in the central clock (SCN). The ability of STZ-diabetic mice to entrain to light was challenged by exposure animals to 1) successive light/dark (LD) cycle of decreasing or increasing light intensities during the light phase and 2) 6-h advance of the LD cycle. Our results show that diabetes induces morphological changes of ipRGCs, including soma swelling and dendritic varicosities, with no reduction in their total number, associated with decreased c-Fos and clock genes induction by light in the SCN at 12 weeks post-onset of diabetes. In addition, STZ-diabetic mice exhibited a reduction of overall locomotor activity, a decrease of circadian sensitivity to light at low intensities, and a delay in the time to re-entrain after a phase advance of the LD cycle. These novel findings demonstrate that diabetes alters clock genes and behavioral responses of the circadian timing system to light and suggest that diabetic patients may show an increased propensity for circadian disturbances, in particular when they are exposed to chronobiological challenges. PMID:25006976

  2. Panretinal photocoagulation versus intravitreal injection retreatment pain in high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Farias de Araújo Lucena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare pain related to intravitreal injection and panretinal photocoagulation in the management of patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Prospective study including patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and no prior laser treatment randomly assigned to receive panretinal photocoagulation (PRP group or panretinal photocoagulation plus intravitreal ranibizumab (PRPplus group. In all patients, panretinal photocoagulation was administered in two sessions (weeks 0 and 2, and intravitreal ranibizumab was administered at the end of the first laser session in the PRPplus group. Retreatment was performed at weeks 16 and 32 if active new vessels were detected at fluorescein angiography. Patients in the PRPplus group received intravitreal ranibizumab and patients in the PRP group received 500-µm additional spots per quadrant of active new vessels. After the end of retreatment, a 100-degree Visual Analog Scale was used for pain score estimation. The patient was asked about the intensity of pain during the whole procedure (retinal photocoagulation session or intravitreal ranibizumab injection. Statistics for pain score comparison were performed using a non-parametric test (Wilcoxon rank sums. RESULTS: Seventeen patients from PRPplus and 14 from PRP group were evaluated for pain scores. There were no significant differences between both groups regarding gender, glycosylated hemoglobin and disease duration. Mean intravitreal injection pain (±SEM was 4.7 ± 2.1 and was significantly lower (p<0.0001 than mean panretinal photocoagulation pain (60.8 ± 7.8. Twelve out of 17 patients from the PRPplus group referred intensity pain score of zero, while the minimal score found in PRP group was found in one patient with 10.5. CONCLUSION: In patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy who needed retreatment for persistent new vessels, there was more comfort for the patient when retreatment

  3. Efficacy evaluation of compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate in patients with early diabetic retinopathy

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    Yan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effect of compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate in patients with early diabetic retinopathy.METHODS: Totally 120 patients with early diabetic retinopathy were selected, and they were randomly divided into study group and control group according to the random number table method, each had 60 cases. Patients in the control group were treated with compound Xueshuantong capsule, and the patients in the study group were treated with compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate. We observed and compared the clinical symptoms(hemangioma volume, hemorrhagic spot area, macular thickness, visual gray value, visual acuity, threshold sensitivity within 30°, inflammatory factors(serum hs-CRP, VEGF, IGF-1, clinical efficacy and adverse events. RESULTS:(1The hematoma volume, hemorrhage spot area, macular thickness and visual gray value of the two groups were lower than those before treatment(tstudy group=24.81, 19.59, 8.567, 17.79, tcontrol group=12.02, 8.60, 10.32, 10.85; Ptstudy group=-5.24, -8.79, tstudy group=-2.26, -3.39; all Pt=-12.97, -9.47,-13.54, -5.59, 2.65, 4.05; all Ptstudy group=34.30, 23.33, 42.118, tcontrol group =18.68, 17.46, 26.73; all Pt=-14.79, -7.43, -15.35, all Pχ2=16.352, Pχ2=0.32, P>0.05.CONCLUSION: Compound Xueshuantong capsule combined with calcium dobesilate in the treatment of early diabetic retinopathy can effectively improve the clinical symptoms of retinal defects, the mechanism of action is related to the level of inflammatory factors, the clinical efficacy is better, security is high.

  4. Development and Validation of a Diabetic Retinopathy Referral Algorithm Based on Single-Field Fundus Photography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Srinivasan

    Full Text Available To develop a simplified algorithm to identify and refer diabetic retinopathy (DR from single-field retinal images specifically for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy for appropriate care (ii to determine the agreement and diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm as a pilot study among optometrists versus "gold standard" (retinal specialist grading.The severity of DR was scored based on colour photo using a colour coded algorithm, which included the lesions of DR and number of quadrants involved. A total of 99 participants underwent training followed by evaluation. Data of the 99 participants were analyzed. Fifty posterior pole 45 degree retinal images with all stages of DR were presented. Kappa scores (κ, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs, sensitivity and specificity were determined, with further comparison between working optometrists and optometry students.Mean age of the participants was 22 years (range: 19-43 years, 87% being women. Participants correctly identified 91.5% images that required immediate referral (κ = 0.696, 62.5% of images as requiring review after 6 months (κ = 0.462, and 51.2% of those requiring review after 1 year (κ = 0.532. The sensitivity and specificity of the optometrists were 91% and 78% for immediate referral, 62% and 84% for review after 6 months, and 51% and 95% for review after 1 year, respectively. The AUC was the highest (0.855 for immediate referral, second highest (0.824 for review after 1 year, and 0.727 for review after 6 months criteria. Optometry students performed better than the working optometrists for all grades of referral.The diabetic retinopathy algorithm assessed in this work is a simple and a fairly accurate method for appropriate referral based on single-field 45 degree posterior pole retinal images.

  5. Laws of physics help explain capillary non-perfusion in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, E; Chan, Y K; Bek, T; Hardarson, S H; Wong, D; Wilson, D I

    2018-01-19

    The purpose is to use laws of physics to elucidate the mechanisms behind capillary non-perfusion in diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic retinopathy, loss of pericytes weakens capillary walls and the vessel dilates. A dilated capillary has reduced resistance to flow, therefore increased flow in that vessel and decreased in adjoining capillaries. A preferential shunt vessel is thus formed from the dilated capillary and the adjacent capillaries become non-perfused. We apply the laws of Laplace and Hagen-Poiseuille to better understand the phenomena that lead to capillary non-perfusion. These laws of physics can give a foundation for physical or mathematical models to further elucidate this field of study. The law of Laplace predicts that a weaker vessel wall will dilate, assuming constant transmural pressure. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation for flow and the Ostwald-de Waele relationship for viscosity predict that a dilated vessel will receive a higher portion of the fluid flow than the adjoining capillaries. Viscosity will decrease in the dilated vessel, furthering the imbalance and resulting in a patch of non-perfused capillaries next to the dilated 'preferential' shunt vessel. Physical principles support or inspire novel hypotheses to explain poorly understood phenomena in ophthalmology. This thesis of pericyte death and capillary remodelling, which was first proposed by Cogan and Kuwabara, already agrees with histological and angiographical observations in diabetic retinopathy. We have shown that it is also supported by classical laws of physics.Eye advance online publication, 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.313.

  6. Non-Traditional Systemic Treatments for Diabetic Retinopathy: An
Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Rafael; Ballarini, Stefania; Cunha-Vaz, José; Ji, Linong; Haller, Hermann; Zimmet, Paul; Wong, Tien Y.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid escalation in the global prevalence diabetes, with more than 30% being afflicted with diabetic retinopathy (DR), means it is likely that associated vision-threatening conditions will also rise substantially. This means that new therapeutic approaches need to be found that go beyond the current standards of diabetic care, and which are effective in the early stages of the disease. In recent decades several new pharmacological agents have been investigated for their effectiveness in preventing the appearance and progression of DR or in reversing DR; some with limited success while others appear promising. This up-to-date critical review of non-traditional systemic treatments for DR is based on the published evidence in MEDLINE spanning 1980-December 2014. It discusses a number of therapeutic options, paying particular attention to the mechanisms of action and the clinical evidence for the use of renin-angiotensin system blockade, fenofibrate and calcium dobesilate monohydrate in DR. PMID:25989912

  7. Results of Automated Retinal Image Analysis for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy from the Nakuru Study, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Bøgelund Hansen, Morten; Abramoff, M. D.; Folk, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Reading Centre on the population of Nakuru Study from Kenya. Participants Retinal images were taken from participants of the Nakuru Eye Disease Study in Kenya in 2007/08 (n = 4,381 participants [NW6 Topcon Digital Retinal Camera]). Methods First, human grading was performed for the presence or absence......Objective Digital retinal imaging is an established method of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR). It has been established that currently about 1% of the world's blind or visually impaired is due to DR. However, the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and DR is creating an increased...... workload on those with expertise in grading retinal images. Safe and reliable automated analysis of retinal images may support screening services worldwide. This study aimed to compare the Iowa Detection Program (IDP) ability to detect diabetic eye diseases (DED) to human grading carried out at Moorfields...

  8. Recent Update on the Role of Chinese Material Medica and Formulations in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasant More

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders, affecting populations worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes in patients aged 20 and over. Major complications of DR include intraocular neovascularization, inter-retinal edema, hemorrhage, exudates and microaneurysms. Therefore, timely medical attention and prevention are required. At present, laser-assisted therapy and other operational procedures are the most common treatment for DR. However, these treatments can cause retinal damage and scarring. Also, use of the majority of traditional medicines is not supported by clinical evidence. However, due to accumulating scientific evidence, traditional natural medications may assist in delaying or preventing the progression of DR. This review focuses on evidence for the role of traditional natural medicines and their mechanisms of action and pharmacological test results in relation to the progression of DR.

  9. Inpatient screening for albuminuria and retinopathy to predict long-term mortality in type 2 diabetic patients: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Ya-Mei; Lee, Wen-Jane; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Li, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, I.-Te

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a high hospitalization rate for diabetic patients. Since retinopathy and albuminuria are both important manifestations of microvascular disease in diabetes, our aim was to investigate the effect of retinopathy and albuminuria on long-term mortality in type 2 diabetic inpatients through this observational cohort study. Methods Type 2 diabetic inpatients given a primary diagnosis of poor glucose control were consecutively enrolled during their hospitalization periods. Clinic...

  10. Result of 1.5a follow-up for epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy in community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yang Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy(DRin type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DMin Fengyutan community in Shenyang.METHODS: Totally 457 community residents with T2DM were selected in 2011. Ninety-two of these people accepted the reexamination in 2013. Besides, there were 312 residents with T2DM joined in the study in the same year. Basic condition and life style were investigated, and diabetic retinopathy screening were performed. Logistic multiple regression was used to analyze related risk factors.RESULTS: The prevalence of DR were 15.8% and 41.2% in 2011 and 2013 respectively in the community. Compared with NDR group, age, family history of DM, duration of DM, fasting blood-glucose(FBG, 2h post-meal blood glucose(2hPG, hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c, total cholesterol(TC, serum creatinine(Scr, systolic blood pressure(SBP, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C, LDL-Cwere statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: The prevalence of DR in Fengyutan community was much higher than the other studies in northern China. It was primarily concerned with long duration of DM, poor glycemic control, inadequate concern with or even neglect of DM and the related oculopathy, hypertension and hyperlipidemia and so on.

  11. Role of Tamponade in Vitrectomy for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy with Vitreous Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Divya; Jain, Bhavna; Nayaka, Ashraya; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Mukundaprasad, Vinod; Jalali, Subhadra

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the role of tampon