Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.J.F.; Köhler, J.; Larson, M.; de Jong, F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Ordelman, R.J.F.
VideoCLEF is a new track for the CLEF 2008 campaign. This track aims to develop and evaluate tasks in analyzing multilingual video content. A pilot of a Vid2RSS task involving assigning thematic class labels to video kicks off the VideoCLEF track in 2008. Task participants deliver classification
Yew, Jude; Shamma, David A.
In this paper, we present a method for video category classification using only social metadata from websites like YouTube. In place of content analysis, we utilize communicative and social contexts surrounding videos as a means to determine a categorical genre, e.g. Comedy, Music. We hypothesize that video clips belonging to different genre categories would have distinct signatures and patterns that are reflected in their collected metadata. In particular, we define and describe social metadata as usage or action to aid in classification. We trained a Naive Bayes classifier to predict categories from a sample of 1,740 YouTube videos representing the top five genre categories. Using just a small number of the available metadata features, we compare the classifications produced by our Naive Bayes classifier with those provided by the uploader of that particular video. Compared to random predictions with the YouTube data (21% accurate), our classifier attained a mediocre 33% accuracy in predicting video genres. However, we found that the accuracy of our classifier significantly improves by nominal factoring of the explicit data features. By factoring the ratings of the videos in the dataset, the classifier was able to accurately predict the genres of 75% of the videos. We argue that the patterns of social activity found in the metadata are not just meaningful in their own right, but are indicative of the meaning of the shared video content. The results presented by this project represents a first step in investigating the potential meaning and significance of social metadata and its relation to the media experience.
Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M. T.
Multimedia adaptation depends on several factors, such as the content itself, the consumption device and its characteristics, the transport and access networks and the user. An adaptation decision engine, in order to provide the best possible Quality of Experience to a user, needs to have information about all variables that may influence its decision. For the aforementioned factors, we implement content classification, define device classes, consider limited bandwidth scenarios and categorize user preferences based on a subjective quality evaluation test. The results of these actions generate vital information to pass to the adaptation decision engine so that its operation may provide the indication of the most suitable adaptation to perform that delivers the best possible outcome for the user under the existing constraints.
Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu
This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...
Vidaña-Pérez, Dèsirée; Braverman-Bronstein, Ariela; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Hilscher, Rainer; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh
Background: Video games are widely used by children and adolescents and have become a significant source of exposure to sexual content. Despite evidence of the important role of media in the development of sexual attitudes and behaviours, little attention has been paid to monitor sexual content in video games. Methods: Data was obtained about sexual content and rating for 23722 video games from 1994 to 2013 from the Entertainment Software Rating Board database; release dates and information on the top 100 selling video games was also obtained. A yearly prevalence of sexual content according to rating categories was calculated. Trends and comparisons were estimated using Joinpoint regression. Results: Sexual content was present in 13% of the video games. Games rated 'Mature' had the highest prevalence of sexual content (34.5%) followed by 'Teen' (30.7%) and 'E10+' (21.3%). Over time, sexual content decreased in the 'Everyone' category, 'E10+' maintained a low prevalence and 'Teen' and 'Mature' showed a marked increase. Both top and non-top video games showed constant increases, with top selling video games having 10.1% more sexual content across the period of study. Conclusion: Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of sexual content has increased in video games with a 'Teen' or 'Mature' rating. Further studies are needed to quantify the potential association between sexual content in video games and sexual behaviour in children and adolescents.
van Houten, Ynze; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Enser, Peter; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Smeulders, Arnold W.M.
With information systems, the real design problem is not increased access to information, but greater efficiency in finding useful information. In our approach to video content browsing, we try to match the browsing environment with human information processing structures by applying ideas from
Israël, Menno; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; den Uyl, Marten J.; Petrushin, Valery A.; Khan, Latifur
The work presented here introduces a real-time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification
Full Text Available Surveillance of a seaport can be achieved by different means: radar, sonar, cameras, radio communications and so on. Such a surveillance aims, on the one hand, to manage cargo and tanker traffic, and, on the other hand, to prevent terrorist attacks in sensitive areas. In this paper an application to video-surveillance of a seaport entrance is presented, and more particularly, the different steps enabling to classify mobile shapes. This classification is based on a parameter measuring the similarity degree between the shape under study and a set of reference shapes. The classification result describes the considered mobile in terms of shape and speed.
Du, Xun; Li, Honglin; Ahalt, Stanley C.
The term Content-Based appears often in applications for which MPEG-7 is expected to play a significant role. MPEG-7 standardizes descriptors of multimedia content, and while compression is not the primary focus of MPEG-7, the descriptors defined by MPEG-7 can be used to reconstruct a rough representation of an original multimedia source. In contrast, current image and video compression standards such as JPEG and MPEG are not designed to encode at the very low bit-rates that could be accomplished with MPEG-7 using descriptors. In this paper we show that content-based mechanisms can be introduced into compression algorithms to improve the scalability and functionality of current compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG. This is the fundamental idea behind Content-Based Compression (CBC). Our definition of CBC is a compression method that effectively encodes a sufficient description of the content of an image or a video in order to ensure that the recipient is able to reconstruct the image or video to some degree of accuracy. The degree of accuracy can be, for example, the classification error rate of the encoded objects, since in MPEG-7 the classification error rate measures the performance of the content descriptors. We argue that the major difference between a content-based compression algorithm and conventional block-based or object-based compression algorithms is that content-based compression replaces the quantizer with a more sophisticated classifier, or with a quantizer which minimizes classification error. Compared to conventional image and video compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, our results show that content-based compression is able to achieve more efficient image and video coding by suppressing the background while leaving the objects of interest nearly intact.
Bolle, R. M.; Yeo, B.-L.; Yeung, M.
Digital video databases are becoming more and more pervasive and finding video of interest in large databases is rapidly becoming a problem. Intelligent means of quick content-based video retrieval and content-based rapid video viewing is, therefore, an important topic of research. Video is a rich source of data, it contains visual and audio information, and in many cases, there is text associated with the video. Content-based video retrieval should use all this information in an efficient and effective way. From a human perspective, a video query can be viewed as an iterated sequence of navigating, searching, browsing, and viewing. This paper addresses video search in terms of these phases.
He, Ye; Fei, Kevin; Fernandez, Gustavo A.; Delp, Edward J.
Due to the increasing user expectation on watching experience, moving web high quality video streaming content from the small screen in mobile devices to the larger TV screen has become popular. It is crucial to develop video quality metrics to measure the quality change for various devices or network conditions. In this paper, we propose an automated scoring system to quantify user satisfaction. We compare the quality of local videos with the videos transmitted to a TV. Four video quality metrics, namely Image Quality, Rendering Quality, Freeze Time Ratio and Rate of Freeze Events are used to measure video quality change during web content mirroring. To measure image quality and rendering quality, we compare the matched frames between the source video and the destination video using barcode tools. Freeze time ratio and rate of freeze events are measured after extracting video timestamps. Several user studies are conducted to evaluate the impact of each objective video quality metric on the subjective user watching experience.
Ali, Ashikin; Senan, Norhalina
Basically, data pre-processing is an important part of data mining. Normalization is a pre-processing stage for any type of problem statement, especially in video classification. Challenging problems that arises in video classification is because of the heterogeneous content, large variations in video quality and complex semantic meanings of the concepts involved. Therefore, to regularize this problem, it is thoughtful to ensure normalization or basically involvement of thorough pre-processing stage aids the robustness of classification performance. This process is to scale all the numeric variables into certain range to make it more meaningful for further phases in available data mining techniques. Thus, this paper attempts to examine the effect of 2 normalization techniques namely Min-max normalization and Z-score in violence video classifications towards the performance of classification rate using Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) classifier. Using Min-Max Normalization range of [0,1] the result shows almost 98% of accuracy, meanwhile Min-Max Normalization range of [-1,1] accuracy is 59% and for Z-score the accuracy is 50%.
Nije Bijvank, M.; Konijn, E.A.; Bushman, B.J.; Roelofsma, P.H.M.P.
OBJECTIVE. To protect minors from exposure to video games with objectionable content (eg, violence and sex), the Pan European Game Information developed a classification system for video games (eg, 18+). We tested the hypothesis that this classification system may actually increase the
Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos; Goma, Sergio R.
As network service providers seek to improve customer satisfaction and retention levels, they are increasingly moving from traditional quality of service (QoS) driven delivery models to customer-centred quality of experience (QoE) delivery models. QoS models only consider metrics derived from the network however, QoE models also consider metrics derived from within the video sequence itself. Various spatial and temporal characteristics of a video sequence have been proposed, both individually and in combination, to derive methods of classifying video content either on a continuous scale or as a set of discrete classes. QoE models can be divided into three broad categories, full reference, reduced reference and no-reference models. Due to the need to have the original video available at the client for comparison, full reference metrics are of limited practical value in adaptive real-time video applications. Reduced reference metrics often require metadata to be transmitted with the bitstream, while no-reference metrics typically operate in the decompressed domain at the client side and require significant processing to extract spatial and temporal features. This paper proposes a heuristic, no-reference approach to video content classification which is specific to HEVC encoded bitstreams. The HEVC encoder already makes use of spatial characteristics to determine partitioning of coding units and temporal characteristics to determine the splitting of prediction units. We derive a function which approximates the spatio-temporal characteristics of the video sequence by using the weighted averages of the depth at which the coding unit quadtree is split and the prediction mode decision made by the encoder to estimate spatial and temporal characteristics respectively. Since the video content type of a sequence is determined by using high level information parsed from the video stream, spatio-temporal characteristics are identified without the need for full decoding and can
158 pages This study aims to construct a systematical approach to classification of narrative usage in video games. The most recent dominant approaches of reading a video game text – narratology and ludology - are discussed. By inquiring the place of interactivity and autonomy inside the discourse of video game narrative, a classification is proposed. Consequently six groups of video games are determined, depending on the levels of combination of narration and ludic context. These Six Degr...
Moreira, Daniel; Avila, Sandra; Perez, Mauricio; Moraes, Daniel; Testoni, Vanessa; Valle, Eduardo; Goldenstein, Siome; Rocha, Anderson
As web technologies and social networks become part of the general public's life, the problem of automatically detecting pornography is into every parent's mind - nobody feels completely safe when their children go online. In this paper, we focus on video-pornography classification, a hard problem in which traditional methods often employ still-image techniques - labeling frames individually prior to a global decision. Frame-based approaches, however, ignore significant cogent information brought by motion. Here, we introduce a space-temporal interest point detector and descriptor called Temporal Robust Features (TRoF). TRoF was custom-tailored for efficient (low processing time and memory footprint) and effective (high classification accuracy and low false negative rate) motion description, particularly suited to the task at hand. We aggregate local information extracted by TRoF into a mid-level representation using Fisher Vectors, the state-of-the-art model of Bags of Visual Words (BoVW). We evaluate our original strategy, contrasting it both to commercial pornography detection solutions, and to BoVW solutions based upon other space-temporal features from the scientific literature. The performance is assessed using the Pornography-2k dataset, a new challenging pornographic benchmark, comprising 2000 web videos and 140h of video footage. The dataset is also a contribution of this work and is very assorted, including both professional and amateur content, and it depicts several genres of pornography, from cartoon to live action, with diverse behavior and ethnicity. The best approach, based on a dense application of TRoF, yields a classification error reduction of almost 79% when compared to the best commercial classifier. A sparse description relying on TRoF detector is also noteworthy, for yielding a classification error reduction of over 69%, with 19× less memory footprint than the dense solution, and yet can also be implemented to meet real-time requirements
Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.J.F.
The VideoCLEF track, introduced in 2008, aims to develop and evaluate tasks related to analysis of and access to multilingual multimedia content. In its first year, VideoCLEF piloted the Vid2RSS task, whose main subtask was the classification of dual language video (Dutch-language television content
Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.
The VideoCLEF track, introduced in 2008, aims to develop and evaluate tasks related to analysis of and access to multilingual multimedia content. In its first year, VideoCLEF piloted the Vid2RSS task, whose main subtask was the classification of dual language video (Dutch-language television content
Baktashmotlagh, Mahsa; Harandi, Mehrtash; Lovell, Brian C; Salzmann, Mathieu
Low-dimensional representations are key to the success of many video classification algorithms. However, the commonly-used dimensionality reduction techniques fail to account for the fact that only part of the signal is shared across all the videos in one class. As a consequence, the resulting representations contain instance-specific information, which introduces noise in the classification process. In this paper, we introduce non-linear stationary subspace analysis: a method that overcomes this issue by explicitly separating the stationary parts of the video signal (i.e., the parts shared across all videos in one class), from its non-stationary parts (i.e., the parts specific to individual videos). Our method also encourages the new representation to be discriminative, thus accounting for the underlying classification problem. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on dynamic texture recognition, scene classification and action recognition.
Full Text Available Why do some online video advertisements go viral while others remain unnoticed? What kind of video content keeps the viewer interested and motivated to share? Many companies have realized the need to innovate their marketing strategies and have embraced the newest ways of using technology, as the Internet, to their advantage as in the example of virality. Yet few marketers actually understand how, and academic literature on this topic is still in development. This study investigated which content characteristics distinguish successful from non-successful online viral video advertisements by analyzing 641 cases using Structural Equation Modeling. Results show that Engagement and Surprise are two main content characteristics that significantly increase the chance of online video advertisements to go viral.
Karpenko, Alexandre; Aarabi, Parham
In this paper, we present a large database of over 50,000 user-labeled videos collected from YouTube. We develop a compact representation called "tiny videos" that achieves high video compression rates while retaining the overall visual appearance of the video as it varies over time. We show that frame sampling using affinity propagation-an exemplar-based clustering algorithm-achieves the best trade-off between compression and video recall. We use this large collection of user-labeled videos in conjunction with simple data mining techniques to perform related video retrieval, as well as classification of images and video frames. The classification results achieved by tiny videos are compared with the tiny images framework  for a variety of recognition tasks. The tiny images data set consists of 80 million images collected from the Internet. These are the largest labeled research data sets of videos and images available to date. We show that tiny videos are better suited for classifying scenery and sports activities, while tiny images perform better at recognizing objects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that combining the tiny images and tiny videos data sets improves classification precision in a wider range of categories.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.
Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem
An increasing number of large publicly available video libraries results in a demand for techniques that can manipulate the video data based on content. In this paper, we present a content-based video retrieval system called Cobra. The system supports automatic extraction and retrieval of high-level
Yu, Yiqing; Liu, Huayong; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Dongru
In this paper, we propose content-based video retrieval, which is a kind of retrieval by its semantical contents. Because video data is composed of multimodal information streams such as video, auditory and textual streams, we describe a strategy of using multimodal analysis for automatic parsing sports video. The paper first defines the basic structure of sports video database system, and then introduces a new approach that integrates visual stream analysis, speech recognition, speech signal processing and text extraction to realize video retrieval. The experimental results for TV sports video of football games indicate that the multimodal analysis is effective for video retrieval by quickly browsing tree-like video clips or inputting keywords within predefined domain.
Full Text Available Information users depend heavily on emails’ system as one of the major sources of communication. Its importance and usage are continuously growing despite the evolution of mobile applications, social networks, etc. Emails are used on both the personal and professional levels. They can be considered as official documents in communication among users. Emails’ data mining and analysis can be conducted for several purposes such as: Spam detection and classification, subject classification, etc. In this paper, a large set of personal emails is used for the purpose of folder and subject classifications. Algorithms are developed to perform clustering and classification for this large text collection. Classification based on NGram is shown to be the best for such large text collection especially as text is Bi-language (i.e. with English and Arabic content.
Full Text Available We exploit the criteria to optimize training set construction for the large-scale video semantic classification. Due to the large gap between low-level features and higher-level semantics, as well as the high diversity of video data, it is difficult to represent the prototypes of semantic concepts by a training set of limited size. In video semantic classification, most of the learning-based approaches require a large training set to achieve good generalization capacity, in which large amounts of labor-intensive manual labeling are ineluctable. However, it is observed that the generalization capacity of a classifier highly depends on the geometrical distribution of the training data rather than the size. We argue that a training set which includes most temporal and spatial distribution information of the whole data will achieve a good performance even if the size of training set is limited. In order to capture the geometrical distribution characteristics of a given video collection, we propose four metrics for constructing/selecting an optimal training set, including salience, temporal dispersiveness, spatial dispersiveness, and diversity. Furthermore, based on these metrics, we propose a set of optimization rules to capture the most distribution information of the whole data using a training set with a given size. Experimental results demonstrate these rules are effective for training set construction in video semantic classification, and significantly outperform random training set selection.
Yin, Peng; Yu, Hong H.
The development and spread of multimedia services require authentication techniques to prove the originality and integrity of multimedia data and (or) to localize the alterations made on the media. A wide variety of authentication techniques have been proposed in the literature, but most studies have been primarily focused on still images. In this paper, we will mainly address video authentication. We first summarize the classification of video tampering methods. Based on our proposed classification, the quality of existing authentication techniques can be evaluated. We then propose our own authentication system to combat those tampering methods. The comparison of two basic authentication categories, fragile watermark and digital signature, are made and the need for combining them are discussed. Finally, we address some issues on authenticating a broad sense video, the mixture of visual, audio and text data.
Khan, L.; Israël, Menno; Petrushin, V.A.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter
This paper introduces a real time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification consists of a
Brame, Cynthia J.
Educational videos have become an important part of higher education, providing an important content-delivery tool in many flipped, blended, and online classes. Effective use of video as an educational tool is enhanced when instructors consider three elements: how to manage cognitive load of the video; how to maximize student engagement with the…
Mendi, Engin; Bayrak, Coskun; Cecen, Songul; Ermisoglu, Emre
Development of health information technology has had a dramatic impact to improve the efficiency and quality of medical care. Developing interoperable health information systems for healthcare providers has the potential to improve the quality and equitability of patient-centered healthcare. In this article, we describe an automated content-based medical video analysis and management service that provides convenience and ease in accessing the relevant medical video content without sequential scanning. The system facilitates effective temporal video segmentation and content-based visual information retrieval that enable a more reliable understanding of medical video content. The system is implemented as a Web- and mobile-based service and has the potential to offer a knowledge-sharing platform for the purpose of efficient medical video content access.
Thompson, Kimberly M; Tepichin, Karen; Haninger, Kevin
To quantify the depiction of violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in video games rated M (for "mature") and to measure agreement between the content observed and the rating information provided to consumers on the game box by the Entertainment Software Rating Board. We created a database of M-rated video game titles, selected a random sample, recorded at least 1 hour of game play, quantitatively assessed the content, performed statistical analyses to describe the content, and compared our observations with the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors and results of our prior studies. Harvard University, Boston, Mass. Authors and 1 hired game player. M-rated video games. Percentages of game play depicting violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; use of profanity in dialogue, song lyrics, or gestures. Although the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors for violence and blood provide a good indication of such content in the game, we identified 45 observations of content that could warrant a content descriptor in 29 games (81%) that lacked these content descriptors. M-rated video games are significantly more likely to contain blood, profanity, and substances; depict more severe injuries to human and nonhuman characters; and have a higher rate of human deaths than video games rated T (for "teen"). Parents and physicians should recognize that popular M-rated video games contain a wide range of unlabeled content and may expose children and adolescents to messages that may negatively influence their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.
Sun, Zhonghua; Chen, Hexin; Chen, Mianshu
Highlight detection is a form of video summarization techniques aiming at including the most expressive or attracting parts in the video. Most video highlights selection research work has been performed on sports video, detecting certain objects or events such as goals in soccer video, touch down in football and others. In this paper, we present a highlight detection method for film video. Highlight section in a film video is not like that in sports video that usually has certain objects or events. The methods to determine a highlight part in a film video can exhibit as three aspects: (a) locating obvious audio event, (b) detecting expressive visual content around the obvious audio location, (c) selecting the preferred portion of the extracted audio-visual highlight segments. We define a double filters model to detect the potential highlights in video. First obvious audio location is determined through filtering the obvious audio features, and then we perform the potential visual salience detection around the potential audio highlight location. Finally the production from the audio-visual double filters is compared with a preference threshold to determine the final highlights. The user study results indicate that the double filters detection approach is an effective method for highlight detection for video content analysis.
Flora, Jeffrey B.; Lochtefeld, Darrell F.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.
The ability of computer systems to perform gender classification using the dynamic motion of the human subject has important applications in medicine, human factors, and human-computer interface systems. Previous works in motion analysis have used data from sensors (including gyroscopes, accelerometers, and force plates), radar signatures, and video. However, full-motion video, motion capture, range data provides a higher resolution time and spatial dataset for the analysis of dynamic motion. Works using motion capture data have been limited by small datasets in a controlled environment. In this paper, we explore machine learning techniques to a new dataset that has a larger number of subjects. Additionally, these subjects move unrestricted through a capture volume, representing a more realistic, less controlled environment. We conclude that existing linear classification methods are insufficient for the gender classification for larger dataset captured in relatively uncontrolled environment. A method based on a nonlinear support vector machine classifier is proposed to obtain gender classification for the larger dataset. In experimental testing with a dataset consisting of 98 trials (49 subjects, 2 trials per subject), classification rates using leave-one-out cross-validation are improved from 73% using linear discriminant analysis to 88% using the nonlinear support vector machine classifier.
Bijvank, Marije Nije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J; Roelofsma, Peter H M P
To protect minors from exposure to video games with objectionable content (eg, violence and sex), the Pan European Game Information developed a classification system for video games (eg, 18+). We tested the hypothesis that this classification system may actually increase the attractiveness of games for children younger than the age rating. Participants were 310 Dutch youth. The design was a 3 (age group: 7-8, 12-13, and 16-17 years) x 2 (participant gender) x 7 (label: 7+, 12+, 16+, 18+, violence, no violence, or no label control) x 2 (game description: violent or nonviolent) mixed factorial. The first 2 factors were between subjects, whereas the last 2 factors were within subjects. Three personality traits (ie, reactance, trait aggressiveness, and sensation seeking) were also included in the analyses. Participants read fictitious video game descriptions and rated how much they wanted to play each game. Results revealed that restrictive age labels and violent-content labels increased the attractiveness of video games for all of the age groups (even 7- to 8-year-olds and girls). Although the Pan European Game Information system was developed to protect youth from objectionable content, this system actually makes such games forbidden fruits. Pediatricians should be aware of this forbidden-fruit effect, because video games with objectionable content can have harmful effects on children and adolescents.
Saarela, Janne; Merialdo, Bernard
The amount of digitized video in archives is becoming so huge, that easier access and content browsing tools are desperately needed. Also, video is no longer one big piece of data, but a collection of useful smaller building blocks, which can be accessed and used independently from the original context of presentation. In this paper, we demonstrate a content model for audio video sequences, with the purpose of enabling the automatic generation of video summaries. The model is based on descriptors, which indicate various properties and relations of audio and video segments. In practice, these descriptors could either be generated automatically by methods of analysis, or produced manually (or computer-assisted) by the content provider. We analyze the requirements and characteristics of the different data segments, with respect to the problem of summarization, and we define our model as a set of constraints, which allow to produce good quality summaries.
Yuliya H. Loboda
Full Text Available The article analyses the problems of organization of educational process with use of electronic means of education. Specifies the definition of "electronic learning", their structure and content. Didactic principles are considered, which are the basis of their creation and use. Given the detailed characteristics of e-learning tools for methodological purposes. On the basis of the allocated pedagogical problems of the use of electronic means of education presented and complemented by their classification, namely the means of theoretical and technological training, means of practical training, support tools, and comprehensive facilities.
Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Thomas, E.D.R.; Havekes, A.
In this contribution we present a method to classify segments of gorilla videos1 in different affective categories. The classification method is trained by crowd sourcing affective annotation. The trained classification then uses video features (computed from the video segments) to classify a new
Brame, Cynthia J
Educational videos have become an important part of higher education, providing an important content-delivery tool in many flipped, blended, and online classes. Effective use of video as an educational tool is enhanced when instructors consider three elements: how to manage cognitive load of the video; how to maximize student engagement with the video; and how to promote active learning from the video. This essay reviews literature relevant to each of these principles and suggests practical ways instructors can use these principles when using video as an educational tool. © 2016 C. J. Brame. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Braun, Claude M. J.; Giroux, Josette
A study was designed to determine psychological complexity and reinforcement characteristics of popular arcade video games, including sex differences in game content, clientele social structure, human-to-human interaction contingencies, and value content. Results suggest a need for public control of children's access to the games and the video…
User-generated video has attracted a lot of attention due to the success of Video Sharing Sites such as YouTube and Online Social Networks. Recently, a shift towards live consumption of these videos is observable. The content is captured and instantly shared over the Internet using smart mobile devices such as smartphones. Large-scale platforms arise such as YouTube.Live, YouNow or Facebook.Live which enable the smartphones of users to livestream to the public. These platforms achieve the dis...
Kia Siang Hock
Full Text Available Audio and video content forms an integral, important and expanding part of the digital collections in libraries and archives world-wide. While these memory institutions are familiar and well-versed in the management of more conventional materials such as books, periodicals, ephemera and images, the handling of audio (e.g., oral history recordings and video content (e.g., audio-visual recordings, broadcast content requires additional toolkits. In particular, a robust and comprehensive tool that provides a programmable interface is indispensable when dealing with tens of thousands of hours of audio and video content. FFmpeg is comprehensive and well-established open source software that is capable of the full-range of audio/video processing tasks (such as encode, decode, transcode, mux, demux, stream and filter. It is also capable of handling a wide-range of audio and video formats, a unique challenge in memory institutions. It comes with a command line interface, as well as a set of developer libraries that can be incorporated into applications.
Haninger, Kevin; Thompson, Kimberly M
Children's exposure to violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in the media remains a source of public health concern. However, content in video games played by older children and adolescents has not been quantified or compared with the rating information provided to consumers by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB). To quantify and characterize the content in video games rated T (for "Teen") and to measure the agreement between the content observed in game play and the ESRB-assigned content descriptors displayed on the game box. We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001, to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of ESRB-assigned content descriptors. We randomly sampled 80 video game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, quantitatively assessed the content, and compared the content we observed with the content descriptors assigned by the ESRB. Depictions of violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, and alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; whether injuring or killing characters is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; characterization of gender associated with sexual themes; and use of profanity in dialogue, lyrics, or gestures. Analysis of all content descriptors assigned to the 396 T-rated video game titles showed 373 (94%) received content descriptors for violence, 102 (26%) for blood, 60 (15%) for sexual themes, 57 (14%) for profanity, 26 (7%) for comic mischief, 6 (2%) for substances, and none for gambling. In the random sample of 81 games we played, we found that 79 (98%) involved intentional violence for an average of 36% of game play, 73 (90%) rewarded or required the player to injure characters, 56 (69%) rewarded or required the player to kill, 34 (42%) depicted blood, 22 (27%) depicted sexual themes
Berne, A.; Monhart, S.; Schneebeli, M.
Snowflakes can be formed in a variety of shapes (needle, plate, column, dendrite or aggregate to name a few) depending on the environmental conditions (mainly temperature and humidity). The 2D video-disdrometer (2DVD hereafter) is able to provide 2D pictures of the falling hydrometeors from 2 perpendicular views. Such detailed information is relevant to study the microstructure of precipitation in general and of snowfall in particular. A first valuable step is the ability to classify the snowflakes (to compare with polarimetric classification for instance). The main objective of the present contribution is to propose an innovative approach based on supervised classification to assign 2DVD measurements (1-min resolution) to different snowflake classes. A large data set corresponding to 2 winter seasons and collected in the Swiss Alps is used. After careful filtering and rematching of the falling particles sampled by a 2DVD, the values of 12 descriptors (related to the respective distributions according to height, width and fall speed) are calculated at each (1-min) time step. A training set is then built by manually classifying 2DVD data, so that the algorithm can be "trained" to classify time steps as a function of the 12 descriptors. 5 classes have been defined: large-aggregate-like, aggregate-like, dendrite-like, graupel-like and small particles. The comparison of the manual and automatic classifications on a set of about 190 (1-min) time steps covering all the 5 classes shows the good quality and reliability of the proposed automatic classification approach. Future work will focus on the comparison between the classification derived from measurements collected by the 2DVD and a near-by polarimetric radar.
Kovar, Bohumil; Hanjalic, Alan
This paper presents a novel approach to detecting and classifying a trademark logo in frames of a sport video. In view of the fact that we attempt to detect and recognize a logo in a natural scene, the algorithm developed in this paper differs from traditional techniques for logo detection and classification that are applicable either to well-structured general text documents (e.g. invoices, memos, bank cheques) or to specialized trademark logo databases, where logos appear isolated on a clear background and where their detection and classification is not disturbed by the surrounding visual detail. Although the development of our algorithm is still in its starting phase, experimental results performed so far on a set of soccer TV broadcasts are very encouraging.
Full Text Available With the development of wireless network and the improvement of mobile device capability, video streaming is more and more widespread in such an environment. Under the condition of limited resource and inherent constraints, appropriate video adaptations have become one of the most important and challenging issues in wireless multimedia applications. In this paper, we propose a novel content-aware video adaptation in order to effectively utilize resource and improve visual perceptual quality. First, the attention model is derived from analyzing the characteristics of brightness, location, motion vector, and energy features in compressed domain to reduce computation complexity. Then, through the integration of attention model, capability of client device and correlational statistic model, attractive regions of video scenes are derived. The information object- (IOB- weighted rate distortion model is used for adjusting the bit allocation. Finally, the video adaptation scheme dynamically adjusts video bitstream in frame level and object level. Experimental results validate that the proposed scheme achieves better visual quality effectively and efficiently.
Havekes, A.; Thomas, E.D.R.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.
In this sheet book we present a method to classify segments of gorilla videos in different affective categories. The classification method is trained by crowd sourcing annotation. The trained classification than uses video features (computed from the video segments) to classify a new video segment
Bescos, Jesus; Martinez, Jose M.; Cabrera, Julian M.; Cisneros, Guillermo
This paper describes the first stages of a research project that is currently being developed in the Image Processing Group of the UPM. The aim of this effort is to add video capabilities to the Storage and Retrieval Information System already working at our premises. Here we will focus on the early design steps of a Video Information System. For this purpose, we present a review of most of the reported techniques for video temporal segmentation and semantic segmentation, previous steps to afford the content extraction task, and we discuss them to select the more suitable ones. We then outline a block design of a temporal segmentation module, and present guidelines to the design of the semantic segmentation one. All these operations trend to facilitate automation in the extraction of low level features and semantic features that will finally take part of the video descriptors.
Nisbet, Gillian; Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Gordon, Christopher J; Chen, Timothy F
Large scale models of interprofessional learning (IPL) where outcomes are assessed are rare within health professional curricula. To date, there is sparse research describing robust assessment strategies to support such activities. We describe the development of an IPL assessment task based on peer rating of a student generated video evidencing collaborative interprofessional practice. We provide content validation evidence of an assessment rubric in the context of large scale IPL. Two established approaches to scale development in an educational setting were combined. A literature review was undertaken to develop a conceptual model of the relevant domains and issues pertaining to assessment of student generated videos within IPL. Starting with a prototype rubric developed from the literature, a series of staff and student workshops were undertaken to integrate expert opinion and user perspectives. Participants assessed five-minute videos produced in a prior pilot IPL activity. Outcomes from each workshop informed the next version of the rubric until agreement was reached on anchoring statements and criteria. At this point the rubric was declared fit to be used in the upcoming mandatory large scale IPL activity. The assessment rubric consisted of four domains: patient issues, interprofessional negotiation; interprofessional management plan in action; and effective use of video medium to engage audience. The first three domains reflected topic content relevant to the underlying construct of interprofessional collaborative practice. The fourth domain was consistent with the broader video assessment literature calling for greater emphasis on creativity in education. We have provided evidence for the content validity of a video-based peer assessment task portraying interprofessional collaborative practice in the context of large-scale IPL activities for healthcare professional students. Further research is needed to establish the reliability of such a scale.
Lin, Lin; Lee, Jennifer; Robertson, Tip
Media multitasking, or engaging in multiple media and tasks simultaneously, is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon with the development and engagement in social media. This study examines to what extent video content affects students' reading comprehension in media multitasking environments. One hundred and thirty university students were…
Full Text Available A novel adaptive resolution upconversion algorithm that is robust to compression artifacts is proposed. This method is based on classification of local image patterns using both structure information and activity measure to explicitly distinguish pixels into content or coding artifacts. The structure information is represented by adaptive dynamic-range coding and the activity measure is the combination of local entropy and dynamic range. For each pattern class, the weighting coefficients of upscaling are optimized by a least-mean-square (LMS training technique, which trains on the combination of the original images and the compressed downsampled versions of the original images. Experimental results show that our proposed upconversion approach outperforms other classification-based upconversion and artifact reduction techniques in concatenation.
Full Text Available We propose an interactive video browsing tool for supporting content management and selection in postproduction. The approach is based on a process model for multimedia content abstraction. A software framework based on this process model and desktop and Web-based client applications are presented. For evaluation, we apply two TRECVID style fact finding approaches (retrieval and question answering tasks and a user survey to the evaluation of the video browsing tool. We analyze the correlation between the results of the different methods, whether different aspects can be evaluated independently with the survey, and if a learning effect can be measured with the different methods, and we also compare the full-featured desktop and the limited Web-based user interface. The results show that the retrieval task correlates better with the user experience according to the survey. The survey rather measures the general user experience while different aspects of the usability cannot be analyzed independently.
Habibian, A.; Snoek, C.G.M.
Web videos available in sharing sites like YouTube, are becoming an alternative to manually annotated training data, which are necessary for creating video classifiers. However, when looking into web videos, we observe they contain several irrelevant frames that may randomly appear in any video,
Menashe, Sarah; Otjen, Jeffrey; Thapa, Mahesh M
Video podcasts, or vodcasts, are an innovative tool for teaching and learning that allow the efficient distribution of tutorials, lectures, and other educational content. Certain types of content lend themselves to presentation in a video format. For example, vodcasts are well suited to teaching radiologic procedures. Vodcasts might also be quite useful in demonstrating the use of an audience response system and how one system differs from another, providing background content before an active-learning session, comparing magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences, and teaching valuable interpersonal skills such as how to deliver bad news to a patient or how to maintain professionalism in the work environment. The authors present a step-by-step text-and-video tutorial on how to create, edit, and export vodcasts using a variety of software tools, describing both the "how" and the "why" of creating vodcasts. Interested readers are encouraged to examine both the print and online versions of this article to gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the ideas presented by the authors. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.
Koelstra, Sander; Yazdani, Ashkan; Soleymani, Mohammad; Mühl, Christian; Lee, Jong-Seok; Nijholt, Anton; Pun, Thierry; Ebrahimi, Touradj; Patras, Ioannis
Recently, the field of automatic recognition of users' affective states has gained a great deal of attention. Automatic, implicit recognition of affective states has many applications, ranging from personalized content recommendation to automatic tutoring systems. In this work, we present some promising results of our research in classification of emotions induced by watching music videos. We show robust correlations between users' self-assessments of arousal and valence and the frequency pow...
Corona, Humberto; O'Mahony, Michael P.
The classification of television content helps users organise and navigate through the large list of channels and programs now available. In this paper, we address the problem of television content classification by exploiting text information extracted from program transcriptions. We present an analysis which adapts a model for sentiment that has been widely and successfully applied in other fields such as music or blog posts. We use a real-world dataset obtained from the Box- fish API to co...
Henderson, Tracey L.; Szilagyi, Andrea; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.
This paper describes the spectral-band-selection (SBS) algorithm of Chen and Landgrebe (1987, 1988, and 1989) and uses the algorithm to classify the organic matter content in the earth's surface soil. The effectiveness of the algorithm was evaluated comparing the results of classification of the soil organic matter using SBS bands with those obtained using Landsat MSS bands and TM bands, showing that the algorithm was successful in finding important spectral bands for classification of organic matter content. Using the calculated bands, the probabilities of correct classification for climate-stratified data were found to range from 0.910 to 0.980.
Full Text Available This presentation by Sarah Forbes and Dan D'Agostino was given at the Ontario Library Association's Super Conference in Toronto, Ontario, on February 3, 2012. Session Abstract from the Super Conference Program: As ownership of mobile devices continues to proliferate, libraries are finding it difficult to provide academic content that works well in the mobile world. Discover how various e-book and e-journal formats can be made to work with mobile devices of all kinds, and will explore the next generation of digital content designed for mobile devices – new formats that may re-invent how information is used by readers. Partnership would like to thank the authors and the Ontario Library Association for their generous permission to publish an Open Access version of this conference session. This is one of several Super Conference 2012 video presentations available for purchase from Super Conference: the Virtual Experience - http://ola.scholarlab.ca/.
Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed
In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.
Chang, Chia-Hu; Wu, Ja-Ling
With the development of content-based multimedia analysis, virtual content insertion has been widely used and studied for video enrichment and multimedia advertising. However, how to automatically insert a user-selected virtual content into personal videos in a less-intrusive manner, with an attractive representation, is a challenging problem. In this chapter, we present an evolution-based virtual content insertion system which can insert virtual contents into videos with evolved animations according to predefined behaviors emulating the characteristics of evolutionary biology. The videos are considered not only as carriers of message conveyed by the virtual content but also as the environment in which the lifelike virtual contents live. Thus, the inserted virtual content will be affected by the videos to trigger a series of artificial evolutions and evolve its appearances and behaviors while interacting with video contents. By inserting virtual contents into videos through the system, users can easily create entertaining storylines and turn their personal videos into visually appealing ones. In addition, it would bring a new opportunity to increase the advertising revenue for video assets of the media industry and online video-sharing websites.
Full Text Available With the development of heterogeneous networks and video coding standards, multiresolution video applications over networks become important. It is critical to ensure the service quality of the network for time-sensitive video services. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX is a good candidate for delivering video signals because through WIMAX the delivery quality based on the quality-of-service (QoS setting can be guaranteed. The selection of suitable QoS parameters is, however, not trivial for service users. Instead, what a video service user really concerns with is the video quality of presentation (QoP which includes the video resolution, the fidelity, and the frame rate. In this paper, we present a quality control mechanism in multiresolution video coding structures over WIMAX networks and also investigate the relationship between QoP and QoS in end-to-end connections. Consequently, the video presentation quality can be simply mapped to the network requirements by a mapping table, and then the end-to-end QoS is achieved. We performed experiments with multiresolution MPEG coding over WIMAX networks. In addition to the QoP parameters, the video characteristics, such as, the picture activity and the video mobility, also affect the QoS significantly.
Miech, Antoine; Laptev, Ivan; Sivic, Josef
Common video representations often deploy an average or maximum pooling of pre-extracted frame features over time. Such an approach provides a simple means to encode feature distributions, but is likely to be suboptimal. As an alternative, we here explore combinations of learnable pooling techniques such as Soft Bag-of-words, Fisher Vectors , NetVLAD, GRU and LSTM to aggregate video features over time. We also introduce a learnable non-linear network unit, named Context Gating, aiming at mode...
Martins, Nicole; Williams, Dmitri C; Ratan, Rabindra A; Harrison, Kristen
The 150 top-selling video games were content analyzed to study representations of male bodies. Human males in the games were captured via screenshot and body parts measured. These measurements were then compared to anthropometric data drawn from a representative sample of 1120 North American men. Characters at high levels of photorealism were larger than the average American male, but these characters did not mirror the V-shaped ideal found in mainstream media. Characters at low levels of photorealism were also larger than the average American male, but these characters were so much larger that they appeared cartoonish. Idealized male characters were more likely to be found in games for children than in games for adults. Implications for cultivation theory are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chamaret, C.; Boisson, G.; Chevance, C.
The imminent deployment of new devices such as TV, tablet, smart phone supporting stereoscopic display creates a need for retargeting the content. New devices bring their own aspect ratio and potential small screen size. Aspect ratio conversion becomes mandatory and an automatic solution will be of high value especially if it maximizes the visual comfort. Some issues inherent to 3D domain are considered in this paper: no vertical disparity, no object having negative disparity (outward perception) on the border of the cropping window. A visual attention model is applied on each view and provides saliency maps with most attractive pixels. Dedicated 3D retargeting correlates the 2D attention maps for each view as well as additional computed information to ensure the best cropping window. Specific constraints induced by 3D experience influence the retargeted window through the map computation presenting objects that should not be cropped. The comparison with original content of 2:35 ratio having black stripes provide limited 3D experience on TV screen, while the automatic cropping and exploitation of full screen show more immersive experience. The proposed system is fully automatic, ensures a good final quality without missing fundamental parts for the global understanding of the scene. Eye-tracking data recorded on stereoscopic content have been confronted to retargeted window in order to ensure that the most attractive areas are inside the final video.
Presents factors for librarians to consider when decision-making about information retrieval. Discusses indexing theory; thesauri aids; controlled vocabulary or thesauri to increase access; humans versus machines; automated tools; product evaluations and evaluation criteria; automated classification tools; content server products; and document…
Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios
In this paper we introduce a novel representation for the classification of 3D images. Unlike most current approaches, our representation is not based on a fixed pyramid but adapts to image content and uses image regions instead of rectangular pyramid scales. Image characteristics, such as depth...
Paudyal, Pradip; Battisti, Federica; Carli, Marco
In this article the effects of video content on Quality of Experience (QoE) have been presented. Delivery of the video content with high level of QoE from bandwidth-limited and error-prone network is of crucial importance for the service providers. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to analyse the impact of the network impairments and video content on perceived quality during the QoE metric design. The major contributions of the article are in the study of i)the impact of network impairments together with video content, ii) impact of the video content and ii) the impact of video content related parameters: spatial-temporal perceptual information, video content, and frame size on QoE has been presented. The results show that when the impact of impairments on perceived quality is low, the quality is significantly influenced by video content, and video content itself also has a significant impact on QoE. Finally, the results strengthen the need for new parameter characterization, for better QoE metric design.
Gruber, Enid L; Thau, Helaine M; Hill, Douglas L; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W
Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances.
Yang, Jie Chi; Huang, Yi Ting; Tsai, Chi Cheng; Chung, Ching I.; Wu, Yu Chieh
In recent years, using video as a learning resource has received a lot of attention and has been successfully applied to many learning activities. In comparison with text-based learning, video learning integrates more multimedia resources, which usually motivate learners more than texts. However, one of the major limitations of video learning is…
Full Text Available The paper presents a discussion of properties of object classification methods utilized in processing video streams from a camera. Methods based on feature extraction, model fitting and invariant determination are evaluated. Petri nets are used for modelling the processing flow. Data objects and transitions are defined which are suitable for efficient implementation in FPGA circuits. Processing characteristics and problems of the implementations are shown. An invariant based method is assessed as most suitable for application in a vehicle video detector.
Xiao, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yang; Song, Gang; Jiang, Jianmin
We propose a support-vector-machine (SVM) tree to hierarchically learn from domain knowledge represented by low-level features toward automatic classification of sports videos. The proposed SVM tree adopts a binary tree structure to exploit the nature of SVM's binary classification, where each internal node is a single SVM learning unit, and each external node represents the classified output type. Such a SVM tree presents a number of advantages, which include: 1. low computing cost; 2. integrated learning and classification while preserving individual SVM's learning strength; and 3. flexibility in both structure and learning modules, where different numbers of nodes and features can be added to address specific learning requirements, and various learning models can be added as individual nodes, such as neural networks, AdaBoost, hidden Markov models, dynamic Bayesian networks, etc. Experiments support that the proposed SVM tree achieves good performances in sports video classifications.
Huang, Jidong; Kornfield, Rachel; Emery, Sherry L
The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos' overall presence on the platform. To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform's impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. YouTube is a major information-sharing platform for electronic cigarettes
Mihajlovic, V.; Petkovic, M.
Content-based video retrieval is emerging as an important part in the process of utilization of various multimedia documents. In this report we present a novel system for the automatic indexing and content-based retrieval of multimedia documents. We chose the domain of Formula 1 sport videos because
Yiannakoulias, N; Tooby, R; Sturrock, S L
Lyme disease has been a subject of medical controversy for several decades. In this study we looked at the availability and type of content represented in a (n = 700) selection of YouTube videos on the subject of Lyme disease. We classified video content into a small number of content areas, and studied the relationship between these content areas and 1) video views and 2) video likeability. We found very little content uploaded by government or academic institutions; the vast majority of content was uploaded by independent users. The most viewed videos tend to contain celebrity content and personal stories; videos with prevention information tend to be of less interest, and videos with science and medical information tend to be less liked. Our results suggest that important public health information on YouTube is very likely to be ignored unless it is made more appealing to modern consumers of online video content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos’ overall presence on the platform. Objective To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform’s impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Methods Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. Results As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. Conclusions YouTube is a major
Mouthaan, M.M.; Broek, S.P. van den; Hendriks, E.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.
We evaluate the performance of different key-point detectors and region descriptors when used for automatic classification of small sea targets in infrared video. In our earlier research performed on this subject as well as in other literature, many different region descriptors have been proposed.
Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E
Tobacco content has been identified in popular video games played by adolescents. To date, there are no established instruments for categorizing tobacco content. We describe development and demonstrate the use of an instrument to categorize types of tobacco content. Interviews were conducted with 61 participants: 20 adolescents (mean age 17.7), and 41 adults (mean age 23.9), who discussed favorite games and recalled tobacco content. All games mentioned were examined for tobacco content by watching movies of game play on YouTube, examining individual game Wiki sites, and reviewing content descriptors provided by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), Common Sense Media and the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). A typology of tobacco content was created and correlated with gamer recall of tobacco content. Participants together mentioned 366 games, of which 152 were unique. Tobacco content was verified in 39.5% (60/152) of games. Six categories of content were identified, including "no tobacco content." Of games containing tobacco, 88% (53/60) contained at least two categories of content. Games with more categories were associated with greater gamer recall of tobacco content. Tobacco content is present in video games and consciously recalled by players, with higher accuracy of recall associated with games featuring multiple types of tobacco content and more engaging, player-active content. Playing video games is now a daily part of most adolescents' lives. Tobacco content is present in many popular games. Currently there are no published instruments to assist in categorizing tobacco content in video games. This study describes a systematic approach to categorizing tobacco content in video games and demonstrates that games featuring more categories of tobacco content are associated with more accurate gamer recall of the presence of tobacco content when compared with games with fewer categories of content. Understanding the extent of such content will be essential
Webb, C. Lorraine; Kapavik, Robin Robinson
The authors challenged pre-service teachers to digitally define a social studies or mathematical vocabulary term in multiple contexts using a digital video camera. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. How will creating a video for instruction affect pre-service teachers' attitudes about teaching with technology, if at all?…
Mendoza-Schrock, Olga; Dong, Guozhu
The literature is abundant with papers on gender classification research. However the majority of such research is based on the assumption that there is enough resolution so that the subject's face can be resolved. Hence the majority of the research is actually in the face recognition and facial feature area. A gap exists for gender classification under challenging operating conditions—different seasonal conditions, different clothing, etc.—and when the subject's face cannot be resolved due to lack of resolution. The Seasonal Weather and Gender (SWAG) Database is a novel database that contains subjects walking through a scene under operating conditions that span a calendar year. This paper exploits a subset of that database—the SWAG One dataset—using data mining techniques, traditional classifiers (ex. Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, etc.) and traditional (canny edge detection, etc.) and non-traditional (height/width ratios, etc.) feature extractors to achieve high correct gender classification rates (greater than 85%). Another novelty includes exploiting frame differentials.
Greenewald, Kristjan H.; Hero, Alfred O.
We consider the application of KronPCA spatio-temporal modeling techniques1, 2 to the extraction of spatiotemporal features for video dismount classification. KronPCA performs a low-rank type of dimensionality reduction that is adapted to spatio-temporal data and is characterized by the T frame multiframe mean μ and covariance ∑ of p spatial features. For further regularization and improved inverse estimation, we also use the diagonally corrected KronPCA shrinkage methods we presented in.1 We apply this very general method to the modeling of the multivariate temporal behavior of HOG features extracted from pedestrian bounding boxes in video, with gender classification in a challenging dataset chosen as a specific application. The learned covariances for each class are used to extract spatiotemporal features which are then classified, achieving competitive classification performance.
Lynnes, Christopher; Berrick, S.; Gopalan, A.; Hua, X.; Shen, S.; Smith, P.; Yang, K-Y.; Wheeler, K.; Curry, C.
The high volume of Earth Observing System data has proven to be challenging to manage for data centers and users alike. At the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC), about 1 TB of new data are archived each day. Distribution to users is also about 1 TB/day. A substantial portion of this distribution is MODIS calibrated radiance data, which has a wide variety of uses. However, much of the data is not useful for a particular user's needs: for example, ocean color users typically need oceanic pixels that are free of cloud and sun-glint. The GES DAAC is using a simple Bayesian classification scheme to rapidly classify each pixel in the scene in order to support several experimental content-based data services for near-real-time MODIS calibrated radiance products (from Direct Readout stations). Content-based subsetting would allow distribution of, say, only clear pixels to the user if desired. Content-based subscriptions would distribute data to users only when they fit the user's usability criteria in their area of interest within the scene. Content-based cache management would retain more useful data on disk for easy online access. The classification may even be exploited in an automated quality assessment of the geolocation product. Though initially to be demonstrated at the GES DAAC, these techniques have applicability in other resource-limited environments, such as spaceborne data systems.
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of the Mail Classification Schedule. 3020... Classification Schedule § 3020.13 Contents of the Mail Classification Schedule. The Mail Classification Schedule shall provide: (a) The list of market dominant products, including: (1) The class of each market...
Corey H. Basch
Full Text Available Background: Use of multivitamin/multimineral (MVM and other dietary supplements is common among American adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the source and content of the most widely viewed YouTube videos associated with MVM supplements. Methods: Videos were filtered by number of views and the source of the video upload was recorded. A comparison of video characteristics and differences in video content was conducted. Results: Cumulatively, the videos in this sample were viewed 25 573 055 times. The majority of videos found in this sample were uploaded by a nutrition, wellness, or fitness channels. Most videos mentioned benefits (80.4%, 95% CI:72.5%, 88.3% and advocated for use of the supplement (72.2%, 95% CI: 63.3%, 81.1%. Over 84% (84.5%, 95% CI: 77.3, 91.7% of the videos did not mention risks associated with taking a particular vitamin or supplement. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that MVMs are often promoted and encouraged, yet risks associated with MVMs were infrequently mentioned. Health professionals should be aware of the extent to which MVM related content appears on social media and, more importantly, be attuned to the content, which can be misleading, or missing information regarding risks and/or evidence of possible benefits.
approach yet achieves impressive results. It fol- lows the Bag-of-Words (BoW) scheme with the following three steps: low-level feature extraction , fixed...activity concept. Every two concepts i, j have a transition probability P (Cj |Ci) from concept i to j. Each observation is a feature vector x extracted from...activity concept classification. DT tracks points densely and describes each tracklet with its shape and the HoG , HoF, MBH features around the tracklet
Jiow Hee Jhee
Full Text Available The rapid adoption of video gaming among children has placed tremendous strain on parents’ ability to manage their children’s consumption. While parents refer online to video games ratings (VGR information to support their mediation efforts, there are many difficulties associated with such practice. This paper explores the popular VGR sites, and highlights the inadequacies of VGRs to capture the parents’ concerns, such as time displacement, social interactions, financial spending and various video game effects, beyond the widespread panics over content issues, that is subjective, ever-changing and irrelevant. As such, this paper argues for a shift from content-centric to a parent-centric approach in VGRs, that captures the evolving nature of video gaming, and support parents, the main users of VGRs, in their management of their young video gaming children. This paper proposes a Video Games Repository for Parents to represent that shift.
Full Text Available In echo-cardiac clinical computer-aided diagnosis, an important step is to automatically classify echocardiography videos from different angles and different regions. We propose a kind of echocardiography video classification algorithm based on the dense trajectory and difference histograms of oriented gradients (DHOG. First, we use the dense grid method to describe feature characteristics in each frame of echocardiography sequence and then track these feature points by applying the dense optical flow. In order to overcome the influence of the rapid and irregular movement of echocardiography videos and get more robust tracking results, we also design a trajectory description algorithm which uses the derivative of the optical flow to obtain the motion trajectory information and associates the different characteristics (e.g., the trajectory shape, DHOG, HOF, and MBH with embedded structural information of the spatiotemporal pyramid. To avoid “dimension disaster,” we apply Fisher’s vector to reduce the dimension of feature description followed by the SVM linear classifier to improve the final classification result. The average accuracy of echocardiography video classification is 77.12% for all eight viewpoints and 100% for three primary viewpoints.
Claudia Jennifer Dold
Full Text Available Interest in integrative health care is a growing area of health practice, combining conventional medical treatments with safe and effective complementary and alternative medicine. These modalities relate to both improving physical and psychological well-being, and enhancing conventional talk therapy. In an interdisciplinary collaboration, teaching and library faculty have created a series of sixteen on-line video interviews that introduce practitioner-relevant experiences to students as supplemental course material. These videos are available through the department web-pages to students in other related disciplines as well, including Social Work, Counselor Education, Psychology, and the Colleges of Public Health, Nursing, and Medicine. The video series was undertaken as part of the educational mission of the library, bringing to the classroom new material that is essential to the professional development of future counselors.
Kollia, Betty; Kamowski-Shakibai, Margaret T; Basch, Corey H; Clark, Ashley
Background: Our study aimed to determine source of upload and content portrayed in the100 most-viewed videos on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) on the video sharing public forum, YouTube. ASDs have become highly prevalent in the last decade, arousing a significant response from the media and psycho-educational health professions. Utilization of and reliance on social media for information on health matters has also proliferated. Some suggest that online videos could promote early detection (and intervention) of ASD by prompting caregivers to seek guidance. However, the usefulness of the available videos is unclear. Methods: The 100 most popular YouTube videos were examined for source of upload and information provided. Popularity was determined by number of views, using the filter tool. Results: The videos had more than 121 million views combined. Only one video had been uploaded by a professional (a clinical psychologist). The 99 (non-professional) videos provided minimal data and research into known ASD risk factors. Interestingly, discredited vaccine-associated risks were promoted in 16% (95% CI = 09%-25%) of the 100 videos analyzed. Many videos featured a child with ASD exhibiting some characteristic patterns, such as engaging in a repetitive behavior (73%, 95% CI = 63%-81%); about as many videos referenced various therapies (75%, 95% CI = 65%-83%); and 54% (95% CI = 44%-64%) and 61% (95% CI =51%-71%) of the videos mentioned the economic and emotional toll of ASD on the family,respectively. Additional variables are discussed. Conclusion: The most popular online videos were primarily uploaded by non-professionals and provided limited content regarding ASD. Given the wide reach of social media and its potential for providing valuable information and guidance to the public on matters pertaining to ASD, we wish to underscore the necessity for a professional presence in this medium.
Tang, Weizhou; Olscamp, Kate; Choi, Seul Ki; Friedman, Daniela B
Approximately 5.5 million Americans are living with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 2017. YouTube is a popular platform for disseminating health information; however, little is known about messages specifically regarding AD that are being communicated through YouTube. This study aims to examine video characteristics, content, speaker characteristics, and mobilizing information (cues to action) of YouTube videos focused on AD. Videos uploaded to YouTube from 2013 to 2015 were searched with the term "Alzheimer's disease" on April 30th, 2016. Two coders viewed the videos and coded video characteristics (the date when a video was posted, Uniform Resource Locator, video length, audience engagement, format, author), content, speaker characteristics (sex, race, age), and mobilizing information. Descriptive statistics were used to examine video characteristics, content, audience engagement (number of views), speaker appearances in the video, and mobilizing information. Associations between variables were examined using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Among the 271 videos retrieved, 25.5% (69/271) were posted by nonprofit organizations or universities. Informal presentations comprised 25.8% (70/271) of all videos. Although AD symptoms (83/271, 30.6%), causes of AD (80/271, 29.5%), and treatment (76/271, 28.0%) were commonly addressed, quality of life of people with AD (34/271, 12.5%) had more views than those more commonly-covered content areas. Most videos featured white speakers (168/187, 89.8%) who were adults aged 20 years to their early 60s (164/187, 87.7%). Only 36.9% (100/271) of videos included mobilizing information. Videos about AD symptoms were significantly less likely to include mobilizing information compared to videos without AD symptoms (23/83, 27.7% vs 77/188, 41.0% respectively; P=.03). This study contributes new knowledge regarding AD messages delivered through YouTube. Findings of the current study highlight a potential gap between available information
Van Wallendael, Glenn; Coppens, Paulien; Paridaens, Tom; Van Kets, Niels; Van den Broeck, Wendy; Lambert, Peter
With the introduction of 4K UHD video and display resolution, questions arise on the perceptual differences between 4K UHD and upsampled HD video content. In this paper, a striped pair comparison has been performed on a diverse set of 4K UHD video sources. The goal was to subjectively assess the perceived sharpness of 4K UHD and downscaled/upscaled HD video. A striped pair comparison has been applied in order to make the test as straightforward as possible for a non-expert participant populat...
Bouaziz, Baseem; Zlitni, Tarek; Walid MAHDI
In this paper, we propose a spatial temporal video-text detection technique which proceed in two principal steps:potential text region detection and a filtering process. In the first step we divide dynamically each pair of consecutive video frames into sub block in order to detect change. A significant difference between homologous blocks implies the appearance of an important object which may be a text region. The temporal redundancy is then used to filter these regions and forms an effectiv...
Marino, Matthew T.; Becht, Kathleen M.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III; Gallup, Jennifer L.; Basham, James D.; Gallegos, Benjamin
Mobile devices, including iPads, tablets, and so on, are common in high schools across the country. Unfortunately, many secondary teachers see these devices as distractions rather than tools for scaffolding instruction. This article highlights current research related to the use of video games as a means to increase the cognitive and social…
Basch, Corey H; Mullican, Lindsay A; Boone, Kwanza D; Yin, Jingjing; Berdnik, Alyssa; Eremeeva, Marina E; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease. People seek health information on Lyme disease from YouTubeTM videos. In this study, we investigated if the contents of Lyme disease-related YouTubeTM videos varied by their sources. Most viewed English YouTubeTM videos (n = 100) were identified and manually coded for contents and sources. Within the sample, 40 videos were consumer-generated, 31 were internet-based news, 16 were professional, and 13 were TV news. Compared with consumer-generated videos, TV news videos were more likely to mention celebrities (odds ratio [OR], 10.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.13-52.58), prevention of Lyme disease through wearing protective clothing (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.23-25.76), and spraying insecticides (OR, 7.71; 95% CI, 1.52-39.05). A majority of the most popular Lyme disease-related YouTubeTM videos were not created by public health professionals. Responsible reporting and creative video-making facilitate Lyme disease education. Partnership with YouTubeTM celebrities to co-develop educational videos may be a future direction.
Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Dudek, Łukasz; Witkowski, Marcin
The VQiPS (Video Quality in Public Safety) Working Group, supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, has been developing a user guide for public safety video applications. According to VQiPS, five parameters have particular importance influencing the ability to achieve a recognition task. They are: usage time-frame, discrimination level, target size, lighting level, and level of motion. These parameters form what are referred to as Generalized Use Classes (GUCs). The aim of our research was to develop algorithms that would automatically assist classification of input sequences into one of the GUCs. Target size and lighting level parameters were approached. The experiment described reveals the experts' ambiguity and hesitation during the manual target size determination process. However, the automatic methods developed for target size classification make it possible to determine GUC parameters with 70 % compliance to the end-users' opinion. Lighting levels of the entire sequence can be classified with an efficiency reaching 93 %. To make the algorithms available for use, a test application has been developed. It is able to process video files and display classification results, the user interface being very simple and requiring only minimal user interaction.
Seidenberg, Andrew B; Rodgers, Elizabeth J; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N
Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use among white adolescent males has increased in recent years, and prevalence of SLT use among adolescent males exceeds that for smoking in several U.S. states. Recent reports have described the presence of cigarette-related content on social media Web sites popular among youth; however, little has been reported on SLT content. The YouTube video search engine was searched for the popular SLT brand Skoal, and the first 50 search results were downloaded. Video statistics data were collected for and content analysis was performed on all videos featuring smokeless use (82%). Access to SLT YouTube videos by youth was also determined by assessing whether YouTube permits youth viewing and creation of SLT videos. Mean number of views for videos analyzed was 15,422, and the most watched video had 124,276 views. Descriptions of SLT flavor/smell and social references/interactions were found in 48.8% and 63.4% of videos, respectively. By contrast, references to drug (nicotine) effects (12.2%) and public health messaging (9.8%) were less common. None of the SLT videos in the sample had restrictions that would block youth viewing. In addition, evidence of self-identified youth creating SLT videos was found for 13% of unique users in the sample. YouTube does not restrict youth from creating or viewing "dip videos." Proactive efforts are needed to ensure that YouTube and other online media do not become influential vehicles for tobacco promotion to youth. Copyright Â© 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Corey H. Basch
Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe the source, length, number of views, and content of the most widely viewed Zika virus (ZIKV-related YouTube videos. We hypothesized that ZIKV-related videos uploaded by different sources contained different content. Methods The 100 most viewed English ZIKV-related videos were manually coded and analyzed statistically. Results Among the 100 videos, there were 43 consumer-generated videos, 38 Internet-based news videos, 15 TV-based news videos, and 4 professional videos. Internet news sources captured over two-thirds of the total of 8 894 505 views. Compared with consumer-generated videos, Internet-based news videos were more likely to mention the impact of ZIKV on babies (odds ratio [OR], 6.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 23.76, the number of cases in Latin America (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.47 to 21.52; and ZIKV in Africa (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.04 to 6.31. Compared with consumer-generated videos, TV-based news videos were more likely to express anxiety or fear of catching ZIKV (OR, 6.67; 95% CI, 1.36 to 32.70; to highlight fear of ZIKV among members of the public (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.20 to 46.16; and to discuss avoiding pregnancy (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.13 to 13.25. Conclusions Public health agencies should establish a larger presence on YouTube to reach more people with evidence-based information about ZIKV.
Basch, Corey H; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Hammond, Rodney N; Blankenship, Elizabeth B; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa; Ip, Patrick; Basch, Charles E
The purpose of this study was to describe the source, length, number of views, and content of the most widely viewed Zika virus (ZIKV)-related YouTube videos. We hypothesized that ZIKV-related videos uploaded by different sources contained different content. The 100 most viewed English ZIKV-related videos were manually coded and analyzed statistically. Among the 100 videos, there were 43 consumer-generated videos, 38 Internet-based news videos, 15 TV-based news videos, and 4 professional videos. Internet news sources captured over two-thirds of the total of 8 894 505 views. Compared with consumer-generated videos, Internet-based news videos were more likely to mention the impact of ZIKV on babies (odds ratio [OR], 6.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 23.76), the number of cases in Latin America (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.47 to 21.52); and ZIKV in Africa (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.04 to 6.31). Compared with consumer-generated videos, TV-based news videos were more likely to express anxiety or fear of catching ZIKV (OR, 6.67; 95% CI, 1.36 to 32.70); to highlight fear of ZIKV among members of the public (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.20 to 46.16); and to discuss avoiding pregnancy (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.13 to 13.25). Public health agencies should establish a larger presence on YouTube to reach more people with evidence-based information about ZIKV.
Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of content-adaptive packetization scheme for streaming of 3D wavelet-based video content over lossy IP networks. The tradeoff between rate and distortion is controlled by jointly adapting scalable source coding rate and level of forward error correction (FEC protection. A content dependent packetization mechanism with data-interleaving and Reed-Solomon protection for wavelet-based video codecs is proposed to provide unequal error protection. This paper also tries to answer an important question for scalable video streaming systems: given extra bandwidth, should one increase the level of channel protection for the most important packets, or transmit more scalable source data? Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves good balance between quality of the received video and level of error protection under bandwidth-varying lossy IP networks.
Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of content-adaptive packetization scheme for streaming of 3D wavelet-based video content over lossy IP networks. The tradeoff between rate and distortion is controlled by jointly adapting scalable source coding rate and level of forward error correction (FEC protection. A content dependent packetization mechanism with data-interleaving and Reed-Solomon protection for wavelet-based video codecs is proposed to provide unequal error protection. This paper also tries to answer an important question for scalable video streaming systems: given extra bandwidth, should one increase the level of channel protection for the most important packets, or transmit more scalable source data? Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves good balance between quality of the received video and level of error protection under bandwidth-varying lossy IP networks.
Sinkov, Nikolai A; Sandercock, P Mark L; Harynuk, James J
Detection and identification of ignitable liquids (ILs) in arson debris is a critical part of arson investigations. The challenge of this task is due to the complex and unpredictable chemical nature of arson debris, which also contains pyrolysis products from the fire. ILs, most commonly gasoline, are complex chemical mixtures containing hundreds of compounds that will be consumed or otherwise weathered by the fire to varying extents depending on factors such as temperature, air flow, the surface on which IL was placed, etc. While methods such as ASTM E-1618 are effective, data interpretation can be a costly bottleneck in the analytical process for some laboratories. In this study, we address this issue through the application of chemometric tools. Prior to the application of chemometric tools such as PLS-DA and SIMCA, issues of chromatographic alignment and variable selection need to be addressed. Here we use an alignment strategy based on a ladder consisting of perdeuterated n-alkanes. Variable selection and model optimization was automated using a hybrid backward elimination (BE) and forward selection (FS) approach guided by the cluster resolution (CR) metric. In this work, we demonstrate the automated construction, optimization, and application of chemometric tools to casework arson data. The resulting PLS-DA and SIMCA classification models, trained with 165 training set samples, have provided classification of 55 validation set samples based on gasoline content with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cranwell, Jo; Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John
To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Ten-second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12-week period in 2013/14; on-line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high-content videos. Great Britain. A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11-18 years who completed an on-line survey. Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33-51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13-27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0-4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2-11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0-7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0-3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E-Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re-watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re-watch the videos than boys, P YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Desurmont, Xavier; Wijnhoven, Rob; Jaspers, Egbert; Caignart, Olivier; Barais, Mike; Favoreel, Wouter; Delaigle, Jean-Francois
The CANDELA project aims at realizing a system for real-time image processing in traffic and surveillance applications. The system performs segmentation, labels the extracted blobs and tracks their movements in the scene. Performance evaluation of such a system is a major challenge since no standard methods exist and the criteria for evaluation are highly subjective. This paper proposes a performance evaluation approach for video content analysis (VCA) systems and identifies the involved research areas. For these areas we give an overview of the state-of-the-art in performance evaluation and introduce a classification into different semantic levels. The proposed evaluation approach compares the results of the VCA algorithm with a ground-truth (GT) counterpart, which contains the desired results. Both the VCA results and the ground truth comprise description files that are formatted in MPEG-7. The evaluation is required to provide an objective performance measure and a mean to choose between competitive methods. In addition, it enables algorithm developers to measure the progress of their work at the different levels in the design process. From these requirements and the state-of-the-art overview we conclude that standardization is highly desirable for which many research topics still need to be addressed.
Stokking, H.M.; Veenhuizen, A.T.; Kaptein, A.M.; Niamut, O.A.
As TNO, we have developed an Augmented Live Broadcast use case, using components from the FP7 STEER project. In this use case, a television broadcast of a live event is augmented with user generated content. This user generated content consists of videos made by users at the event, and also of
Rustad, Robin A.; Small, Jacob E.; Jobes, David A.; Safer, Martin A.; Peterson, Rebecca J.
Two experiments exposed college student volunteers to rock music with or without suicidal content. Music and videos with suicide content appeared to prime implicit cognitions related to suicide but did not affect variables associated with increased suicide risk. (Contains 60 references and 3 tables.) (Author/JBJ)
Ruby, C.; Skarke, A. D.; Mesick, S.
The Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) is a network of common nomenclature that provides a comprehensive framework for organizing physical, biological, and chemical information about marine ecosystems. It was developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Services Center, in collaboration with other feral agencies and academic institutions, as a means for scientists to more easily access, compare, and integrate marine environmental data from a wide range of sources and time frames. CMECS has been endorsed by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) as a national metadata standard. The research presented here is focused on the application of CMECS to deep-sea video and environmental data collected by the NOAA ROV Deep Discoverer and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gulf of Mexico in 2011-2014. Specifically, a spatiotemporal index of the physical, chemical, biological, and geological features observed in ROV video records was developed in order to allow scientist, otherwise unfamiliar with the specific content of existing video data, to rapidly determine the abundance and distribution of features of interest, and thus evaluate the applicability of those video data to their research. CMECS units (setting, component, or modifier) for seafloor images extracted from high-definition ROV video data were established based upon visual assessment as well as analysis of coincident environmental sensor (temperature, conductivity), navigation (ROV position, depth, attitude), and log (narrative dive summary) data. The resulting classification units were integrated into easily searchable textual and geo-databases as well as an interactive web map. The spatial distribution and associations of deep-sea habitats as indicated by CMECS classifications are described and optimized methodological approaches for application of CMECS to deep-sea video and environmental data are presented.
Full Text Available With the continuous expansion of the amount of data with time in mobile video applications such as cloud video surveillance (CVS, the increasing energy consumption in video data centers has drawn widespread attention for the past several years. Addressing the issue of reducing energy consumption, we propose a low energy consumption storage method specially designed for CVS systems based onthe service level agreement (SLA classification. A novel SLA with an extra parameter of access time period is proposed and then utilized as a criterion for dividing virtual machines (VMs and data storage nodes into different classifications. Tasks can be scheduled in real time for running on the homologous VMs and data storage nodes according to their access time periods. Any nodes whose access time periods do not encompass the current time will be placed into the energy saving state while others are in normal state with the capability of undertaking tasks. As a result, overall electric energy consumption in data centers is reduced while the SLA is fulfilled. To evaluate the performance, we compare the method with two related approaches using the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS. The results show the superiority and effectiveness of our method.
Divakaran, Ajay; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Peker, Kadir A.
Severe complexity constraints on consumer electronic devices motivate us to investigate general-purpose video summarization techniques that are able to apply a common hardware setup to multiple content genres. On the other hand, we know that high quality summaries can only be produced with domain-specific processing. In this paper, we present a time-series analysis based video summarization technique that provides a general core to which we are able to add small content-specific extensions for each genre. The proposed time-series analysis technique consists of unsupervised clustering of samples taken through sliding windows from the time series of features obtained from the content. We classify content into two broad categories, scripted content such as news and drama, and unscripted content such as sports and surveillance. The summarization problem then reduces to finding either finding semantic boundaries of the scripted content or detecting highlights in the unscripted content. The proposed technique is essentially an event detection technique and is thus best suited to unscripted content, however, we also find applications to scripted content. We thoroughly examine the trade-off between content-neutral and content-specific processing for effective summarization for a number of genres, and find that our core technique enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing and to postpone it to the final stage. We achieve the best results with unscripted content such as sports and surveillance video in terms of quality of summaries and minimizing content-specific processing. For other genres such as drama, we find that more content-specific processing is required. We also find that judicious choice of key audio-visual object detectors enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing while maintaining its applicability to a broad range of genres. We will present a demonstration of our proposed technique at the conference.
Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie
To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.
Alan, Serdar; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Turanlı, Güzide; Karlı-Oğuz, Kader; Lay-Ergun, Eser; Söylemezoğlu, Figen; Akalan, Nejat; Topçu, Meral
We aimed to determine seizure characteristics of pediatric patients with epilepsy, and evaluate if Semiological Seizure Classification (SSC) system is applicable in this cohort. We retrospectively studied 183 patients, aged between 3 months-18 years, admitted to the video-EEG monitoring unit (VEMU). Most patients suffered from intractable epilepsy with comorbidities, and had structural lesions. Seizures were classified based on ictal video-EEG recordings by using SSC system; 157 patients had only one seizure type, 26 had more than one seizure types. Overall 211 seizures and 373 semiologies were analyzed; 114 seizures (54%) had more than one semiological subtype. The most frequent semiology was motor seizures (78%), followed by dialeptic seizures (12%). The most common subtypes were simple motor seizures (49%); tonic seizures constituted (28.4%) of all semiologies. We conclude that SSC system is applicable for children with epilepsy admitted to VEMU; complementary EEG and imaging data are required for evaluation of patients with epilepsy.
Stokking, H.M.; Veenhuizen, A.T.; Kaptein, A.M.; Niamut, O.A.
As TNO, we have developed an Augmented Live Broadcast use case, using components from the FP7 STEER project. In this use case, a television broadcast of a live event is augmented with user generated content. This user generated content consists of videos made by users at the event, and also of relevant social network content. The current implementation uses timestamps inserted in the media streams to synchronise related media streams. Social networks are searched using EPG information as a st...
Tekalp A Murat
Full Text Available Scalable video coders provide different scaling options, such as temporal, spatial, and SNR scalabilities, where rate reduction by discarding enhancement layers of different scalability-type results in different kinds and/or levels of visual distortion depend on the content and bitrate. This dependency between scalability type, video content, and bitrate is not well investigated in the literature. To this effect, we first propose an objective function that quantifies flatness, blockiness, blurriness, and temporal jerkiness artifacts caused by rate reduction by spatial size, frame rate, and quantization parameter scaling. Next, the weights of this objective function are determined for different content (shot types and different bitrates using a training procedure with subjective evaluation. Finally, a method is proposed for choosing the best scaling type for each temporal segment that results in minimum visual distortion according to this objective function given the content type of temporal segments. Two subjective tests have been performed to validate the proposed procedure for content-aware selection of the best scalability type on soccer videos. Soccer videos scaled from 600 kbps to 100 kbps by the proposed content-aware selection of scalability type have been found visually superior to those that are scaled using a single scalability option over the whole sequence.
Wadwekar, Vaibhav; Nair, Pradeep Pankajakshan; Murgai, Aditya; Thirunavukkarasu, Sibi; Thazhath, Harichandrakumar Kottyen
Different studies have described useful signs to diagnose psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES). A few authors have tried to describe the semiologic groups among PNES patients; each group consisting of combination of features. But there is no uniformity of nomenclature among these studies. Our aim was to find out whether the objective classification system proposed by Hubsch et al. was useful and adequate to classify PNES patient population from South India. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and video EEG monitoring data of patients, recorded during 3 year period from June 2010 to July 2013. We observed the semiologic features of each PNES episode and tried to group them strictly adhering to Hubsch et al. classification. Minor modifications were made to include patients who were left unclassified. A total of 65 patients were diagnosed to have PNES during this period, out of which 11 patients were excluded due to inadequate data. We could classify 42(77.77%) patients without modifying the defining criteria of the Hubsch et al. groups. With minor modification we could classify 94.96% patients. The modified groups with patient distribution are as follows: Class 1--dystonic attacks with primitive gestural activities [3(5.6%)]. Class 2 – paucikinetic attacks with or without preserved responsiveness [5(9.3%)]. Class 3--pseudosyncope with or without hyperventilation [21(38.9%)]. Class 4--hyperkinetic prolonged attacks with hyperventilation, involvement of limbs and/or trunk [14(25.9%)]. Class 5--axial dystonic attacks [8(14.8%)]. Class 6--unclassified type [3(5.6%)]. This study demonstrates that the Hubsch's classification with minor modifications is useful and adequate to classify PNES patients from South India. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Athanasopoulou, Christina; Suni, Sanna; Hätönen, Heli; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Lionis, Christos; Välimäki, Maritta
To investigate attitudes towards schizophrenia and people with schizophrenia presented in YouTube videos. We searched YouTube using the search terms "schizophrenia" and "psychosis" in Finnish and Greek language on April 3rd, 2013. The first 20 videos from each search (N = 80) were retrieved. Deductive content analysis was first applied for coding and data interpretation and it was followed by descriptive statistical analysis. A total of 52 videos were analyzed (65%). The majority of the videos were in the "Music" category (50%, n = 26). Most of the videos (83%, n = 43) tended to present schizophrenia in a negative way, while less than a fifth (17%, n = 9) presented schizophrenia in a positive or neutral way. Specifically, the most common negative attitude towards schizophrenia was dangerousness (29%, n = 15), while the most often identified positive attitude was objective, medically appropriate beliefs (21%, n = 11). All attitudes identified were similarly present in the Finnish and Greek videos, without any statistically significant difference. Negative presentations of schizophrenia are most likely to be accessed when searching YouTube for schizophrenia in Finnish and Greek language. More research is needed to investigate to what extent, if any, YouTube viewers' attitudes are affected by the videos they watch.
Lamirel, Jean-Charles; Toussaint, Yannick; Al Shehabi, Shadi
Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; The hybridisation of different classification and mining techniques coming from different areas such as the numeric and the symbolic worlds can produce a significant enhancement of the overall classification and retrieval performance in a Data Mining or Information Retrieval context.This paper introduces an experimental methodology to match an explicative structure issued from a symbolic classification to a num...
Ankush Mittal; Pagalthivarthi V Krishnan; Edward Altman
.... Most authored content exist in the form of videos, audio, slides, text, and simulations. In the absence of suitable annotations, the conversion of such materials for on-line distribution, presentation...
José Borja ARJONA MARTÍN
Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the last five years of audiovisual content distribution over the web, this paper is focused on a study aimed at the description and classification of a wide sample of audiovisual initiatives whose access is carried out by means of the World Wide Web. The purpose of this study is to promote the debate concerning the different names of these incipient media, as well as their categorization and description so that an organised universe of the WebTV phenomenon could be provided. An analysis of formats and content is carried out on the basis of quantitative techniques in order to propose a categorization typology. These formats and content will be studied under three key variables: "Content", "Origin" and "Domain .tv". "Content" will help us define the programmatic lines of our study sample; “Source” refers to the source of a particular item of study (“Native WebTV or WebTV representative of a conventional media and "Domain.tv" will specify the proportion of case studies hosted with domain .tv. The results obtained in this study will offer the researchers and the professionals a comprehensive description of the models currently adopted in the field of video and television on the net.
Huijbregts, M.A.H.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
In this paper we present a speech/non-speech classification method that allows high quality classification without the need to know in advance what kinds of audible non-speech events are present in an audio recording and that does not require a single parameter to be tuned on in-domain data. Because
Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Siwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhang, Xinfeng; Sun, Huifang; Gao, Wen
High-efficiency compression of visual feature descriptors has recently emerged as an active topic due to the rapidly increasing demand in mobile visual retrieval over bandwidth-limited networks. However, transmitting only those feature descriptors may largely restrict its application scale due to the lack of necessary visual content. To facilitate the wide spread of feature descriptors, a hybrid framework of jointly compressing the feature descriptors and visual content is highly desirable. In this paper, such a content-plus-feature coding scheme is investigated, aiming to shape the next generation of video compression system toward visual retrieval, where the high-efficiency coding of both feature descriptors and visual content can be achieved by exploiting the interactions between each other. On the one hand, visual feature descriptors can achieve compact and efficient representation by taking advantages of the structure and motion information in the compressed video stream. To optimize the retrieval performance, a novel rate-accuracy optimization technique is proposed to accurately estimate the retrieval performance degradation in feature coding. On the other hand, the already compressed feature data can be utilized to further improve the video coding efficiency by applying feature matching-based affine motion compensation. Extensive simulations have shown that the proposed joint compression framework can offer significant bitrate reduction in representing both feature descriptors and video frames, while simultaneously maintaining the state-of-the-art visual retrieval performance.
In this thesis I investigate innovation processes on innovation platforms, and look at the role played by content release for innovation in digital distribution of home entertainment. I argue that innovation platforms rely on several aspects of innovation in order to succeed, and this thesis is concerned with one of these, namely release of digital entertainment content. I use the American video streaming service Netflix as a case and example of such an innovation platform. By using techno...
Acqualagna, Laura; Bosse, Sebastian; Porbadnigk, Anne K.; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Wiegand, Thomas; Blankertz, Benjamin
Objective. Recent studies exploit the neural signal recorded via electroencephalography (EEG) to get a more objective measurement of perceived video quality. Most of these studies capitalize on the event-related potential component P3. We follow an alternative approach to the measurement problem investigating steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as EEG correlates of quality changes. Unlike the P3, SSVEPs are directly linked to the sensory processing of the stimuli and do not require long experimental sessions to get a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, we investigate the correlation of the EEG-based measures with the outcome of the standard behavioral assessment. Approach. As stimulus material, we used six gray-level natural images in six levels of degradation that were created by coding the images with the HM10.0 test model of the high efficiency video coding (H.265/MPEG-HEVC) using six different compression rates. The degraded images were presented in rapid alternation with the original images. In this setting, the presence of SSVEPs is a neural marker that objectively indicates the neural processing of the quality changes that are induced by the video coding. We tested two different machine learning methods to classify such potentials based on the modulation of the brain rhythm and on time-locked components, respectively. Main results. Results show high accuracies in classification of the neural signal over the threshold of the perception of the quality changes. Accuracies significantly correlate with the mean opinion scores given by the participants in the standardized degradation category rating quality assessment of the same group of images. Significance. The results show that neural assessment of video quality based on SSVEPs is a viable complement of the behavioral one and a significantly fast alternative to methods based on the P3 component.
Full Text Available The demand of storing and transferring user generated content (UGC has been rapidly growing with the popularization of mobile devices equipped with video recording and playback capabilities. As a typical application of software-defined networks/network functions virtualization-based pervasive communications infrastructure, content delivery networks (CDNs have been widely leveraged to distribute contents across different geographical locations. Nevertheless, the content delivery for UGC is inefficient with the existing “pull-based” caching mechanism in traditional CDNs, because there exists a huge volume of lukewarm or cold UGC which results in a low cache hit ratio. In this paper, we propose a “push-based” caching mechanism to efficiently and economically deliver UGC videos. Different from traditional CDNs which separate the original content storage and caching, we directly store UGC videos into selective servers which serve as both reliable storages and user-facing uploading servers. By carefully and dynamically selecting the storage locations of each UGC object based on its popularity and locality, we not only guarantee the data availability but also remarkably improve the content distribution performance and reduce the distribution cost.
Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; ter Haar, Frank B.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Wijn, Remco; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.
In the security domain, cameras are important to assess critical situations. Apart from fixed surveillance cameras we observe an increasing number of sensors on mobile platforms, such as drones, vehicles and persons. Mobile cameras allow rapid and local deployment, enabling many novel applications and effects, such as the reduction of violence between police and citizens. However, the increased use of bodycams also creates potential challenges. For example: how can end-users extract information from the abundance of video, how can the information be presented, and how can an officer retrieve information efficiently? Nevertheless, such video gives the opportunity to stimulate the professionals' memory, and support complete and accurate reporting. In this paper, we show how video content analysis (VCA) can address these challenges and seize these opportunities. To this end, we focus on methods for creating a complete summary of the video, which allows quick retrieval of relevant fragments. The content analysis for summarization consists of several components, such as stabilization, scene selection, motion estimation, localization, pedestrian tracking and action recognition in the video from a bodycam. The different components and visual representations of summaries are presented for retrospective investigation.
This paper describes an automatic creation technique of background music track data for given video file. Our proposed system is based on a novel BGM synthesizer, called “Matrix Music Player”, which can produce 3125 kinds of high-quality BGM contents by dynamically mixing 5 audio files, which are freely selected from total 25 audio waveform files. In order to retrieve appropriate BGM mixing patterns, we have constructed an acoustic analysis database, which records acoustic features of total 3125 synthesized patterns. Developing a video analyzer which generates image parameters of given video data and converts them to acoustic parameters, we will access the acoustic analysis database and retrieve an appropriate synthesized BGM signal, which can be included in the audio track of the source video file. Based on our proposed method, we have tried BGM synthesis experiments using several around 20-second video clips. The automatically inserted BGM audio streams for all of our given video clips have been objectively acceptable. In this paper, we describe briefly our proposed BGM synthesized method and its experimental results.
Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Won, Eugene; Doshi, Ankur M
To assess the content of currently available YouTube videos seeking to educate patients regarding commonly performed imaging examinations. After initial testing of possible search terms, the first two pages of YouTube search results for "CT scan," "MRI," "ultrasound patient," "PET scan," and "mammogram" were reviewed to identify educational patient videos created by health organizations. Sixty-three included videos were viewed and assessed for a range of features. Average views per video were highest for MRI (293,362) and mammography (151,664). Twenty-seven percent of videos used a nontraditional format (eg, animation, song, humor). All videos (100.0%) depicted a patient undergoing the examination, 84.1% a technologist, and 20.6% a radiologist; 69.8% mentioned examination lengths, 65.1% potential pain/discomfort, 41.3% potential radiation, 36.5% a radiology report/results, 27.0% the radiologist's role in interpretation, and 13.3% laboratory work. For CT, 68.8% mentioned intravenous contrast and 37.5% mentioned contrast safety. For MRI, 93.8% mentioned claustrophobia, 87.5% noise, 75.0% need to sit still, 68.8% metal safety, 50.0% intravenous contrast, and 0.0% contrast safety. For ultrasound, 85.7% mentioned use of gel. For PET, 92.3% mentioned radiotracer injection, 61.5% fasting, and 46.2% diabetic precautions. For mammography, unrobing, avoiding deodorant, and possible additional images were all mentioned by 63.6%; dense breasts were mentioned by 0.0%. Educational patient videos on YouTube regarding common imaging examinations received high public interest and may provide a valuable patient resource. Videos most consistently provided information detailing the examination experience and less consistently provided safety information or described the presence and role of the radiologist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan
This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control.
Bo Li; Peng Wang; Yongfei Zhang
These Real-time video streaming over networks operates under stringent network resource constraints, with multiple video clients competing for limited network resources. In this paper, we study the problem of bandwidth allocation for video transmission over heterogeneous networks, with multiple video clients connecting to the video server simultaneously and demanding for the video services, and aim to provide the best possible Quality of Service (QoS) under limited bandwidth of both the video...
José Antonio ORTEGA CARRILLO
Full Text Available A high percentage of video-games now in the market have contents related with physical and psychological violence. There are investigations that show that this kind of games is mainly used by children and adolescents. This fact reinitiates the polemic of the possible influence in the formation of their personality and, very specially, in the construction of the value scale that will direct their present and future behaviour as citizens. This paper shows the partial results of a recent research in which adult players related with the education area (future teachers analyzed critically the axiological component of a very important group of video-games which are important in the sales lists. For that purpose, a very specific scale has been used, with indicators related to the argument, the initial and final videos, the protagonist’s behaviour, the stenography, clothes, actions and partial and final results obtained by players.
Hall, John Burton, 1960-; Seay, William W.; Baker, Scott M., 1968-
The cow-calf herd's primary source of nutrition is forages, but forages are variable in nutrient content. By knowing the nutrient content of their base forages, producers can then identify the deficient nutrients that need to be supplemented.
Rivera Martínez, Jose Luis; Mijes Cruz, Mario Humberto; Rodríguez Vázqu, Manuel Antonio; Rodríguez Espejo, Luis; Montoya Obeso, Abraham; García Vázquez, Mireya Saraí; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro Álvaro
Nowadays there is a trend towards the use of unimodal databases for multimedia content description, organization and retrieval applications of a single type of content like text, voice and images, instead bimodal databases allow to associate semantically two different types of content like audio-video, image-text, among others. The generation of a bimodal database of audio-video implies the creation of a connection between the multimedia content through the semantic relation that associates the actions of both types of information. This paper describes in detail the used characteristics and methodology for the creation of the bimodal database of violent content; the semantic relationship is stablished by the proposed concepts that describe the audiovisual information. The use of bimodal databases in applications related to the audiovisual content processing allows an increase in the semantic performance only and only if these applications process both type of content. This bimodal database counts with 580 audiovisual annotated segments, with a duration of 28 minutes, divided in 41 classes. Bimodal databases are a tool in the generation of applications for the semantic web.
Puhl, Rebecca M; Peterson, Jamie Lee; DePierre, Jenny A; Luedicke, Joerg
The news media has substantial influence on public perceptions of social and health issues. This study conducted a video content analysis to examine portrayals of obese persons in online news reports about obesity. The authors downloaded online news videos about obesity (N = 371) from 5 major news websites and systematically coded visual portrayals of obese and nonobese adults and youth in these videos. The authors found that 65% of overweight/obese adults and 77% of overweight/obese youth were portrayed in a negative, stigmatizing manner across multiple obesity-related topics covered in online news videos. In particular, overweight/obese individuals were significantly more likely than were nonoverweight individuals to be portrayed as headless, with an unflattering emphasis on isolated body parts, from an unflattering rear view of their excess weight, eating unhealthy foods, engaging in sedentary behavior, and dressed in inappropriately fitting clothing. Nonoverweight individuals were significantly more likely to be portrayed positively. In conclusion, obese children and adults are frequently stigmatized in online news videos about obesity. These findings have important implications for public perceptions of obesity and obese persons and may reinforce negative societal weight bias.
This study examines the content of and audience response to organ donation videos on YouTube, a Web 2.0 platform, with framing theory. Positive frames were identified in both video content and audience comments. Analysis revealed a reciprocity relationship between media frames and audience frames. Videos covered content categories such as kidney, liver, organ donation registration process, and youth. Videos were favorably rated. No significant differences were found between videos produced by organizations and individuals in the United States and those produced in other countries. The findings provide insight into how new communication technologies are shaping health communication in ways that differ from traditional media. The implications of Web 2.0, characterized by user-generated content and interactivity, for health communication and health campaign practice are discussed.
Karaoglu, Ali; Lee, Bong Ho; Boev, Atanas; Cheong, Won-Sik; Gotchev, Atanas
3D video content is captured and created mainly in high resolution targeting big cinema or home TV screens. For 3D mobile devices, equipped with small-size auto-stereoscopic displays, such content has to be properly repurposed, preferably in real-time. The repurposing requires not only spatial resizing but also properly maintaining the output stereo disparity, as it should deliver realistic, pleasant and harmless 3D perception. In this paper, we propose an approach to adapt the disparity range of the source video to the comfort disparity zone of the target display. To achieve this, we adapt the scale and the aspect ratio of the source video. We aim at maximizing the disparity range of the retargeted content within the comfort zone, and minimizing the letterboxing of the cropped content. The proposed algorithm consists of five stages. First, we analyse the display profile, which characterises what 3D content can be comfortably observed in the target display. Then, we perform fast disparity analysis of the input stereoscopic content. Instead of returning the dense disparity map, it returns an estimate of the disparity statistics (min, max, meanand variance) per frame. Additionally, we detect scene cuts, where sharp transitions in disparities occur. Based on the estimated input, and desired output disparity ranges, we derive the optimal cropping parameters and scale of the cropping window, which would yield the targeted disparity range and minimize the area of cropped and letterboxed content. Once the rescaling and cropping parameters are known, we perform resampling procedure using spline-based and perceptually optimized resampling (anti-aliasing) kernels, which have also a very efficient computational structure. Perceptual optimization is achieved through adjusting the cut-off frequency of the anti-aliasing filter with the throughput of the target display.
Desai, Tejas; Shariff, Afreen; Dhingra, Vibhu; Minhas, Deeba; Eure, Megan; Kats, Mark
Medical educators and patients are turning to YouTube to teach and learn about medical conditions. These videos are from authors whose credibility cannot be verified & are not peer reviewed. As a result, studies that have analyzed the educational content of YouTube have reported dismal results. These studies have been unable to exclude videos created by questionable sources and for non-educational purposes. We hypothesize that medical education YouTube videos, authored by credible sources, are of high educational value and appropriately suited to educate the public. Credible videos about cardiovascular diseases were identified using the Mayo Clinic's Center for Social Media Health network. Content in each video was assessed by the presence/absence of 7 factors. Each video was also evaluated for understandability using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). User engagement measurements were obtained for each video. A total of 607 videos (35 hours) were analyzed. Half of all videos contained 3 educational factors: treatment, screening, or prevention. There was no difference between the number of educational factors present & any user engagement measurement (p NS). SAM scores were higher in videos whose content discussed more educational factors (pYouTube. PMID:24367517
Kim, Ryul; Park, Hye-Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Aryun; Jang, Mi-Hee; Jeon, Beomseok
This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of Korean videos regarding Parkinson's disease (PD) on YouTube and viewers' responses to them. YouTube search was performed using the search term "Parkinson disease" in Korean language on March 28, 2017. Two independent neurologists categorized the videos into "reliable", "misleading" or "patient experiences". The number of views, days since upload, video length, number of "likes" and "dislikes", and upload source were collected for each video. A total of 138 videos were included in this study. Of these, 91 videos (65.9%) were reliable; 31 (22.5%) were misleading, and 16 (11.6%) were of patient experiences. The videos with patient experiences had the highest number of mean views with 9710.4±3686.9, followed by misleading videos with 5075.0±1198.6, and reliable videos with 2146.8±353.4 (ANOVA, pYouTube provide reliable information. More importantly, the videos with reliable contents were less popular than videos with misleading contents. Further efforts are warranted to effectively increase the dissemination of accurate and scientifically proven PD information to YouTube users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cranwell, J.C.; Whitamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo
Abstract To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11?17 years were included as participants. Reported...
Full Text Available In this paper we use content-based features to perform automatic classification of music pieces into genres. We categorise these features into four groups: features extracted from the Fourier transform’s magnitude spectrum, features designed...
José Antonio ORTEGA CARRILLO; Mª Carmen ROBLES VILCHEZ
A high percentage of video-games now in the market have contents related with physical and psychological violence. There are investigations that show that this kind of games is mainly used by children and adolescents. This fact reinitiates the polemic of the possible influence in the formation of their personality and, very specially, in the construction of the value scale that will direct their present and future behaviour as citizens. This paper shows the partial results of a recent researc...
Julian Ernst; Schmitt, Josephine B.; Diana Rieger; Ann Kristin Beier; Peter Vorderer; Gary Bente; Hans Joachim Roth
The odds in stumbling over extremist material in the internet are high. Counter speech videos, such as those of the German campaign Begriffswelten Islam (Concepts of Islam; Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2015a) published on YouTube, offer alternative perspectives and democratic ideas to counteract extremist content. YouTube users may discuss these videos in the comment sections below the video. Yet, it remains open which topics these users bring up in their comments. Moreover, it is u...
van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.
Research on how sexual music videos affect beliefs related to sexual aggression is rare and has not differentiated between the effects of music videos by male and female artists. Moreover, little is known about the affective processes that underlie the effects of sexual music videos. Using data from
Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Kyongseok; Hove, Thomas
Focusing on several message features that are prominent in antismoking campaign literature, this content-analytic study examines 934 antismoking video clips on YouTube for the following characteristics...
Plants like other living organisms respond differently under different environmental conditions. An elevated level of heavy metals is one of the stresses which results into three classes of plants depending on their heavy metal content. The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals around North ...
ABSTRACT. Plants like other living organisms respond differently under different environmental conditions. An elevated level of heavy metals is one of the stresses which results into three classes of plants depending on their heavy metal content. The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals ...
Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Chunyan; Hirafuji, Masayuki
Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source. PMID:26811935
Kim, Kyung-Su; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Im, Dong-Hyuck; Lee, Heung-Kyu
Commercial markets employ digital right management (DRM) systems to protect valuable high-definition (HD) quality videos. DRM system uses watermarking to provide copyright protection and ownership authentication of multimedia contents. We propose a real-time video watermarking scheme for HD video in the uncompressed domain. Especially, our approach is in aspect of practical perspectives to satisfy perceptual quality, real-time processing, and robustness requirements. We simplify and optimize human visual system mask for real-time performance and also apply dithering technique for invisibility. Extensive experiments are performed to prove that the proposed scheme satisfies the invisibility, real-time processing, and robustness requirements against video processing attacks. We concentrate upon video processing attacks that commonly occur in HD quality videos to display on portable devices. These attacks include not only scaling and low bit-rate encoding, but also malicious attacks such as format conversion and frame rate change.
Borgersen, Nanna Jo; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Konge, Lars; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Subhi, Yousif
Direct ophthalmoscopy is well-suited for video-based instruction, particularly if the videos enable the student to see what the examiner sees when performing direct ophthalmoscopy. We evaluated the pedagogical effectiveness of instructional YouTube videos on direct ophthalmoscopy by evaluating their content and approach to visualization. In order to synthesize main themes and points for direct ophthalmoscopy, we formed a broad panel consisting of a medical student, junior and senior physicians, and took into consideration book chapters targeting medical students and physicians in general. We then systematically searched YouTube. Two authors reviewed eligible videos to assess eligibility and extract data on video statistics, content, and approach to visualization. Correlations between video statistics and contents were investigated using two-tailed Spearman's correlation. We screened 7,640 videos, of which 27 were found eligible for this study. Overall, a median of 12 out of 18 points (interquartile range: 8-14 key points) were covered; no videos covered all of the 18 points assessed. We found the most difficulties in the approach to visualization of how to approach the patient and how to examine the fundus. Time spent on fundus examination correlated with the number of views per week (Spearman's ρ=0.53; P=0.029). Videos may help overcome the pedagogical issues in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy; however, the few available videos on YouTube fail to address this particular issue adequately. There is a need for high-quality videos that include relevant points, provide realistic visualization of the examiner's view, and give particular emphasis on fundus examination.
Hillman, Dustin S.
The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of different media-based learning environments (MLEs) that present identical chemistry content material. This is done with four different MLEs that utilize some or all components of a chemistry-based media-based prototype video game. Examination of general chemistry student volunteers purposefully randomized to one of four different MLEs did not provide evidence that the higher the level of interactivity resulted in a more effective MLE for the chemistry content. Data suggested that the cognitive load to play the chemistry-based video game may impaired the chemistry content being presented and recalled by the students while the students watching the movie of the chemistry-based video game were able to recall the chemistry content more efficiently. Further studies in this area need to address the overall cognitive load of the different MLEs to potentially better determine what the most effective MLE may be for this chemistry content.
Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.
Zobeida Jezabel Guzman-Zavaleta
Full Text Available Passive content fingerprinting is widely used for video content identification and monitoring. However, many challenges remain unsolved especially for partial-copies detection. The main challenge is to find the right balance between the computational cost of fingerprint extraction and fingerprint dimension, without compromising detection performance against various attacks (robustness. Fast video detection performance is desirable in several modern applications, for instance, in those where video detection involves the use of large video databases or in applications requiring real-time video detection of partial copies, a process whose difficulty increases when videos suffer severe transformations. In this context, conventional fingerprinting methods are not fully suitable to cope with the attacks and transformations mentioned before, either because the robustness of these methods is not enough or because their execution time is very high, where the time bottleneck is commonly found in the fingerprint extraction and matching operations. Motivated by these issues, in this work we propose a content fingerprinting method based on the extraction of a set of independent binary global and local fingerprints. Although these features are robust against common video transformations, their combination is more discriminant against severe video transformations such as signal processing attacks, geometric transformations and temporal and spatial desynchronization. Additionally, we use an efficient multilevel filtering system accelerating the processes of fingerprint extraction and matching. This multilevel filtering system helps to rapidly identify potential similar video copies upon which the fingerprint process is carried out only, thus saving computational time. We tested with datasets of real copied videos, and the results show how our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods regarding detection scores. Furthermore, the granularity of our method makes
Kiedrowski, Mirosław; Mróz, Andrzej; Gajewska, Danuta; Nurzyński, Paweł; Deptała, Andrzej
Celiac disease affects about 1% of the population. Since most Polish households have a broadband Internet connection, a lot of people use web resources to learn about health and disease. YouTube service (www.youtube.com) offers a lot of videos concerning celiac disease. However, the credibility of the Polish videos available on YouTube and concerning celiac disease has never been analyzed. The aim of the study was to determine whether the YouTube service offers valuable content for Polish people affected by celiac disease. One hundred and fifty-four unique videos devoted to celiac disease and available in the Polish language were identified and critically assessed. Each video was categorized due to its topic(s), and evaluated for its credibility by two independent researchers. In general, 127 (82.5%) videos were found to be credible. The most credible categories of content presented organizations and events related to celiac disease/celiac society, followed by culinary recipes (100.0, 100.0, and 95.6% of credible videos, respectively). The least trustworthy categories were devoted to pathobiology and advertisements (55.6 and 54.3% of credible videos, respectively). YouTube service can serve as a supplementary source of knowledge for people affected by celiac disease, after careful selection of trustworthy content.
Klaassen, Marleen J E; Peter, Jochen
Although Internet pornography is widely consumed and researchers have started to investigate its effects, we still know little about its content. This has resulted in contrasting claims about whether Internet pornography depicts gender (in)equality and whether this depiction differs between amateur and professional pornography. We conducted a content analysis of three main dimensions of gender (in)equality (i.e., objectification, power, and violence) in 400 popular pornographic Internet videos from the most visited pornographic Web sites. Objectification was depicted more often for women through instrumentality, but men were more frequently objectified through dehumanization. Regarding power, men and women did not differ in social or professional status, but men were more often shown as dominant and women as submissive during sexual activities. Except for spanking and gagging, violence occurred rather infrequently. Nonconsensual sex was also relatively rare. Overall, amateur pornography contained more gender inequality at the expense of women than professional pornography did.
Huang, G. J.; Chandra, C. V.; Moisseev, D.
The liquid-equivalent snow rate (SR) quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) using radar (both ground-base and satellite) is very important component of GPM research. Winter storms can have with different type of precipitations such as, pristine ice crystal, sleet, graupel-like snow, rimed and aggregated snow, and each type of precipitations have very different micro-physical properties (e.g. size, density, fall speed, dielectric constant), to estimate SR accurately using radar becomes a challenge. The first step to get a proper estimator from radar observations is the precipitation classification. The form of different winter precipitation relates to the environment especially the temperature and humidity. In addition, the different precipitation type also correspond to different shape and density resulting in different fall speeds. Recent research shows that 2DVD is able to observe winter precipitation successfully. The 2DVD can measure the fall speed of each particle falling into its observing area, and provide the contours from two orthogonal views. It is straight forward to estimate the diameter of snowflake from two views of 2DVD and compute the particle size distribution (PSD). In order to classify the different type of precipitation, we must not only estimate the diameter but also define several geometric features. In this paper we explore a technique to estimate features from the contours of 2D-Video images. In this paper, we analyze observations from two GPM winter campaigns namely, GCPEX and LPVEX. From these data sets , we derive the to get the statistics of fall speed and geometric features developed in this paper. Subsequently these are used to classify winter precipitation into four catalogs, namely rain, sleet, graupel-like snow and fluffy snow (may form by aggregation or aggregation with riming). We apply this procedure to two GCPEx cases which mixed with different type of precipitation in different time interval. Since we are using the
Full Text Available Indexing deals with the automatic extraction of information with the objective of automatically describing and organizing the content. Thinking of a video stream, different types of information can be considered semantically important. Since we can assume that the most relevant one is linked to the presence of moving foreground objects, their number, their shape, and their appearance can constitute a good mean for content description. For this reason, we propose to combine both motion information and region-based color segmentation to extract moving objects from an MPEG2 compressed video stream starting only considering low-resolution data. This approach, which we refer to as Ã¢Â€Âœrough indexing,Ã¢Â€Â consists in processing P-frame motion information first, and then in performing I-frame color segmentation. Next, since many details can be lost due to the low-resolution data, to improve the object detection results, a novel spatiotemporal filtering has been developed which is constituted by a quadric surface modeling the object trace along time. This method enables to effectively correct possible former detection errors without heavily increasing the computational effort.
Schechter, Rachel L.
This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and its parts) and their use of the precise scientific terms presented in the episode. A total of 91 preschoolers were included (3-5 years old). Clusters of children were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three video groups: (a) Dialogue Only, which did not include a song; (b) Dialogue Plus Lyrics, which included a song; or (c) Lyrics Only, which consisted of a song, played twice. Results from interviews suggested that children from all video groups (lyrics and/or dialogue) were able to explain the form and function of a pulley better than the control group. The data suggested that children from the Lyrics Only group understood the science content because of the visual imagery, not through the information provided in the lyrics. In terms of precise vocabulary terms, significantly more children in the Dialogue Only group recalled at least one precise term from the program compared to the Lyrics Only group. Looking at the interview as a whole, the children's responses suggested different levels of scientific understanding. Children would require additional teacher-led instruction to deepen their scientific understanding and to clarify any misconceptions. This paper discusses implications of these findings for teachers using multi-media tools in the science classroom and producers creating new educational programming for television and other platforms.
Sloane, Kate; Wilson, Nick; Imlach Gunasekara, Fiona
We aimed to: (i) document the extent and nature of alcohol portrayal in televised music videos in New Zealand in 2010; and (ii) assess trends over time by comparing with a similar 2005 sample. We undertook a content analysis for references to alcohol in 861 music videos shown on a youth-orientated television channel in New Zealand. This was compared with a sample in 2005 (564 music videos on the same channel plus sampling from two other channels). The proportion of alcohol content in the music videos was slightly higher in 2010 than for the same channel in the 2005 sample (19.5% vs. 15.7%) but this difference was not statistically significant. Only in the genre 'Rhythm and Blues' was the increase over time significant (P = 0.015). In both studies, the portrayal of alcohol was significantly more common in music videos where the main artist was international (not from New Zealand). Furthermore, in the music videos with alcohol content, at least a third of the time, alcohol was shown being consumed and the main artist was involved with alcohol. In only 2% (in 2005) and 4% (in 2010) of these videos was the tone explicitly negative towards alcohol. In both these studies, the portrayal of alcohol was relatively common in music videos. Nevertheless, there are various ways that policy makers can denormalise alcohol in youth-orientated media such as music videos or to compensate via other alcohol control measures such as higher alcohol taxes. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Cranwell, Jo; Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo
To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11-17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75-4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70-3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol.
Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo
Abstract To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11–17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75–4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70–3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27428030
Satish S Hiremath
Full Text Available An important task in content based video indexing is to extract text information from videos. The challenges involved in text extraction and recognition are variation of illumination on each video frame with text, the text present on the complex background and different font size of the text. Using various image processing algorithms like morphological operations, blob detection and histogram of oriented gradients the character recognition of video subtitles is implemented. Segmentation, feature extraction and classification are the major steps of character recognition. Several experimental results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm
Background Fitness video games are popular, but little is known about their content. Because many contain interactive tools that mimic behavioral strategies from weight loss intervention programs, it is possible that differences in content could affect player physical activity and/or weight outcomes. There is a need for a better understanding of what behavioral strategies are currently available in fitness games and how they are implemented. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of evidence-based behavioral strategies across fitness video games available for home use. Games available for consoles that used camera-based controllers were also contrasted with games available for a console that used handheld motion controllers. Methods Fitness games (N=18) available for three home consoles were systematically identified and play-tested by 2 trained coders for at least 3 hours each. In cases of multiple games from one series, only the most recently released game was included. The Sony PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Xbox360 were the two camera-based consoles, and the Nintendo Wii was the handheld motion controller console. A coding list based on a taxonomy of behavioral strategies was used to begin coding. Codes were refined in an iterative process based on data found during play-testing. Results The most prevalent behavioral strategies were modeling (17/18), specific performance feedback (17/18), reinforcement (16/18), caloric expenditure feedback (15/18), and guided practice (15/18). All games included some kind of feedback on performance accuracy, exercise frequency, and/or fitness progress. Action planning (scheduling future workouts) was the least prevalent of the included strategies (4/18). Twelve games included some kind of social integration, with nine of them providing options for real-time multiplayer sessions. Only two games did not feature any kind of reward. Games for the camera-based consoles (mean 12.89, SD 2.71) included a
Lyons, Elizabeth Jane; Hatkevich, Claire
Fitness video games are popular, but little is known about their content. Because many contain interactive tools that mimic behavioral strategies from weight loss intervention programs, it is possible that differences in content could affect player physical activity and/or weight outcomes. There is a need for a better understanding of what behavioral strategies are currently available in fitness games and how they are implemented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of evidence-based behavioral strategies across fitness video games available for home use. Games available for consoles that used camera-based controllers were also contrasted with games available for a console that used handheld motion controllers. Fitness games (N=18) available for three home consoles were systematically identified and play-tested by 2 trained coders for at least 3 hours each. In cases of multiple games from one series, only the most recently released game was included. The Sony PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Xbox360 were the two camera-based consoles, and the Nintendo Wii was the handheld motion controller console. A coding list based on a taxonomy of behavioral strategies was used to begin coding. Codes were refined in an iterative process based on data found during play-testing. The most prevalent behavioral strategies were modeling (17/18), specific performance feedback (17/18), reinforcement (16/18), caloric expenditure feedback (15/18), and guided practice (15/18). All games included some kind of feedback on performance accuracy, exercise frequency, and/or fitness progress. Action planning (scheduling future workouts) was the least prevalent of the included strategies (4/18). Twelve games included some kind of social integration, with nine of them providing options for real-time multiplayer sessions. Only two games did not feature any kind of reward. Games for the camera-based consoles (mean 12.89, SD 2.71) included a greater number of strategies than those
Full Text Available The odds in stumbling over extremist material in the internet are high. Counter speech videos, such as those of the German campaign Begriffswelten Islam (Concepts of Islam; Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2015a published on YouTube, offer alternative perspectives and democratic ideas to counteract extremist content. YouTube users may discuss these videos in the comment sections below the video. Yet, it remains open which topics these users bring up in their comments. Moreover, it is unknown how far user comments in this context may promote hate speech—the very opposite of what counter speeches intent to evoke. By applying a qualitative content analysis on a randomly selected sample of user comments, which appeared beneath the counter speech videos of Concepts of Islam, we found that comments dominated, which dealt with devaluating prejudices and stereotypes towards Muslims and/or Islam. However, we also discovered that users in a large scale discussed the content of the videos. Moreover, we identified user comments, which hint at hateful speech either in comments themselves or the discourse the comments are embedded in. Based on these results, we discuss implications for researchers, practitioners and security agencies.
Guo, Jun-Xian; Rao, Xiu-Qin; Cheng, Fang; Ying, Yi-Bin; Kang, Yu-Guo; Li, Fu-Tang
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated to predict trash content and classify types of ginned cotton by using a fiberoptic in diffuse reflectance mode. Different spectra preprocessing methods were compared, and partial least-squares (PLS) regression was established to predict the trash content of ginned cotton. Discriminant analysis (DA) was used to classify various types of lint and content level of trash. The correlation coefficient r was 0.906 for optimal PLS model using three factors based on first-order derivative spectra, and RMSEC and RMSEP was 0.440 and 0.823 respectively. To classify ginned cotton with and without plant trash, the accuracy rate reached 95.4% using 15 principal components (PCs) via DA, whereas the prediction accuracy rate was only 80.9% for the classification of sample types due to containing foreign fiber, and the classification result for the content level of trash in lint was not good for the samples without any preprocessing. The result indicated that the NIR spectra of sample can be used to predict trash content in ginned cotton, which is often disturbed by type, content and distribution of foreign matters, and the accuracy of some prediction model is unsatisfactory. In order to improve the prediction accuracy, some methods would be applied in future research, such as pretreatment according to acquisition request of solid sample, or using transmission mode.
Hürst, W.O.; Ip Vai Ching, Algernon; Hudelist, Marco A.; Primus, Manfred J.; Schoeffmann, Klaus; Beecks, Chrisitan
We present a new approach for collaborative video search and video browsing relying on a combination of traditional, indexbased video retrieval complemented with large-scale human-based visual inspection. In particular, a traditional PC interface is used for query-based search using advanced
Xu, Huihui; Jiang, Mingyan
Two-dimensional to three-dimensional (3-D) conversion in 3-D video applications has attracted great attention as it can alleviate the problem of stereoscopic content shortage. Depth estimation is an essential part of this conversion since the depth accuracy directly affects the quality of a stereoscopic image. In order to generate a perceptually reasonable depth map, a comprehensive depth estimation algorithm that considers the scenario type is presented. Based on the human visual system mechanism, which is sensitive to a change in the scenario, this study classifies the type of scenario into four classes according to the relationship between the movements of the camera and the object, and then leverages different strategies on the basis of the scenario type. The proposed strategies efficiently extract the depth information from different scenarios. In addition, the depth generation method for a scenario in which there is no motion, neither of the object nor the camera, is also suitable for the single image. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed depth estimation algorithm is very effective for generating stereoscopic content and providing a realistic visual experience.
Ivory, James D; Williams, Dmitri; Martins, Nicole; Consalvo, Mia
Although violent video game content and its effects have been examined extensively by empirical research, verbal aggression in the form of profanity has received less attention. Building on preliminary findings from previous studies, an extensive content analysis of profanity in video games was conducted using a sample of the 150 top-selling video games across all popular game platforms (including home consoles, portable consoles, and personal computers). The frequency of profanity, both in general and across three profanity categories, was measured and compared to games' ratings, sales, and platforms. Generally, profanity was found in about one in five games and appeared primarily in games rated for teenagers or above. Games containing profanity, however, tended to contain it frequently. Profanity was not found to be related to games' sales or platforms.
Investigating how visuals affect test takers' performance on video-based L2 listening tests has been the focus of many recent studies. While most existing research has been based on test scores and self-reported verbal data, few studies have examined test takers' viewing behavior (Ockey, 2007; Wagner, 2007, 2010a). To address this gap, in the…
Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn
Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex perfor...
Md. Jalil Piran
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for channel allocation based on video content requirements and the quality of the available channels in cognitive radio networks (CRNs. Our objective is to save network bandwidth and achieve high-quality video delivery. In this method, the content is divided into clusters based on scene complexity and PSNR. To allocate channel to the clusters over multichannel CRNs, we first need to identify the licensee’s activity and then maximize the opportunistic usage accordingly. Therefore, we classify short and long time transmission opportunities based on the licensee’s activities using a Bayesian nonparametric inference model. Furthermore, to prevent transmission interruption, we consider the underlay mode for transmission of the clusters with a lower bitrate. Next, we map the available spectrum opportunities to the content clusters according to both the quality of the channels and the requirements of the clusters. Then, a distortion optimization model is constructed according to the network transmission mechanism. Finally, to maximize the average quality of the delivered video, an optimization problem is defined to determine the best bitrate for each cluster by maximizing the sum of the logarithms of the frame rates. Our extensive simulation results prove the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of spectrum efficiency and the quality of delivered video.
Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Kyongseok; Hove, Thomas
Focusing on several message features that are prominent in antismoking campaign literature, this content-analytic study examines 934 antismoking video clips on YouTube for the following characteristics: message sensation value (MSV) and three types of message appeal (threat, social and humor). These four characteristics are then linked to YouTube's interactive audience response mechanisms (number of viewers, viewer ratings and number of comments) to capture message reach, viewer preference and viewer engagement. The findings suggest the following: (i) antismoking messages are prevalent on YouTube, (ii) MSV levels of online antismoking videos are relatively low compared with MSV levels of televised antismoking messages, (iii) threat appeals are the videos' predominant message strategy and (iv) message characteristics are related to viewer reach and viewer preference.
Lin, Yu-Tzu; Yen, Bai-Jang; Chang, Chia-Hu; Lee, Greg C.; Lin, Yu-Chih
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an indexing and teaching focus mining system for lecture videos recorded in an unconstrained environment. Design/methodology/approach: By applying the proposed algorithms in this paper, the slide structure can be reconstructed by extracting slide images from the video. Instead of applying…
Yang, Ni; Linz, Daniel
Quantifies sexual, violent, sexually violent, and prosocial behaviors in a sample of R-rated and X-rated videocassettes. Finds the predominant behavior in both X- and XXX-rated videos is sexual. Finds the predominant behavior in R-rated videos was violence followed by prosocial behavior. (RS)
Covolo, Loredana; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Passeri, Chiara; Boletti, Michela; Gelatti, Umberto
The suspension of compulsory scheduling of some pediatric vaccines has been discussed for a long time by health authorities in Italy but the current decrease of vaccination rates is a matter of concern. YouTube is the most popular video-based social media website. Considering the demonstrated impact of internet on vaccination decision-making and the increasing use of social media to share and disseminate health information, the aim of this study was to explore the message available on YouTube videos about vaccination. An observational study was conducted searching for YouTube videos in September 2015 and updated in January 2016, by using the keyword "vaccinations." We included recently posted videos in Italian on child vaccination (2014-2015). Videos were classified according to the message tone. A total of 123 videos were selected. Pro-vaccination videos were 62 (50%), anti-vaccination 28 (23%), neutral or without a clear position in favor or against vaccination 33 (27%). Focusing on the first 2 groups, pro-vaccination videos had a higher number of views compared with those unfavorable (1602 ± 6544 vs 1482 ± 2735) (p viewers (17.8 ± 31.3) than positive ones (13.2 ± 44.7) (p viewers, it is important to monitor the web to understand audience characteristics and what influences public opinions to use communication strategies more effectively.
Hartmann, T.; Krakowiak, M.; Tsay-Vogel, M.
Mechanisms of moral disengagement in violent video game play have recently received considerable attention among communication scholars. To date, however, no study has analyzed the prevalence of moral disengagement factors in violent video games. To fill this research gap, the present approach
Yoo, Jina H; Kim, Junghyun
This study examines (1) how the topics of obesity are framed and (2) how obese persons are portrayed on YouTube video clips. The analysis of 417 obesity videos revealed that a newer medium like YouTube, similar to traditional media, appeared to assign responsibility and solutions for obesity mainly to individuals and their behaviors, although there was a tendency that some video categories have started to show other causal claims or solutions. However, due to the prevailing emphasis on personal causes and solutions, numerous YouTube videos had a theme of weight-based teasing, or showed obese persons engaging in stereotypical eating behaviors. We discuss a potential impact of YouTube videos on shaping viewers' perceptions about obesity and further reinforcing stigmatization of obese persons.
Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A.
Following the recent expiry of the United Nations’ 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census’s ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring. PMID:26986472
Full Text Available Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring.
Vázquez, Silvia; Muñoz-García, Óscar; Campanella, Inés; Poch, Marc; Fisas, Beatriz; Bel, Nuria; Andreu, Gloria
In the last decades, the availability of digital user-generated documents from social media has dramatically increased. This massive growth of user-generated content has also affected traditional shopping behaviour. Customers have embraced new communication channels such as microblogs and social networks that enable them not only just to talk with friends and acquaintances about their shopping experience, but also to search for opinions expressed by complete strangers as part of their decision making processes. Uncovering how customers feel about specific products or brands and detecting purchase habits and preferences has traditionally been a costly and highly time-consuming task which involved the use of methods such as focus groups and surveys. However, the new scenario calls for a deep assessment of current market research techniques in order to better interpret and profit from this ever-growing stream of attitudinal data. With this purpose, we present a novel analysis and classification of user-generated content in terms of it belonging to one of the four stages of the Consumer Decision Journey Court et al. (2009) (i.e. the purchase process from the moment when a customer is aware of the existence of the product to the moment when he or she buys, experiences and talks about it). Using a corpus of short texts written in English and Spanish and extracted from different social media, we identify a set of linguistic patterns for each purchase stage that will be then used in a rule-based classifier. Additionally, we use machine learning algorithms to automatically identify business indicators such as the Marketing Mix elements McCarthy and Brogowicz (1981). The classification of the purchase stages achieves an average precision of 74%. The proposed classification of texts depending on the Marketing Mix elements expressed achieved an average precision of 75% for all the elements analysed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ivory, Adrienne Holz
Although the effects of violent video games on aggression in users have been researched extensively and the resulting body of research shows that violent video games can increase aggressive behaviors, aggression-related feelings and thoughts, and physiological arousal, no empirical studies to date have examined whether there are similar and parallel effects of verbal aggression (e.g., profanity) in video game content. A 2 X 2 between-subjects factorial experiment (N = 321) tested the effects ...
Löwe, Peter; Plank, Margret; Ziedorn, Frauke
of Science and Technology. The web-based portal allows for extended search capabilities based on enhanced metadata derived by automated video analysis. By combining state-of-the-art multimedia retrieval techniques such as speech-, text-, and image recognition with semantic analysis, content-based access to videos at the segment level is provided. Further, by using the open standard Media Fragment Identifier (MFID), a citable Digital Object Identifier is displayed for each video segment. In addition to the continuously growing footprint of contemporary content, the importance of vintage audiovisual information needs to be considered: This paper showcases the successful application of the TIB|AV-Portal in the preservation and provision of a newly discovered version of a GRASS GIS promotional video produced by US Army -Corps of Enginers Laboratory (US-CERL) in 1987. The video is provides insight into the constraints of the very early days of the GRASS GIS project, which is the oldest active Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) GIS project which has been active for over thirty years. GRASS itself has turned into a collaborative scientific platform and a repository of scientific peer-reviewed code and algorithm/knowledge hub for future generation of scientists . This is a reference case for future preservation activities regarding semantic-enhanced Web 2.0 content from geospatial software projects within Academia and beyond. References:  Chemin, Y., Petras V., Petrasova, A., Landa, M., Gebbert, S., Zambelli, P., Neteler, M., Löwe, P.: GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research Repository, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, EGU2015-8314-1, 2015 (submitted)
Uijlings, J.R.R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Scha, R.J.H.
As datasets grow increasingly large in content-based image and video retrieval, computational efficiency of concept classification is important. This paper reviews techniques to accelerate concept classification, where we show the trade-off between computational efficiency and accuracy. As a basis,
Ilgner, Justus F. R.; Kawai, Takashi; Shibata, Takashi; Yamazoe, Takashi; Westhofen, Martin
Introduction: An increasing number of surgical procedures are performed in a microsurgical and minimally-invasive fashion. However, the performance of surgery, its possibilities and limitations become difficult to teach. Stereoscopic video has evolved from a complex production process and expensive hardware towards rapid editing of video streams with standard and HDTV resolution which can be displayed on portable equipment. This study evaluates the usefulness of stereoscopic video in teaching undergraduate medical students. Material and methods: From an earlier study we chose two clips each of three different microsurgical operations (tympanoplasty type III of the ear, endonasal operation of the paranasal sinuses and laser chordectomy for carcinoma of the larynx). This material was added by 23 clips of a cochlear implantation, which was specifically edited for a portable computer with an autostereoscopic display (PC-RD1-3D, SHARP Corp., Japan). The recording and synchronization of left and right image was performed at the University Hospital Aachen. The footage was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University by means of our original software for non-linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. Then the material was converted into the streaming 3-D video format. The purpose of the conversion was to present the video clips by a file type that does not depend on a television signal such as PAL or NTSC. 25 4th year medical students who participated in the general ENT course at Aachen University Hospital were asked to estimate depth clues within the six video clips plus cochlear implantation clips. Another 25 4th year students who were shown the material monoscopically on a conventional laptop served as control. Results: All participants noted that the additional depth information helped with understanding the relation of anatomical structures, even though none had hands-on experience with Ear, Nose and Throat operations before or during the course. The monoscopic
Full Text Available The advancing digitalization and media convergence demands TV broadcasting companies to adjust their content to various platforms and distribution channels. The internet, as convergent carrier medium, is increasingly taking on a central role for additional media. Classical linear TV is still important, but for some audiences it has been developing from a primary medium to a secondary medium. Owing to the growing melding of classical-linear TV contents with online offerings (e.g. video-on-demand platforms or Web–TV, a great dynamic can be seen which has triggered numerous discussions about the future of TV for some time now. This article will summarize the results of two different audience studies. Film and television shows are meanwhile distributed online via Video-on-Demand platforms such as Netflix or Amazon Prime Video. The first audience study has dealt with the use of VoD-platforms in Germany investigating user rituals, user motivation to watch films and TV shows on these platforms, and the meaning of VoD in everyday life. Most of the participants in this study reported that they mainly watch TV drama series at Netflix or Amazon Prime. Therefore, the second audience study focused the online use of television drama series of individuals and couples elaborating the phenomenon of binge watching. In relating the audience practice to the new structures of the television market the article will shed light on the future of television.
Ziffer, Julie; Nadirli, Orkhan; Rudnick, Benjamin; Pinkham, Sunny; Montgomery, Benjamin
Traditional teaching of Planetary Science requires students to possess well developed spatial reasoning skills (SRS). Recent research has demonstrated that SRS, long known to be crucial to math and science success, can be improved among students who lack these skills (Sorby et al., 2009). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their abilities (Hill et al., 2010). To address SRS deficiencies, our team is developing video games that embed SRS training into Planetary Science content. Our first game, on Moon Phases, addresses the two primary challenges faced by students trying to understand the Sun-Earth-Moon system: 1) visualizing the system (specifically the difference between the Sun-Earth orbital plane and the Earth-Moon orbital plane) and 2) comprehending the relationship between time and the position-phase of the Moon. In our second video game, the student varies an asteroid's rotational speed, shape, and orientation to the light source while observing how these changes effect the resulting light curve. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students use spatial reasoning skills to imagine how light scattering off a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a sensor plane and is then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. These two games represent the first of our developing suite of high-interest video games designed to teach content while increasing the student's competence in spatial reasoning.
Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Steger-May, Karen; Koh, Christine; Royer, Nat K; Graci, Valentina; Salsich, Gretchen B
Abnormal movement patterns have been implicated in lower extremity injury. Reliable, valid, and easily implemented assessment methods are needed to examine existing musculoskeletal disorders and investigate predictive factors for lower extremity injury. To determine the reliability of experienced and novice testers in making visual assessments of lower extremity movement patterns and to characterize the construct validity of the visual assessments. Cross-sectional study. University athletic department and research laboratory. Convenience sample of 30 undergraduate and graduate students who regularly participate in athletics (age = 19.3 ± 4.5 years). Testers were 2 experienced physical therapists and 1 novice postdoctoral fellow (nonclinician). We took videos of 30 athletes performing the single-legged squat. Three testers observed the videos on 2 occasions and classified the lower extremity movement as dynamic valgus, no change, or dynamic varus. The classification was based on the estimated change in frontal-plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee from single-legged stance to maximum single-legged squat depth. The actual FPPA change was measured quantitatively. We used percentage agreement and weighted κ to examine tester reliability and to determine construct validity of the visual assessment. The κ values for intratester and intertester reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.90, indicating substantial to excellent reliability. Percentage agreement between the visual assessment and the quantitative FPPA change category was 90%, with a κ value of 0.85. Visual assessments were made reliably by experienced and novice testers. Additionally, movement-pattern categories based on visual assessments were in excellent agreement with objective methods to measure FPPA change. Therefore, visual assessments can be used in the clinic to assess movement patterns associated with musculoskeletal disorders and in large epidemiologic studies to assess the association between lower
Wright, Chrysalis L.; Rubin, Mark
This study examined the relationship between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and risk among emerging adults in the USA and Australia. Music content was examined via lyrics, videos and social media. It was hypothesised that there would be a positive association between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and risk. Sexual…
Bolognesi, Marianna; Pilgram, Roosmaryn; van den Heerik, Romy
Semantic feature norms (e.g., STIMULUS: car → RESPONSE: ) are commonly used in cognitive psychology to look into salient aspects of given concepts. Semantic features are typically collected in experimental settings and then manually annotated by the researchers into feature types (e.g., perceptual features, taxonomic features, etc.) by means of content analyses-that is, by using taxonomies of feature types and having independent coders perform the annotation task. However, the ways in which such content analyses are typically performed and reported are not consistent across the literature. This constitutes a serious methodological problem that might undermine the theoretical claims based on such annotations. In this study, we first offer a review of some of the released datasets of annotated semantic feature norms and the related taxonomies used for content analysis. We then provide theoretical and methodological insights in relation to the content analysis methodology. Finally, we apply content analysis to a new dataset of semantic features and show how the method should be applied in order to deliver reliable annotations and replicable coding schemes. We tackle the following issues: (1) taxonomy structure, (2) the description of categories, (3) coder training, and (4) sustainability of the coding scheme-that is, comparison of the annotations provided by trained versus novice coders. The outcomes of the project are threefold: We provide methodological guidelines for semantic feature classification; we provide a revised and adapted taxonomy that can (arguably) be applied to both concrete and abstract concepts; and we provide a dataset of annotated semantic feature norms.
Kelly Cristina Strazzieri-Pulido
Full Text Available AIMS: to perform the cultural adaptation of the STAR Skin Tear Classification System into the Portuguese language and to test the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the adapted version.METHODS: methodological study with a quantitative approach. The cultural adaptation was developed in three phases: translation, evaluation by a committee of judges and back-translation. The instrument was tested regarding content validity and inter-rater reliability.RESULTS: the adapted version obtained a regular level of concordance when it was applied by nurses using photographs of friction injuries. Regarding its application in clinical practice, the adapted version obtained a moderate and statistically significant level of concordance.CONCLUSION: the study tested the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the version adapted into the Portuguese language. Its inclusion in clinical practice will enable the correct identification of this type of injury, as well as the implementation of protocols for the prevention and treatment of friction injuries.
Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James
In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…
Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Warner, Dorothy E.
Numerous policies have been proposed at the local, state, and national level to restrict youth access to violent video and computer games. Although studies are cited to support policies, there is no published research on how children perceive the uses and influence of violent interactive games. The authors conduct focus groups with 42 boys ages 12…
Hoogerheide, Vincent; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Loyens, Sofie M M; van Gog, Tamara
Learning from (video) modeling examples in which a model demonstrates how to perform a task is an effective instructional strategy. The model-observer similarity (MOS) hypothesis postulates that (perceived) similarity between learners and the model in terms of age or expertise moderates the
Seganfredo, Deborah Hein; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu
The objective of this study was to validate the Nursing Outcomes (NO) from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) for the two Nursing Diagnoses (ND) most frequent in hospitalized surgical, clinical and critical patients. The content validation of the REs was performed adapting the Fehring Model. The sample consisted of 12 expert nurses. The instrument for data collection consisted of the NOs proposed by NOC for the two NDs in the study, its definition and a five-point Likert scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The NOs that obtained averages of 0.80 or higher were validated. The ND Risk for Infection was the most frequent, being validated eight (38.1%) of 21 NOs proposed by the NOC. The ND Self-Care Deficit: Bathing/Hygiene was the second most frequent and five (14.28%) out of 35 NOs were validated.
Saavedra M., Antonio; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman; Figueroa, Miguel
We propose a platform for robust face recognition in Infrared (IR) images using Compressive Sensing (CS). In line with CS theory, the classification problem is solved using a sparse representation framework, where test images are modeled by means of a linear combination of the training set. Because the training set constitutes an over-complete dictionary, we identify new images by finding their sparsest representation based on the training set, using standard l1-minimization algorithms. Unlike conventional face-recognition algorithms, we feature extraction is performed using random projections with a precomputed binary matrix, as proposed in the CS literature. This random sampling reduces the effects of noise and occlusions such as facial hair, eyeglasses, and disguises, which are notoriously challenging in IR images. Thus, the performance of our framework is robust to these noise and occlusion factors, achieving an average accuracy of approximately 90% when the UCHThermalFace database is used for training and testing purposes. We implemented our framework on a high-performance embedded digital system, where the computation of the sparse representation of IR images was performed by a dedicated hardware using a deeply pipelined architecture on an Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).
This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...
Full Text Available The representation of information content by graphical maps is an extended ongoing research topic. The objective of this article consists in verifying whether it is possible to create map displays using Universal Decimal Classification (UDC codes (using co-classification analysis for the purpose of creating a graphical table of contents for a library collection. The application of UDC codes was introduced to subject maps development using the following graphic representation methods: (1 multidimensional scaling; (2 cluster analysis; and (3 neural networks (self-organizing maps. Finally, the authors conclude that the different kinds of maps have slightly different degrees of viability and types of application.
Biel, Joan-Isaac; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Dines, John; Tsminiaki, Vagia
Despite the evidence that social video conveys rich human personality information, research investigating the automatic prediction of personality impressions in vlogging has shown that, amongst the Big-Five traits, automatic nonverbal be- havioral cues are useful to predict mainly the Extraversion trait. This finding, also reported in other conversational settings, indicates that personality information may be coded in other behavioral dimensions like the verbal channel, which has been less s...
Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James
Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to
Stockdale, Laura; Morrison, Robert G; Palumbo, Robert; Garbarino, James; Silton, Rebecca L
Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or nonplayers, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content. Participants completed a self-report measure of empathy as well as an affective stop-signal task that measured implicit attention to emotion and response inhibition during electroencephalography. Frequent players had lower levels of empathy as well as a reduction in brain activity as indicated by P100 and N200/P300 event related potentials. Reduced P100 amplitude evoked by happy facial expressions was observed in frequent players compared to infrequent players, and this effect was moderated by empathy, such that low levels of empathy further reduced P100 amplitudes for happy facial expressions for frequent players compared to infrequent players. Compared to infrequent players, frequent players had reduced N200/P300 amplitude during response inhibition, indicating less neural resources were recruited to inhibit behavior. Results from the present study illustrate that chronic exposure to violent video games modulates empathy and related neural correlates associated with affect and cognition. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Morrison, Robert G; Palumbo, Robert; Garbarino, James; Silton, Rebecca L
Abstract Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or nonplayers, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content. Participants completed a self-report measure of empathy as well as an affective stop-signal task that measured implicit attention to emotion and response inhibition during electroencephalography. Frequent players had lower levels of empathy as well as a reduction in brain activity as indicated by P100 and N200/P300 event related potentials. Reduced P100 amplitude evoked by happy facial expressions was observed in frequent players compared to infrequent players, and this effect was moderated by empathy, such that low levels of empathy further reduced P100 amplitudes for happy facial expressions for frequent players compared to infrequent players. Compared to infrequent players, frequent players had reduced N200/P300 amplitude during response inhibition, indicating less neural resources were recruited to inhibit behavior. Results from the present study illustrate that chronic exposure to violent video games modulates empathy and related neural correlates associated with affect and cognition. PMID:29040750
Cranwell, Jo; Opazo-Breton, Magdalena; Britton, John
We estimate exposure of British adults and adolescents to tobacco and alcohol content from a sample of popular YouTube music videos. British viewing figures were generated from 2 representative online national surveys of adult and adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular videos containing content. 2068 adolescents aged 11-18 years (1010 boys, 1058 girls), and 2232 adults aged 19+years (1052 male, 1180 female) completed the surveys. We used the number of 10 s intervals in the 32 most popular videos containing content to estimate the number of impressions. We extrapolated gross and per capita impressions for the British population from census data and estimated numbers of adults and adolescents who had ever watched the sampled videos. From video release to the point of survey, the videos delivered an estimated 1006 million gross impressions of alcohol (95% CI 748 to 1264 million), and 203 million of tobacco (95% CI 151 to 255 million), to the British population. Per capita exposure was around 5 times higher for alcohol than for tobacco, and nearly 4 times higher in adolescents, who were exposed to an average of 52.1 (95% CI 43.4 to 60.9) and 10.5 (95% CI 8.8 to 12.3) alcohol and tobacco impressions, respectively, than in adults (14.1 (95% CI 10.2 to 18.1) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 3.6)). Exposure rates were higher in girls than in boys. YouTube music videos deliver millions of gross impressions of alcohol and tobacco content. Adolescents are exposed much more than adults. Music videos are a major global medium of exposure to such content. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ortiz-Jaramillo, B.; Niño-Castañeda, J.; Platiša, L.; Philips, W.
Since the end-user of video-based systems is often a human observer, prediction of human perception of quality (HPoQ) is an important task for increasing the user satisfaction. Despite the large variety of objective video quality measures, one problem is the lack of generalizability. This is mainly due to the strong dependency between HPoQ and video content. Although this problem is well-known, few existing methods directly account for the influence of video content on HPoQ. This paper propose a new method to predict HPoQ by using simple distortion measures and introducing video content features in their computation. Our methodology is based on analyzing the level of spatio-temporal activity and combining HPoQ content related parameters with simple distortion measures. Our results show that even very simple distortion measures such as PSNR and simple spatio-temporal activity measures lead to good results. Results over four different public video quality databases show that the proposed methodology, while faster and simpler, is competitive with current state-of-the-art methods, i.e., correlations between objective and subjective assessment higher than 80% and it is only two times slower than PSNR.
Cranwell, Jo; Britton, John; Bains, Manpreet
The purpose of the present study is to describe the portrayal of alcohol content in popular YouTube music videos. We used inductive thematic analysis to explore the lyrics and visual imagery in 49 UK Top 40 songs and music videos previously found to contain alcohol content and watched by many British adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years and to examine if branded content contravened alcohol industry advertising codes of practice. The analysis generated three themes. First, alcohol content was associated with sexualised imagery or lyrics and the objectification of women. Second, alcohol was associated with image, lifestyle and sociability. Finally, some videos showed alcohol overtly encouraging excessive drinking and drunkenness, including those containing branding, with no negative consequences to the drinker. Our results suggest that YouTube music videos promote positive associations with alcohol use. Further, several alcohol companies adopt marketing strategies in the video medium that are entirely inconsistent with their own or others agreed advertising codes of practice. We conclude that, as a harm reduction measure, policies should change to prevent adolescent exposure to the positive promotion of alcohol and alcohol branding in music videos.
Hopf, H; Weiss, R H
In 1990 pupils of different schools in Württemberg were interviewed about their television and video consumption. It turned out that a high percentage of mainly male pupils of Hauptschulen (upper division of elementary schools) and special schools excessively and regularly consumed films which were on the index (X-rated) or seized depicting horror and violence. Subsequent to the inquiry through questionnaires and different personality tests, speech samples of 51 test persons were recorded on tape. 5 speech samples had to be excluded from further investigation since they contained less than 70 words. The transcribed and anonymized records were examined according to the Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis of verbal behavior, and two groups of so-called seldom lookers (n = 22) and frequent lookers (n = 24) were compared to each other. The frequent lookers significantly often reported about film contents which presumably means that their imagination is more restricted and less productive than that of the other group. In addition, this group of frequent lookers had significantly higher scores concerning death anxiety and guilt anxiety. With regard to hostility affects, their scores were also significantly raised concerning outward-overt hostility, outward-covert hostility, and ambivalent hostility. Probably the group of frequent lookers comprised more test persons with relationship disorders, with borderline risks, dissocial personality features, and problems to cope with their aggressiveness. So they show on the one hand a raised affinity to watch such films, but simultaneously unconscious and conscious learning processes take place which stimulate further aggressive fantasies (and possibly also actions).
The effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and toolkits onuser participation in User-generated content for video games: : A quantitative study of product development in online communities
Lundmark, Joakim; Sandström Lindberg, Eric
In this thesis we will discuss the subject of user participation in the development process of products, specifically video games, through a concept called User-generated content. Product development demands speed and flexibility in the development process and it has been suggested that managers should revise the process of product development to become more flexible and integrate the consumer in increasingly more steps of the process. Video games will often be modified after its release. In ...
Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn
Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy.
Full Text Available The analysis of video acquired with a wearable camera is a challenge that multimedia community is facing with the proliferation of such sensors in various applications. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic visual place recognition in a weakly constrained environment, targeting the indexing of video streams by topological place recognition. We propose to combine several machine learning approaches in a time regularized framework for image-based place recognition indoors. The framework combines the power of multiple visual cues and integrates the temporal continuity information of video. We extend it with computationally efficient semisupervised method leveraging unlabeled video sequences for an improved indexing performance. The proposed approach was applied on challenging video corpora. Experiments on a public and a real-world video sequence databases show the gain brought by the different stages of the method.
Alber, Julia M; Watson, Anna M; Barnett, Tracey E; Mercado, Rebeccah; Bernhardt, Jay M
Previous research has shown the use of electronic video games as an effective method for increasing content knowledge about the risks of drugs and alcohol use for adolescents. Although best practice suggests that theory, health communication strategies, and game appeal are important characteristics for developing games, no instruments are currently available to examine the quality and content of tobacco prevention and cessation electronic games. This study presents the systematic development of a coding instrument to measure the quality, use of theory, and health communication strategies of tobacco cessation and prevention electronic games. Using previous research and expert review, a content analysis coding instrument measuring 67 characteristics was developed with three overarching categories: type and quality of games, theory and approach, and type and format of messages. Two trained coders applied the instrument to 88 games on four platforms (personal computer, Nintendo DS, iPhone, and Android phone) to field test the instrument. Cohen's kappa for each item ranged from 0.66 to 1.00, with an average kappa value of 0.97. Future research can adapt this coding instrument to games addressing other health issues. In addition, the instrument questions can serve as a useful guide for evidence-based game development.
Alber, Julia M.; Watson, Anna M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Mercado, Rebeccah
Abstract Previous research has shown the use of electronic video games as an effective method for increasing content knowledge about the risks of drugs and alcohol use for adolescents. Although best practice suggests that theory, health communication strategies, and game appeal are important characteristics for developing games, no instruments are currently available to examine the quality and content of tobacco prevention and cessation electronic games. This study presents the systematic development of a coding instrument to measure the quality, use of theory, and health communication strategies of tobacco cessation and prevention electronic games. Using previous research and expert review, a content analysis coding instrument measuring 67 characteristics was developed with three overarching categories: type and quality of games, theory and approach, and type and format of messages. Two trained coders applied the instrument to 88 games on four platforms (personal computer, Nintendo DS, iPhone, and Android phone) to field test the instrument. Cohen's kappa for each item ranged from 0.66 to 1.00, with an average kappa value of 0.97. Future research can adapt this coding instrument to games addressing other health issues. In addition, the instrument questions can serve as a useful guide for evidence-based game development. PMID:26167842
Klaassen, M.J.E.; Peter, J.
Although Internet pornography is widely consumed and researchers have started to investigate its effects, we still know little about its content. This has resulted in contrasting claims about whether Internet pornography depicts gender (in)equality and whether this depiction differs between amateur
Evmenova, Anna S.; Behrmann, Michael M.
Teachers are always seeking any visual and/or auditory supports to facilitate students' comprehension and acquisition of difficult concepts associated with academic content. Such supports are even more important for students with intellectual disabilities who regardless of their abilities and needs are required to have access and active…
Bowman, E.K.; Broome, B.D.; Holland, V.M.; Summers-Stay, D.; Rao, R.M.; Duselis, J.; Howe, J.; Madahar, B.K.; Boury-Brisset, A.C.; Forrester, B.; Kwantes, P.; Burghouts, G.; Huis, J. van; Mulayim, A.Y.
This report summarizes the findings of an exploratory team of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Information Systems Technology panel into Content-Based Analytics (CBA). The team carried out a technical review into the current status of theoretical and practical developments of methods,
Wennersten, Matthew; Quraishy, Zubeeda Banu; Velamuri, Malathi
Past efforts invested in computer-based education technology interventions have generated little evidence of affordable success at scale. This paper presents the results of a mobile phone-based intervention conducted in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in 2012-13. The BridgeIT project provided a pool of audio-visual learning materials organised in accordance with a system of syllabi pacing charts. Teachers of Standard 5 and 6 English and Science classes were notified of the availability of new videos via text messages (SMS), which they downloaded onto their phones using an open-source application and showed, with suggested activities, to students on a TV screen using a TV-out cable. In their evaluation of this project, the authors of this paper found that the test scores of children who experienced the intervention improved by 0.36 standard deviations in English and 0.98 standard deviations in Science in Andhra Pradesh, relative to students in similar classrooms who did not experience the intervention. Differences between treatment and control schools in Tamil Nadu were less marked. The intervention was also cost-effective, relative to other computer-based interventions. Based on these results, the authors argue that is possible to use mobile phones to produce a strong positive and statistically significant effect in terms of teaching and learning quality across a large number of classrooms in India at a lower cost per student than past computer-based interventions.
Tseng, Wei-Che; Hsieh, Ru-Lan
The effects of active video game play on healthy individuals remain uncertain. A person's functional health status constitutes a dynamic interaction between components identified in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of active video game play on community adults using the ICF. Sixty community adults with an average age of 59.3 years and without physical disabilities were recruited. Over 2 weeks, each adult participated in six sessions of active video game play lasting 20 minutes each. Participants were assessed before and after the intervention. Variables were collected using sources related to the ICF components, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Biodex Stability System, chair- rising time, Frenchay Activity Index, Rivermead Mobility Index, Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version. Compared to baseline data, significantly reduced risk of a fall measured by Biodex Stability System and improvements in disability scores measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire were noted. There was no significant change in the other variables measured. Short-term, active video game play reduces fall risks and ameliorates disabilities in community adults.
jayech, Khlifia; mahjoub, mohamed ali
This paper proposes a new approach based on augmented naive Bayes for image classification. Initially, each image is cutting in a whole of blocks. For each block, we compute a vector of descriptors. Then, we propose to carry out a classification of the vectors of descriptors to build a vector of labels for each image. Finally, we propose three variants of Bayesian Networks such as Naive Bayesian Network (NB), Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (TAN) and Forest Augmented Naive Bayes (FAN) to classify ...
Shanahan, Lynn E.; Tochelli, Andrea L.
This collective case study explored what nine elementary teachers' video study group discussions revealed about their understanding of pedagogical content knowledge for an explicit reading strategy instruction framework, Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction (CESI). Qualitative methods were used to inductively and deductively analyze…
The aim of this study was to assess systematically the scope of evidence and purposes for which evidence is used in decision-analytic models of cost-effectiveness and to assess the implications for search methods. A content analysis of published reports of models was undertaken. Details of cited sources were extracted and categorized according to three dimensions; type of information provided by the evidence, type of source from which the evidence was drawn and type of modeling activity supported by the evidence. The analysis was used to generate a classification of evidence. Relationships within and between the categories within the classification were sought and the implications for searching considered. The classification generated fourteen types of information, seven types of sources of evidence and five modeling activities supported by evidence. A broad range of evidence was identified drawn from a diverse range of sources including both research-based and non-research-based sources. The use of evidence was not restricted to the population of model parameters but was used to inform the development of the modeling framework and to justify the analytical and methodological approach. Decision-analytic models use evidence to support all aspects of model development. The classification of evidence defines in depth the role of evidence in modeling. It can be used to inform the systematic identification of evidence.
Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich; Myakotnykh, Eugene
In streaming applications, unequal protection of audio and video tracks may be necessary to maintain the optimal perceived overall quality. For this purpose, the application should be aware of the relative importance of audio and video in an audiovisual sequence. In this paper, we propose a subje...... and video quality, but also that the currently used classification criteria for content are not sufficient to predict the users’ preference...... a subjective test arrangement for finding the optimal tradeoff between subjective audio and video qualities in situations when it is not possible to have perfect quality for both modalities concurrently. Our results show that content poses a significant impact on the preferred compromise between audio...
Full Text Available Limited bandwidth and high packet loss rate pose a serious challenge for video streaming applications over wireless networks. Even when packet loss is not present, the bandwidth fluctuation, as a result of an arbitrary number of active flows in an IEEE 802.11 network, can significantly degrade the video quality. This paper aims to enhance the quality of video streaming applications in wireless home networks via a joint optimization of video layer-allocation technique, admission control algorithm, and medium access control (MAC protocol. Using an Aloha-like MAC protocol, we propose a novel admission control framework, which can be viewed as an optimization problem that maximizes the average quality of admitted videos, given a specified minimum video quality for each flow. We present some hardness results for the optimization problem under various conditions and propose some heuristic algorithms for finding a good solution. In particular, we show that a simple greedy layer-allocation algorithm can perform reasonably well, although it is typically not optimal. Consequently, we present a more expensive heuristic algorithm that guarantees to approximate the optimal solution within a constant factor. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed framework can improve the video quality up to 26% as compared to those of the existing approaches.
Borchert, Otto Jerome
Full Text Available A number of techniques have been proposed earlier for feature extraction using image binarization. Efficiency of the techniques was dependent on proper threshold selection for the binarization method. In this paper, a new feature extraction technique using image binarization has been proposed. The technique has binarized the significant bit planes of an image by selecting local thresholds. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a public dataset and has been compared with existing widely used techniques using binarization for extraction of features. It has been inferred that the proposed method has outclassed all the existing techniques and has shown consistent classification performance.
Göbl, Christian S; Ott, Johannes; Bozkurt, Latife; Feichtinger, Michael; Rehmann, Victoria; Cserjan, Anna; Heinisch, Maike; Steinbrecher, Helmut; JustKukurova, Ivica; Tuskova, Radka; Leutner, Michael; Vytiska-Binstorfer, Elisabeth; Kurz, Christine; Weghofer, Andrea; Tura, Andrea; Egarter, Christian; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra
There are emerging data indicating an association between PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) and metabolic derangements with potential impact on its clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the pathophysiological processes beyond PCOS with particular focus on carbohydrate metabolism, ectopic lipids and their possible interaction. Differences between the two established classifications of the disease should be additionally evaluated. A metabolic characterization was performed in 53 untreated PCOS patients as well as 20 controls including an extended oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, to assess insulin sensitivity, secretion and ß-cell function) in addition to a detailed examination of ectopic lipid content in muscle and liver by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Women with PCOS classified by the original NIH 1990 definition showed a more adverse metabolic risk profile compared to women characterized by the additional Rotterdam 2003 phenotypes. Subtle metabolic derangements were observed in both subgroups, including altered shapes of OGTT curves, impaired insulin action and hyperinsulinemia due to increased secretion and attenuated hepatic extraction. No differences were observed for ectopic lipids between the groups. However, particularly hepatocellular lipid content was significantly related to clinical parameters of PCOS like whole body insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and free androgen index. Subtle alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are present in both PCOS classifications, but more profound in subjects meeting the NIH 1990 criteria. Females with PCOS and controls did not differ in ectopic lipids, however, liver fat was tightly related to hyperandrogenism and an adverse metabolic risk profile.
Göbl, Christian S.; Ott, Johannes; Bozkurt, Latife; Feichtinger, Michael; Rehmann, Victoria; Cserjan, Anna; Heinisch, Maike; Steinbrecher, Helmut; JustKukurova, Ivica; Tuskova, Radka; Leutner, Michael; Vytiska-Binstorfer, Elisabeth; Kurz, Christine; Weghofer, Andrea; Tura, Andrea; Egarter, Christian; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra
Aims There are emerging data indicating an association between PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) and metabolic derangements with potential impact on its clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the pathophysiological processes beyond PCOS with particular focus on carbohydrate metabolism, ectopic lipids and their possible interaction. Differences between the two established classifications of the disease should be additionally evaluated. Methods A metabolic characterization was performed in 53 untreated PCOS patients as well as 20 controls including an extended oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, to assess insulin sensitivity, secretion and ß-cell function) in addition to a detailed examination of ectopic lipid content in muscle and liver by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Women with PCOS classified by the original NIH 1990 definition showed a more adverse metabolic risk profile compared to women characterized by the additional Rotterdam 2003 phenotypes. Subtle metabolic derangements were observed in both subgroups, including altered shapes of OGTT curves, impaired insulin action and hyperinsulinemia due to increased secretion and attenuated hepatic extraction. No differences were observed for ectopic lipids between the groups. However, particularly hepatocellular lipid content was significantly related to clinical parameters of PCOS like whole body insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and free androgen index. Conclusions Subtle alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are present in both PCOS classifications, but more profound in subjects meeting the NIH 1990 criteria. Females with PCOS and controls did not differ in ectopic lipids, however, liver fat was tightly related to hyperandrogenism and an adverse metabolic risk profile. PMID:27505055
Christian S Göbl
Full Text Available There are emerging data indicating an association between PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic derangements with potential impact on its clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the pathophysiological processes beyond PCOS with particular focus on carbohydrate metabolism, ectopic lipids and their possible interaction. Differences between the two established classifications of the disease should be additionally evaluated.A metabolic characterization was performed in 53 untreated PCOS patients as well as 20 controls including an extended oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, to assess insulin sensitivity, secretion and ß-cell function in addition to a detailed examination of ectopic lipid content in muscle and liver by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Women with PCOS classified by the original NIH 1990 definition showed a more adverse metabolic risk profile compared to women characterized by the additional Rotterdam 2003 phenotypes. Subtle metabolic derangements were observed in both subgroups, including altered shapes of OGTT curves, impaired insulin action and hyperinsulinemia due to increased secretion and attenuated hepatic extraction. No differences were observed for ectopic lipids between the groups. However, particularly hepatocellular lipid content was significantly related to clinical parameters of PCOS like whole body insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and free androgen index.Subtle alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are present in both PCOS classifications, but more profound in subjects meeting the NIH 1990 criteria. Females with PCOS and controls did not differ in ectopic lipids, however, liver fat was tightly related to hyperandrogenism and an adverse metabolic risk profile.
Divakaran, Ajay; Miyahara, Koji; Peker, Kadir A.; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou
We discuss the meaning and significance of the video mining problem, and present our work on some aspects of video mining. A simple definition of video mining is unsupervised discovery of patterns in audio-visual content. Such purely unsupervised discovery is readily applicable to video surveillance as well as to consumer video browsing applications. We interpret video mining as content-adaptive or "blind" content processing, in which the first stage is content characterization and the second stage is event discovery based on the characterization obtained in stage 1. We discuss the target applications and find that using a purely unsupervised approach are too computationally complex to be implemented on our product platform. We then describe various combinations of unsupervised and supervised learning techniques that help discover patterns that are useful to the end-user of the application. We target consumer video browsing applications such as commercial message detection, sports highlights extraction etc. We employ both audio and video features. We find that supervised audio classification combined with unsupervised unusual event discovery enables accurate supervised detection of desired events. Our techniques are computationally simple and robust to common variations in production styles etc.
Ivory, James D; Magee, Robert G
Portable media consoles are becoming extremely popular devices for viewing a number of different types of media content, both for entertainment and for educational purposes. Given the increasingly heavy use of portable consoles as an alternative to traditional television-style monitors, it is important to investigate how physiological and psychological effects of portable consoles may differ from those of television-based consoles, because such differences in physiological and psychological responses may precipitate differences in the delivered content's effectiveness. Because portable consoles are popular as a delivery system for multiple types of media content, such as movies and video games, it is also important to investigate whether differences between the effects of portable and television-based consoles are consistent across multiple types of media. This article reports a 2 x 2 (console: portable or television-based x medium: video game or movie) mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent across different media. Results indicate that portable media consoles evoke lower levels of physiological arousal and flow experience and that this effect is consistent for both video games and movies. These findings suggest that even though portable media consoles are often convenient compared to television-based consoles, the convenience may come at a cost in terms of the user experience.
are corrected using image-processing techniques, such as the Hough transform for linear features. 14. SUBJECT TERMS runway, map, aircraft...video, detection, rotation matrix, Hough transform. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 87 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18...as the Hough transform for linear features. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION
Ostrowski, Jeffrey R.; Sarhan, Nabil J.
The popularity of social media has grown dramatically over the World Wide Web. In this paper, we analyze the video popularity distribution of well-known social video websites (YouTube, Google Video, and the AOL Truveo Video Search engine) and characterize their workload. We identify trends in the categories, lengths, and formats of those videos, as well as characterize the evolution of those videos over time. We further provide an extensive analysis and comparison of video content amongst the main regions of the world.
Mitchell, Joan S
Can the Dewey Decimal System meet the needs of the rapidly changing information environment?Moving Beyond the Presentation Layer explores the Dewey Decimal System from a variety of perspectives, each of which peels away a bit of the ?presentation layer??the familiar linear notational sequence-to reveal the content and context offered by the DDS. Library professionals from around the word examine how the content and context offered by the DDS can evolve to meet the needs of the changing information environment, with a special focus on the impact of the Internet on current and future
Torre, Roberto; Bertazzoni, Giuliano
This article is meant to introduce NIC and NOC classification by briefly describing the methodological pathway that was used to realize the two classifications and the underpinning philosophy that has enforced its implementation. The taxonomic structures of both classifications will be described too and the involvements on its use in the clinical field.
This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...
include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...
Rodionova, O Ye; Balyklova, K S; Titova, A V; Pomerantsev, A L
When combating counterfeits it is equally important to recognize fakes and to avoid misclassification of genuine samples. This study presents a general approach to the problem using a newly-developed method called Data Driven Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy. The possibility to collect representative data for both training and validation is of great importance in classification modeling. When fakes are not available, we propose to compose the test set using the legitimate drug's analogs, manufactured by various producers. These analogs should have the identical API and a similar composition of excipients. The approach shows satisfactory results both in revealing counterfeits and in accounting for the future variability of the target class drugs. The presented case studies demonstrate that theoretically predicted misclassification errors can be successfully employed for the science-based risk assessment in drug identification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper explores the woman’s film within the context of Africa and African cinematography by examining the Ghanaian video film Scorned (2008, written and directed by Shirley Frimpong-Manso. It examines the themes, narrative structure, and cinematic style employed in the Ghanaian video film Scorned (2008, comparing it to the key elements of the 1930s – 1950s woman’s film genre of Hollywood. We argue that Scorned follows the traditional genre of the woman’s Hollywood movie while simultaneously subverting some of the ingrained conventions and expectations of that genre. The film merges and renegotiates the generic elements of the woman’s film as represented in the Hollywood woman’s film genre and melodrama by focusing on the underpinning ideologies, plot, and aesthetics in making visible the Ghanaian woman’s experience and constructing a female consciousness. Such engagements can contribute to teasing out some of the generic elements, which could constitute the African woman’s film.
To ascertain the most discriminant variables for seven types of Spanish commercial unifloral honeys, stepwise discriminant analysis was performed. Fifteen parameters [pH; water content; electrical conductivity; x, y, and L, chromatic coordinates from the CIE-1931 (xyL) color space; fructose; glucose; sucrose; maltose; isomaltose; maltulose; kojibiose; and the fructose/glucose and glucose/water ratios] were considered. The studied honey types were rosemary, citrus, lavender, sunflower, eucalyptus, heather, and forest. The most discriminant variables, as selected by the multivariate program, were electrical conductivity, color (x, y, L), water content, fructose, and sucrose. All sunflower, eucalyptus, and honeydew honey samples and >90% of the samples from the remaining honey types were correctly classified by using the classification functions devised by the program. The overall proportion of accurately arranged samples was 95.7%. Results were validated by the "jackknifed" procedure and showed that electrical conductivity, color, water content, fructose, and sucrose are highly useful parameters to classify unifloral honeys, although microscopical analysis of honey sediment remains the fundamental tool.
Schepers, V P M; Ketelaar, M; van de Port, I G L; Visser-Meily, J M A; Lindeman, E
To examine the content of outcome measures that are frequently used in stroke rehabilitation and focus on activities and participation, by linking them to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Method. Constructs of the following instruments were linked to the ICF: Barthel Index, Berg Balance Scale, Chedoke McMaster Stroke Assessment Scale, Euroqol-5D, Functional Independence Measure, Frenchay Activities Index, Nottingham Health Profile, Rankin Scale, Rivermead Motor Assessment, Rivermead Mobility Index, Stroke Adapted Sickness Impact Profile 30, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, Stroke Impact Scale, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale and Timed Up and Go test. Results. It proved possible to link most constructs to the ICF. Most constructs fitted into the activities and participation component, with mobility being the category most frequently covered in the instruments. Although instruments were selected on the basis of their focus on activities and participation, 27% of the constructs addressed categories of body functions. Approximately 10% of the constructs could not be linked. The ICF is a useful tool to examine and compare contents of instruments in stroke rehabilitation. This content comparison should enable clinicians and researchers to choose the measure that best matches the area of their interest.
Tayebati, Seyed Khorsow; Nittari, Giulio; Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Sibilio, Fabio; Amenta, Francesco
Ships should carry mandatory given amounts of medicinal products and basic first aid items, collectively known as the ship's medicine chest. Type and quantities of these products/items are suggested by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and regulated by individual flag states. In countries that lack national legislation, it is assumed that ships should follow WHO indications. An objective difficulty mainly involving vessels of international long-haul routes could be to recognise medicinal compounds obtained in other countries for replacing products used or expired. Language barrier may complicate, if not make it impossible to interpret the name of the medicinal product and/or of the active principle as indicated in a box printed in a completely different language. Handling of the ship's pharmacy may be difficult in case of purchasing of drugs abroad due to language barriers. Medicinal products are identified by the international non-proprietary name of the active principle and/or by their chemical or invented (branded) names. This may make the identification of a medicinal product difficult, primarily if it is purchased abroad and the box and instructions are written in the language of the country where it is marketed. Therefore, there is a simpler classification system of the medicinal compounds the ATC (ATC: Anatomy, Therapeutic properties, Chemical, pharmacological properties). This paper has reviewed the list of medicinal products recommended by WHO and assigned to each one the ATC code as a solution to the problem of medicinal compounds organisation. Two researchers independently examined the list of medicinal compounds indicated in the third edition of the International Medical Guide for Ships and attributed to each compound the ATC code according to the 2013 Guidelines for ATC classification and Defined Daily Dose (DDD) assignment. The ATC code was attributed to the medicinal compounds indicated in the third edition of the International Medical Guide for
Melbye, Hasse; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Brand, Paul; Everard, Mark; Priftis, Kostas; Pasterkamp, Hans
Background The European Respiratory Society (ERS) lung sounds repository contains 20 audiovisual recordings of children and adults. The present study aimed at determining the interobserver variation in the classification of sounds into detailed and broader categories of crackles and wheezes. Methods Recordings from 10 children and 10 adults were classified into 10 predefined sounds by 12 observers, 6 paediatricians and 6 doctors for adult patients. Multirater kappa (Fleiss' κ) was calculated for each of the 10 adventitious sounds and for combined categories of sounds. Results The majority of observers agreed on the presence of at least one adventitious sound in 17 cases. Poor to fair agreement (κ<0.40) was usually found for the detailed descriptions of the adventitious sounds, whereas moderate to good agreement was reached for the combined categories of crackles (κ=0.62) and wheezes (κ=0.59). The paediatricians did not reach better agreement on the child cases than the family physicians and specialists in adult medicine. Conclusions Descriptions of auscultation findings in broader terms were more reliably shared between observers compared to more detailed descriptions. PMID:27158515
Offenbächer, Martin; Cieza, Alarcos; Brockow, Thomas; Amann, Edda; Kollerits, Barbara; Stucki, Gerold
To identify the concepts contained in treatment outcomes of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for interventions in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as external reference. RCTs between 1992 and 2001 were located in MEDLINE and selected according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome measures were extracted and the concepts within the outcome measures were identified and linked to the ICF using a content-analytical approach. Forty-two trials on FM were included. Twenty-seven different questionnaires were extracted. Of all, 79.2% (N=236) of the clinical and physiologic outcomes could be linked to 31 different ICF categories and 84.7% (N=964) of the concepts contained in the health-status questionnaire to 113 ICF categories. The ICF provides a useful external reference to identify the concepts contained in outcome measures used in RCTs in FM.
Dash, Jatindra Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Prabhakar, Nidhi; Garg, Mandeep; Khandelwal, Niranjan
Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system could exploit the wealth of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) data stored in the archive by finding similar images to assist radiologists for self learning and differential diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs). HRCT findings of ILDs are classified into several categories (e.g. consolidation, emphysema, ground glass, nodular etc.) based on their texture like appearances. Therefore, analysis of ILDs is considered as a texture analysis problem. Many approaches have been proposed for CBIR of lung images using texture as primitive visual content. This paper presents a new approach to CBIR for ILDs. The proposed approach makes use of a trained neural network (NN) to find the output class label of query image. The degree of confidence of the NN classifier is analyzed using Naive Bayes classifier that dynamically takes a decision on the size of the search space to be used for retrieval. The proposed approach is compared with three simple distance based and one classifier based texture retrieval approaches. Experimental results show that the proposed technique achieved highest average percentage precision of 92.60% with lowest standard deviation of 20.82%.
Gomes, Clêrton L; de Lima, Ari Clecius A; Loiola, Adonay R; da Silva, Abel B R; Cândido, Manuela C L; Nascimento, Ronaldo F
The increased marketing of fake perfumes has encouraged us to investigate how to identify such products by their chemical characteristics and multivariate analysis. The aim of this study was to present an alternative approach to distinguish original from fake perfumes by means of the investigation of sodium, potassium, chloride ions, and ethanol contents by chemometric tools. For this, 50 perfumes were used (25 original and 25 counterfeit) for the analysis of ions (ion chromatography) and ethanol (gas chromatography). The results demonstrated that the fake perfume had low levels of ethanol and high levels of chloride compared to the original product. The data were treated by chemometric tools such as principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. This study proved that the analysis of ethanol is an effective method of distinguishing original from the fake products, and it may potentially be used to assist legal authorities in such cases. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Prediger, Susanne; Erath, Kirstin
How do students learn to explain? We take this exemplary research question for presenting two antagonist traditions in German mathematics education research and their synthesis in an ongoing video study. These two traditions are (1) the German Didaktik approach that can be characterized by its epistemologically sensitive analyses and…
Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.
Expanded captions are designed to enhance the educational value by linking unfamiliar words to one of three types of information: vocabulary definitions, labeled illustrations, or concept maps. This study investigated the effects of expanded captions versus standard captions on the comprehension of educational video materials on DVD by secondary…
Koelstra, S.; Yazdani, A.; Soleymani, M.; Mühl, C.; Lee, J.-L.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pun, T.; Ebrahimi, T.; Patras, I.; Yao, Y.; Sun, R.; Poggio, T.; Liu, J.; Zhong, N.; Huang, J.
Recently, the field of automatic recognition of users' affective states has gained a great deal of attention. Automatic, implicit recognition of affective states has many applications, ranging from personalized content recommendation to automatic tutoring systems. In this work, we present some
Parmar, Zarna; Upadhyay, Saurabh
With the innovations and development in sophisticated video editing technology and a wide spread of video information and services in our society, it is becoming increasingly significant to assure the trustworthiness of video information. Therefore in surveillance, medical and various other fields, video contents must be protected against attempt to manipulate them. Such malicious alterations could affect the decisions based on these videos. A lot of techniques are proposed by various researchers in the literature that assure the authenticity of video information in their own way. In this paper we present a brief survey on video authentication techniques with their classification. These authentication techniques are generally classified into following categories: digital signature based techniques, watermark based techniques, and other authentication techniques.
Online videos are an increasingly important way technology is contributing to the improvement of physics teaching. Students and teachers have begun to rely on online videos to provide them with content knowledge and instructional strategies. Online audiences are expecting greater production value, and departments are sometimes requesting educators to post video pre-labs or to flip our classrooms. In this article, I share my advice on creating engaging physics videos.
Keiding, Tina Bering
Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...
Schiariti, Veronica; Klassen, Anne F; Cieza, Alarcos; Sauve, Karen; O'Donnell, Maureen; Armstrong, Robert; Mâsse, Louise C
The International Classification of Functioning children and youth version (ICF-CY) provides a universal framework for defining and classifying functioning and disability in children worldwide. To facilitate the application of the ICF in practice, ICF based-tools like the "ICF Core Sets" are being developed. In the context of the development of the ICF-CY Core Sets for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), the aims of this study were as follows: to identify and compare the content of outcome measures used in studies of children with CP using the ICF-CY coding system; and to describe the most frequently addressed areas of functioning in those studies. We searched multiple databases likely to capture studies involving children with CP from January 1998 to March 2012. We included all English language articles that studied children aged 2-18 years and described an interventional or observational study. Constructs of the outcome measures identified in studies were linked to the ICF-CY by two trained professionals. We found 231 articles that described 238 outcome measures. The outcome measures contained 2193 concepts that were linked to the ICF-CY and covered 161 independent ICF-CY categories. Out of the 161 categories, 53 (33.5%) were related to body functions, 75 (46%) were related to activities/participation, 26 (16.1%) were related to environmental factors, and 7 (4.3%) were related to body structures. This systematic review provides information about content of measures that may guide researchers and clinicians in their selection of an outcome measure for use in a study and/or clinical practice with children with CP. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pasch, H. L.
An overview of video coding is presented. The aim is not to give a technical summary of possible coding techniques, but to address subjects related to video compression in general and to the transmission of compressed video in more detail. Bit rate reduction is in general possible by removing redundant information; removing information the eye does not use anyway; and reducing the quality of the video. The codecs which are used for reducing the bit rate, can be divided into two groups: Constant Bit rate Codecs (CBC's), which keep the bit rate constant, but vary the video quality; and Variable Bit rate Codecs (VBC's), which keep the video quality constant by varying the bit rate. VBC's can be in general reach a higher video quality than CBC's using less bandwidth, but need a transmission system that allows the bandwidth of a connection to fluctuate in time. The current and the next generation of the PSTN does not allow this; ATM might. There are several factors which influence the quality of video: the bit error rate of the transmission channel, slip rate, packet loss rate/packet insertion rate, end-to-end delay, phase shift between voice and video, and bit rate. Based on the bit rate of the coded video, the following classification of coded video can be made: High Definition Television (HDTV); Broadcast Quality Television (BQTV); video conferencing; and video telephony. The properties of these classes are given. The video conferencing and video telephony equipment available now and in the next few years can be divided into three categories: conforming to 1984 CCITT standard for video conferencing; conforming to 1988 CCITT standard; and conforming to no standard.
Cox, James R
This report describes the incorporation of digital learning elements in organic chemistry and biochemistry courses. The first example is the use of pen-based technology and a large-format PowerPoint slide to construct a map that integrates various metabolic pathways and control points. Students can use this map to visualize the integrated nature of metabolism and how various hormones impact metabolic regulation. The second example is the embedding of health-related YouTube videos directly into PowerPoint presentations. These videos become a part of the course notes and can be viewed within PowerPoint as long as students are online. The third example is the use of a webcam to show physical models during online sessions using web-conferencing software. Various molecular conformations can be shown through the webcam, and snapshots of important conformations can be incorporated into the notes for further discussion and annotation. Each of the digital learning elements discussed in this report is an attempt to use technology to improve the quality of educational resources available outside of the classroom to foster student engagement with ideas and concepts. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 4-9, 2011. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boris Fernando Candela
Full Text Available This article described how trainee teachers identified and developed some elements of the Technological and Pedagogical Knowledge of Chemistry Content (CTPC, along the course of educational and pedagogical context by "reflective orientation". The methodological perspective was qualitative by case study, which was configured by two interwoven areas of reflection, namely: (a reflecting on the opinions of experts about the teaching of a content, through the readings proposed in the training programs; and (b reflecting on the teaching carried out by experienced teachers through case videos and the Repertoire of Professional and Pedagogical Experiences (PaP-eRs. This heuristic reduced the complexity of teaching in a manageable story located in a specific context, so that teachers could identify and reflect on their theories about the teaching and learning of chemistry. This study showed that teachers in training identified and developed the following elements of the CTPC of chemistry: general pedagogy, language as a learning tool, difficulties and alternative conceptions, knowledge of technology as an instrument to represent the contents and manage the chemistry classroom, and the formative evaluation. Definitely, the reflection of the critical events of the PaP-eRs and videos of cases was considered an appropriate heuristic that allowed the future teachers to articulate the knowledge coming from the literature in education in chemistry, with the virtual experiences of teaching-learning of a real context. Of course, this reflection was mediated by reading, discussing and reflecting on the intelligent actions of an exemplary teacher when guiding singular students from a sociocultural perspective, with the purpose of beginning to refine their theories of teaching and learning chemistry.
Callus, Paula; Potter, C.
In Kenya, the rise of digital technologies and related new media, and an infrastructure able to support them, has seen the emergence of a growing local video games industry and a new generation of Kenyan video game developers, players and promoters. This article focuses upon the particular design strategies employed by young producers of creative digital content for games and the current networks of practice, play and support unfolding around these new gaming technologies. Interviewees for th...
den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; ter Haar, Frank B.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.
Video analytics is essential for managing large quantities of raw data that are produced by video surveillance systems (VSS) for the prevention, repression and investigation of crime and terrorism. Analytics is highly sensitive to changes in the scene, and for changes in the optical chain so a VSS with analytics needs careful configuration and prompt maintenance to avoid false alarms. However, there is a trend from static VSS consisting of fixed CCTV cameras towards more dynamic VSS deployments over public/private multi-organization networks, consisting of a wider variety of visual sensors, including pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, body-worn cameras and cameras on moving platforms. This trend will lead to more dynamic scenes and more frequent changes in the optical chain, creating structural problems for analytics. If these problems are not adequately addressed, analytics will not be able to continue to meet end users' developing needs. In this paper, we present a three-part solution for managing the performance of complex analytics deployments. The first part is a register containing meta data describing relevant properties of the optical chain, such as intrinsic and extrinsic calibration, and parameters of the scene such as lighting conditions or measures for scene complexity (e.g. number of people). A second part frequently assesses these parameters in the deployed VSS, stores changes in the register, and signals relevant changes in the setup to the VSS administrator. A third part uses the information in the register to dynamically configure analytics tasks based on VSS operator input. In order to support the feasibility of this solution, we give an overview of related state-of-the-art technologies for autocalibration (self-calibration), scene recognition and lighting estimation in relation to person detection. The presented solution allows for rapid and robust deployment of Video Content Analysis (VCA) tasks in large scale ad-hoc networks.
Hosseini, Hossein; Xiao, Baicen; Clark, Andrew; Poovendran, Radha
Due to the growth of video data on Internet, automatic video analysis has gained a lot of attention from academia as well as companies such as Facebook, Twitter and Google. In this paper, we examine the robustness of video analysis algorithms in adversarial settings. Specifically, we propose targeted attacks on two fundamental classes of video analysis algorithms, namely video classification and shot detection. We show that an adversary can subtly manipulate a video in such a way that a human...
Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1 Number 3 October 2012 ISSN 2252- 4940 CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava, , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey
Online videos are an increasingly important way technology is contributing to the improvement of physics teaching. Students and teachers have begun to rely on online videos to provide them with content knowledge and instructional strategies. Online audiences are expecting greater production value, and departments are sometimes requesting educators…
Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.
Video games are neither neutral nor harmless but represent very specific social and symbolic constructs. Research on the social content of today's video games reveals that sex bias and gender stereotyping are widely evident throughout the Nintendo games. Violence and aggression also pervade the great majority of the games. (MLF)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a line shapefile showing the trackline of various Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) underwater video transects in the US Virgin Islands.NOAA's...
Chen, Quansheng; Guo, Zhiming; Zhao, Jiewen
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was identified green tea's quality level by measurement of catechins and caffeine content. Four grades of roast green teas were attempted in this work. Five main catechins ((-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epicatechin (EC), and (+)-catechin (C)) and caffeine contents were measured simultaneously by HPLC. As a new chemical pattern recognition, support vector classification (SVC) was applied to develop identification model. Some parameters including regularization parameter (R) and kernel parameter (K) were optimized by the cross-validation. The optimal SVC model was achieved with R=20 and K=2. Identification rates were 95% in the training set and 90% in the prediction set, respectively. Finally, compared with other pattern recognition approaches, SVC algorithm shows its excellent performance in identification results. Overall results show that it is feasible to identify green tea's quality level according to measurement of main catechins and caffeine contents by HPLC and SVC pattern recognition.
Wang, Shuangbao; Kelly, William
In this paper, we present a novel system, inVideo, for video data analytics, and its use in transforming linear videos into interactive learning objects. InVideo is able to analyze video content automatically without the need for initial viewing by a human. Using a highly efficient video indexing engine we developed, the system is able to analyze…
Wen, Nainan; Chia, Stella C; Hao, Xiaoming
This study examines portrayals of cosmetic surgery on YouTube, where we found a substantial number of cosmetic surgery videos. Most of the videos came from cosmetic surgeons who appeared to be aggressively using social media in their practices. Except for videos that explained cosmetic surgery procedures, most videos in our sample emphasized the benefits of cosmetic surgery, and only a small number of the videos addressed the involved risks. We also found that tactics of persuasive communication-namely, related to message source and message sensation value (MSV)-have been used in Web-based social media to attract viewers' attention and interests. Expert sources were used predominantly, although typical-consumer sources tended to generate greater viewer interest in cosmetic surgery than other types of message sources. High MSV, moreover, was found to increase a video's popularity.
Verma, Brijesh; Stockwell, David
This book highlights the methods and applications for roadside video data analysis, with a particular focus on the use of deep learning to solve roadside video data segmentation and classification problems. It describes system architectures and methodologies that are specifically built upon learning concepts for roadside video data processing, and offers a detailed analysis of the segmentation, feature extraction and classification processes. Lastly, it demonstrates the applications of roadside video data analysis including scene labelling, roadside vegetation classification and vegetation biomass estimation in fire risk assessment.
Saur, Drew D.; Tan, Yap-Peng; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Ramadge, Peter J.
Automated analysis and annotation of video sequences are important for digital video libraries, content-based video browsing and data mining projects. A successful video annotation system should provide users with useful video content summary in a reasonable processing time. Given the wide variety of video genres available today, automatically extracting meaningful video content for annotation still remains hard by using current available techniques. However, a wide range video has inherent structure such that some prior knowledge about the video content can be exploited to improve our understanding of the high-level video semantic content. In this paper, we develop tools and techniques for analyzing structured video by using the low-level information available directly from MPEG compressed video. Being able to work directly in the video compressed domain can greatly reduce the processing time and enhance storage efficiency. As a testbed, we have developed a basketball annotation system which combines the low-level information extracted from MPEG stream with the prior knowledge of basketball video structure to provide high level content analysis, annotation and browsing for events such as wide- angle and close-up views, fast breaks, steals, potential shots, number of possessions and possession times. We expect our approach can also be extended to structured video in other domains.
Mitchell, April Slayden; O'Hara, Kenton; Vorbau, Alex
Mobile video is now an everyday possibility with a wide array of commercially available devices, services, and content. These new technologies have created dramatic shifts in the way video-based media can be produced, consumed, and delivered by people beyond the familiar behaviors associated with fixed TV and video technologies. Such technology revolutions change the way users behave and change their expectations in regards to their mobile video experiences. Building upon earlier studies of mobile video, this paper reports on a study using diary techniques and ethnographic interviews to better understand how people are using commercially available mobile video technologies in their everyday lives. Drawing on reported episodes of mobile video behavior, the study identifies the social motivations and values underpinning these behaviors that help characterize mobile video consumption beyond the simplistic notion of viewing video only to kill time. This paper also discusses the significance of user-generated content and the usage of video in social communities through the description of two mobile video technology services that allow users to create and share content. Implications for adoption and design of mobile video technologies and services are discussed as well.
Full Text Available The article examines the texts of political advertising video clips issued by the candidates for presidency in France during the campaign before the first round of elections in 2017. The mentioned examples of media texts are analysed from the compositional point of view as well as from that of the content particularities which are directly connected to the text structure. In general, the majority of the studied clips have a similar structure and consist of three parts: introduction, main part and conclusion. However, as a result of the research, a range of advantages marking well-structured videos was revealed. These include: addressing the voters and stating the speech topic clearly at the beginning of the clip, a relevant attention-grabbing opening phrase, consistency and clarity of the information presentation, appropriate use of additional video plots, conclusion at the end of the clip.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a point shapefile with benthic habitat classifications of vertical relief, geomorphological structure, substrate, and biological cover for...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a point shapefile with benthic habitat classifications of vertical relief, geomorphological structure, substrate, and biological cover for...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a point shapefile with benthic habitat classifications of vertical relief, geomorphological structure, substrate, and biological cover for...
Israel, Maya; Wang, Shuai; Marino, Matthew T.
Extant research reports differential effects related to the efficacy of video games as a means to enhance science instruction. However, there are very few studies examining differences in learning outcomes across student-level independent variables. This study used multilevel modeling to examine the effects of three video game-enhanced life…
Cappallo, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.
This technical demo presents Emoji2Video, a query-by-emoji interface for exploring video collections. Ideogram-based video search and representation presents an opportunity for an intuitive, visual interface and concise non-textual summary of video contents, in a form factor that is ideal for small
Cheng, Qin; Agrafiotis, Dimitris; Achim, Alin M; Bull, David R
The sensitivity of the human visual system decreases dramatically with increasing distance from the fixation location in a video frame. Accurate prediction of a viewer's gaze location has the potential to improve bit allocation, rate control, error resilience, and quality evaluation in video compression. Commercially, delivery of football video content is of great interest because of the very high number of consumers. In this paper, we propose a gaze location prediction system for high definition broadcast football video. The proposed system uses knowledge about the context, extracted through analysis of a gaze tracking study that we performed, to build a suitable prior map. We further classify the complex context into different categories through shot classification thus allowing our model to prelearn the task pertinence of each object category and build the prior map automatically. We thus avoid the limitation of assigning the viewers a specific task, allowing our gaze prediction system to work under free-viewing conditions. Bayesian integration of bottom-up features and top-down priors is finally applied to predict the gaze locations. Results show that the prediction performance of the proposed model is better than that of other top-down models that we adapted to this context.
Shen, Yao; Guturu, Parthasarathy Partha; Buckles, Bill P
Since wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a novel technology for recording the videos of the digestive tract of a patient, the problem of segmenting the WCE video of the digestive tract into subvideos corresponding to the entrance, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine regions is not well addressed in the literature. A selected few papers addressing this problem follow supervised leaning approaches that presume availability of a large database of correctly labeled training samples. Considering the difficulties in procuring sizable WCE training data sets needed for achieving high classification accuracy, we introduce in this paper an unsupervised learning approach that employs Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) for extraction of local image features and the probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) model used in the linguistic content analysis for data clustering. Results of experimentation indicate that this method compares well in classification accuracy with the state-of-the-art supervised classification approaches to WCE video segmentation.
Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise
Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....
Fageth, Reiner; Weiting, Ralf
Videos can be taken with nearly every camera, digital point and shoot cameras, DSLRs as well as smartphones and more and more with so-called action cameras mounted on sports devices. The implementation of videos while generating QR codes and relevant pictures out of the video stream via a software implementation was contents in last years' paper. This year we present first data about what contents is displayed and how the users represent their videos in printed products, e.g. CEWE PHOTOBOOKS and greeting cards. We report the share of the different video formats used, the number of images extracted out of the video in order to represent the video, the positions in the book and different design strategies compared to regular books.
similar. 1.2 Context Video has become a very popular media for communication, entertainment , and science. Videos are widely used in educational...The same approach applied to action classification from YouTube videos of sport events shows that BoW approaches on real world data sets need further...dog videos, where the camera also tracks the people and animals . In Figure 4.38 we compare across action classes how well each segmentation
Video monitoring of visible atmospheric emissions: from a manual device to a new fully automatic detection and classification device; Video surveillance des rejets atmospheriques d'un site siderurgique: d'un systeme manuel a la detection automatique
Bardet, I.; Ryckelynck, F.; Desmonts, T. [Sollac, 59 - Dunkerque (France)
Complete text of publication follows: the context of strong local sensitivity to dust emissions from an integrated steel plant justifies the monitoring of the emissions of abnormally coloured smokes from this plant. In a first step, the watch is done 'visually' by screening and counting the puff emissions through a set of seven cameras and video recorders. The development of a new device making automatic picture analysis allowed to render the inspection automatic. The new system detects and counts the incidents and sends an alarm to the process operator. This way for automatic detection can be extended, after some tests, to other uses in the environmental field. (authors)
Ohannessian, Robin; Yaghobian, Sarina; Verger, Pierre; Vanhems, Philippe
Vaccination is an effective and proven method of preventing infectious diseases. However, uptake has not been optimal with available vaccines partly due to vaccination hesitancy. Various public health approaches have adressed vaccination hesitancy. Serious video games involving vaccination may represent an innovative public health approach. The aim of this study was to identify, describe, and review existing serious video games on vaccination. A systematic review was performed. Various databases were used to find data on vaccination-related serious video games published from January 1st 2000 to May 15th 2015. Data including featured medical and vaccination content, publication characteristics and games classification were collected for each identified serious game. Sixteen serious video games involved in vaccination were identified. All games were developed in high-income countries between 2003 and 2014. The majority of games were available online and were sponsored by educational/health institutions. All games were free of charge to users. Edugame was the most prevalent serious game subcategory. Twelve games were infectious disease-specific and the majority concerned influenza. The main objective of the games was disease control with a collective perspective. Utilization data was available for two games. Two games were formally evaluated. The use of serious video games for vaccination is an innovative tool for public health. Evaluation of vaccination related serious video games should be encouraged to demonstrate their efficacy and utility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.
Video Streaming is nowadays the Internet’s biggest source of consumer traffic. Traditional content providers rely on centralised client-server model for distributing their video streaming content. The current generation is moving from being passive viewers, or content consumers, to active content
Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline
While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th
Şaykol, Ediz; Baştan, Muhammet; Güdükbay, Uğur; Ulusoy, Özgür
The huge amount of video data generated by surveillance systems necessitates the use of automatic tools for their efficient analysis, indexing, and retrieval. Automated access to the semantic content of surveillance videos to detect anomalous events is among the basic tasks; however, due to the high variability of the audio-visual features and large size of the video input, it still remains a challenging task, though a considerable amount of research dealing with automated access to video surveillance has appeared in the literature. We propose a keyframe labeling technique, especially for indoor environments, which assigns labels to keyframes extracted by a keyframe detection algorithm, and hence transforms the input video to an event-sequence representation. This representation is used to detect unusual behaviors, such as crossover, deposit, and pickup, with the help of three separate mechanisms based on finite state automata. The keyframes are detected based on a grid-based motion representation of the moving regions, called the motion appearance mask. It has been shown through performance experiments that the keyframe labeling algorithm significantly reduces the storage requirements and yields reasonable event detection and classification performance.
Li, Yu-Chuan; Crain, Steven; Hsu, Min-Huei; Wang, Yao-Chin; Khandregzen, Dorjsuren; Chuluunbaatar, Enkhzaya; Nguyen, Phung Anh
Introduction The amount of information being uploaded onto social video platforms, such as YouTube, Vimeo, and Veoh, continues to spiral, making it increasingly difficult to discern reliable health information from misleading content. There are thousands of YouTube videos promoting misleading information about anorexia (eg, anorexia as a healthy lifestyle). Objective The aim of this study was to investigate anorexia-related misinformation disseminated through YouTube videos. Methods We retrieved YouTube videos related to anorexia using the keywords anorexia, anorexia nervosa, proana, and thinspo on October 10, 2011.Three doctors reviewed 140 videos with approximately 11 hours of video content, classifying them as informative, pro-anorexia, or others. By informative we mean content describing the health consequences of anorexia and advice on how to recover from it; by pro-anorexia we mean videos promoting anorexia as a fashion, a source of beauty, and that share tips and methods for becoming and remaining anorexic. The 40 most-viewed videos (20 informative and 20 pro-anorexia videos) were assessed to gauge viewer behavior. Results The interrater agreement of classification was moderate (Fleiss’ kappa=0.5), with 29.3% (n=41) being rated as pro-anorexia, 55.7% (n=78) as informative, and 15.0% (n=21) as others. Pro-anorexia videos were favored 3 times more than informative videos (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% CI 3.3-3.4, Panorexia information was identified in 29.3% of anorexia-related videos. Pro-anorexia videos are less common than informative videos; however, in proportional terms, pro-anorexia content is more highly favored and rated by its viewers. Efforts should focus on raising awareness, particularly among teenagers, about the trustworthiness of online information about beauty and healthy lifestyles. Health authorities producing videos to combat anorexia should consider involving celebrities and models to reach a wider audience. More research is needed to study
Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan; Crain, Steven; Hsu, Min-Huei; Wang, Yao-Chin; Khandregzen, Dorjsuren; Chuluunbaatar, Enkhzaya; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Liou, Der-Ming
The amount of information being uploaded onto social video platforms, such as YouTube, Vimeo, and Veoh, continues to spiral, making it increasingly difficult to discern reliable health information from misleading content. There are thousands of YouTube videos promoting misleading information about anorexia (eg, anorexia as a healthy lifestyle). The aim of this study was to investigate anorexia-related misinformation disseminated through YouTube videos. We retrieved YouTube videos related to anorexia using the keywords anorexia, anorexia nervosa, proana, and thinspo on October 10, 2011.Three doctors reviewed 140 videos with approximately 11 hours of video content, classifying them as informative, pro-anorexia, or others. By informative we mean content describing the health consequences of anorexia and advice on how to recover from it; by pro-anorexia we mean videos promoting anorexia as a fashion, a source of beauty, and that share tips and methods for becoming and remaining anorexic. The 40 most-viewed videos (20 informative and 20 pro-anorexia videos) were assessed to gauge viewer behavior. The interrater agreement of classification was moderate (Fleiss' kappa=0.5), with 29.3% (n=41) being rated as pro-anorexia, 55.7% (n=78) as informative, and 15.0% (n=21) as others. Pro-anorexia videos were favored 3 times more than informative videos (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% CI 3.3-3.4, Panorexia information was identified in 29.3% of anorexia-related videos. Pro-anorexia videos are less common than informative videos; however, in proportional terms, pro-anorexia content is more highly favored and rated by its viewers. Efforts should focus on raising awareness, particularly among teenagers, about the trustworthiness of online information about beauty and healthy lifestyles. Health authorities producing videos to combat anorexia should consider involving celebrities and models to reach a wider audience. More research is needed to study the characteristics of pro-anorexia videos
Schomburg, Ida; Chang, Antje; Placzek, Sandra; Söhngen, Carola; Rother, Michael; Lang, Maren; Munaretto, Cornelia; Ulas, Susanne; Stelzer, Michael; Grote, Andreas; Scheer, Maurice; Schomburg, Dietmar
The BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase) enzyme portal (http://www.brenda-enzymes.org) is the main information system of functional biochemical and molecular enzyme data and provides access to seven interconnected databases. BRENDA contains 2.7 million manually annotated data on enzyme occurrence, function, kinetics and molecular properties. Each entry is connected to a reference and the source organism. Enzyme ligands are stored with their structures and can be accessed via their names, synonyms or via a structure search. FRENDA (Full Reference ENzyme DAta) and AMENDA (Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta) are based on text mining methods and represent a complete survey of PubMed abstracts with information on enzymes in different organisms, tissues or organelles. The supplemental database DRENDA provides more than 910 000 new EC number-disease relations in more than 510 000 references from automatic search and a classification of enzyme-disease-related information. KENDA (Kinetic ENzyme DAta), a new amendment extracts and displays kinetic values from PubMed abstracts. The integration of the EnzymeDetector offers an automatic comparison, evaluation and prediction of enzyme function annotations for prokaryotic genomes. The biochemical reaction database BKM-react contains non-redundant enzyme-catalysed and spontaneous reactions and was developed to facilitate and accelerate the construction of biochemical models.
Sun, Huifang; Chen, Xuemin
Professionals in the video and multimedia industries need a book that explains industry standards for video coding and how to convert the compressed information between standards. Digital Video Transcoding for Transmission and Storage answers this demand while also supplying the theories and principles of video compression and transcoding technologies. Emphasizing digital video transcoding techniques, this book summarizes its content via examples of practical methods for transcoder implementation. It relates almost all of its featured transcoding technologies to practical applications.This vol
Li, Mu; Monga, Vishal
Video hashing finds a wide array of applications in content authentication, robust retrieval and anti-piracy search. While much of the existing research has focused on extracting robust and secure content descriptors, a significant open challenge still remains: Most existing video hashing methods are fallible to temporal desynchronization. That is, when the query video results by deleting or inserting some frames from the reference video, most existing methods assume the positions of the dele...
Ho, Chien-Peng; Yu, Jen-Yu; Lee, Suh-Yin
Recent advances in modern television systems have had profound consequences for the scalability, stability, and quality of transmitted digital data signals. This is of particular significance for peer-to-peer (P2P) video-on-demand (VoD) related platforms, faced with an immediate and growing demand for reliable service delivery. In response to demands for high-quality video, the key objectives in the construction of the proposed framework were user satisfaction with perceived video quality and the effective utilization of available resources on P2P VoD networks. This study developed a peer-based promoter to support online advertising in P2P VoD networks based on an estimation of video distortion prior to the replication of data stream chunks. The proposed technology enables the recovery of lost video using replicated stream chunks in real time. Load balance is achieved by adjusting the replication level of each candidate group according to the degree-of-distortion, thereby enabling a significant reduction in server load and increased scalability in the P2P VoD system. This approach also promotes the use of advertising as an efficient tool for commercial promotion. Results indicate that the proposed system efficiently satisfies the given fault tolerances.
Stamm, Tanja; Geyh, Szilvia; Cieza, Alarcos; Machold, Klaus; Kollerits, Barbara; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Smolen, Josef; Stucki, Gerold
When selecting a questionnaire, researchers and clinicians need to know whether or not a questionnaire covers the relevant outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the content of questionnaires that have been used to assess functioning in patients with hand osteoarthritis (OA) based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Questionnaires were identified in a structured literature search. All concepts included in the items of the questionnaires were linked to the ICF categories according to the 10 established linking rules by two health professionals. The degree of agreement between the two health professionals was determined by means of kappa statistic. On the basis of the linking, the content of the instruments was compared. For each concept, it was examined whether functioning is measured on the level of activity or participation or both activity and participation. Indicators for content density, content diversity and the percentage of linked ICF categories addressing participation were calculated. Health Assessment Questionnaire, AUSCAN, Cochin scale, FIHOA, SACRAH and AIMS2-SF were analysed. The result of the kappa statistic for agreement between the two investigators was 0.74. 163 concepts were identified in the 113 items of all instruments, which were then linked to seven ICF categories of the component body functions, 45 categories of the component activities and participation and six categories of the component environmental factors. AUSCAN and SACRAH had the lowest and AIMS2-SF showed the highest diversity ratio and the highest percentage of linked ICF categories that addressed participation. When selecting instruments for comprehensive measurements of functioning in hand OA, researchers and clinicians are advised to include both one instrument with a low diversity ratio (for disease-specific aspects) and another instrument with a high diversity ratio (for broader aspects of functioning including
Tuna, Tayfun; Subhlok, Jaspal; Barker, Lecia; Shah, Shishir; Johnson, Olin; Hovey, Christopher
Videos of classroom lectures have proven to be a popular and versatile learning resource. A key shortcoming of the lecture video format is accessing the content of interest hidden in a video. This work meets this challenge with an advanced video framework featuring topical indexing, search, and captioning (ICS videos). Standard optical character…
Full Text Available The article examines the problems of studying the investigation video to establish credibility of the evidence, to specify emotional state, individual psychological characteristics and the psychological impact on the person being interrogated. These problems are mostly caused by the lack of a single scientifically-based methodological approach while сurrently used approaches are not developed sufficiently. We propose a fundamentally new scientifically-based psycho-linguistic approach to the study of investigation video, including the analysis of voice and sounding speech, linguistic analysis (the content and form of speech and psychological analysis. We considered value, subject, object, and objectives of interrogation videos examination. Study of interrogation videos using the current approach is significant from the point of view of criminal law because of admissibility of evidence by the investigators. The expert concept of suggestive interrogate was operationalized on the basis of linguistic and psychological classifications.
Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib
Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.
Full Text Available We present a user-based method that detects regions of interest within a video in order to provide video skims and video summaries. Previous research in video retrieval has focused on content-based techniques, such as pattern recognition algorithms that attempt to understand the low-level features of a video. We are proposing a pulse modeling method, which makes sense of a web video by analyzing users' Replay interactions with the video player. In particular, we have modeled the user information seeking behavior as a time series and the semantic regions as a discrete pulse of fixed width. Then, we have calculated the correlation coefficient between the dynamically detected pulses at the local maximums of the user activity signal and the pulse of reference. We have found that users' Replay activity significantly matches the important segments in information-rich and visually complex videos, such as lecture, how-to, and documentary. The proposed signal processing of user activity is complementary to previous work in content-based video retrieval and provides an additional user-based dimension for modeling the semantics of a social video on the web.
Whitaker, Jennifer A.; Orman, Evelyn K.; Yarbrough, Cornelia
This content analysis sought to determine information related to users uploading, general content, and specific characteristics of music education videos on YouTube. A total of 1,761 videos from a keyword search of "music education" were viewed and categorized. Results for relevant videos indicated users posted videos under 698 different…
The purpose of this Thesis is to study women as video game consumers through the games that they play. This was done by case studies on the content of five video games from genres that statistically are popular amongst women. To introduce the topic and to build the theoretical framework, the key terms and the video game industry are introduced. The reader is acquainted with theories on consumer behaviour, buying processes and factors that influence our consuming habits. These aspects are...
Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike
The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.
This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .
Ross A Paveley
Full Text Available Sole reliance on one drug, Praziquantel, for treatment and control of schistosomiasis raises concerns about development of widespread resistance, prompting renewed interest in the discovery of new anthelmintics. To discover new leads we designed an automated label-free, high content-based, high throughput screen (HTS to assess drug-induced effects on in vitro cultured larvae (schistosomula using bright-field imaging. Automatic image analysis and Bayesian prediction models define morphological damage, hit/non-hit prediction and larval phenotype characterization. Motility was also assessed from time-lapse images. In screening a 10,041 compound library the HTS correctly detected 99.8% of the hits scored visually. A proportion of these larval hits were also active in an adult worm ex-vivo screen and are the subject of ongoing studies. The method allows, for the first time, screening of large compound collections against schistosomes and the methods are adaptable to other whole organism and cell-based screening by morphology and motility phenotyping.
Full Text Available Surveillance videos contain a considerable amount of data, wherein interesting information to the user is sparsely distributed. Researchers construct video synopsis that contain key information extracted from a surveillance video for efficient browsing and analysis. Geospatial–temporal information of a surveillance video plays an important role in the efficient description of video content. Meanwhile, current approaches of video synopsis lack the introduction and analysis of geospatial-temporal information. Owing to the preceding problems mentioned, this paper proposes an approach called “surveillance video synopsis in GIS”. Based on an integration model of video moving objects and GIS, the virtual visual field and the expression model of the moving object are constructed by spatially locating and clustering the trajectory of the moving object. The subgraphs of the moving object are reconstructed frame by frame in a virtual scene. Results show that the approach described in this paper comprehensively analyzed and created fusion expression patterns between video dynamic information and geospatial–temporal information in GIS and reduced the playback time of video content.
This document presents an executive summary of a study that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender roles--primarily…
A study examined kinds of messages prevalent in the media used by preteen and teenage girls, asking what messages are sent about goals, dating, careers, behavior, and appearance and its relationship to well being. Four media were the subject of the study, which comprised 12 samples from television programs, theatrical films, music videos, and teen…
Hulsman, Robert L.; van der Vloodt, Jane
Objective: Self-evaluation and peer-feedback are important strategies within the reflective practice paradigm for the development and maintenance of professional competencies like medical communication. Characteristics of the self-evaluation and peer-feedback annotations of medical students' video
Zvyagintsev, M; Klasen, M; Weber, R; Sarkheil, P; Esposito, F; Mathiak, K A; Schwenzer, M; Mathiak, K
In violent video games, players engage in virtual aggressive behaviors. Exposure to virtual aggressive behavior induces short-term changes in players' behavior. In a previous study, a violence-related version of the racing game "Carmageddon TDR2000" increased aggressive affects, cognitions, and behaviors compared to its non-violence-related version. This study investigates the differences in neural network activity during the playing of both versions of the video game. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recorded ongoing brain activity of 18 young men playing the violence-related and the non-violence-related version of the video game Carmageddon. Image time series were decomposed into functional connectivity (FC) patterns using independent component analysis (ICA) and template-matching yielded a mapping to established functional brain networks. The FC patterns revealed a decrease in connectivity within 6 brain networks during the violence-related compared to the non-violence-related condition: three sensory-motor networks, the reward network, the default mode network (DMN), and the right-lateralized frontoparietal network. Playing violent racing games may change functional brain connectivity, in particular and even after controlling for event frequency, in the reward network and the DMN. These changes may underlie the short-term increase of aggressive affects, cognitions, and behaviors as observed after playing violent video games. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheung, SenChing S.; Zakhor, Avideh
With ever more popularity of video web-publishing, many popular contents are being mirrored, reformatted, modified and republished, resulting in excessive content duplication. While such redundancy provides fault tolerance for continuous availability of information, it could potentially create problems for multimedia search engines in that the search results for a given query might become repetitious, and cluttered with a large number of duplicates. As such, developing techniques for detecting similarity and duplication is important to multimedia search engines. In addition, content providers might be interested in identifying duplicates of their content for legal, contractual or other business related reasons. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm called video signature to detect similar video sequences for large databases such as the web. The idea is to first form a 'signature' for each video sequence by selection a small number of its frames that are most similar to a number of randomly chosen seed images. Then the similarity between any tow video sequences can be reliably estimated by comparing their respective signatures. Using this method, we achieve 85 percent recall and precision ratios on a test database of 377 video sequences. As a proof of concept, we have applied our proposed algorithm to a collection of 1800 hours of video corresponding to around 45000 clips from the web. Our results indicate that, on average, every video in our collection from the web has around five similar copies.
Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.
Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.
Lang, Guido; O'Connell, Stephen D.
We investigate the relationship between learning styles, online content usage and exam performance in an undergraduate introductory Computer Information Systems class comprised of both online video tutorials and in-person classes. Our findings suggest that, across students, (1) traditional learning style classification methodologies do not predict…
This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...
Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Khoo, Elaine; Cowie, Bronwen
to consider must be expanded. This article explicates theoretical and practical ideas related to teachers’ application of their ICT technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) in science. The article unpacks the social and technological dimensions of teachers’ use of TPACK when they use digital videos...... to scaffold learning. It showcases the intricate interplay between teachers’ knowledge about content, digital video technology, and students’ learning needs based on a qualitative study of two science teachers and their students in a New Zealand primary school....
Hulsman, Robert L; van der Vloodt, Jane
Self-evaluation and peer-feedback are important strategies within the reflective practice paradigm for the development and maintenance of professional competencies like medical communication. Characteristics of the self-evaluation and peer-feedback annotations of medical students' video recorded communication skills were analyzed. Twenty-five year 4 medical students recorded history-taking consultations with a simulated patient, uploaded the video to a web-based platform, marked and annotated positive and negative events. Peers reviewed the video and self-evaluations and provided feedback. Analyzed were the number of marked positive and negative annotations and the amount of text entered. Topics and specificity of the annotations were coded and analyzed qualitatively. Students annotated on average more negative than positive events. Additional peer-feedback was more often positive. Topics most often related to structuring the consultation. Students were most critical about their biomedical topics. Negative annotations were more specific than positive annotations. Self-evaluations were more specific than peer-feedback and both show a significant correlation. Four response patterns were detected that negatively bias specificity assessment ratings. Teaching students to be more specific in their self-evaluations may be effective for receiving more specific peer-feedback. Videofragmentrating is a convenient tool to implement reflective practice activities like self-evaluation and peer-feedback to the classroom in the teaching of clinical skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jerosch, K.; Lüdtke, A.; Schlüter, M.; Ioannidis, G. T.
The combination of new underwater technology as remotely operating vehicles (ROVs), high-resolution video imagery, and software to compute georeferenced mosaics of the seafloor provides new opportunities for marine geological or biological studies and applications in offshore industry. Even during single surveys by ROVs or towed systems large amounts of images are compiled. While these underwater techniques are now well-engineered, there is still a lack of methods for the automatic analysis of the acquired image data. During ROV dives more than 4200 georeferenced video mosaics were compiled for the HÅkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV). Mud volcanoes as HMMV are considered as significant source locations for methane characterised by unique chemoautotrophic communities as Beggiatoa mats. For the detection and quantification of the spatial distribution of Beggiatoa mats an automated image analysis technique was developed, which applies watershed transformation and relaxation-based labelling of pre-segmented regions. Comparison of the data derived by visual inspection of 2840 video images with the automated image analysis revealed similarities with a precision better than 90%. We consider this as a step towards a time-efficient and accurate analysis of seafloor images for computation of geochemical budgets and identification of habitats at the seafloor.
Freiburg, B.; Kamps, J.; Snoek, C.G.M.
In this paper we study social tagging at the video fragment-level using a combination of automated content understanding and the wisdom of the crowds. We are interested in the question whether crowdsourcing can be beneficial to a video search engine that automatically recognizes video fragments on a
Geyh, Szilvia; Peter, Claudio; Müller, Rachel; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Ustün, Bedirhan T; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos
This review provides an overview of the literature on the conceptualisation of the Personal Factors (PF) component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). A systematic literature review was carried out. Electronic searches were performed in Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SSCI. Qualitative content analysis of statements about PF was conducted using inductive coding. The searches yielded 353 citations, 79 papers were eligible for analyses. Five hundred thirty-eight statements about PF were extracted, condensed and coded. Beside conceptual statements, 238 examples of potential PF as well as five attempts at classifying PF were found in the literature. PF were considered in relation to clinical service provision, assessment and intervention, in research and social security contexts. PF were seen to be related to various aspects of health, functioning, disability and the environment. The analysis of the literature shows that PF is seen as relevant to the application of the ICF in various settings. The review revealed a need for standardisation of PF. The literature points to the potential of PF in enhancing the understanding of functioning, disability and health, in facilitating interventions and services for people with disabilities, and strengthening the perspective of individuals in the ICF.
Osborne, Candice L; Petersson, Christina; Graham, James E; Meyer, Walter J; Simeonsson, Rune J; Suman, Oscar E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J
To link, classify and describe the content of the Multicenter Benchmarking Study Burn Outcomes Questionnaires (BOQ) using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to determine if the information garnered provides researchers with the data necessary to develop a comprehensive understanding of life after burns. Two ICF linking experts used a standardized linking technique endorsed by the World Health Organization to link all BOQ concepts to the ICF. Linking results were analyzed to determine the comprehensiveness of each of the five measures. The activities and participation component was most frequently addressed followed by the body functions component. Environmental factors are not extensively covered and body structures are not addressed. ICF chapter and category distribution were skewed and varied between assessments. The majority of BOQ items are of the health status perspective. BOQ item composition could be improved with a more even distribution of pertinent ICF topics. Assessment authors may consider addressing the impact of environmental factors on participation. Including body structure concepts would allow investigators to track structural deformation and/or developmental delay. Generally speaking, this data should not be used to examine quality of life outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Kerofsky, Louis; Jagannath, Abhijith; Reznik, Yuriy
We describe the design of a video streaming system using adaptation to viewing conditions to reduce the bitrate needed for delivery of video content. A visual model is used to determine sufficient resolution needed under various viewing conditions. Sensors on a mobile device estimate properties of the viewing conditions, particularly the distance to the viewer. We leverage the framework of existing adaptive bitrate streaming systems such as HLS, Smooth Streaming or MPEG-DASH. The client rate selection logic is modified to include a sufficient resolution computed using the visual model and the estimated viewing conditions. Our experiments demonstrate significant bitrate savings compare to conventional streaming methods which do not exploit viewing conditions.
Milewski, Steven; Threatt, Monique
Librarians rely on an ever-increasing variety of platforms to deliver streaming video content to our patrons. These two presentations will examine different aspects of video streaming platforms to gain guidance from the comparison of platforms. The first will examine the accessibility compliance of the various video streaming platforms for users with disabilities by examining accessibility features of the platforms. The second will be a comparison of subject usage of two of the larger video s...
Chakraborty, Avishek; Stamatescu, Victor; Wong, Sebastien C.; Wigley, Grant; Kearney, David
One of the challenges in evaluating multi-object video detection, tracking and classification systems is having publically available data sets with which to compare different systems. However, the measures of performance for tracking and classification are different. Data sets that are suitable for evaluating tracking systems may not be appropriate for classification. Tracking video data sets typically only have ground truth track IDs, while classification video data sets only have ground tru...
Full Text Available Conventional video traces (which characterize the video encoding frame sizes in bits and frame quality in PSNR are limited to evaluating loss-free video transmission. To evaluate robust video transmission schemes for lossy network transport, generally experiments with actual video are required. To circumvent the need for experiments with actual videos, we propose in this paper an advanced video trace framework. The two main components of this framework are (i advanced video traces which combine the conventional video traces with a parsimonious set of visual content descriptors, and (ii quality prediction schemes that based on the visual content descriptors provide an accurate prediction of the quality of the reconstructed video after lossy network transport. We conduct extensive evaluations using a perceptual video quality metric as well as the PSNR in which we compare the visual quality predicted based on the advanced video traces with the visual quality determined from experiments with actual video. We find that the advanced video trace methodology accurately predicts the quality of the reconstructed video after frame losses.
Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...
Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.
textabstractThe FRAMES project within the RDN CRC (Cooperative Research Centre for Research Data Networks) is developing an experimental environment for video content-based retrieval and dynamic virtual video synthesis from archives of video data. The FRAMES research prototype is a video synthesis
Reponen, Erika; Lehikoinen, Jaakko; Impiö, Jussi
Video recording has become a spontaneous everyday activity for many people, thanks to the video capabilities of modern mobile phones. Internet connectivity of mobile phones enables fluent sharing of captured material even real-time, which makes video an up-and-coming everyday interaction medium. In this article we discuss the effect of the video camera in the social environment, everyday life situations, mainly based on a study where four groups of people used digital video cameras in their normal settings. We also reflect on another study of ours, relating to real-time mobile video communication and discuss future views. The aim of our research is to understand the possibilities in the domain of mobile video. Live and delayed sharing seem to have their special characteristics, live video being used as a virtual window between places whereas delayed video usage has more scope for good-quality content. While this novel way of interacting via mobile video enables new social patterns, it also raises new concerns for privacy and trust between participating persons in all roles, largely due to the widely spreading possibilities of videos. Video in a social situation affects cameramen (who record), targets (who are recorded), passers-by (who are unintentionally in the situation), and the audience (who follow the videos or recording situations) but also the other way around, the participants affect the video by their varying and evolving personal and communicational motivations for recording.
Full Text Available The authors discuss the role of the map in various game genres, specifically video games. Presented examples illustrate widespread map usage in various ways and forms by the authors of games, both classic and video. The article takes a closer look at the classification and development of video games within the last few decades. Presently, video games use advanced geospatial models and data resources. Users are keen on a detailed representation of the real world. Game authors use advanced visualization technologies, which often are innovative and very attractive. Joint efforts of cartographers, geo-information specialists and game producers can bring interesting effects in the future. Although games are mainly made for entertainment, they are more frequently used for other purposes. There is a growing need for data reliability as well as for some effective means of transmission cartographic content. This opens up a new area of both scientific and implementation activity for cartographers. There is no universally accessible data on the role of cartographers in game production, but apparently it is quite limited at the moment. However, a wider application of cartographic methodology would have a positive effect on the development of games and, conversely, methods and technologies applied by game makers can influence the development of cartography.
Bohlin, Gustav; Göransson, Andreas; Höst, Gunnar E.; Tibell, Lena A. E.
Educational videos on the Internet comprise a vast and highly diverse source of information. Online search engines facilitate access to numerous videos claiming to explain natural selection, but little is known about the degree to which the video content match key evolutionary content identified as important in evolution education research. In…
Verleur, Ria; Heuvelman, Ard; Verhagen, Plon W.
Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is motivated by the potential influence of video-evoked…
Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Blömeke, Sigrid
This study addresses the relation of pre-school teachers' mathematics content knowledge and their performance--how they perceive mathematical learning situations and whether they are able to plan adequate actions that foster children's learning--in the informal settings of pre-schools. It thus addresses a serious gap in teacher research that has…
Juan José Rodríguez Soler
Full Text Available Online Channels in financial institutions allows customers with disabilities to access services in a convenient way for them.However, one of the current challenges of this sector is to improve web accessibility and to incorporate technological resources to provide access to multimedia and video content, which has become a new form of internet communication.The present work shows in detail the strategy followed when designing and developing the new video player used by Bankinter for these purposes.
Full Text Available This paper presents about the transmission of Digital Video Broadcasting system with streaming video resolution 640x480 on different IQ rate and modulation. In the video transmission, distortion often occurs, so the received video has bad quality. Key frames selection algorithm is flexibel on a change of video, but on these methods, the temporal information of a video sequence is omitted. To minimize distortion between the original video and received video, we aimed at adding methodology using sequential distortion minimization algorithm. Its aim was to create a new video, better than original video without significant loss of content between the original video and received video, fixed sequentially. The reliability of video transmission was observed based on a constellation diagram, with the best result on IQ rate 2 Mhz and modulation 8 QAM. The best video transmission was also investigated using SEDIM (Sequential Distortion Minimization Method and without SEDIM. The experimental result showed that the PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio average of video transmission using SEDIM was an increase from 19,855 dB to 48,386 dB and SSIM (Structural Similarity average increase 10,49%. The experimental results and comparison of proposed method obtained a good performance. USRP board was used as RF front-end on 2,2 GHz.
Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet er...... der dog opstået nye muligheder og udfordringer i forhold til at formidle og distribuere forskningsresultater til forskellige målgrupper via video. Samtidig er klassiske metodologiske problematikker som forskerens positionering i forhold til det undersøgte stadig aktuelle. Både klassiske og nye...... problemstillinger diskuteres i kapitlet, som rammesætter diskussionen ud fra forskellige positioneringsmuligheder: formidler, historiefortæller, eller dialogist. Disse positioner relaterer sig til genrer inden for ’akademisk video’. Afslutningsvis præsenteres en metodisk værktøjskasse med redskaber til planlægning...
This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...
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include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...
Li, Kang; Li, Sheng; Oh, Sangmin; Fu, Yun
Video analysis and understanding play a central role in visual intelligence. In this paper, we aim to analyze unconstrained videos, by designing features and approaches to represent and analyze videography styles in the videos. Videography denotes the process of making videos. The unconstrained videos are defined as the long duration consumer videos that usually have diverse editing artifacts and significant complexity of contents. We propose to construct a videography dictionary, which can be utilized to represent every video clip as a sequence of videography words. In addition to semantic features, such as foreground object motion and camera motion, we also incorporate two novel interpretable features to characterize videography, including the scale information and the motion correlations. We then demonstrate that, by using statistical analysis methods, the unique videography signatures extracted from different events can be automatically identified. For real-world applications, we explore the use of videography analysis for three types of applications, including content-based video retrieval, video summarization (both visual and textual), and videography-based feature pooling. In the experiments, we evaluate the performance of our approach and other methods on a large-scale unconstrained video dataset, and show that the proposed approach significantly benefits video analysis in various ways.
Torabi, Atousa; Sigal, Leonid
Inspired by recent advances in neural machine translation, that jointly align and translate using encoder-decoder networks equipped with attention, we propose an attentionbased LSTM model for human activity recognition. Our model jointly learns to classify actions and highlight frames associated with the action, by attending to salient visual information through a jointly learned soft-attention networks. We explore attention informed by various forms of visual semantic features, including tho...
This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real W...
Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Ye; Vellaikal, Asha; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
Many multimedia applications, such as multimedia data management systems and communication systems, require efficient representation of multimedia content. Thus semantic interpretation of video content has been a popular research area. Currently, most content-based video representation involves the segmentation of video based on key frames which are generated using scene change detection techniques as well as camera/object motion. Then, video features can be extracted from key frames. However most of such research performs off-line video processing in which the whole video scope is known as a priori which allows multiple scans of the stored video files during video processing. In comparison, relatively not much research has been done in the area of on-line video processing, which is crucial in video communication applications such as on-line collaboration, news broadcasts and so on. Our research investigates on-line real-time scene change detection of multicast video over the Internet. Our on-line processing system are designed to meet the requirements of real-time video multicasting over the Internet and to utilize the successful video parsing techniques available today. The proposed algorithms extract key frames from video bitstreams sent through the MBone network, and the extracted key frames are multicasted as annotations or metadata over a separate channel to assist in content filtering such as those anticipated to be in use by on-line filtering proxies in the Internet. The performance of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated and discussed in this paper.
Wang, Chuen-Ching; Hsu, Yu-Chang
A novel H.264 advanced video coding fragile watermarking method is proposed that enables the authenticity and integrity of the video streams to be verified. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by way of experimental simulations. The results show that by embedding the watermark information in the last nonzero-quantized coefficient in each discrete cosine transform block, the proposed scheme induces no more than a minor distortion of the video content. In addition, we show that the proposed scheme is able to detect unauthorized changes in the watermarked video content without the original video. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed video authentication system.
André, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas
Evaluating content-based retrieval (CBR) is challenging because it requires an adequate ground-truth. When the available groundtruth is limited to textual metadata such as pathological classes, retrieval results can only be evaluated indirectly, for example in terms of classification performance. In this study we first present a tool to generate perceived similarity ground-truth that enables direct evaluation of endomicroscopic video retrieval. This tool uses a four-points Likert scale and collects subjective pairwise similarities perceived by multiple expert observers. We then evaluate against the generated ground-truth a previously developed dense bag-of-visual-words method for endomicroscopic video retrieval. Confirming the results of previous indirect evaluation based on classification, our direct evaluation shows that this method significantly outperforms several other state-of-the-art CBR methods. In a second step, we propose to improve the CBR method by learning an adjusted similarity metric from the perceived similarity ground-truth. By minimizing a margin-based cost function that differentiates similar and dissimilar video pairs, we learn a weight vector applied to the visual word signatures of videos. Using cross-validation, we demonstrate that the learned similarity distance is significantly better correlated with the perceived similarity than the original visual-word-based distance.
Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Sikora, Thomas
In this paper, we present a classification and retrieval technique targeted for retrieval of home video abstract using dimension-reduced, decorrelated spectral features of audio content. The feature extraction based on MPEG-7 descriptors consists of three main stages: Normalized Audio Spectrum Envelope (NASE), basis decomposition algorithm and basis projection, obtained by multiplying the NASE with a set of extracted basis functions. A classifier based on continuous hidden Markov models is applied. For retrieval with accurate performance the system consists of a two-level hierarchy method using speech recognition and sound classification. For the measure of the performance we compare the classification results of MPEG-7 standardized features vs. Mel-scale Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC). Results show that the MFCC features yield better performance compared to MPEG-7 features.
Moshirnia, Andrew; Israel, Maya
Despite the increasing popularity of many commercial video games, this popularity is not shared by educational video games. Modified video games, however, can bridge the gap in quality between commercial and education video games by embedding educational content into popular commercial video games. This study examined how different information…
Esra Nergis Güven
Full Text Available [Turkish abstract]Internet’in hızlı gelişmesi ve yaygınlaşması elektronik ortamda iş ve işlemleri hızlandırmış ve kolaylaştırmıştır. Elektronik ortamlarda depolanan, taşınan ve işlenen bilgilerin boyutunun her geçen gün artması ise bilgiye erişim ile ilgili birçok problemi de beraberinde getirmiştir. Kullanıcıların elektronik ortamda sunulan bilgilere erişmelerindeki hız ve doğruluk gereksinimi nedeniyle, bu ortamlarda tutulan bilgileri sınıflandırma ve kategorilere ayırma yaklaşımlarına ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Sayıları milyonun üzerinde olan arama motorlarının, kullanıcıların doğru bilgilere kısa sürede ulaşmasını sağlaması için her geçen gün yeni yaklaşımlar ile desteklenmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada, web sayfalarının belirlenen konulara göre sınıflandırılabilmesi için, Çok Katmanlı (MLP yapay sinir ağı modeli kullanılmıştır. Özellik vektörü içeriğinin seçimi, yapay sinir ağının eğitilmesi ve son olarak web sayfalarının doğru kategorize edilmesi için bir yazılım geliştirilmiştir. Bu zeki yaklaşımın, elektronik ortamlarda bilgilerin kolaylıkla ve yüksek doğrulukla sınıflandırılması, web ortamlarında doğru içeriğe ulaşılması ve birçok güvenlik açığının giderilmesine katkılar sağlayacağı değerlendirilmektedir. [English abstract]Recent developments and widespread usage of the Internet have made business and processes to be completed faster and easily in electronic media. The increasing size of the stored, transferred and processed data brings many problems that affect access to information on the Web. Because of users’ need get to access to the information in electronic environment quickly, correctly and appropriately, different methods of classification and categorization of data are strictly needed. Millions of search engines should be supported with new approaches every day in order for users to get access to
Full Text Available Abstract We propose a novel approach for video classification that bases on the analysis of the temporal relationships between the basic events in audiovisual documents. Starting from basic segmentation results, we define a new representation method that is called Temporal Relation Matrix (TRM. Each document is then described by a set of TRMs, the analysis of which makes events of a higher level stand out. This representation has been first designed to analyze any audiovisual document in order to find events that may well characterize its content and its structure. The aim of this work is to use this representation to compute a similarity measure between two documents. Approaches for audiovisual documents classification are presented and discussed. Experimentations are done on a set of 242 video documents and the results show the efficiency of our proposals.
Performance Evaluation Software: Moving Object Detection and Tracking in Videos introduces a software approach for the real-time evaluation and performance comparison of the methods specializing in moving object detection and/or tracking (D&T) in video processing. Digital video content analysis is an important item for multimedia content-based indexing (MCBI), content-based video retrieval (CBVR) and visual surveillance systems. There are some frequently-used generic algorithms for video object D&T in the literature, such as Background Subtraction (BS), Continuously Adaptive Mean-shift (CMS),
Vessey, J A; Lee, J E
Exposure to media violence is associated with increased aggression and its sequelae. Unfortunately, the majority of entertainment video games contain violence. Moreover, children of both genders prefer games with violent content. As there is no compulsory legislative standards to limit the type and amount of violence in video games, concerned adults must assume an oversight role.
Soleymani, Mohammad; Pantic, Maja; Pun, Thierry
This paper presents a user-independent emotion recognition method with the goal of recovering affective tags for videos using electroencephalogram (EEG), pupillary response and gaze distance. We first selected 20 video clips with extrinsic emotional content from movies and online resources. Then,
Boer, M. de; Pingen, G.; Knook, D.; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.
In content based video retrieval videos are often indexed with semantic labels (concepts) using pre-trained classifiers. These pre-trained classifiers (concept detectors), are not perfect, and thus the labels are noisy. Additionally, the amount of pre-trained classifiers is limited. Often automatic
Tuna, Tayfun; Subhlok, Jaspal; Barker, Lecia; Shah, Shishir; Johnson, Olin; Hovey, Christopher
Videos of classroom lectures have proven to be a popular and versatile learning resource. A key shortcoming of the lecture video format is accessing the content of interest hidden in a video. This work meets this challenge with an advanced video framework featuring topical indexing, search, and captioning (ICS videos). Standard optical character recognition (OCR) technology was enhanced with image transformations for extraction of text from video frames to support indexing and search. The images and text on video frames is analyzed to divide lecture videos into topical segments. The ICS video player integrates indexing, search, and captioning in video playback providing instant access to the content of interest. This video framework has been used by more than 70 courses in a variety of STEM disciplines and assessed by more than 4000 students. Results presented from the surveys demonstrate the value of the videos as a learning resource and the role played by videos in a students learning process. Survey results also establish the value of indexing and search features in a video platform for education. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of ICS videos framework and over 5 years of usage experience in several STEM courses.
Changes in Internet technology are making possible the delivery of a richer mixture of media through data streaming. High-quality, dynamic content, such as video and audio, can be incorporated into Websites simply, flexibly and interactively. Technologies such as G3 mobile communication, ADSL, cable and satellites enable new ways of delivering medical services, information and learning. Systems such as Quicktime, Windows Media and Real Video provide reliable data streams as video-on-demand and users can tailor the experience to their own interests. The Learning Development Centre at the University of Portsmouth have used streaming technologies together with e-learning tools such as dynamic HTML, Flash, 3D objects and online assessment successfully to deliver on-line course content in economics and earth science. The Lifesign project--to develop, catalogue and stream health sciences media for teaching--is described and future medical applications are discussed.
.... (b) General content of classification guides. Classification guides shall, at a minimum: (1) Identify... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15..., NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001...
Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.
This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka , who categorized
Alshirbaji Tamer Abdulbaki
Full Text Available Smoke in laparoscopic videos usually appears due to the use of electrocautery when cutting or coagulating tissues. Therefore, detecting smoke can be used for event-based annotation in laparoscopic surgeries by retrieving the events associated with the electrocauterization. Furthermore, smoke detection can also be used for automatic smoke removal. However, detecting smoke in laparoscopic video is a challenge because of the changeability of smoke patterns, the moving camera and the different lighting conditions. In this paper, we present a video-based smoke detection algorithm to detect smoke of different densities such as fog, low and high density in laparoscopic videos. The proposed method depends on extracting various visual features from the laparoscopic images and providing them to support vector machine (SVM classifier. Features are based on motion, colour and texture patterns of the smoke. We validated our algorithm using experimental evaluation on four laparoscopic cholecystectomy videos. These four videos were manually annotated by defining every frame as smoke or non-smoke frame. The algorithm was applied to the videos by using different feature combinations for classification. Experimental results show that the combination of all proposed features gives the best classification performance. The overall accuracy (i.e. correctly classified frames is around 84%, with the sensitivity (i.e. correctly detected smoke frames and the specificity (i.e. correctly detected non-smoke frames are 89% and 80%, respectively.
Students of English Language Education Program in Faculty of Cultural Studies Universitas Brawijaya ideally master Grammar before taking the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan. However, the fact shows that they are still weak in Grammar especially tenses. Therefore, the researchers initiate to develop a video as a media to teach tenses. Objectively, by using video, students get better understanding on tenses so that they can communicate using English accurately and contextually. To develop the video, the researchers used ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation. First, the researchers analyzed the students’ learning need to determine the product that would be developed, in this case was a movie about English tenses. Then, the researchers developed a video as the product. The product then was validated by media expert who validated attractiveness, typography, audio, image, and usefulness and content expert and validated by a content expert who validated the language aspects and tenses of English used by the actors in the video dealing with the grammar content, pronunciation, and fluency performed by the actors. The result of validation shows that the video developed was considered good. Theoretically, it is appropriate to be used English Grammar classes. However, the media expert suggests that it still needs some improvement for the next development especially dealing with the synchronization between lips movement and sound on the scenes while the content expert suggests that the Grammar content of the video should focus on one tense only to provide more detailed concept of the tense.
Lobato, Ramon; Meese, James; Rasch, Mirjam
How do global audiences use streaming platforms like YouTube, Netflix and iPlayer? How does the experience of digital video change according to location? What strategies do people use to access out-of-region content? What are the commercial and governmental motivations behind geoblocking?
Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use, especially in remote monitoring health-services. However, during the WCE process, the large amount of captured video data demands a significant deal of computation to analyze and retrieve informative video frames. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing task, we present a resource- and bandwidth-aware WCE video summarization framework that extracts the representative keyframes of the WCE video contents by removing redundant and non-informative frames. For redundancy elimination, we use Jeffrey-divergence between color histograms and inter-frame Boolean series-based correlation of color channels. To remove non-informative frames, multi-fractal texture features are extracted to assist the classification using an ensemble-based classifier. Owing to the limited WCE resources, it is impossible for the WCE system to perform computationally intensive video summarization tasks. To resolve computational challenges, mobile-cloud architecture is incorporated, which provides resizable computing capacities by adaptively offloading video summarization tasks between the client and the cloud server. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed framework saves information transmission cost and bandwidth, as well as the valuable time of data analysts in browsing remote sensing data.
Full Text Available Education technology represents a system of influences on the trainee in the training process. It involves the management of a didactic process with the inclusion of stages of the trainees’ activities, organization and control. The problem of educational technology efficiency is based on strategies of representation, acquisition, storing, reproducing, and actualization of various forms of educational information. This paper considers audiovisual technologies (AT for foreign language training in high school. It reports on a number of audiovisual activities in foreign language training. The research provides some ideas of the students’ perception of video in the education process. The classification of video materials allows consideration of the different pedagogical and didactic conditions of AT realization. The functional features of a video film in the training process and four stages of audiovisual education technology based on a video film are described. To present the process of training, the pedagogical algorithms based on the structure of the knowledge acquisition process are developed according to the aims of viewing (illustrative viewing, fact-finding, studying, critical, and search viewing. The stages of AT realization (previewing, presentation, after-viewing, and actualization are considered. An educational intervention using AT is developed and we investigate (1 the effectiveness of audiovisual technology as a teaching method; and (2 the degree of knowledge acquisition of the language content proposed to students. The aim of foreign language training is to form and to develop foreign language communicative competence that includes different skills, abilities and knowledge of grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary, skills in reading, writing, audition and speaking. To estimate the communicative competence level, we used the calculation of knowledge acquisition factor of training material. A significant improvement was observed in
Gade, Rikke; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
In this work we propose a method for classification of sports types from combined audio and visual features ex- tracted from thermal video. From audio Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) are extracted, and PCA are applied to reduce the feature space to 10 dimensions. From the visual modality...... short trajectories are constructed to rep- resent the motion of players. From these, four motion fea- tures are extracted and combined directly with audio fea- tures for classification. A k-nearest neighbour classifier is applied for classification of 180 1-minute video sequences from three sports types...
Malaga, Ross A.; Koppel, Nicole B.
The use of video to deliver content to students online has become increasingly popular. However, educators are often plagued with the question of which format to use to deliver asynchronous video material. Whether it is a College or University committing to a common video format or an individual instructor selecting the method that works best for…
Harter, Christopher Daniel; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin
This paper presents a theoretical approach to coding and analyzing video data on human interaction and activity, using principles found in cultural historical activity theory. The systematic classification or coding of information contained in video data on activity can be arduous and time consum...
Goal-setting in multidisciplinary team care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an international multi-center evaluation of the contents using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a reference.
Meesters, Jorit; Hagel, Sofia; Klokkerud, Mari; Stovgaard, Inger; Bremander, Ann; Grotle, Margreth; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Petersson, Ingemar F; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Pont, Winke; Vlieland, Thea Vliet
To make a cross-cultural comparison of the contents of rehabilitation goals of patients admitted for rehabilitation and to compare the contents with the comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for rheumatoid arthritis, by linking their contents to the ICF. A random sample of 80 patients with rheumatoid arthritis was retrieved from rehabilitation clinics in 4 countries. Rehabilitation goals were extracted from the medical records and linked to the ICF using standardized linking rules. A total of 495 rehabilitation goals were identified and linked to 952 ICF codes, resulting in 151 unique ICF codes. Two-hundred and seventy-five (29%) of the 952 ICF codes were related to "Body Functions" (b-codes), 80 (8%) to "Body Structures" (s-codes), 419 (44%) to "Activities and Participation" (d-codes) and 178 (19%) to "Environmental Factors" (e-codes). Thirty-five of the 151 unique ICF codes (23%) were not in the comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA, whereas 23 of the ICF codes in this Core Set (24%) were not in the rehabilitation goals. The goals set in a team rehabilitation setting for patients with rheumatoid arthritis are related to all ICF components, with "Activities and Participation" being the most frequently addressed. The contents of the goals are, to a considerable extent, covered by the comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA, but additional evaluation is required before the ICF Core Set is used as a rehabilitation tool in rheumatoid arthritis.
Guruvadoo, Eranna K.
In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.
In recent years, the proliferation of available video content and the popularity of the Internet have encouraged service providers to develop new ways of distributing content to clients. Increasing video scaling ratios and advanced digital signal processing techniques have led to Internet Video-on-Demand applications, but these currently lack efficiency and quality. Scalable Video on Demand: Adaptive Internet-based Distribution examines how current video compression and streaming can be used to deliver high-quality applications over the Internet. In addition to analysing the problems
Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kalmbach, A.; Sadhu, T.; Branzan Albu, A.; Glotin, H.; Jeffries, M. A.; Bui, A. O. V.
these effects. These steps include filtering out unusable data, color and luminance balancing, and choosing the most appropriate image descriptors. We apply these techniques to generate automated quality assessment of video data and illustrate their utility with an example application where we perform vision-based substrate classification.
Iorio-Morin, Christian; Brisebois, Simon; Becotte, Annick; Mior, Frédéric
Videos are often employed in medical cursus, yet few guidelines are available to help with their production. Mayer's cognitive theory of multimedia learning is the most cited evidence-based framework for improving pedagogical effectiveness of multimedia content. Based on this framework, we identified four workflow interventions to improve the effectiveness of video content in the context of medical education: (1) choosing appropriate content; (2) optimizing the voiceover; (3) optimizing the supporting visuals and (4) planning the shooting schedule in advance. Content creators should think about pedagogical effectiveness and aim to improve their work by applying evidence-based principles.
Xie, Hua; Ortega, Antonio
In semantic content-based image/video browsing and navigation systems, efficient mechanisms to represent and manage a large collection of digital images/videos are needed. Traditional keyword-based indexing describes the content of multimedia data through annotations such as text or keywords extracted manually by the user from a controlled vocabulary. This textual indexing technique lacks the flexibility of satisfying various kinds of queries requested by database users and also requires huge amount of work for updating the information. Current content-based retrieval systems often extract a set of features such as color, texture, shape motion, speed, and position from the raw multimedia data automatically and store them as content descriptors. This content-based metadata differs from text-based metadata in that it supports wider varieties of queries and can be extracted automatically, thus providing a promising approach for efficient database access and management. When the raw data volume grows very large, explicitly extracting the content-information and storing it as metadata along with the images will improve querying performance since metadata requires much less storage than the raw image data and thus will be easier to manipulate. In this paper we maintain that storing metadata together with images will enable effective information management and efficient remote query. We also show, using a texture classification example, that this side information can be compressed while guaranteeing that the desired query accuracy is satisfied. We argue that the compact representation of the image contents not only reduces significantly the storage and transmission rate requirement, but also facilitates certain types of queries. Algorithms are developed for optimized compression of this texture feature metadata given that the goal is to maximize the classification performance for a given rate budget.
Content Analysis of Work Limitation, Stanford Presenteeism, and Work Instability Questionnaires Using International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and Item Perspective Framework
Full Text Available Background. Presenteeism refers to reduced performance or productivity while at work due to health reasons. WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS are the commonly used self-report presenteeism questionnaires. These questionnaires have acceptable psychometric properties but have not been subject to structured content analysis that would define their conceptual basis. Objective. To describe the conceptual basis of the three questionnaires using ICF and IPF and then compare the distribution and content of codes to those on the vocational rehabilitation core set. Methods. Two researchers independently linked the items of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS to the ICF and IPF following the established linking rules. The percentage agreement on coding was calculated between the researchers. Results. WLQ-26 was linked to 62 ICF codes, SPS-6 was linked to 17 ICF codes, and RA-WIS was linked to 74 ICF codes. Most of these codes belonged to the activity and participation domains. All the concepts were classified by the IPF, and the most were rational appraisals within the social domain. Only 12% of codes of the core set for vocational rehabilitation were used in this study to code these questionnaires. Conclusion. The specific nature of work disability that was included in these three questionnaires was difficult to explain using ICF since many aspects of content were not confined. The core set for vocational rehabilitation covered very limited content of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS.
Content Analysis of Work Limitation, Stanford Presenteeism, and Work Instability Questionnaires Using International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and Item Perspective Framework
MacDermid, Joy C.; Grewal, Ruby
Background. Presenteeism refers to reduced performance or productivity while at work due to health reasons. WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS are the commonly used self-report presenteeism questionnaires. These questionnaires have acceptable psychometric properties but have not been subject to structured content analysis that would define their conceptual basis. Objective. To describe the conceptual basis of the three questionnaires using ICF and IPF and then compare the distribution and content of codes to those on the vocational rehabilitation core set. Methods. Two researchers independently linked the items of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS to the ICF and IPF following the established linking rules. The percentage agreement on coding was calculated between the researchers. Results. WLQ-26 was linked to 62 ICF codes, SPS-6 was linked to 17 ICF codes, and RA-WIS was linked to 74 ICF codes. Most of these codes belonged to the activity and participation domains. All the concepts were classified by the IPF, and the most were rational appraisals within the social domain. Only 12% of codes of the core set for vocational rehabilitation were used in this study to code these questionnaires. Conclusion. The specific nature of work disability that was included in these three questionnaires was difficult to explain using ICF since many aspects of content were not confined. The core set for vocational rehabilitation covered very limited content of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS. PMID:24459587
Biel, Joan-Isaac; Gatica-Perez, Daniel
While multimedia and social computing research have used crowdsourcing techniques to annotate objects, actions, and scenes in social video sites like YouTube, little work has ad- dressed the crowdsourcing of personal and social traits in online social video or social media content in general. In this paper, we address the problems of (1) crowdsourcing the annotation of first impressions of video bloggers (vloggers) personal and social traits in conversational YouTube videos, and (2) mining th...
Wijnants, Maarten; Van Erum, Kris; QUAX, Peter; Lamotte, Wim
Video consumption has since the emergence of the medium largely been a passive affair. This paper proposes augmented Omni-Directional Video (ODV) as a novel format to engage viewers and to open up new ways of interacting with video content. Augmented ODV blends two important contemporary technologies: Augmented Video Viewing and 360 degree video. The former allows for the addition of interactive features to Web-based video playback, while the latter unlocks spatial video navigation opportunit...
Klein, Amir; Gizbar, Moshe; Bourke, Michael J; Ahlenstiel, Golo
Diagnostic yield of video capsule endoscopy may be hampered by intestinal content or air bubbles. A major limitation in video capsule-related study is the lack of a validated objective score for bowel preparation quality. We aimed to design and validate a computed small bowel preparation score for research and clinical use. Two experienced physicians reached a consensus regarding bowel preparation quality based on known criteria used in previous studies and their confidence of an accurate medical interpretation of the procedure. A computed algorithm based on the pixels in the color bar was created and validated. Concordance between the gastroenterologists' agreement (gold standard) and the computed analysis was assessed. Of 85 videos studied, 44 (52%), 13 (15%) and 28 (33%) had adequate, borderline and inadequate bowel preparation, respectively, according to the gastroenterologists' agreement. Computer analysis restricted to adequate and inadequate cases yielded accurate classification of bowel preparation in 65/72 cases (90% agreement, sensitivity 95%, specificity 82%, total accuracy 90%, Kappa 0.79). When adding the borderline definition, the computer analysis correctly classified 71/85 of the cases, yielding an overall agreement of 84% (Kappa 0.72). Minute-by-minute analysis of 10 cases also yielded an agreement of 91.4%. The present study introduces a user-friendly computer analysis-based small bowel preparation score, which demonstrated excellent concordance with the physician's assessment. This score holds promise as a standardization tool in research and clinical practice of video capsule endoscopy. Further validation is warranted. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Tackett, Sean; Slinn, Kyle; Marshall, Tanner; Gaglani, Shiv; Waldman, Vincent; Desai, Rishi
Medical education videos can enhance learning and easily integrate into common instructional methods. YouTube permits worldwide access to high-quality medical education videos; however, no studies have described the reach of medical education videos on YouTube or what topics are preferred. One year of YouTube analytics data (February 1, 2016, to January 31, 2017) was collected for a medical education-focused channel called Osmosis. Created December 20, 2015, the channel had 189 disease-focused videos by January 2017. Viewer and subscriber data were analyzed according to the World Bank's 4 income and 7 region classifications. Topic viewing was analyzed according to income level. The channel had accumulated 105,117 subscribers and 5,226,405 views for 20,153,093 minutes (38.3 years) from viewers located in 213/218 (97.7%) World Bank economies. While the number of videos increased 4.8 fold from February 2016 to January 2017, monthly views increased 50 fold and subscribers increased 117 fold. Low or middle income countries generated 2.2 million (42%) views and 53,000 (50%) subscribers, with similar view proportions across income level during the 12 months. A plurality of views (1.5 million, 29%) came from North America; Sub-Saharan Africa had the lowest number (150,000, 2.9%). Topic viewing generally corresponded to population health statistics. Medical education content on YouTube can immediately and consistently reach a global viewership with relevant content. Educators may consider posting videos to YouTube to reach a broad audience. Future work should seek to optimize assessment of learning and investigate how videos may affect patients.
Video surrogates can help people quickly make sense of the content of a video before downloading or seeking more detailed information. Visual and audio features of a video are primary information carriers and might become important components of video retrieval and video sense-making. In the past decades, most research and development efforts on…
Rehman, Abdul; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Zhou
Today's viewers consume video content from a variety of connected devices, including smart phones, tablets, notebooks, TVs, and PCs. This imposes significant challenges for managing video traffic efficiently to ensure an acceptable quality-of-experience (QoE) for the end users as the perceptual quality of video content strongly depends on the properties of the display device and the viewing conditions. State-of-the-art full-reference objective video quality assessment algorithms do not take into account the combined impact of display device properties, viewing conditions, and video resolution while performing video quality assessment. We performed a subjective study in order to understand the impact of aforementioned factors on perceptual video QoE. We also propose a full reference video QoE measure, named SSIMplus, that provides real-time prediction of the perceptual quality of a video based on human visual system behaviors, video content characteristics (such as spatial and temporal complexity, and video resolution), display device properties (such as screen size, resolution, and brightness), and viewing conditions (such as viewing distance and angle). Experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art video quality measures in terms of accuracy and speed.
Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...
Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...
... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...
This paper researches LSB matching VSA based on H265 protocol with the research background of 26 original Video sequences, it firstly extracts classification features out from training samples as input of SVM, and trains in SVM to obtain high-quality category classification model, and then tests whether there is suspicious information in the video sample. The experimental results show that VSA algorithm based on LSB matching can be more practical to obtain all frame embedded secret information and carrier and video of local frame embedded. In addition, VSA adopts the method of frame by frame with a strong robustness in resisting attack in the corresponding time domain.
Geyh, S; Cieza, A; Kollerits, B; Grimby, G; Stucki, G
To examine and compare the contents of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures used in stroke, based on the ICF as the frame of reference. We conducted a systematic literature review to select current generic and condition-specific HRQoL measures applied in stroke. We examined the contents of the selected measures by linking the concepts within the instruments' items to the ICF. The systematic literature review resulted in the selection of six generic and seven stroke-specific HRQoL measures. Within the selected instruments we identified 979 concepts. To map these concepts, we used 200 different ICF categories. None of the ICF categories is contained in all of the instruments. The most frequently used category is 'b152 Emotional functions' contained in 53 items from 10 instruments. Stroke-specific measures more often address 'Mental functions', while the selected generic instruments more often include Environmental Factors. The present study provides an overview on current HRQoL measures in stroke with respect to their covered contents and provides valuable information to facilitate the selection of appropriate instruments for specific purposes in clinical as well as research settings.
Porikli, Fatih; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang
Closed Circuit TeleVision (CCTV) cameras have been increasingly deployed pervasively in public spaces including retail centres and shopping malls. Intelligent video analytics aims to automatically analyze content of massive amount of public space video data and has been one of the most active areas of computer vision research in the last two decades. Current focus of video analytics research has been largely on detecting alarm events and abnormal behaviours for public safety and security applications. However, increasingly CCTV installations have also been exploited for gathering and analyzing business intelligence information, in order to enhance marketing and operational efficiency. For example, in retail environments, surveillance cameras can be utilised to collect statistical information about shopping behaviour and preference for marketing (e.g., how many people entered a shop; how many females/males or which age groups of people showed interests to a particular product; how long did they stay in the sho...
Full Text Available ... Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed ... Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic ...
Urvesh Devani; Valmik B Nikam; Meshram, B B
Preventing users from accessing adult videos and at the same time allowing them to access good educational videos and other materials through campus wide network is a big challenge for organizations. Major existing web filtering systems are textual content or link analysis based. As a result, potential users cannot access qualitative and informative video content which is available online. Adult content detection in video based on motion features or skin detection requires sig...
detection in a cardiovascular disease study. The third focus is to deepen the understanding of classification mechanism by visualizing the knowledge learned by a classifier. More specifically, to build the most typical patterns recognized by the Fisher's linear discriminant rule with applications......Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition......, a good metric is required to measure distance or similarity between feature points so that the classification becomes feasible. Furthermore, in order to build a successful classifier, one needs to deeply understand how classifiers work. This thesis focuses on these three aspects of classification...
Zhang, Guofeng; Dong, Zilong; Jia, Jiaya; Wan, Liang; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Bao, Hujun
Compared to still image editing, content-based video editing faces the additional challenges of maintaining the spatiotemporal consistency with respect to geometry. This brings up difficulties of seamlessly modifying video content, for instance, inserting or removing an object. In this paper, we present a new video editing system for creating spatiotemporally consistent and visually appealing refilming effects. Unlike the typical filming practice, our system requires no labor-intensive construction of 3D models/surfaces mimicking the real scene. Instead, it is based on an unsupervised inference of view-dependent depth maps for all video frames. We provide interactive tools requiring only a small amount of user input to perform elementary video content editing, such as separating video layers, completing background scene, and extracting moving objects. These tools can be utilized to produce a variety of visual effects in our system, including but not limited to video composition, "predator" effect, bullet-time, depth-of-field, and fog synthesis. Some of the effects can be achieved in real time.
Full Text Available As the public education system in Northern Ontario continues to take a downward spiral, a plethora of secondary school students are being placed in an alternative educational environment. Juxtaposing the two educational settings reveals very similar methods and characteristics of educating our youth as opposed to using a truly alternative approach to education. This video reviews the relationship between public education and alternative education in a remote Northern Ontario setting. It is my belief that the traditional methods of teaching are not appropriate in educating at risk students in alternative schools. Paper and pencil worksheets do not motivate these students to learn and succeed. Alternative education should emphasize experiential learning, a just in time curriculum based on every unique individual and the students true passion for everyday life. Cameron Culbert was born on February 3rd, 1977 in North Bay, Ontario. His teenage years were split between attending public school and his willed curriculum on the ski hill. Culbert spent 10 years (1996-2002 & 2006-2010 competing for Canada as an alpine ski racer. His passion for teaching and coaching began as an athlete and has now transferred into the classroom and the community. As a graduate of Nipissing University (BA, BEd, MEd. Camerons research interests are alternative education, physical education and technology in the classroom. Currently Cameron is an active educator and coach in Northern Ontario.
Wang, Zhou; Zeng, Kai; Rehman, Abdul; Yeganeh, Hojatollah; Wang, Shiqi
How to deliver videos to consumers over the network for optimal quality-of-experience (QoE) has been the central goal of modern video delivery services. Surprisingly, regardless of the large volume of videos being delivered everyday through various systems attempting to improve visual QoE, the actual QoE of end consumers is not properly assessed, not to say using QoE as the key factor in making critical decisions at the video hosting, network and receiving sites. Real-world video streaming systems typically use bitrate as the main video presentation quality indicator, but using the same bitrate to encode different video content could result in drastically different visual QoE, which is further affected by the display device and viewing condition of each individual consumer who receives the video. To correct this, we have to put QoE back to the driver's seat and redesign the video delivery systems. To achieve this goal, a major challenge is to find an objective video presentation QoE predictor that is accurate, fast, easy-to-use, display device adaptive, and provides meaningful QoE predictions across resolution and content. We propose to use the newly developed SSIMplus index (https://ece.uwaterloo.ca/~z70wang/research/ssimplus/) for this role. We demonstrate that based on SSIMplus, one can develop a smart adaptive video streaming strategy that leads to much smoother visual QoE impossible to achieve using existing adaptive bitrate video streaming approaches. Furthermore, SSIMplus finds many more applications, in live and file-based quality monitoring, in benchmarking video encoders and transcoders, and in guiding network resource allocations.
Verleur, R.; Heuvelman, A.; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem
Audiovisual design might impact emotional responses, as studies from the 1970s and 1980s on movie and television content show. Given today's abundant presence of web-based videos, this study investigates whether audiovisual design will impact web-video content in a similar way. The study is
C. Eickhoff (Carsten); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)
htmlabstractContent-sharing platforms such as YouTube or MyVideo are experiencing huge user numbers that are still rising very quickly. Among the users there is a steadily growing share of children. In spite of this tendency the content of many popular videos is not suitable for children and should
Kortelainen, Jukka; Seppänen, Tapio
Emotions are fundamental for everyday life affecting our communication, learning, perception, and decision making. Including emotions into the human-computer interaction (HCI) could be seen as a significant step forward offering a great potential for developing advanced future technologies. While the electrical activity of the brain is affected by emotions, offers electroencephalogram (EEG) an interesting channel to improve the HCI. In this paper, the selection of subject-independent feature set for EEG-based emotion recognition is studied. We investigate the effect of different feature sets in classifying person's arousal and valence while watching videos with emotional content. The classification performance is optimized by applying a sequential forward floating search algorithm for feature selection. The best classification rate (65.1% for arousal and 63.0% for valence) is obtained with a feature set containing power spectral features from the frequency band of 1-32 Hz. The proposed approach substantially improves the classification rate reported in the literature. In future, further analysis of the video-induced EEG changes including the topographical differences in the spectral features is needed.
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer
We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...
Nie, Yongwei; Xiao, Chunxia; Sun, Hanqiu; Li, Ping
Video synopsis aims at providing condensed representations of video data sets that can be easily captured from digital cameras nowadays, especially for daily surveillance videos. Previous work in video synopsis usually moves active objects along the time axis, which inevitably causes collisions among the moving objects if compressed much. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for compact video synopsis using a unified spatiotemporal optimization. Our approach globally shifts moving objects in both spatial and temporal domains, which shifting objects temporally to reduce the length of the video and shifting colliding objects spatially to avoid visible collision artifacts. Furthermore, using a multilevel patch relocation (MPR) method, the moving space of the original video is expanded into a compact background based on environmental content to fit with the shifted objects. The shifted objects are finally composited with the expanded moving space to obtain the high-quality video synopsis, which is more condensed while remaining free of collision artifacts. Our experimental results have shown that the compact video synopsis we produced can be browsed quickly, preserves relative spatiotemporal relationships, and avoids motion collisions.
Höferlin, Markus Johannes
The amount of video data recorded world-wide is tremendously growing and has already reached hardly manageable dimensions. It originates from a wide range of application areas, such as surveillance, sports analysis, scientific video analysis, surgery documentation, and entertainment, and its analysis represents one of the challenges in computer science. The vast amount of video data renders manual analysis by watching the video data impractical. However, automatic evaluation of video material...
Lena, Yağmur; Dindaroğlu, Furkan
The aim of this study was to examine the quality of information offered for patients seeking information on lingual orthodontic treatment. YouTube™ was searched for videos about lingual orthodontic treatment using the key word "lingual braces" from the Google Trends application. One hundred and four videos were selected to be analyzed from the first 120 results. The video content was evaluated using a 10-point score, which was used for classifying low- and high-content video groups. The video information and quality index (VIQI) was applied to determine the quality of the videos. The Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were used, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for statistical evaluations. We classified 32 videos as high-content and 72 as low-content. Most videos were uploaded by laypeople (58.7%, n = 61). Definition of lingual braces and psychological impact were the most commonly discussed topics (51.0%), followed by speech performance (47.1%), pain (44.2%), tongue soreness (37.5%), and biomechanics (14.4%). Compared to the low-content group, the high-content video group had a significantly higher mean number of views (19,867.41 vs 6720.08, P = .002) and more "likes" (135.88 vs 13.01, P comments" (26.28 vs 5.31, P = .002). There was no difference in the total VIQI score between the groups ( P = .009). The content of YouTube™ videos for lingual orthodontics was generally incomplete. Most videos mentioned psychological effects, but few videos discussed the biomechanics or procedure. Orthodontists should be aware of the information available on YouTube™.
... pending final determination. (b) Classification consistent with content. Each document containing... document; (2) The highest classification marking required by content of the page; or (3) The marking..., when combined, warrant a higher classification than any individual enclosure. When the contents of the...
Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M. Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M
Context: Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for “Teen”) by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. Objective: To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. Design: We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Main Outcome Measures: Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Results: Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2
Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M
Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for "Teen") by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2%) received only a content descriptor for blood, and 14 game titles
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0030 Framework for Processing Videos in the Presence of Spatially Varying Motion Blur Ambasamudram Rajagopalan INDIAN...for Processing Videos in the Presence of Spatially Varying Motion Blur 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861314138 5b. GRANT NUMBER 13RSZ116_134138 5c... video analysis, Image Processing, Video analysis, Information Technology 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF
Hickman, Simon J
Internet video sharing sites allow the free dissemination of educational material. This study investigated the quality and educational content of videos of eye movement disorders posted on such sites. Educational neurological eye movement videos were identified by entering the titles of the eye movement abnormality into the search boxes of the video sharing sites. Also, suggested links were followed from each video. The number of views, likes, and dislikes for each video were recorded. The videos were then rated for their picture and sound quality. Their educational value was assessed according to whether the video included a description of the eye movement abnormality, the anatomical location of the lesion (if appropriate), and the underlying diagnosis. Three hundred fifty-four of these videos were found on YouTube and Vimeo. There was a mean of 6,443 views per video (range, 1-195,957). One hundred nineteen (33.6%) had no form of commentary about the eye movement disorder shown apart from the title. Forty-seven (13.3%) contained errors in the title or in the text. Eighty (22.6%) had excellent educational value by describing the eye movement abnormality, the anatomical location of the lesion, and the underlying diagnosis. Of these, 30 also had good picture and sound quality. The videos with excellent educational value had a mean of 9.84 "likes" per video compared with 2.37 for those videos without a commentary (P educational value with good picture and sound quality had a mean of 10.23 "likes" per video (P = 0.004 vs videos with no commentary). There was no significant difference in the mean number of "dislikes" between those videos that had no commentary or which contained errors and those with excellent educational value. There are a large number of eye movement videos freely available on these sites; however, due to the lack of peer review, a significant number have poor educational value due to having no commentary or containing errors. The number of "likes
Full Text Available Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS, is inspired by recent findings in computational neuroscience on feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing and extracting relevant information from visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what and dorsal (where streams of the mammalian visual pathway and combines retinal processing, form-based and motion-based object detection, and convolutional neural nets based object classification. Our system was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA under the NEOVISION2 program on a variety of urban area video datasets collected from both stationary and moving platforms. The datasets are challenging as they include a large number of targets in cluttered scenes with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. The NEOVUS system was also mapped to commercially available off-the-shelf hardware. The dynamic power requirement for the system that includes a 5.6Mpixel retinal camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W, for an effective energy consumption of 5.4 nanoJoules (nJ per bit of incoming video. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on three aerial datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with the highest recognition accuracy and at least three orders of magnitude lower energy consumption than two independent state of the art computer vision systems. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition towards enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing applications.
Chan, Keefe T; Paavolainen, Lassi; Hannan, Katherine M; George, Amee J; Hannan, Ross D; Simpson, Kaylene J; Horvath, Peter; Pearson, Richard B
Hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 signaling pathway is a hallmark of the majority of sporadic human cancers. Paradoxically, chronic activation of this pathway in nontransformed cells promotes senescence, which acts as a significant barrier to malignant progression. Understanding how this oncogene-induced senescence is maintained in nontransformed cells and conversely how it is subverted in cancer cells will provide insight into cancer development and potentially identify novel therapeutic targets. High-throughput screening provides a powerful platform for target discovery. Here, we describe an approach to use RNAi transfection of a pre-established AKT-induced senescent cell population and subsequent high-content imaging to screen for senescence regulators. We have incorporated multiparametric readouts, including cell number, proliferation, and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βGal) staining. Using machine learning and automated image analysis, we also describe methods to classify distinct phenotypes of cells with SA-βGal staining. These methods can be readily adaptable to high-throughput functional screens interrogating the mechanisms that maintain and prevent senescence in various contexts.
Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia
Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive tendencies. In contrast, evidence on possible positive effects of video game exposure on prosocial tendencies has been relatively sparse. The present research tested and found support for the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial video games increases the accessibility of prosocial thoughts. These results provide support to the predictive validity of the General Learning Model (Buckley & Anderson, 2006) for the effects of exposure to prosocial media on social tendencies. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games can harm but may also benefit social relations.
Ylirisku, Salu Pekka
Digital video for user-centered co-design is an emerging field of design, gaining increasing interest in both industry and academia. It merges the techniques and approaches of design ethnography, participatory design, interaction analysis, scenario-based design, and usability studies. This book covers the complete user-centered design project. It illustrates in detail how digital video can be utilized throughout the design process, from early user studies to making sense of video content and envisioning the future with video scenarios to provoking change with video artifacts. The text includes
Sharma, Shubhankar; Singh, K. John; Priya, M.
From the past two decades the extreme evolution of the Internet has lead a massive rise in video technology and significantly video consumption over the Internet which inhabits the bulk of data traffic in general. Clearly, video consumes that so much data size on the World Wide Web, to reduce the burden on the Internet and deduction of bandwidth consume by video so that the user can easily access the video data.For this, many video codecs are developed such as HEVC/H.265 and V9. Although after seeing codec like this one gets a dilemma of which would be improved technology in the manner of rate distortion and the coding standard.This paper gives a solution about the difficulty for getting low delay in video compression and video application e.g. ad-hoc video conferencing/streaming or observation by surveillance. Also this paper describes the benchmark of HEVC and V9 technique of video compression on subjective oral estimations of High Definition video content, playback on web browsers. Moreover, this gives the experimental ideology of dividing the video file into several segments for compression and putting back together to improve the efficiency of video compression on the web as well as on the offline mode.
Duplaga, M.; Leszczuk, M. I.; Papir, Z.; Przelaskowski, A.
Wider dissemination of medical digital video libraries is affected by two correlated factors, resource effective content compression that directly influences its diagnostic credibility. It has been proved that it is possible to meet these contradictory requirements halfway for long-lasting and low motion surgery recordings at compression ratios close to 100 (bronchoscopic procedures were a case study investigated). As the main supporting assumption, it has been accepted that the content can be compressed as far as clinicians are not able to sense a loss of video diagnostic fidelity (a visually lossless compression). Different market codecs were inspected by means of the combined subjective and objective tests toward their usability in medical video libraries. Subjective tests involved a panel of clinicians who had to classify compressed bronchoscopic video content according to its quality under the bubble sort algorithm. For objective tests, two metrics (hybrid vector measure and hosaka Plots) were calculated frame by frame and averaged over a whole sequence.
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a method for defects detection in a video sequence, which consists of three main steps; frame compensation, preprocessing by a detector, which is base on the ranking of pixel values, and the classification of all pixels having anomalous values using convolutional neural networks. The effectiveness of the proposed method shown in comparison with the known techniques on several frames of the video sequence with damaged in natural conditions. The analysis of the obtained results indicates the high efficiency of the proposed method. The additional use of machine learning as postprocessing significantly reduce the likelihood of false alarm.
Peterson, Jana; Kaarma, Helje; Koskel, Säde
The study is focused on creating an anthropometric model that would enable to associate the body build peculiarities with nutritional variables. Thirty-six body measurements and 12 skinfolds were measured on 131 17-23-year-old female students of the University of Tartu, and 12 body composition characteristics were calculated. The subjects had to submit descriptions of their 24-hour menus. Nutrient intake was determined using the Micro-Nutrica software and the food composition database; the energy (in kcal) and main nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) content in the subjects' 24-hour menus were calculated. All body measurements were compared with nutritional variables, and 29 anthropometric variables were found that showed statistically significant correlations with at least one nutrient characteristic. The amount of food consumed correlated positively with body density and negatively with weight, circumferences, skinfolds and all indicators of body fat content (r reached 0.32). To associate body size, shape and composition with the amount of food consumed, a 5 SD height and weight classification was used, which consisted of three classes of concordance between height and weight (small, medium, large) and two classes of disconcordance - pyknomorphs and leptomorphs. All the 29 body measurements and nutrient variables were distributed systematically between the different classes. The pyknomorphous class with its greater body fat content and smaller density contrasted clearly with the class of leptomorphs. Food consumption in total as well as per 1 kg of body weight was smaller in pykniks than in leptosomes. Protein consumption did not reveal statistically significant differences. In small, medium and large classes, consumption of energy, fats and carbohydrates could not be proved about protein consumption. One should not overestimate the significance of BMI in nutritional studies. BMI characterises only obesity and cannot replace the characterisation of
Byrnes, Patrick D.; Higgins, William E.
Image-guided bronchoscopy is a critical component in the treatment of lung cancer and other pulmonary disorders. During bronchoscopy, a high-resolution endobronchial video stream facilitates guidance through the lungs and allows for visual inspection of a patient's airway mucosal surfaces. Despite the detailed information it contains, little effort has been made to incorporate recorded video into the clinical workflow. Follow-up procedures often required in cancer assessment or asthma treatment could significantly benefit from effectively parsed and summarized video. Tracking diagnostic regions of interest (ROIs) could potentially better equip physicians to detect early airway-wall cancer or improve asthma treatments, such as bronchial thermoplasty. To address this need, we have developed a system for the postoperative analysis of recorded endobronchial video. The system first parses an input video stream into endoscopic shots, derives motion information, and selects salient representative key frames. Next, a semi-automatic method for CT-video registration creates data linkages between a CT-derived airway-tree model and the input video. These data linkages then enable the construction of a CT-video chest model comprised of a bronchoscopy path history (BPH) - defining all airway locations visited during a procedure - and texture-mapping information for rendering registered video frames onto the airwaytree model. A suite of analysis tools is included to visualize and manipulate the extracted data. Video browsing and retrieval is facilitated through a video table of contents (TOC) and a search query interface. The system provides a variety of operational modes and additional functionality, including the ability to define regions of interest. We demonstrate the potential of our system using two human case study examples.
Lin, Shih-Yin; Seaton, Daniel T; Douglas, Scott S; Greco, Edwin F; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F
The advent of MOOCs has stimulated interest in using online videos to deliver content in university courses. We examined student engagement with 78 online videos that we created and were incorporated into a one-semester blended introductory mechanics course at the Georgia Institute of Technology. We found that students were more engaged with videos that supported laboratory activities than with videos that presented lecture content. In particular, the percentage of students accessing laboratory videos was consistently greater than 80 percent throughout the semester while the percentage of students accessing lecture videos dropped to less than 40 percent by the end of the term. Moreover, students were more likely to access the entirety of a laboratory video than a lecture video. Our results suggest that students may access videos based on perceived value: students appear to consider the laboratory videos as essential for successfully completing the laboratories while students appear to consider the lecture vid...
Full Text Available Traditionally, the kinetics of DNA repair have been estimated using immunocytochemistry by labeling proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR with fluorescent markers in a fixed cell assay. However, detailed knowledge of DDR dynamics across multiple cell generations cannot be obtained using a limited number of fixed cell time-points. Here we report on the dynamics of 53BP1 radiation induced foci (RIF across multiple cell generations using live cell imaging of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A expressing histone H2B-GFP and the DNA repair protein 53BP1-mCherry. Using automatic extraction of RIF imaging features and linear programming techniques, we were able to characterize detailed RIF kinetics for 24 hours before and 24 hours after exposure to low and high doses of ionizing radiation. High-content-analysis at the single cell level over hundreds of cells allows us to quantify precisely the dose dependence of 53BP1 protein production, RIF nuclear localization and RIF movement after exposure to X-ray. Using elastic registration techniques based on the nuclear pattern of individual cells, we could describe the motion of individual RIF precisely within the nucleus. We show that DNA repair occurs in a limited number of large domains, within which multiple small RIFs form, merge and/or resolve with random motion following normal diffusion law. Large foci formation is shown to be mainly happening through the merging of smaller RIF rather than through growth of an individual focus. We estimate repair domain sizes of 7.5 to 11 µm2 with a maximum number of ~15 domains per MCF10A cell. This work also highlights DDR which are specific to doses larger than 1 Gy such as rapid 53BP1 protein increase in the nucleus and foci diffusion rates that are significantly faster than for spontaneous foci movement. We hypothesize that RIF merging reflects a "stressed" DNA repair process that has been taken outside physiological conditions when
... employee of an affiliate, subsidiary, advertising agency, or any other company involved in marketing a..., effort to show quality of the video content, narrative and visual appearance will be assessed.) 4. Video...
Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E
Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imagery in video games (n = 6), video game playing and smoking behavior (n = 11), video game addiction and tobacco addiction (n = 5) and genre-specific game playing and smoking behavior (n = 3). Tobacco content was present in a subset of video games. The literature is inconclusive as to whether exposure to video games as a single construct is associated with smoking behavior. Four of five studies found an association between video game addiction and smoking. For genre-specific game playing, studies suggest that the type of game played affected association with smoking behavior. Research on how playing video games influences adolescents' perceptions of smoking and smoking behaviors is still in its nascence. Further research is needed to understand how adolescents respond to viewing and manipulating tobacco imagery, and whether engaging in game smoking translates into changes in real-world attitudes or behavior. Smoking imagery in video games may contribute to normalizing adolescent smoking. A large body of research has shown that smoking imagery in a variety of media types contributes to adolescent smoking uptake and the normalization of smoking behavior, and almost 90% of adolescents play video games, yet there has never been a published systematic review of the literature on this important topic. This is the first systematic review to examine the research on tobacco and video games.We found that tobacco imagery is indeed present in video games, the relationship between video game playing and smoking
Mutsuda Zapater, Masumi
This Master Thesis consists of designing and implementing a web content classification application which include well-known algorithms for document classification such as Naïve Bayes and Maximum Entropy and inspired by proven tools like Rapidminer.
Douglas, Scott Samuel; Aiken, John Mark; Greco, Edwin; Schatz, Michael; Lin, Shih-Yin
Video lectures are increasingly being used in physics instruction. For example, video lectures can be used to "flip" the classroom, i.e., to deliver, via the Internet, content that is traditionally transmitted by in-class lectures (e.g., presenting concepts, working examples, etc.), thereby freeing up classroom time for more interactive instruction. To date, most video lectures are live lecture recordings or screencasts. The hand-animated "whiteboard" video is an alternative to these more common styles and affords unique creative opportunities such as stop-motion animation or visual "demonstrations" of phenomena that would be difficult to demo in a classroom. In the spring of 2013, a series of whiteboard-style videos were produced to provide video lecture content for Georgia Tech introductory physics instruction, including flipped courses and a MOOC. This set of videos (which also includes screencasts and live recordings) can be found on the "Your World is Your Lab" YouTube channel. In this article, we describe this method of video production, which is suitable for an instructor working solo or in collaboration with students; we explore students' engagement with these videos in a separate work. A prominent example of whiteboard animation is the "Minute Physics" video series by Henry Reich, whose considerable popularity and accessible, cartoony style were the original inspiration for our own video lectures.
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Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Soetaert, Ronald
... by exploring a particular aspect of digitization that affects young people, namely video games. They explore the new social spaces which emerge in video game culture and how these spaces relate to community building and citizenship...
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questions of our media literacy pertaining to authoring multimodal texts (visual, verbal, audial, etc.) in research practice and the status of multimodal texts in academia. The implications of academic video extend to wider issues of how researchers harness opportunities to author different types of texts......Is video becoming “the new black” in academia, if so, what are the challenges? The integration of video in research methodology (for collection, analysis) is well-known, but the use of “academic video” for dissemination is relatively new (Eriksson and Sørensen). The focus of this paper is academic...... video, or short video essays produced for the explicit purpose of communicating research processes, topics, and research-based knowledge (see the journal of academic videos: www.audiovisualthinking.org). Video is increasingly used in popular showcases for video online, such as YouTube and Vimeo, as well...
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This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.
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Yamamoto, Daisuke; Nagao, Katashi
In this paper, we developed a Web-based video annotation system, named iVAS (intelligent Video Annotation Server). Audiences can associate any video content on the Internet with annotations. The system analyzes video content in order to acquire cut/shot information and color histograms. And it also automatically generates a Web page for editing annotations. Then, audiences can create annotation data by two methods. The first one helps the users to create text data such as person/object names, scene descriptions, and comments interactively. The second method facilitates the users associating any video fragments with their subjective impression by just clicking a mouse button. The generated annotation data are accumulated and managed by an XML database connected with iVAS. We also developed some application systems based on annotations such as video retrieval, video simplification, and video-content-based community support. One of the major advantages of our approach is easy integration of hand-coded and automatically-generated (such as color histograms and cut/shot information) annotations. Additionally, since our annotation system is open for public, we must consider some reliability or correctness of annotation data. We also developed an automatic evaluation method of annotation reliability using the users' feedback. In the future, these fundamental technologies will contribute to the formation of new communities centered around video content.
Potter, Ray; Roberts, Deborah
This guide aims to provide an introduction to Desktop Video Conferencing. You may be familiar with video conferencing, where participants typically book a designated conference room and communicate with another group in a similar room on another site via a large screen display. Desktop video conferencing (DVC), as the name suggests, allows users to video conference from the comfort of their own office, workplace or home via a desktop/laptop Personal Computer. DVC provides live audio and visua...
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Video description of video programming. 79.3... CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.3 Video description of video programming. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section the following definitions shall apply: (1...
Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey
Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…
Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin
With an interest in learning that is set in collaborative situations, the data session presents excerpts from video data produced by two of fifteen students from a class of 5th semester techno-anthropology course. Students used video cameras to capture the time they spent working with a scientist...... video, nature of the interactional space, and material and spatial semiotics....
Epley, Hannah K.
There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…
Christensen, Lars Holmgaard; Rasmussen, Tove Arendt; Kofoed, Peter
This paper discusses the changing relationship between texts, producers and audiences and tries to understand user-generated audio-visual content or to be more precise, intertextuality in user-generated videos in relation to distribution formats, cultural form and genres. Continuing on from...... people, in particular user-generated videos uploaded and shared in social media networks online. Finally we are informed by Paul Ricoeur's work on hermeneutics and self as another, we explore the role of user-generated content as a specific kind of mediated sociability we suggest that user...
Dasgupta, Roshni; Fishman, Steven J
Mulliken and Glowacki, in 1982 created a classification system of vascular anomalies which divided vascular anomalies into tumors and malformations which provided the framework for great advances in the management of these patients. This classification system was recently expanded at the 2014 ISSVA workshop in Melbourne. This revision again provides much greater detail including newly named anomalies and identified genes to account for recent advances in knowledge and clinical associations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bampis, Christos George; Zhi Li; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad
HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.
This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV
Belonging to the wider academic field of computer vision, video analytics has aroused a phenomenal surge of interest since the current millennium. Video analytics is intended to solve the problem of the incapability of exploiting video streams in real time for the purpose of detection or anticipation. It involves analyzing the videos using algorithms that detect and track objects of interest over time and that indicate the presence of events or suspect behavior involving these objects.The aims of this book are to highlight the operational attempts of video analytics, to identify possi
There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia
Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved
This report presents a layer-optimized streaming technique for delivering video content over the Internet using quality-scalable motion-compensated orthogonal video. We use Motion-Compensated Orthogonal Transforms (MCOT) to remove temporal and spatial redundancy. The resulting subbands are quantized and entropy coded by Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncations (EBCOT). Therefore, we are able to encode the input video into multiple quality layers with sequential decoding dependency. A ...
The full-color guide to shooting great video with the Flip Video camera. The inexpensive Flip Video camera is currently one of the hottest must-have gadgets. It's portable and connects easily to any computer to transfer video you shoot onto your PC or Mac. Although the Flip Video camera comes with a quick-start guide, it lacks a how-to manual, and this full-color book fills that void! Packed with full-color screen shots throughout, Flip Video For Dummies shows you how to shoot the best possible footage in a variety of situations. You'll learn how to transfer video to your computer and then edi
et al.  adopted random forest , a collection of binary decision trees, for fast quantization. Shotton et al.  proposed semantic texton forests ...detection for sports video. In: Proceedings of international conference on image and video retrieval, Urbana -Champaign, IL 8. Ballan L, Bertini M, Bimbo AD...Proceedings of AAAI con- ference 93. Moosmann F, Nowak E, Jurie F (2008) Randomized clustering forests for image classification. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal
... with a classification at least as high as its highest classified enclosure. When the contents of the... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification and preparation of documents. 1016.32... of Information § 1016.32 Classification and preparation of documents. (a) Classification. Restricted...
... a minimum, the fundamental classification guidance review shall focus on: (1) Evaluation of content... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fundamental classification guidance review. 2001... INFORMATION Classification § 2001.16 Fundamental classification guidance review. (a) Performance of...
CONTRIBUTION OF THE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS ON THE SITE CLASSIFICATION IN PLANTED FORESTS OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze., BASED ON PHYSICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL SOIL FACTORS AND ON THE LITTER NUTRIENT CONTENT
Eloidir José Gerhardt
Full Text Available In this work, with the help of multivariate statistical techniques, it was studied the influence of morphological and physical soil factors and litter nutrient content on site classification of a 47 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. stand located on Canela National Forest, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A stratified sampling, covering three natural sites that received four angle-count sampling (ACS each one, according to the methodology of BITTERLICH (1984 were installed. In the area of the ACS the tree with the average dominant height was felled for the trunk analysis and determination of the height growth, as defined by Pollanchütz, and soil samples at deeps of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm were collected with am extractive cylinder. These samples were equidistantly distributed under the crown projection of the average dominant tree. Later, each sample was divided into two geometric horizons, A1 e A2, from which the physical characteristics of the soil were determined. Litter samples were obtained and their chemical content was analyzed. The cluster analysis classified the group of observations into three distinct groups, according to their locations in the different natural sites. The discriminant analysis confirmed the efficiency of the groupings and indicated, with a significance level of 0.01, that the variables soil depth, contents of clay, fine sand and loam, soil density and height mean annual increment presented a higher discriminating power of separating the groups. The first one corresponds to the site of higher yearly mean growth in height and it is located on the plains and low hillsides, where soils, are deep, loamy and sandy. The second, correspond to the lower height growth sites, located on intermontane plains which occurs in the form of irregular lowlands where soils are deep, clay, compacted and with rock residuals along its profile. The third, with yearly mean growth in height intermediary when compared
Helberger, N.; Loos, M.B.M.; Guibault, L.; Mak, C.; Pessers, L.
The application of consumer law to digital content contracts encounters a number of obstacles. Some of these are rather typical for digital content markets, e.g., the legal consequences of the classification of digital content as "goods" or "services" and, more importantly, the absence of general
Han, Yahong; Yang, Yi; Yan, Yan; Ma, Zhigang; Sebe, Nicu; Zhou, Xiaofang
To improve both the efficiency and accuracy of video semantic recognition, we can perform feature selection on the extracted video features to select a subset of features from the high-dimensional feature set for a compact and accurate video data representation. Provided the number of labeled videos is small, supervised feature selection could fail to identify the relevant features that are discriminative to target classes. In many applications, abundant unlabeled videos are easily accessible. This motivates us to develop semisupervised feature selection algorithms to better identify the relevant video features, which are discriminative to target classes by effectively exploiting the information underlying the huge amount of unlabeled video data. In this paper, we propose a framework of video semantic recognition by semisupervised feature selection via spline regression (S(2)FS(2)R) . Two scatter matrices are combined to capture both the discriminative information and the local geometry structure of labeled and unlabeled training videos: A within-class scatter matrix encoding discriminative information of labeled training videos and a spline scatter output from a local spline regression encoding data distribution. An l2,1 -norm is imposed as a regularization term on the transformation matrix to ensure it is sparse in rows, making it particularly suitable for feature selection. To efficiently solve S(2)FS(2)R , we develop an iterative algorithm and prove its convergency. In the experiments, three typical tasks of video semantic recognition, such as video concept detection, video classification, and human action recognition, are used to demonstrate that the proposed S(2)FS(2)R achieves better performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods.
conscious interference in the scope of content and classification methods.
Full Text Available Veterans Crisis Line Skip to Main Content SuicidePreventionLifeline.org Get Help Materials Get Involved Crisis Centers About Be There Show You ... more videos from Veterans Health Administration Veterans Crisis Line -- After the Call see more videos from Veterans ...
Sep 8, 2017 ... Abstract. The appropriate selection of distinctive keyframes to represent the salient contents of a video is a critical task in video ... Steerable filtering; dominant orientation; keyframe selection; adaptive thresholding. 1. Introduction ..... the XX Brazilian Symposium on Computer Graphics and. Image Processing ...
This study attempts to identify the typological-research domain of the extant literature on video games related to college-age samples (18-29 years-of-age). A content analysis of 264 articles, from PsycINFO for these identifiers, was performed. Findings showed that negative or pathological aspects of video gaming, i.e., violence potential,…
Full Text Available This paper presents a steganalytic approach against video steganography which modifies motion vector (MV in content adaptive manner. Current video steganalytic schemes extract features from fixed-length frames of the whole video and do not take advantage of the content diversity. Consequently, the effectiveness of the steganalytic feature is influenced by video content and the problem of cover source mismatch also affects the steganalytic performance. The goal of this paper is to propose a steganalytic method which can suppress the differences of statistical characteristics caused by video content. The given video is segmented to subsequences according to block’s motion in every frame. The steganalytic features extracted from each category of subsequences with close motion intensity are used to build one classifier. The final steganalytic result can be obtained by fusing the results of weighted classifiers. The experimental results have demonstrated that our method can effectively improve the performance of video steganalysis, especially for videos of low bitrate and low embedding ratio.
Full Text Available Veterans Crisis Line Skip to Main Content SuicidePreventionLifeline.org Get Help Materials Get Involved Crisis Centers About Be There ... see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Veterans Crisis Line -- After the Call see more videos from ...
Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem; Zivkovic, Z.
This paper addresses content-based video retrieval with an emphasis on recognizing events in tennis game videos. In particular, we aim at recognizing different classes of tennis strokes using automatic learning capability of Hidden Markov Models. Driven by our domain knowledge, a robust player
Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor
Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...
Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor
Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...
Douglas, Scott Samuel; Aiken, John Mark; Greco, Edwin; Schatz, Michael; Lin, Shih-Yin
Video lectures are increasingly being used in physics instruction. For example, video lectures can be used to "flip" the classroom, i.e., to deliver, via the Internet, content that is traditionally transmitted by in-class lectures (e.g., presenting concepts, working examples, etc.), thereby freeing up classroom time for more interactive…
Video is among the most widely consumed types of content on the internet according to Cisco. The emergence of this audio visual data has sparked the revolution in content marketing. Drawing from the history of the communication, the study explains how video marketing evolves within the boundaries of planning and managing marketing projects. Despite various marketing-related studies and researches on how video content is winning over, the reasons for this rise have not been studied in corr...
Alshina, Elena; Zakharchenko, Vladyslav
Advances in display technologies both for head mounted devices and television panels demand resolution increase beyond 4K for source signal in virtual reality video streaming applications. This poses a problem of content delivery trough a bandwidth limited distribution networks. Considering a fact that source signal covers entire surrounding space investigation reviled that compression efficiency may fluctuate 40% in average depending on origin selection at the conversion stage from 3D space to 2D projection. Based on these knowledge the origin selection algorithm for video compression applications has been proposed. Using discontinuity entropy minimization function projection origin rotation may be defined to provide optimal compression results. Outcome of this research may be applied across various video compression solutions for omnidirectional content.
Yu, Litao; Yang, Yang; Huang, Zi; Wang, Peng; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng Tao
In recent years, the task of event recognition from videos has attracted increasing interest in multimedia area. While most of the existing research was mainly focused on exploring visual cues to handle relatively small-granular events, it is difficult to directly analyze video content without any prior knowledge. Therefore, synthesizing both the visual and semantic analysis is a natural way for video event understanding. In this paper, we study the problem of Web video event recognition, where Web videos often describe large-granular events and carry limited textual information. Key challenges include how to accurately represent event semantics from incomplete textual information and how to effectively explore the correlation between visual and textual cues for video event understanding. We propose a novel framework to perform complex event recognition from Web videos. In order to compensate the insufficient expressive power of visual cues, we construct an event knowledge base by deeply mining semantic information from ubiquitous Web documents. This event knowledge base is capable of describing each event with comprehensive semantics. By utilizing this base, the textual cues for a video can be significantly enriched. Furthermore, we introduce a two-view adaptive regression model, which explores the intrinsic correlation between the visual and textual cues of the videos to learn reliable classifiers. Extensive experiments on two real-world video data sets show the effectiveness of our proposed framework and prove that the event knowledge base indeed helps improve the performance of Web video event recognition.
Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula
Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...
Bromberg, Julie E; Augustson, Erik M; Backinger, Cathy L
Videos of smokeless tobacco (ST) on YouTube are abundant and easily accessible, yet no studies have examined the content of ST videos. This study assesses the overall portrayal, genre, and messages of ST YouTube videos. In August 2010, researchers identified the top 20 search results on YouTube by "relevance" and "view count" for the following search terms: "ST," "chewing tobacco," "snus," and "Skoal." After eliminating videos that were not about ST (n = 26), non-English (n = 14), or duplicate (n = 42), a final sample of 78 unique videos was coded for overall portrayal, genre, and various content measures. Among the 78 unique videos, 15.4% were anti-ST, while 74.4% were pro-ST. Researchers were unable to determine the portrayal of ST in the remaining 10.3% of videos because they involved excessive or "sensationalized" use of the ST, which could be interpreted either positively or negatively, depending on the viewer. The most common ST genre was positive video diaries (or "vlogs"), which made up almost one third of the videos (29.5%), followed by promotional advertisements (20.5%) and anti-ST public service announcements (12.8%). While YouTube is intended for user-generated content, 23.1% of the videos were created by professional organizations. These results demonstrate that ST videos on YouTube are overwhelmingly pro-ST. More research is needed to determine who is viewing these ST YouTube videos and how they may affect people's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding ST use.
Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon
From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...
Henningsen, Birgitte; Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Hautopp, Heidi
This paper introduces to what we define as a collaborative video sketching process. This process links various sketching techniques with digital storytelling approaches and creative reflection processes in video productions. Traditionally, sketching has been used by designers across various...... forms and through empirical examples, we present and discuss the video recording of sketching sessions, as well as development of video sketches by rethinking, redoing and editing the recorded sessions. The empirical data is based on workshop sessions with researchers and students from universities...... and university colleges and primary and secondary school teachers. As researchers, we have had different roles in these action research case studies where various video sketching techniques were applied.The analysis illustrates that video sketching can take many forms, and two common features are important...
Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.
Dubosson, Magali; Emad, Sabine; Broillet, Alexandra
Video and Course Content Discussion on Massive Open Online Courses: An Exploratory Research—Magali Dubosson (HEG Fribourg), Sabine Emad (HEG Genève), Alexandra Broillet (University of Geneva and Webster University Geneva), Constance Kampf (Aarhus University, Denmark)...
Examines the different uses of video technologies in English language teaching, including content and instructional presentation, planning for instruction, designing tasks for students, assessment, and using new technologies. (Author/VWL)
Wided Batat; Sonja Prentovic
This research aims to discuss the approaches of tourism professionals to communication on responsible behaviour through sustainable tourism video contents shared on social media indicating cross...
Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction
The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.
Belsole, Elena; Dacey, James P; Navas, John
In scholarly publishing video content has emerged in recent years as a way of conveying results beyond the written article. In 2010 New Journal of Physics started a pilot project on “video abstracts” as a means to innovate and offer authors opportunities to showcase their work. Today other IOP Publishing journals also offer this option to authors. IOP Publishing’s e-book programme also has adopted video abstracts and includes embedded video and multimedia in the e-books them...
Khosla, Deepak; Huber, David J.; Bhattacharyya, Rajan
In this paper, we describe an algorithm and system for optimizing search and detection performance for "items of interest" (IOI) in large-sized images and videos that employ the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) based EEG paradigm and surprise algorithms that incorporate motion processing to determine whether static or video RSVP is used. The system works by first computing a motion surprise map on image sub-regions (chips) of incoming sensor video data and then uses those surprise maps to label the chips as either "static" or "moving". This information tells the system whether to use a static or video RSVP presentation and decoding algorithm in order to optimize EEG based detection of IOI in each chip. Using this method, we are able to demonstrate classification of a series of image regions from video with an azimuth value of 1, indicating perfect classification, over a range of display frequencies and video speeds.
Heilbron, Fabian Caba
In spite of many dataset efforts for human action recognition, current computer vision algorithms are still severely limited in terms of the variability and complexity of the actions that they can recognize. This is in part due to the simplicity of current benchmarks, which mostly focus on simple actions and movements occurring on manually trimmed videos. In this paper we introduce ActivityNet, a new largescale video benchmark for human activity understanding. Our benchmark aims at covering a wide range of complex human activities that are of interest to people in their daily living. In its current version, ActivityNet provides samples from 203 activity classes with an average of 137 untrimmed videos per class and 1.41 activity instances per video, for a total of 849 video hours. We illustrate three scenarios in which ActivityNet can be used to compare algorithms for human activity understanding: untrimmed video classification, trimmed activity classification and activity detection.
Darby, Charlotte A; Stolzer, Maureen; Ropp, Patrick J; Barker, Daniel; Durand, Dannie
Orthology analysis is a fundamental tool in comparative genomics. Sophisticated methods have been developed to distinguish between orthologs and paralogs and to classify paralogs into subtypes depending on the duplication mechanism and timing, relative to speciation. However, no comparable framework exists for xenologs: gene pairs whose history, since their divergence, includes a horizontal transfer. Further, the diversity of gene pairs that meet this broad definition calls for classification of xenologs with similar properties into subtypes. We present a xenolog classification that uses phylogenetic reconciliation to assign each pair of genes to a class based on the event responsible for their divergence and the historical association between genes and species. Our classes distinguish between genes related through transfer alone and genes related through duplication and transfer. Further, they separate closely-related genes in distantly-related species from distantly-related genes in closely-related species. We present formal rules that assign gene pairs to specific xenolog classes, given a reconciled gene tree with an arbitrary number of duplications and transfers. These xenology classification rules have been implemented in software and tested on a collection of ∼13 000 prokaryotic gene families. In addition, we present a case study demonstrating the connection between xenolog classification and gene function prediction. The xenolog classification rules have been implemented in N otung 2.9, a freely available phylogenetic reconciliation software package. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~durand/Notung . Gene trees are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/1503 . firstname.lastname@example.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Lynch, Paul J.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Olson, Abbie A.; van Brederode, Tara M.
Video games have become one of the favorite activities of children in America. A growing body of research links violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. This study tested the predictions that exposure to violent video game content is: (1) positively correlated with hostile attribution bias; (2) positively…
Ishikawa, Tomoya; Yamazawa, Kazumasa; Sato, Tomokazu; Ikeda, Sei; Nakamura, Yutaka; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi; Sunahara, Hideki; Yokoya, Naokazu
In this paper, we describe a new telepresence system which enables a user to look around a virtualized real world easily in network environments. The proposed system includes omni-directional video viewers on web browsers and allows the user to look around the omni-directional video contents on the web browsers. The omni-directional video viewer is implemented as an Active-X program so that the user can install the viewer automatically only by opening the web site which contains the omni-directional video contents. The system allows many users at different sites to look around the scene just like an interactive TV using a multi-cast protocol without increasing the network traffic. This paper describes the implemented system and the experiments using live and stored video streams. In the experiment with stored video streams, the system uses an omni-directional multi-camera system for video capturing. We can look around high resolution and high quality video contents. In the experiment with live video streams, a car-mounted omni-directional camera acquires omni-directional video streams surrounding the car, running in an outdoor environment. The acquired video streams are transferred to the remote site through the wireless and wired network using multi-cast protocol. We can see the live video contents freely in arbitrary direction. In the both experiments, we have implemented a view-dependent presentation with a head-mounted display (HMD) and a gyro sensor for realizing more rich presence.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...
Wang, Shuai; Cong, Yang; Cao, Jun; Yang, Yunsheng; Tang, Yandong; Zhao, Huaici; Yu, Haibin
This paper aims at developing an automated gastroscopic video summarization algorithm to assist clinicians to more effectively go through the abnormal contents of the video. To select the most representative frames from the original video sequence, we formulate the problem of gastroscopic video summarization as a dictionary selection issue. Different from the traditional dictionary selection methods, which take into account only the number and reconstruction ability of selected key frames, our model introduces the similar-inhibition constraint to reinforce the diversity of selected key frames. We calculate the attention cost by merging both gaze and content change into a prior cue to help select the frames with more high-level semantic information. Moreover, we adopt an image quality evaluation process to eliminate the interference of the poor quality images and a segmentation process to reduce the computational complexity. For experiments, we build a new gastroscopic video dataset captured from 30 volunteers with more than 400k images and compare our method with the state-of-the-arts using the content consistency, index consistency and content-index consistency with the ground truth. Compared with all competitors, our method obtains the best results in 23 of 30 videos evaluated based on content consistency, 24 of 30 videos evaluated based on index consistency and all videos evaluated based on content-index consistency. For gastroscopic video summarization, we propose an automated annotation method via similar-inhibition dictionary selection. Our model can achieve better performance compared with other state-of-the-art models and supplies more suitable key frames for diagnosis. The developed algorithm can be automatically adapted to various real applications, such as the training of young clinicians, computer-aided diagnosis or medical report generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.
Raquel Perez Leal
Full Text Available New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.
Full Text Available Digital technology has often been discussed in relation to how it changed either the production or the reception of audiovisual cultures. This paper will consider a combination of both as a crucial part in understanding strategies of inter- and transmedial amateur creativity. Based on an experimental ethnography of the online video subgenre/subculture “YouTubePoop,” the paper will elaborate on the connection between the individual experience and the creation of digital media. The loose collective of independent amateurs behind the YouTubePoop videos makes use of already existing audiovisual material ranging from television shows to videos of other YouTube users. The re-created remixes and mash-ups are characterized by their random selection of original material and their nonsensical humour. Hence, the rapid montage of this heterogeneous content is just as much part of the intensified aesthetic expressiveness as are the applied special effects available in the digital video editing software. Both aspects highlight the strong interdependence of the rapid accessibility of online content and digital technology and the new aesthetic expressions they are fostering. The paper will show how the experience and navigation of digital interfaces (editing software, media players, or homepages affect the design and practice of these video-remixes. This will open the discussion about intertextual strategies of media appropriation to an aesthetic and praxeological analysis of media interaction.
Д В Сенашенко
Full Text Available The article describes distant learning systems used in world practice. The author gives classification of video communication systems. Aspects of using Skype software in Russian Federation are discussed. In conclusion the author provides the review of modern production video conference systems used as tools for distant learning.
King, Daniel L.; Haagsma, M.C.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Gradisar, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D.
Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of “Internet Use Disorder”, is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to
King, D.L.; Haagsma, M.C.; Delfabbro, P.H.; Gradisar, M.; Griffiths, M.D.
Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder", is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to
Russell, Christopher M. P.
360-degree videos are a new type of movie that renders over all 4π steradian. Video sharing sites such as YouTube now allow this unique content to be shared via virtual reality (VR) goggles, hand-held smartphones/tablets, and computers. Creating 360° videos from astrophysical simulations is not only a new way to view these simulations as you are immersed in them, but is also a way to create engaging content for outreach to the public. We present what we believe is the first 360° video of an astrophysical simulation: a hydrodynamics calculation of the central parsec of the Galactic centre. We also describe how to create such movies, and briefly comment on what new science can be extracted from astrophysical simulations using 360° videos.
Chen, Ying; Zhang, Rong; Karczewicz, Marta
3D film and 3D TV are becoming reality. More facilities and devices are now 3D capable. Compared to capture 3D video content directly, 2D to 3D video conversion is a low-cost, backward compatible alternate. There also exists a tremendous amount of monoscopic 2D video content that are of high interest to be displayed on 3D devices with noticeable immersiveness. 2D to 3D video conversion, therefore, has drawn lots of attention recently. In this paper, a low complexity 2D to 3D conversion algorithm is presented. The conversion generates stereo video pairs by 3D warping based on estimated per-pixel depth maps. The depth maps are estimated jointly by motion and color cues. Subjective tests show that the proposed algorithm achieves 3D perception with acceptable artifact.
Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich; Ukhanova, Ann
and temporal quality levels. We also propose simple yet powerful metrics for characterizing spatial and temporal properties of a video sequence, and demonstrate how these metrics can be applied for evaluating the relative impact of spatial and temporal quality on the perceived overall quality.......Several studies have shown that the relationship between perceived video quality and frame rate is dependent on the video content. In this paper, we have analyzed the content characteristics and compared them against the subjective results derived from preference decisions between different spatial...
Dufaux, Frederic; Cagnazzo, Marco
With the expectation of greatly enhanced user experience, 3D video is widely perceived as the next major advancement in video technology. In order to fulfil the expectation of enhanced user experience, 3D video calls for new technologies addressing efficient content creation, representation/coding, transmission and display. Emerging Technologies for 3D Video will deal with all aspects involved in 3D video systems and services, including content acquisition and creation, data representation and coding, transmission, view synthesis, rendering, display technologies, human percepti
Dinscore, Amanda; Andres, Amy
This article determines the extent of the online availability and quality of surgical videos for the educational benefit of the surgical community. A comprehensive survey was performed that compared a number of online sites providing surgical videos according to their content, production quality, authority, audience, navigability, and other features. Methods for evaluating video content are discussed as well as possible future directions and emerging trends. Surgical videos are a valuable tool for demonstrating and teaching surgical technique and, despite room for growth in this area, advances in streaming video technology have made providing and accessing these resources easier than ever before.
Full Text Available ... a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork Peer Support Program Community Connections Overview ... group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support Back ANetwork Peer Support Program ...
van der Meij, Hans
This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were
Monica Adams, head librarian at Robinson Secondary in Fairfax country, Virginia, states that librarians should have the technical knowledge to support projects related to digital video editing. The process of digital video editing and the cables, storage issues and the computer system with software is described.
Live drawing video experimenting with low tech techniques in the field of sketching and visual sense making. In collaboration with Rune Wehner and Teater Katapult.......Live drawing video experimenting with low tech techniques in the field of sketching and visual sense making. In collaboration with Rune Wehner and Teater Katapult....
Chernyshov Alexander V.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the song videos as TV and Internet-genre. In addition, it considers problems of screen images creation depending on the musical form and the text of a songs in connection with relevant principles of accent and phraseological video editing and filming techniques as well as with additional frames and sound elements.
Full Text Available ... support group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork Peer ... group for me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support Back ANetwork ...
Ørngreen, Rikke; Henningsen, Birgitte Sølbeck; Louw, Arnt Vestergaard
agenda focusing on video productions in combination with digital storytelling, followed by a presentation of the digital storytelling features. The paper concludes with a suggestion to initiate research in what is identified as Personal Digital Video (PDV) Stories within longitudinal settings, while...
Langbehn, Hendrickson Reiter; Ricci, Saulo M. R.; Gonçalves, Marcos A.; Almeida, Jussara Marques; Pappa, Gisele Lobo; Benevenuto, Fabrício
Most online video sharing systems (OVSSs), such as YouTube and Yahoo! Video, have several mechanisms for supporting interactions among users. One such mechanism is the video response feature in YouTube, which allows a user to post a video in response to another video. While increasingly popular, the video response feature opens the opportunity for non-cooperative users to introduce ``content pollution'' into the system, thus causing loss of service effectiveness and credibility as w...
G. Nur Yilmaz
Full Text Available 3-Dimensional (3D video adaptation decision taking is an open field in which not many researchers have carried out investigations yet compared to 3D video display, coding, etc. Moreover, utilizing ambient illumination as an environmental context for 3D video adaptation decision taking has particularly not been studied in literature to date. In this paper, a user perception model, which is based on determining perception characteristics of a user for a 3D video content viewed under a particular ambient illumination condition, is proposed. Using the proposed model, a 3D video bit rate adaptation decision taking technique is developed to determine the adapted bit rate for the 3D video content to maintain 3D video quality perception by considering the ambient illumination condition changes. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is capable of exploiting the changes in ambient illumination level to use network resources more efficiently without sacrificing the 3D video quality perception.
Full Text Available ... Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... member of our patient care team. Managing Your Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression ...
Full Text Available ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed to help you learn more about Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). You will learn how the diagnosis of ...
... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed to help you learn more about Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). You will learn how the diagnosis of ...
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Celik, Mehmet; Haitsma, Jaap; Barvinko, Pavlo; Langelaar, Gerhard; Maas, Martijn
Multimedia fingerprinting (robust hashing) as a content identification technology is emerging as an effective tool for preventing unauthorized distribution of commercial content through user generated content (UGC) sites. Research in the field has mainly considered content types with slow distribution cycles, e.g. feature films, for which reference fingerprint ingestion and database indexing can be performed offline. As a result, research focus has been on improving the robustness and search speed. Live events, such as live sports broadcasts, impose new challenges on a fingerprinting system. For instance, highlights from a soccer match are often available-and viewed-on UGC sites well before the end of the match. In this scenario, the fingerprinting system should be able to ingest and index live content online and offer continuous search capability, where new material is identifiable within minutes of broadcast. In this paper, we concentrate on algorithmic and architectural challenges we faced when developing a video fingerprinting solution for live events. In particular, we discuss how to effectively utilize fast sorting algorithms and a master-slave architecture for fast and continuous ingestion of live broadcasts.
The purpose of this thesis was to instruct the reader how to colour grade video files in a way that would be best suitable for photographers. This thesis suggests why video content should be colour graded in order to make an impact on the viewer and stand out in a meaningful way. I go through the very basics of colour theory to help the reader better understand the emotional impact of colour when observed. Colour theory sets the base for all colour grading and correction related work. ...