Sample records for video compression technique

  1. Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital video compression technologies have become part of life, in the way visual information is created, communicated and consumed. Some application areas of video compression focused on the problem of optimizing storage space and transmission bandwidth (BW). The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D ...

  2. Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Falade


    Full Text Available Digital video compression technologies have become part of life, in the way visual information is created, communicated and consumed. Some application areas of video compression focused on the problem of optimizing storage space and transmission bandwidth (BW. The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT is an integral part of video and image compression, which is used in Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG encoding standards. Thus, several video compression algorithms had been developed to reduce the data quantity and provide the acceptable quality standard. In the proposed study, the Matlab Simulink Model (MSM has been used for video coding/compression. The approach is more modern and reduces error resilience image distortion.

  3. Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is an integral part of video and image compression, which is used ... Park, 1989). MPEG-1 systems and MPEG-2 video have been developed collaboratively with the International. Telecommunications Union- (ITU-T). The DVB selected. MPEG-2 added specifications ...

  4. Image and video compression fundamentals, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Madhuri A; Dandawate, Yogesh H; Joshi, Kalyani R; Metkar, Shilpa P


    Image and video signals require large transmission bandwidth and storage, leading to high costs. The data must be compressed without a loss or with a small loss of quality. Thus, efficient image and video compression algorithms play a significant role in the storage and transmission of data.Image and Video Compression: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications explains the major techniques for image and video compression and demonstrates their practical implementation using MATLAB® programs. Designed for students, researchers, and practicing engineers, the book presents both basic principles



    Ayman Abdalla; Ahmad Mazhar; Mosa Salah


    We evaluate the performance of three state of the art video codecs on synthetic videos. The evaluation is based on both subjective and objective quality metrics. The subjective quality of the compressed video sequences is evaluated using the Double Stimulus Impairment Scale (DSIS) assessment metric while the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) is used for the objective evaluation. An extensive number of experiments are conducted to study the effect of frame rate and resolution o...

  6. Data compression techniques applied to high resolution high frame rate video technology (United States)

    Hartz, William G.; Alexovich, Robert E.; Neustadter, Marc S.


    An investigation is presented of video data compression applied to microgravity space experiments using High Resolution High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT). An extensive survey of methods of video data compression, described in the open literature, was conducted. The survey examines compression methods employing digital computing. The results of the survey are presented. They include a description of each method and assessment of image degradation and video data parameters. An assessment is made of present and near term future technology for implementation of video data compression in high speed imaging system. Results of the assessment are discussed and summarized. The results of a study of a baseline HHVT video system, and approaches for implementation of video data compression, are presented. Case studies of three microgravity experiments are presented and specific compression techniques and implementations are recommended.

  7. Transmission of compressed video (United States)

    Pasch, H. L.


    An overview of video coding is presented. The aim is not to give a technical summary of possible coding techniques, but to address subjects related to video compression in general and to the transmission of compressed video in more detail. Bit rate reduction is in general possible by removing redundant information; removing information the eye does not use anyway; and reducing the quality of the video. The codecs which are used for reducing the bit rate, can be divided into two groups: Constant Bit rate Codecs (CBC's), which keep the bit rate constant, but vary the video quality; and Variable Bit rate Codecs (VBC's), which keep the video quality constant by varying the bit rate. VBC's can be in general reach a higher video quality than CBC's using less bandwidth, but need a transmission system that allows the bandwidth of a connection to fluctuate in time. The current and the next generation of the PSTN does not allow this; ATM might. There are several factors which influence the quality of video: the bit error rate of the transmission channel, slip rate, packet loss rate/packet insertion rate, end-to-end delay, phase shift between voice and video, and bit rate. Based on the bit rate of the coded video, the following classification of coded video can be made: High Definition Television (HDTV); Broadcast Quality Television (BQTV); video conferencing; and video telephony. The properties of these classes are given. The video conferencing and video telephony equipment available now and in the next few years can be divided into three categories: conforming to 1984 CCITT standard for video conferencing; conforming to 1988 CCITT standard; and conforming to no standard.

  8. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.


    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... artificial sequence containing uncompressible data all the 4:2:2, 8-bit test video material easily compresses losslessly to a rate below 125 Mbit/s. At this rate, video plus overhead can be contained in a single telecom 4th order PDH channel or a single STM-1 channel. Difficult 4:2:2, 10-bit test material...

  9. Fast generation of three-dimensional video holograms by combined use of data compression and lookup table techniques. (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Soo


    Even though there are many types of methods to generate CGH (computer-generated hologram) patterns of three-dimensional (3D) objects, most of them have been applied to still images but not to video images due to their computational complexity in applications of 3D video holograms. A new method for fast computation of CGH patterns for 3D video images is proposed by combined use of data compression and lookup table techniques. Temporally redundant data of the 3D video images are removed with the differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) algorithm, and then the CGH patterns for these compressed videos are generated with the novel lookup table (N-LUT) technique. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed method, some experiments with test 3D videos are carried out, and the results are comparatively discussed with the conventional methods in terms of the number of object points and computation time.

  10. Still image and video compression with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Thyagarajan, K


    This book describes the principles of image and video compression techniques and introduces current and popular compression standards, such as the MPEG series. Derivations of relevant compression algorithms are developed in an easy-to-follow fashion. Numerous examples are provided in each chapter to illustrate the concepts. The book includes complementary software written in MATLAB SIMULINK to give readers hands-on experience in using and applying various video compression methods. Readers can enhance the software by including their own algorithms.

  11. Perceptual compressive sensing scalability in mobile video (United States)

    Bivolarski, Lazar


    Scalability features embedded within the video sequences allows for streaming over heterogeneous networks to a variety of end devices. Compressive sensing techniques that will allow for lowering the complexity increase the robustness of the video scalability are reviewed. Human visual system models are often used in establishing perceptual metrics that would evaluate quality of video. Combining of perceptual and compressive sensing approach outlined from recent investigations. The performance and the complexity of different scalability techniques are evaluated. Application of perceptual models to evaluation of the quality of compressive sensing scalability is considered in the near perceptually lossless case and to the appropriate coding schemes is reviewed.

  12. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.


    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental conditions

  13. Compressed Video Segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobla, Vikrant; Doermann, David S; Rosenfeld, Azriel


    ... changes in content and camera motion. The analysis is performed in the compressed domain using available macroblock and motion vector information, and if necessary, discrete cosine transform (DCT) information...

  14. Influence of acquisition frame-rate and video compression techniques on pulse-rate variability estimation from vPPG signal. (United States)

    Cerina, Luca; Iozzia, Luca; Mainardi, Luca


    In this paper, common time- and frequency-domain variability indexes obtained by pulse rate variability (PRV) series extracted from video-photoplethysmographic signal (vPPG) were compared with heart rate variability (HRV) parameters calculated from synchronized ECG signals. The dual focus of this study was to analyze the effect of different video acquisition frame-rates starting from 60 frames-per-second (fps) down to 7.5 fps and different video compression techniques using both lossless and lossy codecs on PRV parameters estimation. Video recordings were acquired through an off-the-shelf GigE Sony XCG-C30C camera on 60 young, healthy subjects (age 23±4 years) in the supine position. A fully automated, signal extraction method based on the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm for regions of interest (ROI) detection and tracking, in combination with a zero-phase principal component analysis (ZCA) signal separation technique was employed to convert the video frames sequence to a pulsatile signal. The frame-rate degradation was simulated on video recordings by directly sub-sampling the ROI tracking and signal extraction modules, to correctly mimic videos recorded at a lower speed. The compression of the videos was configured to avoid any frame rejection caused by codec quality leveling, FFV1 codec was used for lossless compression and H.264 with variable quality parameter as lossy codec. The results showed that a reduced frame-rate leads to inaccurate tracking of ROIs, increased time-jitter in the signals dynamics and local peak displacements, which degrades the performances in all the PRV parameters. The root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and the proportion of successive differences greater than 50 ms (PNN50) indexes in time-domain and the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power in frequency domain were the parameters which highly degraded with frame-rate reduction. Such a degradation can be partially mitigated by up-sampling the measured

  15. Temporal compressive imaging for video (United States)

    Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Linxia; Ke, Jun


    In many situations, imagers are required to have higher imaging speed, such as gunpowder blasting analysis and observing high-speed biology phenomena. However, measuring high-speed video is a challenge to camera design, especially, in infrared spectrum. In this paper, we reconstruct a high-frame-rate video from compressive video measurements using temporal compressive imaging (TCI) with a temporal compression ratio T=8. This means that, 8 unique high-speed temporal frames will be obtained from a single compressive frame using a reconstruction algorithm. Equivalently, the video frame rates is increased by 8 times. Two methods, two-step iterative shrinkage/threshold (TwIST) algorithm and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) method, are used for reconstruction. To reduce reconstruction time and memory usage, each frame of size 256×256 is divided into patches of size 8×8. The influence of different coded mask to reconstruction is discussed. The reconstruction qualities using TwIST and GMM are also compared.

  16. Abdominal compression during endoscopy (the Bolster technique) demonstrates hidden Schatzki rings (with videos). (United States)

    Jouhourian, Caroline; Bonis, Peter A; Guelrud, Moises


    Schatzki rings are found in the distal esophagus, are associated with hiatal hernias, and present with intermittent dysphagia to solid foods. They can be identified by radiology (GI series or barium swallow studies) or endoscopy. Rings are not always visualized during endoscopy in patients in whom they are suspected clinically. The Bolster technique involves application of epigastric abdominal pressure, which offers the potential to reveal a Schatzki ring that is otherwise obscured within a reduced hiatal hernia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Bolster technique improves endoscopic detection of Schatzki rings. We reviewed 30 symptomatic patients with a history of a Schatzki ring in a tertiary care center. The Bolster technique was applied to patients in whom the ring was not visible during standard endoscopy. The main outcome measurement was identification of the Schatzki ring after the Bolster technique. A Schatzki ring was visible during standard endoscopy in 26 of the 30 patients. In the remaining 4, the ring was visible only after the application of the Bolster technique. The Bolster technique is a simple maneuver that can increase detection rates of Schatzki rings during endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MPEG-4 video compression optimization research (United States)

    Wei, Xianmin


    In order to make a large amount of video data compression and effectively with limited network bandwidth to transfer smoothly, this article using the MPEG-4 compression technology to compress video stream. In the network transmission, according to the characteristics of video stream, for transmission technology to carry out full analysis and optimization, and combining current network bandwidth status and protocol, to establish one network model with transferring and playback video streaming effectively. Through a combination of these two areas, significantly improved compression and storage of video files and network transmission efficiency, increased video processing power.

  18. Video special effects editing in MPEG-2 compressed video


    Fernando, WAC; Canagarajah, CN; Bull, David


    With the increase of digital technology in video production, several types of complex video special effects editing have begun to appear in video clips. In this paper we consider fade-out and fade-in special effects editing in MPEG-2 compressed video without full frame decompression and motion estimation. We estimated the DCT coefficients and use these coefficients together with the existing motion vectors to produce these special effects editing in compressed domain. Results show that both o...

  19. Compression of mixed video and graphics images for TV systems (United States)

    van der Schaar-Mitrea, Mihaela; de With, Peter H. N.


    The diversity in TV images has augmented with the increased application of computer graphics. In this paper we study z coding system that supports both the lossless coding of such graphics data and regular lossy video compression. The lossless coding techniques are based on runlength and arithmetical coding. For video compression, we introduce a simple block predictive coding technique featuring individual pixel access, so that it enables a gradual shift from lossless coding of graphics to the lossy coding of video. An overall bit rate control completes the system. Computer simulations show a very high quality with a compression factor between 2-3.

  20. An improvement analysis on video compression using file segmentation (United States)

    Sharma, Shubhankar; Singh, K. John; Priya, M.


    From the past two decades the extreme evolution of the Internet has lead a massive rise in video technology and significantly video consumption over the Internet which inhabits the bulk of data traffic in general. Clearly, video consumes that so much data size on the World Wide Web, to reduce the burden on the Internet and deduction of bandwidth consume by video so that the user can easily access the video data.For this, many video codecs are developed such as HEVC/H.265 and V9. Although after seeing codec like this one gets a dilemma of which would be improved technology in the manner of rate distortion and the coding standard.This paper gives a solution about the difficulty for getting low delay in video compression and video application e.g. ad-hoc video conferencing/streaming or observation by surveillance. Also this paper describes the benchmark of HEVC and V9 technique of video compression on subjective oral estimations of High Definition video content, playback on web browsers. Moreover, this gives the experimental ideology of dividing the video file into several segments for compression and putting back together to improve the efficiency of video compression on the web as well as on the offline mode.

  1. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal, J.R.; Chen, Z.; He, Y.; Lagendijk, R.I.L.


    Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression

  2. H.264/AVC Video Compression on Smartphones (United States)

    Sharabayko, M. P.; Markov, N. G.


    In this paper, we studied the usage of H.264/AVC video compression tools by the flagship smartphones. The results show that only a subset of tools is used, meaning that there is still a potential to achieve higher compression efficiency within the H.264/AVC standard, but the most advanced smartphones are already reaching the compression efficiency limit of H.264/AVC.

  3. Defocus cue and saliency preserving video compression (United States)

    Khanna, Meera Thapar; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh


    There are monocular depth cues present in images or videos that aid in depth perception in two-dimensional images or videos. Our objective is to preserve the defocus depth cue present in the videos along with the salient regions during compression application. A method is provided for opportunistic bit allocation during the video compression using visual saliency information comprising both the image features, such as color and contrast, and the defocus-based depth cue. The method is divided into two steps: saliency computation followed by compression. A nonlinear method is used to combine pure and defocus saliency maps to form the final saliency map. Then quantization values are assigned on the basis of these saliency values over a frame. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme yields good results over standard H.264 compression as well as pure and defocus saliency methods.

  4. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco R. Taal


    Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.

  5. Impact of Compression on the Video Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Uhrina


    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of compression on the video quality. In the first part, a short characteristic of the most used MPEG compression standards is written. In the second part, the parameter Group of Picture (GOP with particular I, P, B frames is explained. The third part focuses on the objective metrics which were used for evaluating the video quality. In the fourth part, the measurements and the experimental results are described.

  6. 3D Video Compression and Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    In this short paper we provide a brief introduction to 3D and multi-view video technologies - like three-dimensional television and free-viewpoint video - focusing on the aspects related to data compression and transmission. Geometric information represented by depth maps is introduced as well...

  7. Content-based image and video compression (United States)

    Du, Xun; Li, Honglin; Ahalt, Stanley C.


    The term Content-Based appears often in applications for which MPEG-7 is expected to play a significant role. MPEG-7 standardizes descriptors of multimedia content, and while compression is not the primary focus of MPEG-7, the descriptors defined by MPEG-7 can be used to reconstruct a rough representation of an original multimedia source. In contrast, current image and video compression standards such as JPEG and MPEG are not designed to encode at the very low bit-rates that could be accomplished with MPEG-7 using descriptors. In this paper we show that content-based mechanisms can be introduced into compression algorithms to improve the scalability and functionality of current compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG. This is the fundamental idea behind Content-Based Compression (CBC). Our definition of CBC is a compression method that effectively encodes a sufficient description of the content of an image or a video in order to ensure that the recipient is able to reconstruct the image or video to some degree of accuracy. The degree of accuracy can be, for example, the classification error rate of the encoded objects, since in MPEG-7 the classification error rate measures the performance of the content descriptors. We argue that the major difference between a content-based compression algorithm and conventional block-based or object-based compression algorithms is that content-based compression replaces the quantizer with a more sophisticated classifier, or with a quantizer which minimizes classification error. Compared to conventional image and video compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, our results show that content-based compression is able to achieve more efficient image and video coding by suppressing the background while leaving the objects of interest nearly intact.

  8. Data compression for full motion video transmission (United States)

    Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Sayood, Khalid


    Clearly transmission of visual information will be a major, if not dominant, factor in determining the requirements for, and assessing the performance of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) communications systems. Projected image/video requirements which are currently anticipated for SEI mission scenarios are presented. Based on this information and projected link performance figures, the image/video data compression requirements which would allow link closure are identified. Finally several approaches which could satisfy some of the compression requirements are presented and possible future approaches which show promise for more substantial compression performance improvement are discussed.

  9. Data compression for full motion video transmission (United States)

    Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Sayood, Khalid


    Clearly transmission of visual information will be a major, if not dominant, factor in determining the requirements for, and assessing the performance of, the SEI communications systems. Projected image/video requirements which are currently anticipated for SEI mission scenarios are presented. Based on this information and projected link performance figures, the image/video data compression requirements which would allow link closure are identified. Finally several approaches which could satisfy some of the compression requirements are presented and possible future approaches which show promise for more substantial compression performance improvement are discussed.

  10. Compression evaluation of surgery video recordings retaining diagnostic credibility (compression evaluation of surgery video) (United States)

    Duplaga, M.; Leszczuk, M. I.; Papir, Z.; Przelaskowski, A.


    Wider dissemination of medical digital video libraries is affected by two correlated factors, resource effective content compression that directly influences its diagnostic credibility. It has been proved that it is possible to meet these contradictory requirements halfway for long-lasting and low motion surgery recordings at compression ratios close to 100 (bronchoscopic procedures were a case study investigated). As the main supporting assumption, it has been accepted that the content can be compressed as far as clinicians are not able to sense a loss of video diagnostic fidelity (a visually lossless compression). Different market codecs were inspected by means of the combined subjective and objective tests toward their usability in medical video libraries. Subjective tests involved a panel of clinicians who had to classify compressed bronchoscopic video content according to its quality under the bubble sort algorithm. For objective tests, two metrics (hybrid vector measure and hosaka Plots) were calculated frame by frame and averaged over a whole sequence.

  11. Rate-Adaptive Video Compression (RAVC) Universal Video Stick (UVS) (United States)

    Hench, David L.


    The H.264 video compression standard, aka MPEG 4 Part 10 aka Advanced Video Coding (AVC) allows new flexibility in the use of video in the battlefield. This standard necessitates encoder chips to effectively utilize the increased capabilities. Such chips are designed to cover the full range of the standard with designers of individual products given the capability of selecting the parameters that differentiate a broadcast system from a video conferencing system. The SmartCapture commercial product and the Universal Video Stick (UVS) military versions are about the size of a thumb drive with analog video input and USB (Universal Serial Bus) output and allow the user to select the parameters of imaging to the. Thereby, allowing the user to select video bandwidth (and video quality) using four dimensions of quality, on the fly, without stopping video transmission. The four dimensions are: 1) spatial, change from 720 pixel x 480 pixel to 320 pixel x 360 pixel to 160 pixel x 180 pixel, 2) temporal, change from 30 frames/ sec to 5 frames/sec, 3) transform quality with a 5 to 1 range, 4) and Group of Pictures (GOP) that affects noise immunity. The host processor simply wraps the H.264 network abstraction layer packets into the appropriate network packets. We also discuss the recently adopted scalable amendment to H.264 that will allow limit RAVC at any point in the communication chain by throwing away preselected packets.

  12. Chest compression rate measurement from smartphone video. (United States)

    Engan, Kjersti; Hinna, Thomas; Ryen, Tom; Birkenes, Tonje S; Myklebust, Helge


    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a life threatening situation where the first person performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) most often is a bystander without medical training. Some existing smartphone apps can call the emergency number and provide for example global positioning system (GPS) location like Hjelp 113-GPS App by the Norwegian air ambulance. We propose to extend functionality of such apps by using the built in camera in a smartphone to capture video of the CPR performed, primarily to estimate the duration and rate of the chest compression executed, if any. All calculations are done in real time, and both the caller and the dispatcher will receive the compression rate feedback when detected. The proposed algorithm is based on finding a dynamic region of interest in the video frames, and thereafter evaluating the power spectral density by computing the fast fourier transform over sliding windows. The power of the dominating frequencies is compared to the power of the frequency area of interest. The system is tested on different persons, male and female, in different scenarios addressing target compression rates, background disturbances, compression with mouth-to-mouth ventilation, various background illuminations and phone placements. All tests were done on a recording Laerdal manikin, providing true compression rates for comparison. Overall, the algorithm is seen to be promising, and it manages a number of disturbances and light situations. For target rates at 110 cpm, as recommended during CPR, the mean error in compression rate (Standard dev. over tests in parentheses) is 3.6 (0.8) for short hair bystanders, and 8.7 (6.0) including medium and long haired bystanders. The presented method shows that it is feasible to detect the compression rate of chest compressions performed by a bystander by placing the smartphone close to the patient, and using the built-in camera combined with a video processing algorithm performed real-time on the device.

  13. Compressive Video Acquisition, Fusion and Processing (United States)


    that we can explore in detail exploits the fact that even though each φm is testing a different 2D image slice, the image slices are often cube. We related temporal bandwidth to the spacial resolution of the camera and the speed of objects in the scene. We applied our findings to...performed directly on the compressive measurements without requiring a potentially expensive video reconstruction. Accomplishments In our work exploring

  14. Moving traffic object retrieval in H.264/MPEG compressed video (United States)

    Shi, Xu-li; Xiao, Guang; Wang, Shuo-zhong; Zhang, Zhao-yang; An, Ping


    Moving object retrieval technique in compressed domain plays an important role in many real-time applications, e.g. Vehicle Detection and Classification. A number of retrieval techniques that operate in compressed domain have been reported in the literature. H.264/AVC is the up-to-date video-coding standard that is likely to lead to the proliferation of retrieval techniques in the compressed domain. Up to now, few literatures on H.264/AVC compressed video have been reported. Compared with the MPEG standard, H.264/AVC employs several new coding block types and different entropy coding method, which result in moving object retrieval in H.264/ AVC compressed video a new task and challenging work. In this paper, an approach to extract and retrieval moving traffic object in H.264/AVC compressed video is proposed. Our algorithm first Interpolates the sparse motion vector of p-frame that is composed of 4*4 blocks, 4*8 blocks and 8*4 blocks and so on. After forward projecting each p-frame vector to the immediate adjacent I-frame and calculating the DCT coefficients of I-frame using information of spatial intra-prediction, the method extracts moving VOPs (video object plan) using an interactive 4*4 block classification process. In Vehicle Detection application, the segmented VOP in 4*4 block-level accuracy is insufficient. Once we locate the target VOP, the actual edges of the VOP in 4*4 block accuracy can be extracted by applying Canny Edge Detection only on the moving VOP in 4*4 block accuracy. The VOP in pixel accuracy is then achieved by decompressing the DCT blocks of the VOPs. The edge-tracking algorithm is applied to find the missing edge pixels. After the segmentation process a retrieval algorithm that based on CSS (Curvature Scale Space) is used to search the interested shape of vehicle in H.264/AVC compressed video sequence. Experiments show that our algorithm can extract and retrieval moving vehicles efficiency and robustly.

  15. VORTEX: video retrieval and tracking from compressed multimedia databases--template matching from MPEG-2 video compression standard (United States)

    Schonfeld, Dan; Lelescu, Dan


    In this paper, a novel visual search engine for video retrieval and tracking from compressed multimedia databases is proposed. Our approach exploits the structure of video compression standards in order to perform object matching directly on the compressed video data. This is achieved by utilizing motion compensation--a critical prediction filter embedded in video compression standards--to estimate and interpolate the desired method for template matching. Motion analysis is used to implement fast tracking of objects of interest on the compressed video data. Being presented with a query in the form of template images of objects, the system operates on the compressed video in order to find the images or video sequences where those objects are presented and their positions in the image. This in turn enables the retrieval and display of the query-relevant sequences.

  16. Telesurgery. Acceptability of compressed video for remote surgical proctoring. (United States)

    Hiatt, J R; Shabot, M M; Phillips, E H; Haines, R F; Grant, T L


    To determine the clinical acceptability of various levels of video compression for remote proctoring of laparoscopic surgical procedures. Observational, controlled study. Community-based teaching hospital. Physician and nurse observers. Controlled surgical video scenes were subjected to various levels of data compression for digital transmission and display and shown to participant observers. Clinical acceptability of video scenes after application of video compression. Clinically acceptable video compression was achieved with a 1.25-megabit/second data rate, with the use of odd-screen 43.3:1 Joint Photographic Expert Group compression and a small screen for remote viewing. With proper video compression, remote proctoring of laparoscopic procedures may be performed with standard 1.5-megabit/second telecommunication data lines and services.

  17. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren


    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction ...

  18. H.264/AVC Video Compressed Traces: Multifractal and Fractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samčović Andreja


    Full Text Available Publicly available long video traces encoded according to H.264/AVC were analyzed from the fractal and multifractal points of view. It was shown that such video traces, as compressed videos (H.261, H.263, and MPEG-4 Version 2 exhibit inherent long-range dependency, that is, fractal, property. Moreover they have high bit rate variability, particularly at higher compression ratios. Such signals may be better characterized by multifractal (MF analysis, since this approach describes both local and global features of the process. From multifractal spectra of the frame size video traces it was shown that higher compression ratio produces broader and less regular MF spectra, indicating to higher MF nature and the existence of additive components in video traces. Considering individual frames (I, P, and B and their MF spectra one can approve additive nature of compressed video and the particular influence of these frames to a whole MF spectrum. Since compressed video occupies a main part of transmission bandwidth, results obtained from MF analysis of compressed video may contribute to more accurate modeling of modern teletraffic. Moreover, by appropriate choice of the method for estimating MF quantities, an inverse MF analysis is possible, that means, from a once derived MF spectrum of observed signal it is possible to recognize and extract parts of the signal which are characterized by particular values of multifractal parameters. Intensive simulations and results obtained confirm the applicability and efficiency of MF analysis of compressed video.

  19. A novel 3D scalable video compression algorithm (United States)

    Somasundaram, Siva; Subbalakshmi, Koduvayur P.


    In this paper we propose a scalable video coding scheme that utilizes the embedded block coding with optimal truncation (EBCOT) compression algorithm. Three dimensional spatio-temporal decomposition of the video sequence succeeded by compression using the EBCOT generates a SNR and resolution scalable bit stream. The proposed video coding algorithm not only performs closer to the MPEG-4 video coding standard in compression efficiency but also provides better SNR and resolution scalability. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm does better than the 3-D SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchial Trees) algorithm by 1.5dB.

  20. Basic prediction techniques in modern video coding standards

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Byung-Gyu


    This book discusses in detail the basic algorithms of video compression that are widely used in modern video codec. The authors dissect complicated specifications and present material in a way that gets readers quickly up to speed by describing video compression algorithms succinctly, without going to the mathematical details and technical specifications. For accelerated learning, hybrid codec structure, inter- and intra- prediction techniques in MPEG-4, H.264/AVC, and HEVC are discussed together. In addition, the latest research in the fast encoder design for the HEVC and H.264/AVC is also included.

  1. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren


    Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimation......-predictors and intra-frame predictors as well. As proposed by Ribas-Corbera (see PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1996), we use bi-linear interpolation in order to achieve sub-pixel precision of the motion field. Using more reference images is another way of achieving higher accuracy of the match. The motion...

  2. Statistical conditional sampling for variable-resolution video compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wong

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate a variable-resolution approach to video compression based on Conditional Random Field and statistical conditional sampling in order to further improve compression rate while maintaining high-quality video. In the proposed approach, representative key-frames within a video shot are identified and stored at full resolution. The remaining frames within the video shot are stored and compressed at a reduced resolution. At the decompression stage, a region-based dictionary is constructed from the key-frames and used to restore the reduced resolution frames to the original resolution via statistical conditional sampling. The sampling approach is based on the conditional probability of the CRF modeling by use of the constructed dictionary. Experimental results show that the proposed variable-resolution approach via statistical conditional sampling has potential for improving compression rates when compared to compressing the video at full resolution, while achieving higher video quality when compared to compressing the video at reduced resolution.

  3. An Algorithm of Extracting I-Frame in Compressed Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yaling


    Full Text Available The MPEG video data includes three types of frames, that is: I-frame, P-frame and B-frame. However, the I-frame records the main information of video data, the P-frame and the B-frame are just regarded as motion compensations of the I-frame. This paper presents the approach which analyzes the MPEG video stream in the compressed domain, and find out the key frame of MPEG video stream by extracting the I-frame. Experiments indicated that this method can be automatically realized in the compressed MPEG video and it will lay the foundation for the video processing in the future.

  4. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression


    Bechqito, Yassine


    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  5. Eye-Movement Tracking Using Compressed Video Images (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Beutter, Brent R.; Hull, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)


    Infrared video cameras offer a simple noninvasive way to measure the position of the eyes using relatively inexpensive equipment. Several commercial systems are available which use special hardware to localize features in the image in real time, but the constraint of realtime performance limits the complexity of the applicable algorithms. In order to get better resolution and accuracy, we have used off-line processing to apply more sophisticated algorithms to the images. In this case, a major technical challenge is the real-time acquisition and storage of the video images. This has been solved using a strictly digital approach, exploiting the burgeoning field of hardware video compression. In this paper we describe the algorithms we have developed for tracking the movements of the eyes in video images, and present experimental results showing how the accuracy is affected by the degree of video compression.

  6. Quality Assessment of Compressed Video for Automatic License Plate Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper; Forchhammer, Søren


    Definition of video quality requirements for video surveillance poses new questions in the area of quality assessment. This paper presents a quality assessment experiment for an automatic license plate recognition scenario. We explore the influence of the compression by H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC...... standards on the recognition performance. We compare logarithmic and logistic functions for quality modeling. Our results show that a logistic function can better describe the dependence of recognition performance on the quality for both compression standards. We observe that automatic license plate...

  7. A Joint Compression Scheme of Video Feature Descriptors and Visual Content. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Siwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhang, Xinfeng; Sun, Huifang; Gao, Wen


    High-efficiency compression of visual feature descriptors has recently emerged as an active topic due to the rapidly increasing demand in mobile visual retrieval over bandwidth-limited networks. However, transmitting only those feature descriptors may largely restrict its application scale due to the lack of necessary visual content. To facilitate the wide spread of feature descriptors, a hybrid framework of jointly compressing the feature descriptors and visual content is highly desirable. In this paper, such a content-plus-feature coding scheme is investigated, aiming to shape the next generation of video compression system toward visual retrieval, where the high-efficiency coding of both feature descriptors and visual content can be achieved by exploiting the interactions between each other. On the one hand, visual feature descriptors can achieve compact and efficient representation by taking advantages of the structure and motion information in the compressed video stream. To optimize the retrieval performance, a novel rate-accuracy optimization technique is proposed to accurately estimate the retrieval performance degradation in feature coding. On the other hand, the already compressed feature data can be utilized to further improve the video coding efficiency by applying feature matching-based affine motion compensation. Extensive simulations have shown that the proposed joint compression framework can offer significant bitrate reduction in representing both feature descriptors and video frames, while simultaneously maintaining the state-of-the-art visual retrieval performance.

  8. MPEG-2 Compressed-Domain Algorithms for Video Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesseler Wolfgang


    Full Text Available This paper presents new algorithms for extracting metadata from video sequences in the MPEG-2 compressed domain. Three algorithms for efficient low-level metadata extraction in preprocessing stages are described. The first algorithm detects camera motion using the motion vector field of an MPEG-2 video. The second method extends the idea of motion detection to a limited region of interest, yielding an efficient algorithm to track objects inside video sequences. The third algorithm performs a cut detection using macroblock types and motion vectors.

  9. Multiview video codec based on KTA techniques (United States)

    Seo, Jungdong; Kim, Donghyun; Ryu, Seungchul; Sohn, Kwanghoon


    Multi-view video coding (MVC) is a video coding standard developed by MPEG and VCEG for multi-view video. It showed average PSNR gain of 1.5dB compared with view-independent coding by H.264/AVC. However, because resolutions of multi-view video are getting higher for more realistic 3D effect, high performance video codec is needed. MVC adopted hierarchical B-picture structure and inter-view prediction as core techniques. The hierarchical B-picture structure removes the temporal redundancy, and the inter-view prediction reduces the inter-view redundancy by compensated prediction from the reconstructed neighboring views. Nevertheless, MVC has inherent limitation in coding efficiency, because it is based on H.264/AVC. To overcome the limit, an enhanced video codec for multi-view video based on Key Technology Area (KTA) is proposed. KTA is a high efficiency video codec by Video Coding Expert Group (VCEG), and it was carried out for coding efficiency beyond H.264/AVC. The KTA software showed better coding gain than H.264/AVC by using additional coding techniques. The techniques and the inter-view prediction are implemented into the proposed codec, which showed high coding gain compared with the view-independent coding result by KTA. The results presents that the inter-view prediction can achieve higher efficiency in a multi-view video codec based on a high performance video codec such as HEVC.

  10. Low-latency video transmission over high-speed WPANs based on low-power video compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Turlikov, Andrey; Ukhanova, Ann


    This paper presents latency-constrained video transmission over high-speed wireless personal area networks (WPANs). Low-power video compression is proposed as an alternative to uncompressed video transmission. A video source rate control based on MINMAX quality criteria is introduced. Practical...... results for video encoder based on H.264/AVC standard are also given....

  11. Low-latency video transmission over high-speed WPANs based on low-power video compression


    Belyaev, Evgeny; Turlikov, Andrey; Ukhanova, Ann


    This paper presents latency-constrained video transmission over high-speed wireless personal area networks (WPANs). Low-power video compression is proposed as an alternative to uncompressed video transmission. A video source rate control based on MINMAX quality criteria is introduced. Practical results for video encoder based on H.264/AVC standard are also given.

  12. Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity with compressed motion video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Vries, S.C. de


    Video of Visual Acuity (VA) and Contrast Sensitivity (CS) test charts in a complex background was recorded using a CCD camera mounted on a computer-controlled tripod and fed into real-time MPEG2 compression/decompression equipment. The test charts were based on the Triangle Orientation

  13. Rate-distortion optimization for compressive video sampling (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Vijayanagar, Krishna R.; Kim, Joohee


    The recently introduced compressed sensing (CS) framework enables low complexity video acquisition via sub- Nyquist rate sampling. In practice, the resulting CS samples are quantized and indexed by finitely many bits (bit-depth) for transmission. In applications where the bit-budget for video transmission is constrained, rate- distortion optimization (RDO) is essential for quality video reconstruction. In this work, we develop a double-level RDO scheme for compressive video sampling, where frame-level RDO is performed by adaptively allocating the fixed bit-budget per frame to each video block based on block-sparsity, and block-level RDO is performed by modelling the block reconstruction peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as a quadratic function of quantization bit-depth. The optimal bit-depth and the number of CS samples are then obtained by setting the first derivative of the function to zero. In the experimental studies the model parameters are initialized with a small set of training data, which are then updated with local information in the model testing stage. Simulation results presented herein show that the proposed double-level RDO significantly enhances the reconstruction quality for a bit-budget constrained CS video transmission system.

  14. Real-time demonstration hardware for enhanced DPCM video compression algorithm (United States)

    Bizon, Thomas P.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Marcopoli, Vincent R.

    The lack of available wideband digital links as well as the complexity of implementation of bandwidth efficient digital video CODECs (encoder/decoder) has worked to keep the cost of digital television transmission too high to compete with analog methods. Terrestrial and satellite video service providers, however, are now recognizing the potential gains that digital video compression offers and are proposing to incorporate compression systems to increase the number of available program channels. NASA is similarly recognizing the benefits of and trend toward digital video compression techniques for transmission of high quality video from space and therefore, has developed a digital television bandwidth compression algorithm to process standard National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) composite color television signals. The algorithm is based on differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), but additionally utilizes a non-adaptive predictor, non-uniform quantizer and multilevel Huffman coder to reduce the data rate substantially below that achievable with straight DPCM. The non-adaptive predictor and multilevel Huffman coder combine to set this technique apart from other DPCM encoding algorithms. All processing is done on a intra-field basis to prevent motion degradation and minimize hardware complexity. Computer simulations have shown the algorithm will produce broadcast quality reconstructed video at an average transmission rate of 1.8 bits/pixel. Hardware implementation of the DPCM circuit, non-adaptive predictor and non-uniform quantizer has been completed, providing realtime demonstration of the image quality at full video rates. Video sampling/reconstruction circuits have also been constructed to accomplish the analog video processing necessary for the real-time demonstration. Performance results for the completed hardware compare favorably with simulation results. Hardware implementation of the multilevel Huffman encoder/decoder is currently under development

  15. Data Partitioning Technique for Improved Video Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amin Ali


    Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.

  16. Sub-band/transform compression of video sequences (United States)

    Sauer, Ken; Bauer, Peter


    The progress on compression of video sequences is discussed. The overall goal of the research was the development of data compression algorithms for high-definition television (HDTV) sequences, but most of our research is general enough to be applicable to much more general problems. We have concentrated on coding algorithms based on both sub-band and transform approaches. Two very fundamental issues arise in designing a sub-band coder. First, the form of the signal decomposition must be chosen to yield band-pass images with characteristics favorable to efficient coding. A second basic consideration, whether coding is to be done in two or three dimensions, is the form of the coders to be applied to each sub-band. Computational simplicity is of essence. We review the first portion of the year, during which we improved and extended some of the previous grant period's results. The pyramid nonrectangular sub-band coder limited to intra-frame application is discussed. Perhaps the most critical component of the sub-band structure is the design of bandsplitting filters. We apply very simple recursive filters, which operate at alternating levels on rectangularly sampled, and quincunx sampled images. We will also cover the techniques we have studied for the coding of the resulting bandpass signals. We discuss adaptive three-dimensional coding which takes advantage of the detection algorithm developed last year. To this point, all the work on this project has been done without the benefit of motion compensation (MC). Motion compensation is included in many proposed codecs, but adds significant computational burden and hardware expense. We have sought to find a lower-cost alternative featuring a simple adaptation to motion in the form of the codec. In sequences of high spatial detail and zooming or panning, it appears that MC will likely be necessary for the proposed quality and bit rates.

  17. Video Data Compression Study for Remote Sensors (United States)


    instrumentation required to implement these frame- to frame techniques, the project monktor requested we terminate the emphasls on frame-to-frane methods...dimensional PCNM proceo • alcke, In te tfollowing di.;,•ssion, the s.ystum ,iperatiLc.n iet’’ out!;.n. lb,’flhnif Ohnt, without loss u" gonerality, th. L

  18. Compression techniques in tele-radiology (United States)

    Lu, Tianyu; Xiong, Zixiang; Yun, David Y.


    This paper describes a prototype telemedicine system for remote 3D radiation treatment planning. Due to voluminous medical image data and image streams generated in interactive frame rate involved in the application, the importance of deploying adjustable lossy to lossless compression techniques is emphasized in order to achieve acceptable performance via various kinds of communication networks. In particular, the compression of the data substantially reduces the transmission time and therefore allows large-scale radiation distribution simulation and interactive volume visualization using remote supercomputing resources in a timely fashion. The compression algorithms currently used in the software we developed are JPEG and H.263 lossy methods and Lempel-Ziv (LZ77) lossless methods. Both objective and subjective assessment of the effect of lossy compression methods on the volume data are conducted. Favorable results are obtained showing that substantial compression ratio is achievable within distortion tolerance. From our experience, we conclude that 30dB (PSNR) is about the lower bound to achieve acceptable quality when applying lossy compression to anatomy volume data (e.g. CT). For computer simulated data, much higher PSNR (up to 100dB) is expectable. This work not only introduces such novel approach for delivering medical services that will have significant impact on the existing cooperative image-based services, but also provides a platform for the physicians to assess the effects of lossy compression techniques on the diagnostic and aesthetic appearance of medical imaging.

  19. Recent and future applications of video compression in broadcasting (United States)

    Drury, G. M.


    This paper considers the role of video compression in the transmission of television signals. It highlights contribution and distribution as well as direct-to-home broadcasting applications on satellite which are current and describes aspects of the standards, technology and systems required to support them. Some aspects of system performance are discussed together with a brief summary of future developments particularly on other media than those traditionally used by broadcasters.

  20. Motion estimation techniques for digital video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Metkar, Shilpa


    The book deals with the development of a methodology to estimate the motion field between two frames for video coding applications. This book proposes an exhaustive study of the motion estimation process in the framework of a general video coder. The conceptual explanations are discussed in a simple language and with the use of suitable figures. The book will serve as a guide for new researchers working in the field of motion estimation techniques.

  1. An overview of new video techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R


    Current video transmission and distribution systems at CERN use a variety of analogue techniques which are several decades old. It will soon be necessary to replace this obsolete equipment, and the opportunity therefore exists to rationalize the diverse systems now in place. New standards for digital transmission and distribution are now emerging. This paper gives an overview of these new standards and of the underlying technology common to many of them. The paper reviews Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), the Motion Picture Experts Group specifications (MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4, and MPEG7), videoconferencing standards (H.261 etc.), and packet video systems, together with predictions of the penetration of these standards into the consumer market. The digital transport mechanisms now available (IP, SDH, ATM) are also reviewed, and the implication of widespread adoption of these systems on video transmission and distribution is analysed.

  2. New modulation-based watermarking technique for video (United States)

    Lemma, Aweke; van der Veen, Michiel; Celik, Mehmet


    Successful watermarking algorithms have already been developed for various applications ranging from meta-data tagging to forensic tracking. Nevertheless, it is commendable to develop alternative watermarking techniques that provide a broader basis for meeting emerging services, usage models and security threats. To this end, we propose a new multiplicative watermarking technique for video, which is based on the principles of our successful MASK audio watermark. Audio-MASK has embedded the watermark by modulating the short-time envelope of the audio signal and performed detection using a simple envelope detector followed by a SPOMF (symmetrical phase-only matched filter). Video-MASK takes a similar approach and modulates the image luminance envelope. In addition, it incorporates a simple model to account for the luminance sensitivity of the HVS (human visual system). Preliminary tests show algorithms transparency and robustness to lossy compression.

  3. Climate Science Communications - Video Visualization Techniques (United States)

    Reisman, J. P.; Mann, M. E.


    Communicating Climate science is challenging due to it's complexity. But as they say, a picture is worth a thousand words. Visualization techniques can be merely graphical or combine multimedia so as to make graphs come alive in context with other visual and auditory cues. This can also make the information come alive in a way that better communicates what the science is all about. What types of graphics to use depends on your audience, some graphs are great for scientists but if you are trying to communicate to a less sophisticated audience, certain visuals translate information in a more easily perceptible manner. Hollywood techniques and style can be applied to these graphs to give them even more impact. Video is one of the most powerful communication tools in its ability to combine visual and audio through time. Adding music and visual cues such as pans and zooms can greatly enhance the ability to communicate your concepts. Video software ranges from relatively simple to very sophisticated. In reality, you don't need the best tools to get your point across. In fact, with relatively inexpensive software, you can put together powerful videos that more effectively convey the science you are working on with greater sophistication, and in an entertaining way. We will examine some basic techniques to increase the quality of video visualization to make it more effective in communicating complexity. If a picture is worth a thousand words, a decent video with music, and a bit of narration is priceless.

  4. Online sparse representation for remote sensing compressed-sensed video sampling (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Kun; Li, Sheng-liang; Zhang, Li


    Most recently, an emerging Compressed Sensing (CS) theory has brought a major breakthrough for data acquisition and recovery. It asserts that a signal, which is highly compressible in a known basis, can be reconstructed with high probability through sampling frequency which is well below Nyquist Sampling Frequency. When applying CS to Remote Sensing (RS) Video imaging, it can directly and efficiently acquire compressed image data by randomly projecting original data to obtain linear and non-adaptive measurements. In this paper, with the help of distributed video coding scheme which is a low-complexity technique for resource limited sensors, the frames of a RS video sequence are divided into Key frames (K frames) and Non-Key frames (CS frames). In other words, the input video sequence consists of many groups of pictures (GOPs) and each GOP consists of one K frame followed by several CS frames. Both of them are measured based on block, but at different sampling rates. In this way, the major encoding computation burden will be shifted to the decoder. At the decoder, the Side Information (SI) is generated for the CS frames using traditional Motion-Compensated Interpolation (MCI) technique according to the reconstructed key frames. The over-complete dictionary is trained by dictionary learning methods based on SI. These learning methods include ICA-like, PCA, K-SVD, MOD, etc. Using these dictionaries, the CS frames could be reconstructed according to sparse-land model. In the numerical experiments, the reconstruction performance of ICA algorithm, which is often evaluated by Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), has been made compared with other online sparse representation algorithms. The simulation results show its advantages in reducing reconstruction time and robustness in reconstruction performance when applying ICA algorithm to remote sensing video reconstruction.

  5. Rate-adaptive compressive video acquisition with sliding-window total-variation-minimization reconstruction (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Pados, Dimitris A.


    We consider a compressive video acquisition system where frame blocks are sensed independently. Varying block sparsity is exploited in the form of individual per-block open-loop sampling rate allocation with minimal system overhead. At the decoder, video frames are reconstructed via sliding-window inter-frame total variation minimization. Experimental results demonstrate that such rate-adaptive compressive video acquisition improves noticeably the rate-distortion performance of the video stream over fixed-rate acquisition approaches.

  6. Review of passive-blind detection in digital video forgery based on sensing and imaging techniques (United States)

    Tao, Junjie; Jia, Lili; You, Ying


    Advances in digital video compression and IP communication technologies raised new issues and challenges concerning the integrity and authenticity of surveillance videos. It is so important that the system should ensure that once recorded, the video cannot be altered; ensuring the audit trail is intact for evidential purposes. This paper gives an overview of passive techniques of Digital Video Forensics which are based on intrinsic fingerprints inherent in digital surveillance videos. In this paper, we performed a thorough research of literatures relevant to video manipulation detection methods which accomplish blind authentications without referring to any auxiliary information. We presents review of various existing methods in literature, and much more work is needed to be done in this field of video forensics based on video data analysis and observation of the surveillance systems.

  7. Techniques for information extraction from compressed GPS traces : final report. (United States)


    Developing techniques for extracting information requires a good understanding of methods used to compress the traces. Many techniques for compressing trace data : consisting of position (i.e., latitude/longitude) and time values have been developed....

  8. Compressive sampling by artificial neural networks for video (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Reinhardt, Kitt


    We describe a smart surveillance strategy for handling novelty changes. Current sensors seem to keep all, redundant or not. The Human Visual System's Hubel-Wiesel (wavelet) edge detection mechanism pays attention to changes in movement, which naturally produce organized sparseness because a stagnant edge is not reported to the brain's visual cortex by retinal neurons. Sparseness is defined as an ordered set of ones (movement or not) relative to zeros that could be pseudo-orthogonal among themselves; then suited for fault tolerant storage and retrieval by means of Associative Memory (AM). The firing is sparse at the change locations. Unlike purely random sparse masks adopted in medical Compressive Sensing, these organized ones have an additional benefit of using the image changes to make retrievable graphical indexes. We coined this organized sparseness as Compressive Sampling; sensing but skipping over redundancy without altering the original image. Thus, we turn illustrate with video the survival tactics which animals that roam the Earth use daily. They acquire nothing but the space-time changes that are important to satisfy specific prey-predator relationships. We have noticed a similarity between the mathematical Compressive Sensing and this biological mechanism used for survival. We have designed a hardware implementation of the Human Visual System's Compressive Sampling scheme. To speed up further, our mixedsignal circuit design of frame differencing is built in on-chip processing hardware. A CMOS trans-conductance amplifier is designed here to generate a linear current output using a pair of differential input voltages from 2 photon detectors for change detection---one for the previous value and the other the subsequent value, ("write" synaptic weight by Hebbian outer products; "read" by inner product & pt. NL threshold) to localize and track the threat targets.

  9. Adaptive Resolution Upconversion for Compressed Video Using Pixel Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Ling


    Full Text Available A novel adaptive resolution upconversion algorithm that is robust to compression artifacts is proposed. This method is based on classification of local image patterns using both structure information and activity measure to explicitly distinguish pixels into content or coding artifacts. The structure information is represented by adaptive dynamic-range coding and the activity measure is the combination of local entropy and dynamic range. For each pattern class, the weighting coefficients of upscaling are optimized by a least-mean-square (LMS training technique, which trains on the combination of the original images and the compressed downsampled versions of the original images. Experimental results show that our proposed upconversion approach outperforms other classification-based upconversion and artifact reduction techniques in concatenation.

  10. JPEG XS-based frame buffer compression inside HEVC for power-aware video compression (United States)

    Willème, Alexandre; Descampe, Antonin; Rouvroy, Gaël.; Pellegrin, Pascal; Macq, Benoit


    With the emergence of Ultra-High Definition video, reference frame buffers (FBs) inside HEVC-like encoders and decoders have to sustain huge bandwidth. The power consumed by these external memory accesses accounts for a significant share of the codec's total consumption. This paper describes a solution to significantly decrease the FB's bandwidth, making HEVC encoder more suitable for use in power-aware applications. The proposed prototype consists in integrating an embedded lightweight, low-latency and visually lossless codec at the FB interface inside HEVC in order to store each reference frame as several compressed bitstreams. As opposed to previous works, our solution compresses large picture areas (ranging from a CTU to a frame stripe) independently in order to better exploit the spatial redundancy found in the reference frame. This work investigates two data reuse schemes namely Level-C and Level-D. Our approach is made possible thanks to simplified motion estimation mechanisms further reducing the FB's bandwidth and inducing very low quality degradation. In this work, we integrated JPEG XS, the upcoming standard for lightweight low-latency video compression, inside HEVC. In practice, the proposed implementation is based on HM 16.8 and on XSM 1.1.2 (JPEG XS Test Model). Through this paper, the architecture of our HEVC with JPEG XS-based frame buffer compression is described. Then its performance is compared to HM encoder. Compared to previous works, our prototype provides significant external memory bandwidth reduction. Depending on the reuse scheme, one can expect bandwidth and FB size reduction ranging from 50% to 83.3% without significant quality degradation.

  11. High-Performance Motion Estimation for Image Sensors with Video Compression


    Weizhi Xu; Shouyi Yin; Leibo Liu; Zhiyong Liu; Shaojun Wei


    It is important to reduce the time cost of video compression for image sensors in video sensor network. Motion estimation (ME) is the most time-consuming part in video compression. Previous work on ME exploited intra-frame data reuse in a reference frame to improve the time efficiency but neglected inter-frame data reuse. We propose a novel inter-frame data reuse scheme which can exploit both intra-frame and inter-frame data reuse for ME in video compression (VC-ME). Pixels of reconstructed...

  12. A methodology to evaluate the effect of video compression on the performance of analytics systems (United States)

    Tsifouti, Anastasia; Nasralla, Moustafa M.; Razaak, Manzoor; Cope, James; Orwell, James M.; Martini, Maria G.; Sage, Kingsley


    The Image Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) provides benchmark surveillance datasets for analytics systems. This paper proposes a methodology to investigate the effect of compression and frame-rate reduction, and to recommend an appropriate suite of degraded datasets for public release. The library consists of six scenarios, including Sterile Zone (SZ) and Parked Vehicle (PV), which are investigated using two different compression algorithms (H.264 and JPEG) and a number of detection systems. PV has higher spatio-temporal complexity than the SZ. Compression performance is dependent on scene content hence PV will require larger bit-streams in comparison with SZ, for any given distortion rate. The study includes both industry standard algorithms (for transmission) and CCTV recorders (for storage). CCTV recorders generally use proprietary formats, which may significantly affect the visual information. Encoding standards such as H.264 and JPEG use the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) technique, which introduces blocking artefacts. The H.264 compression algorithm follows a hybrid predictive coding approach to achieve high compression gains, exploiting both spatial and temporal redundancy. The highly predictive approach of H.264 may introduce more artefacts resulting in a greater effect on the performance of analytics systems than JPEG. The paper describes the two main components of the proposed methodology to measure the effect of degradation on analytics performance. Firstly, the standard tests, using the `f-measure' to evaluate the performance on a range of degraded video sets. Secondly, the characterisation of the datasets, using quantification of scene features, defined using image processing techniques. This characterization permits an analysis of the points of failure introduced by the video degradation.

  13. "Can you see me now?" An objective metric for predicting intelligibility of compressed American Sign Language video (United States)

    Ciaramello, Francis M.; Hemami, Sheila S.


    For members of the Deaf Community in the United States, current communication tools include TTY/TTD services, video relay services, and text-based communication. With the growth of cellular technology, mobile sign language conversations are becoming a possibility. Proper coding techniques must be employed to compress American Sign Language (ASL) video for low-rate transmission while maintaining the quality of the conversation. In order to evaluate these techniques, an appropriate quality metric is needed. This paper demonstrates that traditional video quality metrics, such as PSNR, fail to predict subjective intelligibility scores. By considering the unique structure of ASL video, an appropriate objective metric is developed. Face and hand segmentation is performed using skin-color detection techniques. The distortions in the face and hand regions are optimally weighted and pooled across all frames to create an objective intelligibility score for a distorted sequence. The objective intelligibility metric performs significantly better than PSNR in terms of correlation with subjective responses.

  14. Research of Block-Based Motion Estimation Methods for Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tropchenko Andrey


    Full Text Available This work is a review of the block-based algorithms used for motion estimation in video compression. It researches different types of block-based algorithms that range from the simplest named Full Search to the fast adaptive algorithms like Hierarchical Search. The algorithms evaluated in this paper are widely accepted by the video compressing community and have been used in implementing various standards, such as MPEG-4 Visual and H.264. The work also presents a very brief introduction to the entire flow of video compression.

  15. Low-Cost Super-Resolution Algorithms Implementation Over a HW/SW Video Compression Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llopis Rafael Peset


    Full Text Available Two approaches are presented in this paper to improve the quality of digital images over the sensor resolution using super-resolution techniques: iterative super-resolution (ISR and noniterative super-resolution (NISR algorithms. The results show important improvements in the image quality, assuming that sufficient sample data and a reasonable amount of aliasing are available at the input images. These super-resolution algorithms have been implemented over a codesign video compression platform developed by Philips Research, performing minimal changes on the overall hardware architecture. In this way, a novel and feasible low-cost implementation has been obtained by using the resources encountered in a generic hybrid video encoder. Although a specific video codec platform has been used, the methodology presented in this paper is easily extendable to any other video encoder architectures. Finally a comparison in terms of memory, computational load, and image quality for both algorithms, as well as some general statements about the final impact of the sampling process on the quality of the super-resolved (SR image, are also presented.

  16. Self-aligning and compressed autosophy video databases (United States)

    Holtz, Klaus E.


    Autosophy, an emerging new science, explains `self-assembling structures,' such as crystals or living trees, in mathematical terms. This research provides a new mathematical theory of `learning' and a new `information theory' which permits the growing of self-assembling data network in a computer memory similar to the growing of `data crystals' or `data trees' without data processing or programming. Autosophy databases are educated very much like a human child to organize their own internal data storage. Input patterns, such as written questions or images, are converted to points in a mathematical omni dimensional hyperspace. The input patterns are then associated with output patterns, such as written answers or images. Omni dimensional information storage will result in enormous data compression because each pattern fragment is only stored once. Pattern recognition in the text or image files is greatly simplified by the peculiar omni dimensional storage method. Video databases will absorb input images from a TV camera and associate them with textual information. The `black box' operations are totally self-aligning where the input data will determine their own hyperspace storage locations. Self-aligning autosophy databases may lead to a new generation of brain-like devices.

  17. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal


    The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa AYDIN


    Full Text Available In this study, traffic signs are aimed to be recognized and identified from a video image which is taken through a video camera. To accomplish our aim, a traffic sign recognition program has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The target traffic sign are recognized in the video image with the developed program.

  19. Exploring compression techniques for ROOT IO (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Bockelman, B.


    ROOT provides an flexible format used throughout the HEP community. The number of use cases - from an archival data format to end-stage analysis - has required a number of tradeoffs to be exposed to the user. For example, a high “compression level” in the traditional DEFLATE algorithm will result in a smaller file (saving disk space) at the cost of slower decompression (costing CPU time when read). At the scale of the LHC experiment, poor design choices can result in terabytes of wasted space or wasted CPU time. We explore and attempt to quantify some of these tradeoffs. Specifically, we explore: the use of alternate compressing algorithms to optimize for read performance; an alternate method of compressing individual events to allow efficient random access; and a new approach to whole-file compression. Quantitative results are given, as well as guidance on how to make compression decisions for different use cases.

  20. Scalable Video Coding with Interlayer Signal Decorrelation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenxian


    Full Text Available Scalability is one of the essential requirements in the compression of visual data for present-day multimedia communications and storage. The basic building block for providing the spatial scalability in the scalable video coding (SVC standard is the well-known Laplacian pyramid (LP. An LP achieves the multiscale representation of the video as a base-layer signal at lower resolution together with several enhancement-layer signals at successive higher resolutions. In this paper, we propose to improve the coding performance of the enhancement layers through efficient interlayer decorrelation techniques. We first show that, with nonbiorthogonal upsampling and downsampling filters, the base layer and the enhancement layers are correlated. We investigate two structures to reduce this correlation. The first structure updates the base-layer signal by subtracting from it the low-frequency component of the enhancement layer signal. The second structure modifies the prediction in order that the low-frequency component in the new enhancement layer is diminished. The second structure is integrated in the JSVM 4.0 codec with suitable modifications in the prediction modes. Experimental results with some standard test sequences demonstrate coding gains up to 1 dB for I pictures and up to 0.7 dB for both I and P pictures.

  1. Comparison of video poster presentation technique with other presentation techniques in congresses


    Bozdağ, Ali; Eren Bozdag, Kübra; Soyder, Aykut; Aksu, Murat


    AbstractBackgroundThe presentation techniques in scientific congresses have advantages and disadvantages over each other. A special presentation technique which involves the advantageous aspects of all the presentation techniques was planned to be constituted.DescriptionIn this technique called as video poster, videos, video animations and/or numerous pictures are displayed by means of a digital frame placed on the poster. Video poster was firstly introduced in Turkey, and then in other count...

  2. Quality assessment for wireless capsule endoscopy videos compressed via HEVC: From diagnostic quality to visual perception. (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad Arslan; Usman, Muhammad Rehan; Shin, Soo Young


    Maintaining the quality of medical images and videos is an essential part of the e-services provided by the healthcare sector. The convergence of modern communication systems and the healthcare industry necessitates the provision of better quality of service and experience by the service provider. Recent inclusion and standardization of the high efficiency video coder (HEVC) has made it possible for medical data to be compressed and transmitted over wireless networks with minimal compromise of the quality. Quality evaluation and assessment of these medical videos transmitted over wireless networks is another important research area that requires further exploration and attention. In this paper, we have conducted an in-depth study of video quality assessment for compressed wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) videos. Our study includes the performance evaluation of several state-of-the-art objective video quality metrics in terms of determining the quality of compressed WCE videos. Subjective video quality experiments were conducted with the assistance of experts and non-experts in order to predict the diagnostic and visual quality of these medical videos, respectively. The evaluation of the metrics is based on three major performance metrics that include, correlation between the subjective and objective scores, relative statistical performance and computation time. Results show that the metrics information fidelity criterion (IFC), visual information fidelity-(VIF) and especially pixel based VIF stand out as best performing metrics. Furthermore, our paper reports the performance of HEVC compression on medical videos and according to the results, it performs optimally in preserving the diagnostic and visual quality of WCE videos at Quantization Parameter (QP) values of up to 35 and 37 respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Error resilience technique for video coding using concealment (United States)

    Li, Rong; Yu, Sheng-sheng; Zhu, Li


    The traditional error resilience technique has been widely used in video coding. Many literatures have shown that with the technique's help, the video coding bit stream can been protected and the reconstructed image will get high improvement. In this paper, we review the error resilience for video coding and give the experiment of this new technology. These techniques are based on coding simultaneously for synchronization and error protection or detection. We apply the techniques to improve the performance of the multiplexing protocol and also to improve the robustness of the coded video. The techniques proposed for the video also have the advantage of simple trans-coding with bit streams complying in H.263.

  4. Design of a digital compression technique for shuttle television (United States)

    Habibi, A.; Fultz, G.


    The determination of the performance and hardware complexity of data compression algorithms applicable to color television signals, were studied to assess the feasibility of digital compression techniques for shuttle communications applications. For return link communications, it is shown that a nonadaptive two dimensional DPCM technique compresses the bandwidth of field-sequential color TV to about 13 MBPS and requires less than 60 watts of secondary power. For forward link communications, a facsimile coding technique is recommended which provides high resolution slow scan television on a 144 KBPS channel. The onboard decoder requires about 19 watts of secondary power.

  5. Real-time data compression of broadcast video signals (United States)

    Shalkauser, Mary Jo W. (Inventor); Whyte, Wayne A., Jr. (Inventor); Barnes, Scott P. (Inventor)


    A non-adaptive predictor, a nonuniform quantizer, and a multi-level Huffman coder are incorporated into a differential pulse code modulation system for coding and decoding broadcast video signals in real time.

  6. Investigation of the performance of video analytics systems with compressed video using the i-LIDS sterile zone dataset (United States)

    Mahendrarajah, Prashath


    Recent years have seen significant investment and increasingly effective use of Video Analytics (VA) systems to detect intrusion or attacks in sterile areas. Currently there are a number of manufacturers who have achieved the Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection System (i-LIDS) primary detection classification performance standard for the sterile zone detection scenario. These manufacturers have demonstrated the performance of their systems under evaluation conditions using an uncompressed evaluation video. In this paper we consider the effect on the detection rate of an i-LIDS primary approved sterile zone system using compressed sterile zone scenario video clips as the input. The preliminary test results demonstrate a change time of detection rate with compression as the time to alarm increased with greater compression. Initial experiments suggest that the detection performance does not linearly degrade as a function of compression ratio. These experiments form a starting point for a wider set of planned trials that the Home Office will carry out over the next 12 months.

  7. Binary Pulse Compression Techniques for MST Radars (United States)

    Woodman, R. F.; Sulzer, M. P.; Farley, D. T.


    In most mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) applications pulsed radars are peak power limited and have excess average power capability. Short pulses are required for good range resolution but the problem of range biguity (signals received simultaneously from more than one altitude) sets a minimum limit on the interpulse period (IPP). Pulse compression is a echnique which allows more of the transmitter average power capacity to be used without scarificing range resolution. Binary phase coding methods for pulse compression are discussed. Many aspects of codes and decoding and their applications to MST experiments are addressed; this includes Barker codes and longer individual codes, and then complementary codes and other code sets. Software decoding, hardware decoders, and coherent integrators are also discussed.

  8. Intelligent transportation systems data compression using wavelet decomposition technique. (United States)


    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) generates massive amounts of traffic data, which posts : challenges for data storage, transmission and retrieval. Data compression and reconstruction technique plays an : important role in ITS data procession....

  9. The effects of video compression on acceptability of images for monitoring life sciences experiments (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.; Chuang, Sherry L.


    Future manned space operations for Space Station Freedom will call for a variety of carefully planned multimedia digital communications, including full-frame-rate color video, to support remote operations of scientific experiments. This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine if video compression is a viable solution to transmission bandwidth constraints. It reports on the impact of different levels of compression and associated calculational parameters on image acceptability to investigators in life-sciences research at ARC. Three nonhuman life-sciences disciplines (plant, rodent, and primate biology) were selected for this study. A total of 33 subjects viewed experimental scenes in their own scientific disciplines. Ten plant scientists viewed still images of wheat stalks at various stages of growth. Each image was compressed to four different compression levels using the Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) standard algorithm, and the images were presented in random order. Twelve and eleven staffmembers viewed 30-sec videotaped segments showing small rodents and a small primate, respectively. Each segment was repeated at four different compression levels in random order using an inverse cosine transform (ICT) algorithm. Each viewer made a series of subjective image-quality ratings. There was a significant difference in image ratings according to the type of scene viewed within disciplines; thus, ratings were scene dependent. Image (still and motion) acceptability does, in fact, vary according to compression level. The JPEG still-image-compression levels, even with the large range of 5:1 to 120:1 in this study, yielded equally high levels of acceptability. In contrast, the ICT algorithm for motion compression yielded a sharp decline in acceptability below 768 kb/sec. Therefore, if video compression is to be used as a solution for overcoming transmission bandwidth constraints, the effective management of the ratio and compression parameters

  10. Quantifying the effect of disruptions to temporal coherence on the intelligibility of compressed American Sign Language video (United States)

    Ciaramello, Frank M.; Hemami, Sheila S.


    Communication of American Sign Language (ASL) over mobile phones would be very beneficial to the Deaf community. ASL video encoded to achieve the rates provided by current cellular networks must be heavily compressed and appropriate assessment techniques are required to analyze the intelligibility of the compressed video. As an extension to a purely spatial measure of intelligibility, this paper quantifies the effect of temporal compression artifacts on sign language intelligibility. These artifacts can be the result of motion-compensation errors that distract the observer or frame rate reductions. They reduce the the perception of smooth motion and disrupt the temporal coherence of the video. Motion-compensation errors that affect temporal coherence are identified by measuring the block-level correlation between co-located macroblocks in adjacent frames. The impact of frame rate reductions was quantified through experimental testing. A subjective study was performed in which fluent ASL participants rated the intelligibility of sequences encoded at a range of 5 different frame rates and with 3 different levels of distortion. The subjective data is used to parameterize an objective intelligibility measure which is highly correlated with subjective ratings at multiple frame rates.

  11. Incorporating behavioral techniques into a serious video game for children (United States)

    Little is known about how to design serious video games for children. The purpose of this paper is to describe how behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation were incorporated into a serious video game to help children consume more fruit and vegetables, and the extent to which these techn...

  12. Influence of video compression on the measurement error of the television system (United States)

    Sotnik, A. V.; Yarishev, S. N.; Korotaev, V. V.


    Video data require a very large memory capacity. Optimal ratio quality / volume video encoding method is one of the most actual problem due to the urgent need to transfer large amounts of video over various networks. The technology of digital TV signal compression reduces the amount of data used for video stream representation. Video compression allows effective reduce the stream required for transmission and storage. It is important to take into account the uncertainties caused by compression of the video signal in the case of television measuring systems using. There are a lot digital compression methods. The aim of proposed work is research of video compression influence on the measurement error in television systems. Measurement error of the object parameter is the main characteristic of television measuring systems. Accuracy characterizes the difference between the measured value abd the actual parameter value. Errors caused by the optical system can be selected as a source of error in the television systems measurements. Method of the received video signal processing is also a source of error. Presence of error leads to large distortions in case of compression with constant data stream rate. Presence of errors increases the amount of data required to transmit or record an image frame in case of constant quality. The purpose of the intra-coding is reducing of the spatial redundancy within a frame (or field) of television image. This redundancy caused by the strong correlation between the elements of the image. It is possible to convert an array of image samples into a matrix of coefficients that are not correlated with each other, if one can find corresponding orthogonal transformation. It is possible to apply entropy coding to these uncorrelated coefficients and achieve a reduction in the digital stream. One can select such transformation that most of the matrix coefficients will be almost zero for typical images . Excluding these zero coefficients also

  13. Artifact reduction of compressed images and video combining adaptive fuzzy filtering and directional anisotropic diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari


    and ringing artifacts, we have applied directional anisotropic diffusion. Besides that, the selection of the adaptive threshold parameter for the diffusion coefficient has also improved the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results on JPEG compressed images as well as MJPEG and H.264 compressed......Fuzzy filtering is one of the recently developed methods for reducing distortion in compressed images and video. In this paper, we combine the powerful anisotropic diffusion equations with fuzzy filtering in order to reduce the impact of artifacts. Based on the directional nature of the blocking...

  14. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and range performance with compressed motion video (United States)

    Bijl, Piet; de Vries, Sjoerd C.


    Video of visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) test charts in a complex background was recorded using a CCD color camera mounted on a computer-controlled tripod and was fed into real-time MPEG-2 compression/decompression equipment. The test charts were based on the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) test method and contained triangle test patterns of different sizes and contrasts in four possible orientations. In a perception experiment, observers judged the orientation of the triangles in order to determine VA and CS thresholds at the 75% correct level. Three camera velocities (0, 1.0, and 2.0 deg/s, or 0, 4.1, and 8.1 pixels/frame) and four compression rates (no compression, 4 Mb/s, 2 Mb/s, and 1 Mb/s) were used. VA is shown to be rather robust to any combination of motion and compression. CS, however, dramatically decreases when motion is combined with high compression ratios. The measured thresholds were fed into the TOD target acquisition model to predict the effect of motion and compression on acquisition ranges for tactical military vehicles. The effect of compression on static performance is limited but strong with motion video. The data suggest that with the MPEG2 algorithm, the emphasis is on the preservation of image detail at the cost of contrast loss.

  15. Video mining using combinations of unsupervised and supervised learning techniques (United States)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Miyahara, Koji; Peker, Kadir A.; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou


    We discuss the meaning and significance of the video mining problem, and present our work on some aspects of video mining. A simple definition of video mining is unsupervised discovery of patterns in audio-visual content. Such purely unsupervised discovery is readily applicable to video surveillance as well as to consumer video browsing applications. We interpret video mining as content-adaptive or "blind" content processing, in which the first stage is content characterization and the second stage is event discovery based on the characterization obtained in stage 1. We discuss the target applications and find that using a purely unsupervised approach are too computationally complex to be implemented on our product platform. We then describe various combinations of unsupervised and supervised learning techniques that help discover patterns that are useful to the end-user of the application. We target consumer video browsing applications such as commercial message detection, sports highlights extraction etc. We employ both audio and video features. We find that supervised audio classification combined with unsupervised unusual event discovery enables accurate supervised detection of desired events. Our techniques are computationally simple and robust to common variations in production styles etc.

  16. Fast compressed domain motion detection in H.264 video streams for video surveillance applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper


    numbers of video streams on a single server. The focus of the work is on using the information in coded video streams to reduce the computational complexity and memory requirements, which translates into reduced hardware requirements and costs. The devised algorithm detects and segments activity based...

  17. 3D wavelet-based codec for lossy compression of pre-scan-converted ultrasound video (United States)

    Andrew, Rex K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Langer, Steven G.; Stegbauer, Keith C.


    We present a wavelet-based video codec based on a 3D wavelet transformer, a uniform quantizer/dequantizer and an arithmetic encoder/decoder. The wavelet transformer uses biorthogonal Antonini wavelets in the two spatial dimensions and Haar wavelets in the time dimensions. Multiple levels of decomposition are supported. The codec has been applied to pre-scan-converted ultrasound image data and does not produce the type of blocking artifacts that occur in MPEG- compressed video. The PSNR at a given compression rate increases with the number of levels of decomposition: for our data at 50:1 compression, the PSNR increases from 18.4 dB at one level to 24.0 dB at four levels of decomposition. Our 3D wavelet-based video codec provides the high compression rates required to transmit diagnostic ultrasound video over existing low bandwidth links without introducing the blocking artifacts which have been demonstrated to diminish clinical utility.

  18. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and range performance with compressed motion video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Vries, S.C. de


    Video of visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) test charts in a complex background was recorded using a CCD color camera mounted on a computer-controlled tripod and was fed into real-time MPEG-2 compression/decompression equipment. The test charts were based on the triangle orientation

  19. Subjective Video Quality Assessment of H.265 Compression Standard for Full HD Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Uhrina


    Full Text Available Recently increasing interest in multimedia services leads to requirements for quality assessment, especially in the video domain. There are many factors that influence the video quality. Compression technology and transmission link imperfection can be considered as the main ones. This paper deals with the assessment of the impact of H.265/HEVC compression standard on the video quality using subjective metrics. The evaluation is done for two types of sequences with Full HD resolution depending on content. The paper is divided as follows. In the first part of the article, a short characteristic of the H.265/HEVC compression standard is written. In the second part, the subjective video quality methods used in our experiments are described. The last part of this article deals with the measurements and experimental results. They showed that quality of sequences coded between 5 and 7 Mbps is for observers sufficient, so there is no need for providers to use higher bitrates in streaming than this threshold. These results are part of a new model that is still being created and will be used for predicting the video quality in networks based on IP.

  20. Brief compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation training video and simulation with homemade mannequin improves CPR skills. (United States)

    Wanner, Gregory K; Osborne, Arayel; Greene, Charlotte H


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has traditionally involved classroom-based courses or, more recently, home-based video self-instruction. These methods typically require preparation and purchase fee; which can dissuade many potential bystanders from receiving training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching compression-only CPR to previously untrained individuals using our 6-min online CPR training video and skills practice on a homemade mannequin, reproduced by viewers with commonly available items (towel, toilet paper roll, t-shirt). Participants viewed the training video and practiced with the homemade mannequin. This was a parallel-design study with pre and post training evaluations of CPR skills (compression rate, depth, hand position, release), and hands-off time (time without compressions). CPR skills were evaluated using a sensor-equipped mannequin and two blinded CPR experts observed testing of participants. Twenty-four participants were included: 12 never-trained and 12 currently certified in CPR. Comparing pre and post training, the never-trained group had improvements in average compression rate per minute (64.3 to 103.9, p = 0.006), compressions with correct hand position in 1 min (8.3 to 54.3, p = 0.002), and correct compression release in 1 min (21.2 to 76.3, p CPR-certified group had adequate pre and post-test compression rates (>100/min), but an improved number of compressions with correct release (53.5 to 94.7, p 50 mm) remained problematic in both groups. Comparisons made between groups indicated significant improvements in compression depth, hand position, and hands-off time in never-trained compared to CPR-certified participants. Inter-rater agreement values were also calculated between the CPR experts and sensor-equipped mannequin. A brief internet-based video coupled with skill practice on a homemade mannequin improved compression-only CPR skills, especially in the previously untrained

  1. Assessment of H.264 video compression on automated face recognition performance in surveillance and mobile video scenarios (United States)

    Klare, Brendan; Burge, Mark


    We assess the impact of the H.264 video codec on the match performance of automated face recognition in surveillance and mobile video applications. A set of two hundred access control (90 pixel inter-pupilary distance) and distance surveillance (45 pixel inter-pupilary distance) videos taken under non-ideal imaging and facial recognition (e.g., pose, illumination, and expression) conditions were matched using two commercial face recognition engines in the studies. The first study evaluated automated face recognition performance on access control and distance surveillance videos at CIF and VGA resolutions using the H.264 baseline profile at nine bitrates rates ranging from 8kbs to 2048kbs. In our experiments, video signals were able to be compressed up to 128kbs before a significant drop face recognition performance occurred. The second study evaluated automated face recognition on mobile devices at QCIF, iPhone, and Android resolutions for each of the H.264 PDA profiles. Rank one match performance, cumulative match scores, and failure to enroll rates are reported.

  2. Edge Polynomial Fractal Compression Algorithm for High Quality Video Transmission. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Freddie


    In this final report, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) provides a review of its Edge Polynomial Autonomous Compression (EPAC) technology. This project was undertaken to meet the need for low bandwidth transmission of full-motion video images. In addition, this report offers a synopsis of the logical data representation study that was performed to compress still images and video. The mapping singularities and polynomial representation of 3-D surfaces were found to be ideal for very high image compression. Our efforts were then directed to extending the EPAC algorithm for the motion of singularities by tracking the 3-D coordinates of characteristic points and the development of system components. Finally, we describe the integration of the software with the hardware components. This process consists of acquiring and processing each separate camera view, combining the information from different cameras to calculate the location of an object in three dimensions, and tracking the information history and the behavior of the objects.

  3. Medical image compression using block-based transform coding techniques (United States)

    De Neve, Peter; Philips, Wilfried R.; Van Overloop, Jeroen; Lemahieu, Ignace L.


    The JPEG lossy compression technique in medical imagery has several disadvantages (at higher compression ratios), mainly due to block-distortion. We therefore investigated two methods, the lapped orthogonal transform (LOT) and the DCT/DST coder, for the use on medical image data. These techniques are block-based but they reduce the block- distortion by spreading it out over the entire image. These compression techniques were applied on four different types of medical images (MRI image, x-ray image, angiogram and CT- scan). They were then compared with results from JPEG and variable block size DCT coders. At a first stage, we determined the optimal block size for each image and for each technique. It was found that for a specific image, the optimal block size was independent of the different transform coders. For the x-ray image, the CT-scan and the angiogram an optimal block size of 32 by 32 was found, while for the MRI image the optimal block size was 16 by 16. Afterwards, for all images the rate-distortion curves of the different techniques were calculated, using the optimal block size. The overall conclusion from our experiments is that the LOT is the best transform among the ones being investigated for compressing medical images of many different kinds. However, JPEG should be used for very high image qualities, as it then requires almost the same bit rate as the LOT and as it requires fewer computations than the LOT technique.

  4. Video Compression Schemes Using Edge Feature on Wireless Video Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen Huu, Phat; Tran-Quang, Vinh; Miyoshi, Takumi


    .... In these schemes, we divide the compression process into several small processing components, which are then distributed to multiple nodes along a path from a source node to a cluster head in a cluster...

  5. Storytelling technique in Turkish rap music : a music video


    Karakurluk, Bedirhan


    Ankara : The Department of Graphic Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references leaves 60-63. This thesis analyzes the storytelling technique in Turkish rap music in the context of hip-hop culture’s content and history, argues its narrative background, seeks answer to what are the mainstream components of Turkish rap music videos, and examines the music video created for this thesis as...

  6. Compressive Video Recovery Using Block Match Multi-Frame Motion Estimation Based on Single Pixel Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Bi


    Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS theory has opened up new paths for the development of signal processing applications. Based on this theory, a novel single pixel camera architecture has been introduced to overcome the current limitations and challenges of traditional focal plane arrays. However, video quality based on this method is limited by existing acquisition and recovery methods, and the method also suffers from being time-consuming. In this paper, a multi-frame motion estimation algorithm is proposed in CS video to enhance the video quality. The proposed algorithm uses multiple frames to implement motion estimation. Experimental results show that using multi-frame motion estimation can improve the quality of recovered videos. To further reduce the motion estimation time, a block match algorithm is used to process motion estimation. Experiments demonstrate that using the block match algorithm can reduce motion estimation time by 30%.

  7. High-Performance Motion Estimation for Image Sensors with Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhi Xu


    Full Text Available It is important to reduce the time cost of video compression for image sensors in video sensor network. Motion estimation (ME is the most time-consuming part in video compression. Previous work on ME exploited intra-frame data reuse in a reference frame to improve the time efficiency but neglected inter-frame data reuse. We propose a novel inter-frame data reuse scheme which can exploit both intra-frame and inter-frame data reuse for ME in video compression (VC-ME. Pixels of reconstructed frames are kept on-chip until they are used by the next current frame to avoid off-chip memory access. On-chip buffers with smart schedules of data access are designed to perform the new data reuse scheme. Three levels of the proposed inter-frame data reuse scheme are presented and analyzed. They give different choices with tradeoff between off-chip bandwidth requirement and on-chip memory size. All three levels have better data reuse efficiency than their intra-frame counterparts, so off-chip memory traffic is reduced effectively. Comparing the new inter-frame data reuse scheme with the traditional intra-frame data reuse scheme, the memory traffic can be reduced by 50% for VC-ME.

  8. High-Performance Motion Estimation for Image Sensors with Video Compression. (United States)

    Xu, Weizhi; Yin, Shouyi; Liu, Leibo; Liu, Zhiyong; Wei, Shaojun


    It is important to reduce the time cost of video compression for image sensors in video sensor network. Motion estimation (ME) is the most time-consuming part in video compression. Previous work on ME exploited intra-frame data reuse in a reference frame to improve the time efficiency but neglected inter-frame data reuse. We propose a novel inter-frame data reuse scheme which can exploit both intra-frame and inter-frame data reuse for ME in video compression (VC-ME). Pixels of reconstructed frames are kept on-chip until they are used by the next current frame to avoid off-chip memory access. On-chip buffers with smart schedules of data access are designed to perform the new data reuse scheme. Three levels of the proposed inter-frame data reuse scheme are presented and analyzed. They give different choices with tradeoff between off-chip bandwidth requirement and on-chip memory size. All three levels have better data reuse efficiency than their intra-frame counterparts, so off-chip memory traffic is reduced effectively. Comparing the new inter-frame data reuse scheme with the traditional intra-frame data reuse scheme, the memory traffic can be reduced by 50% for VC-ME.

  9. A Blind Video Watermarking Scheme Robust To Frame Attacks Combined With MPEG2 Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Ramos


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this paper, we propose a robust digital video watermarking scheme with completely blind extraction process wherethe original video data, original watermark or any other information derivative of them are not required in order toretrieve the embedded watermark. The proposed algorithm embeds 2D binary visually recognizable patterns such ascompany trademarks and owner’s logotype, etc., in the DWT domain of the video frames for copyright protection.Before the embedding process, only two numerical keys are required to transform the watermark data into a noise-likepattern using the chaotic mixing method which helps to increase the security. The main advantages of the proposedscheme are its completely blind detection scheme, robustness against common video attacks, combined attacks andits low complexity implementation. The combined attacks consist of MPEG-2 compression and common video attackssuch as noise contamination, collusion attacks, frame dropping and swapping. Extensive simulation results also showthat the watermark imperceptibility and robustness outperform other previously reported methods. The extractedwatermark data from the watermarked video sequences is clear enough even after the watermarked video hadsuffered from several attacks.

  10. A Review On Segmentation Based Image Compression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract -The storage and transmission of imagery become more challenging task in the current scenario of multimedia applications. Hence, an efficient compression scheme is highly essential for imagery, which reduces the requirement of storage medium and transmission bandwidth. Not only improvement in performance and also the compression techniques must converge quickly in order to apply them for real time applications. There are various algorithms have been done in image compression, but everyone has its own pros and cons. Here, an extensive analysis between existing methods is performed. Also, the use of existing works is highlighted, for developing the novel techniques which face the challenging task of image storage and transmission in multimedia applications.

  11. Bit Plane Coding based Steganography Technique for JPEG2000 Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kasana


    Full Text Available In this paper, a Bit Plane Coding (BPC based steganography technique for JPEG2000 images and Motion JPEG2000 video is proposed. Embedding in this technique is performed in the lowest significant bit planes of the wavelet coefficients of a cover image. In JPEG2000 standard, the number of bit planes of wavelet coefficients to be used in encoding is dependent on the compression rate and are used in Tier-2 process of JPEG2000. In the proposed technique, Tier-1 and Tier-2 processes of JPEG2000 and Motion JPEG2000 are executed twice on the encoder side to collect the information about the lowest bit planes of all code blocks of a cover image, which is utilized in embedding and transmitted to the decoder. After embedding secret data, Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP is applied on stego images to enhance its visual quality. Experimental results show that proposed technique provides large embedding capacity and better visual quality of stego images than existing steganography techniques for JPEG2000 compressed images and videos. Extracted secret image is similar to the original secret image.

  12. Edge compression techniques for visualization of dense directed graphs. (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Henry Riche, Nathalie; Marriott, Kim; Mears, Christopher


    We explore the effectiveness of visualizing dense directed graphs by replacing individual edges with edges connected to 'modules'-or groups of nodes-such that the new edges imply aggregate connectivity. We only consider techniques that offer a lossless compression: that is, where the entire graph can still be read from the compressed version. The techniques considered are: a simple grouping of nodes with identical neighbor sets; Modular Decomposition which permits internal structure in modules and allows them to be nested; and Power Graph Analysis which further allows edges to cross module boundaries. These techniques all have the same goal--to compress the set of edges that need to be rendered to fully convey connectivity--but each successive relaxation of the module definition permits fewer edges to be drawn in the rendered graph. Each successive technique also, we hypothesize, requires a higher degree of mental effort to interpret. We test this hypothetical trade-off with two studies involving human participants. For Power Graph Analysis we propose a novel optimal technique based on constraint programming. This enables us to explore the parameter space for the technique more precisely than could be achieved with a heuristic. Although applicable to many domains, we are motivated by--and discuss in particular--the application to software dependency analysis.

  13. Video compressed sensing using iterative self-similarity modeling and residual reconstruction (United States)

    Kim, Yookyung; Oh, Han; Bilgin, Ali


    Compressed sensing (CS) has great potential for use in video data acquisition and storage because it makes it unnecessary to collect an enormous amount of data and to perform the computationally demanding compression process. We propose an effective CS algorithm for video that consists of two iterative stages. In the first stage, frames containing the dominant structure are estimated. These frames are obtained by thresholding the coefficients of similar blocks. In the second stage, refined residual frames are reconstructed from the original measurements and the measurements corresponding to the frames estimated in the first stage. These two stages are iterated until convergence. The proposed algorithm exhibits superior subjective image quality and significantly improves the peak-signal-to-noise ratio and the structural similarity index measure compared to other state-of-the-art CS algorithms.

  14. Accelerating decomposition of light field video for compressive multi-layer display. (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Zhaoxing


    Compressive light field display based on multi-layer LCDs is becoming a popular solution for 3D display. Decomposing light field into layer images is the most challenging task. Iterative algorithm is an effective solver for this high-dimensional decomposition problem. Existing algorithms, however, iterate from random initial values. As such, significant computation time is required due to the deviation between random initial estimate and target values. Real-time 3D display at video rate is difficult based on existing algorithms. In this paper, we present a new algorithm to provide better initial values and accelerate decomposition of light field video. We utilize internal coherence of single light field frame to transfer the ignorance-to-target to a much lower resolution level. In addition, we explored external coherence for further accelerating light field video and achieved 5.91 times speed improvement. We built a prototype and developed parallel algorithm based on CUDA.

  15. Distributed Source Coding Techniques for Lossless Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barni Mauro


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of distributed source coding (DSC theory to remote sensing image compression. Although DSC exhibits a significant potential in many application fields, up till now the results obtained on real signals fall short of the theoretical bounds, and often impose additional system-level constraints. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential of DSC for lossless image compression carried out onboard a remote platform. We first provide a brief overview of DSC of correlated information sources. We then focus on onboard lossless image compression, and apply DSC techniques in order to reduce the complexity of the onboard encoder, at the expense of the decoder's, by exploiting the correlation of different bands of a hyperspectral dataset. Specifically, we propose two different compression schemes, one based on powerful binary error-correcting codes employed as source codes, and one based on simpler multilevel coset codes. The performance of both schemes is evaluated on a few AVIRIS scenes, and is compared with other state-of-the-art 2D and 3D coders. Both schemes turn out to achieve competitive compression performance, and one of them also has reduced complexity. Based on these results, we highlight the main issues that are still to be solved to further improve the performance of DSC-based remote sensing systems.

  16. Methods & Techniques: Techniques for Increasing Student Learning from Educational Videos: Notes Versus Guiding Questions (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Bodle, James H.; McDonough, Tracy A.


    We examined the effectiveness of several techniques for enhancing student learning from educational videos. Introductory psychology students (N = 113) watched a video about intelligence and testing while taking notes, not taking notes, writing answers to guiding questions, or thinking about guiding questions without writing answers. Afterward,…

  17. Abstract The poor narrative techniques of Nigerian video films have ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and also through superfluous use of theme music on video films. (Haynes and Okome ... or as a cinematic flow of moving picture with or without sound, speech, music and ... Is it on performance technique such as language, voice, gesture as opposed to those of a literary raconteur or is it a matter of the events themselves He.

  18. Lightweight Object Tracking in Compressed Video Streams Demonstrated in Region-of-Interest Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Van de Walle


    Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4%.

  19. Lightweight Object Tracking in Compressed Video Streams Demonstrated in Region-of-Interest Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerouge Sam


    Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4 .

  20. Impact of H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC Compression Standards on the Video Quality for 4K Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Uhrina


    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC compression standards on the video quality for 4K resolution. In the first part a short characteristic of both compression standards is written. The second part focuses on the well-known objective metrics which were used for evaluating the video quality. In the third part the measurements and the experimental results are described.

  1. Dynamic frame resizing with convolutional neural network for efficient video compression (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Park, Youngo; Choi, Kwang Pyo; Lee, JongSeok; Jeon, Sunyoung; Park, JeongHoon


    In the past, video codecs such as vc-1 and H.263 used a technique to encode reduced-resolution video and restore original resolution from the decoder for improvement of coding efficiency. The techniques of vc-1 and H.263 Annex Q are called dynamic frame resizing and reduced-resolution update mode, respectively. However, these techniques have not been widely used due to limited performance improvements that operate well only under specific conditions. In this paper, video frame resizing (reduced/restore) technique based on machine learning is proposed for improvement of coding efficiency. The proposed method features video of low resolution made by convolutional neural network (CNN) in encoder and reconstruction of original resolution using CNN in decoder. The proposed method shows improved subjective performance over all the high resolution videos which are dominantly consumed recently. In order to assess subjective quality of the proposed method, Video Multi-method Assessment Fusion (VMAF) which showed high reliability among many subjective measurement tools was used as subjective metric. Moreover, to assess general performance, diverse bitrates are tested. Experimental results showed that BD-rate based on VMAF was improved by about 51% compare to conventional HEVC. Especially, VMAF values were significantly improved in low bitrate. Also, when the method is subjectively tested, it had better subjective visual quality in similar bit rate.

  2. Pendulum Exercises After Hip Arthroscopy: A Video Technique. (United States)

    Sauber, Ryan; Saborio, George; Nickel, Beth M; Kivlan, Benjamin R; Christoforetti, John J


    Advanced hip joint-preserving arthroscopic techniques have been shown to improve patient-reported functional outcomes with low rates of postoperative complications. Prior work has shown that formation of adhesive scar is a potential source of persistent pain and cause for revision surgery. As resources for postoperative in-studio physical therapy become scarce, a home-based strategy to avoid scar formation without adding formal therapy cost may be beneficial. The purpose of this technical note is to introduce a patient-centered educational video technique for home-caregiver delivery of manual hip pendulum exercises in the postoperative setting. This video technique offers access to our method for pendulum exercise as part of early recovery after advanced hip arthroscopy.

  3. Impact of GoP on the Video Quality of VP9 Compression Standard for Full HD Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Uhrina


    Full Text Available In the last years, the interest on multimedia services has significantly increased. This leads to requirements for quality assessment, especially in video domain. Compression together with the transmission link imperfection are two main factors that influence the quality. This paper deals with the assessment of the Group of Pictures (GoP impact on the video quality of VP9 compression standard. The evaluation was done using selected objective and subjective methods for two types of Full HD sequences depending on content. These results are part of a new model that is still being created and will be used for predicting the video quality in networks based on IP.

  4. Influence of image compression on the quality of UNB pan-sharpened imagery: a case study with security video image frames (United States)

    Adhamkhiabani, Sina Adham; Zhang, Yun; Fathollahi, Fatemeh


    UNB Pan-sharp, also named FuzeGo, is an image fusion technique to produce high resolution color satellite images by fusing a high resolution panchromatic (monochrome) image and a low resolution multispectral (color) image. This is an effective solution that modern satellites have been using to capture high resolution color images at an ultra-high speed. Initial research on security camera systems shows that the UNB Pan-sharp technique can also be utilized to produce high resolution and high sensitive color video images for various imaging and monitoring applications. Based on UNB Pansharp technique, a video camera prototype system, called the UNB Super-camera system, was developed that captures high resolution panchromatic images and low resolution color images simultaneously, and produces real-time high resolution color video images on the fly. In a separate study, it was proved that UNB Super Camera outperforms conventional 1-chip and 3-chip color cameras in image quality, especially when the illumination is low such as in room lighting. In this research the influence of image compression on the quality of UNB Pan-sharped high resolution color images is evaluated, since image compression is widely used in still and video cameras to reduce data volume and speed up data transfer. The results demonstrate that UNB Pan-sharp can consistently produce high resolution color images that have the same detail as the input high resolution panchromatic image and the same color of the input low resolution color image, regardless the compression ratio and lighting condition. In addition, the high resolution color images produced by UNB Pan-sharp have higher sensitivity (signal to noise ratio) and better edge sharpness and color rendering than those of the same generation 1-chip color camera, regardless the compression ratio and lighting condition.

  5. Improving human object recognition performance using video enhancement techniques (United States)

    Whitman, Lucy S.; Lewis, Colin; Oakley, John P.


    Atmospheric scattering causes significant degradation in the quality of video images, particularly when imaging over long distances. The principle problem is the reduction in contrast due to scattered light. It is known that when the scattering particles are not too large compared with the imaging wavelength (i.e. Mie scattering) then high spatial resolution information may be contained within a low-contrast image. Unfortunately this information is not easily perceived by a human observer, particularly when using a standard video monitor. A secondary problem is the difficulty of achieving a sharp focus since automatic focus techniques tend to fail in such conditions. Recently several commercial colour video processing systems have become available. These systems use various techniques to improve image quality in low contrast conditions whilst retaining colour content. These systems produce improvements in subjective image quality in some situations, particularly in conditions of haze and light fog. There is also some evidence that video enhancement leads to improved ATR performance when used as a pre-processing stage. Psychological literature indicates that low contrast levels generally lead to a reduction in the performance of human observers in carrying out simple visual tasks. The aim of this paper is to present the results of an empirical study on object recognition in adverse viewing conditions. The chosen visual task was vehicle number plate recognition at long ranges (500 m and beyond). Two different commercial video enhancement systems are evaluated using the same protocol. The results show an increase in effective range with some differences between the different enhancement systems.

  6. Endotracheal Intubation Using the Macintosh Laryngoscope or KingVision Video Laryngoscope during Uninterrupted Chest Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszynska


    Full Text Available Objective. Advanced airway management, endotracheal intubation (ETI, during CPR is more difficult than, for example, during anesthesia. However, new devices such as video laryngoscopes should help in such circumstances. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the KingVision video laryngoscopes in a manikin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR scenario. Methods. Thirty students enrolled in the third year of paramedic school took part in the study. The simulated CPR scenario was ETI using the standard laryngoscope with a Macintosh blade (MCL and ETI using the KingVision video laryngoscope performed during uninterrupted chest compressions. The primary endpoints were the time needed for ETI and the success ratio. Results. The mean time required for intubation was similar for both laryngoscopes: 16.6 (SD 5.11, median 15.64, range 7.9–27.9 seconds versus 17.91 (SD 5.6, median 16.28, range 10.6–28.6 seconds for the MCL and KingVision, respectively (P=0.1888. On the first attempt at ETI, the success rate during CPR was comparable between the evaluated laryngoscopes: P=0.9032. Conclusion. The KingVision video laryngoscope proves to be less superior when used for endotracheal intubation during CPR compared to the standard laryngoscope with a Mackintosh blade. This proves true in terms of shortening the time needed for ETI and increasing the success ratio.

  7. Compression of Video Tracking and Bandwidth Balancing Routing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Wang


    Full Text Available There has been a tremendous growth in multimedia applications over wireless networks. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks(WMSNs have become the premier choice in many research communities and industry. Many state-of-art applications, such as surveillance, traffic monitoring, and remote heath care are essentially video tracking and transmission in WMSNs. The transmission speed is constrained by the big file size of video data and fixed bandwidth allocation in constant routing paths. In this paper, we present a CamShift based algorithm to compress the tracking of videos. Then we propose a bandwidth balancing strategy in which each sensor node is able to dynamically select the node for the next hop with the highest potential bandwidth capacity to resume communication. Key to this strategy is that each node merely maintains two parameters that contain its historical bandwidth varying trend and then predict its near future bandwidth capacity. Then, the forwarding node selects the next hop with the highest potential bandwidth capacity. Simulations demonstrate that our approach significantly increases the data received by the sink node and decreases the delay on video transmission in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network environments.

  8. Preserving color fidelity for display devices using scalable memory compression architecture for text, graphics, and video (United States)

    Lebowsky, Fritz; Nicolas, Marina


    High-end monitors and TVs based on LCD technology continue to increase their native display resolution to 4k by 2k and beyond. Subsequently, uncompressed pixel amplitude processing becomes costly not only when transmitting over cable or wireless communication channels, but also when processing with array processor architectures. For motion video content, spatial preprocessing from YCbCr 444 to YCbCr 420 is widely accepted. However, due to spatial low pass filtering in horizontal and vertical direction, quality and readability of small text and graphics content is heavily compromised when color contrast is high in chrominance channels. On the other hand, straight forward YCbCr 444 compression based on mathematical error coding schemes quite often lacks optimal adaptation to visually significant image content. We present a block-based memory compression architecture for text, graphics, and video enabling multidimensional error minimization with context sensitive control of visually noticeable artifacts. As a result of analyzing image context locally, the number of operations per pixel can be significantly reduced, especially when implemented on array processor architectures. A comparative analysis based on some competitive solutions highlights the effectiveness of our approach, identifies its current limitations with regard to high quality color rendering, and illustrates remaining visual artifacts.

  9. Digital video transcoding for transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Huifang; Chen, Xuemin


    Professionals in the video and multimedia industries need a book that explains industry standards for video coding and how to convert the compressed information between standards. Digital Video Transcoding for Transmission and Storage answers this demand while also supplying the theories and principles of video compression and transcoding technologies. Emphasizing digital video transcoding techniques, this book summarizes its content via examples of practical methods for transcoder implementation. It relates almost all of its featured transcoding technologies to practical applications.This vol

  10. A Review on Video/Image Authentication and Tamper Detection Techniques (United States)

    Parmar, Zarna; Upadhyay, Saurabh


    With the innovations and development in sophisticated video editing technology and a wide spread of video information and services in our society, it is becoming increasingly significant to assure the trustworthiness of video information. Therefore in surveillance, medical and various other fields, video contents must be protected against attempt to manipulate them. Such malicious alterations could affect the decisions based on these videos. A lot of techniques are proposed by various researchers in the literature that assure the authenticity of video information in their own way. In this paper we present a brief survey on video authentication techniques with their classification. These authentication techniques are generally classified into following categories: digital signature based techniques, watermark based techniques, and other authentication techniques.

  11. Multiple Moving Object Detection for Fast Video Content Description in Compressed Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Mansencal


    Full Text Available Indexing deals with the automatic extraction of information with the objective of automatically describing and organizing the content. Thinking of a video stream, different types of information can be considered semantically important. Since we can assume that the most relevant one is linked to the presence of moving foreground objects, their number, their shape, and their appearance can constitute a good mean for content description. For this reason, we propose to combine both motion information and region-based color segmentation to extract moving objects from an MPEG2 compressed video stream starting only considering low-resolution data. This approach, which we refer to as “rough indexing,” consists in processing P-frame motion information first, and then in performing I-frame color segmentation. Next, since many details can be lost due to the low-resolution data, to improve the object detection results, a novel spatiotemporal filtering has been developed which is constituted by a quadric surface modeling the object trace along time. This method enables to effectively correct possible former detection errors without heavily increasing the computational effort.

  12. Interactive floating windows: a new technique for stereoscopic video games (United States)

    Zerebecki, Chris; Stanfield, Brodie; Tawadrous, Mina; Buckstein, Daniel; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill


    The film industry has a long history of creating compelling experiences in stereoscopic 3D. Recently, the video game as an artistic medium has matured into an effective way to tell engaging and immersive stories. Given the current push to bring stereoscopic 3D technology into the consumer market there is considerable interest to develop stereoscopic 3D video games. Game developers have largely ignored the need to design their games specifically for stereoscopic 3D and have thus relied on automatic conversion and driver technology. Game developers need to evaluate solutions used in other media, such as film, to correct perceptual problems such as window violations, and modify or create new solutions to work within an interactive framework. In this paper we extend the dynamic floating window technique into the interactive domain enabling the player to position a virtual window in space. Interactively changing the position, size, and the 3D rotation of the virtual window, objects can be made to 'break the mask' dramatically enhancing the stereoscopic effect. By demonstrating that solutions from the film industry can be extended into the interactive space, it is our hope that this initiates further discussion in the game development community to strengthen their story-telling mechanisms in stereoscopic 3D games.

  13. A technique for continuous measurement of body movement from video. (United States)

    Hilliard, Caitlin; Cook, Susan Wagner


    The movements that we make with our body vary continuously along multiple dimensions. However, many of the tools and techniques presently used for coding and analyzing hand gestures and other body movements yield categorical outcome variables. Focusing on categorical variables as the primary quantitative outcomes may mislead researchers or distort conclusions. Moreover, categorical systems may fail to capture the richness present in movement. Variations in body movement may be informative in multiple dimensions. For example, a single hand gesture has a unique size, height of production, trajectory, speed, and handshape. Slight variations in any of these features may alter how both the speaker and the listener are affected by gesture. In this paper, we describe a new method for measuring and visualizing the physical trajectory of movement using video. This method is generally accessible, requiring only video data and freely available computer software. This method allows researchers to examine features of hand gestures, body movement, and other motion, including size, height, curvature, and speed. We offer a detailed account of how to implement this approach, and we also offer some guidelines for situations where this approach may be fruitful in revealing how the body expresses information. Finally, we provide data from a small study on how speakers alter their hand gestures in response to different characteristics of a stimulus to demonstrate the utility of analyzing continuous dimensions of motion. By creating shared methods, we hope to facilitate communication between researchers from varying methodological traditions.

  14. Portacaval shunt established in six dogs using magnetic compression technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Installing the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for portal hypertension is relatively safe, but complications are still high. To explore a new method of portacaval shunt, the magnetic compression technique was introduced into the shunting procedure. METHODS: A portal-inferior vena cava shunt was performed on 6 male mongrel dogs by two hemocompatible Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, parent and daughter. The parent magnet was applied to the inferior vena cava guided by a catheter through the femoral vein. The daughter magnet was moved to the anastomosis position on the portal vein with a balloon catheter through the splenic vein. After the daughter magnet reached the target position, the two magnets acted to compress the vessel wall and hold it in place. Five to 7 days later, under X-ray guidance, the magnets were detached from the vessel wall with a rosch-uchida transjugular liver access set. One month later, histological analysis and portal venography were performed. RESULTS: 5-7 days after the first surgery, a mild intimal hyperplasia in the portal vein and the inferior vena cava, and continuity of the vascular adventitia from the portal vein to the inferior vena cava as observed. During the second surgery, the contrast media could be observed flowing from the portal vein into the inferior vena cava. Portal venography revealed that the portosystemic shunt was still present one month after the second surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Magnamosis via a device of novel design was successfully used to establish a portacaval shunt in dogs.

  15. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Álvarez López


    Full Text Available One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  16. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers. (United States)

    López, Yuri Álvarez; Lorenzo, José Ángel Martínez


    One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  17. Higher-order singular value decomposition-based discrete fractional random transform for simultaneous compression and encryption of video images (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhu, Yihai


    Existing image compression and encryption methods have several shortcomings: they have low reconstruction accuracy and are unsuitable for three-dimensional (3D) images. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes a tensor-based approach adopting tensor compressive sensing and tensor discrete fractional random transform (TDFRT). The source video images are measured by three key-controlled sensing matrices. Subsequently, the resulting tensor image is further encrypted using 3D cat map and the proposed TDFRT, which is based on higher-order singular value decomposition. A multiway projection algorithm is designed to reconstruct the video images. The proposed algorithm can greatly reduce the data volume and improve the efficiency of the data transmission and key distribution. The simulation results validate the good compression performance, efficiency, and security of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Improving throughput and user experience for information intensive websites by applying HTTP compression technique. (United States)

    Malla, Ratnakar


    HTTP compression is a technique specified as part of the W3C HTTP 1.0 standard. It allows HTTP servers to take advantage of GZIP compression technology that is built into latest browsers. A brief survey of medical informatics websites show that compression is not enabled. With compression enabled, downloaded files sizes are reduced by more than 50% and typical transaction time is also reduced from 20 to 8 minutes, thus providing a better user experience.

  19. Automatic Level Control for Video Cameras towards HDR Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de With PeterHN


    Full Text Available We give a comprehensive overview of the complete exposure processing chain for video cameras. For each step of the automatic exposure algorithm we discuss some classical solutions and propose their improvements or give new alternatives. We start by explaining exposure metering methods, describing types of signals that are used as the scene content descriptors as well as means to utilize these descriptors. We also discuss different exposure control types used for the control of lens, integration time of the sensor, and gain control, such as a PID control, precalculated control based on the camera response function, and propose a new recursive control type that matches the underlying image formation model. Then, a description of commonly used serial control strategy for lens, sensor exposure time, and gain is presented, followed by a proposal of a new parallel control solution that integrates well with tone mapping and enhancement part of the image pipeline. Parallel control strategy enables faster and smoother control and facilitates optimally filling the dynamic range of the sensor to improve the SNR and an image contrast, while avoiding signal clipping. This is archived by the proposed special control modes used for better display and correct exposure of both low-dynamic range and high-dynamic range images. To overcome the inherited problems of limited dynamic range of capturing devices we discuss a paradigm of multiple exposure techniques. Using these techniques we can enable a correct rendering of difficult class of high-dynamic range input scenes. However, multiple exposure techniques bring several challenges, especially in the presence of motion and artificial light sources such as fluorescent lights. In particular, false colors and light-flickering problems are described. After briefly discussing some known possible solutions for the motion problem, we focus on solving the fluorescence-light problem. Thereby, we propose an algorithm for

  20. A Novel Steganography Technique for SDTV-H.264/AVC Encoded Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Di Laura


    Full Text Available Today, eavesdropping is becoming a common issue in the rapidly growing digital network and has foreseen the need for secret communication channels embedded in digital media. In this paper, a novel steganography technique designed for Standard Definition Digital Television (SDTV H.264/AVC encoded video sequences is presented. The algorithm introduced here makes use of the compression properties of the Context Adaptive Variable Length Coding (CAVLC entropy encoder to achieve a low complexity and real-time inserting method. The chosen scheme hides the private message directly in the H.264/AVC bit stream by modifying the AC frequency quantized residual luminance coefficients of intrapredicted I-frames. In order to avoid error propagation in adjacent blocks, an interlaced embedding strategy is applied. Likewise, the steganography technique proposed allows self-detection of the hidden message at the target destination. The code source was implemented by mixing MATLAB 2010 b and Java development environments. Finally, experimental results have been assessed through objective and subjective quality measures and reveal that less visible artifacts are produced with the technique proposed by reaching PSNR values above 40.0 dB and an embedding bit rate average per secret communication channel of 425 bits/sec. This exemplifies that steganography is affordable in digital television.

  1. Optimal PET protection for streaming scalably compressed video streams with limited retransmission based on incomplete feedback. (United States)

    Xiong, Ruiqin; Taubman, David; Sivaraman, Vijay


    For streaming scalably compressed video streams over unreliable networks, Limited-Retransmission Priority Encoding Transmission (LR-PET) outperforms PET remarkably since the opportunity to retransmit is fully exploited by hypothesizing the possible future retransmission behavior before the retransmission really occurs. For the retransmission to be efficient in such a scheme, it is critical to get adequate acknowledgment from a previous transmission before deciding what data to retransmit. However, in many scenarios, the presence of a stochastic packet delay process results in frequent late acknowledgements, while imperfect feedback channels can impair the server's knowledge of what the client has received. This paper proposes an extended LR-PET scheme, which optimizes PET-protection of transmitted bitstreams, recognizing that the received feedback information is likely to be incomplete. Similar to the original LR-PET, the behavior of future retransmissions is hypothesized in the optimization objective of each transmission opportunity. As the key contribution, we develop a method to efficiently derive the effective recovery probability versus redundancy rate characteristic for the extended LR-PET communication process. This significantly simplifies the ultimate protection assignment procedure. This paper also demonstrates the advantage of the proposed strategy over several alternative strategies.

  2. Partial Encryption of Entropy-Coded Video Compression Using Coupled Chaotic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Almasalha


    Full Text Available Due to pervasive communication infrastructures, a plethora of enabling technologies is being developed over mobile and wired networks. Among these, video streaming services over IP are the most challenging in terms of quality, real-time requirements and security. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to efficiently secure variable length coded (VLC multimedia bit streams, such as H.264. It is based on code word error diffusion and variable size segment shuffling. The codeword diffusion and the shuffling mechanisms are based on random operations from a secure and computationally efficient chaos-based pseudo-random number generator. The proposed scheme is ubiquitous to the end users and can be deployed at any node in the network. It provides different levels of security, with encrypted data volume fluctuating between 5.5–17%. It works on the compressed bit stream without requiring any decoding. It provides excellent encryption speeds on different platforms, including mobile devices. It is 200% faster and 150% more power efficient when compared with AES software-based full encryption schemes. Regarding security, the scheme is robust to well-known attacks in the literature, such as brute force and known/chosen plain text attacks.

  3. Effects of Video Prompting Techniques on Teaching Daily Living Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review (United States)

    Domire, Sarah C.; Wolfe, Pamela


    Video-based instruction is becoming a common intervention in today's classrooms. Previous research has focused primarily on video modeling techniques that required the student to watch an entire video of the task before attempting to complete the task independently. Video prompting is a form of video instruction that breaks down target skills…

  4. 360-degree videos: a new visualization technique for astrophysical simulations (United States)

    Russell, Christopher M. P.


    360-degree videos are a new type of movie that renders over all 4π steradian. Video sharing sites such as YouTube now allow this unique content to be shared via virtual reality (VR) goggles, hand-held smartphones/tablets, and computers. Creating 360° videos from astrophysical simulations is not only a new way to view these simulations as you are immersed in them, but is also a way to create engaging content for outreach to the public. We present what we believe is the first 360° video of an astrophysical simulation: a hydrodynamics calculation of the central parsec of the Galactic centre. We also describe how to create such movies, and briefly comment on what new science can be extracted from astrophysical simulations using 360° videos.

  5. An innovative technique for recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos. (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T


    Many ultrasound educational products and ultrasound researchers present diagnostic and interventional ultrasound information using picture-in-picture videos, which simultaneously show the ultrasound image and transducer and patient positions. Traditional techniques for creating picture-in-picture videos are expensive, nonportable, or time-consuming. This article describes an inexpensive, simple, and portable way of creating picture-in-picture ultrasound videos. This technique uses a laptop computer with a video capture device to acquire the ultrasound feed. Simultaneously, a webcam captures a live video feed of the transducer and patient position and live audio. Both sources are streamed onto the computer screen and recorded by screen capture software. This technique makes the process of recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos more accessible for ultrasound educators and researchers for use in their presentations or publications.

  6. Detection of Double-Compressed H.264/AVC Video Incorporating the Features of the String of Data Bits and Skip Macroblocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Yao


    Full Text Available Today’s H.264/AVC coded videos have a high quality, high data-compression ratio. They also have a strong fault tolerance, better network adaptability, and have been widely applied on the Internet. With the popularity of powerful and easy-to-use video editing software, digital videos can be tampered with in various ways. Therefore, the double compression in the H.264/AVC video can be used as a first step in the study of video-tampering forensics. This paper proposes a simple, but effective, double-compression detection method that analyzes the periodic features of the string of data bits (SODBs and the skip macroblocks (S-MBs for all I-frames and P-frames in a double-compressed H.264/AVC video. For a given suspicious video, the SODBs and S-MBs are extracted for each frame. Both features are then incorporated to generate one enhanced feature to represent the periodic artifact of the double-compressed video. Finally, a time-domain analysis is conducted to detect the periodicity of the features. The primary Group of Pictures (GOP size is estimated based on an exhaustive strategy. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  7. Participant satisfaction with a school telehealth education program using interactive compressed video delivery methods in rural Arkansas. (United States)

    Bynum, Ann B; Cranford, Charles O; Irwin, Cathy A; Denny, George S


    Socioeconomic and demographic factors can affect the impact of telehealth education programs that use interactive compressed video technology. This study assessed program satisfaction among participants in the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences' School Telehealth Education Program delivered by interactive compressed video. Variables in the one-group posttest study were age, gender, ethnicity, education, community size, and program topics for years 1997-1999. The convenience sample included 3,319 participants in junior high and high schools. The School Telehealth Education Program provided information about health risks, disease prevention, health promotion, personal growth, and health sciences. Adolescents reported medium to high levels of satisfaction regarding program interest and quality. Significantly higher satisfaction was expressed for programs on muscular dystrophy, anatomy of the heart, and tobacco addiction (p Education Program, delivered by interactive compressed video, promoted program satisfaction among rural and minority populations and among junior high and high school students. Effective program methods included an emphasis on participants' learning needs, increasing access in rural areas among ethnic groups, speaker communication, and clarity of the program presentation.

  8. iTRAC : intelligent video compression for automated traffic surveillance systems. (United States)


    Non-intrusive video imaging sensors are commonly used in traffic monitoring : and surveillance. For some applications it is necessary to transmit the video : data over communication links. However, due to increased requirements of : bitrate this mean...

  9. An Evolutionary Video Assignment Optimization Technique for VOD System in Heterogeneous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Man Ho


    Full Text Available We investigate the video assignment problem of a hierarchical Video-on-Demand (VOD system in heterogeneous environments where different quality levels of videos can be encoded using either replication or layering. In such systems, videos are delivered to clients either through a proxy server or video broadcast/unicast channels. The objective of our work is to determine the appropriate coding strategy as well as the suitable delivery mechanism for a specific quality level of a video such that the overall system blocking probability is minimized. In order to find a near-optimal solution for such a complex video assignment problem, an evolutionary approach based on genetic algorithm (GA is proposed. From the results, it is shown that the system performance can be significantly enhanced by efficiently coupling the various techniques.

  10. Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S.C.


    Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.

  11. Analysis of YouTube videos about urinary catheterization technique of male delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barreto Tavares Chiavone

    Full Text Available Objective.To analyze the execution of urinary catheterization technique of male delay in YouTube videos. Methods. This is an exploratory research with a quantitative approach, performed using the YouTube sharing site. The search of the videos was conducted in September 2014, using the controlled descriptor "urinary catheterization". Results. 32 videos were analyzed, none were in accordance with the standards established in the literature; among the main errors highlight the absence of hand washing (78.1%, the absence of the medical recording (71.8%, the absence of cleaning and drying of the patient at the end of the procedure (71.8%, the incorrect technique during antisepsis (62.5% and the absence of gloves changes (59.3%. Conclusion. Although the YouTube sharing video site is currently a widespread tool, there is an absence of videos that reproduce the technique according to what is recommended in the literature.

  12. Compressive spectrum sensing of radar pulses based on photonic techniques. (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Liang, Yunhua; Chen, Minghua; Chen, Hongwei; Xie, Shizhong


    We present a photonic-assisted compressive sampling (CS) system which can acquire about 10(6) radar pulses per second spanning from 500 MHz to 5 GHz with a 520-MHz analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A rectangular pulse, a linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulse and a pulse stream is respectively reconstructed faithfully through this system with a sliding window-based recovery algorithm, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed photonic-assisted CS system in spectral estimation for radar pulses.

  13. High Dynamic Range Video

    CERN Document Server

    Myszkowski, Karol


    This book presents a complete pipeline forHDR image and video processing fromacquisition, through compression and quality evaluation, to display. At the HDR image and video acquisition stage specialized HDR sensors or multi-exposure techniques suitable for traditional cameras are discussed. Then, we present a practical solution for pixel values calibration in terms of photometric or radiometric quantities, which are required in some technically oriented applications. Also, we cover the problem of efficient image and video compression and encoding either for storage or transmission purposes, in

  14. A new technique for presentation of scientific works: video in poster. (United States)

    Bozdag, Ali Dogan


    Presentations at scientific congresses and symposiums can be in two different forms: poster or oral presentation. Each method has some advantages and disadvantages. To combine the advantages of oral and poster presentations, a new presentation type was conceived: "video in poster." The top of the portable digital video display (DVD) player is opened 180 degrees to keep the screen and the body of the DVD player in the same plane. The poster is attached to the DVD player and a window is made in the poster to expose the screen of the DVD player so the screen appears as a picture on the poster. Then this video in poster is fixed to the panel. When the DVD player is turned on, the video presentation of the surgical procedure starts. Several posters were presented at different medical congresses in 2007 using the "video in poster" technique, and they received poster awards. The video in poster combines the advantages of both oral and poster presentations.

  15. Quantifying thumb rotation during circumduction utilizing a video technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coert, JH; van Dijke, GAH; Hovius, SER; Snijders, CJ; Meek, MF


    Thumb rotation is an essential component of circumduction in order to achieve pulp to pulp contact. In order to evaluate opponensplasty, a device was developed to quantify thumb rotation utilizing a special jig to hold the hand and video analysis. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers (12 female and 15

  16. Wavelet packet transform-based robust video watermarking technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    imperceptibility, they used Watson's DCT-based visual model for video watermarking. Ge et al. (2003) have presented a ... accordance with the human visual system and signal characteristics. Hsu & Wu (1998) have proposed a ...... Shannon C E 1949 Communication theory of secrecy system. Bell System Technical Journal ...

  17. Chroma Subsampling Influence on the Perceived Video Quality for Compressed Sequences in High Resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Uhrina


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of chroma subsampling on perceived video quality measured by subjective metrics. The evaluation was done for two most used video codecs H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC. Eight types of video sequences with Full HD and Ultra HD resolutions depending on content were tested. The experimental results showed that observers did not see the difference between unsubsampled and subsampled sequences, so using subsampled videos is preferable even 50 % of the amount of data can be saved. Also, the minimum bitrates to achieve the good and fair quality by each codec and resolution were determined.

  18. Enhancing Perceived Quality of Compressed Images and Video with Anisotropic Diffusion and Fuzzy Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren


    video sequences. For the video sequences, different filters are applied to luminance (Y) and chrominance (U,V) components. The performance of the proposed method has been compared against several other methods by using different objective quality metrics and a subjective comparison study. Both objective...

  19. Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan


    MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.

  20. Techniques for creating video content for radiology education. (United States)

    Menashe, Sarah; Otjen, Jeffrey; Thapa, Mahesh M


    Video podcasts, or vodcasts, are an innovative tool for teaching and learning that allow the efficient distribution of tutorials, lectures, and other educational content. Certain types of content lend themselves to presentation in a video format. For example, vodcasts are well suited to teaching radiologic procedures. Vodcasts might also be quite useful in demonstrating the use of an audience response system and how one system differs from another, providing background content before an active-learning session, comparing magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences, and teaching valuable interpersonal skills such as how to deliver bad news to a patient or how to maintain professionalism in the work environment. The authors present a step-by-step text-and-video tutorial on how to create, edit, and export vodcasts using a variety of software tools, describing both the "how" and the "why" of creating vodcasts. Interested readers are encouraged to examine both the print and online versions of this article to gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the ideas presented by the authors. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.

  1. Hardware architectures for real time processing of High Definition video sequences


    Genovese, Mariangela


    Actually, application fields, such as medicine, space exploration, surveillance, authentication, HDTV, and automated industry inspection, require capturing, storing and processing continuous streams of video data. Consequently, different process techniques (video enhancement, segmentation, object detection, or video compression, as examples) are involved in these applications. Such techniques often require a significant number of operations depending on the algorithm complexity and the video ...

  2. Feasibility of Radon projection acquisition for compressive imaging in MMW region based new video rate 16×16 GDD FPA camera (United States)

    Levanon, Assaf; Konstantinovsky, Michael; Kopeika, Natan S.; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Stern, A.; Turak, Svetlana; Abramovich, Amir


    In this article we present preliminary results for the combination of two interesting fields in the last few years: 1) Compressed imaging (CI), which is a joint sensing and compressing process, that attempts to exploit the large redundancy in typical images in order to capture fewer samples than usual. 2) Millimeter Waves (MMW) imaging. MMW based imaging systems are required for a large variety of applications in many growing fields such as medical treatments, homeland security, concealed weapon detection, and space technology. Moreover, the possibility to create a reliable imaging in low visibility conditions such as heavy cloud, smoke, fog and sandstorms in the MMW region, generate high interest from military groups in order to be ready for new combat. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging sensors makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. A system based on Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) can be very efficient in real time imaging with significant results. The GDD is located in free space and it can detect MMW radiation almost isotropically. In this article, we present a new approach of reconstruction MMW imaging by rotation scanning of the target. The Collection process here, based on Radon projections allows implementation of the compressive sensing principles into the MMW region. Feasibility of concept was obtained as radon line imaging results. MMW imaging results with our resent sensor are also presented for the first time. The multiplexing frame rate of 16×16 GDD FPA permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames per second and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. It uses commercial GDD lamps with 3mm diameter, Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. Combination of these two fields should make significant improvement in MMW region imaging research, and new various of possibilities in compressing sensing technique.

  3. In-situ evaluation of compressed brick veneer using the flatjack technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.R.; Gabby, B.A.


    The flatjack is a relatively nondestructive tool that allows engineers engaged in the repair and retrofit of masonry buildings (both historic and non-historic) to directly determine the in-situ state of compressive stress in masonry walls. The flatjack technique recently was used on a large modern apartment complex to quantify the compression in a brick veneer that was distressed and had questionable wind-load resistance. The compression in the veneer was due to a combination of concrete frame shrinkage and brick growth in a wall system that lacked horizontal control joints under the steel shelf angles. Although the compression caused spalling in the veneer, it also contributed beneficially to the walls' wind resistance. The amount of compression in the veneer was determined in several location throughout the height of one elevation of the building using flatjacks. The authors found that the compression in the veneer was greater than the flexural tension produced by design wind loads (including a reasonable factor of safety), but below the compressive strength of the brick masonry. This finding allowed a repair solution that was modest relative to strengthening the wall for inadequate wind resistance. Prior to employing the flatjack in the field, the authors conducted in-house research to check the accuracy and reliability of method, and develop their technique. The authors found that by altering gauge points from those locations prescribed by current ASTM standards to those recommended in recent research, greater accuracy could be obtained.

  4. The Impact of Video Compression on Remote Cardiac Pulse Measurement Using Imaging Photoplethysmography (United States)


    quality is human subjective perception assessed by a Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Alternatively, video quality may be assessed using one of numerous...cameras. Synchronization of the image capture from the array was achieved using a PCIe-6323 data acquisition card (National Instruments, Austin...large reductions of either video resolution or frame rate did not strongly impact iPPG pulse rate measurements [9]. A balanced approach may yield

  5. Region segmentation techniques for object-based image compression: a review (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.


    Image compression based on transform coding appears to be approaching an asymptotic bit rate limit for application-specific distortion levels. However, a new compression technology, called object-based compression (OBC) promises improved rate-distortion performance at higher compression ratios. OBC involves segmentation of image regions, followed by efficient encoding of each region"s content and boundary. Advantages of OBC include efficient representation of commonly occurring textures and shapes in terms of pointers into a compact codebook of region contents and boundary primitives. This facilitates fast decompression via substitution, at the cost of codebook search in the compression step. Segmentation cose and error are significant disadvantages in current OBC implementations. Several innovative techniques have been developed for region segmentation, including (a) moment-based analysis, (b) texture representation in terms of a syntactic grammar, and (c) transform coding approaches such as wavelet based compression used in MPEG-7 or JPEG-2000. Region-based characterization with variance templates is better understood, but lacks the locality of wavelet representations. In practice, tradeoffs are made between representational fidelity, computational cost, and storage requirement. This paper overviews current techniques for automatic region segmentation and representation, especially those that employ wavelet classification and region growing techniques. Implementational discussion focuses on complexity measures and performance metrics such as segmentation error and computational cost.

  6. Video indexing using a high-performance and low-computation color-based opportunistic technique (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Karmouch, Ahmed


    Video information, image processing, and computer vision techniques are developing rapidly because of the availability of acquisition, processing, and editing tools that use current hardware and software systems. However, problems still remain in conveying this video data to the end users. Limiting factors are the resource capabilities in distributed architectures and the features of the users' terminals. The efficient use of image processing, video indexing, and analysis techniques can provide users with solutions or alternatives. We see the video stream as a sequence of correlated images containing in its structure temporal events such as camera editing effects and presents a new algorithm for achieving video segmentation, indexing, and key framing tasks. The algorithm is based on color histograms and uses a binary penetration technique. Although much has been done in this area, most work does not adequately consider the optimization of timing performance and processing storage. This is especially the case if the techniques are designed for use in run-time distributed environments. Our main contribution is to blend high performance and storage criteria with the need to achieve effective results. The algorithm exploits the temporal heuristic characteristic of the visual information within a video stream. It takes into consideration the issues of detecting false cuts and missing true cuts due to the movement of the camera, the optical flow of large objects, or both. We provide a discussion, together with results from experiments and from the implementation of our application, to show the merits of the new algorithm as compared to the existing one.

  7. Automatic flame tracking technique for atrium fire from video images (United States)

    Li, Jin; Lu, Puyi; Fong, Naikong; Chow, Wanki; Wong, Lingtim; Xu, Dianguo


    Smoke control is one of the important aspects in atrium fire. For an efficient smoke control strategy, it is very important to identify the smoke and fire source in a very short period of time. However, traditional methods such as point type detectors are not effective for smoke and fire detection in large space such as atrium. Therefore, video smoke and fire detection systems are proposed. For the development of the system, automatic extraction and tracking of flame are two important problems needed to be solved. Based on entropy theory, region growing and Otsu method, a new automatic integrated algorithm, which is used to track flame from video images, is proposed in this paper. It can successfully identify flames from different environment, different background and in different form. The experimental results show that this integrated algorithm has stronger robustness and wider adaptability. In addition, because of the low computational demand of this algorithm, it is also possible to be used as part of a robust, real-time smoke and fire detection system.

  8. Video capsule endoscopy: Perspectives of a revolutionary technique (United States)

    Bouchard, Simon; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Van Gossum, Andre


    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) was launched in 2000 and has revolutionized direct endoscopic imaging of the gut. VCE is now a first-line procedure for exploring the small bowel in cases of obscure digestive bleeding and is also indicated in some patients with Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and polyposis syndrome. A video capsule has also been designed for visualizing the esophagus in order to detect Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal varices. Different capsules are now available and differ with regard to dimensions, image acquisition rate, battery life, field of view, and possible optical enhancements. More recently, the use of VCE has been extended to exploring the colon. Within the last 5 years, tremendous developments have been made toward increasing the capabilities of the colon capsule. Although colon capsule cannot be proposed as a first-line colorectal cancer screening procedure, colon capsule may be used in patients with incomplete colonoscopy or in patients who are unwilling to undergo colonoscopy. In the near future, new technological developments will improve the diagnostic yield of VCE and broaden its therapeutic capabilities. PMID:25516644

  9. Compression of Video-Otoscope Images for Tele-Otology: A Pilot Study (United States)


    algorithm used in image compression is the one developed by the Joint Picture Expert Group (JPEG), which has been deployed in almost all imaging ...recognised the image , nor go back to view the previous images . This was designed to minimise the affect of memory . After the assessments were tabulated...also have contributed such as the memory effect, or the experience of the assessor. V. CONCLUSION 1. Images can probably be compressed to about

  10. Layered video coder with self-concealed capability using frequency scanning technique (United States)

    Kieu, Liem H.; Ngan, King N.


    In this paper, the frequency scanning and the Modified Universal Variable Length Coding (MUVLC) technique is examined as a means to improve the cell loss resilience of video codecs. An appropriate implementation of this technique for effective use in a pyramid layered coding scheme is described. Simulation results are presented which show the superior performance of this slice based coding technique in comparison to the conventional block scanning and Variable Length Coding (VLC) technique having similar coding efficiency.

  11. Uterine compression suture technique in the management of severe postpartum haemorrhage as an alternative to hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan


    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the most dramatic conditions in obstetrics is definitely bleeding from the uterus which fails to compress. This condition is known as postpartum atony. When such a condition is diagnosed, the obstetrician has a choice of several conservative methods to stimulate the uterus to contract and several surgical methods to stop the bleeding. The most extreme measure used to save the patient's life and stop the bleeding is hysterectomy. This surgery is characterized by high morbidity, primarily by the loss of woman's fertility. In order to avoid hysterectomy, several authors have introduced the compressive uterine suture technique into gynaecological practice. Objective. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the technique of applying compressive uterine suture after delivery to stop excessive bleeding, and to present results obtained by this technique. Methods. The paper explains the technique of applying compressive suture to the atonic uterus in cases when all other procedures to stop excessive bleeding after delivery fail. Since uterine atony is the main reason for excessive and uncontrollable bleeding after childbirth, the need to perform such surgery is rather common. Authors demonstrate the technique of applying four compressive sutures which prevent uterus dilation and thus stop the bleeding. Results. Compressive suture technique was used by the authors eight times, seven of which during caesarean section and one after spontaneous delivery. All patients had normal postpartum period and normal involution of the uterus. Conclusion. Although this surgery requires a skilful and experienced obstetrician, the authors find it rather easy to perform and it is suggested to be applied in all cases of uterine atony when excessive bleeding cannot be stopped by other any other method except hysterectomy. This surgical procedure saves the uterus and facilitates quick and easy patient's recovery.

  12. Two equation modelling and the pseudo compressibility technique (United States)

    Steffen, C. J., Jr.


    The primary objective of the Center for Modelling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT) is to further the understanding of turbulence theory for engineering applications. One important foundation is the establishment of a data base encompassing the multitude of existing models as well as newly proposed ideas. The research effort described is a precursor to an extended survey of two equation turbulence models in the presence of a separated shear layer. Recently, several authors have examined the performance of two equation models in the context of the backward facing step flow. Conflicting results, however, demand that further attention is necessary to properly understand the behavior and limitations of this popular technique, especially the low Reynolds number formulations. The objective is to validate an incompressible Navier Stokes code for use as a numerical test-bed. In turn, this code will be used for analyzing the performance of several two equation models.

  13. Compressed Natural Gas Installation. A Video-Based Training Program for Vehicle Conversion. Instructor's Edition. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach four competency-based course units of instruction in installing compressed natural gas (CNG) systems in motor vehicles. It is designed to accompany an instructional videotape (not included) on CNG installation. The following competencies are covered in the four instructional units:…

  14. Automated analysis and annotation of basketball video (United States)

    Saur, Drew D.; Tan, Yap-Peng; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Ramadge, Peter J.


    Automated analysis and annotation of video sequences are important for digital video libraries, content-based video browsing and data mining projects. A successful video annotation system should provide users with useful video content summary in a reasonable processing time. Given the wide variety of video genres available today, automatically extracting meaningful video content for annotation still remains hard by using current available techniques. However, a wide range video has inherent structure such that some prior knowledge about the video content can be exploited to improve our understanding of the high-level video semantic content. In this paper, we develop tools and techniques for analyzing structured video by using the low-level information available directly from MPEG compressed video. Being able to work directly in the video compressed domain can greatly reduce the processing time and enhance storage efficiency. As a testbed, we have developed a basketball annotation system which combines the low-level information extracted from MPEG stream with the prior knowledge of basketball video structure to provide high level content analysis, annotation and browsing for events such as wide- angle and close-up views, fast breaks, steals, potential shots, number of possessions and possession times. We expect our approach can also be extended to structured video in other domains.

  15. An efficient HW and SW design of H.264 video compression, storage and playback on FPGA devices for handheld thermal imaging systems (United States)

    Gunay, Omer; Ozsarac, Ismail; Kamisli, Fatih


    Video recording is an essential property of new generation military imaging systems. Playback of the stored video on the same device is also desirable as it provides several operational benefits to end users. Two very important constraints for many military imaging systems, especially for hand-held devices and thermal weapon sights, are power consumption and size. To meet these constraints, it is essential to perform most of the processing applied to the video signal, such as preprocessing, compression, storing, decoding, playback and other system functions on a single programmable chip, such as FPGA, DSP, GPU or ASIC. In this work, H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) compatible video compression, storage, decoding and playback blocks are efficiently designed and implemented on FPGA platforms using FPGA fabric and Altera NIOS II soft processor. Many subblocks that are used in video encoding are also used during video decoding in order to save FPGA resources and power. Computationally complex blocks are designed using FPGA fabric, while blocks such as SD card write/read, H.264 syntax decoding and CAVLC decoding are done using NIOS processor to benefit from software flexibility. In addition, to keep power consumption low, the system was designed to require limited external memory access. The design was tested using 640x480 25 fps thermal camera on CYCLONE V FPGA, which is the ALTERA's lowest power FPGA family, and consumes lower than 40% of CYCLONE V 5CEFA7 FPGA resources on average.

  16. Compressed sensing techniques for receiver based post-compensation of transmitter's nonlinear distortions in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Owodunni, Damilola S.


    In this paper, compressed sensing techniques are proposed to linearize commercial power amplifiers driven by orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals. The nonlinear distortion is considered as a sparse phenomenon in the time-domain, and three compressed sensing based algorithms are presented to estimate and compensate for these distortions at the receiver using a few and, at times, even no frequency-domain free carriers (i.e. pilot carriers). The first technique is a conventional compressed sensing approach, while the second incorporates a priori information about the distortions to enhance the estimation. Finally, the third technique involves an iterative data-aided algorithm that does not require any pilot carriers and hence allows the system to work at maximum bandwidth efficiency. The performances of all the proposed techniques are evaluated on a commercial power amplifier and compared. The error vector magnitude and symbol error rate results show the ability of compressed sensing to compensate for the amplifier\\'s nonlinear distortions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Laparoscopic Free Omental Flap for Craniofacial Reconstruction: A Video Article Demonstrating Operative Technique and Surgical Applications. (United States)

    McIntyre, Benjamin C; Lobb, David; Navarro, Fernando; Nottingham, James


    The omental flap is a well described pedicled flap for surgical reconstruction of multiple body locations. As a laparoscopically harvested free flap, the omentum offers a minimally invasive solution to many reconstructive problems including extremity and head and neck wounds. This video article highlights the operative technique involved in flap harvest and inset for a cranial defect. An illustrative case involving a 23-year-old female's traumatic scalp degloving injury that was resurfaced by free omental flap and split-thickness skin graft is presented. This patient had stable long-term wound coverage for a very severe injury. Through video media we demonstrate that the laparoscopically harvested free omental flap is a minimally invasive, 2-team operation that provides soft tissue coverage of severe, remote wounds. This video demonstrates a safe operative technique and nuances specific to laparoscopic harvest of this flap.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Divya


    Full Text Available Data compression plays a vital role in multimedia devices to present the information in a succinct frame. Initially, the DCT structure is used for Image compression, which has lesser complexity and area efficient. Similarly, 2D DCT also has provided reasonable data compression, but implementation concern, it calls more multipliers and adders thus its lead to acquire more area and high power consumption. To contain an account of all, this paper has been dealt with VLSI architecture for image compression using Rom free DA based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform structure. This technique provides high-throughput and most suitable for real-time implementation. In order to achieve this image matrix is subdivided into odd and even terms then the multiplication functions are removed by shift and add approach. Kogge_Stone_Adder techniques are proposed for obtaining a bit-wise image quality which determines the new trade-off levels as compared to the previous techniques. Overall the proposed architecture produces reduced memory, low power consumption and high throughput. MATLAB is used as a funding tool for receiving an input pixel and obtaining output image. Verilog HDL is used for implementing the design, Model Sim for simulation, Quatres II is used to synthesize and obtain details about power and area.

  19. Using High Speed Smartphone Cameras and Video Analysis Techniques to Teach Mechanical Wave Physics (United States)

    Bonato, Jacopo; Gratton, Luigi M.; Onorato, Pasquale; Oss, Stefano


    We propose the use of smartphone-based slow-motion video analysis techniques as a valuable tool for investigating physics concepts ruling mechanical wave propagation. The simple experimental activities presented here, suitable for both high school and undergraduate students, allows one to measure, in a simple yet rigorous way, the speed of pulses…

  20. An exploding foil shockwave technique for magnetic flux compression and high voltage pulse generation

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, S E


    This thesis describes a novel electromagnetic shockwave technique for use in compressing magnetic flux and to serve as the basis for a new approach to producing fast-rising voltage pulses with amplitudes of several hundred kV. The shockwave is produced by an exploding foil driven electric gun that accelerates a Mylar flyer to impact with a sample of aluminium powder. Both Japanese and Russian researchers have previously published experimental results for shockwave magnetic flux compression using an explosive driver. The present research considers replacing the explosive energy of this driver by the electrostatic energy stored in a capacitor bank, thereby enabling experiments to be performed in a laboratory environment. Differences in performance that arise from the use of explosive and electrical driver are examined. A conventional electric gun system in planar geometry is developed to study the insulator-to-metallic transition in shock-compressed aluminium powder. This provides data on the conducting shock f...

  1. An iterative forward analysis technique to determine the equation of state of dynamically compressed materials (United States)

    Ali, Suzanne; Kraus, Richard; Fratanduono, Dayne; Swift, Damian; Eggert, Jon


    We developed an iterative forward analysis (IFA) technique with the ability to use hydrocode simulations as a fitting function for analysis of dynamic compression experiments. Current single experiment analysis techniques are frequently unable to decouple contributions to the measured material response. The IFA method enables global analysis of data from varied experimental platforms and time scales by optimizing over model parameters in the simulations, breaking the degeneracy in the material response. As validation, we simultaneously analyzed multiple magnetically driven ramp compression experiments on copper and compared with the conventional technique of analytically averaging results from Lagrangian analysis. Uncertainty propagation from the experimental uncertainties to the final stress-strain path was accomplished using both Monte Carlo and perturbation methods. Excellent agreement is obtained for both the material properties and the uncertainties. This work performed was under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. On the effects of quantization on mismatched pulse compression filters designed using L-p norm minimization techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cilliers, Jacques E


    Full Text Available In [1] the authors introduced a technique for generating mismatched pulse compression filters for linear frequency chirp signals. The technique minimizes the sum of the pulse compression sidelobes in a p L –norm sense. It was shown that extremely...

  3. Study on a High Compression Processing for Video-on-Demand e-learning System (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshihiko; Matsuda, Ryutaro; Sakamoto, Ryota; Sugiura, Tokuhiro; Matsui, Hirokazu; Kato, Norihiko

    The authors proposed a high-quality and small-capacity lecture-video-file creating system for distance e-learning system. Examining the feature of the lecturing scene, the authors ingeniously employ two kinds of image-capturing equipment having complementary characteristics : one is a digital video camera with a low resolution and a high frame rate, and the other is a digital still camera with a high resolution and a very low frame rate. By managing the two kinds of image-capturing equipment, and by integrating them with image processing, we can produce course materials with the greatly reduced file capacity : the course materials satisfy the requirements both for the temporal resolution to see the lecturer's point-indicating actions and for the high spatial resolution to read the small written letters. As a result of a comparative experiment, the e-lecture using the proposed system was confirmed to be more effective than an ordinary lecture from the viewpoint of educational effect.

  4. Measuring coupled oscillations using an automated video analysis technique based on image recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsoriu, Juan A; Gimenez, Marcos H; Riera, Jaime; Vidaurre, Ana [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)


    The applications of the digital video image to the investigation of physical phenomena have increased enormously in recent years. The advances in computer technology and image recognition techniques allow the analysis of more complex problems. In this work, we study the movement of a damped coupled oscillation system. The motion is considered as a linear combination of two normal modes, i.e. the symmetric and antisymmetric modes. The image of the experiment is recorded with a video camera and analysed by means of software developed in our laboratory. The results show a very good agreement with the theory.

  5. Video compression and DICOM proxies for remote viewing of DICOM images (United States)

    Khorasani, Elahe; Sheinin, Vadim; Paulovicks, Brent; Jagmohan, Ashish


    Digital medical images are rapidly growing in size and volume. A typical study includes multiple image "slices." These images have a special format and a communication protocol referred to as DICOM (Digital Imaging Communications in Medicine). Storing, retrieving, and viewing these images are handled by DICOM-enabled systems. DICOM images are stored in central repository servers called PACS (Picture Archival and Communication Systems). Remote viewing stations are DICOM-enabled applications that can query the PACS servers and retrieve the DICOM images for viewing. Modern medical images are quite large, reaching as much as 1 GB per file. When the viewing station is connected to the PACS server via a high-bandwidth local LAN, downloading of the images is relatively efficient and does not cause significant wasted time for physicians. Problems arise when the viewing station is located in a remote facility that has a low-bandwidth link to the PACS server. If the link between the PACS and remote facility is in the range of 1 Mbit/sec, downloading medical images is very slow. To overcome this problem, medical images are compressed to reduce the size for transmission. This paper describes a method of compression that maintains diagnostic quality of images while significantly reducing the volume to be transmitted, without any change to the existing PACS servers and viewer software, and without requiring any change in the way doctors retrieve and view images today.

  6. Research on the imaging of concrete defect based on the pulse compression technique (United States)

    Li, Chang-Zheng; Zhang, Bi-Xing; Shi, Fang-Fang; Xie, Fu-Li


    When the synthetic aperture focusing technology (SAFT) is used for the detection of the concrete, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and detection depth are not satisfactory. Therefore, the application of SAFT is usually limited. In this paper, we propose an improved SAFT technique for the detection of concrete based on the pulse compression technique used in the Radar domain. The proposed method first transmits a linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal, and then compresses the echo signal using the matched filtering method, after which a compressed signal with a narrower main lobe and higher SNR is obtained. With our improved SAFT, the compressed signals are manipulated in the imaging process and the image contrast is improved. Results show that the SNR is improved and the imaging resolution is guaranteed compared with the conventional short-pulse method. From theoretical and experimental results, we show that the proposed method can suppress noise and improve imaging contrast, and can also be used to detect multiple defects in concrete.

  7. Predicting Concrete Compressive Strength and Modulus of Rupture Using Different NDT Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfrido Martínez-Molina


    Full Text Available Quality tests applied to hydraulic concrete such as compressive, tension, and bending strength are used to guarantee proper characteristics of materials. All these assessments are performed by destructive tests (DTs. The trend is to carry out quality analysis using nondestructive tests (NDTs as has been widely used for decades. This paper proposes a framework for predicting concrete compressive strength and modulus of rupture by combining data from four NDTs: electrical resistivity, ultrasonic pulse velocity, resonant frequency, and hammer test rebound with DTs data. The model, determined from the multiple linear regression technique, produces accurate indicators predictions and categorizes the importance of each NDT estimate. However, the model is identified from all the possible linear combinations of the available NDT, and it was selected using a cross-validation technique. Furthermore, the generality of the model was assessed by comparing results from additional specimens fabricated afterwards.

  8. A comparison of compressive force generation by plating and intramedullary nailing techniques in a transverse diaphyseal humerus fracture model. (United States)

    Virkus, Walter V; Goldberg, Steven H; Lorenz, Eric P


    The null hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the compression forces generated with a novel compressible intramedullary nail are not different from compression plating techniques. A custom sensor was used to measure the compressive force at a transverse midshaft humeral sawbone osteotomy (OTA 12-A3.2) in four groups. The groups included: standard compression plating using a limited contact dynamic compression plate (LCDC) with eccentric screw placement (ED-LCDC), compression plating using an LCDC plate with an articulated tensioner and eccentric compression screw (AT-LCDC), locked humeral nail compressed using the manufacturer's long stainless steel screwdriver (T2-IMN), and locked humeral nail compressed using a short stainless steel AO screwdriver (SF-IMN). From continuous measurements recorded during osteotomy compression, the maximum force (CMax) and force at 60 seconds after the peak measurement (CMax +60) were analyzed. The mean CMax was 2043 N for SF-IMN, 1109 N for AT-LCDC, 799 N for T2-IMN, and 365 N for ED-LCDC. Mean CMax +60 was 1648 N for SF-IMN, 944 N for AT-LCDC, 650 N for T2-IMN, and 319 N for ED-LCDC. The difference in both CMax and CMax +60 was statistically significant between all groups (p tensioner when used with a short stainless steel screwdriver shaft. Clinical studies are needed to analyze whether this compression could improve the union rate of humeral fractures and nonunions beyond those of standard nails.

  9. Ethical use of covert videoing techniques in detecting Munchausen syndrome by proxy. (United States)

    Foreman, D M; Farsides, C


    Munchausen syndrome by proxy is an especially malignant form of child abuse in which the carer (usually the mother) fabricates or exacerbates illness in the child to obtain medical attention. It can result in serious illness and even death of the child and it is difficult to detect. Some investigators have used video to monitor the carer's interaction with the child without obtaining consent--covert videoing. The technique presents several ethical problems, including exposure of the child to further abuse and a breach of trust between carer, child, and the professionals. Although covert videoing can be justified in restricted circumstances, new abuse procedures under the Children Act now seem to make its use unethical in most cases. Sufficient evidence should mostly be obtained from separation of the child and carer or videoing with consent to enable action to be taken to protect the child under an assessment order. If the new statutory instruments prove ineffective in Munchausen syndrome by proxy covert videoing may need to be re-evaluated. PMID:8401021

  10. Video demonstrations seed alternative problem-solving techniques in wild common marmosets. (United States)

    Gunhold, Tina; Whiten, Andrew; Bugnyar, Thomas


    Studies of social learning and tradition formation under field conditions have recently gained momentum, but suffer from the limited control of socio-ecological factors thought to be responsible for transmission patterns. The use of artificial visual stimuli is a potentially powerful tool to overcome some of these problems. Here, in a field experiment, we used video images of unfamiliar conspecifics performing virtual demonstrations of foraging techniques. We tested 12 family groups of wild common marmosets. Six groups received video demonstrations (footage of conspecifics either pulling a drawer open or pushing a lid upwards, in an 'artificial fruit'); the other six groups served as controls (exposed to a static image of a conspecific next to the fruit). Subjects in video groups were more manipulative and successful in opening the fruit than controls; they were also more likely to use the technique they had witnessed and thus could serve as live models for other family members. To our knowledge, this is the first study that used video demonstrations in the wild and demonstrated the potent force of social learning, even from unfamiliar conspecifics, under field conditions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimally invasive video-assisted submandibular sialadenectomy: surgical technique and results from two institutions. (United States)

    Parente Arias, Pablo L; Fernández Fernández, Mario M; Varela Vázquez, Patricia; de Diego Muñoz, Beatriz


    Submandibular gland excision is traditionally performed using a transcervical approach. However, innovative surgical trials have recently been conducted to investigate techniques that can prevent or reduce visible scarring and nerve injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new approach to submandibular gland excision that is based on the use of a minimally invasive video-assisted technique and an ultrasound scalpel in an endoscopic neck surgery program with a low annual flow of procedures. We retrospectively studied 15 patients with submandibular gland disease who underwent minimally invasive video-assisted submandibular sialadenectomy performed by two surgeons at two institutions. Eight patients had proximally located salivary calculi, three had chronic sialadenitis, and four had benign neoplasms. All dissections were carried out by a single-port gasless approach, using the Miccoli technique, involving endoscope magnification and an ultrasonic scalpel. All 15 submandibular gland resections were performed successfully, with no conversions to conventional open resection. The operative time ranged from 45 to 125 min (median 84 min). A total of 67 % of patients were discharged the day after surgery, and the maximum length of stay was 3 days. One patient experienced postoperative bleeding, and one experienced postoperative infection. There was no neural injury. The incision scar healed well in all cases, and all patients reported excellent cosmetic results. Endoscopic submandibular gland resection using a minimally invasive video-assisted technique, endoscopic magnification, and ultrasonic scalpel was feasible and resulted in excellent surgical outcomes.

  12. Residual Stress State in Single-Edge Notched Tension Specimen Caused by the Local Compression Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yifan


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D finite element analyses (FEA are performed to simulate the local compression (LC technique on the clamped single-edge notched tension (SE(T specimens. The analysis includes three types of indenters, which are single pair of cylinder indenters (SPCI, double pairs of cylinder indenters (DPCI and single pair of ring indenters (SPRI. The distribution of the residual stress in the crack opening direction in the uncracked ligament of the specimen is evaluated. The outcome of this study can facilitate the use of LC technique on SE(T specimens.

  13. A Comparison of Techniques for Camera Selection and Hand-Off in a Video Network (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Bhanu, Bir

    Video networks are becoming increasingly important for solving many real-world problems. Multiple video sensors require collaboration when performing various tasks. One of the most basic tasks is the tracking of objects, which requires mechanisms to select a camera for a certain object and hand-off this object from one camera to another so as to accomplish seamless tracking. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive comparison of current and emerging camera selection and hand-off techniques. We consider geometry-, statistics-, and game theory-based approaches and provide both theoretical and experimental comparison using centralized and distributed computational models. We provide simulation and experimental results using real data for various scenarios of a large number of cameras and objects for in-depth understanding of strengths and weaknesses of these techniques.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesty Puspitasari


    Full Text Available This study is designed to solve the classroom problem dealing with the improvement of listening skill of the students of one private Islamic college that also study at pesantren in which they have lack of exposure in learning English. To cater a new way to overcome this issue, a classroom action research focusing on the implementation of interactive video viewing technique was employed. The findings exemplify that the students show better listening achievement after the implementation of second research cycle.

  15. Video demonstrations seed alternative problem-solving techniques in wild common marmosets


    Gunhold, Tina; Whiten, Andrew; Bugnyar, Thomas


    Studies of social learning and tradition formation under field conditions have recently gained momentum, but suffer from the limited control of socio-ecological factors thought to be responsible for transmission patterns. The use of artificial visual stimuli is a potentially powerful tool to overcome some of these problems. Here, in a field experiment, we used video images of unfamiliar conspecifics performing virtual demonstrations of foraging techniques. We tested 12 family groups of wild c...

  16. Refinement of the wedge bar technique for compression tests at intermediate strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stander M.


    Full Text Available A refined development of the wedge-bar technique [1] for compression tests at intermediate strain rates is presented. The concept uses a wedge mechanism to compress small cylindrical specimens at strain rates in the order of 10s−1 to strains of up to 0.3. Co-linear elastic impact principles are used to accelerate the actuation mechanism from rest to test speed in under 300μs while maintaining near uniform strain rates for up to 30 ms, i.e. the transient phase of the test is less than 1% of the total test duration. In particular, a new load frame, load cell and sliding anvil designs are presented and shown to significantly reduce the noise generated during testing. Typical dynamic test results for a selection of metals and polymers are reported and compared with quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar results.

  17. A new technique in reference based DNA sequence compression algorithm: Enabling partial decompression (United States)

    Banerjee, Kakoli; Prasad, R. A.


    The whole gamut of Genetic data is ever increasing exponentially. The human genome in its base format occupies almost thirty terabyte of data and doubling its size every two and a half year. It is well-know that computational resources are limited. The most important resource which genetic data requires in its collection, storage and retrieval is its storage space. Storage is limited. Computational performance is also dependent on storage and execution time. Transmission capabilities are also directly dependent on the size of the data. Hence Data compression techniques become an issue of utmost importance when we confront with the task of handling such giganticdatabases like GenBank. Decompression is also an issue when such huge databases are being handled. This paper is intended not only to provide genetic data compression but also partially decompress the genetic sequences.

  18. Comparison of the performance of different radar pulse compression techniques in an incoherent scatter radar measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Damtie


    Full Text Available Improving an estimate of an incoherent scatter radar signal is vital to provide reliable and unbiased information about the Earth's ionosphere. Thus optimizing the measurement spatial and temporal resolutions has attracted considerable attention. The optimization usually relies on employing different kinds of pulse compression filters in the analysis and a matched filter is perhaps the most widely used one. A mismatched filter has also been used in order to suppress the undesirable sidelobes that appear in the case of matched filtering. Moreover, recently an adaptive pulse compression method, which can be derived based on the minimum mean-square error estimate, has been proposed. In this paper we have investigated the performance of matched, mismatched and adaptive pulse compression methods in terms of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the variance and bias of the estimator. This is done by using different types of optimal radar waveforms. It is shown that for the case of low SNR the signal degradation associated to an adaptive filtering is less than that of the mismatched filtering. The SNR loss of both matched and adaptive pulse compression techniques was found to be nearly the same for most of the investigated codes for the case of high SNR. We have shown that the adaptive filtering technique is a compromise between matched and mismatched filtering method when one evaluates its performance in terms of the variance and the bias of the estimator. All the three analysis methods were found to have the same performance when a sidelobe-free matched filter code is employed.

  19. Teaching Splinting Techniques Using a Just-in-Time Training Instructional Video. (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Deborah R; Wang, Vincent J


    Splinting is a multistep procedure that is seldom performed by primary care physicians. Just-in-time training (JITT) is an emerging teaching modality and can be an invaluable asset for infrequently performed procedures or in locations where teaching resources and trained professionals are limited. Our objective was to determine the utility of JITT for teaching medical students the short-arm (SA) volar splinting technique. This was a prospective randomized controlled pilot study. An instructional video on SA volar splinting was produced. Students viewed the video or had access to standard medical textbooks (control group) immediately before applying an SA volar splint. The students were assessed for the quality of the splint via a standard 6-point skills checklist. The times required for presplinting preparation and for completion of the splint were also measured. Just-in-time training group students scored higher on the splint checklist (mean [SD], 5.45 [1.06]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.99-5.92 vs mean [SD], 1.58 [1.12]; 95% CI, 1.04-2.12; P vs 0%; P vs mean [SD], 9.89 [0.46]; 95% CI, 9.67-10.12; P reading standard textbooks, watching a brief JITT instructional video before splinting yielded faster learning times combined with more successful procedural skills. The use of a JITT instructional video may have potential applications, including globally, as an alternative resource for teaching and disseminating procedural skills, such as SA volar splinting.

  20. New technique combined with scanning and static method in true-color panel video display (United States)

    Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian; Bai, Lianfa; Zhang, Baomin


    A new technique, which combined with scanning and quasi- static method is presented. By the technique, when applied in true color panel video display, the matching of three primary colors can be more suitable, the brightness of the whole screen can be higher. At the same time, because of the using of scanning method, the cost of the system is not so high as that of ordinary system. Sampling of high distinguishability data, shaping and enhancing of image outline, nonlinear rectify of the primary colors are also discussed here.

  1. Flight State Information Inference with Application to Helicopter Cockpit Video Data Analysis Using Data Mining Techniques (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyun

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has recently emphasized the importance of analyzing flight data as one of the most effective methods to improve eciency and safety of helicopter operations. By analyzing flight data with Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) programs, the safety and performance of helicopter operations can be evaluated and improved. In spite of the NTSB's effort, the safety of helicopter operations has not improved at the same rate as the safety of worldwide airlines, and the accident rate of helicopters continues to be much higher than that of fixed-wing aircraft. One of the main reasons is that the participation rates of the rotorcraft industry in the FDM programs are low due to the high costs of the Flight Data Recorder (FDR), the need of a special readout device to decode the FDR, anxiety of punitive action, etc. Since a video camera is easily installed, accessible, and inexpensively maintained, cockpit video data could complement the FDR in the presence of the FDR or possibly replace the role of the FDR in the absence of the FDR. Cockpit video data is composed of image and audio data: image data contains outside views through cockpit windows and activities on the flight instrument panels, whereas audio data contains sounds of the alarms within the cockpit. The goal of this research is to develop, test, and demonstrate a cockpit video data analysis algorithm based on data mining and signal processing techniques that can help better understand situations in the cockpit and the state of a helicopter by efficiently and accurately inferring the useful flight information from cockpit video data. Image processing algorithms based on data mining techniques are proposed to estimate a helicopter's attitude such as the bank and pitch angles, identify indicators from a flight instrument panel, and read the gauges and the numbers in the analogue gauge indicators and digital displays from cockpit image data. In addition, an audio processing algorithm

  2. Adaptive-Compression Based Congestion Control Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joa-Hyoung Lee


    Full Text Available Congestion in a wireless sensor network causes an increase in the amount of data loss and delays in data transmission. In this paper, we propose a new congestion control technique (ACT, Adaptive Compression-based congestion control Technique based on an adaptive compression scheme for packet reduction in case of congestion. The compression techniques used in the ACT are Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT, Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM, and Run-Length Coding (RLC. The ACT first transforms the data from the time domain to the frequency domain, reduces the range of data by using ADPCM, and then reduces the number of packets with the help of RLC before transferring the data to the source node. It introduces the DWT for priority-based congestion control because the DWT classifies the data into four groups with different frequencies. The ACT assigns priorities to these data groups in an inverse proportion to the respective frequencies of the data groups and defines the quantization step size of ADPCM in an inverse proportion to the priorities. RLC generates a smaller number of packets for a data group with a low priority. In the relaying node, the ACT reduces the amount of packets by increasing the quantization step size of ADPCM in case of congestion. Moreover, in order to facilitate the back pressure, the queue is controlled adaptively according to the congestion state. We experimentally demonstrate that the ACT increases the network efficiency and guarantees fairness to sensor nodes, as compared with the existing methods. Moreover, it exhibits a very high ratio of the available data in the sink.

  3. Testing for General Dynamical Stationarity with a Symbolic Data Compression Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kennel, M B; Kennel, Matthew B.; Mees, Alistair I.


    We construct a statistic and null test for examining the stationarity of time-series of discrete symbols: whether two data streams appear to originate from the same underlying unknown dynamical system, and if any difference is statistically significant. Using principles and computational techniques from the theory of data compression, the method intelligently accounts for the substantial serial correlation and nonlinearity found in realistic dynamical data, problems which bedevil naive methods. Symbolic methods are computationally efficient and robust to noise. We demonstrate the method on a number of realistic experimental datasets.

  4. Application aware approach to compression and transmission of H.264 encoded video for automated and centralized transportation surveillance. (United States)


    In this report we present a transportation video coding and wireless transmission system specically tailored to automated : vehicle tracking applications. By taking into account the video characteristics and the lossy nature of the wireless channe...

  5. Efficient predictive algorithms for image compression

    CERN Document Server

    Rosário Lucas, Luís Filipe; Maciel de Faria, Sérgio Manuel; Morais Rodrigues, Nuno Miguel; Liberal Pagliari, Carla


    This book discusses efficient prediction techniques for the current state-of-the-art High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, focusing on the compression of a wide range of video signals, such as 3D video, Light Fields and natural images. The authors begin with a review of the state-of-the-art predictive coding methods and compression technologies for both 2D and 3D multimedia contents, which provides a good starting point for new researchers in the field of image and video compression. New prediction techniques that go beyond the standardized compression technologies are then presented and discussed. In the context of 3D video, the authors describe a new predictive algorithm for the compression of depth maps, which combines intra-directional prediction, with flexible block partitioning and linear residue fitting. New approaches are described for the compression of Light Field and still images, which enforce sparsity constraints on linear models. The Locally Linear Embedding-based prediction method is in...

  6. Low Profile Mesh Plating for Patella Fractures: Video of a Novel Surgical Technique. (United States)

    Verbeek, Diederik O; Hickerson, Lindsay E; Warner, Stephen J; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G


    Patella fractures can be challenging to treat particularly in the presence of inferior pole comminution. In this video we present a novel surgical technique for the treatment of patella fractures using a small fragment low profile mesh plate. Key points are the surgical exposure with direct visualization of the articular reduction, the preparation of the mesh plate to accommodate patellar anatomy and the augmentation of the construct using Krackow sutures to address inferior pole comminution. Low profile mesh plating allows for multiplanar fixation of patella fractures while avoiding implant and fixation problems related to tension band fixation. Our early experience with this technique is encouraging and it appears that this technique is useful for the treatment of the majority of patella fractures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jayaraj


    Full Text Available A Non-linear adaptive decision based algorithm with robust motion estimation technique is proposed for removal of impulse noise, Gaussian noise and mixed noise (impulse and Gaussian with edge and fine detail preservation in images and videos. The algorithm includes detection of corrupted pixels and the estimation of values for replacing the corrupted pixels. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that an appropriate filter is used for replacing the corrupted pixel based on the estimation of the noise variance present in the filtering window. This leads to reduced blurring and better fine detail preservation even at the high mixed noise density. It performs both spatial and temporal filtering for removal of the noises in the filter window of the videos. The Improved Cross Diamond Search Motion Estimation technique uses Least Median Square as a cost function, which shows improved performance than other motion estimation techniques with existing cost functions. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms in the visual point of view and in Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Mean Square Error and Image Enhancement Factor.

  8. Using high speed smartphone cameras and video analysis techniques to teach mechanical wave physics (United States)

    Bonato, Jacopo; Gratton, Luigi M.; Onorato, Pasquale; Oss, Stefano


    We propose the use of smartphone-based slow-motion video analysis techniques as a valuable tool for investigating physics concepts ruling mechanical wave propagation. The simple experimental activities presented here, suitable for both high school and undergraduate students, allows one to measure, in a simple yet rigorous way, the speed of pulses along a spring and the period of transverse standing waves generated in the same spring. These experiments can be helpful in addressing several relevant concepts about the physics of mechanical waves and in overcoming some of the typical student misconceptions in this same field.

  9. Spatiotemporal super-resolution for low bitrate H.264 video


    Anantrasirichai, N; Canagarajah, CN


    Super-resolution and frame interpolation enhance low resolution low-framerate videos. Such techniques are especially important for limited bandwidth communications. This paper proposes a novel technique to up-scale videos compressed with H.264 at low bit-rate both in spatial and temporal dimensions. A quantisation noise model is used in the super-resolution estimator, designed for low bitrate video, and a weighting map for decreasing inaccuracy of motion estimation are proposed. Results show ...

  10. Ensuring security of H.264 videos by using watermarking (United States)

    Chaumont, Marc


    Watermarking is known to be a very difficult task. Robustness, Distortion, Payload, Security, Complexity are many constraints to deal with. When applied to a video stream, the difficulty seems to be growing in comparison to image watermarking. Many classical non malicious manipulations of a compressed stream may suppress the embedded information. For example, a simple re-compression of a DVD movie (MPEG2 compression) to a DivX movie will defeat most of the current state-of-the-art watermarking systems. In this talk, we will expose the different techniques in order to watermark a video compressed stream. Before, we will present the H.264/AVC standard which is one of the most powerful video-compression algorithms. The discussion about video watermarking will be illustrated with H.264 streams. The specific example of traitor tracing will be presented. Deadlocks will be discussed, and then the possible extensions and the future applications will conclude the presentation.

  11. A new technique for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant. (United States)

    Kılınçer, Abidin; Akpınar, Erhan; Erbil, Bülent; Ünal, Emre; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Kaynaroğlu, Volkan; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa


    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant (RLQ) in adults with acute appendicitis. 168 patients (age range, 18-78 years) were included who underwent contrast-enhanced CT for suspected appendicitis performed either using compression to the RLQ (n = 71) or a standard protocol (n = 97). Outer diameter of the appendix, appendiceal wall thickening, luminal content and associated findings were evaluated in each patient. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's and Pearson's chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference in the mean outer diameter (MOD) between compression CT scans (10.6 ± 1.9 mm) and standard protocol (11.2 ± 2.3 mm) in patients with acute appendicitis (P = 1). MOD was significantly lower in the compression group (5.2 ± 0.8 mm) compared to the standard protocol (6.5 ± 1.1 mm) (P appendicitis. A cut-off value of 6.75 mm for the outer diameter of the appendix was found to be 100% sensitive in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis for both groups. The specificity was higher for compression CT technique (67.7 vs. 94.9%). Normal appendix diameter was significantly smaller in the compression-CT group compared to standard-CT group, increasing diagnostic accuracy of abdominal compression CT. • Normal appendix diameter is significantly smaller in compression CT. • Compression could force contrast material to flow through the appendiceal lumen. • Compression CT may be a CT counterpart of graded compression US.

  12. Study of Various Techniques for Improving Weak and Compressible Clay Soil under a High Earth Embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein A.K. M.


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of three soil improvement techniques for the construction of a high earth embankment on thick weak and highly compressible clay soil. The eastern approach embankment of Alhalfaya Bridge on the River Nile linking Khartoum North and Omdurman cities was chosen as a case study and a comprehensive site investigation program was carried out to determine the properties the subsurface soils. The study results showed that unless the subsurface soils have been improved they may fail or undergo excessively large settlements due to the embankment construction. Three ground improvement techniques based on the principles of the “staged construction method, SCM”, “vertical sand drain, VSD” and “sand compaction piles, SCP” of embankment foundation soil treatment are discussed and evaluated. Embankment design options based on applications of the above methods have been proposed for foundation treatment to adequately support embankment loads. A method performance evaluation based on the improvement of soil properties achieved; the time required for construction and compared estimated costs criteria was made to assess the effectiveness and expected overall performance. Adoption of any of the soil improvement techniques considered depends mainly on the most critical and decisive factor governing the embankment design. Based on the overall performance for the embankment case studied, the sand drains is considered as the most appropriate improvement method followed by the sand compaction piles technique whereas the staged construction method showed the poorest overall performance.

  13. Cross-Layer Techniques for Adaptive Video Streaming over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Shan


    Full Text Available Real-time streaming media over wireless networks is a challenging proposition due to the characteristics of video data and wireless channels. In this paper, we propose a set of cross-layer techniques for adaptive real-time video streaming over wireless networks. The adaptation is done with respect to both channel and data. The proposed novel packetization scheme constructs the application layer packet in such a way that it is decomposed exactly into an integer number of equal-sized radio link protocol (RLP packets. FEC codes are applied within an application packet at the RLP packet level rather than across different application packets and thus reduce delay at the receiver. A priority-based ARQ, together with a scheduling algorithm, is applied at the application layer to retransmit only the corrupted RLP packets within an application layer packet. Our approach combines the flexibility and programmability of application layer adaptations, with low delay and bandwidth efficiency of link layer techniques. Socket-level simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Cross-Layer Techniques for Adaptive Video Streaming over Wireless Networks (United States)

    Shan, Yufeng


    Real-time streaming media over wireless networks is a challenging proposition due to the characteristics of video data and wireless channels. In this paper, we propose a set of cross-layer techniques for adaptive real-time video streaming over wireless networks. The adaptation is done with respect to both channel and data. The proposed novel packetization scheme constructs the application layer packet in such a way that it is decomposed exactly into an integer number of equal-sized radio link protocol (RLP) packets. FEC codes are applied within an application packet at the RLP packet level rather than across different application packets and thus reduce delay at the receiver. A priority-based ARQ, together with a scheduling algorithm, is applied at the application layer to retransmit only the corrupted RLP packets within an application layer packet. Our approach combines the flexibility and programmability of application layer adaptations, with low delay and bandwidth efficiency of link layer techniques. Socket-level simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Identification of Sparse Audio Tampering Using Distributed Source Coding and Compressive Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzise G


    Full Text Available In the past few years, a large amount of techniques have been proposed to identify whether a multimedia content has been illegally tampered or not. Nevertheless, very few efforts have been devoted to identifying which kind of attack has been carried out, especially due to the large data required for this task. We propose a novel hashing scheme which exploits the paradigms of compressive sensing and distributed source coding to generate a compact hash signature, and we apply it to the case of audio content protection. The audio content provider produces a small hash signature by computing a limited number of random projections of a perceptual, time-frequency representation of the original audio stream; the audio hash is given by the syndrome bits of an LDPC code applied to the projections. At the content user side, the hash is decoded using distributed source coding tools. If the tampering is sparsifiable or compressible in some orthonormal basis or redundant dictionary, it is possible to identify the time-frequency position of the attack, with a hash size as small as 200 bits/second; the bit saving obtained by introducing distributed source coding ranges between 20% to 70%.

  16. Development of High Speed Imaging and Analysis Techniques Compressible Dynamics Stall (United States)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Carr, L. W.; Wilder, M. C.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)


    Dynamic stall has limited the flight envelope of helicopters for many years. The problem has been studied in the laboratory as well as in flight, but most research, even in the laboratory, has been restricted to surface measurement techniques such as pressure transducers or skin friction gauges, except at low speed. From this research, it became apparent that flow visualization tests performed at Mach numbers representing actual flight conditions were needed if the complex physics associated with dynamic stall was to be properly understood. However, visualization of the flow field during compressible conditions required carefully aligned and meticulously reconstructed holographic interferometry. As part of a long-range effort focused on exposing of the physics of compressible dynamic stall, a research wind tunnel was developed at NASA Ames Research Center which permits visual access to the full flow field surrounding an oscillating airfoil during compressible dynamic stall. Initially, a stroboscopic schlieren technique was used for visualization of the stall process, but the primary research tool has been point diffraction interferometry(PDI), a technique carefully optimized for use in th is project. A review of the process of development of PDI will be presented in the full paper. One of the most valuable aspects of PDI is the fact that interferograms are produced in real time on a continuous basis. The use of a rapidly-pulsed laser makes this practical; a discussion of this approach will be presented in the full paper. This rapid pulsing(up to 40,000 pulses/sec) produces interferograms of the rapidly developing dynamic stall field in sufficient resolution(both in space and time) that the fluid physics of the compressible dynamic stall flowfield can be quantitatively determined, including the gradients of pressure in space and time. This permits analysis of the influence of the effect of pitch rate, Mach number, Reynolds number, amplitude of oscillation, and other

  17. Universal and efficient compressed sensing by spread spectrum and application to realistic Fourier imaging techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Puy, Gilles; Gribonval, Rémi; Wiaux, Yves


    We advocate a compressed sensing strategy that consists of multiplying the signal of interest by a wide bandwidth modulation before projection onto randomly selected vectors of an orthonormal basis. Firstly, in a digital setting with random modulation, considering a whole class of sensing bases including the Fourier basis, we prove that the technique is universal in the sense that the required number of measurements for accurate recovery is optimal and independent of the sparsity basis. This universality stems from a drastic decrease of coherence between the sparsity and the sensing bases, which for a Fourier sensing basis relates to a spread of the original signal spectrum by the modulation (hence the name "spread spectrum"). The approach is also efficient as sensing matrices with fast matrix multiplication algorithms can be used, in particular in the case of Fourier measurements. Secondly, these results are confirmed by a numerical analysis of the phase transition of the l1- minimization problem. Finally, w...

  18. A new technique for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilincer, Abidin; Akpinar, Erhan; Uenal, Emre; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Oezmen, Mustafa [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Erbil, Buelent [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kaynaroglu, Volkan [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Ankara (Turkey)


    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant (RLQ) in adults with acute appendicitis. 168 patients (age range, 18-78 years) were included who underwent contrast-enhanced CT for suspected appendicitis performed either using compression to the RLQ (n = 71) or a standard protocol (n = 97). Outer diameter of the appendix, appendiceal wall thickening, luminal content and associated findings were evaluated in each patient. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's and Pearson's chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference in the mean outer diameter (MOD) between compression CT scans (10.6 ± 1.9 mm) and standard protocol (11.2 ± 2.3 mm) in patients with acute appendicitis (P = 1). MOD was significantly lower in the compression group (5.2 ± 0.8 mm) compared to the standard protocol (6.5 ± 1.1 mm) (P < 0.01) in patients without appendicitis. A cut-off value of 6.75 mm for the outer diameter of the appendix was found to be 100% sensitive in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis for both groups. The specificity was higher for compression CT technique (67.7 vs. 94.9%). Normal appendix diameter was significantly smaller in the compression-CT group compared to standard-CT group, increasing diagnostic accuracy of abdominal compression CT. (orig.)

  19. Tiny videos: a large data set for nonparametric video retrieval and frame classification. (United States)

    Karpenko, Alexandre; Aarabi, Parham


    In this paper, we present a large database of over 50,000 user-labeled videos collected from YouTube. We develop a compact representation called "tiny videos" that achieves high video compression rates while retaining the overall visual appearance of the video as it varies over time. We show that frame sampling using affinity propagation-an exemplar-based clustering algorithm-achieves the best trade-off between compression and video recall. We use this large collection of user-labeled videos in conjunction with simple data mining techniques to perform related video retrieval, as well as classification of images and video frames. The classification results achieved by tiny videos are compared with the tiny images framework [24] for a variety of recognition tasks. The tiny images data set consists of 80 million images collected from the Internet. These are the largest labeled research data sets of videos and images available to date. We show that tiny videos are better suited for classifying scenery and sports activities, while tiny images perform better at recognizing objects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that combining the tiny images and tiny videos data sets improves classification precision in a wider range of categories.

  20. Watermarking textures in video games (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin


    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  1. A diversity compression and combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz


    The cooperative relaying process with multiple relays needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. We consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination captures the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening principles. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. A comparative analysis of dynamic range compression techniques in IR images for maritime applications (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Acito, Nicola; Diani, Marco; Luison, Cristian; Olivieri, Monica; Barani, Gianni


    Modern thermal cameras acquire IR images with a high dynamic range because they have to sense with high thermal resolution the great temperature changes of monitored scenarios in specific surveillance applications. Initially developed for visible light images and recently extended for display of IR images, high dynamic range compression (HDRC) techniques aim at furnishing plain images to human operators for a first intuitive comprehension of the sensed scenario without altering the features of IR images. In this context, the maritime scenario represents a challenging case to test and develop HDRC strategies since images collected for surveillance at sea are typically characterized by high thermal gradients among the background scene and classes of objects at different temperatures. In the development of a new IRST system, Selex ES assembled a demonstrator equipped with modern thermal cameras and planned a measurement campaign on a maritime scenario so as to collect IR sequences in different operating conditions. This has led to build up a case record of situations suitable to test HDRC techniques. In this work, a survey of HDRC approaches is introduced pointing out advantages and drawbacks with focus on strategies specifically designed to display IR images. A detailed analysis of the performance is discussed in order to address the task of visualization with reference to typical issues of IR maritime images, such as robustness to the horizon effect and displaying of very warm objects and flat areas.

  3. Using Tailored Videos to Teach Inhaler Technique to Children With Asthma: Results From a School Nurse-Led Pilot Study. (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Alexander, Dayna S; Elio, Alice; DeWalt, Darren; Lee, Charles; Sleath, Betsy L


    Our purpose was to test whether a tailored inhaler technique video intervention: (1) could be feasibly implemented by school nurses and (2) improve the inhaler technique of children with asthma. School nurses recruited a convenience sample of 25 children with asthma (ages 7-17) and assessed their inhaler technique. Children then watched a tailored video that provided: (1) step-by-step feedback on which steps (out of 8) they performed correctly, (2) praise for correctly-performed steps, and (3) statements about why incorrectly-performed steps are important. Nurses reassessed the child's inhaler technique immediately after watching the video and again 1month later. Non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank tests were calculated to assess whether children's technique significantly improved from baseline to post-video and baseline to 1-month follow-up. A focus group with the school nurses was conducted post-intervention to discuss feasibility issues. Children's inhaler technique improved by 1.2 steps (with spacer; p=0.03) and 2.7 steps (without spacer; ptechnique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of a Lossless Image Compression System for Video Capsule Endoscopy and Its Performance in In-Vivo Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq H. Khan


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new low complexity and lossless image compression system for capsule endoscopy (CE is presented. The compressor consists of a low-cost YEF color space converter and variable-length predictive with a combination of Golomb-Rice and unary encoding. All these components have been heavily optimized for low-power and low-cost and lossless in nature. As a result, the entire compression system does not incur any loss of image information. Unlike transform based algorithms, the compressor can be interfaced with commercial image sensors which send pixel data in raster-scan fashion that eliminates the need of having large buffer memory. The compression algorithm is capable to work with white light imaging (WLI and narrow band imaging (NBI with average compression ratio of 78% and 84% respectively. Finally, a complete capsule endoscopy system is developed on a single, low-power, 65-nm field programmable gate arrays (FPGA chip. The prototype is developed using circular PCBs having a diameter of 16 mm. Several in-vivo and ex-vivo trials using pig's intestine have been conducted using the prototype to validate the performance of the proposed lossless compression algorithm. The results show that, compared with all other existing works, the proposed algorithm offers a solution to wireless capsule endoscopy with lossless and yet acceptable level of compression.

  5. Estimating the concrete compressive strength using hard clustering and fuzzy clustering based regression techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagwani, Naresh Kumar; Deo, Shirish V


    Understanding of the compressive strength of concrete is important for activities like construction arrangement, prestressing operations, and proportioning new mixtures and for the quality assurance...

  6. Assessing Caribbean Shallow and Mesophotic Reef Fish Communities Using Baited-Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Diver-Operated Video (DOV) Survey Techniques. (United States)

    Andradi-Brown, Dominic A; Macaya-Solis, Consuelo; Exton, Dan A; Gress, Erika; Wright, Georgina; Rogers, Alex D


    Fish surveys form the backbone of reef monitoring and management initiatives throughout the tropics, and understanding patterns in biases between techniques is crucial if outputs are to address key objectives optimally. Often biases are not consistent across natural environmental gradients such as depth, leading to uncertainty in interpretation of results. Recently there has been much interest in mesophotic reefs (reefs from 30-150 m depth) as refuge habitats from fishing pressure, leading to many comparisons of reef fish communities over depth gradients. Here we compare fish communities using stereo-video footage recorded via baited remote underwater video (BRUV) and diver-operated video (DOV) systems on shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean. We show inconsistent responses across families, species and trophic groups between methods across the depth gradient. Fish species and family richness were higher using BRUV at both depth ranges, suggesting that BRUV is more appropriate for recording all components of the fish community. Fish length distributions were not different between methods on shallow reefs, yet BRUV recorded more small fish on mesophotic reefs. However, DOV consistently recorded greater relative fish community biomass of herbivores, suggesting that studies focusing on herbivores should consider using DOV. Our results highlight the importance of considering what component of reef fish community researchers and managers are most interested in surveying when deciding which survey technique to use across natural gradients such as depth.

  7. Scalable video on demand adaptive Internet-based distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Zink, Michael


    In recent years, the proliferation of available video content and the popularity of the Internet have encouraged service providers to develop new ways of distributing content to clients. Increasing video scaling ratios and advanced digital signal processing techniques have led to Internet Video-on-Demand applications, but these currently lack efficiency and quality. Scalable Video on Demand: Adaptive Internet-based Distribution examines how current video compression and streaming can be used to deliver high-quality applications over the Internet. In addition to analysing the problems

  8. An enhanced technique for mobile cloudlet offloading with reduced computation using compression in the cloud (United States)

    Moro, A. C.; Nadesh, R. K.


    The cloud computing paradigm has transformed the way we do business in today’s world. Services on cloud have come a long way since just providing basic storage or software on demand. One of the fastest growing factor in this is mobile cloud computing. With the option of offloading now available to mobile users, mobile users can offload entire applications onto cloudlets. With the problems regarding availability and limited-storage capacity of these mobile cloudlets, it becomes difficult to decide for the mobile user when to use his local memory or the cloudlets. Hence, we take a look at a fast algorithm that decides whether the mobile user should go for cloudlet or rely on local memory based on an offloading probability. We have partially implemented the algorithm which decides whether the task can be carried out locally or given to a cloudlet. But as it becomes a burden on the mobile devices to perform the complete computation, so we look to offload this on to a cloud in our paper. Also further we use a file compression technique before sending the file onto the cloud to further reduce the load.

  9. Video endoscopic oro-nasal visualisation of the anterior wall of maxillary sinus: a new technique. (United States)

    Trimarchi, M; Tomazic, P V; Bertazzoni, G; Rathburn, A; Bussi, M; Stammberger, H


    The anterior wall of the maxillary sinus represents a blind spot in maxillary sinus endoscopic surgery because of the absence of proper visualisation and instrumentation to reach it. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach through the oral cavity into the nose with a flexible video endoscope (oro-nasal endoscopic approach; ONEA) to visualise the entire anterior maxillary wall including the anteromedial angle. We started from a dried bone cadaver model, and then dissected fresh-frozen cadavers. The maxillary sinus was explored with a rigid and a flexible endoscope entering from the nose. Next, a flexible endoscope was introduced through the mouth and back up through the choana, it accessed the maxillary middle antrostomy, entering inside the sinus and looking at the anterior wall. A small ruler inserted inside the sinus demonstrated all the angles visualised. The new ONEA technique allows complete visualisation of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus with inspection of all blind spots. It is therefore possible to detect lesions that would normally not be visible with a normal rigid endoscope. We demonstrate the validity of a novel technique that allows visualisation of the infero-medial angle of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus.

  10. Technique and outcomes of robot-assisted median arcuate ligament release for celiac artery compression syndrome. (United States)

    Thoolen, Stijn J J; van der Vliet, Walderik J; Kent, Tara S; Callery, Mark P; Dib, Martin J; Hamdan, Allen; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Moser, A James


    Celiac artery compression by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a potential cause of postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss that overlaps with other common syndromes. Robotic technology may alter the current paradigm for surgical intervention. Open MAL release is often performed with concurrent bypass for celiac stenosis due to the morbidity of reintervention, whereas the laparoscopic approach is associated with high rates of conversion to open due to bleeding. We hypothesized that a robot-assisted technique might minimize conversion events to open, decrease perioperative morbidity, and defer consideration of vascular bypass at the initial operative setting. We retrospectively analyzed patients treated for MAL syndrome by a multidisciplinary team at a tertiary medical center between September 2012 and December 2013. Diagnosis was based on symptom profile and peak systolic velocity (PSV) >200 cm/s during celiac artery duplex ultrasound imaging. All patients underwent robot-assisted MAL release with simultaneous circumferential neurolysis of the celiac plexus. Postoperative celiac duplex and symptom profiles were reassessed longitudinally to monitor outcomes. Nine patients (67% women) were evaluated for postprandial pain (100%) and weight loss (100%). All patients had celiac stenosis by mesenteric duplex ultrasound imaging (median PSV, 342; range, 238-637 cm/s), and cross-sectional imaging indicated a fishhook deformity in five (56%). Robot-assisted MAL release was completed successfully in all nine patients (100%) using a standardized surgical technique. Estimated blood loss was celiac duplex ultrasound imaging, and six patients showed an improved but persistent stenosis (PSV >200 cm/s) compared with preoperative velocities (P celiac stenosis is uncertain. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the Nonformal Adult Educator in Twenty-First Century Contexts Using Qualitative Video Data Analysis Techniques (United States)

    Alston, Geleana Drew; Ellis-Hervey, Nina


    This study examined how "YouTube" creates a unique, nonformal cyberspace for Black females to vlog about natural hair. Specifically, we utilized qualitative video data analysis techniques to understand how using "YouTube" as a facilitation tool has the ability to collectively capture and maintain an audience of more than a…

  12. Statistical Analysis of Video Frame Size Distribution Originating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ahmadpour


    Full Text Available Designing an effective and high performance network requires an accurate characterization and modeling of network traffic. The modeling of video frame sizes is normally applied in simulation studies and mathematical analysis and generating streams for testing and compliance purposes. Besides, video traffic assumed as a major source of multimedia traffic in future heterogeneous network. Therefore, the statistical distribution of video data can be used as the inputs for performance modeling of networks. The finding of this paper comprises the theoretical definition of distribution which seems to be relevant to the video trace in terms of its statistical properties and finds the best distribution using both the graphical method and the hypothesis test. The data set used in this article consists of layered video traces generating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC video compression technique of three different movies.

  13. A new XML-aware compression technique for improving performance of healthcare information systems over hospital networks. (United States)

    Al-Shammary, Dhiah; Khalil, Ibrahim


    Most organizations exchange, collect, store and process data over the Internet. Many hospital networks deploy Web services to send and receive patient information. SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the most usable communication protocol for Web services. XML is the standard encoding language of SOAP messages. However, the major drawback of XML messages is the high network traffic caused by large overheads. In this paper, two XML-aware compressors are suggested to compress patient messages stemming from any data transactions between Web clients and servers. The proposed compression techniques are based on the XML structure concepts and use both fixed-length and Huffman encoding methods for translating the XML message tree. Experiments show that they outperform all the conventional compression methods and can save tremendous amount of network bandwidth.

  14. Real-time network traffic classification technique for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza


    Network traffic or data traffic in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is the amount of network packets moving across a wireless network from each wireless node to another wireless node, which provide the load of sampling in a wireless network. WLAN's Network traffic is the main component for network traffic measurement, network traffic control and simulation. Traffic classification technique is an essential tool for improving the Quality of Service (QoS) in different wireless networks in the complex applications such as local area networks, wireless local area networks, wireless personal area networks, wireless metropolitan area networks, and wide area networks. Network traffic classification is also an essential component in the products for QoS control in different wireless network systems and applications. Classifying network traffic in a WLAN allows to see what kinds of traffic we have in each part of the network, organize the various kinds of network traffic in each path into different classes in each path, and generate network traffic matrix in order to Identify and organize network traffic which is an important key for improving the QoS feature. To achieve effective network traffic classification, Real-time Network Traffic Classification (RNTC) algorithm for WLANs based on Compressed Sensing (CS) is presented in this paper. The fundamental goal of this algorithm is to solve difficult wireless network management problems. The proposed architecture allows reducing False Detection Rate (FDR) to 25% and Packet Delay (PD) to 15 %. The proposed architecture is also increased 10 % accuracy of wireless transmission, which provides a good background for establishing high quality wireless local area networks.

  15. [The latex agglutination with video digital registration: the enhancement of diagnostic significance of conventional technique]. (United States)

    Starovoĭtova, T A; Steriopolo, N A; Zaĭko, V V; Vengerov, Iu Iu


    The rapid semiquantitative latex-tests, because of their analytic characteristics and convenient application, became widespread in the practice of laboratory diagnostics. Though, in spite of high sensitivity and specificity, their diagnostic effectiveness is lower that it could be mainly because of the impossibility to document the results of latex agglutinative re4actions and to manage the objective quality control. The application of systems of video digital registration permits to enhance the clinical significance of these analyses. By means of scanner systems (control and program complex "Expert Lab") the image of analytic objects is received with the results of latex agglutination reaction. The application of program techniques (the programs "Expert Lab - Agglutination" and "Expert Lab - Agglutination - Micros") in data processing permits to get the precise qualitative characteristics of active reactions, to ensure the automatic interpretation of results and gives an opportunity to proceed with the internal laboratory quality control. The saving of analytic object image in computer memory after termination of reaction favors the formation of data base, the implementation of retrospective evaluation of obtained results, additional consultations in dubious cases, including on-line. The application of complex "Expert Lab" permitted to develop the miniaturizes matrix systems permitting to decrease the withdrawal of latex reagents, to increase the productivity of analytical stage of operation preserving all analytical characteristics of method.

  16. From birds to bees: applying video observation techniques to invertebrate pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Lortie


    Full Text Available Observation is a critical element of behavioural ecology and ethology. Here, we propose a similar set of techniques to enhance the study of the diversity patterns of invertebrate pollinators and associated plant species. In a body of avian research, cameras are set up on nests in blinds to examine chick and parent interactions. This avoids observer bias, minimizes interference, and provides numerous other benefits including timestamps, the capacity to record frequency and duration of activities, and provides a permanent archive of activity for later analyses. Hence, we propose that small video cameras in blinds can also be used to continuously monitor pollinator activity on plants thereby capitalizing on those same benefits. This method was proofed in 2010 in the alpine in BC, Canada on target focal plant species and on open mixed assemblages of plant species. Apple ipod nanos successfully recorded activity for an entire day at a time totalling 450 hours and provided sufficient resolution and field of view to both identify pollinators to recognizable taxonomic units and monitor movement and visitation rates at a scale of view of approximately 50 cm2. This method is not a replacement for pan traps or sweep nets but an opportunity to enhance these datasets with more detailed, finer-resolution data. Importantly, the test of this specific method also indicates that far more hours of observation - using any method - are likely required than most current ecological studies published to accurately estimate pollinator diversity.

  17. A Multitarget Tracking Video System Based on Fuzzy and Neuro-Fuzzy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier I. Portillo


    Full Text Available Automatic surveillance of airport surface is one of the core components of advanced surface movement, guidance, and control systems (A-SMGCS. This function is in charge of the automatic detection, identification, and tracking of all interesting targets (aircraft and relevant ground vehicles in the airport movement area. This paper presents a novel approach for object tracking based on sequences of video images. A fuzzy system has been developed to ponder update decisions both for the trajectories and shapes estimated for targets from the image regions extracted in the images. The advantages of this approach are robustness, flexibility in the design to adapt to different situations, and efficiency for operation in real time, avoiding combinatorial enumeration. Results obtained in representative ground operations show the system capabilities to solve complex scenarios and improve tracking accuracy. Finally, an automatic procedure, based on neuro-fuzzy techniques, has been applied in order to obtain a set of rules from representative examples. Validation of learned system shows the capability to learn the suitable tracker decisions.

  18. Upgrading of efficiency in the tracking of body markers with video techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Keemink (Lianne); G.A. Hoek van Dijke; C.J. Snijders (Chris)


    markdownabstractAbstract Based on a VME system, a low-cost video system has been developed for recording human motion. The paper describes the algorithm which is used for the recordings. The video system makes it possible to track in real time up to six markers on the body, sampled at a 50 Hz

  19. Innovative Video Feedback on Jump Landing Improves Landing Technique in Males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan; Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Cortes, Nelson; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, Koen

    Video feedback may be a powerful tool to change biomechanical landing patterns associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. This study investigated the effect of video feedback on drop vertical jump (DVJ) landing strategies in team sport athletes. 59 athletes were assigned to a

  20. Error Protection of Wavelet Scalable Video Streaming Using Wyner-Ziv Technique over a Lossy Network (United States)

    Liu, Benjian; Xu, Ke

    This paper presents a novel error resilience scheme for wavelet scalable video coding. We use Wyner-Ziv codec to produce extra bits protecting the important parts of the embedded video streaming. At the same time these bits also as the second description of important parts are transmitted over auxiliary channel to the receiver for error resilience. The errors in the embedded video streaming can be corrected by Wyner-Ziv description which regards the decoded frame as side information. Moreover, Wyner-Ziv decoder utilizes a coarse estimated version of the corrupted parts exploiting frame correlation in wavelet video decoder to generate a refine version. Simulation results show that our proposed method can achieve much better performance compared with Forward Error Correction code. Meanwhile, this error resilient algorithm can achieve 2-3 dB PSNR gains over the motion compensation error concealment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Multi input multi output (MIMO and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM are the key techniques for the future wireless communication systems. Previous research in the above areas mainly concentrated on spectral efficiency improvement and very limited work has been done in terms of energy efficient transmission. In addition to spectral efficiency improvement, energy efficiency improvement has become an important research because of the slow progressing nature of the battery technology. Since most of the user equipments (UE rely on battery, the energy required to transmit the target bits should be minimized to avoid quick battery drain. The frequency selective fading nature of the wireless channel reduces the spectral and energy efficiency of OFDM based systems. Dynamic bit loading (DBL is one of the suitable solution to improve the spectral and energy efficiency of OFDM system in frequency selective fading environment. Simple dynamic bit loading (SDBL algorithm is identified to offer better energy efficiency with less system complexity. It is well suited for fixed data rate voice/video applications. When the number of target bits are very much larger than the available subcarriers, the conventional single input single output (SISO-SDBL scheme offers high bit error rate (BER and needs large transmit energy. To improve bit error performance we combine space frequency block codes (SFBC with SDBL, where the adaptations are done in both frequency and spatial domain. To improve the quality of service (QoS further, optimal transmit antenna selection (OTAS scheme is also combined with SFBC-SDBL scheme. The simulation results prove that the proposed schemes offer better QoS when compared to the conventional SISOSDBL scheme.

  2. Video Laryngoscopic Techniques Associated with Intubation Success in a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service System. (United States)

    Naito, Hiromichi; Guyette, Francis X; Martin-Gill, Christian; Callaway, Clifton W


    Video laryngoscopy (VL) is a technical adjunct to facilitate endotracheal intubation (ETI). VL also provides objective data for training and quality improvement, allowing evaluation of the technique and airway conditions during ETI. Previous studies of factors associated with ETI success or failure are limited by insufficient nomenclature, individual recall bias and self-report. We tested whether the covariates in prehospital VL recorded data were associated with ETI success. We also measured association between time and clinical variables. Retrospective review was conducted in a non-physician staffed helicopter emergency medical service system. ETI was typically performed using sedation and neuromuscular-blockade under protocolized orders. We obtained process and outcome variables from digitally recorded VL data. Patient characteristics data were also obtained from the emergency medical service record and linked to the VL recorded data. The primary outcome was to identify VL covariates associated with successful ETI attempts. Among 304 VL recorded ETI attempts in 268 patients, ETI succeeded for 244 attempts and failed for 60 attempts (first-pass success rate, 82% and overall success rate, 94%). Laryngoscope blade tip usually moved from a shallow position in the oropharynx to the vallecula. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, attempt time (p = 0.02; odds ratio [OR] 0.99), Cormack-Lehane view (p Cormack-Lehane view, and longer ETI attempt time were negatively associated with successful ETI attempts. Initially shallow blade tip position may associate with longer ETI time. VL is useful for measuring and describing multiple factors of ETI and can provide valuable data.

  3. A technique based on pulse shape comparison for linearizing compressed signals

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, P W


    A nuclear electronics system designed to perform high precision energy measurement on a large dynamic range through high speed sampling of the output might be impossible to match to an adequate ADC. A solution consists in compressing the signal before digitization and linearizing it after with a look-up table, encoding the inverse of the compression function. This look-up table can be constructed using test pulses, the smallest of which is in the linear part and the largest spans the whole dynamic range. Reconstructing these pulse shapes and requiring them to be omothetic generates the look-up table providing a minimal distortion in the RMS sense.

  4. The Impact of Silent and Freeze-Frame Viewing Techniques of Video Materials on the Intermediate EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shahani


    Full Text Available The use of modern technologies has been widely prevalent among language learners, and video, in particular, as a valuable learning tool provides learners with comprehensible input. The present study investigated the effect of silent and freeze-frame viewing techniques of video materials on the intermediate English as a foreign language (EFL learners’ listening comprehension. To this end, 45 intermediate EFL learners participated in this quasi-experimental study. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental groups (using two types of viewing techniques and the control group. While the difference between the two experimental groups was not statistically significant, the experimental groups outperformed the control group significantly.

  5. Measuring eye movements during locomotion: filtering techniques for obtaining velocity signals from a video-based eye monitor (United States)

    Das, V. E.; Thomas, C. W.; Zivotofsky, A. Z.; Leigh, R. J.


    Video-based eye-tracking systems are especially suited to studying eye movements during naturally occurring activities such as locomotion, but eye velocity records suffer from broad band noise that is not amenable to conventional filtering methods. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined median and moving-average filters by comparing prefiltered and postfiltered records made synchronously with a video eye-tracker and the magnetic search coil technique, which is relatively noise free. Root-mean-square noise was reduced by half, without distorting the eye velocity signal. To illustrate the practical use of this technique, we studied normal subjects and patients with deficient labyrinthine function and compared their ability to hold gaze on a visual target that moved with their heads (cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex). Patients and normal subjects performed similarly during active head rotation but, during locomotion, patients held their eyes more steadily on the visual target than did subjects.

  6. Compression embedding (United States)

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.


    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  7. Doppler ultrasound surveillance in deep tunneling compressed-air work with Trimix breathing: bounce dive technique compared to saturation-excursion technique. (United States)

    Vellinga, T P van Rees; Sterk, W; de Boer, A G E M; van der Beek, A J; Verhoeven, A C; van Dijk, F J H


    The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in The Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate two deep-diving techniques with Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Divers used the bounce diving techniques for repair and maintenance of the TBM. The tunnel boring machine jammed at its deepest depth. As a result the work time was not sufficient. The saturation diving technique was developed and permitted longer work time at great depth. Thirty-one divers were involved in this project. Twenty-three divers were examined using Doppler ultrasound. Data analysis addressed 52 exposures to Trimix at 4.6-4.8 bar gauge using the bounce technique and 354 exposures to Trimix at 4.0-6.9 bar gauge on saturation excursions. No decompression incidents occurred with either technique during the described phase of the project. Doppler ultrasound revealed that the bubble loads assessed in both techniques were generally low. We find out, that despite longer working hours, shorter decompression times and larger physical workloads, the saturation-excursion technique was associated with significant lower bubble grades than in the bounce technique using Doppler Ultrasound. We conclude that the saturation-excursion technique with Trimix is a good option for deep and long exposures in caisson work. The Doppler technique proved valuable, and it should be incorporated in future compressed-air work.

  8. Strain distribution in the intervertebral disc under unconfined compression and tension load by the optimized digital image correlation technique. (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Tai-Yong; Yang, Xiu-Ping; Li, Kun; Gao, Li-Lan; Zhang, Chun-Qiu; Guo, Yue-Hong


    The unconfined compression and tension experiments of the intervertebral disc were conducted by applying an optimized digital image correlation technique, and the internal strain distribution was analysed for the disc. It was found that the axial strain values of different positions increased obviously with the increase in loads, while inner annulus fibrosus and posterior annulus fibrosus experienced higher axial strains than the outer annulus fibrosus and anterior annulus fibrosus. Deep annulus fibrosus exhibited higher compressive and tensile axial strains than superficial annulus fibrosus for the anterior region, while there was an opposite result for the posterior region. It was noted that all samples demonstrated a nonlinear stress-strain profile in the process of deforming, and an elastic region was shown once the sample was deformed beyond its toe region. © IMechE 2014.

  9. Hands-on Simulation versus Traditional Video-learning in Teaching Microsurgery Technique (United States)

    SAKAMOTO, Yusuke; OKAMOTO, Sho; SHIMIZU, Kenzo; ARAKI, Yoshio; HIRAKAWA, Akihiro; WAKABAYASHI, Toshihiko


    Bench model hands-on learning may be more effective than traditional didactic practice in some surgical fields. However, this has not been reported for microsurgery. Our study objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of bench model hands-on learning in acquiring microsuturing skills. The secondary objective was to evaluate the aptitude for microsurgery based on personality assessment. Eighty-six medical students comprising 62 men and 24 women were randomly assigned to either 20 min of hands-on learning with a bench model simulator or 20 min of video-learning using an instructional video. They then practiced microsuturing for 40 min. Each student then made three knots, and the time to complete the task was recorded. The final products were scored by two independent graders in a blind fashion. All participants then took a personality test, and their microsuture test scores and the time to complete the task were compared. The time to complete the task was significantly shorter in the simulator group than in the video-learning group. The final product scores tended to be higher with simulator-learning than with video-learning, but the difference was not significant. Students with high “extraversion” scores on the personality inventory took a shorter time to complete the suturing test. Simulator-learning was more effective for microsurgery training than video instruction, especially in understanding the procedure. There was a weak association between personality traits and microsurgery skill. PMID:28381653

  10. 360-degree videos: a new visualization technique for astrophysical simulations, applied to the Galactic Center (United States)

    Russell, Christopher


    360-degree videos are a new type of movie that renders over all 4π steradian. Video sharing sites such as YouTube now allow this unique content to be shared via virtual reality (VR) goggles, hand-held smartphones/tablets, and computers. Creating 360-degree videos from astrophysical simulations not only provide a new way to view these simulations due to their immersive nature, but also yield engaging content for outreach to the public. We present our 360-degree video of an astrophysical simulation of the Galactic center: a hydrodynamics calculation of the colliding and accreting winds of the 30 Wolf-Rayet stars orbiting within the central parsec. Viewing the movie, which renders column density, from the location of the supermassive black hole gives a unique and immersive perspective of the shocked wind material inspiraling and tidally stretching as it plummets toward the black hole. We also describe how to create such movies, discuss what type of content does and does not look appealing in 360-degree format, and briefly comment on what new science can be extracted from astrophysical simulations using 360-degree videos.

  11. A Multi-Frame Post-Processing Approach to Improved Decoding of H.264/AVC Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren


    Video compression techniques may yield visually annoying artifacts for limited bitrate coding. In order to improve video quality, a multi-frame based motion compensated filtering algorithm is reported based on combining multiple pictures to form a single super-resolution picture and decimation...

  12. Development of a Self-Paced Video Program To Teach Intravenous Therapy Techniques to Second Year Registered Nursing Students. Societal Factors Affecting Educations. (United States)

    Balint, Marilyn

    A self-paced video program was developed for the registered nursing faculty at Long Beach City College (California) to teach intravenous therapy techniques to second-year nursing students. The content of the Intravenous Therapy Video was determined based on a review of the literature and input from the advisory panel (four nursing department…

  13. Combining video and sequential statistical relational techniques to monitor card games


    Antanas, Laura; Gutmann, Bernd; Thon, Ingo; Kersting, Kristian; De Raedt, Luc


    Games are a multi-billion dollar industry and a driving force behind technology. The key to make computer games more interesting is to create intelligent artificial game agents. A first step is teaching them the protocols to play a game. To the best of our knowledge, most systems which train AI agents are used in virtual environments. In this work we train a computer system in a real-world environment by video streams. First, we demonstrate a way to bridge the gap between low-level video data...

  14. Impact of Technique-Specific Operative Videos on First-Year Dental Students' Performance of Restorative Procedures. (United States)

    Patel, Shalizeh A; Barros, Juliana A; Clark, Christina M; Frey, Gary N; Streckfus, Charles F; Quock, Ryan L


    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychomotor operative video demonstrations on first-year dental students who are performing specific procedures for the first time in a preclinical setting. The class was randomly divided into two groups, and three restorative procedures were selected. On the date on which each procedure was to be performed in the preclinical laboratory for the first time, one group (experimental, n=50) was shown a technique video for that specific procedure immediately before commencing the exercise; the control cohort (n=50) did not view the video. Technical performance on procedures was evaluated by students and two calibrated and blinded examiners. The students' perceptions of the experience were also collected in a survey. All first-year students participated in the study, for a 100% response rate. A Mann-Whitney U test did not show any group differences in technical performance (mean values on preparation: 77.1 vs. 77.8; amalgam: 82.7 vs. 82.8; composite: 79.7 vs. 78.0). A Spearman rho test revealed a significantly higher correlation in 13 out of 25 evaluation categories between student self-assessment and blinded examiner assessment for the experimental group. A chi-square test of questionnaire responses revealed a positive student perception of administering these videos for the preparation (X(2)=4.8, pstudent performance on preclinical operative procedures, but they were well received by students and augmented self-assessment ability. These findings suggest that videos can be a useful teaching aid in a preclinical environment, especially regarding comprehension of concepts.

  15. Digital video. (United States)

    Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike


    The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.

  16. Vocabulary Learning through Viewing Video: The Effect of Two Enhancement Techniques (United States)

    Montero Perez, Maribel; Peters, Elke; Desmet, Piet


    While most studies on L2 vocabulary learning through input have addressed learners' vocabulary uptake from written text, this study focuses on audio-visual input. In particular, we investigate the effects of enhancing video by (1) adding different types of L2 subtitling (i.e. no captioning, full captioning, keyword captioning, and glossed keyword…

  17. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances....

  18. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter


    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances...

  19. Fast Watermarking of MPEG-1/2 Streams Using Compressed-Domain Perceptual Embedding and a Generalized Correlator Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briassouli Alexia


    Full Text Available A novel technique is proposed for watermarking of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 compressed video streams. The proposed scheme is applied directly in the domain of MPEG-1 system streams and MPEG-2 program streams (multiplexed streams. Perceptual models are used during the embedding process in order to avoid degradation of the video quality. The watermark is detected without the use of the original video sequence. A modified correlation-based detector is introduced that applies nonlinear preprocessing before correlation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand several common attacks. The resulting watermarking system is very fast and therefore suitable for copyright protection of compressed video.

  20. Fast Watermarking of MPEG-1/2 Streams Using Compressed-Domain Perceptual Embedding and a Generalized Correlator Detector (United States)

    Simitopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V.; Briassouli, Alexia; Strintzis, Michael G.


    A novel technique is proposed for watermarking of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 compressed video streams. The proposed scheme is applied directly in the domain of MPEG-1 system streams and MPEG-2 program streams (multiplexed streams). Perceptual models are used during the embedding process in order to avoid degradation of the video quality. The watermark is detected without the use of the original video sequence. A modified correlation-based detector is introduced that applies nonlinear preprocessing before correlation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand several common attacks. The resulting watermarking system is very fast and therefore suitable for copyright protection of compressed video.

  1. DWT/DCT watermarking techniques with chaotic map for video authentication (United States)

    Panyavaraporn, Jantana


    Digital Watermarking is a process of embedded data for copyright protection and authentication. This paper proposed a digitally invisible watermarking algorithm in video sequence by means of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). To improve the security, we used chaotic map for embedding position of a watermark. A watermark, binary image, was embedded in a selected sub-band. The experimental results show this algorithm is more robustness to attacks and can achieved copyright protection/authentication.

  2. Analysis of lightning flash videos from the Space Shuttle using blob and morphological techniques (United States)

    Pitts, David E.; Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Helms, David; Chambers, Mark; Jaklitch, Pat; Duncan, Mike


    Flash rates measured from the Space Shuttle range from 27.8 flashes per minute to 77 flashes per minute. The cloud is an optically thick medium which effectively scatters the energy from a lightning discharge and thereby broadens the risetime and duration of each lightning pulse. Because of the small size, spacecraft sensors with resolutions of 1 km or more are unlikely to detect the individual lightning channels. Instead, the energy from the lightning channel is scattered within the cloud, thereby broadening the apparent area. All of these measurements of lightning flash area and flash rate have involved manual manipulation and analysis of the video or film data. Only a small percentage of the Space Shuttle lightning video has been analyzed. An attempt is made to combine the use of real-time digital disk system and an automated analysis routine in order to overcome this limitation and make processing of a sequence of video frames a much less labor-intensive task.

  3. 3D filtering technique in presence of additive noise in color videos implemented on DSP (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Palacios, Alfredo


    A filtering method for color videos contaminated by additive noise is presented. The proposed framework employs three filtering stages: spatial similarity filtering, neighboring frame denoising, and spatial post-processing smoothing. The difference with other state-of- the-art filtering methods, is that this approach, based on fuzzy logic, analyses basic and related gradient values between neighboring pixels into a 7 fi 7 sliding window in the vicinity of a central pixel in each of the RGB channels. Following, the similarity measures between the analogous pixels in the color bands are taken into account during the denoising. Next, two neighboring video frames are analyzed together estimating local motions between the frames using block matching procedure. In the final stage, the edges and smoothed areas are processed differently in a current frame during the post-processing filtering. Numerous simulations results confirm that this 3D fuzzy filter perform better than other state-of-the- art methods, such as: 3D-LLMMSE, WMVCE, RFMDAF, FDARTF G, VBM3D and NLM, in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via human vision system in the different color videos. An efficiency analysis of the designed and other mentioned filters have been performed on the DSPs TMS320 DM642 and TMS320DM648 by Texas Instruments through MATLAB and Simulink module showing that the novel 3D fuzzy filter can be used in real-time processing applications.

  4. Doing fieldwork on the seafloor: Photogrammetric techniques to yield 3D visual models from ROV video (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Hansteen, Thor H.; Devey, Colin W.; Kutterolf, Steffen


    Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) have proven to be highly effective in recovering well localized samples and observations from the seafloor. In the course of ROV deployments, however, huge amounts of video and photographic data are gathered which present tremendous potential for data mining. We present a new workflow based on industrial software to derive fundamental field geology information such as quantitative stratigraphy and tectonic structures from ROV-based photo and video material. We demonstrate proof of principle tests for this workflow on video data collected during dives with the ROV Kiel 6000 on a new hot spot volcanic field that was recently identified southwest of the island of Santo Antão in the Cape Verdes. Our workflow allows us to derive three-dimensional models of outcrops facilitating quantitative measurements of joint orientation, bedding structure, grain size comparison and photo mosaicking within a georeferenced framework. The compiled data facilitate volcanological and tectonic interpretations from hand specimen to outcrop scales based on the quantified optical data. The demonstrated procedure is readily replicable and opens up possibilities for post-cruise "virtual fieldwork" on the seafloor.

  5. Precise measurement of a magnetic field generated by the electromagnetic flux compression technique (United States)

    Nakamura, D.; Sawabe, H.; Matsuda, Y. H.; Takeyama, S.


    The precision of the values of a magnetic field generated by electromagnetic flux compression was investigated in ultra-high magnetic fields of up to 700 T. In an attempt to calibrate the magnetic field measured by pickup coils, precise Faraday rotation (FR) measurements were conducted on optical (quartz and crown) glasses. A discernible "turn-around" phenomenon was observed in the FR signal as well as the pickup coils before the end of a liner implosion. We found that the magnetic field measured by pickup coils should be corrected by taking into account the high-frequency response of the signal transmission line. Near the peak magnetic field, however, the pickup coils failed to provide reliable values, leaving the FR measurement as the only method to precisely measure extremely high magnetic fields.

  6. Techniques for correcting transmission errors in video adaptive delta modulation channels (United States)

    Scheinberg, N.; Schilling, D. L.


    We investigated the effects of channel errors on an adaptive delta modulator used to encode video signals. The investigation revealed that channel errors caused a permanent shift in the dc level of the delta modulator's estimate. Errors in the step size, on the other hand, were transitory and had no noticeable effect on the received pictures. We then presented three error correction schemes to minimize the visibility of the channel errors in the received picture. The first scheme required the transmitter to periodically send the correct dc level of the estimate to the receiver. The second method employed a leaky integrator, and the third method used line-to-line interpolation

  7. The Reliability and Validity of the Thin Slice Technique: Observational Research on Video Recorded Medical Interactions (United States)

    Foster, Tanina S.


    Introduction: Observational research using the thin slice technique has been routinely incorporated in observational research methods, however there is limited evidence supporting use of this technique compared to full interaction coding. The purpose of this study was to determine if this technique could be reliability coded, if ratings are…

  8. Technique of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) of the esophagus (with video). (United States)

    Sharata, Ahmed; Kurian, Ashwin A; Dunst, Christy M; Bhayani, Neil H; Reavis, Kevin M; Swanstrom, Lee L


    Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) is becoming an acceptable alternative to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy for esophageal motility disorders. The aim of this video is to provide key technical steps to completing this procedure. Each patient underwent diagnostic investigations including high resolution manometry (HRM), esophageogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), and timed-barium swallow for primary esophageal motility disorders preoperatively. Patients undergoing POEM procedures are preoperatively prepared by taking Nystatin swish-and-swallow for 3 days, 24 h of clear liquid diet, and 12 h of NPO. Preoperative antibiotics are given. Under general anesthesia and with the patient in the supine position, endoscopy with CO2 insufflation is prepared. Special endoscopic instruments and electrocautery settings are required to perform the POEM procedure, as illustrated in the slides. POEM is performed in six key/critical steps: (1) diagnostic endoscopy; (2) taking measurements; (3) esophageal mucosotomy creation; (4) submucosal tunneling; (5) selective circular myotomy of the anterior lower esophageal sphincter; and (6) closure of the mucosotomy. According to our protocol, all patients get an esophogram the next morning after surgery prior to discharge. The patient receives objective testing (HRM with 24 PH Impedance test, EGD, and timed-barium swallow) 6 months postoperatively. In six key steps, POEM can be accomplished as described in the video.

  9. Video Completion in Digital Stabilization Task Using Pseudo-Panoramic Technique (United States)

    Favorskaya, M. N.; Buryachenko, V. V.; Zotin, A. G.; Pakhirka, A. I.


    Video completion is a necessary stage after stabilization of a non-stationary video sequence, if it is desirable to make the resolution of the stabilized frames equalled the resolution of the original frames. Usually the cropped stabilized frames lose 10-20% of area that means the worse visibility of the reconstructed scenes. The extension of a view of field may appear due to the pan-tilt-zoom unwanted camera movement. Our approach deals with a preparing of pseudo-panoramic key frame during a stabilization stage as a pre-processing step for the following inpainting. It is based on a multi-layered representation of each frame including the background and objects, moving differently. The proposed algorithm involves four steps, such as the background completion, local motion inpainting, local warping, and seamless blending. Our experiments show that a necessity of a seamless stitching occurs often than a local warping step. Therefore, a seamless blending was investigated in details including four main categories, such as feathering-based, pyramid-based, gradient-based, and optimal seam-based blending.

  10. Quality by design approach: application of artificial intelligence techniques of tablets manufactured by direct compression. (United States)

    Aksu, Buket; Paradkar, Anant; de Matas, Marcel; Ozer, Ozgen; Güneri, Tamer; York, Peter


    The publication of the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q8, Q9, and Q10 guidelines paved the way for the standardization of quality after the Food and Drug Administration issued current Good Manufacturing Practices guidelines in 2003. "Quality by Design", mentioned in the ICH Q8 guideline, offers a better scientific understanding of critical process and product qualities using knowledge obtained during the life cycle of a product. In this scope, the "knowledge space" is a summary of all process knowledge obtained during product development, and the "design space" is the area in which a product can be manufactured within acceptable limits. To create the spaces, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to emphasize the multidimensional interactions of input variables and to closely bind these variables to a design space. This helps guide the experimental design process to include interactions among the input variables, along with modeling and optimization of pharmaceutical formulations. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated multivariate approach to obtain a quality product based on an understanding of the cause-effect relationships between formulation ingredients and product properties with ANNs and genetic programming on the ramipril tablets prepared by the direct compression method. In this study, the data are generated through the systematic application of the design of experiments (DoE) principles and optimization studies using artificial neural networks and neurofuzzy logic programs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khairul Zaimy A. G.


    Full Text Available The demand for bio-polymer compound (BPC has attracted attention in various applications from industrial to medical. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal stability properties of recycling industrial waste BPC are very important to investigate. The waste BPC for this study is based on a mixture of hydroxylated waste cooking oil with hardeners to produce waste bio-polymer foam (WBF. The granulate of WBF was cast into the mold until all spaces were evenly filled and compacted into a homogeneous shape and thickness at 30–45 bar for 2 hours using hot compression molding. This method of BPC fabrication results in a tensile and flexural strength of 4.89 MPa and 18.08 MPa respectively. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of laminated BPC was conducted using a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA, and the first degradation of the soft segment occurred at 263°C, then subsequently the second degradation occurred at 351°C and the last at 416°C.

  12. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods (United States)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei


    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate {O}(1/k^2). In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.

  13. The application of compressive sampling in rapid ultrasonic computerized tomography (UCT) technique of steel tube slab (STS) (United States)

    Jiang, Baofeng; Jia, Pengjiao; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Wentao


    This paper explores a new method for rapid structural damage inspection of steel tube slab (STS) structures along randomly measured paths based on a combination of compressive sampling (CS) and ultrasonic computerized tomography (UCT). In the measurement stage, using fewer randomly selected paths rather than the whole measurement net is proposed to detect the underlying damage of a concrete-filled steel tube. In the imaging stage, the ℓ1-minimization algorithm is employed to recover the information of the microstructures based on the measurement data related to the internal situation of the STS structure. A numerical concrete tube model, with the various level of damage, was studied to demonstrate the performance of the rapid UCT technique. Real-world concrete-filled steel tubes in the Shenyang Metro stations were detected using the proposed UCT technique in a CS framework. Both the numerical and experimental results show the rapid UCT technique has the capability of damage detection in an STS structure with a high level of accuracy and with fewer required measurements, which is more convenient and efficient than the traditional UCT technique. PMID:29293593

  14. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods. (United States)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei


    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate [Formula: see text]. In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.

  15. Optimization of the Starting by compressed air techniques; Optimizacion del Arranque en el sutiraje mediante tecnicas de aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    High-pressure compressed air shots have been begun to use for coal stop caving in horizontal sublevel caving workings, as alternative to explosives, since they do not condition the winning cycles and they produce a smaller deterioration in the vein walls. In spite of those advantages, different parameters influence on shot result is not known. For this reason, a research project has been carried out in order to improve the high-pressure compressed air technique to extend the system implementation and to reduce the winning costs in the sublevel caving workings. The research works have consisted of a numerical model development and reduced scale and real scale tests. The model describes fragile material fragmentation under dynamical loadings and it has been implemented in a code. The tests allow to study the different parameter influence and to validate the numerical model. The main research results are, on the one hand, a numerical model that allows to define the best shot plan for user's working conditions and, on the other hand, the great influence of the air volume on the disruptive strength has been proven. (Author)

  16. A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers (United States)


    direct heating of the wire for a. , 0.1 (Bonnet & Alziary de Roquefort 1980), and it appears to be reliable technique for setting the frequency...54: 1513-1524. Bonnet, J. P. and Alziary de Roquefort , T. (1980), Determination and optimization of frequency response of constant temperature hot

  17. Modified use of methylene blue in the tissue compression technique to detect sarcocysts in meat-producing animals. (United States)

    Ng, Yit Han; Subramaniam, Vellayan; Lau, Yee Ling


    Sarcocystosis in meat-producing animals is a major cause of reduced productivity in many countries, especially those that rely on agriculture. Although several diagnostic methods are available to detect sarcocystosis, many are too time-consuming for routine use in abattoirs and meat inspection centers, where large numbers of samples need to be tested. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of the methylene blue tissue preparation, unstained tissue preparation and nested PCR in the detection of sarcocysts in tissue samples. Approximately three-fold more sarcocysts were detected in methylene blue-stained tissue compared to unstained controls (McNemar's test: Pmethylene blue can be used in tissue compression as a rapid, safe, and inexpensive technique for the detection of ruminant sarcocystosis in abattoirs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Video-Assisted Laser Resection of Lung Metastases-Feasibility of a New Surgical Technique. (United States)

    Meyer, Christian; Bartsch, Detlef; Mirow, Nikolas; Kirschbaum, Andreas


    Background Our pilot study describes our initial experience to do a laser resection of lung metastases under video-assisted thoracoscopic control via a minithoracotomy. With this approach, if needed, mediastinal lymphadenectomy is also possible. Methods In this study, 15 patients (11 men and 4 women, mean age: 60 years) with resectable lung metastases of different solid primary tumors (colorectal cancer in seven patients, melanoma in three patients, renal cell carcinoma in two patients, and one each with oropharyngeal cancer, breast cancer, and seminoma) were included. An anterior minithoracotomy incision (approximately 5-7 cm length) was created in the fifth intercostal space and a soft tissue retractor (Alexis Protector; Applied Medical) was positioned. Two additional working ports were inserted. The entire lung was palpated via the minithoracotomy. All detected lung metastases were removed under thoracoscopic control. Nonanatomic resections were performed using a diode-pumped neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser (LIMAX120; KLS Martin GmbH & Co KG) with a laser power of 80 W in a noncontact modus. Deeper parenchymal lesions were sutured. Results A total of 29 lung metastases up to 30 mm in size were resected and all metastases diagnosed on preoperative imaging were detected. All diagnosed lung metastases were completely resected (R0). The median operation time was 102 (range: 85-120) minutes. Median blood loss was 47.6 mL and no postoperative complications occurred. Neither local recurrences nor new lung metastases were observed within 6 months after the procedures. Conclusion Video-assisted laser resection of lung metastases is safe, effective, and fulfills the requirements of modern lung metastases surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Hands-free technique in the operating room: reduction in body fluid exposure and the value of a training video. (United States)

    Stringer, Bernadette; Haines, Ted; Goldsmith, Charles H; Blythe, Jennifer; Berguer, Ramon; Andersen, Joel; De Gara, Christopher J


    This study sought to determine if (1) using a hands-free technique (HFT)--whereby no two surgical team members touch the same sharp item simultaneously--> or = 75% of the time reduced the rate of percutaneous injury, glove tear, and contamination (incidents); and (2) if a video-based intervention increased HFT use to > or = 75%, immediately and over time. During three and four periods, in three intervention and three control hospitals, respectively, nurses recorded incidents, percentage of HFT use, and other information in 10,596 surgeries. The video was shown in intervention hospitals between Periods 1 and 2, and in control hospitals between Periods 3 and 4. HFT, considered used when > or = 75% passes were done hands-free, was practiced in 35% of all surgeries. We applied logistic regression to (1) estimate the rate reduction for incidents in surgeries when the HFT was used and not used, while adjusting for potential risk factors, and (2) estimate HFT use of about 75% and 100%, in intervention compared with control hospitals, in Period 2 compared with Period 1, and Period 3 compared with Period 2. A total of 202 incidents (49 injuries, 125 glove tears, and 28 contaminations) were reported. Adjusted for differences in surgical type, length, emergency status, blood loss, time of day, and number of personnel present for > or = 75% of the surgery, the HFT-associated reduction in rate was 35%. An increase in use of HFT of > or = 75% was significantly greater in intervention hospitals, during the first post-intervention period, and was sustained five months later. The use of HFT and the HFT video were both found to be effective.

  20. On the potential of 2-D-Video Disdrometer technique to measure micro physical parameters of solid precipitation (United States)

    Bernauer, F.; Hürkamp, K.; Rühm, W.; Tschiersch, J.


    Detailed characterization and classification of precipitation is an important task in atmospheric research. Line scanning 2-D-video disdrometer technique is well established for rain observations. The two orthogonal views taken of each hydrometeor passing the sensitive area of the instrument qualify this technique especially for detailed characterization of non symmetric solid hydrometeors. However, in case of solid precipitation problems related to the matching algorithm have to be considered and the user must be aware of the limited spacial resolution when size and shape descriptors are analyzed. This work has the aim of clarifying the potential of 2-D-video disdrometer technique in deriving size, velocity and shape parameters from single recorded pictures. The need of implementing a matching algorithm suitable for mixed and solid phase precipitation is highlighted as an essential step in data evaluation. For this purpose simple reproducible experiments with solid steel spheres and irregularly shaped styrofoam particles are conducted. Self-consistency of shape parameter measurements is tested in 40 cases of real snow fall. As result it was found, that reliable size and shape characterization with a relative standard deviation of less than 5% is only possible for particles larger than 1 mm. For particles between 0.5 and 1.0 mm the relative standard deviation can grow up to 22% for the volume, 17% for size parameters and 14% for shape descriptors. Testing the adapted matching algorithm with a reproducible experiment with styrofoam particles a mismatch probability of less than 2.5% was found. For shape parameter measurements in case of real solid phase precipitation the 2DVD shows self-consistent behavior.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Aeroelastic Deformation of Slender Wings at Supersonic Speeds Using a Video Model Deformation Measurement Technique (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.


    A video-based photogrammetric model deformation system was established as a dedicated optical measurement technique at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This system was used to measure the wing twist due to aerodynamic loads of two supersonic commercial transport airplane models with identical outer mold lines but different aeroelastic properties. One model featured wings with deflectable leading- and trailing-edge flaps and internal channels to accommodate static pressure tube instrumentation. The wings of the second model were of single-piece construction without flaps or internal channels. The testing was performed at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.7, unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 million to 5.0 million, and angles of attack from -4 degrees to +10 degrees. The video model deformation system quantified the wing aeroelastic response to changes in the Mach number, Reynolds number concurrent with dynamic pressure, and angle of attack and effectively captured the differences in the wing twist characteristics between the two test articles.

  2. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gu Kim


    Full Text Available Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  3. Development of High Speed Interferometry Imaging and Analysis Techniques for Compressible Dynamic Stall (United States)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Carr, L. W.; Wilder, M. C.


    The development of a high-speed, phase-locked, realtime, point diffraction interferometry system for quantitative imaging unsteady separated flows is described. The system enables recording of up to 224 interferograms of the dynamic stall flow over an oscillating airfoil using a drum camera at rates of up to 40 KHz controlled by custom designed electronic interlocking circuitry. Several thousand interferograms of the flow have been obtained using this system. A comprehensive image analysis package has been developed for automatic processing of this large number of images. The software has been specifically tuned to address the special characteristics of airfoil flow interferograms. Examples of images obtained using the standard and the high-speed interferometry techniques are presented along with a demonstration of the image processing routine's ability to resolve the fine details present in these images.

  4. Surgical procedure and initial radiographic results of a new augmentation technique for vertebral compression fractures. (United States)

    Thaler, Martin; Lechner, Ricarda; Nogler, Michael; Gstöttner, Michaela; Bach, Christian


    Recently, a new minimally invasive technique called 'vertebral body stenting' (VBS) was introduced for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The technique was developed to prevent the loss of reduction after deflation of the balloon and to reduce the complication rate associated with cement leakage. The amount of kyphosis correction, improvement of vertebral body height and quantitative cement leakage rate by applying CT-based quantitative volumetry after VBS were measured in 27 patients (55 vertebra) and compared with a control group (29 patients, 61 vertebrae), which was treated with conventional vertebroplasty. After VBS, a significant improvement was seen in vertebral height, compared to conventional vertebroplasty. The mean improvement in segmental kyphosis and vertebral kyphosis were 5.8° (p VBS group, the mean injected volume of cement per vertebral body was 7.33 cm(3) (3.34-10.19 cm(3)). The average amount of cement outside the vertebrae was 0.28 cm(3) (0.01-1.64 cm(3)), which was 1.36% of the applied total cement volume. In the vertebroplasty group, the applied mean volume of the cement per level was 2.7 cm(3) (1-5.8 cm(3)) and the average amount of cement outside the vertebrae was 0.15 cm(3) (0.01-1.8 cm(3)), which was 11.5% (0.2-60%) of the applied total volume of cement. The frequency of cement leakage after VBS was 25.5% compared to 42.1% in the vertebroplasty group. VBS led to a significant decrease in the leakage rate compared with conventional vertebroplasty.

  5. Laparoscopic splenopexy for wandering spleen, a video demonstration of technique by encircling the spleen with polyglactin 910 woven mesh. (United States)

    Morgan, Sheridan; Glenn, Ian; Soldes, Oliver


    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity caused by absence of the spleen's peritoneal attachments, allowing the spleen to move freely within the peritoneal cavity [1]. This disease is most commonly seen in children and young women [1, 2]. Affected individuals are predisposed to complications including splenic torsion, splenic infarction, and pancreatic necrosis [3, 4]. Patients may present with constipation, an abdominal mass, swelling, or acute abdominal pain if splenic torsion has occurred [4]. Wandering spleen is difficult to diagnose without imaging, as symptoms are non-specific or may be absent. Imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis may include computed tomography (CT) scan or duplex ultrasonography [5]. Definitive management of a wandering spleen is primarily surgical [2]. Splenectomy is the preferred treatment in patients who present with an acute splenic infarction [2, 6]. Splenopexy, however, is first line treatment for patients with a non-infarcted wandering spleen [2, 7, 8]. In this video, we present a case of an 11 year old male with a symptomatic wandering spleen who was treated at our institution with laparoscopic splenopexy. The patient had a history of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and presented with recurrent, episodic abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan which demonstrated the spleen in the right lower quadrant. We performed laparoscopic splenopexy by encircling the spleen with polyglactin 910 woven mesh and attaching the mesh to the left lateral abdominal wall with absorbable tacks. Our surgical technique for splenopexy was successful and the patient returned home on postoperative day four. No significant complications occurred. This video demonstrates this technique and highlights the key steps. Splenopexy by encircling the spleen with polyglactin 910 mesh is feasible, preserves splenic function, and can be performed with standard laparoscopic equipment. Tacks or transfascial sutures are a

  6. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan


    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. TG13 indications and techniques for biliary drainage in acute cholangitis (with videos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itoi, Takao; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Pitt, Henry A.; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Belli, Giulio; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Miura, Fumihiko; Büchler, Markus W.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Garden, O. James; Jagannath, Palepu; Gomi, Harumi; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Higuchi, Ryota


    The Tokyo Guidelines of 2007 (TG07) described the techniques and recommendations of biliary decompression in patients with acute cholangitis. TG07 recommended that endoscopic transpapillary biliary drainage should be selected as a first-choice therapy for acute cholangitis because it is associated

  8. Nasopharyngeal oxygen with intermittent nose-close and abdomen-compression: a novel resuscitation technique in a piglet model. (United States)

    Soong, Wen-Jue; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Soong, Yen-Hui Matthew


    To evaluate the efficacy of a simple and novel cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) technique, nasopharyngeal oxygen with intermittent nose-close and abdomen-compression (NPO(2) -NC-AC) in an animal model. Prospective piglet study. In an animal physiology laboratory of a medical university. PIGLETS: Six healthy piglets <14 days old. Spontaneous breathing of the anesthetized piglets (n = 6) was medically ceased until severe bradycardia (<20 beat/min). NPO(2) -NC-AC CPR trial was then initiated by delivering NPO(2) at 1.0-1.5 L/kg/min and intermittently performing the NC-AC maneuver: (1) NC for inspiration, occluded nostrils for 1 sec; and (2) AC for expiration, released nostrils, and compressed the abdomen for 1 sec. NC-AC was repeated at a rate of 30/min for 5 min. This CPR trial was repeated three times in each piglet. Cardiopulmonary variables were monitored, recorded, and compared. A total of 18 CPR trials were performed. All of these acute life-threatening asphyxia events rapidly improved within 1 min of CPR. Cardiopulmonary variables recovered to the baseline levels and oxygenation continually increased. The intratracheal pressure (P(tr) ) values of positive end expiratory pressure and peak inspiratory pressure values were 4.3 ± 0.8 cmH(2) O and 26.2 ± 4.1 cmH(2) O, respectively. Chest wall movement was observed when the P(tr) reached 17.5 ± 3.1 cmH(2) O. All six piglets fully recovered after 63.8 ± 7.2 min of experiment without additional support. NPO(2) -NC-AC is a simple and effective CPR technique for severe acute cardiopulmonary asphyxia in piglets. It may be clinically applicable for supportive or rescue use. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Consumer-based technology for distribution of surgical videos for objective evaluation. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ray; Martinez, Jose M; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Iglesias, Alberto R; Ro, Charles Y; Madan, Atul K


    The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skill (GOALS) is one validated metric utilized to grade laparoscopic skills and has been utilized to score recorded operative videos. To facilitate easier viewing of these recorded videos, we are developing novel techniques to enable surgeons to view these videos. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of utilizing widespread current consumer-based technology to assist in distributing appropriate videos for objective evaluation. Videos from residents were recorded via a direct connection from the camera processor via an S-video output via a cable into a hub to connect to a standard laptop computer via a universal serial bus (USB) port. A standard consumer-based video editing program was utilized to capture the video and record in appropriate format. We utilized mp4 format, and depending on the size of the file, the videos were scaled down (compressed), their format changed (using a standard video editing program), or sliced into multiple videos. Standard available consumer-based programs were utilized to convert the video into a more appropriate format for handheld personal digital assistants. In addition, the videos were uploaded to a social networking website and video sharing websites. Recorded cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a porcine model were utilized. Compression was required for all formats. All formats were accessed from home computers, work computers, and iPhones without difficulty. Qualitative analyses by four surgeons demonstrated appropriate quality to grade for these formats. Our preliminary results show promise that, utilizing consumer-based technology, videos can be easily distributed to surgeons to grade via GOALS via various methods. Easy accessibility may help make evaluation of resident videos less complicated and cumbersome.

  10. "The missing LINX" for gastroesophageal reflux disease: Operative techniques video for the Linx magnetic sphincter augmentation procedure. (United States)

    Kuckelman, John P; Barron, Morgan R; Martin, Matthew J


    In 2012 the FDA approved a magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) device (LINX, Torax Medical, Inc) for placement around the lower esophageal sphincter as an alternative approach to fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a relatively new procedure and there is not widespread familiarization with the standard indications and techniques of device placement. We present two operative videos to highlight the standard surgical technique and technical points needed for successful LINX placement. First will be placement in a standard indications setting of uncomplicated GERD with no hiatal hernia. Second will be placement with complicated anatomy due to alterations from prior gastric surgery and a hiatal hernia. Our experience has revealed that the LINX device can be placed safely in patients with normal or significantly altered anatomy but requires adherence to several key principles and technical points. This procedure offers a new option that is anatomically and physiologically unique compared to standard fundoplication, and that offers highly effective control of GERD with a less invasive approach. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Research on key technologies in multiview video and interactive multiview video streaming


    Xiu, Xiaoyu


    Emerging video applications are being developed where multiple views of a scene are captured. Two central issues in the deployment of future multiview video (MVV) systems are compression efficiency and interactive video experience, which makes it necessary to develop advanced technologies on multiview video coding (MVC) and interactive multiview video streaming (IMVS). The former aims at efficient compression of all MVV data in a ratedistortion (RD) optimal manner by exploiting both temporal ...

  12. Integrating Internet Video Conferencing Techniques and Online Delivery Systems with Hybrid Classes to Enhance Student Interaction and Learning in Accelerated Programs (United States)

    Beckwith, E. George; Cunniff, Daniel T.


    Online course enrollment has increased dramatically over the past few years. The authors cite the reasons for this rapid growth and the opportunities open for enhancing teaching/learning techniques such as video conferencing and hybrid class combinations. The authors outlined an example of an accelerated learning, eight-class session course…

  13. Video. Chopstick surgery: a novel technique enables use of the Da Vinci Robot to perform single-incision laparoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Joseph, R A; Salas, N A; Johnson, C; Goh, A; Cuevas, S P; Donovan, M A; Kaufman, M G; Miles, B; Reardon, P R; Bass, B L; Dunkin, B J


    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is limited by the coaxial arrangement of the instruments. A surgical robot with "wristed" instruments could overcome this limitation but the "arms" collide when working coaxially. This video demonstrates a new technique of "chopstick surgery," which enables use of the robotic arms through a single incision without collision. Experiments were conducted utilizing the da Vinci S® robot (Sunnyvale, CA) in a porcine model with three laparoscopic ports (12 mm, 2-5 mm) introduced through a single "incision." Pilot work conducted while performing Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) tasks determined the optimal setup for SILS to be a triangular port arrangement with 2-cm trocar distance and remote center at the abdominal wall. Using this setup, an experienced robotic surgeon performed a cholecystectomy and nephrectomy in a porcine model utilizing the "chopstick" technique. The chopstick arrangement crosses the instruments at the abdominal wall so that the right instrument is on the left side of the target and the left instrument on the right. This arrangement prevents collision of the external robotic arms. To correct for the change in handedness, the robotic console is instructed to drive the "left" instrument with the right hand effector and the "right" instrument with the left. Both procedures were satisfactorily completed with no external collision of the robotic arms, in acceptable times and with no technical complications. This is consistent with results obtained in the box trainer where the chopstick configuration enabled significantly improved times in all tasks and decreased number of errors and eliminated instrument collisions. Chopstick surgery significantly enhances the functionality of the surgical robot when working through a small single incision. This technique will enable surgeons to utilize the robot for SILS and possibly for intraluminal or transluminal surgery.

  14. Assessment of blind source separation techniques for video-based cardiac pulse extraction (United States)

    Wedekind, Daniel; Trumpp, Alexander; Gaetjen, Frederik; Rasche, Stefan; Matschke, Klaus; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian


    Blind source separation (BSS) aims at separating useful signal content from distortions. In the contactless acquisition of vital signs by means of the camera-based photoplethysmogram (cbPPG), BSS has evolved the most widely used approach to extract the cardiac pulse. Despite its frequent application, there is no consensus about the optimal usage of BSS and its general benefit. This contribution investigates the performance of BSS to enhance the cardiac pulse from cbPPGs in dependency to varying input data characteristics. The BSS input conditions are controlled by an automated spatial preselection routine of regions of interest. Input data of different characteristics (wavelength, dominant frequency, and signal quality) from 18 postoperative cardiovascular patients are processed with standard BSS techniques, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). The effect of BSS is assessed by the spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the cardiac pulse. The preselection of cbPPGs, appears beneficial providing higher SNR compared to standard cbPPGs. Both, PCA and ICA yielded better outcomes by using monochrome inputs (green wavelength) instead of inputs of different wavelengths. PCA outperforms ICA for more homogeneous input signals. Moreover, for high input SNR, the application of ICA using standard contrast is likely to decrease the SNR.

  15. Hyperspectral data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, Giovanni; Storer, James A


    Provides a survey of results in the field of compression of remote sensed 3D data, with a particular interest in hyperspectral imagery. This work covers topics such as compression architecture, lossless compression, lossy techniques, and more. It also describes a lossless algorithm based on vector quantization.

  16. Simultaneous recordings of human microsaccades and drifts with a contemporary video eye tracker and the search coil technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B McCamy

    Full Text Available Human eyes move continuously, even during visual fixation. These "fixational eye movements" (FEMs include microsaccades, intersaccadic drift and oculomotor tremor. Research in human FEMs has grown considerably in the last decade, facilitated by the manufacture of noninvasive, high-resolution/speed video-oculography eye trackers. Due to the small magnitude of FEMs, obtaining reliable data can be challenging, however, and depends critically on the sensitivity and precision of the eye tracking system. Yet, no study has conducted an in-depth comparison of human FEM recordings obtained with the search coil (considered the gold standard for measuring microsaccades and drift and with contemporary, state-of-the art video trackers. Here we measured human microsaccades and drift simultaneously with the search coil and a popular state-of-the-art video tracker. We found that 95% of microsaccades detected with the search coil were also detected with the video tracker, and 95% of microsaccades detected with video tracking were also detected with the search coil, indicating substantial agreement between the two systems. Peak/mean velocities and main sequence slopes of microsaccades detected with video tracking were significantly higher than those of the same microsaccades detected with the search coil, however. Ocular drift was significantly correlated between the two systems, but drift speeds were higher with video tracking than with the search coil. Overall, our combined results suggest that contemporary video tracking now approaches the search coil for measuring FEMs.

  17. An approach to engineer paracetamol crystals by antisolvent crystallization technique in presence of various additives for direct compression. (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Larhrib, Hassan; Chikwanha, Brian; Shojaee, Saeed; Nokhodchi, Ali


    Paracetamol is a popular over-the-counter analgesic and a challenging model drug due to its poor technological and biopharmaceutical properties such as flowability, compressibility, compactibility and wettability. This work was aimed to alter the crystal habit of paracetamol from elongated to polyhedral-angular via particle engineering whilst maintaining the stable polymorphic form (form I: monoclinic form). The engineered paracetamol crystals obtained in the present investigation showed better technological and biopharmaceutical properties in comparison to the commercial paracetamol. Engineered paracetamol crystals were obtained using antisolvent crystallization technique in the presence of various concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1%, w/w) of additives, namely, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Avicel PH 102 (microcrystalline cellulose), Brij 58, methylcellulose (MC) and polyethylene glycol having different molecular weights (PEGs 1500, 6000 and 8000). Paracetamols crystallized in the presence of Avicel (or physically mixed with Avicel), Brij 58 and PEG 6000 demonstrated the best compactibility over a range of compaction pressures. Brij-crystallized paracetamol provided the fastest dissolution rate among all the paracetamol batches. Paracetamols crystallized in the presence of PVA or Avicel, or physically mixed with Avicel demonstrated a reduced degree of crystallinity in comparison to the other paracetamols. This study showed that the type, the grade and the concentration of additives could influence the physical stability such as flow, crystallinity and polymorphic transformation of paracetamol, the technological and biopharmaceutical properties of paracetamol. Stable polymorphic form of paracetamol with optimal tableting characteristics can be achieved through particle engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing situation awareness amongst nursing and paramedicine students utilizing eye tracking technology and video debriefing techniques: a proof of concept paper. (United States)

    O'Meara, Peter; Munro, Graham; Williams, Brett; Cooper, Simon; Bogossian, Fiona; Ross, Linda; Sparkes, Louise; Browning, Mark; McClounan, Mariah


    The aims of this quasi-experimental before-and-after study were to first determine whether the use of eye tracking technology combined with video debriefing techniques has the potential to improve the quality of feedback and enhance situation awareness (SA) in simulated settings and second to determine students' satisfaction towards simulated learning. Nursing and paramedicine students from three universities participated in three 8-minute simulation scenarios of acutely deteriorating patients. Eye tracking glasses video recorded the scenarios and tracked right eye movement. On completion, participants were questioned using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique, completed the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale (SSES), and provided textual feedback and received video-based verbal feedback. Participants lacked awareness of presenting medical conditions and patient environments and had poor recall of patient vital signs. Significant improvements in SA scores were demonstrated between the first and third scenarios (P = 0.04). Participants reported greater insight into their performance and were satisfied with simulated learning. Use of visual field review techniques appears to enhance the use of realistic simulated practice as a means of addressing significant performance deficits. Eye tracking and point of view recording techniques are feasible and with applicable debriefing techniques could enhance clinical and situated performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi


    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  20. Teaching residents pediatric fiberoptic intubation of the trachea: traditional fiberscope with an eyepiece versus a video-assisted technique using a fiberscope with an integrated camera. (United States)

    Wheeler, Melissa; Roth, Andrew G; Dsida, Richard M; Rae, Bronwyn; Seshadri, Roopa; Sullivan, Christine L; Heffner, Corri L; Coté, Charles J


    The authors' hypothesis was that a video-assisted technique should speed resident skill acquisition for flexible fiberoptic oral tracheal intubation (FI) of pediatric patients because the attending anesthesiologist can provide targeted instruction when sharing the view of the airway as the resident attempts intubation. Twenty Clinical Anesthesia year 2 residents, novices in pediatric FI, were randomly assigned to either the traditional group (traditional eyepiece FI) or the video group (video-assisted FI). One of two attending anesthesiologists supervised each resident during FI of 15 healthy children, aged 1-6 yr. The time from mask removal to confirmation of endotracheal tube placement by end-tidal carbon dioxide detection was recorded. Intubation attempts were limited to 3 min; up to three attempts were allowed. The primary outcome measure, time to success or failure, was compared between groups. Failure rate and number of attempts were also compared between groups. Three hundred patient intubations were attempted; eight failed. On average, the residents in the video group were faster, were three times more likely to successfully intubate at any given time during an attempt, and required fewer attempts per patient compared to those in the traditional group. The video system seems to be superior for teaching residents fiberoptic intubation in children.

  1. An overview of semantic compression (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.


    We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and

  2. Hybrid theatre and alternative localization techniques in conventional and single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (United States)

    Zhao, Ze-Rui; Lau, Rainbow W. H.


    Management of pulmonary nodules in terms of diagnosis and intraoperative localization can be challenging, especially in the minimal invasive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) approach, and may be even more difficult with single port VATS with limited access. The ability to localize small lesions intraoperatively is particularly important for excisional biopsy for diagnostic frozen section, as well as to guide sublobar resection. Some of the common techniques to aid localization include preoperative percutaneous hookwire localization, colour dye or radio-dye labelling injection of the nodule or adjacent site to allowing visualization or detection by radioactive counter intraoperatively. The use of hybrid operating room (OR) for intraoperative localization of lung nodules was first reported in 2013, and was called image guided VATS (iVATS). Subsequently, we have expanded the iVATS application for single port VATS major lung resection of small or ground-glass opacity lesions. By performing an on-table cone-beam CT scan, real-time and accurate assessment of the pulmonary lesion can be made, which can aid the localization process. Other types of physical or colour marker that can be deployed percutaneously in the hybrid OR immediate before surgery can enhance haptic feedback and sensitivity of digital palpation, as well as provide a radiopaque nidus for radiological confirmation. In the past decade, the electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) technology had developed into a useful adjunct technology for the localization of peripheral lung nodules by injection of marking agent or deployment of fiducial to the lesion through the endobronchial route causing much lower marking agent diffusion and artefacts. Recently, the combination of hybrid OR and ENB for lung nodule localization and marking has further increased the accuracy and applicability of the technology. The article will be exploring the latest development of the above approaches to lung nodule

  3. Compressive Sensing Image Sensors-Hardware Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shirani


    Full Text Available The compressive sensing (CS paradigm uses simultaneous sensing and compression to provide an efficient image acquisition technique. The main advantages of the CS method include high resolution imaging using low resolution sensor arrays and faster image acquisition. Since the imaging philosophy in CS imagers is different from conventional imaging systems, new physical structures have been developed for cameras that use the CS technique. In this paper, a review of different hardware implementations of CS encoding in optical and electrical domains is presented. Considering the recent advances in CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technologies and the feasibility of performing on-chip signal processing, important practical issues in the implementation of CS in CMOS sensors are emphasized. In addition, the CS coding for video capture is discussed.

  4. Quality of Experience Assessment of Video Quality in Social Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali Laghari


    Full Text Available Video sharing on social clouds is popular among the users around the world. High-Definition (HD videos have big file size so the storing in cloud storage and streaming of videos with high quality from cloud to the client are a big problem for service providers. Social clouds compress the videos to save storage and stream over slow networks to provide quality of service (QoS. Compression of video decreases the quality compared to original video and parameters are changed during the online play as well as after download. Degradation of video quality due to compression decreases the quality of experience (QoE level of end users. To assess the QoE of video compression, we conducted subjective (QoE experiments by uploading, sharing, and playing videos from social clouds. Three popular social clouds, Facebook, Tumblr, and Twitter, were selected to upload and play videos online for users. The QoE was recorded by using questionnaire given to users to provide their experience about the video quality they perceive. Results show that Facebook and Twitter compressed HD videos more as compared to other clouds. However, Facebook gives a better quality of compressed videos compared to Twitter. Therefore, users assigned low ratings for Twitter for online video quality compared to Tumblr that provided high-quality online play of videos with less compression.

  5. Digital video technologies and their network requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Tsang; H. Y. Chen; J. M. Brandt; J. A. Hutchins


    Coded digital video signals are considered to be one of the most difficult data types to transport due to their real-time requirements and high bit rate variability. In this study, the authors discuss the coding mechanisms incorporated by the major compression standards bodies, i.e., JPEG and MPEG, as well as more advanced coding mechanisms such as wavelet and fractal techniques. The relationship between the applications which use these coding schemes and their network requirements are the major focus of this study. Specifically, the authors relate network latency, channel transmission reliability, random access speed, buffering and network bandwidth with the various coding techniques as a function of the applications which use them. Such applications include High-Definition Television, Video Conferencing, Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), and Medical Imaging.

  6. Development and pilot testing of an informed consent video for patients with limb trauma prior to debridement surgery using a modified Delphi technique. (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ko; Chen, Chao-Wen; Lee, Wei-Che; Lin, Tsung-Ying; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Lin, Chia-Ju; Shi, Leiyu; Tien, Yin-Chun; Cheng, Yuan-Chia


    Ensuring adequate informed consent for surgery in a trauma setting is challenging. We developed and pilot tested an educational video containing information regarding the informed consent process for surgery in trauma patients and a knowledge measure instrument and evaluated whether the audiovisual presentation improved the patients' knowledge regarding their procedure and aftercare and their satisfaction with the informed consent process. A modified Delphi technique in which a panel of experts participated in successive rounds of shared scoring of items to forecast outcomes was applied to reach a consensus among the experts. The resulting consensus was used to develop the video content and questions for measuring the understanding of the informed consent for debridement surgery in limb trauma patients. The expert panel included experienced patients. The participants in this pilot study were enrolled as a convenience sample of adult trauma patients scheduled to receive surgery. The modified Delphi technique comprised three rounds over a 4-month period. The items given higher scores by the experts in several categories were chosen for the subsequent rounds until consensus was reached. The experts reached a consensus on each item after the three-round process. The final knowledge measure comprising 10 questions was developed and validated. Thirty eligible trauma patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) were approached and completed the questionnaires in this pilot study. The participants exhibited significantly higher mean knowledge and satisfaction scores after watching the educational video than before watching the video. Our process is promising for developing procedure-specific informed consent and audiovisual aids in medical and surgical specialties. The educational video was developed using a scientific method that integrated the opinions of different stakeholders, particularly patients. This video is a useful tool for improving the knowledge and

  7. AudioMove Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Live drawing video experimenting with low tech techniques in the field of sketching and visual sense making. In collaboration with Rune Wehner and Teater Katapult.......Live drawing video experimenting with low tech techniques in the field of sketching and visual sense making. In collaboration with Rune Wehner and Teater Katapult....

  8. Depth assisted compression of full parallax light fields (United States)

    Graziosi, Danillo B.; Alpaslan, Zahir Y.; El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.


    Full parallax light field displays require high pixel density and huge amounts of data. Compression is a necessary tool used by 3D display systems to cope with the high bandwidth requirements. One of the formats adopted by MPEG for 3D video coding standards is the use of multiple views with associated depth maps. Depth maps enable the coding of a reduced number of views, and are used by compression and synthesis software to reconstruct the light field. However, most of the developed coding and synthesis tools target linearly arranged cameras with small baselines. Here we propose to use the 3D video coding format for full parallax light field coding. We introduce a view selection method inspired by plenoptic sampling followed by transform-based view coding and view synthesis prediction to code residual views. We determine the minimal requirements for view sub-sampling and present the rate-distortion performance of our proposal. We also compare our method with established video compression techniques, such as H.264/AVC, H.264/MVC, and the new 3D video coding algorithm, 3DV-ATM. Our results show that our method not only has an improved rate-distortion performance, it also preserves the structure of the perceived light fields better.

  9. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson


    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  10. Injection of Compressed Diced Cartilage in the Correction of Secondary and Primary Rhinoplasty: A New Technique with 12 Years' Experience. (United States)

    Erol, O Onur


    There are instances where small or large pockets are filled with diced cartilage in the nose, without use of wrapping materials. For this purpose, 1-cc commercial syringes were used. The obtained results were partial and incomplete. For better and improved results, the author designed new syringes, with two different sizes, which compress the diced cartilage for injection. The author presents his experience accrued over the past 12 years with 2366 primary, 749 secondary, 67 cleft lip and nose, and a total of 3182 rhinoplasties, using his new syringe design, which compresses diced cartilage and injects the diced cartilages as a conglutinate mass, simulating carved costal cartilage, but a malleable one. In 3125 patients, the take of cartilage graft was complete (98.2 percent) and a smooth surface was obtained, giving them a natural appearance. In 21 patients (0.65 percent), there was partial resorption of cartilage. Correction was performed with touch-up surgery by reinjection of a small amount of diced cartilage. In 36 patients (1.13 percent), there was overcorrection that, 1 year later, was treated by simple rasping. Compared with diced cartilage wrapped with Surgicel or fascia, the amount of injected cartilage graft is predictable because it consists purely of cartilage. The injected diced cartilage, because it is compressed and becomes a conglutinated mass, resembles a wood chip and simulates carved cartilage. It is superior to carved cartilage in that it is moldable, time saving, and gives a good result with no late show or warping. The injection takes only a few minutes.

  11. Survey of WBSNs for Pre-Hospital Assistance: Trends to Maximize the Network Lifetime and Video Transmission Techniques. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Enrique; Peña, Raul; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Avila, Alfonso; de Cerio, David Perez-Diaz


    This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN.

  12. Measuring fish and their physical habitats: Versatile 2D and 3D video techniques with user-friendly software (United States)

    Neuswanger, Jason R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Hughes, Nicholas F.


    Applications of video in fisheries research range from simple biodiversity surveys to three-dimensional (3D) measurement of complex swimming, schooling, feeding, and territorial behaviors. However, researchers lack a transparently developed, easy-to-use, general purpose tool for 3D video measurement and event logging. Thus, we developed a new measurement system, with freely available, user-friendly software, easily obtained hardware, and flexible underlying mathematical methods capable of high precision and accuracy. The software, VidSync, allows users to efficiently record, organize, and navigate complex 2D or 3D measurements of fish and their physical habitats. Laboratory tests showed submillimetre accuracy in length measurements of 50.8 mm targets at close range, with increasing errors (mostly animal behavior and ecology.

  13. Structural Dynamic Response Compressing Technique in Bridges using a Cochlea-inspired Artificial Filter Bank(CAFB) (United States)

    Heo, G.; Jeon, J.; Son, B.; Kim, C.; Jeon, S.; Lee, C.


    In this study, a cochlea-inspired artificial filter bank (CAFB) was developed to efficiently obtain dynamic response of a structure, and a dynamic response measurement of a cable-stayed bridge model was also carried out to evaluate the performance of the developed CAFB. The developed CAFB used a band-pass filter optimizing algorithm (BOA) and peakpicking algorithm (PPA) to select and compress dynamic response signal containing the modal information which was significant enough. The CAFB was then optimized about the El-Centro earthquake wave which was often used in the construction research, and the software implementation of CAFB was finally embedded in the unified structural management system (USMS). For the evaluation of the developed CAFB, a real time dynamic response experiment was performed on a cable-stayed bridge model, and the response of the cable-stayed bridge model was measured using both the traditional wired system and the developed CAFB-based USMS. The experiment results showed that the compressed dynamic response acquired by the CAFB-based USMS matched significantly with that of the traditional wired system while still carrying sufficient modal information of the cable-stayed bridge.

  14. Collaborative Video Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Birgitte; Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Hautopp, Heidi


    This paper introduces to what we define as a collaborative video sketching process. This process links various sketching techniques with digital storytelling approaches and creative reflection processes in video productions. Traditionally, sketching has been used by designers across various...... forms and through empirical examples, we present and discuss the video recording of sketching sessions, as well as development of video sketches by rethinking, redoing and editing the recorded sessions. The empirical data is based on workshop sessions with researchers and students from universities...... and university colleges and primary and secondary school teachers. As researchers, we have had different roles in these action research case studies where various video sketching techniques were applied.The analysis illustrates that video sketching can take many forms, and two common features are important...

  15. Multi-modal highlight generation for sports videos using an information-theoretic excitability measure (United States)

    Hasan, Taufiq; Bořil, Hynek; Sangwan, Abhijeet; L Hansen, John H.


    The ability to detect and organize `hot spots' representing areas of excitement within video streams is a challenging research problem when techniques rely exclusively on video content. A generic method for sports video highlight selection is presented in this study which leverages both video/image structure as well as audio/speech properties. Processing begins where the video is partitioned into small segments and several multi-modal features are extracted from each segment. Excitability is computed based on the likelihood of the segmental features residing in certain regions of their joint probability density function space which are considered both exciting and rare. The proposed measure is used to rank order the partitioned segments to compress the overall video sequence and produce a contiguous set of highlights. Experiments are performed on baseball videos based on signal processing advancements for excitement assessment in the commentators' speech, audio energy, slow motion replay, scene cut density, and motion activity as features. Detailed analysis on correlation between user excitability and various speech production parameters is conducted and an effective scheme is designed to estimate the excitement level of commentator's speech from the sports videos. Subjective evaluation of excitability and ranking of video segments demonstrate a higher correlation with the proposed measure compared to well-established techniques indicating the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  16. Coxofemoral joint kinematics using video fluoroscopic images of treadmill-walking cats: development of a technique to assess osteoarthritis-associated disability. (United States)

    Guillot, Martin; Gravel, Pierre; Gauthier, Marie-Lou; Leblond, Hugues; Tremblay, Maurice; Rossignol, Serge; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; de Guise, Jacques A; Troncy, Eric


    The objectives of this pilot study were to develop a video fluoroscopy kinematics method for the assessment of the coxofemoral joint in cats with and without osteoarthritis (OA)-associated disability. Two non-OA cats and four cats affected by coxofemoral OA were evaluated by video fluoroscopy. Video fluoroscopic images of the coxofemoral joints were captured at 120 frames/s using a customized C-arm X-ray system while cats walked freely on a treadmill at 0.4 m/s. The angle patterns over time of the coxofemoral joints were extracted using a graphic user interface following four steps: (i) correction for image distortion; (ii) image denoising and contrast enhancement; (iii) frame-to-frame anatomical marker identification; and (iv) statistical gait analysis. Reliability analysis was performed. The cats with OA presented greater intra-subject stride and gait cycle variability. Three cats with OA presented a left-right asymmetry in the range of movement of the coxofemoral joint angle in the sagittal plane (two with no overlap of the 95% confidence interval, and one with only a slight overlap) consistent with their painful OA joint, and a longer gait cycle duration. Reliability analysis revealed an absolute variation in the coxofemoral joint angle of 2º-6º, indicating that the two-dimensional video fluoroscopy technique provided reliable data. Improvement of this method is recommended: variability would likely be reduced if a larger field of view could be recorded, allowing the identification and tracking of each femoral axis, rather than the trochanter landmarks. The range of movement of the coxofemoral joint has the potential to be an objective marker of OA-associated disability. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  17. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A.


    Advances in very large scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible an potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for DPCM (differential pulse code midulation)-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the codec are described, and performance results are provided.

  18. Innovative Video Diagnostic Equipment for Material Science (United States)

    Capuano, G.; Titomanlio, D.; Soellner, W.; Seidel, A.


    Materials science experiments under microgravity increasingly rely on advanced optical systems to determine the physical properties of the samples under investigation. This includes video systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. The acquisition, handling, storage and transmission to ground of the resulting video data are very challenging. Since the available downlink data rate is limited, the capability to compress the video data significantly without compromising the data quality is essential. We report on the development of a Digital Video System (DVS) for EML (Electro Magnetic Levitator) which provides real-time video acquisition, high compression using advanced Wavelet algorithms, storage and transmission of a continuous flow of video with different characteristics in terms of image dimensions and frame rates. The DVS is able to operate with the latest generation of high-performance cameras acquiring high resolution video images up to 4Mpixels@60 fps or high frame rate video images up to about 1000 fps@512x512pixels.

  19. Virtual displays for 360-degree video (United States)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.


    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  20. Video Analysis in Multi-Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Everett Kiusan [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Van Buren, Kendra Lu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warren, Will [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a project which was performed by a graduated high school student at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of the Multi-intelligence (MINT) project is to determine the state of a facility from multiple data streams. The data streams are indirect observations. The researcher is using DARHT (Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility) as a proof of concept. In summary, videos from the DARHT facility contain a rich amount of information. Distribution of car activity can inform us about the state of the facility. Counting large vehicles shows promise as another feature for identifying the state of operations. Signal processing techniques are limited by the low resolution and compression of the videos. We are working on integrating these features with features obtained from other data streams to contribute to the MINT project. Future work can pursue other observations, such as when the gate is functioning or non-functioning.

  1. Doppler ultrasound surveillance in deep tunneling compressed-air work with Trimix breathing: bounce dive technique compared to saturation-excursion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, T. P. Van Rees; Sterk, W.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; van der Beek, A. J.; Verhoeven, A. C.; van Dijk, F. J. H.


    The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in The Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate two deep-diving techniques with Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Divers used the bounce diving techniques for repair and maintenance of the TBM. The tunnel boring machine jammed at its deepest depth.

  2. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva


    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the song videos as TV and Internet-genre. In addition, it considers problems of screen images creation depending on the musical form and the text of a songs in connection with relevant principles of accent and phraseological video editing and filming techniques as well as with additional frames and sound elements.

  4. Does video-assisted thoracic surgery provide a safe alternative to conventional techniques in patients with limited pulmonary function who are otherwise suitable for lung resection? (United States)

    Oparka, Jonathan; Yan, Tristan D; Ryan, Eilise; Dunning, Joel


    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: does video-assisted thoracic surgery provide a safe alternative to conventional techniques in patients with limited pulmonary function who are otherwise suitable for lung resection? Altogether, more than 280 papers were found using the reported search, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. One of the largest studies reviewed was a retrospective review of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. The authors compared 4531 patients who underwent lobectomy by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) with 8431 patients who had thoracotomy. In patients with a predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppoFEV1%) of surgery is performed via VATS compared with traditional open techniques. The literature also suggests that patients in whom pulmonary function is poor have similar perioperative outcomes to those with normal function when a VATS approach to resection is adopted.

  5. A Technique for Removal of Forearm Dynamic Compression Plate with Stripped Screws: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Lee


    Full Text Available Removal of plates is a procedure commonly performed by orthopaedic surgeons and stripped screws are probably the most common problem encountered during this procedure. Stripped screws are caused by slippage between the screwdriver and the screw. Due to the inherent difficulty in removing such screws, surgeons should be knowledgeable in techniques for their removal and should be equipped with the proper instruments to expedite the procedure. There are few published articles about such techniques. This report describes a technique for removal of plates with stripped screws. The tip of a stripped screw is approached from the far cortex and then reamed with a trephine reamer in the direction of the screw until both cortices are cleared. The plate is then removed with stripped screws attached. All the removals utilizing this technique to date have been successful with no complications, and this method is safe, efficient and technically easy to learn.

  6. Is video-assisted thoracoscopic diaphragmatic plication a widespread technique for diaphragmatic hernia in adults? Review of the literature and results of a national survey. (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; Genovés Crespo, Marta; Tárraga López, Pedro J; García Jiménez, María Dolores; Honguero Martínez, Antonio F; León Atance, Pablo; Rodríguez Ortega, Claudia R; Triviño Ramírez, Ana; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio


    Diaphragmatic plication is the most accepted treatment for symptomatic diaphragmatic hernia in adults. The fact that this pathology is infrequent and this procedure not been widespread means that this is an exceptional technique in our field. To estimate its use in the literature, we carried out a review in English and Spanish, to which we added our series. We found only six series that contribute 59 video-assisted mini-thoractomy for diaphragmatic plications in adults, and none in Spanish. Our series will be the second largest with 18 cases. Finally, we conducted a survey in all the Spanish Thoracic Surgery units in Spain: none reported more than 10 cases operated by thoracoscopy in the last 8 years (except our series) and most continue employing thoracotomy as the main approach. We believe that many patients with symptomatic diaphragmatic hernia could benefit from the use of such techniques. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-complexity JPEG-based progressive video codec for wireless video transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Forchhammer, Søren


    This paper discusses the question of video codec enhancement for wireless video transmission of high definition video data taking into account constraints on memory and complexity. Starting from parameter adjustment for JPEG2000 compression algorithm used for wireless transmission and achieving...

  8. Comparison between optical coherence tomography technique and mechanical compression assay to evaluate ionizing radiation effects in frozen and lyophilized bone Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi de; Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Dias, Djalma Batista; Soares, Fernando Augusto Neves; Pino, Eddy Segura; Veloso, Marcelo Noronha; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IOT/HCFUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia


    Currently tissue banks have utilized ionizing radiation to sterilize bone tissues to be used as allograft. This method is advantageous when compared with other techniques, because the tissue is sterilized in its final packaging avoiding later contaminations, another advantage is due to the fact occur only a minimal increase in temperature, in addition to provide a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10{sup -6}, as recommended by national and international standards. However, there are several studies investigating the modifications that this method of sterilization may cause to the bone matrix, for example, alterations in the resistance to compression force. The compressive mechanical tests are highly used to evaluate the decrease in the mechanical strength; however it is a destructive assay. In this study, we used Optical Coherence Tomography to evaluate these possible changes. This technique is advantageous, for do not destroy the sample and enable the performing of other assays with the same sample. In literature, it is possible to find several studies about mechanical changes occasioned by destructive tests. Therefore, this study aims to compare the results of both techniques. It was selected four donors to obtain eight samples of fibula, through a partnership with the Tissue Bank (Instituto de Traumatologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo). From each donor were separated twelve samples for preservation by freezing and twelve samples for preservation by lyophilization. The samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) after irradiation at different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy), in addition to non-irradiated control. After the samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography the same were subjected to mechanical testing. The data were analyzed by software developed by Dr. Anderson Zanardi de Freitas to calculate the total attenuation coefficient of photons. Nevertheless, only the preservation method may induce to alterations

  9. Bridging analog and digital video in the surgical setting. (United States)

    Miron, Hagai; Blumenthal, Eytan Z


    Editing surgical videos requires a basic understanding of key technical issues, especially when transforming from analog to digital media. These issues include an understanding of compression-decompression (eg, MPEGs), generation quality loss, video formats, and compression ratios. We introduce basic terminology and concepts related to analog and digital video, emphasizing the process of converting analog video to digital files. The choice of hardware, software, and formats is discussed, including advantages and drawbacks. Last, we provide an inexpensive hardware-software solution.

  10. Surgeons’ Volume-Outcome Relationship for Lobectomies and Wedge Resections for Cancer Using Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy David


    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of surgeons’ volume on outcomes in lung surgery: lobectomies and wedge resections. Additionally, the effect of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS on cost, utilization, and adverse events was analyzed. The Premier Hospital Database was the data source for this analysis. Eligible patients were those of any age undergoing lobectomy or wedge resection using VATS for cancer treatment. Volume was represented by the aggregate experience level of the surgeon in a six-month window before each surgery. A positive volume-outcome relationship was found with some notable features. The relationship is stronger for cost and utilization outcomes than for adverse events; for thoracic surgeons as opposed to other surgeons; for VATS lobectomies rather than VATS wedge resections. While there was a reduction in cost and resource utilization with greater experience in VATS, these outcomes were not associated with greater experience in open procedures.

  11. Development of a novel optimization tool for electron linacs inspired by artificial intelligence techniques in video games (United States)

    Meier, E.; Biedron, S. G.; LeBlanc, G.; Morgan, M. J.


    This paper reports the results of an advanced algorithm for the optimization of electron beam parameters in Free Electron Laser (FEL) Linacs. In the novel approach presented in this paper, the system uses state of the art developments in video games to mimic an operator's decisions to perform an optimization task when no prior knowledge, other than constraints on the actuators is available. The system was tested for the simultaneous optimization of the energy spread and the transmission of the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The proposed system successfully increased the transmission of the machine from 90% to 97% and decreased the energy spread of the beam from 1.04% to 0.91%. Results of a control experiment performed at the new FERMI@Elettra FEL is also reported, suggesting the adaptability of the scheme for beam-based control.

  12. Development of a novel optimization tool for electron linacs inspired by artificial intelligence techniques in video games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E., E-mail: [School of Physics, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia) and Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia) and FERMI-Elettra, Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Biedron, S.G., E-mail: biedron@anl.go [Department of Defense Project Office, Argonne National Laboratory, IL 60439 (United States); FERMI-Elettra, Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); LeBlanc, G., E-mail: [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia); Morgan, M.J., E-mail: Michael.J.Morgan@monash.ed [School of Physics, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)


    This paper reports the results of an advanced algorithm for the optimization of electron beam parameters in Free Electron Laser (FEL) Linacs. In the novel approach presented in this paper, the system uses state of the art developments in video games to mimic an operator's decisions to perform an optimization task when no prior knowledge, other than constraints on the actuators is available. The system was tested for the simultaneous optimization of the energy spread and the transmission of the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The proposed system successfully increased the transmission of the machine from 90% to 97% and decreased the energy spread of the beam from 1.04% to 0.91%. Results of a control experiment performed at the new FERMI-Elettra FEL is also reported, suggesting the adaptability of the scheme for beam-based control.

  13. Motion estimation for video coding efficient algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Indrajit; Chatterjee, Sumit Kumar


    The need of video compression in the modern age of visual communication cannot be over-emphasized. This monograph will provide useful information to the postgraduate students and researchers who wish to work in the domain of VLSI design for video processing applications. In this book, one can find an in-depth discussion of several motion estimation algorithms and their VLSI implementation as conceived and developed by the authors. It records an account of research done involving fast three step search, successive elimination, one-bit transformation and its effective combination with diamond search and dynamic pixel truncation techniques. Two appendices provide a number of instances of proof of concept through Matlab and Verilog program segments. In this aspect, the book can be considered as first of its kind. The architectures have been developed with an eye to their applicability in everyday low-power handheld appliances including video camcorders and smartphones.

  14. Real-time transmission of digital video using variable-length coding (United States)

    Bizon, Thomas P.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.


    Huffman coding is a variable-length lossless compression technique where data with a high probability of occurrence is represented with short codewords, while 'not-so-likely' data is assigned longer codewords. Compression is achieved when the high-probability levels occur so frequently that their benefit outweighs any penalty paid when a less likely input occurs. One instance where Huffman coding is extremely effective occurs when data is highly predictable and differential coding can be applied (as with a digital video signal). For that reason, it is desirable to apply this compression technique to digital video transmission; however, special care must be taken in order to implement a communication protocol utilizing Huffman coding. This paper addresses several of the issues relating to the real-time transmission of Huffman-coded digital video over a constant-rate serial channel. Topics discussed include data rate conversion (from variable to a fixed rate), efficient data buffering, channel coding, recovery from communication errors, decoder synchronization, and decoder architectures. A description of the hardware developed to execute Huffman coding and serial transmission is also included. Although this paper focuses on matters relating to Huffman-coded digital video, the techniques discussed can easily be generalized for a variety of applications which require transmission of variable-length data.

  15. Talking Video in 'Everyday Life'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    For better or worse, video technologies have made their way into many domains of social life, for example in the domain of therapeutics. Techniques such as Marte Meo, Video Interaction Guidance (ViG), Video-Enhanced Reflection on Communication, Video Home Training and Video intervention....../prevention (VIP) all promote the use of video as a therapeutic tool. This paper focuses on media therapeutics and the various in situ uses of video technologies in the mass media for therapeutic purposes. Reality TV parenting programmes such as Supernanny, Little Angels, The House of Tiny Tearaways, Honey, We......’re Killing the Kids, and Driving Mum and Dad Mad all use video as a prominent element of not only the audiovisual spectacle of reality television but also the interactional therapy, counselling, coaching and/or instruction intrinsic to these programmes. Thus, talk-on-video is used to intervene...

  16. Rate-distortion optimised video transmission using pyramid vector quantisation. (United States)

    Bokhari, Syed; Nix, Andrew R; Bull, David R


    Conventional video compression relies on interframe prediction (motion estimation), intra frame prediction and variable-length entropy encoding to achieve high compression ratios but, as a consequence, produces an encoded bitstream that is inherently sensitive to channel errors. In order to ensure reliable delivery over lossy channels, it is necessary to invoke various additional error detection and correction methods. In contrast, techniques such as Pyramid Vector Quantisation have the ability to prevent error propagation through the use of fixed length codewords. This paper introduces an efficient rate distortion optimisation algorithm for intra-mode PVQ which offers similar compression performance to intra H.264/AVC and Motion JPEG 2000 while offering inherent error resilience. The performance of our enhanced codec is evaluated for HD content in the context of a realistic (IEEE 802.11n) wireless environment. We show that PVQ provides high tolerance to corrupted data compared to the state of the art while obviating the need for complex encoding tools.

  17. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise


    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  18. Developing a Video Steganography Toolkit


    Ridgway, James; Stannett, Mike


    Although techniques for separate image and audio steganography are widely known, relatively little has been described concerning the hiding of information within video streams ("video steganography"). In this paper we review the current state of the art in this field, and describe the key issues we have encountered in developing a practical video steganography system. A supporting video is also available online at

  19. Thermal imagers: from ancient analog video output to state-of-the-art video streaming (United States)

    Haan, Hubertus; Feuchter, Timo; Münzberg, Mario; Fritze, Jörg; Schlemmer, Harry


    The video output of thermal imagers stayed constant over almost two decades. When the famous Common Modules were employed a thermal image at first was presented to the observer in the eye piece only. In the early 1990s TV cameras were attached and the standard output was CCIR. In the civil camera market output standards changed to digital formats a decade ago with digital video streaming being nowadays state-of-the-art. The reasons why the output technique in the thermal world stayed unchanged over such a long time are: the very conservative view of the military community, long planning and turn-around times of programs and a slower growth of pixel number of TIs in comparison to consumer cameras. With megapixel detectors the CCIR output format is not sufficient any longer. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art compression and streaming solutions for TIs.

  20. Anesthetizing a child for a large compressive mediastinal mass with distraction techniques and music therapies as the sole agents. (United States)

    Adler, Adam C; Schwartz, Emily R; Waters, Jennifer M; Stricker, Paul A


    Anesthetic management of the child with an anterior mediastinal mass is challenging. The surgical/procedural goal typically is to obtain a definitive tissue diagnosis to guide treatment; the safest approach to anesthesia is often one that alters cardiorespiratory physiology the least. In severe cases, this may translate to little or no systemic sedatives/analgesics. Distraction techniques, designed to shift attention away from procedure-related pain (such as counting, listening to music, non-procedure-related talk), may be of great benefit, allowing for avoidance of pharmaceuticals. In this report, we present an approach in children where the anesthetic risk is deemed excessive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith


    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  2. Distributed source coding of video with non-stationary side-information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, P.F.A.; Westerlaken, R.P.; Klein Gunnewiek, R.; Lagendijk, R.L.


    In distributed video coding, the complexity of the video encoder is reduced at the cost of a more complex video decoder. Using the principles of Slepian andWolf, video compression is then carried out using channel coding principles, under the assumption that the video decoder can temporally predict

  3. Deep Blind Compressed Sensing


    Singh, Shikha; Singhal, Vanika; Majumdar, Angshul


    This work addresses the problem of extracting deeply learned features directly from compressive measurements. There has been no work in this area. Existing deep learning tools only give good results when applied on the full signal, that too usually after preprocessing. These techniques require the signal to be reconstructed first. In this work we show that by learning directly from the compressed domain, considerably better results can be obtained. This work extends the recently proposed fram...

  4. Comparison of Direct Pars Repair Techniques of Spondylolysis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients: Pars Compression Screw Versus Pedicle Screw-Rod-Hook. (United States)

    Karatas, Ali F; Dede, Ozgur; Atanda, Alfred A; Holmes, Larry; Rogers, Kenneth; Gabos, Peter; Shah, Suken A


    Retrospective clinical cohort study. To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients who were treated with intrasegmental pars fixation by either laminar compression screw (LS) or a pedicle screw, rod, and laminar hook (PSRH) construct. Spondylolysis is a nonunion defect of the pars interarticularis. In symptomatic spondylolysis, direct repair of the pars interarticularis defect can preserve motion and prevent abnormal stresses at the adjacent levels. Sixteen patients who failed nonoperative treatment and underwent direct pars repair by using LS (n=9) or PSRH (n=7) constructs were included in the study. Clinical outcome was assessed by using the MacNab criteria. Radiologic fusion and complications were evaluated using plain radiographs or computed tomography images and patient charts. The healing rate was 100% after 6 months. The healing time was similar in both the groups: LS, 6.5 months; PSRH, 6.2 months. Patients with PSRH (5.9 mo) were more likely to return to sports earlier relative to patients with LS (7.7 mo). There were no complications in the LS group; in the PSRH group, 1 patient had mild sensory deficit and 2 had superficial wound infections. The MacNab criteria for pain assessment showed an excellent or good outcome in 8 of 9 patients in LS group and 6 of 7 patients in PSRH group. Relative to LS patients, there was a significant increase in surgical time and estimated blood loss among PSRH patients. Either of the mentioned 2 techniques appears to produce acceptable results. Biplanar fluoroscopy and navigation systems could minimize the risk of screw misplacement with LS construct. Familiarity with the various fixation techniques will allow the surgeon to select the most appropriate surgical technique.

  5. ESVD: An Integrated Energy Scalable Framework for Low-Power Video Decoding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ji


    Full Text Available Video applications using mobile wireless devices are a challenging task due to the limited capacity of batteries. The higher complex functionality of video decoding needs high resource requirements. Thus, power efficient control has become more critical design with devices integrating complex video processing techniques. Previous works on power efficient control in video decoding systems often aim at the low complexity design and not explicitly consider the scalable impact of subfunctions in decoding process, and seldom consider the relationship with the features of compressed video date. This paper is dedicated to developing an energy-scalable video decoding (ESVD strategy for energy-limited mobile terminals. First, ESVE can dynamically adapt the variable energy resources due to the device aware technique. Second, ESVD combines the decoder control with decoded data, through classifying the data into different partition profiles according to its characteristics. Third, it introduces utility theoretical analysis during the resource allocation process, so as to maximize the resource utilization. Finally, it adapts the energy resource as different energy budget and generates the scalable video decoding output under energy-limited systems. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  6. Calibration of a thin metal foil for infrared imaging video bolometer to estimate the spatial variation of thermal diffusivity using a photo-thermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail:; Sano, Ryuichi [The Graduate University of Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Takashi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Drapiko, Evgeny A. [Fusion Centre, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Alekseyev, Andrey G. [Kurchatov Institute, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Itomi, Muneji [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)


    A thin metal foil is used as a broad band radiation absorber for the InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB), which is a vital diagnostic for studying three-dimensional radiation structures from high temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. The two-dimensional (2D) heat diffusion equation of the foil needs to be solved numerically to estimate the radiation falling on the foil through a pinhole geometry. The thermal, physical, and optical properties of the metal foil are among the inputs to the code besides the spatiotemporal variation of temperature, for reliable estimation of the exhaust power from the plasma illuminating the foil. The foil being very thin and of considerable size, non-uniformities in these properties need to be determined by suitable calibration procedures. The graphite spray used for increasing the surface emissivity also contributes to a change in the thermal properties. This paper discusses the application of the thermographic technique for determining the spatial variation of the effective in-plane thermal diffusivity of the thin metal foil and graphite composite. The paper also discusses the advantages of this technique in the light of limitations and drawbacks presented by other calibration techniques being practiced currently. The technique is initially applied to a material of known thickness and thermal properties for validation and finally to thin foils of gold and platinum both with two different thicknesses. It is observed that the effect of the graphite layer on the estimation of the thermal diffusivity becomes more pronounced for thinner foils and the measured values are approximately 2.5–3 times lower than the literature values. It is also observed that the percentage reduction in thermal diffusivity due to the coating is lower for high thermal diffusivity materials such as gold. This fact may also explain, albeit partially, the higher sensitivity of the platinum foil as compared to gold.

  7. Calibration of a thin metal foil for infrared imaging video bolometer to estimate the spatial variation of thermal diffusivity using a photo-thermal technique. (United States)

    Pandya, Shwetang N; Peterson, Byron J; Sano, Ryuichi; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Drapiko, Evgeny A; Alekseyev, Andrey G; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Itomi, Muneji; Watanabe, Takashi


    A thin metal foil is used as a broad band radiation absorber for the InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB), which is a vital diagnostic for studying three-dimensional radiation structures from high temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. The two-dimensional (2D) heat diffusion equation of the foil needs to be solved numerically to estimate the radiation falling on the foil through a pinhole geometry. The thermal, physical, and optical properties of the metal foil are among the inputs to the code besides the spatiotemporal variation of temperature, for reliable estimation of the exhaust power from the plasma illuminating the foil. The foil being very thin and of considerable size, non-uniformities in these properties need to be determined by suitable calibration procedures. The graphite spray used for increasing the surface emissivity also contributes to a change in the thermal properties. This paper discusses the application of the thermographic technique for determining the spatial variation of the effective in-plane thermal diffusivity of the thin metal foil and graphite composite. The paper also discusses the advantages of this technique in the light of limitations and drawbacks presented by other calibration techniques being practiced currently. The technique is initially applied to a material of known thickness and thermal properties for validation and finally to thin foils of gold and platinum both with two different thicknesses. It is observed that the effect of the graphite layer on the estimation of the thermal diffusivity becomes more pronounced for thinner foils and the measured values are approximately 2.5-3 times lower than the literature values. It is also observed that the percentage reduction in thermal diffusivity due to the coating is lower for high thermal diffusivity materials such as gold. This fact may also explain, albeit partially, the higher sensitivity of the platinum foil as compared to gold.

  8. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under O-arm navigation system guidance for the treatment of thoracic disk herniations: surgical techniques and early clinical results. (United States)

    Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Cho, Dong-Young; Shin, Jong-Mok; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Sang-Ho


    This study describes the surgical technique and clinical results of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) assisted by an O-arm-based navigation system, used for the treatment of thoracic disk herniation (TDH). The trend toward the use of minimally invasive procedures with endoscopic visualization of the thoracic cavity in thoracic spine surgery has evolved. It is difficult to develop a new set of visuomotor skills unique to endoscopic procedures and understand the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy while performing a two-dimensional (2D) imaging procedure. Adding image guidance would have a positive impact on these procedures, making them safer and more precise. We report the results of 10 patients who underwent diskectomy for TDH using VATS assisted by an O-arm-based navigation system and describe the surgical technique. The average duration of the symptoms was 2.8 years; average operation time, 326.9 minutes; and average additional time required for the image guidance surgery using the O-arm-based navigation, ∼ 29.4 minutes. No complications occurred during the surgical procedure or the immediate postoperative period. The advantages of using navigational assistance during the surgical procedure include better visualization of the operative field, more accurate surgical planning, and optimization of the surgical approach involving the establishment of the correct drilling trajectory and safe decompression of the spinal cord, as well as the possibility of intraoperative control of bone resection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Digital Video Teach Yourself VISUALLY

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Lonzell


    Tips and techniques for shooting and sharing superb digital videos. Never before has video been more popular-or more accessible to the home photographer. Now you can create YouTube-worthy, professional-looking video, with the help of this richly illustrated guide. In a straightforward, simple, highly visual format, Teach Yourself VISUALLY Digital Video demystifies the secrets of great video. With colorful screenshots and illustrations plus step-by-step instructions, the book explains the features of your camera and their capabilities, and shows you how to go beyond "auto" to manually

  10. CTS digital video college curriculum-sharing experiment. [Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Lumb, D. R.; Sites, M. J.


    NASA-Ames Research Center, Stanford University, and Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, are participating in a joint experiment to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of college curriculum sharing using compressed digital television and the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). Each university will offer televised courses to the other during the 1976-1977 academic year via CTS, a joint program by NASA and the Canadian Department of Communications. The video compression techniques to be demonstrated will enable economical interconnection of educational institutions using existing and planned domestic satellites.

  11. Mistakes and Pitfalls Associated with Two-Point Compression Ultrasound for Deep Vein Thrombosis. (United States)

    Zitek, Tony; Baydoun, Jamie; Yepez, Salvador; Forred, Wesley; Slattery, David E


    Two-point compression ultrasound is purportedly a simple and accurate means to diagnose proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT), but the pitfalls of this technique have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency medicine resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound, and to determine what technical errors are commonly made by novice ultrasonographers using this technique. This was a prospective diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of adult emergency department (ED) patients suspected of having a lower extremity DVT. After brief training on the technique, residents performed two-point compression ultrasounds on enrolled patients. Subsequently a radiology department ultrasound was performed and used as the gold standard. Residents were instructed to save videos of their ultrasounds for technical analysis. Overall, 288 two-point compression ultrasound studies were performed. There were 28 cases that were deemed to be positive for DVT by radiology ultrasound. Among these 28, 16 were identified by the residents with two-point compression. Among the 260 cases deemed to be negative for DVT by radiology ultrasound, 10 were thought to be positive by the residents using two-point compression. This led to a sensitivity of 57.1% (95% CI [38.8-75.5]) and a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI [93.8-98.5]) for resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound. This corresponds to a positive predictive value of 61.5% (95% CI [42.8-80.2]) and a negative predictive value of 95.4% (95% CI [92.9-98.0]). The positive likelihood ratio is 14.9 (95% CI [7.5-29.5]) and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.45 (95% CI [0.29-0.68]). Video analysis revealed that in four cases the resident did not identify a DVT because the thrombus was isolated to the superior femoral vein (SFV), which is not evaluated by two-point compression. Moreover, the video analysis revealed that the most common mistake made by the residents

  12. Mistakes and Pitfalls Associated with Two-Point Compression Ultrasound for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Zitek, MD


    Full Text Available Introduction: Two-point compression ultrasound is purportedly a simple and accurate means to diagnose proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT, but the pitfalls of this technique have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency medicine resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound, and to determine what technical errors are commonly made by novice ultrasonographers using this technique. Methods: This was a prospective diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of adult emergency department (ED patients suspected of having a lower extremity DVT. After brief training on the technique, residents performed two-point compression ultrasounds on enrolled patients. Subsequently a radiology department ultrasound was performed and used as the gold standard. Residents were instructed to save videos of their ultrasounds for technical analysis. Results: Overall, 288 two-point compression ultrasound studies were performed. There were 28 cases that were deemed to be positive for DVT by radiology ultrasound. Among these 28, 16 were identified by the residents with two-point compression. Among the 260 cases deemed to be negative for DVT by radiology ultrasound, 10 were thought to be positive by the residents using two-point compression. This led to a sensitivity of 57.1% (95% CI [38.8-75.5] and a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI [93.8-98.5] for resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound. This corresponds to a positive predictive value of 61.5% (95% CI [42.8-80.2] and a negative predictive value of 95.4% (95% CI [92.9-98.0]. The positive likelihood ratio is 14.9 (95% CI [7.5-29.5] and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.45 (95% CI [0.29-0.68]. Video analysis revealed that in four cases the resident did not identify a DVT because the thrombus was isolated to the superior femoral vein (SFV, which is not evaluated by two-point compression. Moreover, the video analysis revealed that the

  13. The PEG-Pedi-PEG technique: a novel method for percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube placement (with video). (United States)

    Samarasena, Jason B; Kwak, Nathaniel H; Chang, Kenneth J; Lee, John G


    When PEG tube feeding is complicated by anatomic obstruction, dysmotility, or aspiration, a need arises for feeding beyond the pylorus. The currently available percutaneous gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J) kits have issues with the jejunal extension portion migrating back into the stomach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a novel technique that creates PEG-J tubes by combining an adult percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) tube with a pediatric PEG tube, the PEG-Pedi-PEG procedure. This was a retrospective study at a single tertiary care center. The main outcome measures were success of placement, rate of retrograde tube migration, early (24 h after procedure was performed) adverse events. Seventeen patients underwent PEG-Pedi-PEG procedures during the study period. Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%). The retrograde migration rate of the jejunal extension tube was 0%. Early adverse events included peristomal pain in 1 patient. Late adverse events included inadvertent tube removal (3 patients), diarrhea (1 patient), prolonged ileus/gastroparesis (1 patient), and tube occlusion (1 patient). Mean follow-up was 290 days. The PEG-Pedi-PEG procedure is a novel endoscopic technique to facilitate post-pyloric feeding because the pediatric PEG bumper may act like a sail in the small bowel, with peristalsis pushing the bumper distally and thus decreasing the possibility of migration back into the stomach. This study demonstrated excellent technical success, no retrograde migration, and a low rate of adverse events. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel technique of non-invasive ventilation: Pharyngeal oxygen with nose-closure and abdominal-compression--Aid for pediatric flexible bronchoscopy. (United States)

    Soong, Wen-Jue; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Harloff, Morgan; Matthew Soong, Yen-Hui


    To evaluate the safety, feasibility and efficacy of a novel non-invasive ventilation (NIV) technique--pharyngeal oxygen with nose-closure and abdominal-compression (PhO2 -NC-AC)--to aid pediatric flexible bronchoscopy (FB). A prospective 1 year study of patients who received FB. A basic PhO2 flow (0.5-1.0 L/kg/min, maximal 5.0 L/min) was routinely applied. Active NIV was initiated when the heart rate dropped 10 sec. It was performed as follows: NC 1 sec for inspiration then released, followed by AC 1 sec for active expiration at a rate of 20-30 cycles/min until vital signs returned to acceptable levels for >10 sec. When the patients were stable, supplementary NIV was optionally given. Cardiopulmonary parameters were collected and analyzed. Three hundred thirty-seven FBs, including 188 therapeutic, were conducted in 286 patients with a mean age of 18.3 months (± 14.4, 10 min to 12 years) and a mean body weight of 13.5 kg (± 6.7, 0.5-35 kg). Three hundred thirty-three active NIVs were executed with a mean duration of 87.8 sec (± 40.4, 28-190 sec). A significantly longer FB duration (33.2 ± 16.7 min vs. 7.2 ± 2.8 min, P < 0.001) and a higher application rate of active NIV (1.44/FB vs. 0.42/FB) were noted in the therapeutic compared to the diagnostic group. Vital signs and blood gases (35 cases) improved rapidly and returned to baseline within 3 min. All FBs were safely and successfully completed without significant complications. PhO2 -NC-AC is a simple, safe and effective NIV technique for respiratory support and rescue during various pediatric FB procedures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Technique for compressed bundles for harvest of whole straw willow. Pilot study; Teknik foer komprimerande helskottsskoerd av salix i buntform. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hans (Vaesteraeng Lantbruk AB (Sweden))


    and demand good and secure weather conditions. Heavy rain or snow is a big problem during harvest season. The proposal from Maelarenergi AB has been carefully analysed and they think this is a solution with high potential. It should mean lower costs than in compare to using a mobile fossil driven cutter. Chipped Salix on farmland is a 'hot' flowchart, with big demand on among other things the logistic in and around the system. The possibility to direct consumption with chipped Salix has a limited storage capability. Chipped Salix is not possible to transport long distance, maximum 30 - 35 km, if it should keep the capacity to pay the procedure. The costs of transport will be too big in comparison to production value. Another advantage is the costs for intermediate storage. For example the area of the intermediate storage station, can be reduced when smaller volumes with higher density are handled. An overall analysis over the project 'Salix Maelardalen' point out very obviously that an alternative to the today direct chipping system is necessary and that development work around harvest with compressing bundle technique is very important. Big positive effects on environment can also be shown. Questions around 'compressed whole straw harvest of Willow' can be answered by a pilot study. There are o lot of aspects to pay attention to and 'smooth the road' to the growing production of Salix and it's rising as fuel raw material. The pilot study is going to penetrate the development of new harvest technique and earlier systems for 'compressed whole shoot harvest' of Salix. Needs and potential of new technique will be analysed and the study will also give suggestions to a new specification of requirements. The study will also suggest future developing projects. One of the purposes with the pilot project is that it could be a platform for future technical and practical research and even to be as a base for coming

  16. Compressive Optical Image Encryption (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong


    An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume. PMID:25992946

  17. Super-Resolution Still and Video Reconstruction from MPEG Coded Video

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altunbasak, Yucel


    Transform coding is a popular and effective compression method for both still images and video sequences, as is evident from its widespread use in international media coding standards such as MPEG, H.263 and JPEG...

  18. Social Properties of Mobile Video (United States)

    Mitchell, April Slayden; O'Hara, Kenton; Vorbau, Alex

    Mobile video is now an everyday possibility with a wide array of commercially available devices, services, and content. These new technologies have created dramatic shifts in the way video-based media can be produced, consumed, and delivered by people beyond the familiar behaviors associated with fixed TV and video technologies. Such technology revolutions change the way users behave and change their expectations in regards to their mobile video experiences. Building upon earlier studies of mobile video, this paper reports on a study using diary techniques and ethnographic interviews to better understand how people are using commercially available mobile video technologies in their everyday lives. Drawing on reported episodes of mobile video behavior, the study identifies the social motivations and values underpinning these behaviors that help characterize mobile video consumption beyond the simplistic notion of viewing video only to kill time. This paper also discusses the significance of user-generated content and the usage of video in social communities through the description of two mobile video technology services that allow users to create and share content. Implications for adoption and design of mobile video technologies and services are discussed as well.

  19. Immersive video (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.


    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  20. Lossless compression of color sequences using optimal linear prediction theory. (United States)

    Andriani, Stefano; Calvagno, Giancarlo


    In this paper, we present a novel technique that uses the optimal linear prediction theory to exploit all the existing redundancies in a color video sequence for lossless compression purposes. The main idea is to introduce the spatial, the spectral, and the temporal correlations in the autocorrelation matrix estimate. In this way, we calculate the cross correlations between adjacent frames and adjacent color components to improve the prediction, i.e., reduce the prediction error energy. The residual image is then coded using a context-based Golomb-Rice coder, where the error modeling is provided by a quantized version of the local prediction error variance. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves good compression ratios and it is roboust against the scene change problem.

  1. Discontinuity minimization for omnidirectional video projections (United States)

    Alshina, Elena; Zakharchenko, Vladyslav


    Advances in display technologies both for head mounted devices and television panels demand resolution increase beyond 4K for source signal in virtual reality video streaming applications. This poses a problem of content delivery trough a bandwidth limited distribution networks. Considering a fact that source signal covers entire surrounding space investigation reviled that compression efficiency may fluctuate 40% in average depending on origin selection at the conversion stage from 3D space to 2D projection. Based on these knowledge the origin selection algorithm for video compression applications has been proposed. Using discontinuity entropy minimization function projection origin rotation may be defined to provide optimal compression results. Outcome of this research may be applied across various video compression solutions for omnidirectional content.

  2. Efficient Enhancement for Spatial Scalable Video Coding Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada Khairy


    Full Text Available Scalable Video Coding (SVC is an international standard technique for video compression. It is an extension of H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC. In the encoding of video streams by SVC, it is suitable to employ the macroblock (MB mode because it affords superior coding efficiency. However, the exhaustive mode decision technique that is usually used for SVC increases the computational complexity, resulting in a longer encoding time (ET. Many other algorithms were proposed to solve this problem with imperfection of increasing transmission time (TT across the network. To minimize the ET and TT, this paper introduces four efficient algorithms based on spatial scalability. The algorithms utilize the mode-distribution correlation between the base layer (BL and enhancement layers (ELs and interpolation between the EL frames. The proposed algorithms are of two categories. Those of the first category are based on interlayer residual SVC spatial scalability. They employ two methods, namely, interlayer interpolation (ILIP and the interlayer base mode (ILBM method, and enable ET and TT savings of up to 69.3% and 83.6%, respectively. The algorithms of the second category are based on full-search SVC spatial scalability. They utilize two methods, namely, full interpolation (FIP and the full-base mode (FBM method, and enable ET and TT savings of up to 55.3% and 76.6%, respectively.

  3. Considerations and Algorithms for Compression of Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Jesper

    We consider compression of unordered sets of distinct elements. After a discus- sion of the general problem, we focus on compressing sets of fixed-length bitstrings in the presence of statistical information. We survey techniques from previous work, suggesting some adjustments, and propose a novel...... compression algorithm that allows transparent incorporation of various estimates for probability distribution. Our experimental results allow the conclusion that set compression can benefit from incorporat- ing statistics, using our method or variants of previously known techniques....

  4. Video games


    Kolář, Vojtěch


    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  5. Quality versus intelligibility: studying human preferences for American Sign Language video (United States)

    Ciaramello, Frank M.; Hemami, Sheila S.


    Real-time videoconferencing using cellular devices provides natural communication to the Deaf community. For this application, compressed American Sign Language (ASL) video must be evaluated in terms of the intelligibility of the conversation and not in terms of the overall aesthetic quality of the video. This work presents a paired comparison experiment to determine the subjective preferences of ASL users in terms of the trade-off between intelligibility and quality when varying the proportion of the bitrate allocated explicitly to the regions of the video containing the signer. A rate-distortion optimization technique, which jointly optimizes a quality criteria and an intelligibility criteria according to a user-specified parameter, generates test video pairs for the subjective experiment. Experimental results suggest that at sufficiently high bitrates, all users prefer videos in which the non-signer regions in the video are encoded with some nominal rate. As the total encoding bitrate decreases, users generally prefer video in which a greater proportion of the rate is allocated to the signer. The specific operating points preferred in the quality-intelligibility trade-off vary with the demographics of the users.

  6. Compressed Sensing in Astronomy (United States)

    Bobin, Jérôme; Starck, Jean-Luc; Ottensamer, Roland


    Recent advances in signal processing have focused on the use of sparse representations in various applications. A new field of interest based on sparsity has recently emerged: compressed sensing. This theory is a new sampling framework that provides an alternative to the well-known Shannon sampling theory. In this paper, we investigate how compressed sensing (CS) can provide new insights into astronomical data compression. We first give a brief overview of the compressed sensing theory which provides very simple coding process with low computational cost, thus favoring its use for real-time applications often found onboard space mission. In practical situations, owing to particular observation strategies (for instance, raster scans) astronomical data are often redundant; in that context, we point out that a CS-based compression scheme is flexible enough to account for particular observational strategies. Indeed, we show also that CS provides a new fantastic way to handle multiple observations of the same field view, allowing us to recover low level details, which is impossible with standard compression methods. This kind of CS data fusion concept could lead to an elegant and effective way to solve the problem ESA is faced with, for the transmission to the earth of the data collected by PACS, one of the instruments onboard the Herschel spacecraft which will launched in late 2008/early 2009. We show that CS enables to recover data with a spatial resolution enhanced up to 30% with similar sensitivity compared to the averaging technique proposed by ESA.

  7. Detection and localization of copy-paste forgeries in digital videos. (United States)

    Singh, Raahat Devender; Aggarwal, Naveen


    Amidst the continual march of technology, we find ourselves relying on digital videos to proffer visual evidence in several highly sensitive areas such as journalism, politics, civil and criminal litigation, and military and intelligence operations. However, despite being an indispensable source of information with high evidentiary value, digital videos are also extremely vulnerable to conscious manipulations. Therefore, in a situation where dependence on video evidence is unavoidable, it becomes crucial to authenticate the contents of this evidence before accepting them as an accurate depiction of reality. Digital videos can suffer from several kinds of manipulations, but perhaps, one of the most consequential forgeries is copy-paste forgery, which involves insertion/removal of objects into/from video frames. Copy-paste forgeries alter the information presented by the video scene, which has a direct effect on our basic understanding of what that scene represents, and so, from a forensic standpoint, the challenge of detecting such forgeries is especially significant. In this paper, we propose a sensor pattern noise based copy-paste detection scheme, which is an improved and forensically stronger version of an existing noise-residue based technique. We also study a demosaicing artifact based image forensic scheme to estimate the extent of its viability in the domain of video forensics. Furthermore, we suggest a simplistic clustering technique for the detection of copy-paste forgeries, and determine if it possess the capabilities desired of a viable and efficacious video forensic scheme. Finally, we validate these schemes on a set of realistically tampered MJPEG, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and H.264/AVC encoded videos in a diverse experimental set-up by varying the strength of post-production re-compressions and transcodings, bitrates, and sizes of the tampered regions. Such an experimental set-up is representative of a neutral testing platform and simulates a real

  8. High-quality lossy compression: current and future trends (United States)

    McLaughlin, Steven W.


    This paper is concerned with current and future trends in the lossy compression of real sources such as imagery, video, speech and music. We put all lossy compression schemes into common framework where each can be characterized in terms of three well-defined advantages: cell shape, region shape and memory advantages. We concentrate on image compression and discuss how new entropy constrained trellis-based compressors achieve cell- shape, region-shape and memory gain resulting in high fidelity and high compression.

  9. Iterative Multiview Side Information for Enhanced Reconstruction in Distributed Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Distributed video coding (DVC is a new paradigm for video compression based on the information theoretical results of Slepian and Wolf (SW and Wyner and Ziv (WZ. DVC entails low-complexity encoders as well as separate encoding of correlated video sources. This is particularly attractive for multiview camera systems in video surveillance and camera sensor network applications, where low complexity is required at the encoder. In addition, the separate encoding of the sources implies no communication between the cameras in a practical scenario. This is an advantage since communication is time and power consuming and requires complex networking. In this work, different intercamera estimation techniques for side information (SI generation are explored and compared in terms of estimating quality, complexity, and rate distortion (RD performance. Further, a technique called iterative multiview side information (IMSI is introduced, where the final SI is used in an iterative reconstruction process. The simulation results show that IMSI significantly improves the RD performance for video with significant motion and activity. Furthermore, DVC outperforms AVC/H.264 Intra for video with average and low motion but it is still inferior to the Inter No Motion and Inter Motion modes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Naranjo


    Full Text Available Temporal segmentation of video data for partitioning the sequence into shots is a prerequisite in many applications: automatic video indexing and editing, old flm restoration, perceptual coding, etc. The detection of abrupt transitions or cuts has been thoroughly studied in previous works. In this paper we present a scheme to identify the most common gradual transitions, i.e., dissolves and wipes, which relies on mathematical morphology operators. The approach is restricted to fast techniques which require low computation (without motion estimation and adapted to compressed sequences and are able to cope with random brightness variations (often occurring in old flms. The present study illustrates how the morphological operators can be used to analyze temporal series for detecting particular events, either working directly on the 1D signal or building an intermediate 2D image from the 1D signals to take advantage of the spatial operators.

  11. A comparison of the disconnection technique with continuous bronchial suction for lung deflation when using the Arndt endobronchial blocker during video-assisted thoracoscopy: A randomised trial. (United States)

    El-Tahan, Mohamed R


    The use of the Arndt endobronchial blocker has not gained widespread acceptance during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) because of its high cost and longer time to operative lung collapse especially in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The use of a ventilator disconnection technique has been shown to produce a comparable degree of lung collapse when used with either a double-lumen tube or an Arndt endobronchial blocker. We hypothesised that the use of bronchial suction through the suction port of the endobronchial blocker would be associated with a comparable time to achieve optimum lung collapse as the disconnection technique. A randomised, double-blind study. Single university hospital. Fifty-eight patients with spontaneous pneumothorax scheduled for elective VATS using the Arndt endobronchial blocker for one-lung ventilation (OLV). Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups (n = 29 per group) to deflate the operative lung with either disconnection of the endotracheal tube from the ventilator for 60 s prior to inflation of the endobronchial blocker or connection of a suction pressure of -30 cmH2O to the suction port of the endobronchial blocker through the barrel of a 1 ml syringe. The primary outcome was the time to total lung collapse. Secondary outcomes included surgeon rating of lung collapse, overall surgeon satisfaction, need for further fibreoptic bronchial suction manoeuvres and intraoperative hypoxaemia. The bronchial suction technique was associated with a significantly shorter time to total lung collapse than the disconnection method [93 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 81.3 to 103.7) vs. 197 (95% CI 157.4 to 237) s respectively; P suction groups had a comparable surgical rating of excellent lung collapse 40 min after the start of OLV (65.5 vs. 79.3%, respectively; P = 0.24), overall surgeon satisfaction [median (interquartile range, IQR) 9 (8 to 10) vs. 9 (8 to 10) respectively; P = 0.90] and

  12. Indexing Motion Detection Data for Surveillance Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Søren Juhl; Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We show how to compactly index video data to support fast motion detection queries. A query specifies a time interval T, a area A in the video and two thresholds v and p. The answer to a query is a list of timestamps in T where ≥ p% of A has changed by ≥ v values. Our results show that by building...... a small index, we can support queries with a speedup of two to three orders of magnitude compared to motion detection without an index. For high resolution video, the index size is about 20% of the compressed video size....

  13. Ontology based approach for video transmission over the network


    Rachit Mohan Garg; Yamini Sood; Neha Tyagi


    With the increase in the bandwidth & the transmission speed over the internet, transmission of multimedia objects like video, audio, images has become an easier work. In this paper we provide an approach that can be useful for transmission of video objects over the internet without much fuzz. The approach provides a ontology based framework that is used to establish an automatic deployment of video transmission system. Further the video is compressed using the structural flow mechanism tha...

  14. Evaluating and Implementing JPEG XR Optimized for Video Surveillance


    Yu, Lang


    This report describes both evaluation and implementation of the new coming image compression standard JPEG XR. The intention is to determine if JPEG XR is an appropriate standard for IP based video surveillance purposes. Video surveillance, especially IP based video surveillance, currently has an increasing role in the security market. To be a good standard for surveillance, the video stream generated by the camera is required to be low bit-rate, low latency on the network and at the same tim...

  15. Instructional Effectiveness of Video Media. (United States)

    Wetzel, C. Douglas; And Others

    This volume is a blend of media research, cognitive science research, and tradecraft knowledge regarding video production techniques. The research covers: visual learning; verbal-auditory information; news broadcasts; the value of motion and animation in film and video; simulation (including realism and fidelity); the relationship of text and…

  16. Negotiation for Strategic Video Games


    Afiouni, Einar Nour; Øvrelid, Leif Julian


    This project aims to examine the possibilities of using game theoretic concepts and multi-agent systems in modern video games with real time demands. We have implemented a multi-issue negotiation system for the strategic video game Civilization IV, evaluating different negotiation techniques with a focus on the use of opponent modeling to improve negotiation results.

  17. Application specific compression : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.


    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

  18. Video Pulses: User-Based Modeling of Interesting Video Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Avlonitis


    Full Text Available We present a user-based method that detects regions of interest within a video in order to provide video skims and video summaries. Previous research in video retrieval has focused on content-based techniques, such as pattern recognition algorithms that attempt to understand the low-level features of a video. We are proposing a pulse modeling method, which makes sense of a web video by analyzing users' Replay interactions with the video player. In particular, we have modeled the user information seeking behavior as a time series and the semantic regions as a discrete pulse of fixed width. Then, we have calculated the correlation coefficient between the dynamically detected pulses at the local maximums of the user activity signal and the pulse of reference. We have found that users' Replay activity significantly matches the important segments in information-rich and visually complex videos, such as lecture, how-to, and documentary. The proposed signal processing of user activity is complementary to previous work in content-based video retrieval and provides an additional user-based dimension for modeling the semantics of a social video on the web.

  19. Region of interest video coding for low bit-rate transmission of carotid ultrasound videos over 3G wireless networks. (United States)

    Tsapatsoulis, Nicolas; Loizou, Christos; Pattichis, Constantinos


    Efficient medical video transmission over 3G wireless is of great importance for fast diagnosis and on site medical staff training purposes. In this paper we present a region of interest based ultrasound video compression study which shows that significant reduction of the required, for transmission, bit rate can be achieved without altering the design of existing video codecs. Simple preprocessing of the original videos to define visually and clinically important areas is the only requirement.

  20. Perceived Quality of Full HD Video - Subjective Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik


    Full Text Available In recent years, an interest in multimedia services has become a global trend and this trend is still rising. The video quality is a very significant part from the bundle of multimedia services, which leads to a requirement for quality assessment in the video domain. Video quality of a streamed video across IP networks is generally influenced by two factors “transmission link imperfection and efficiency of compression standards. This paper deals with subjective video quality assessment and the impact of the compression standards H.264, H.265 and VP9 on perceived video quality of these compression standards. The evaluation is done for four full HD sequences, the difference of scenes is in the content“ distinction is based on Spatial (SI and Temporal (TI Index of test sequences. Finally, experimental results follow up to 30% bitrate reducing of H.265 and VP9 compared with the reference H.264.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.


    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  2. Image compression with Iris-C (United States)

    Gains, David


    Iris-C is an image codec designed for streaming video applications that demand low bit rate, low latency, lossless image compression. To achieve compression and low latency the codec features the discrete wavelet transform, Exp-Golomb coding, and online processes that construct dynamic models of the input video. Like H.264 and Dirac, the Iris-C codec accepts input video from both the YUV and YCOCG colour spaces, but the system can also operate on Bayer RAW data read directly from an image sensor. Testing shows that the Iris-C codec is competitive with the Dirac low delay syntax codec which is typically regarded as the state-of-the-art low latency, lossless video compressor.

  3. Compressed Sensing for Chemistry (United States)

    Sanders, Jacob Nathan

    Many chemical applications, from spectroscopy to quantum chemistry, involve measuring or computing a large amount of data, and then compressing this data to retain the most chemically-relevant information. In contrast, compressed sensing is an emergent technique that makes it possible to measure or compute an amount of data that is roughly proportional to its information content. In particular, compressed sensing enables the recovery of a sparse quantity of information from significantly undersampled data by solving an ℓ 1-optimization problem. This thesis represents the application of compressed sensing to problems in chemistry. The first half of this thesis is about spectroscopy. Compressed sensing is used to accelerate the computation of vibrational and electronic spectra from real-time time-dependent density functional theory simulations. Using compressed sensing as a drop-in replacement for the discrete Fourier transform, well-resolved frequency spectra are obtained at one-fifth the typical simulation time and computational cost. The technique is generalized to multiple dimensions and applied to two-dimensional absorption spectroscopy using experimental data collected on atomic rubidium vapor. Finally, a related technique known as super-resolution is applied to open quantum systems to obtain realistic models of a protein environment, in the form of atomistic spectral densities, at lower computational cost. The second half of this thesis deals with matrices in quantum chemistry. It presents a new use of compressed sensing for more efficient matrix recovery whenever the calculation of individual matrix elements is the computational bottleneck. The technique is applied to the computation of the second-derivative Hessian matrices in electronic structure calculations to obtain the vibrational modes and frequencies of molecules. When applied to anthracene, this technique results in a threefold speed-up, with greater speed-ups possible for larger molecules. The

  4. Robust Watermarking of Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Polyák


    Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark. 

  5. Video Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm


    This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...

  6. Binary video codec for data reduction in wireless visual sensor networks (United States)

    Khursheed, Khursheed; Ahmad, Naeem; Imran, Muhammad; O'Nils, Mattias


    of both the change coding and ROI coding becomes worse than that of image coding. This paper explores the compression efficiency of the Binary Video Codec (BVC) for the data reduction in WVSN. We proposed to implement all the three compression techniques i.e. image coding, change coding and ROI coding at the VSN and then select the smallest bit stream among the results of the three compression techniques. In this way the compression performance of the BVC will never become worse than that of image coding. We concluded that the compression efficiency of BVC is always better than that of change coding and is always better than or equal that of ROI coding and image coding.

  7. Economical Video Monitoring of Traffic (United States)

    Houser, B. C.; Paine, G.; Rubenstein, L. D.; Parham, O. Bruce, Jr.; Graves, W.; Bradley, C.


    Data compression allows video signals to be transmitted economically on telephone circuits. Telephone lines transmit television signals to remote traffic-control center. Lines also carry command signals from center to TV camera and compressor at highway site. Video system with television cameras positioned at critical points on highways allows traffic controllers to determine visually, almost immediately, exact cause of traffic-flow disruption; e.g., accidents, breakdowns, or spills, almost immediately. Controllers can then dispatch appropriate emergency services and alert motorists to minimize traffic backups.

  8. A Secure and Robust Object-Based Video Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun He


    Full Text Available An object-based video authentication system, which combines watermarking, error correction coding (ECC, and digital signature techniques, is presented for protecting the authenticity between video objects and their associated backgrounds. In this system, a set of angular radial transformation (ART coefficients is selected as the feature to represent the video object and the background, respectively. ECC and cryptographic hashing are applied to those selected coefficients to generate the robust authentication watermark. This content-based, semifragile watermark is then embedded into the objects frame by frame before MPEG4 coding. In watermark embedding and extraction, groups of discrete Fourier transform (DFT coefficients are randomly selected, and their energy relationships are employed to hide and extract the watermark. The experimental results demonstrate that our system is robust to MPEG4 compression, object segmentation errors, and some common object-based video processing such as object translation, rotation, and scaling while securely preventing malicious object modifications. The proposed solution can be further incorporated into public key infrastructure (PKI.

  9. Modification of the Miyake-Apple technique for simultaneous anterior and posterior video imaging of wet laboratory-based corneal surgery. (United States)

    Tan, Johnson C H; Meadows, Howard; Gupta, Aanchal; Yeung, Sonia N; Moloney, Gregory


    The aim of this study was to describe a modification of the Miyake-Apple posterior video analysis for the simultaneous visualization of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces during wet laboratory-based deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). A human donor corneoscleral button was affixed to a microscope slide and placed onto a custom-made mounting box. A big bubble DALK was performed on the cornea in the wet laboratory. An 11-diopter intraocular lens was positioned over the aperture of the back camera of an iPhone. This served to video record the posterior view of the corneoscleral button during the big bubble formation. An overhead operating microscope with an attached video camcorder recorded the anterior view during the surgery. The anterior and posterior views of the wet laboratory-based DALK surgery were simultaneously captured and edited using video editing software. The formation of the big bubble can be studied. This video recording camera system has the potential to act as a valuable research and teaching tool in corneal lamellar surgery, especially in the behavior of the big bubble formation in DALK.

  10. STEREOVIDEO YouTube channel: Short educational videos for the on-line learning of the stereographic projection technique in Structural Geology (United States)

    Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose A.; Castiñeiras, Pedro; Tejero-Lopez, Rosa; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Rodriguez-Peces, Martin J.


    STEREOVIDEO channel ( is a YouTube channel of short educational videos (communication technologies resources. Such a reinforcing facilitates the possibility to deepen more on conceptual aspects once the students dominate the representation tool helping them to develop their own critical thinking skills. After three years of being launched on-line (on 2014), we analyze the broadcast and acceptance of the channel by the academic community. For this purpose we have taken into account two different sources: (1) the analytics tool from YouTube (subscriptions, views, countries, comments from the users, type of device for viewing), and (2) our own survey among users (students and teachers) to get their opinion about the videos. By January, 2017 (date of sending of this abstract), the channel has a total of 650 subscriptions, with more than 85,000 views all around the world, mainly in Spanish speaking countries (as the videos are in Spanish). The main devices for viewing the videos are PCs, but is noteworthy the use of smart phones and tablets. The video users, both students and teachers, value this type of content positively.

  11. Compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Mosegaard, Klaus


    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) solves such underdetermined problems achieving sparsity, thus improved resolution, and can be solved efficiently with convex...

  12. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A


    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  14. Lazy Management for Frequency Table on Hardware-Based Stream Lossless Data Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Marumo


    Full Text Available The demand for communicating large amounts of data in real-time has raised new challenges with implementing high-speed communication paths for high definition video and sensory data. It requires the implementation of high speed data paths based on hardware. Implementation difficulties have to be addressed by applying new techniques based on data-oriented algorithms. This paper focuses on a solution for this problem by applying a lossless data compression mechanism on the communication data path. The new lossless data compression mechanism, called LCA-DLT, provides dynamic histogram management for symbol lookup tables used in the compression and the decompression operations. When the histogram memory is fully used, the management algorithm needs to find the least used entries and invalidate these entries. The invalidation operations cause the blocking of the compression and the decompression data stream. This paper proposes novel techniques to eliminate blocking by introducing a dynamic invalidation mechanism, which allows achievement of a high throughput data compression.

  15. Temporal Segmentation of MPEG Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Calic


    Full Text Available Many algorithms for temporal video partitioning rely on the analysis of uncompressed video features. Since the information relevant to the partitioning process can be extracted directly from the MPEG compressed stream, higher efficiency can be achieved utilizing information from the MPEG compressed domain. This paper introduces a real-time algorithm for scene change detection that analyses the statistics of the macroblock features extracted directly from the MPEG stream. A method for extraction of the continuous frame difference that transforms the 3D video stream into a 1D curve is presented. This transform is then further employed to extract temporal units within the analysed video sequence. Results of computer simulations are reported.

  16. Character superimposition inpainting in surveillance video (United States)

    Jia, Lili; Tao, Junjie; You, Ying


    Video surveillance systems play an important role in the crime scene investigation, and the digital surveillance system always requires the superimposed video data being subjected to a data compression processing. The purpose of this paper is to study the use of inpainting techniques to remove the characters and inpaint the target region. We give the efficient framework including getting Character Superimposition mask, superimposition movement and inpainting the blanks. The character region is located with the manual ROI selection and varying text extractor, such as the time. The superimposed characters usually have distinguished colors from the original background, so the edges are easily detected. We use the canny operator the get the edge image. The missing information which is effect the structure of the original image is reconstructed using a structure propagating algorithm. The experiment was done with C/C++ in the vs2010 KDE. The framework of this paper showed is powerful to recreate the character superimposition region and helpful to the crime scene investigation.

  17. Feedback-aided error resilience technique based on Wyner-Ziv coding (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Salama, Paul; Delp, Edward J.


    Compressed video is very sensitive to channel errors. A few bit losses can stop the entire decoding process. Therefore, protecting compressed video is always necessary for reliable visual communications. In recent years, Wyner-Ziv lossy coding has been used for error resilience and has achieved improvement over conventional techniques. In our previous work, we proposed an unequal error protection algorithm for protecting data elements in a video stream using a Wyner-Ziv codec. We also presented an improved method by adapting the parity data rates of protected video information to the video content. In this paper, we describe a feedback aided error resilience technique, based on Wyner-Ziv coding. By utilizing feedback regarding current channel packet-loss rates, a turbo coder can adaptively adjust the amount of parity bits needed for correcting corrupted slices at the decoder. This results in an effcient usage of the data rate budget for Wyner-Ziv coding while maintaining good quality decoded video when the data has been corrupted by transmission errors.

  18. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson


    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  19. MAPS Image Compression. (United States)


    SUMMARY MICRO-ADAPTIVE PICTURE SEQUENCING (MAPS) is a digital image data compression technique which originated at Control Data Corporation and underwent...w w Figure 1-3. Test Imagery Set 6 L.( The MAPS process is clearly sensitive to contrast but not to the Mean gray scale in the image . Thus, all images ...BUFFERED WORD TRANSFER RATES image processing Typical computa- tional functions which can be solved e DUAL 16-BIT INTERNAL DATA BUS SYSTEM with this

  20. Video surveillance using JPEG 2000 (United States)

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ebrahimi, Touradj


    This paper describes a video surveillance system which is composed of three key components, smart cameras, a server, and clients, connected through IP-networks in wired or wireless configurations. The system has been designed so as to protect the privacy of people under surveillance. Smart cameras are based on JPEG 2000 compression where an analysis module allows for events detection and regions of interest identification. The resulting regions of interest can then be encoded with better quality and scrambled. Compressed video streams are scrambled and signed for the purpose of privacy and data integrity verification using JPSEC compliant methods. The same bitstream may also be protected for robustness to transmission errors based on JPWL compliant methods. The server receives, stores, manages and transmits the video sequences on wired and wireless channels to a variety of clients and users with different device capabilities, channel characteristics and preferences. Use of seamless scalable coding of video sequences prevents any need for transcoding operations at any point in the system.

  1. Akademisk video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet er...... der dog opstået nye muligheder og udfordringer i forhold til at formidle og distribuere forskningsresultater til forskellige målgrupper via video. Samtidig er klassiske metodologiske problematikker som forskerens positionering i forhold til det undersøgte stadig aktuelle. Både klassiske og nye...... problemstillinger diskuteres i kapitlet, som rammesætter diskussionen ud fra forskellige positioneringsmuligheder: formidler, historiefortæller, eller dialogist. Disse positioner relaterer sig til genrer inden for ’akademisk video’. Afslutningsvis præsenteres en metodisk værktøjskasse med redskaber til planlægning...

  2. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  3. Distributed source coding of video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh


    A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...

  4. [Video documentation in forensic practice]. (United States)

    Schyma, C; Schyma, P


    The authors report in part 1 about their experiences with the Canon Ex1 Hi camcorder and the possibilities of documentation with the modern video technique. Application examples in legal medicine and criminalistics are described autopsy, scene, reconstruction of crimes etc. The online video documentation of microscopic sessions makes the discussion of findings easier. The use of video films for instruction produces a good resonance. The use of the video documentation can be extended by digitizing (Part 2). Two frame grabbers are presented, with which we obtained good results in digitizing of images captured from video. The best quality of images is achieved by online use of an image analysis chain. Corel 5.0 and PicEd Cora 4.0 allow complete image processings and analysis. The digital image processing influences the objectivity of the documentation. The applicabilities of image libraries are discussed.

  5. Color image and video enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Lecca, Michela; Smolka, Bogdan


    This text covers state-of-the-art color image and video enhancement techniques. The book examines the multivariate nature of color image/video data as it pertains to contrast enhancement, color correction (equalization, harmonization, normalization, balancing, constancy, etc.), noise removal and smoothing. This book also discusses color and contrast enhancement in vision sensors and applications of image and video enhancement.   ·         Focuses on enhancement of color images/video ·         Addresses algorithms for enhancing color images and video ·         Presents coverage on super resolution, restoration, in painting, and colorization.

  6. SnapVideo: Personalized Video Generation for a Sightseeing Trip. (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling


    Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1

  7. A new display stream compression standard under development in VESA (United States)

    Jacobson, Natan; Thirumalai, Vijayaraghavan; Joshi, Rajan; Goel, James


    The Advanced Display Stream Compression (ADSC) codec project is in development in response to a call for technologies from the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). This codec targets visually lossless compression of display streams at a high compression rate (typically 6 bits/pixel) for mobile/VR/HDR applications. Functionality of the ADSC codec is described in this paper, and subjective trials results are provided using the ISO 29170-2 testing protocol.

  8. Creating and Editing Video to Accompany Manuscripts. (United States)

    Gordon, Shayna L; Porto, Dennis A; Ozog, David M; Council, M Laurin


    The use of video can enhance the learning experience by demonstrating procedural techniques that are difficult to relay in writing. Several peer-reviewed journals allow publication of videos alongside articles to complement the written text. The purpose of this article is to instruct the dermatologic surgeon on how to create and edit a video using a smartphone, to accompany a article. The authors describe simple tips to optimize surgical videography. The video that accompanies this article further demonstrates the techniques described. Creating a surgical video requires little experience or equipment and can be completed in a modest amount of time. Making and editing a video to accompany a article can be accomplished by following the simple recommendations in this article. In addition, the increased use of video in dermatologic surgery education can enhance the learning opportunity.

  9. A Total Variation Regularization Based Super-Resolution Reconstruction Algorithm for Digital Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liangpei


    Full Text Available Super-resolution (SR reconstruction technique is capable of producing a high-resolution image from a sequence of low-resolution images. In this paper, we study an efficient SR algorithm for digital video. To effectively deal with the intractable problems in SR video reconstruction, such as inevitable motion estimation errors, noise, blurring, missing regions, and compression artifacts, the total variation (TV regularization is employed in the reconstruction model. We use the fixed-point iteration method and preconditioning techniques to efficiently solve the associated nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations of the corresponding variational problem in SR. The proposed algorithm has been tested in several cases of motion and degradation. It is also compared with the Laplacian regularization-based SR algorithm and other TV-based SR algorithms. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. HEVC performance and complexity for 4K video


    Bross, Benjamin; George, Valeri; Álvarez-Mesa, Mauricio; Mayer, Tobias; Chi, Chi Ching; Brandenburg, Jens; Schierl, Thomas; Marpe, Detlev; Juurlink, Ben


    The recently finalized High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard was jointly developed by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) to improve the compression performance of current video coding standards by 50%. Especially when it comes to transmit high resolution video like 4K over the internet or in broadcast, the 50% bitrate reduction is essential. This paper shows that real-time decoding of 4K video with a frame-level parallel deco...

  11. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real W...

  12. Resolution enhancement of low quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.


    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of

  13. Non-US data compression and coding research. FASAC Technical Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.M.; Cohn, M.; Craver, L.W.; Gersho, A.; Lookabaugh, T.; Pollara, F.; Vetterli, M.


    This assessment of recent data compression and coding research outside the United States examines fundamental and applied work in the basic areas of signal decomposition, quantization, lossless compression, and error control, as well as application development efforts in image/video compression and speech/audio compression. Seven computer scientists and engineers who are active in development of these technologies in US academia, government, and industry carried out the assessment. Strong industrial and academic research groups in Western Europe, Israel, and the Pacific Rim are active in the worldwide search for compression algorithms that provide good tradeoffs among fidelity, bit rate, and computational complexity, though the theoretical roots and virtually all of the classical compression algorithms were developed in the United States. Certain areas, such as segmentation coding, model-based coding, and trellis-coded modulation, have developed earlier or in more depth outside the United States, though the United States has maintained its early lead in most areas of theory and algorithm development. Researchers abroad are active in other currently popular areas, such as quantizer design techniques based on neural networks and signal decompositions based on fractals and wavelets, but, in most cases, either similar research is or has been going on in the United States, or the work has not led to useful improvements in compression performance. Because there is a high degree of international cooperation and interaction in this field, good ideas spread rapidly across borders (both ways) through international conferences, journals, and technical exchanges. Though there have been no fundamental data compression breakthroughs in the past five years--outside or inside the United State--there have been an enormous number of significant improvements in both places in the tradeoffs among fidelity, bit rate, and computational complexity.

  14. Effective Quality-of-Service Renegotiating Schemes for Streaming Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hwangjun


    Full Text Available This paper presents effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The conventional network supporting quality of service generally allows a negotiation at a call setup. However, it is not efficient for the video application since the compressed video traffic is statistically nonstationary. Thus, we consider the network supporting quality-of-service renegotiations during the data transmission and study effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The token bucket model, whose parameters are token filling rate and token bucket size, is adopted for the video traffic model. The renegotiating time instants and the parameters are determined by analyzing the statistical information of compressed video traffic. In this paper, two renegotiating approaches, that is, fixed renegotiating interval case and variable renegotiating interval case, are examined. Finally, the experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed schemes.

  15. Estimation of Web video multiplicity (United States)

    Cheung, SenChing S.; Zakhor, Avideh


    With ever more popularity of video web-publishing, many popular contents are being mirrored, reformatted, modified and republished, resulting in excessive content duplication. While such redundancy provides fault tolerance for continuous availability of information, it could potentially create problems for multimedia search engines in that the search results for a given query might become repetitious, and cluttered with a large number of duplicates. As such, developing techniques for detecting similarity and duplication is important to multimedia search engines. In addition, content providers might be interested in identifying duplicates of their content for legal, contractual or other business related reasons. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm called video signature to detect similar video sequences for large databases such as the web. The idea is to first form a 'signature' for each video sequence by selection a small number of its frames that are most similar to a number of randomly chosen seed images. Then the similarity between any tow video sequences can be reliably estimated by comparing their respective signatures. Using this method, we achieve 85 percent recall and precision ratios on a test database of 377 video sequences. As a proof of concept, we have applied our proposed algorithm to a collection of 1800 hours of video corresponding to around 45000 clips from the web. Our results indicate that, on average, every video in our collection from the web has around five similar copies.

  16. Digital Video of Live-Scan Fingerprint Data (United States)

    NIST Digital Video of Live-Scan Fingerprint Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 24 contains MPEG-2 (Moving Picture Experts Group) compressed digital video of live-scan fingerprint data. The database is being distributed for use in developing and testing of fingerprint verification systems.

  17. Compact video synopsis via global spatiotemporal optimization. (United States)

    Nie, Yongwei; Xiao, Chunxia; Sun, Hanqiu; Li, Ping


    Video synopsis aims at providing condensed representations of video data sets that can be easily captured from digital cameras nowadays, especially for daily surveillance videos. Previous work in video synopsis usually moves active objects along the time axis, which inevitably causes collisions among the moving objects if compressed much. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for compact video synopsis using a unified spatiotemporal optimization. Our approach globally shifts moving objects in both spatial and temporal domains, which shifting objects temporally to reduce the length of the video and shifting colliding objects spatially to avoid visible collision artifacts. Furthermore, using a multilevel patch relocation (MPR) method, the moving space of the original video is expanded into a compact background based on environmental content to fit with the shifted objects. The shifted objects are finally composited with the expanded moving space to obtain the high-quality video synopsis, which is more condensed while remaining free of collision artifacts. Our experimental results have shown that the compact video synopsis we produced can be browsed quickly, preserves relative spatiotemporal relationships, and avoids motion collisions.

  18. Compressive Spectral Renormalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan


    In this paper a novel numerical scheme for finding the sparse self-localized states of a nonlinear system of equations with missing spectral data is introduced. As in the Petviashivili's and the spectral renormalization method, the governing equation is transformed into Fourier domain, but the iterations are performed for far fewer number of spectral components (M) than classical versions of the these methods with higher number of spectral components (N). After the converge criteria is achieved for M components, N component signal is reconstructed from M components by using the l1 minimization technique of the compressive sampling. This method can be named as compressive spectral renormalization (CSRM) method. The main advantage of the CSRM is that, it is capable of finding the sparse self-localized states of the evolution equation(s) with many spectral data missing.

  19. The effects of wireless channel errors on the quality of real time ultrasound video transmission. (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Alesanco, Alvaro; Abadia, Violeta; García, José


    In this paper the effect of the conditions of wireless channels on real time ultrasound video transmission is studied. In order to simulate the transmission through a wireless channel, the model of Gilbert-Elliot is used, and the influence of its parameters in transmitted video quality is evaluated. In addition, the efficiency of using both UDP and UDP-Lite as transport protocols has been studied. The effect of using different video compression rates for XviD codec is also analyzed. Based on the obtained results it is observed as the election of the video compression rate depends on the bit error rate (BER) of the channel, since the election of a high compression bit rate for video transmission through a channel with a high BER can degrade the video quality more than using a lower compression rate. On the other hand, it is observed that using UDP as transport protocol better results in all the studied cases are obtained.

  20. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    Future infrared remote sensing systems, such as monitoring of the Earth's environment by satellites, infrastructure inspection by unmanned airborne vehicles etc., will require 16 bit depth infrared images to be compressed and stored or transmitted for further analysis. Such systems are equipped...... with low power embedded platforms where image or video data is compressed by a hardware block called the video processing unit (VPU). However, in many cases using two 8-bit VPUs can provide advantages compared with using higher bit depth image compression directly. We propose to compress 16 bit depth...... by an image or video codec with 8 bits per pixel input format. We analyze how the compression parameters for both MSB and LSB images should be chosen to provide the maximum objective quality for a given compression ratio. Finally, we apply the proposed infrared image compression method utilizing JPEG and H...

  1. Video consultation use by Australian general practitioners: video vignette study. (United States)

    Jiwa, Moyez; Meng, Xingqiong


    emergencies are unlikely to be offered access to a GP by video. The process of establishing video consultations as routine practice will need to be endorsed by senior members of the profession and funding organizations. Video consultation techniques will also need to be taught in medical schools.

  2. Mechanical principles of compressive interbody fusion. (United States)

    Krödel, A


    A biomechanical study on cadaveric lumbar spines was performed measuring interfragmentary forces and contact areas between intercorporal bone blocks and vertebral endplates. To show the correct application of internal fixators to achieve interfragmentary compression between bone blocks and adjacent endplates. Several researchers have previously tried to compress interbody bone blocks by internal fixator systems. Knowledge of the correct way to use the internal fixator systems for this purpose has been lacking. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines were analyzed by instrumenting each motion unit with an intercorporal bone block and a dorsal transpedicular arbeitsgemeinschaft osteosynthesefragen internal fixator. Interfragmentary load and compression surface and their distribution were measured with a capacitive measuring mat. The internal fixator was loaded in compression in two different ways to determine the optimum mode of application. Simple compression of an internal fixator did not achieve sufficient interfragmentary forces and compression surfaces. Usually lordotic contouring of the instrumented spinal motion unit with a decrease in interfragmentary forces and width of compression surfaces developed. Preloading the fixator in slight kyphosis and compressing it in a second step achieved significantly improved interfragmentary forces and sufficient compression surfaces. Preloading an internal fixator in kyphosis and secondary compression is mandatory to get sufficient interfragmentary forces and compression surfaces between interbody bone blocks and adjacent vertebral endplates. The technique described provides a compressive interbody fusion and can be performed preserving the physiological shape of the spine.

  3. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.


    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  4. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...

  5. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...

  6. Total ‘rib’-preservation technique of internal mammary vessel exposure for free flap breast reconstruction: A 5-year prospective cohort study and instructional video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais Rosich-Medina


    Discussion & conclusion: The total ‘rib’-preservation technique of IMV exposure is a safe, reliable and versatile method for microvascular breast reconstruction and should be considered as a valid alternative to the ‘rib’-sacrificing techniques.

  7. Compressed sensing for distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico


    This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...

  8. Adaptive Error Resilience for Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi R. Siruvuri


    Full Text Available Compressed video sequences are vulnerable to channel errors, to the extent that minor errors and/or small losses can result in substantial degradation. Thus, protecting compressed data against channel errors is imperative. The use of channel coding schemes can be effective in reducing the impact of channel errors, although this requires that extra parity bits to be transmitted, thus utilizing more bandwidth. However, this can be ameliorated if the transmitter can tailor the parity data rate based on its knowledge regarding current channel conditions. This can be achieved via feedback from the receiver to the transmitter. This paper describes a channel emulation system comprised of a server/proxy/client combination that utilizes feedback from the client to adapt the number of Reed-Solomon parity symbols used to protect compressed video sequences against channel errors.

  9. Robotic video photogrammetry system (United States)

    Gustafson, Peter C.


    For many years, photogrammetry has been in use at TRW. During that time, needs have arisen for highly repetitive measurements. In an effort to satisfy these needs in a timely manner, a specialized Robotic Video Photogrammetry System (RVPS) was developed by TRW in conjunction with outside vendors. The primary application for the RVPS has strict accuracy requirements that demand significantly more images than the previously used film-based system. The time involved in taking these images was prohibitive but by automating the data acquisition process, video techniques became a practical alternative to the more traditional film- based approach. In fact, by applying video techniques, measurement productivity was enhanced significantly. Analysis involved was also brought `on-board' to the RVPS, allowing shop floor acquisition and delivery of results. The RVPS has also been applied in other tasks and was found to make a critical improvement in productivity, allowing many more tests to be run in a shorter time cycle. This paper will discuss the creation of the system and TRW's experiences with the RVPS. Highlighted will be the lessons learned during these efforts and significant attributes of the process not common to the standard application of photogrammetry for industrial measurement. As productivity and ease of use continue to drive the application of photogrammetry in today's manufacturing climate, TRW expects several systems, with technological improvements applied, to be in use in the near future.

  10. No Reference Prediction of Quality Metrics for H.264 Compressed Infrared Image Sequences for UAV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Kabir; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren


    The framework for this research work is the acquisition of Infrared (IR) images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). In this paper we consider the No-Reference (NR) prediction of Full Reference Quality Metrics for Infrared (IR) video sequences which are compressed and thus distorted by an H.264...... and temporal perceptual information. Those features are then mapped, using a machine learning (ML) algorithm, the Support Vector Regression (SVR), to the quality scores of Full Reference (FR) quality metrics. The novelty of this work is to design a NR framework for the prediction of quality metrics by applying...... with the true FR quality metrics scores of four images metrics: PSNR, NQM, SSIM and UQI and one video metric: VQM. Results show that our technique achieves a fairly reasonable performance. The improved performance obtained in SROCC and LCC is up to 0.99 and the RMSE is reduced to as little as 0.01 between...

  11. Instructional video for teaching venepuncture. (United States)

    Pan, Michael; Harcharik, Sara; Moskalenko, Marina; Luber, Adam; Bernardo, Sebastian; Levitt, Jacob


    Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals, to avoid accidental occupational injury. This study investigates whether watching an instructional video improves medical students' ability to perform venepuncture safely. This was a randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded trial that evaluated the utility of an instructional video, with the primary outcome of the ability to perform venepuncture safely. Forty-two second-year medical students were recruited and randomised to receive either video instruction (group A, n = 20) or no intervention (group B, n = 22). Prior to the study, all students attended an instructor-led workshop on venepuncture. During the study, students were paired and instructed to perform venepuncture on a partner. Performance was assessed using a points-based checklist. Pre- and post-study surveys were conducted to assess confidence with technique. The mean total checklist score was higher in group A than in group B, with values of 14.15 and 9.18, respectively (p video performed venepuncture more effectively and reported greater confidence with the technique. Medical students can benefit from having access to an instructional video on venepuncture as an adjunct to the standard curriculum. Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Real-time video codec using reversible wavelets (United States)

    Huang, Gen Dow; Chiang, David J.; Huang, Yi-En; Cheng, Allen


    This paper describes the hardware implementation of a real-time video codec using reversible Wavelets. The TechSoft (TS) real-time video system employs the Wavelet differencing for the inter-frame compression based on the independent Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT) of the embedded bit stream. This high performance scalable image compression using EBCOT has been selected as part of the ISO new image compression standard, JPEG2000. The TS real-time video system can process up to 30 frames per second (fps) of the DVD format. In addition, audio signals are also processed by the same design for the cost reduction. Reversible Wavelets are used not only for the cost reduction, but also for the lossless applications. Design and implementation issues of the TS real-time video system are discussed.

  13. Video-assisted minithoracotomy for pulmonary laceration with a massive hemothorax. (United States)

    Ota, Hideki; Kawai, Hideki; Togashi, Shuntaro; Matsuo, Tsubasa


    Severe intrathoracic hemorrhage from pulmonary parenchyma is the most serious complication of pulmonary laceration after blunt trauma requiring immediate surgical hemostasis through open thoracotomy. The safety and efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) techniques for this life-threatening condition have not been fully evaluated yet. We report a case of pulmonary laceration with a massive hemothorax after blunt trauma successfully treated using a combination of muscle-sparing minithoracotomy with VATS techniques (video-assisted minithoracotomy). A 22-year-old man was transferred to our department after a falling accident. A diagnosis of right-sided pneumothorax was made on physical examination and urgent chest decompression was performed with a tube thoracostomy. Chest computed tomographic scan revealed pulmonary laceration with hematoma in the right lung. The pulmonary hematoma extending along segmental pulmonary artery in the helium of the middle lobe ruptured suddenly into the thoracic cavity, resulting in hemorrhagic shock on the fourth day after admission. Emergency right middle lobectomy was performed through video-assisted minithoracotomy. We used two cotton dissectors as a chopstick for achieving compression hemostasis during surgery. The patient recovered satisfactorily. Video-assisted minithoracotomy can be an alternative approach for the treatment of pulmonary lacerations with a massive hemothorax in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  14. Video-Assisted Minithoracotomy for Pulmonary Laceration with a Massive Hemothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Ota


    Full Text Available Severe intrathoracic hemorrhage from pulmonary parenchyma is the most serious complication of pulmonary laceration after blunt trauma requiring immediate surgical hemostasis through open thoracotomy. The safety and efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS techniques for this life-threatening condition have not been fully evaluated yet. We report a case of pulmonary laceration with a massive hemothorax after blunt trauma successfully treated using a combination of muscle-sparing minithoracotomy with VATS techniques (video-assisted minithoracotomy. A 22-year-old man was transferred to our department after a falling accident. A diagnosis of right-sided pneumothorax was made on physical examination and urgent chest decompression was performed with a tube thoracostomy. Chest computed tomographic scan revealed pulmonary laceration with hematoma in the right lung. The pulmonary hematoma extending along segmental pulmonary artery in the helium of the middle lobe ruptured suddenly into the thoracic cavity, resulting in hemorrhagic shock on the fourth day after admission. Emergency right middle lobectomy was performed through video-assisted minithoracotomy. We used two cotton dissectors as a chopstick for achieving compression hemostasis during surgery. The patient recovered satisfactorily. Video-assisted minithoracotomy can be an alternative approach for the treatment of pulmonary lacerations with a massive hemothorax in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  15. Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw


    Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....

  16. A video event trigger for high frame rate, high resolution video technology (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.


    When video replaces film the digitized video data accumulates very rapidly, leading to a difficult and costly data storage problem. One solution exists for cases when the video images represent continuously repetitive 'static scenes' containing negligible activity, occasionally interrupted by short events of interest. Minutes or hours of redundant video frames can be ignored, and not stored, until activity begins. A new, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term or short term changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pretrigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable for archiving the digital stream from only the significant video images.

  17. Improving Chinese nursing students' communication skills by utilizing video-stimulated recall and role-play case scenarios to introduce them to the SBAR technique. (United States)

    Wang, Weiwen; Liang, Zhan; Blazeck, Alice; Greene, Brian


    Effective communication among healthcare workers is critically important for patient safety and quality care. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate outcomes of a workshop designed to teach Chinese nursing students to use the Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) communication tool and examine their attitudes toward utilizing SBAR as a communication tool. A convenience sample of 18 master's degree nursing students at a Chinese university was introduced to SBAR through a workshop. The workshop combined the SBAR tool, video-stimulated recall and role-play case scenarios to illustrate potential positive and negative communication-related patient outcomes. Students completed a 12-item questionnaire before and after participating in the workshop. Four of the items examined the four elements of the SBAR tool (situation, background, assessment, recommendation, score range 0-20), and eight of the items evaluated students' self-perceived attitudes towards utilizing the SBAR tool in their clinical practice (score range 0-40). Pre- and post-workshop scores on the four elements of the SBAR tool demonstrate significant improvement in knowledge of SBAR (14.0±2.9 vs. 16.6±2.2, respectively; p=0.009). Pre- and post-workshop scores on the items testing students' self-perceived abilities also demonstrate significant improvement (26.9±3.5 vs. 32.6±4.5, respectively; pstudents agreed and strongly agreed that they would use SBAR during clinical practice. Participating in the SBAR workshop in combination with video-stimulated recall and role-play case scenarios significantly improved the Chinese nursing students' knowledge of SBAR and their self-perceived attitudes towards using SBAR tool. Future studies using a larger sample size and longer post-workshop follow-up are needed to confirm the long-term benefits of the workshop. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Color spaces in digital video

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.


    Whether it`s photography, computer graphics, publishing, or video; each medium has a defined color space, or gamut, which defines the extent that a given set of RGB colors can be mixed. When converting from one medium to another, an image must go through some form of conversion which maps colors into the destination color space. The conversion process isn`t always straight forward, easy, or reversible. In video, two common analog composite color spaces are Y`tjv (used in PAL) and Y`IQ (used in NTSC). These two color spaces have been around since the beginning of color television, and are primarily used in video transmission. Another analog scheme used in broadcast studios is Y`, R`-Y`, B`-Y` (used in Betacam and Mll) which is a component format. Y`, R`-Y`,B`-Y` maintains the color information of RGB but in less space. From this, the digital component video specification, ITU-Rec. 601-4 (formerly CCIR Rec. 601) was based. The color space for Rec. 601 is symbolized as Y`CbCr. Digital video formats such as DV, Dl, Digital-S, etc., use Rec. 601 to define their color gamut. Digital composite video (for D2 tape) is digitized analog Y`UV and is seeing decreased use. Because so much information is contained in video, segments of any significant length usually require some form of data compression. All of the above mentioned analog video formats are a means of reducing the bandwidth of RGB video. Video bulk storage devices, such as digital disk recorders, usually store frames in Y`CbCr format, even if no other compression method is used. Computer graphics and computer animations originate in RGB format because RGB must be used to calculate lighting and shadows. But storage of long animations in RGB format is usually cost prohibitive and a 30 frame-per-second data rate of uncompressed RGB is beyond most computers. By taking advantage of certain aspects of the human visual system, true color 24-bit RGB video images can be compressed with minimal loss of visual information

  19. 3D video coding: an overview of present and upcoming standards (United States)

    Merkle, Philipp; Müller, Karsten; Wiegand, Thomas


    An overview of existing and upcoming 3D video coding standards is given. Various different 3D video formats are available, each with individual pros and cons. The 3D video formats can be separated into two classes: video-only formats (such as stereo and multiview video) and depth-enhanced formats (such as video plus depth and multiview video plus depth). Since all these formats exist of at least two video sequences and possibly additional depth data, efficient compression is essential for the success of 3D video applications and technologies. For the video-only formats the H.264 family of coding standards already provides efficient and widely established compression algorithms: H.264/AVC simulcast, H.264/AVC stereo SEI message, and H.264/MVC. For the depth-enhanced formats standardized coding algorithms are currently being developed. New and specially adapted coding approaches are necessary, as the depth or disparity information included in these formats has significantly different characteristics than video and is not displayed directly, but used for rendering. Motivated by evolving market needs, MPEG has started an activity to develop a generic 3D video standard within the 3DVC ad-hoc group. Key features of the standard are efficient and flexible compression of depth-enhanced 3D video representations and decoupling of content creation and display requirements.

  20. Immediate effect of ultrasound and ischemic compression techniques for the treatment of trapezius latent myofascial trigger points in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled study. (United States)

    Aguilera, F Javier Montañez; Martín, Daniel Pecos; Masanet, Rosana Arnau; Botella, Ana Camps; Soler, Lorena Borja; Morell, Francisco Bosch


    The purpose of this study was to determine immediate effects of ischemic compression (IC) and ultrasound (US) for the treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the trapezius muscle. Sixty-six volunteers, all CEU-Cardenal Herrera University, Valencia, Spain, personnel, participated in this study. Subjects were healthy individuals, diagnosed with latent MTrPs in the trapezius muscle. Subjects were randomly placed into 3 groups: G1, which received IC treatment for MTrPs; G2, which received US; and G3 (control), which received sham US. The following data were recorded before and after each treatment: active range of motion (AROM) of cervical rachis measured with a cervical range of motion instrument, basal electrical activity (BEA) of muscle trapezius measured with surface electromyography, and pressure tolerance of MTrP measured with visual analogue scale assessing local pain evoked by the application of 2.5 kg/cm(2) of pressure using a pressure analog algometer. The results showed an immediate decrease in BEA of the trapezius muscle and a reduction of MTrP sensitivity after treatment with both therapeutic modalities. In the case of IC, an improvement of AROM of cervical rachis was also been obtained. In this group of participants, both treatments were shown to have an immediate effect on latent MTrPs. The results show a relation among AROM of cervical rachis, BEA of the trapezius muscle, and MTrP sensitivity of the trapezius muscle gaining short-term positive effects with use of IC.

  1. Application of technique of SBRT with exa cradles system and IGRT compression; Aplicacion de la tecnica de SBRT con sistema de compresion exacradle e IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Montero Perea, E.; Ortiz Seidel, M.


    This paper examines a new immobilizer system called eXaCradle (Anatomical Geometry), which allows the reduction of the movement on Lung Tumors and abdominal without compromising the diaphragmatic movement, which allows to optimize the treatment in this area. Presents the process followed from the simulation of the treatment, its design and its management supported by Image Guided techniques Radiotherapy (IGRT). (Author)

  2. Two-terminal video coding. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei


    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  3. Improved depth resolution in video-rate line-scanning multiphoton microscopy using temporal focusing (United States)

    Tal, Eran; Oron, Dan; Silberberg, Yaron


    By introducing spatiotemporal pulse shaping techniques to multiphoton microscopy it is possible to obtain video-rate images with depth resolution similar to point-by-point scanning multiphoton microscopy while mechanically scanning in only one dimension. This is achieved by temporal focusing of the illumination pulse: The pulsed excitation field is compressed as it propagates through the sample, reaching its shortest duration (and highest peak intensity) at the focal plane before stretching again beyond it. This method is applied to produce, in a simple and scalable setup, video-rate two-photon excitation fluorescence images of Drosophila egg chambers with nearly 100,000 effective pixels and 1.5 μm depth resolution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthil


    Full Text Available Data Compression may be defined as the science and art of the representation of information in a crisply condensed form. For decades, Data compression has been one of the critical enabling technologies for the ongoing digital multimedia revolution. There are a lot of data compression algorithms which are available to compress files of different formats. This paper provides a survey of different basic lossless data compression algorithms. Experimental results and comparisons of the lossless compression algorithms using Statistical compression techniques and Dictionary based compression techniques were performed on text data. Among the Statistical coding techniques, the algorithms such as Shannon-Fano Coding, Huffman coding, Adaptive Huffman coding, Run Length Encoding and Arithmetic coding are considered. Lempel Ziv scheme which is a dictionary based technique is divided into two families: one derived from LZ77 (LZ77, LZSS, LZH, LZB and LZR and the other derived from LZ78 (LZ78, LZW, LZFG, LZC and LZT. A set of interesting conclusions are derived on this basis.

  5. Privacy-protecting video surveillance (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini


    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  6. Compression of Probabilistic XML documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Irma


    Probabilistic XML (PXML) files resulting from data integration can become extremely large, which is undesired. For XML there are several techniques available to compress the document and since probabilistic XML is in fact (a special form of) XML, it might benefit from these methods even more. In

  7. Analysing the movement of a hair swatch using video and image analysis: a promising technique for exploring the dynamic properties of hair. (United States)

    Galliano, A; Lheur, M; Santoprete, R


    The aim of this paper is to present a new instrumental evaluation method of hair movement in order to propose new criteria in the performances of hair products. The in vitro evaluation of hair swatches movement allows us to better understand the phenomena that appear when various hair care and styling technologies are applied upon the mechanisms of hair movements. The method consists of a video acquisition system with fast cameras (100 frames/second). The swatch is placed on a motor drive and moved with a back and forth movement. The frequency and amplitude are set by the operator. Facing each camera, a backlight provides high contrast to capture all the fibres of the swatch. A software was specifically developed to analyse the video recordings and provide the physical parameters that characterize the movement. Accordingly, it is possible to follow the surface and shape of the swatch during movement from the 'skeleton' of the swatch and to study the contraction and expansion phases of the swatch(es) during the movement together with 'the envelope' of the swatch. Results show that applying various hair treatments modifies the behaviour of the swatch through the hair shapes contraction or expansion induced by the oscillating movement. Expansion of the swatch suggests that the interactions between hair fibres (adhesions or frictions) play an important role, leading to an 'individualization' of hair swatch (more 'space' between fibres) or to a 'wider' movement related to the increase of the total surface developed by the swatch. As an example, the application of a highly conditioning formula on a hair swatch largely decreases its expansion by a two-fold factor during movements and increases the horizontal amplitude by a two-fold factor, as compared to a commercial bland shampoo. In conclusion, this method is complementary to the ones used generally to characterize global visual perceptions (colour, styling, shine). This dynamic component not only opens doors to new

  8. Low Compression Tennis Balls and Skill Development (United States)

    Hammond, John; Smith, Christina


    Coaching aims to improve player performance and coaches have a number of coaching methods and strategies they use to enhance this process. If new methods and ideas can be determined to improve player performance they will change coaching practices and processes. This study investigated the effects of using low compression balls (LCBs) during coaching sessions with beginning tennis players. In order to assess the effectiveness of LCBs on skill learning the study employed a quasi-experimental design supported by qualitative and descriptive data. Beginner tennis players took part in coaching sessions, one group using the LCBs while the other group used standard tennis balls. Both groups were administered a skills at the beginning of a series of coaching sessions and again at the end. A statistical investigation of the difference between pre and post-test results was carried out to determine the effect of LCBs on skill learning. Additional qualitative data was obtained through interviews, video capture and the use of performance analysis of typical coaching sessions for each group. The skill test results indicated no difference in skill learning when comparing beginners using the LCBs to those using the standard balls. Coaches reported that the LCBs appeared to have a positive effect on technique development, including aspects of technique that are related to improving power of the shot. Additional benefits were that rallies went on longer and more opportunity for positive reinforcement. In order to provide a more conclusive answer to the effects of LCBs on skill learning and technique development recommendations for future research were established including a more controlled experimental environment and larger sample sizes across a longer period of time. Key Points LCB may aid skill learning in tennis. Qualitative indicators. Statistical evidence not conclusive. Further studies of larger groups recommended. PMID:24357952


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hammond


    Full Text Available Coaching aims to improve player performance and coaches have a number of coaching methods and strategies they use to enhance this process. If new methods and ideas can be determined to improve player performance they will change coaching practices and processes. This study investigated the effects of using low compression balls (LCBs during coaching sessions with beginning tennis players. In order to assess the effectiveness of LCBs on skill learning the study employed a quasi-experimental design supported by qualitative and descriptive data. Beginner tennis players took part in coaching sessions, one group using the LCBs while the other group used standard tennis balls. Both groups were administered a skills at the beginning of a series of coaching sessions and again at the end. A statistical investigation of the difference between pre and post-test results was carried out to determine the effect of LCBs on skill learning. Additional qualitative data was obtained through interviews, video capture and the use of performance analysis of typical coaching sessions for each group. The skill test results indicated no difference in skill learning when comparing beginners using the LCBs to those using the standard balls. Coaches reported that the LCBs appeared to have a positive effect on technique development, including aspects of technique that are related to improving power of the shot. Additional benefits were that rallies went on longer and more opportunity for positive reinforcement. In order to provide a more conclusive answer to the effects of LCBs on skill learning and technique development recommendations for future research were established including a more controlled experimental environment and larger sample sizes across a longer period of time

  10. Suggested Tips and Tricks to Enhance Surgical Video Production. (United States)

    Fisher, Nina; Kaplan, Daniel; Egol, Kenneth A


    Surgical video production is an important skill that can be of valuable use as an educational tool. However, it is important that surgical videos be filmed and edited in a methodological way to maximize its potential. In this video, we describe our preference for producing quality surgical videos. There are many important factors to consider during the filming process, including vantage point of the videographer, lighting, and visualization of instruments. During the editing process, certain techniques can be used to make the video more stimulating and thus more engaging to the viewer. This video presents the filming and editing of a single case. In addition, we provide examples of acceptable and poor footage and editing techniques. Surgical videos can be a valuable educational tool when properly executed. In this video, we describe techniques to ensure quality production.

  11. Comparison of the Success of Two Techniques for the Endotracheal Intubation with C-MAC Video Laryngoscope Miller Blade in Children: A Prospective Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sinha


    Full Text Available Background. Ease of endotracheal intubation with C-MAC video laryngoscope (VLS with Miller blades 0 and 1 has not been evaluated in children. Methods. Sixty children weighing 3–15 kg with normal airway were randomly divided into two groups. Intubation was done with C-MAC VLS Miller blade using either nonstyletted endotracheal tube (ETT (group WS or styletted ETT (group S. The time for intubation and total procedure, intubation attempts, failed intubation, blade repositioning or external laryngeal maneuver, and complications were recorded. Results. The median (minimum/maximum time for intubation in group WS and group S was 19.5 (9/48 seconds and 13.0 (18/55 seconds, respectively (p=0.03. The median (minimum/maximum time for procedure in group WS was 30.5 (18/72 seconds and in group S was 24.5 (14/67 seconds, respectively (p=0.02. Intubation in first attempt was done in 28 children in group WS and in 30 children in group S. Repositioning was required in 14 children in group WS and in 7 children in group S (p=0.06. There were no failure to intubate, desaturation, and bradycardia in both groups. Conclusion. Styletted ETT significantly reduces time for intubation and time for procedure in comparison to nonstyletted ETT.

  12. Double HEVC Compression Detection with Different Bitrates Based on Co-occurrence Matrix of PU Types and DCT Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhao-Hong


    Full Text Available Detection of double video compression is of particular importance in video forensics, as it reveals partly the video processing history. In this paper, a double compression method is proposed for HEVC–the latest video coding standard. Firstly, four 5×5 co-occurrence matrixes were derived from DCT coefficients along four directions respectively, i.e., horizontal, vertical, main diagonal and minor diagonal. Then four 4×4 co-occurrence matrixes were derived from PU types which are innovative features of HEVC and rarely been utilized by researchers. Finally, these two feature set are combined and sent to support vector machine (SVM to detect re-compressed videos. In order to reduce the feature dimension, only the co-occurrence matrixes of DCT coefficients and PU types in horizontal direction are adopted to identify whether the video has undergone double compression. Experimental results show the effectiveness and the robustness against frame deletion of the proposed scheme.

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... decisions about your health care. CF Genetics: The Basics CF Mutations Video Series CFTR2 Personalized Medicine Types ... of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and ...

  14. Resource-Constrained Low-Complexity Video Coding for Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann

    of video quality. We proposed a new metric for objective quality assessment that considers frame rate. As many applications deal with wireless video transmission, we performed an analysis of compression and transmission systems with a focus on power-distortion trade-off. We proposed an approach......Constrained resources like memory, power, bandwidth and delay requirements in many mobile systems pose limitations for video applications. Standard approaches for video compression and transmission do not always satisfy system requirements. In this thesis we have shown that it is possible to modify...... for ratedistortion-complexity optimization of upcoming video compression standard HEVC. We also provided a new method allowing decrease of power consumption on mobile devices in 3G networks. Finally, we proposed low-delay and low-power approaches for video transmission over wireless personal area networks, including...

  15. The definitive guide to HTML 5 video

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Silvia


    Plugins will soon be a thing of the past. The Definitive Guide to HTML5 Video is the first authoritative book on HTML5 video, the new web standard that allows browsers to support audio and video elements natively. This makes it very easy for web developers to publish audio and video, integrating both within the general presentation of web pages. For example, media elements can be styled using CSS (style sheets), integrated into SVG (scalable vector graphics), and manipulated in a Canvas. The book offers techniques for providing accessibility to media elements, enabling consistent handling of a

  16. Exploring the clinical decision-making used by experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists: A mixed method qualitative design of simulation, video recording and think aloud techniques. (United States)

    Thackray, Debbie; Roberts, Lisa


    The ability of physiotherapists to make clinical decisions is a vital component of being an autonomous practitioner, yet this complex phenomenon has been under-researched in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to explore clinical decision-making (CDM) by experienced physiotherapists in a scenario of a simulated patient experiencing acute deterioration of their respiratory function. The main objective of this observational study was to identify the actions, thoughts, and behaviours used by experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists in their clinical decision-making processes. A mixed-methods (qualitative) design employing observation and think-aloud, was adopted using a computerised manikin in a simulated environment. The participants clinically assessed the manikin programmed with the same clinical signs, under standardised conditions in the clinical skills practice suite, which was set up as a ward environment. Experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists, recruited from clinical practice within a 50-mile radius of the University(*). Participants were video-recorded throughout the assessment and treatment and asked to verbalise their thought processes using the 'think-aloud' method. The recordings were transcribed verbatim and managed using a Framework approach. Eight cardiorespiratory physiotherapists participated (mean 7years clinical experience, range 3.5-16years. CDM was similar to the collaborative hypothetico-deductive model, five-rights nursing model, reasoning strategies, inductive reasoning and pattern recognition. However, the CDM demonstrated by the physiotherapists was complex, interactive and iterative. Information processing occurred continuously throughout the whole interaction with the patient, and the specific cognitive skills of recognition, matching, discriminating, relating, inferring, synthesising and prediction were identified as being used sequentially. The findings from this study were used to develop a new

  17. Automated Video Quality Assessment for Deep-Sea Video (United States)

    Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kalmbach, A.; Sadhu, T.; Branzan Albu, A.; Glotin, H.; Jeffries, M. A.; Bui, A. O. V.


    Video provides a rich source of data for geophysical analysis, often supplying detailed information about the environment when other instruments may not. This is especially true of deep-sea environments, where direct visual observations cannot be made. As computer vision techniques improve and volumes of video data increase, automated video analysis is emerging as a practical alternative to labor-intensive manual analysis. Automated techniques can be much more sensitive to video quality than their manual counterparts, so performing quality assessment before doing full analysis is critical to producing valid results.Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories that supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea, including video and still cameras. This network of ocean observatories has produced almost 20,000 hours of video (about 38 hours are recorded each day) and an additional 8,000 hours of logs from remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. We begin by surveying some ways in which deep-sea video poses challenges for automated analysis, including: 1. Non-uniform lighting: Single, directional, light sources produce uneven luminance distributions and shadows; remotely operated lighting equipment are also susceptible to technical failures. 2. Particulate noise: Turbidity and marine snow are often present in underwater video; particles in the water column can have sharper focus and higher contrast than the objects of interest due to their proximity to the light source and can also influence the camera's autofocus and auto white-balance routines. 3. Color distortion (low contrast): The rate of absorption of light in water varies by wavelength, and is higher overall than in air, altering apparent colors and lowering the contrast of objects at a distance.We also describe measures under development at ONC for detecting and mitigating

  18. A New Frame Memory Compression Algorithm with DPCM and VLC in a 4×4 Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongje Lee


    Full Text Available Frame memory compression (FMC is a technique to reduce memory bandwidth by compressing the video data to be stored in the frame memory. This paper proposes a new FMC algorithm integrated into an H.264 encoder that compresses a 4×4 block by differential pulse code modulation (DPCM followed by Golomb-Rice coding. For DPCM, eight scan orders are predefined and the best scan order is selected using the results of H.264 intra prediction. FMC can also be used for other systems that require a frame memory to store images in RGB color space. In the proposed FMC, RGB color space is transformed into another color space, such as YCbCr or G, R-G, B-G color space. The best scan order for DPCM is selected by comparing the efficiency of all scan orders. Experimental results show that the new FMC algorithm in an H.264 encoder achieves 1.34 dB better image quality than a previous MHT-based FMC for HD-size sequences. For systems using RGB color space, the transform to G, R-G, B-G color space makes most efficient compression. The average PSNR values of R, G, and B colors are 46.70 dB, 50.80 dB, and 44.90 dB, respectively, for 768×512-size images.

  19. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  20. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...

  1. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia (United States)

    ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...

  2. New architecture for MPEG video streaming system with backward playback support. (United States)

    Fu, Chang-Hong; Chan, Yui-Lam; Ip, Tak-Piu; Siu, Wan-Chi


    MPEG digital video is becoming ubiquitous for video storage and communications. It is often desirable to perform various video cassette recording (VCR) functions such as backward playback in MPEG videos. However, the predictive processing techniques employed in MPEG severely complicate the backward-play operation. A straightforward implementation of backward playback is to transmit and decode the whole group-of-picture (GOP), store all the decoded frames in the decoder buffer, and play the decoded frames in reverse order. This approach requires a significant buffer in the decoder, which depends on the GOP size, to store the decoded frames. This approach could not be possible in a severely constrained memory requirement. Another alternative is to decode the GOP up to the current frame to be displayed, and then go back to decode the GOP again up to the next frame to be displayed. This approach does not need the huge buffer, but requires much higher bandwidth of the network and complexity of the decoder. In this paper, we propose a macroblock-based algorithm for an efficient implementation of the MPEG video streaming system to provide backward playback over a network with the minimal requirements on the network bandwidth and the decoder complexity. The proposed algorithm classifies macroblocks in the requested frame into backward macroblocks (BMBs) and forward/backward macroblocks (FBMBs). Two macroblock-based techniques are used to manipulate different types of macroblocks in the compressed domain and the server then sends the processed macroblocks to the client machine. For BMBs, a VLC-domain technique is adopted to reduce the number of macroblocks that need to be decoded by the decoder and the number of bits that need to be sent over the network in the backward-play operation. We then propose a newly mixed VLC/DCT-domain technique to handle FBMBs in order to further reduce the computational complexity of the decoder. With these compressed-domain techniques, the

  3. Online scene change detection of multicast (MBone) video (United States)

    Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Ye; Vellaikal, Asha; Kuo, C.-C. Jay


    Many multimedia applications, such as multimedia data management systems and communication systems, require efficient representation of multimedia content. Thus semantic interpretation of video content has been a popular research area. Currently, most content-based video representation involves the segmentation of video based on key frames which are generated using scene change detection techniques as well as camera/object motion. Then, video features can be extracted from key frames. However most of such research performs off-line video processing in which the whole video scope is known as a priori which allows multiple scans of the stored video files during video processing. In comparison, relatively not much research has been done in the area of on-line video processing, which is crucial in video communication applications such as on-line collaboration, news broadcasts and so on. Our research investigates on-line real-time scene change detection of multicast video over the Internet. Our on-line processing system are designed to meet the requirements of real-time video multicasting over the Internet and to utilize the successful video parsing techniques available today. The proposed algorithms extract key frames from video bitstreams sent through the MBone network, and the extracted key frames are multicasted as annotations or metadata over a separate channel to assist in content filtering such as those anticipated to be in use by on-line filtering proxies in the Internet. The performance of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated and discussed in this paper.

  4. Gradual Recovery from Nonambulatory Quadriparesis Caused by Metastatic Epidural Cervical Cord Compression in an Octogenarian Gallbladder Carcinoma Patient Treated with Image-Guided Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Alone Using a Field-in-Field Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Ohtakara


    Full Text Available Radiotherapy for acute metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC involves conventional techniques and dose fractionation schemes, as it needs to be initiated quickly. However, even with rapid intervention, few paraplegic patients regain ambulation. Here, we describe the case of a mid-octogenarian who presented with severe pain and nonambulatory quadriparesis attributable to MESCC at the fifth cervical vertebra, which developed 10 months after the diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder. Image-guided three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (IG-3DCRT was started with 25 Gy in 5 fractions followed by a boost of 12 Gy in 3 fractions, for which a field-in-field (FIF technique was used to optimize the dose distribution. Despite the fact that steroids were not administered, the patient reported significant pain reduction and showed improved motor function 3 and 4 weeks after the IG-3DCRT, respectively. Over the following 4 months, her neurological function gradually improved, and she was consequently able to eat and change clothes without assistance and to walk slowly for 10–20 m using a walker. She succumbed to progression of abdominal disease 8.5 months after the IG-3DCRT. This case demonstrates that image-guided FIF radiotherapy with a dose-escalated hypofractionated regimen can potentially improve functional outcome and local control.

  5. Feature representation and compression for content-based retrieval (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Ortega, Antonio


    In semantic content-based image/video browsing and navigation systems, efficient mechanisms to represent and manage a large collection of digital images/videos are needed. Traditional keyword-based indexing describes the content of multimedia data through annotations such as text or keywords extracted manually by the user from a controlled vocabulary. This textual indexing technique lacks the flexibility of satisfying various kinds of queries requested by database users and also requires huge amount of work for updating the information. Current content-based retrieval systems often extract a set of features such as color, texture, shape motion, speed, and position from the raw multimedia data automatically and store them as content descriptors. This content-based metadata differs from text-based metadata in that it supports wider varieties of queries and can be extracted automatically, thus providing a promising approach for efficient database access and management. When the raw data volume grows very large, explicitly extracting the content-information and storing it as metadata along with the images will improve querying performance since metadata requires much less storage than the raw image data and thus will be easier to manipulate. In this paper we maintain that storing metadata together with images will enable effective information management and efficient remote query. We also show, using a texture classification example, that this side information can be compressed while guaranteeing that the desired query accuracy is satisfied. We argue that the compact representation of the image contents not only reduces significantly the storage and transmission rate requirement, but also facilitates certain types of queries. Algorithms are developed for optimized compression of this texture feature metadata given that the goal is to maximize the classification performance for a given rate budget.

  6. Mengolah Data Video Analog menjadi Video Digital Sederhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Soedarso


    Full Text Available Nowadays, editing technology has entered the digital age. Technology will demonstrate the evidence of processing analog to digital data has become simpler since editing technology has been integrated in the society in all aspects. Understanding the technique of processing analog to digital data is important in producing a video. To utilize this technology, the introduction of equipments is fundamental to understand the features. The next phase is the capturing process that supports the preparation in editing process from scene to scene; therefore, it will become a watchable video.   

  7. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed ... Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic ...

  8. Verification testing of the compression performance of the HEVC screen content coding extensions (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary J.; Baroncini, Vittorio A.; Yu, Haoping; Joshi, Rajan L.; Liu, Shan; Xiu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jizheng


    This paper reports on verification testing of the coding performance of the screen content coding (SCC) extensions of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard (Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 MPEG-H Part 2). The coding performance of HEVC screen content model (SCM) reference software is compared with that of the HEVC test model (HM) without the SCC extensions, as well as with the Advanced Video Coding (AVC) joint model (JM) reference software, for both lossy and mathematically lossless compression using All-Intra (AI), Random Access (RA), and Lowdelay B (LB) encoding structures and using similar encoding techniques. Video test sequences in 1920×1080 RGB 4:4:4, YCbCr 4:4:4, and YCbCr 4:2:0 colour sampling formats with 8 bits per sample are tested in two categories: "text and graphics with motion" (TGM) and "mixed" content. For lossless coding, the encodings are evaluated in terms of relative bit-rate savings. For lossy compression, subjective testing was conducted at 4 quality levels for each coding case, and the test results are presented through mean opinion score (MOS) curves. The relative coding performance is also evaluated in terms of Bjøntegaard-delta (BD) bit-rate savings for equal PSNR quality. The perceptual tests and objective metric measurements show a very substantial benefit in coding efficiency for the SCC extensions, and provided consistent results with a high degree of confidence. For TGM video, the estimated bit-rate savings ranged from 60-90% relative to the JM and 40-80% relative to the HM, depending on the AI/RA/LB configuration category and colour sampling format.

  9. Area and power efficient DCT architecture for image compression (United States)

    Dhandapani, Vaithiyanathan; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan


    The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is one of the major components in image and video compression systems. The final output of these systems is interpreted by the human visual system (HVS), which is not perfect. The limited perception of human visualization allows the algorithm to be numerically approximate rather than exact. In this paper, we propose a new matrix for discrete cosine transform. The proposed 8 × 8 transformation matrix contains only zeros and ones which requires only adders, thus avoiding the need for multiplication and shift operations. The new class of transform requires only 12 additions, which highly reduces the computational complexity and achieves a performance in image compression that is comparable to that of the existing approximated DCT. Another important aspect of the proposed transform is that it provides an efficient area and power optimization while implementing in hardware. To ensure the versatility of the proposal and to further evaluate the performance and correctness of the structure in terms of speed, area, and power consumption, the model is implemented on Xilinx Virtex 7 field programmable gate array (FPGA) device and synthesized with Cadence® RTL Compiler® using UMC 90 nm standard cell library. The analysis obtained from the implementation indicates that the proposed structure is superior to the existing approximation techniques with a 30% reduction in power and 12% reduction in area.

  10. Nearshore Bathymetry derived from Video Imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarninkhof, S.G.J.


    Owing to the economic importance of seasonal fluctuations in beach width and the frequent implementation of local beach and shoreface nourishments, coastal managers and scientists increasingly demand coastal state information at smaller spatiotemporal scales. Advanced, automated video techniques

  11. Cobra: A Content-Based Video Retrieval System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem

    An increasing number of large publicly available video libraries results in a demand for techniques that can manipulate the video data based on content. In this paper, we present a content-based video retrieval system called Cobra. The system supports automatic extraction and retrieval of high-level

  12. 61214++++','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="+++++">61214++++">Jailed - Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron CULBERT


    Full Text Available As the public education system in Northern Ontario continues to take a downward spiral, a plethora of secondary school students are being placed in an alternative educational environment. Juxtaposing the two educational settings reveals very similar methods and characteristics of educating our youth as opposed to using a truly alternative approach to education. This video reviews the relationship between public education and alternative education in a remote Northern Ontario setting. It is my belief that the traditional methods of teaching are not appropriate in educating at risk students in alternative schools. Paper and pencil worksheets do not motivate these students to learn and succeed. Alternative education should emphasize experiential learning, a just in time curriculum based on every unique individual and the students true passion for everyday life. Cameron Culbert was born on February 3rd, 1977 in North Bay, Ontario. His teenage years were split between attending public school and his willed curriculum on the ski hill. Culbert spent 10 years (1996-2002 & 2006-2010 competing for Canada as an alpine ski racer. His passion for teaching and coaching began as an athlete and has now transferred into the classroom and the community. As a graduate of Nipissing University (BA, BEd, MEd. Camerons research interests are alternative education, physical education and technology in the classroom. Currently Cameron is an active educator and coach in Northern Ontario.

  13. The Learning Potential of Video Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Ørngreen, Rikke; Hautopp, Heidi


    This paper introduces a video sketching technique applied to learning settings and investigates what participants learn from creating and redesigning videos while sketching. This process links various sketching techniques and creative reflection processes to video productions. Traditionally......, designers across various disciplines have used sketching as an integrative part of their everyday practice, and sketching has proven to have a multitude of purposes in professional design. The purpose of this paper is to explore what happens when an extra layer of video recording is added during the early...... sketching phases. Using empirical examples, this paper presents and discusses the video recording of sketching sessions. The empirical data is based on workshop sessions with researchers, students and teachers. Inspired by the work of Olofsson and Sjölén (2007), the sketching sessions were organised...

  14. Video Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...

  15. Digital video for the desktop

    CERN Document Server

    Pender, Ken


    Practical introduction to creating and editing high quality video on the desktop. Using examples from a variety of video applications, benefit from a professional's experience, step-by-step, through a series of workshops demonstrating a wide variety of techniques. These include producing short films, multimedia and internet presentations, animated graphics and special effects.The opportunities for the independent videomaker have never been greater - make sure you bring your understanding fully up to date with this invaluable guide.No prior knowledge of the technology is assumed, with explanati

  16. Characterization of social video (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jeffrey R.; Sarhan, Nabil J.


    The popularity of social media has grown dramatically over the World Wide Web. In this paper, we analyze the video popularity distribution of well-known social video websites (YouTube, Google Video, and the AOL Truveo Video Search engine) and characterize their workload. We identify trends in the categories, lengths, and formats of those videos, as well as characterize the evolution of those videos over time. We further provide an extensive analysis and comparison of video content amongst the main regions of the world.

  17. Video visual analytics


    Höferlin, Markus Johannes


    The amount of video data recorded world-wide is tremendously growing and has already reached hardly manageable dimensions. It originates from a wide range of application areas, such as surveillance, sports analysis, scientific video analysis, surgery documentation, and entertainment, and its analysis represents one of the challenges in computer science. The vast amount of video data renders manual analysis by watching the video data impractical. However, automatic evaluation of video material...

  18. Mining Crowdsourced First Impressions in Online Social Video


    Biel, Joan-Isaac; Gatica-Perez, Daniel


    While multimedia and social computing research have used crowdsourcing techniques to annotate objects, actions, and scenes in social video sites like YouTube, little work has ad- dressed the crowdsourcing of personal and social traits in online social video or social media content in general. In this paper, we address the problems of (1) crowdsourcing the annotation of first impressions of video bloggers (vloggers) personal and social traits in conversational YouTube videos, and (2) mining th...

  19. EEG data compression to monitor DoA in telemedicine. (United States)

    Palendeng, Mario E; Zhang, Qing; Pang, Chaoyi; Li, Yan


    Data compression techniques have been widely used to process and transmit huge amount of EEG data in real-time and remote EEG signal processing systems. In this paper we propose a lossy compression technique, F-shift, to compress EEG signals for remote depth of Anaesthesia (DoA) monitoring. Compared with traditional wavelet compression techniques, our method not only preserves valuable clinical information with high compression ratios, but also reduces high frequency noises in EEG signals. Moreover, our method has negligible compression overheads (less than 0.1 seconds), which can greatly benefit real-time EEG signal monitoring systems. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed compression method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Audy Bazly


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  1. Taking into care metastatic medullary compressions; Prise en charge des compressions medullaires metastatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, C.; Feuvret, L. [Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)


    As between 5 and 14 per cent of patients suffering from cancer will suffer from a metastatic medullary compression which severely impacts the vital and functional prognostic, the authors proposes an overview of the different techniques used to take these compressions into care: surgery, radiotherapy and cortico-therapy. They describe their positive and negative impacts. Short communication

  2. Communicating pictures a course in image and video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, David R


    Communicating Pictures starts with a unique historical perspective of the role of images in communications and then builds on this to explain the applications and requirements of a modern video coding system. It draws on the author's extensive academic and professional experience of signal processing and video coding to deliver a text that is algorithmically rigorous, yet accessible, relevant to modern standards, and practical. It offers a thorough grounding in visual perception, and demonstrates how modern image and video compression methods can be designed in order to meet the rate-quality performance levels demanded by today's applications, networks and users. With this book you will learn: Practical issues when implementing a codec, such as picture boundary extension and complexity reduction, with particular emphasis on efficient algorithms for transforms, motion estimators and error resilience Conflicts between conventional video compression, based on variable length coding and spatiotemporal prediction,...

  3. NIOS II processor-based acceleration of motion compensation techniques (United States)

    González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Mookherjee, Soumak; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Meyer-Bäse, Anke


    This paper focuses on the hardware acceleration of motion compensation techniques suitable for the MPEG video compression. A plethora of representative motion estimation search algorithms and the new perspectives are introduced. The methods and designs described here are qualified for medical imaging area where are involved larger images. The structure of the processing systems considered has a good fit for reconfigurable acceleration. The system is based in a platform like FPGA working with the Nios II Microprocessor platform applying C2H acceleration. The paper shows the results in terms of performance and resources needed.

  4. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  5. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias


    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  6. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Budagavi, Madhukar; Sullivan, Gary


    This book provides developers, engineers, researchers and students with detailed knowledge about the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. HEVC is the successor to the widely successful H.264/AVC video compression standard, and it provides around twice as much compression as H.264/AVC for the same level of quality. The applications for HEVC will not only cover the space of the well-known current uses and capabilities of digital video – they will also include the deployment of new services and the delivery of enhanced video quality, such as ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) and video with higher dynamic range, wider range of representable color, and greater representation precision than what is typically found today. HEVC is the next major generation of video coding design – a flexible, reliable and robust solution that will support the next decade of video applications and ease the burden of video on world-wide network traffic. This book provides a detailed explanation of the various parts ...

  7. Delivering Diagnostic Quality Video over Mobile Wireless Networks for Telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira P. Rao


    Full Text Available In real-time remote diagnosis of emergency medical events, mobility can be enabled by wireless video communications. However, clinical use of this potential advance will depend on definitive and compelling demonstrations of the reliability of diagnostic quality video. Because the medical domain has its own fidelity criteria, it is important to incorporate diagnostic video quality criteria into any video compression system design. To this end, we used flexible algorithms for region-of-interest (ROI video compression and obtained feedback from medical experts to develop criteria for diagnostically lossless (DL quality. The design of the system occurred in three steps-measurement of bit rate at which DL quality is achieved through evaluation of videos by medical experts, incorporation of that information into a flexible video encoder through the notion of encoder states, and an encoder state update option based on a built-in quality criterion. Medical experts then evaluated our system for the diagnostic quality of the video, allowing us to verify that it is possible to realize DL quality in the ROI at practical communication data transfer rates, enabling mobile medical assessment over bit-rate limited wireless channels. This work lays the scientific foundation for additional validation through prototyped technology, field testing, and clinical trials.

  8. Impact of Constant Rate Factor on Objective Video Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of constant rate factor value on the objective video quality assessment using PSNR and SSIM metrics. Compression efficiency of H.264 and H.265 codecs defined by different Constant rate factor (CRF values was tested. The assessment was done for eight types of video sequences depending on content for High Definition (HD, Full HD (FHD and Ultra HD (UHD resolution. Finally, performance of both mentioned codecs with emphasis on compression ratio and efficiency of coding was compared.

  9. Hardware implementation of machine vision systems: image and video processing (United States)

    Botella, Guillermo; García, Carlos; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe


    This contribution focuses on different topics covered by the special issue titled `Hardware Implementation of Machine vision Systems' including FPGAs, GPUS, embedded systems, multicore implementations for image analysis such as edge detection, segmentation, pattern recognition and object recognition/interpretation, image enhancement/restoration, image/video compression, image similarity and retrieval, satellite image processing, medical image processing, motion estimation, neuromorphic and bioinspired vision systems, video processing, image formation and physics based vision, 3D processing/coding, scene understanding, and multimedia.

  10. Processing Decoded Video for Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari

    Quality of digital image and video signals on TV screens is aected by many factors, including the display technology and compression standards. An accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the display andof the video signals can be used to develop advanced algorithms that improve the visual...... rendition of the signals, particularly in the case of LCDs with dynamic local backlight. This thesis shows that it is possible to model LCDs with dynamic backlight to design algorithms that improve the visual quality of 2D and 3D content, and that digital video coding artifacts like blocking or ringing can...... be reduced with post-processing. LCD screens with dynamic local backlight are modeled in their main aspects, like pixel luminance, light diusion and light perception. Following the model, novel algorithms based on optimization are presented and extended, then reduced in complexity, to produce backlights...

  11. Video Salient Object Detection via Fully Convolutional Networks. (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    This paper proposes a deep learning model to efficiently detect salient regions in videos. It addresses two important issues: 1) deep video saliency model training with the absence of sufficiently large and pixel-wise annotated video data and 2) fast video saliency training and detection. The proposed deep video saliency network consists of two modules, for capturing the spatial and temporal saliency information, respectively. The dynamic saliency model, explicitly incorporating saliency estimates from the static saliency model, directly produces spatiotemporal saliency inference without time-consuming optical flow computation. We further propose a novel data augmentation technique that simulates video training data from existing annotated image data sets, which enables our network to learn diverse saliency information and prevents overfitting with the limited number of training videos. Leveraging our synthetic video data (150K video sequences) and real videos, our deep video saliency model successfully learns both spatial and temporal saliency cues, thus producing accurate spatiotemporal saliency estimate. We advance the state-of-the-art on the densely annotated video segmentation data set (MAE of .06) and the Freiburg-Berkeley Motion Segmentation data set (MAE of .07), and do so with much improved speed (2 fps with all steps).This paper proposes a deep learning model to efficiently detect salient regions in videos. It addresses two important issues: 1) deep video saliency model training with the absence of sufficiently large and pixel-wise annotated video data and 2) fast video saliency training and detection. The proposed deep video saliency network consists of two modules, for capturing the spatial and temporal saliency information, respectively. The dynamic saliency model, explicitly incorporating saliency estimates from the static saliency model, directly produces spatiotemporal saliency inference without time-consuming optical flow computation. We further

  12. FPGA Implementation of Gaussian Mixture Model Algorithm for 47 fps Segmentation of 1080p Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Genovese


    Full Text Available Circuits and systems able to process high quality video in real time are fundamental in nowadays imaging systems. The circuit proposed in the paper, aimed at the robust identification of the background in video streams, implements the improved formulation of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM algorithm that is included in the OpenCV library. An innovative, hardware oriented, formulation of the GMM equations, the use of truncated binary multipliers, and ROM compression techniques allow reduced hardware complexity and increased processing capability. The proposed circuit has been designed having commercial FPGA devices as target and provides speed and logic resources occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The circuit, when implemented on Virtex6 or StratixIV, processes more than 45 frame per second in 1080p format and uses few percent of FPGA logic resources.

  13. A Study of Adaptive Image Compression Techniques. (United States)



  14. Neurological activity monitoring based on video inpainting. (United States)

    Schmale, Sebastian; Seidel, Pascal; Thiermann, Steffen; Paul, Steffen


    Inpainting-based compression and reconstruction methodology can be applied to systems with limited resources to enable continuously monitor neurological activity. In this work, an approach based on sparse representations and K-SVD is augmented to a video processing in order to improve the recovery quality. That was mainly achieved by using another direction of spatial correlation and the extraction of cuboids across frames. The implementation of overlapping frames between the recorded data blocks avoids rising errors at the boundaries during the inpainting-based recovery. Controlling the electrode states per frame plays a key role for high data compression and precise recovery. The proposed 3D inpainting approach can compete with common methods like JPEG, JPEG2000 or MPEG-4 in terms of the degree of compression and reconstruction accuracy, which was applied on real measured local field potentials of a human patient.

  15. Efetividade e segurança da técnica de higiene brônquica: hiperinsuflação manual com compressão torácica Bronchial hygiene technique with manual hyperinflation and thoracic compression: effectiveness and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marques Dias


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos da manobra hiperinsuflação manual com compressão torácica em termos de depuração de secreções, mecânica pulmonar, hemodinâmica e oxigenação em pacientes sob ventilação mecânica invasiva. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo controlado do tipo cruzado, com vinte pacientes com mais de 48 horas em ventilação mecânica invasiva. Após 4 horas da última aspiração os pacientes foram submetidos aos procedimentos, aspiração ou hiperinsuflação manual com compressão torácica e aspiração, um após o outro, respeitando intervalo de quatro horas, em ordem estabelecida conforme randomização. As variáveis foram coletadas nos momentos pré, durante e após 5, 15, 30 e 60 minutos do término dos procedimentos. A secreção aspirada foi coletada e mensurada. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas alterações significativas para o volume corrente, pressão platô e complacência após os dois procedimentos durante o estudo (p>0,05. As variáveis hemodinâmicas apresentaram comportamento distinto ao longo do tempo caracterizado por aumento das pressões e frequência durante a realização dos procedimentos, com retorno aos valores basais após 5 minutos das intervenções (p≤0,001. Não foi encontrada diferença no comportamento hemodinâmico entre os procedimentos (p>0,05. A saturação de oxigênio durante todos os momentos do estudo foi 99%, com exceção de dois momentos durante a realização da HMCT+ASP que foi 98% (pOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of the manual hyperinflation with thoracic compression (MHTC maneuver on the clearance of secretions, pulmonary mechanics, hemodynamics and oxygenation in mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS: This was a controlled, crossover study that included twenty patients who were under invasive ventilation for more than 48 hours. Four hours after the last airway suctioning procedure, the patients underwent the study interventions, Suction alone or MHTC plus

  16. Double HEVC Compression Detection with the Same QPs Based on the PU Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Rui-Shi


    Full Text Available Double HEVC compression detection is of great importance in video forensics. However, effective detection algorithm based on the same Qps is rarely reported. In this paper, a novel method based on the same Qps is applied in dealing with double HEVC compression detection. Firstly, the numbers of PU blocks with the size of 4×4 in each I frame is extracted during the codec procedures when the video is compressed with the same Qps. Then, calculate the standard deviation of 4×4 PU blocks difference (SDoPU before and after the compression. Finally, select the appropriate threshold for compression testing classification according to the SDoPU statistical feature. By performing numerical experiments, We prove that the proposed algorithm is of high classification accuracy for detecting double HEVC compression.

  17. Optimization of high-definition video coding and hybrid fiber-wireless transmission in the 60 GHz band. (United States)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Pham, Tien Thang; Beltrán, Marta; Yu, Xianbin; Ukhanova, Anna; Llorente, Roberto; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Forchhammer, Søren


    The paper addresses the problem of distribution of high-definition video over fiber-wireless networks. The physical layer architecture with the low complexity envelope detection solution is investigated. We present both experimental studies and simulation of high quality high-definition compressed video transmission over 60 GHz fiber-wireless link. Using advanced video coding we satisfy low complexity and low delay constraints, meanwhile preserving the superb video quality after significantly extended wireless distance. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  19. Video Games and Citizenship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Soetaert, Ronald


    ... by exploring a particular aspect of digitization that affects young people, namely video games. They explore the new social spaces which emerge in video game culture and how these spaces relate to community building and citizenship...

  20. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles News Provider Directory Donate Resources Links Videos Podcasts ...