Sample records for video compression algorithms

  1. Innovative hyperchaotic encryption algorithm for compressed video (United States)

    Yuan, Chun; Zhong, Yuzhuo; Yang, Shiqiang


    It is accepted that stream cryptosystem can achieve good real-time performance and flexibility which implements encryption by selecting few parts of the block data and header information of the compressed video stream. Chaotic random number generator, for example Logistics Map, is a comparatively promising substitute, but it is easily attacked by nonlinear dynamic forecasting and geometric information extracting. In this paper, we present a hyperchaotic cryptography scheme to encrypt the compressed video, which integrates Logistics Map with Z(232 - 1) field linear congruential algorithm to strengthen the security of the mono-chaotic cryptography, meanwhile, the real-time performance and flexibility of the chaotic sequence cryptography are maintained. It also integrates with the dissymmetrical public-key cryptography and implements encryption and identity authentification on control parameters at initialization phase. In accord with the importance of data in compressed video stream, encryption is performed in layered scheme. In the innovative hyperchaotic cryptography, the value and the updating frequency of control parameters can be changed online to satisfy the requirement of the network quality, processor capability and security requirement. The innovative hyperchaotic cryprography proves robust security by cryptoanalysis, shows good real-time performance and flexible implement capability through the arithmetic evaluating and test.

  2. MPEG-2 Compressed-Domain Algorithms for Video Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesseler Wolfgang


    Full Text Available This paper presents new algorithms for extracting metadata from video sequences in the MPEG-2 compressed domain. Three algorithms for efficient low-level metadata extraction in preprocessing stages are described. The first algorithm detects camera motion using the motion vector field of an MPEG-2 video. The second method extends the idea of motion detection to a limited region of interest, yielding an efficient algorithm to track objects inside video sequences. The third algorithm performs a cut detection using macroblock types and motion vectors.

  3. Modeling of video traffic in packet networks, low rate video compression, and the development of a lossy+lossless image compression algorithm (United States)

    Sayood, K.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, X.


    During this reporting period we have worked on three somewhat different problems. These are modeling of video traffic in packet networks, low rate video compression, and the development of a lossy + lossless image compression algorithm, which might have some application in browsing algorithms. The lossy + lossless scheme is an extension of work previously done under this grant. It provides a simple technique for incorporating browsing capability. The low rate coding scheme is also a simple variation on the standard discrete cosine transform (DCT) coding approach. In spite of its simplicity, the approach provides surprisingly high quality reconstructions. The modeling approach is borrowed from the speech recognition literature, and seems to be promising in that it provides a simple way of obtaining an idea about the second order behavior of a particular coding scheme. Details about these are presented.

  4. Low-Cost Super-Resolution Algorithms Implementation Over a HW/SW Video Compression Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llopis Rafael Peset


    Full Text Available Two approaches are presented in this paper to improve the quality of digital images over the sensor resolution using super-resolution techniques: iterative super-resolution (ISR and noniterative super-resolution (NISR algorithms. The results show important improvements in the image quality, assuming that sufficient sample data and a reasonable amount of aliasing are available at the input images. These super-resolution algorithms have been implemented over a codesign video compression platform developed by Philips Research, performing minimal changes on the overall hardware architecture. In this way, a novel and feasible low-cost implementation has been obtained by using the resources encountered in a generic hybrid video encoder. Although a specific video codec platform has been used, the methodology presented in this paper is easily extendable to any other video encoder architectures. Finally a comparison in terms of memory, computational load, and image quality for both algorithms, as well as some general statements about the final impact of the sampling process on the quality of the super-resolved (SR image, are also presented.

  5. Image and video compression for multimedia engineering fundamentals, algorithms, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yun Q


    Part I: Fundamentals Introduction Quantization Differential Coding Transform Coding Variable-Length Coding: Information Theory Results (II) Run-Length and Dictionary Coding: Information Theory Results (III) Part II: Still Image Compression Still Image Coding: Standard JPEG Wavelet Transform for Image Coding: JPEG2000 Nonstandard Still Image Coding Part III: Motion Estimation and Compensation Motion Analysis and Motion Compensation Block Matching Pel-Recursive Technique Optical Flow Further Discussion and Summary on 2-D Motion Estimation Part IV: Video Compression Fundam

  6. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm. (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam


    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  7. Digital cinema video compression (United States)

    Husak, Walter


    The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Subjective evaluation of next-generation video compression algorithms: a case study (United States)

    De Simone, Francesca; Goldmann, Lutz; Lee, Jong-Seok; Ebrahimi, Touradj; Baroncini, Vittorio


    This paper describes the details and the results of the subjective quality evaluation performed at EPFL, as a contribution to the effort of the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) for the definition of the next-generation video coding standard. The performance of 27 coding technologies have been evaluated with respect to two H.264/MPEG-4 AVC anchors, considering high definition (HD) test material. The test campaign involved a total of 494 naive observers and took place over a period of four weeks. While similar tests have been conducted as part of the standardization process of previous video coding technologies, the test campaign described in this paper is by far the most extensive in the history of video coding standardization. The obtained subjective quality scores show high consistency and support an accurate comparison of the performance of the different coding solutions.

  9. Wavelet-based audio embedding and audio/video compression (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael J.; Claypoole, Roger L., Jr.


    Watermarking, traditionally used for copyright protection, is used in a new and exciting way. An efficient wavelet-based watermarking technique embeds audio information into a video signal. Several effective compression techniques are applied to compress the resulting audio/video signal in an embedded fashion. This wavelet-based compression algorithm incorporates bit-plane coding, index coding, and Huffman coding. To demonstrate the potential of this audio embedding and audio/video compression algorithm, we embed an audio signal into a video signal and then compress. Results show that overall compression rates of 15:1 can be achieved. The video signal is reconstructed with a median PSNR of nearly 33 dB. Finally, the audio signal is extracted from the compressed audio/video signal without error.

  10. Compression evaluation of surgery video recordings retaining diagnostic credibility (compression evaluation of surgery video) (United States)

    Duplaga, M.; Leszczuk, M. I.; Papir, Z.; Przelaskowski, A.


    Wider dissemination of medical digital video libraries is affected by two correlated factors, resource effective content compression that directly influences its diagnostic credibility. It has been proved that it is possible to meet these contradictory requirements halfway for long-lasting and low motion surgery recordings at compression ratios close to 100 (bronchoscopic procedures were a case study investigated). As the main supporting assumption, it has been accepted that the content can be compressed as far as clinicians are not able to sense a loss of video diagnostic fidelity (a visually lossless compression). Different market codecs were inspected by means of the combined subjective and objective tests toward their usability in medical video libraries. Subjective tests involved a panel of clinicians who had to classify compressed bronchoscopic video content according to its quality under the bubble sort algorithm. For objective tests, two metrics (hybrid vector measure and hosaka Plots) were calculated frame by frame and averaged over a whole sequence.

  11. DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm


    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam


    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our ...

  12. DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam


    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923

  13. Video Bandwidth Compression System. (United States)


    scaling function, located between the inverse DPCM and inverse transform , on the decoder matrix multiplier chips. 1"V1 T.. ---- i.13 SECURITY...Bit Unpacker and Inverse DPCM Slave Sync Board 15 e. Inverse DPCM Loop Boards 15 f. Inverse Transform Board 16 g. Composite Video Output Board 16...36 a. Display Refresh Memory 36 (1) Memory Section 37 (2) Timing and Control 39 b. Bit Unpacker and Inverse DPCM 40 c. Inverse Transform Processor 43

  14. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.


    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... cannot be expected to code losslessly at a rate of 125 Mbit/s. We investigate the rate and quality effects of quantization using standard JPEG-LS quantization and two new techniques: visual quantization and trellis quantization. Visual quantization is not part of baseline JPEG-LS, but is applicable...... in the framework of JPEG-LS. Visual tests show that this quantization technique gives much better quality than standard JPEG-LS quantization. Trellis quantization is a process by which the original image is altered in such a way as to make lossless JPEG-LS encoding more effective. For JPEG-LS and visual...

  15. Efficient predictive algorithms for image compression

    CERN Document Server

    Rosário Lucas, Luís Filipe; Maciel de Faria, Sérgio Manuel; Morais Rodrigues, Nuno Miguel; Liberal Pagliari, Carla


    This book discusses efficient prediction techniques for the current state-of-the-art High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, focusing on the compression of a wide range of video signals, such as 3D video, Light Fields and natural images. The authors begin with a review of the state-of-the-art predictive coding methods and compression technologies for both 2D and 3D multimedia contents, which provides a good starting point for new researchers in the field of image and video compression. New prediction techniques that go beyond the standardized compression technologies are then presented and discussed. In the context of 3D video, the authors describe a new predictive algorithm for the compression of depth maps, which combines intra-directional prediction, with flexible block partitioning and linear residue fitting. New approaches are described for the compression of Light Field and still images, which enforce sparsity constraints on linear models. The Locally Linear Embedding-based prediction method is in...

  16. Fast compressed domain motion detection in H.264 video streams for video surveillance applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper


    This paper presents a novel approach to fast motion detection in H.264/MPEG-4 advanced video coding (AVC) compressed video streams for IP video surveillance systems. The goal is to develop algorithms which may be useful in a real-life industrial perspective by facilitating the processing of large...... on motion vectors embedded in the video stream without requiring a full decoding and reconstruction of video frames. To improve the robustness to noise, a confidence measure based on temporal and spatial clues is introduced to increase the probability of correct detection. The algorithm was tested on indoor...

  17. H.264/AVC Video Compression on Smartphones (United States)

    Sharabayko, M. P.; Markov, N. G.


    In this paper, we studied the usage of H.264/AVC video compression tools by the flagship smartphones. The results show that only a subset of tools is used, meaning that there is still a potential to achieve higher compression efficiency within the H.264/AVC standard, but the most advanced smartphones are already reaching the compression efficiency limit of H.264/AVC.

  18. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco R. Taal


    Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.

  19. Computed Quality Assessment of MPEG4-compressed DICOM Video Data. (United States)

    Frankewitsch, Thomas; Söhnlein, Sven; Müller, Marcel; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich


    Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) has become one of the most popular standards in medicine. This standard specifies the exact procedures in which digital images are exchanged between devices, either using a network or storage medium. Sources for images vary; therefore there exist definitions for the exchange for CR, CT, NMR, angiography, sonography and so on. With its spreading, with the increasing amount of sources included, data volume is increasing, too. This affects storage and traffic. While for long-time storage data compression is generally not accepted at the moment, there are many situations where data compression is possible: Telemedicine for educational purposes (e.g. students at home using low speed internet connections), presentations with standard-resolution video projectors, or even the supply on wards combined receiving written findings. DICOM comprises compression: for still image there is JPEG, for video MPEG-2 is adopted. Within the last years MPEG-2 has been evolved to MPEG-4, which squeezes data even better, but the risk of significant errors increases, too. Within the last years effects of compression have been analyzed for entertainment movies, but these are not comparable to videos of physical examinations (e.g. echocardiography). In medical videos an individual image plays a more important role. Erroneous single images affect total quality even more. Additionally, the effect of compression can not be generalized from one test series to all videos. The result depends strongly on the source. Some investigations have been presented, where different MPEG-4 algorithms compressed videos have been compared and rated manually. But they describe only the results in an elected testbed. In this paper some methods derived from video rating are presented and discussed for an automatically created quality control for the compression of medical videos, primary stored in DICOM containers.

  20. Research of Block-Based Motion Estimation Methods for Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tropchenko Andrey


    Full Text Available This work is a review of the block-based algorithms used for motion estimation in video compression. It researches different types of block-based algorithms that range from the simplest named Full Search to the fast adaptive algorithms like Hierarchical Search. The algorithms evaluated in this paper are widely accepted by the video compressing community and have been used in implementing various standards, such as MPEG-4 Visual and H.264. The work also presents a very brief introduction to the entire flow of video compression.

  1. Feasibility of video codec algorithms for software-only playback (United States)

    Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Morse, Ken


    Software-only video codecs can provide good playback performance in desktop computers with a 486 or 68040 CPU running at 33 MHz without special hardware assistance. Typically, playback of compressed video can be categorized into three tasks: the actual decoding of the video stream, color conversion, and the transfer of decoded video data from system RAM to video RAM. By current standards, good playback performance is the decoding and display of video streams of 320 by 240 (or larger) compressed frames at 15 (or greater) frames-per- second. Software-only video codecs have evolved by modifying and tailoring existing compression methodologies to suit video playback in desktop computers. In this paper we examine the characteristics used to evaluate software-only video codec algorithms, namely: image fidelity (i.e., image quality), bandwidth (i.e., compression) ease-of-decoding (i.e., playback performance), memory consumption, compression to decompression asymmetry, scalability, and delay. We discuss the tradeoffs among these variables and the compromises that can be made to achieve low numerical complexity for software-only playback. Frame- differencing approaches are described since software-only video codecs typically employ them to enhance playback performance. To complement other papers that appear in this session of the Proceedings, we review methods derived from binary pattern image coding since these methods are amenable for software-only playback. In particular, we introduce a novel approach called pixel distribution image coding.

  2. 3D Video Compression and Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    In this short paper we provide a brief introduction to 3D and multi-view video technologies - like three-dimensional television and free-viewpoint video - focusing on the aspects related to data compression and transmission. Geometric information represented by depth maps is introduced as well...... and a novel coding scheme for multi-view data able to exploit geometric information in order to improve compression performances is briefly described and compared against the classical solution based on multi-view motion estimation. Future research directions close the paper....

  3. Enhancing Perceived Quality of Compressed Images and Video with Anisotropic Diffusion and Fuzzy Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren


    and subjective results on JPEG compressed images, as well as MJPEG and H.264/AVC compressed video, indicate that the proposed algorithms employing directional and spatial fuzzy filters achieve better artifact reduction than other methods. In particular, robust improvements with H.264/AVC video have been gained...

  4. SeqCompress: an algorithm for biological sequence compression. (United States)

    Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz; Bajwa, Hassan


    The growth of Next Generation Sequencing technologies presents significant research challenges, specifically to design bioinformatics tools that handle massive amount of data efficiently. Biological sequence data storage cost has become a noticeable proportion of total cost in the generation and analysis. Particularly increase in DNA sequencing rate is significantly outstripping the rate of increase in disk storage capacity, which may go beyond the limit of storage capacity. It is essential to develop algorithms that handle large data sets via better memory management. This article presents a DNA sequence compression algorithm SeqCompress that copes with the space complexity of biological sequences. The algorithm is based on lossless data compression and uses statistical model as well as arithmetic coding to compress DNA sequences. The proposed algorithm is compared with recent specialized compression tools for biological sequences. Experimental results show that proposed algorithm has better compression gain as compared to other existing algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is an integral part of video and image compression ... solution for the optimum trade-off by applying rate-distortion theory has been ..... Int. J. the computer, the internet and management,.

  6. WSNs Microseismic Signal Subsection Compression Algorithm Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouzhou Liu


    Full Text Available For wireless network microseismic monitoring and the problems of low compression ratio and high energy consumption of communication, this paper proposes a segmentation compression algorithm according to the characteristics of the microseismic signals and the compression perception theory (CS used in the transmission process. The algorithm will be collected as a number of nonzero elements of data segmented basis, by reducing the number of combinations of nonzero elements within the segment to improve the accuracy of signal reconstruction, while taking advantage of the characteristics of compressive sensing theory to achieve a high compression ratio of the signal. Experimental results show that, in the quantum chaos immune clone refactoring (Q-CSDR algorithm for reconstruction algorithm, under the condition of signal sparse degree higher than 40, to be more than 0.4 of the compression ratio to compress the signal, the mean square error is less than 0.01, prolonging the network life by 2 times.

  7. A hybrid video compression based on zerotree wavelet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Ilker; Yilmaz, Reyat


    A video compression algorithm comparable to the standard techniques at low bit rates is presented in this paper. The overlapping block motion compensation (OBMC) is combined with discrete wavelet transform which followed by Lloyd-Max quantization and zerotree wavelet (ZTW) structure. The novel feature of this coding scheme is the combination of hierarchical finite state vector quantization (HFSVQ) with the ZTW to encode the quantized wavelet coefficients. It is seen that the proposed video encoder (ZTW-HFSVQ) performs better than the MPEG-4 and Zerotree Entropy Coding (ZTE). (author)

  8. An introduction to video image compression and authentication technology for safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.


    Verification of a video image has been a major problem for safeguards for several years. Various verification schemes have been tried on analog video signals ever since the mid-1970's. These schemes have provided a measure of protection but have never been widely adopted. The development of reasonably priced complex video processing integrated circuits makes it possible to digitize a video image and then compress the resulting digital file into a smaller file without noticeable loss of resolution. Authentication and/or encryption algorithms can be more easily applied to digital video files that have been compressed. The compressed video files require less time for algorithm processing and image transmission. An important safeguards application for authenticated, compressed, digital video images is in unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems. The use of digital images in the surveillance system makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems that send images over narrow bandwidth channels such as the common telephone line. This paper discusses the video compression process, authentication algorithm, and data format selected to transmit and store the authenticated images

  9. Considerations and Algorithms for Compression of Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Jesper

    We consider compression of unordered sets of distinct elements. After a discus- sion of the general problem, we focus on compressing sets of fixed-length bitstrings in the presence of statistical information. We survey techniques from previous work, suggesting some adjustments, and propose a novel...... compression algorithm that allows transparent incorporation of various estimates for probability distribution. Our experimental results allow the conclusion that set compression can benefit from incorporat- ing statistics, using our method or variants of previously known techniques....

  10. Optimisation algorithms for ECG data compression. (United States)

    Haugland, D; Heber, J G; Husøy, J H


    The use of exact optimisation algorithms for compressing digital electrocardiograms (ECGs) is demonstrated. As opposed to traditional time-domain methods, which use heuristics to select a small subset of representative signal samples, the problem of selecting the subset is formulated in rigorous mathematical terms. This approach makes it possible to derive algorithms guaranteeing the smallest possible reconstruction error when a bounded selection of signal samples is interpolated. The proposed model resembles well-known network models and is solved by a cubic dynamic programming algorithm. When applied to standard test problems, the algorithm produces a compressed representation for which the distortion is about one-half of that obtained by traditional time-domain compression techniques at reasonable compression ratios. This illustrates that, in terms of the accuracy of decoded signals, existing time-domain heuristics for ECG compression may be far from what is theoretically achievable. The paper is an attempt to bridge this gap.

  11. Artifact reduction of compressed images and video combining adaptive fuzzy filtering and directional anisotropic diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari


    and ringing artifacts, we have applied directional anisotropic diffusion. Besides that, the selection of the adaptive threshold parameter for the diffusion coefficient has also improved the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results on JPEG compressed images as well as MJPEG and H.264 compressed......Fuzzy filtering is one of the recently developed methods for reducing distortion in compressed images and video. In this paper, we combine the powerful anisotropic diffusion equations with fuzzy filtering in order to reduce the impact of artifacts. Based on the directional nature of the blocking...... videos show improvement in artifact reduction of the proposed algorithm over other directional and spatial fuzzy filters....

  12. ERGC: an efficient referential genome compression algorithm. (United States)

    Saha, Subrata; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar


    Genome sequencing has become faster and more affordable. Consequently, the number of available complete genomic sequences is increasing rapidly. As a result, the cost to store, process, analyze and transmit the data is becoming a bottleneck for research and future medical applications. So, the need for devising efficient data compression and data reduction techniques for biological sequencing data is growing by the day. Although there exists a number of standard data compression algorithms, they are not efficient in compressing biological data. These generic algorithms do not exploit some inherent properties of the sequencing data while compressing. To exploit statistical and information-theoretic properties of genomic sequences, we need specialized compression algorithms. Five different next-generation sequencing data compression problems have been identified and studied in the literature. We propose a novel algorithm for one of these problems known as reference-based genome compression. We have done extensive experiments using five real sequencing datasets. The results on real genomes show that our proposed algorithm is indeed competitive and performs better than the best known algorithms for this problem. It achieves compression ratios that are better than those of the currently best performing algorithms. The time to compress and decompress the whole genome is also very promising. The implementations are freely available for non-commercial purposes. They can be downloaded from∼rajasek/ © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  13. Algorithm for Compressing Time-Series Data (United States)

    Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Darlington, Edward Hugo


    An algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomials effects lossy compression of time-series data or other one-dimensional data streams (e.g., spectral data) that are arranged in blocks for sequential transmission. The algorithm was developed for use in transmitting data from spacecraft scientific instruments to Earth stations. In spite of its lossy nature, the algorithm preserves the information needed for scientific analysis. The algorithm is computationally simple, yet compresses data streams by factors much greater than two. The algorithm is not restricted to spacecraft or scientific uses: it is applicable to time-series data in general. The algorithm can also be applied to general multidimensional data that have been converted to time-series data, a typical example being image data acquired by raster scanning. However, unlike most prior image-data-compression algorithms, this algorithm neither depends on nor exploits the two-dimensional spatial correlations that are generally present in images. In order to understand the essence of this compression algorithm, it is necessary to understand that the net effect of this algorithm and the associated decompression algorithm is to approximate the original stream of data as a sequence of finite series of Chebyshev polynomials. For the purpose of this algorithm, a block of data or interval of time for which a Chebyshev polynomial series is fitted to the original data is denoted a fitting interval. Chebyshev approximation has two properties that make it particularly effective for compressing serial data streams with minimal loss of scientific information: The errors associated with a Chebyshev approximation are nearly uniformly distributed over the fitting interval (this is known in the art as the "equal error property"); and the maximum deviations of the fitted Chebyshev polynomial from the original data have the smallest possible values (this is known in the art as the "min-max property").

  14. An improvement analysis on video compression using file segmentation (United States)

    Sharma, Shubhankar; Singh, K. John; Priya, M.


    From the past two decades the extreme evolution of the Internet has lead a massive rise in video technology and significantly video consumption over the Internet which inhabits the bulk of data traffic in general. Clearly, video consumes that so much data size on the World Wide Web, to reduce the burden on the Internet and deduction of bandwidth consume by video so that the user can easily access the video data.For this, many video codecs are developed such as HEVC/H.265 and V9. Although after seeing codec like this one gets a dilemma of which would be improved technology in the manner of rate distortion and the coding standard.This paper gives a solution about the difficulty for getting low delay in video compression and video application e.g. ad-hoc video conferencing/streaming or observation by surveillance. Also this paper describes the benchmark of HEVC and V9 technique of video compression on subjective oral estimations of High Definition video content, playback on web browsers. Moreover, this gives the experimental ideology of dividing the video file into several segments for compression and putting back together to improve the efficiency of video compression on the web as well as on the offline mode.

  15. NRGC: a novel referential genome compression algorithm. (United States)

    Saha, Subrata; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar


    Next-generation sequencing techniques produce millions to billions of short reads. The procedure is not only very cost effective but also can be done in laboratory environment. The state-of-the-art sequence assemblers then construct the whole genomic sequence from these reads. Current cutting edge computing technology makes it possible to build genomic sequences from the billions of reads within a minimal cost and time. As a consequence, we see an explosion of biological sequences in recent times. In turn, the cost of storing the sequences in physical memory or transmitting them over the internet is becoming a major bottleneck for research and future medical applications. Data compression techniques are one of the most important remedies in this context. We are in need of suitable data compression algorithms that can exploit the inherent structure of biological sequences. Although standard data compression algorithms are prevalent, they are not suitable to compress biological sequencing data effectively. In this article, we propose a novel referential genome compression algorithm (NRGC) to effectively and efficiently compress the genomic sequences. We have done rigorous experiments to evaluate NRGC by taking a set of real human genomes. The simulation results show that our algorithm is indeed an effective genome compression algorithm that performs better than the best-known algorithms in most of the cases. Compression and decompression times are also very impressive. The implementations are freely available for non-commercial purposes. They can be downloaded from: CONTACT: © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Highly Efficient Compression Algorithms for Multichannel EEG. (United States)

    Shaw, Laxmi; Rahman, Daleef; Routray, Aurobinda


    The difficulty associated with processing and understanding the high dimensionality of electroencephalogram (EEG) data requires developing efficient and robust compression algorithms. In this paper, different lossless compression techniques of single and multichannel EEG data, including Huffman coding, arithmetic coding, Markov predictor, linear predictor, context-based error modeling, multivariate autoregression (MVAR), and a low complexity bivariate model have been examined and their performances have been compared. Furthermore, a high compression algorithm named general MVAR and a modified context-based error modeling for multichannel EEG have been proposed. The resulting compression algorithm produces a higher relative compression ratio of 70.64% on average compared with the existing methods, and in some cases, it goes up to 83.06%. The proposed methods are designed to compress a large amount of multichannel EEG data efficiently so that the data storage and transmission bandwidth can be effectively used. These methods have been validated using several experimental multichannel EEG recordings of different subjects and publicly available standard databases. The satisfactory parametric measures of these methods, namely percent-root-mean square distortion, peak signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square error, and cross correlation, show their superiority over the state-of-the-art compression methods.

  17. Compressive sensing based algorithms for electronic defence

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Amit Kumar


    This book details some of the major developments in the implementation of compressive sensing in radio applications for electronic defense and warfare communication use. It provides a comprehensive background to the subject and at the same time describes some novel algorithms. It also investigates application value and performance-related parameters of compressive sensing in scenarios such as direction finding, spectrum monitoring, detection, and classification.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Augustin Jacob


    Full Text Available This paper proposes new three dimensional discrete cosine transform (3D-DCT based video compression algorithm that will select the optimal cube size based on the motion content of the video sequence. It is determined by finding normalized pixel difference (NPD values, and by categorizing the cubes as “low” or “high” motion cube suitable cube size of dimension either [16×16×8] or[8×8×8] is chosen instead of fixed cube algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm test sequence with different motion levels are chosen. By doing rate vs. distortion analysis the level of compression that can be achieved and the quality of reconstructed video sequence are determined and compared against fixed cube size algorithm. Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR is taken to measure the video quality. Experimental result shows that varying the cube size with reference to the motion content of video frames gives better performance in terms of compression ratio and video quality.

  19. Audiovisual focus of attention and its application to Ultra High Definition video compression (United States)

    Rerabek, Martin; Nemoto, Hiromi; Lee, Jong-Seok; Ebrahimi, Touradj


    Using Focus of Attention (FoA) as a perceptual process in image and video compression belongs to well-known approaches to increase coding efficiency. It has been shown that foveated coding, when compression quality varies across the image according to region of interest, is more efficient than the alternative coding, when all region are compressed in a similar way. However, widespread use of such foveated compression has been prevented due to two main conflicting causes, namely, the complexity and the efficiency of algorithms for FoA detection. One way around these is to use as much information as possible from the scene. Since most video sequences have an associated audio, and moreover, in many cases there is a correlation between the audio and the visual content, audiovisual FoA can improve efficiency of the detection algorithm while remaining of low complexity. This paper discusses a simple yet efficient audiovisual FoA algorithm based on correlation of dynamics between audio and video signal components. Results of audiovisual FoA detection algorithm are subsequently taken into account for foveated coding and compression. This approach is implemented into H.265/HEVC encoder producing a bitstream which is fully compliant to any H.265/HEVC decoder. The influence of audiovisual FoA in the perceived quality of high and ultra-high definition audiovisual sequences is explored and the amount of gain in compression efficiency is analyzed.

  20. Statistical conditional sampling for variable-resolution video compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wong

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate a variable-resolution approach to video compression based on Conditional Random Field and statistical conditional sampling in order to further improve compression rate while maintaining high-quality video. In the proposed approach, representative key-frames within a video shot are identified and stored at full resolution. The remaining frames within the video shot are stored and compressed at a reduced resolution. At the decompression stage, a region-based dictionary is constructed from the key-frames and used to restore the reduced resolution frames to the original resolution via statistical conditional sampling. The sampling approach is based on the conditional probability of the CRF modeling by use of the constructed dictionary. Experimental results show that the proposed variable-resolution approach via statistical conditional sampling has potential for improving compression rates when compared to compressing the video at full resolution, while achieving higher video quality when compared to compressing the video at reduced resolution.

  1. Compressive Video Recovery Using Block Match Multi-Frame Motion Estimation Based on Single Pixel Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Bi


    Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS theory has opened up new paths for the development of signal processing applications. Based on this theory, a novel single pixel camera architecture has been introduced to overcome the current limitations and challenges of traditional focal plane arrays. However, video quality based on this method is limited by existing acquisition and recovery methods, and the method also suffers from being time-consuming. In this paper, a multi-frame motion estimation algorithm is proposed in CS video to enhance the video quality. The proposed algorithm uses multiple frames to implement motion estimation. Experimental results show that using multi-frame motion estimation can improve the quality of recovered videos. To further reduce the motion estimation time, a block match algorithm is used to process motion estimation. Experiments demonstrate that using the block match algorithm can reduce motion estimation time by 30%.

  2. Evaluation of Algorithms for Compressing Hyperspectral Data (United States)

    Cook, Sid; Harsanyi, Joseph; Faber, Vance


    With EO-1 Hyperion in orbit NASA is showing their continued commitment to hyperspectral imaging (HSI). As HSI sensor technology continues to mature, the ever-increasing amounts of sensor data generated will result in a need for more cost effective communication and data handling systems. Lockheed Martin, with considerable experience in spacecraft design and developing special purpose onboard processors, has teamed with Applied Signal & Image Technology (ASIT), who has an extensive heritage in HSI spectral compression and Mapping Science (MSI) for JPEG 2000 spatial compression expertise, to develop a real-time and intelligent onboard processing (OBP) system to reduce HSI sensor downlink requirements. Our goal is to reduce the downlink requirement by a factor > 100, while retaining the necessary spectral and spatial fidelity of the sensor data needed to satisfy the many science, military, and intelligence goals of these systems. Our compression algorithms leverage commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) spectral and spatial exploitation algorithms. We are currently in the process of evaluating these compression algorithms using statistical analysis and NASA scientists. We are also developing special purpose processors for executing these algorithms onboard a spacecraft.

  3. Motion estimation for video coding efficient algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Indrajit; Chatterjee, Sumit Kumar


    The need of video compression in the modern age of visual communication cannot be over-emphasized. This monograph will provide useful information to the postgraduate students and researchers who wish to work in the domain of VLSI design for video processing applications. In this book, one can find an in-depth discussion of several motion estimation algorithms and their VLSI implementation as conceived and developed by the authors. It records an account of research done involving fast three step search, successive elimination, one-bit transformation and its effective combination with diamond search and dynamic pixel truncation techniques. Two appendices provide a number of instances of proof of concept through Matlab and Verilog program segments. In this aspect, the book can be considered as first of its kind. The architectures have been developed with an eye to their applicability in everyday low-power handheld appliances including video camcorders and smartphones.

  4. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression


    Bechqito, Yassine


    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  5. EBLAST: an efficient high-compression image transformation 3. application to Internet image and video transmission (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Caimi, Frank M.


    A wide variety of digital image compression transforms developed for still imaging and broadcast video transmission are unsuitable for Internet video applications due to insufficient compression ratio, poor reconstruction fidelity, or excessive computational requirements. Examples include hierarchical transforms that require all, or large portion of, a source image to reside in memory at one time, transforms that induce significant locking effect at operationally salient compression ratios, and algorithms that require large amounts of floating-point computation. The latter constraint holds especially for video compression by small mobile imaging devices for transmission to, and compression on, platforms such as palmtop computers or personal digital assistants (PDAs). As Internet video requirements for frame rate and resolution increase to produce more detailed, less discontinuous motion sequences, a new class of compression transforms will be needed, especially for small memory models and displays such as those found on PDAs. In this, the third series of papers, we discuss the EBLAST compression transform and its application to Internet communication. Leading transforms for compression of Internet video and still imagery are reviewed and analyzed, including GIF, JPEG, AWIC (wavelet-based), wavelet packets, and SPIHT, whose performance is compared with EBLAST. Performance analysis criteria include time and space complexity and quality of the decompressed image. The latter is determined by rate-distortion data obtained from a database of realistic test images. Discussion also includes issues such as robustness of the compressed format to channel noise. EBLAST has been shown to perform superiorly to JPEG and, unlike current wavelet compression transforms, supports fast implementation on embedded processors with small memory models.

  6. Sub-band/transform compression of video sequences (United States)

    Sauer, Ken; Bauer, Peter


    The progress on compression of video sequences is discussed. The overall goal of the research was the development of data compression algorithms for high-definition television (HDTV) sequences, but most of our research is general enough to be applicable to much more general problems. We have concentrated on coding algorithms based on both sub-band and transform approaches. Two very fundamental issues arise in designing a sub-band coder. First, the form of the signal decomposition must be chosen to yield band-pass images with characteristics favorable to efficient coding. A second basic consideration, whether coding is to be done in two or three dimensions, is the form of the coders to be applied to each sub-band. Computational simplicity is of essence. We review the first portion of the year, during which we improved and extended some of the previous grant period's results. The pyramid nonrectangular sub-band coder limited to intra-frame application is discussed. Perhaps the most critical component of the sub-band structure is the design of bandsplitting filters. We apply very simple recursive filters, which operate at alternating levels on rectangularly sampled, and quincunx sampled images. We will also cover the techniques we have studied for the coding of the resulting bandpass signals. We discuss adaptive three-dimensional coding which takes advantage of the detection algorithm developed last year. To this point, all the work on this project has been done without the benefit of motion compensation (MC). Motion compensation is included in many proposed codecs, but adds significant computational burden and hardware expense. We have sought to find a lower-cost alternative featuring a simple adaptation to motion in the form of the codec. In sequences of high spatial detail and zooming or panning, it appears that MC will likely be necessary for the proposed quality and bit rates.

  7. Video on the Internet: An introduction to the digital encoding, compression, and transmission of moving image data. (United States)

    Boudier, T; Shotton, D M


    In this paper, we seek to provide an introduction to the fast-moving field of digital video on the Internet, from the viewpoint of the biological microscopist who might wish to store or access videos, for instance in image databases such as the BioImage Database ( We describe and evaluate the principal methods used for encoding and compressing moving image data for digital storage and transmission over the Internet, which involve compromises between compression efficiency and retention of image fidelity, and describe the existing alternate software technologies for downloading or streaming compressed digitized videos using a Web browser. We report the results of experiments on video microscopy recordings and three-dimensional confocal animations of biological specimens to evaluate the compression efficiencies of the principal video compression-decompression algorithms (codecs) and to document the artefacts associated with each of them. Because MPEG-1 gives very high compression while yet retaining reasonable image quality, these studies lead us to recommend that video databases should store both a high-resolution original version of each video, ideally either uncompressed or losslessly compressed, and a separate edited and highly compressed MPEG-1 preview version that can be rapidly downloaded for interactive viewing by the database user. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. Research on compression performance of ultrahigh-definition videos (United States)

    Li, Xiangqun; He, Xiaohai; Qing, Linbo; Tao, Qingchuan; Wu, Di


    With the popularization of high-definition (HD) images and videos (1920×1080 pixels and above), there are even 4K (3840×2160) television signals and 8 K (8192×4320) ultrahigh-definition videos. The demand for HD images and videos is increasing continuously, along with the increasing data volume. The storage and transmission cannot be properly solved only by virtue of the expansion capacity of hard disks and the update and improvement of transmission devices. Based on the full use of the coding standard high-efficiency video coding (HEVC), super-resolution reconstruction technology, and the correlation between the intra- and the interprediction, we first put forward a "division-compensation"-based strategy to further improve the compression performance of a single image and frame I. Then, by making use of the above thought and HEVC encoder and decoder, a video compression coding frame is designed. HEVC is used inside the frame. Last, with the super-resolution reconstruction technology, the reconstructed video quality is further improved. The experiment shows that by the proposed compression method for a single image (frame I) and video sequence here, the performance is superior to that of HEVC in a low bit rate environment.

  9. Algorithm for Video Summarization of Bronchoscopy Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczuk Mikołaj I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The duration of bronchoscopy examinations varies considerably depending on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used. It can last more than 20 minutes if a complex diagnostic work-up is included. With wide access to videobronchoscopy, the whole procedure can be recorded as a video sequence. Common practice relies on an active attitude of the bronchoscopist who initiates the recording process and usually chooses to archive only selected views and sequences. However, it may be important to record the full bronchoscopy procedure as documentation when liability issues are at stake. Furthermore, an automatic recording of the whole procedure enables the bronchoscopist to focus solely on the performed procedures. Video recordings registered during bronchoscopies include a considerable number of frames of poor quality due to blurry or unfocused images. It seems that such frames are unavoidable due to the relatively tight endobronchial space, rapid movements of the respiratory tract due to breathing or coughing, and secretions which occur commonly in the bronchi, especially in patients suffering from pulmonary disorders. Methods The use of recorded bronchoscopy video sequences for diagnostic, reference and educational purposes could be considerably extended with efficient, flexible summarization algorithms. Thus, the authors developed a prototype system to create shortcuts (called summaries or abstracts of bronchoscopy video recordings. Such a system, based on models described in previously published papers, employs image analysis methods to exclude frames or sequences of limited diagnostic or education value. Results The algorithm for the selection or exclusion of specific frames or shots from video sequences recorded during bronchoscopy procedures is based on several criteria, including automatic detection of "non-informative", frames showing the branching of the airways and frames including pathological lesions. Conclusions

  10. Data compression systems for home-use digital video recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    With, de P.H.N.; Breeuwer, M.; van Grinsven, P.A.M.


    The authors focus on image data compression techniques for digital recording. Image coding for storage equipment covers a large variety of systems because the applications differ considerably in nature. Video coding systems suitable for digital TV and HDTV recording and digital electronic still

  11. The effects of multiview depth video compression on multiview rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkle, P.; Morvan, Y.; Smolic, A.; Farin, D.S.; Mueller, K.; With, de P.H.N.; Wiegang, T.


    This article investigates the interaction between different techniques for depth compression and view synthesis rendering with multiview video plus scene depth data. Two different approaches for depth coding are compared, namely H.264/MVC, using temporal and inter-view reference images for efficient

  12. Quality Assessment of Compressed Video for Automatic License Plate Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper; Forchhammer, Søren


    Definition of video quality requirements for video surveillance poses new questions in the area of quality assessment. This paper presents a quality assessment experiment for an automatic license plate recognition scenario. We explore the influence of the compression by H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC s...... recognition in our study has a behavior similar to human recognition, allowing the use of the same mathematical models. We furthermore propose an application of one of the models for video surveillance systems......Definition of video quality requirements for video surveillance poses new questions in the area of quality assessment. This paper presents a quality assessment experiment for an automatic license plate recognition scenario. We explore the influence of the compression by H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC...... standards on the recognition performance. We compare logarithmic and logistic functions for quality modeling. Our results show that a logistic function can better describe the dependence of recognition performance on the quality for both compression standards. We observe that automatic license plate...

  13. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren


    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction...... using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...

  14. Lightweight Object Tracking in Compressed Video Streams Demonstrated in Region-of-Interest Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerouge Sam


    Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4 .

  15. Lightweight Object Tracking in Compressed Video Streams Demonstrated in Region-of-Interest Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Van de Walle


    Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4%.

  16. Efficient algorithms of multidimensional γ-ray spectra compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.; Matousek, V.


    The efficient algorithms to compress multidimensional γ-ray events are presented. Two alternative kinds of compression algorithms based on both the adaptive orthogonal and randomizing transforms are proposed. In both algorithms we employ the reduction of data volume due to the symmetry of the γ-ray spectra

  17. Rate-distortion optimization for compressive video sampling (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Vijayanagar, Krishna R.; Kim, Joohee


    The recently introduced compressed sensing (CS) framework enables low complexity video acquisition via sub- Nyquist rate sampling. In practice, the resulting CS samples are quantized and indexed by finitely many bits (bit-depth) for transmission. In applications where the bit-budget for video transmission is constrained, rate- distortion optimization (RDO) is essential for quality video reconstruction. In this work, we develop a double-level RDO scheme for compressive video sampling, where frame-level RDO is performed by adaptively allocating the fixed bit-budget per frame to each video block based on block-sparsity, and block-level RDO is performed by modelling the block reconstruction peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as a quadratic function of quantization bit-depth. The optimal bit-depth and the number of CS samples are then obtained by setting the first derivative of the function to zero. In the experimental studies the model parameters are initialized with a small set of training data, which are then updated with local information in the model testing stage. Simulation results presented herein show that the proposed double-level RDO significantly enhances the reconstruction quality for a bit-budget constrained CS video transmission system.

  18. Real-time video compressing under DSP/BIOS (United States)

    Chen, Qiu-ping; Li, Gui-ju


    This paper presents real-time MPEG-4 Simple Profile video compressing based on the DSP processor. The programming framework of video compressing is constructed using TMS320C6416 Microprocessor, TDS510 simulator and PC. It uses embedded real-time operating system DSP/BIOS and the API functions to build periodic function, tasks and interruptions etcs. Realize real-time video compressing. To the questions of data transferring among the system. Based on the architecture of the C64x DSP, utilized double buffer switched and EDMA data transfer controller to transit data from external memory to internal, and realize data transition and processing at the same time; the architecture level optimizations are used to improve software pipeline. The system used DSP/BIOS to realize multi-thread scheduling. The whole system realizes high speed transition of a great deal of data. Experimental results show the encoder can realize real-time encoding of 768*576, 25 frame/s video images.

  19. Selecting a general-purpose data compression algorithm (United States)

    Mathews, Gary Jason


    The National Space Science Data Center's Common Data Formate (CDF) is capable of storing many types of data such as scalar data items, vectors, and multidimensional arrays of bytes, integers, or floating point values. However, regardless of the dimensionality and data type, the data break down into a sequence of bytes that can be fed into a data compression function to reduce the amount of data without losing data integrity and thus remaining fully reconstructible. Because of the diversity of data types and high performance speed requirements, a general-purpose, fast, simple data compression algorithm is required to incorporate data compression into CDF. The questions to ask are how to evaluate and compare compression algorithms, and what compression algorithm meets all requirements. The object of this paper is to address these questions and determine the most appropriate compression algorithm to use within the CDF data management package that would be applicable to other software packages with similar data compression needs.

  20. Influence of video compression on the measurement error of the television system (United States)

    Sotnik, A. V.; Yarishev, S. N.; Korotaev, V. V.


    possible reducing of the digital stream. Discrete cosine transformation is most widely used among possible orthogonal transformation. Errors of television measuring systems and data compression protocols analyzed In this paper. The main characteristics of measuring systems and detected sources of their error detected. The most effective methods of video compression are determined. The influence of video compression error on television measuring systems was researched. Obtained results will increase the accuracy of the measuring systems. In television image quality measuring system reduces distortion identical distortion in analog systems and specific distortions resulting from the process of coding / decoding digital video signal and errors in the transmission channel. By the distortions associated with encoding / decoding signal include quantization noise, reducing resolution, mosaic effect, "mosquito" effect edging on sharp drops brightness, blur colors, false patterns, the effect of "dirty window" and other defects. The size of video compression algorithms used in television measuring systems based on the image encoding with intra- and inter prediction individual fragments. The process of encoding / decoding image is non-linear in space and in time, because the quality of the playback of a movie at the reception depends on the pre- and post-history of a random, from the preceding and succeeding tracks, which can lead to distortion of the inadequacy of the sub-picture and a corresponding measuring signal.

  1. Data Compression by Shape Compensation for Mobile Video Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Shung Chow


    Full Text Available Most security systems, with their transmission bandwidth and computing power both being sufficient, emphasize their automatic recognition techniques. However, in some situations such as baby monitors and intruder avoidance by mobile sensors, the decision function sometimes can be shifted to the concerned human to reduce the transmission and computation cost. We therefore propose a binary video compression method in low resolution to achieve a low cost mobile video communication for inexpensive camera sensors. Shape compensation as proposed in this communication successfully replaces the standard Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT after motion compensation.

  2. Online sparse representation for remote sensing compressed-sensed video sampling (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Kun; Li, Sheng-liang; Zhang, Li


    Most recently, an emerging Compressed Sensing (CS) theory has brought a major breakthrough for data acquisition and recovery. It asserts that a signal, which is highly compressible in a known basis, can be reconstructed with high probability through sampling frequency which is well below Nyquist Sampling Frequency. When applying CS to Remote Sensing (RS) Video imaging, it can directly and efficiently acquire compressed image data by randomly projecting original data to obtain linear and non-adaptive measurements. In this paper, with the help of distributed video coding scheme which is a low-complexity technique for resource limited sensors, the frames of a RS video sequence are divided into Key frames (K frames) and Non-Key frames (CS frames). In other words, the input video sequence consists of many groups of pictures (GOPs) and each GOP consists of one K frame followed by several CS frames. Both of them are measured based on block, but at different sampling rates. In this way, the major encoding computation burden will be shifted to the decoder. At the decoder, the Side Information (SI) is generated for the CS frames using traditional Motion-Compensated Interpolation (MCI) technique according to the reconstructed key frames. The over-complete dictionary is trained by dictionary learning methods based on SI. These learning methods include ICA-like, PCA, K-SVD, MOD, etc. Using these dictionaries, the CS frames could be reconstructed according to sparse-land model. In the numerical experiments, the reconstruction performance of ICA algorithm, which is often evaluated by Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), has been made compared with other online sparse representation algorithms. The simulation results show its advantages in reducing reconstruction time and robustness in reconstruction performance when applying ICA algorithm to remote sensing video reconstruction.

  3. Videos and images from 25 years of teaching compressible flow (United States)

    Settles, Gary


    Compressible flow is a very visual topic due to refractive optical flow visualization and the public fascination with high-speed flight. Films, video clips, and many images are available to convey this in the classroom. An overview of this material is given and selected examples are shown, drawn from educational films, the movies, television, etc., and accumulated over 25 years of teaching basic and advanced compressible-flow courses. The impact of copyright protection and the doctrine of fair use is also discussed.

  4. Experimental scheme and restoration algorithm of block compression sensing (United States)

    Zhang, Linxia; Zhou, Qun; Ke, Jun


    Compressed Sensing (CS) can use the sparseness of a target to obtain its image with much less data than that defined by the Nyquist sampling theorem. In this paper, we study the hardware implementation of a block compression sensing system and its reconstruction algorithms. Different block sizes are used. Two algorithms, the orthogonal matching algorithm (OMP) and the full variation minimum algorithm (TV) are used to obtain good reconstructions. The influence of block size on reconstruction is also discussed.

  5. A Coded Aperture Compressive Imaging Array and Its Visual Detection and Tracking Algorithms for Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxiao Wu


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an application of a compressive imaging system to the problem of wide-area video surveillance systems. A parallel coded aperture compressive imaging system is proposed to reduce the needed high resolution coded mask requirements and facilitate the storage of the projection matrix. Random Gaussian, Toeplitz and binary phase coded masks are utilized to obtain the compressive sensing images. The corresponding motion targets detection and tracking algorithms directly using the compressive sampling images are developed. A mixture of Gaussian distribution is applied in the compressive image space to model the background image and for foreground detection. For each motion target in the compressive sampling domain, a compressive feature dictionary spanned by target templates and noises templates is sparsely represented. An l1 optimization algorithm is used to solve the sparse coefficient of templates. Experimental results demonstrate that low dimensional compressed imaging representation is sufficient to determine spatial motion targets. Compared with the random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask, motion detection algorithms using a random binary phase mask can yield better detection results. However using random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask can achieve high resolution reconstructed image. Our tracking algorithm can achieve a real time speed that is up to 10 times faster than that of the l1 tracker without any optimization.

  6. Low-latency video transmission over high-speed WPANs based on low-power video compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Turlikov, Andrey; Ukhanova, Ann


    This paper presents latency-constrained video transmission over high-speed wireless personal area networks (WPANs). Low-power video compression is proposed as an alternative to uncompressed video transmission. A video source rate control based on MINMAX quality criteria is introduced. Practical...

  7. Rate-control algorithms testing by using video source model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Turlikov, Andrey; Ukhanova, Anna


    In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set.......In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set....

  8. A novel pulse compression algorithm for frequency modulated active thermography using band-pass filter (United States)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Roy, Deboshree; Tuli, Suneet


    This paper proposes a novel pulse compression algorithm, in the context of frequency modulated thermal wave imaging. The compression filter is derived from a predefined reference pixel in a recorded video, which contains direct measurement of the excitation signal alongside the thermal image of a test piece. The filter causes all the phases of the constituent frequencies to be adjusted to nearly zero value, so that on reconstruction a pulse is obtained. Further, due to band-limited nature of the excitation, signal-to-noise ratio is improved by suppressing out-of-band noise. The result is similar to that of a pulsed thermography experiment, although the peak power is drastically reduced. The algorithm is successfully demonstrated on mild steel and carbon fibre reference samples. Objective comparisons of the proposed pulse compression algorithm with the existing techniques are presented.

  9. A Total Variation Regularization Based Super-Resolution Reconstruction Algorithm for Digital Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liangpei


    Full Text Available Super-resolution (SR reconstruction technique is capable of producing a high-resolution image from a sequence of low-resolution images. In this paper, we study an efficient SR algorithm for digital video. To effectively deal with the intractable problems in SR video reconstruction, such as inevitable motion estimation errors, noise, blurring, missing regions, and compression artifacts, the total variation (TV regularization is employed in the reconstruction model. We use the fixed-point iteration method and preconditioning techniques to efficiently solve the associated nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations of the corresponding variational problem in SR. The proposed algorithm has been tested in several cases of motion and degradation. It is also compared with the Laplacian regularization-based SR algorithm and other TV-based SR algorithms. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Algorithms and data structures for grammar-compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cording, Patrick Hagge

    Textual databases for e.g. biological or web-data are growing rapidly, and it is often only feasible to store the data in compressed form. However, compressing the data comes at a price. Traditional algorithms for e.g. pattern matching requires all data to be decompressed - a computationally...... demanding task. In this thesis we design data structures for accessing and searching compressed data efficiently. Our results can be divided into two categories. In the first category we study problems related to pattern matching. In particular, we present new algorithms for counting and comparing...... substrings, and a new algorithm for finding all occurrences of a pattern in which we may insert gaps. In the other category we deal with accessing and decompressing parts of the compressed string. We show how to quickly access a single character of the compressed string, and present a data structure...

  11. Optimal erasure protection for scalably compressed video streams with limited retransmission. (United States)

    Taubman, David; Thie, Johnson


    This paper shows how the priority encoding transmission (PET) framework may be leveraged to exploit both unequal error protection and limited retransmission for RD-optimized delivery of streaming media. Previous work on scalable media protection with PET has largely ignored the possibility of retransmission. Conversely, the PET framework has not been harnessed by the substantial body of previous work on RD optimized hybrid forward error correction/automatic repeat request schemes. We limit our attention to sources which can be modeled as independently compressed frames (e.g., video frames), where each element in the scalable representation of each frame can be transmitted in one or both of two transmission slots. An optimization algorithm determines the level of protection which should be assigned to each element in each slot, subject to transmission bandwidth constraints. To balance the protection assigned to elements which are being transmitted for the first time with those which are being retransmitted, the proposed algorithm formulates a collection of hypotheses concerning its own behavior in future transmission slots. We show how the PET framework allows for a decoupled optimization algorithm with only modest complexity. Experimental results obtained with Motion JPEG2000 compressed video demonstrate that substantial performance benefits can be obtained using the proposed framework.

  12. Parallel Algorithm for Wireless Data Compression and Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Jiancheng


    Full Text Available As the wireless network has limited bandwidth and insecure shared media, the data compression and encryption are very useful for the broadcasting transportation of big data in IoT (Internet of Things. However, the traditional techniques of compression and encryption are neither competent nor efficient. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a combined parallel algorithm named “CZ algorithm” which can compress and encrypt the big data efficiently. CZ algorithm uses a parallel pipeline, mixes the coding of compression and encryption, and supports the data window up to 1 TB (or larger. Moreover, CZ algorithm can encrypt the big data as a chaotic cryptosystem which will not decrease the compression speed. Meanwhile, a shareware named “ComZip” is developed based on CZ algorithm. The experiment results show that ComZip in 64 b system can get better compression ratio than WinRAR and 7-zip, and it can be faster than 7-zip in the big data compression. In addition, ComZip encrypts the big data without extra consumption of computing resources.

  13. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Budagavi, Madhukar; Sullivan, Gary


    This book provides developers, engineers, researchers and students with detailed knowledge about the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. HEVC is the successor to the widely successful H.264/AVC video compression standard, and it provides around twice as much compression as H.264/AVC for the same level of quality. The applications for HEVC will not only cover the space of the well-known current uses and capabilities of digital video – they will also include the deployment of new services and the delivery of enhanced video quality, such as ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) and video with higher dynamic range, wider range of representable color, and greater representation precision than what is typically found today. HEVC is the next major generation of video coding design – a flexible, reliable and robust solution that will support the next decade of video applications and ease the burden of video on world-wide network traffic. This book provides a detailed explanation of the various parts ...

  14. A new modified fast fractal image compression algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salarian, Mehdi; Nadernejad, Ehsan; MiarNaimi, Hossein


    In this paper, a new fractal image compression algorithm is proposed, in which the time of the encoding process is considerably reduced. The algorithm exploits a domain pool reduction approach, along with the use of innovative predefined values for contrast scaling factor, S, instead of searching...

  15. Compressive sampling by artificial neural networks for video (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Reinhardt, Kitt


    We describe a smart surveillance strategy for handling novelty changes. Current sensors seem to keep all, redundant or not. The Human Visual System's Hubel-Wiesel (wavelet) edge detection mechanism pays attention to changes in movement, which naturally produce organized sparseness because a stagnant edge is not reported to the brain's visual cortex by retinal neurons. Sparseness is defined as an ordered set of ones (movement or not) relative to zeros that could be pseudo-orthogonal among themselves; then suited for fault tolerant storage and retrieval by means of Associative Memory (AM). The firing is sparse at the change locations. Unlike purely random sparse masks adopted in medical Compressive Sensing, these organized ones have an additional benefit of using the image changes to make retrievable graphical indexes. We coined this organized sparseness as Compressive Sampling; sensing but skipping over redundancy without altering the original image. Thus, we turn illustrate with video the survival tactics which animals that roam the Earth use daily. They acquire nothing but the space-time changes that are important to satisfy specific prey-predator relationships. We have noticed a similarity between the mathematical Compressive Sensing and this biological mechanism used for survival. We have designed a hardware implementation of the Human Visual System's Compressive Sampling scheme. To speed up further, our mixedsignal circuit design of frame differencing is built in on-chip processing hardware. A CMOS trans-conductance amplifier is designed here to generate a linear current output using a pair of differential input voltages from 2 photon detectors for change detection---one for the previous value and the other the subsequent value, ("write" synaptic weight by Hebbian outer products; "read" by inner product & pt. NL threshold) to localize and track the threat targets.

  16. Quasi Gradient Projection Algorithm for Sparse Reconstruction in Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Meng


    Full Text Available Compressed sensing is a novel signal sampling theory under the condition that the signal is sparse or compressible. The existing recovery algorithms based on the gradient projection can either need prior knowledge or recovery the signal poorly. In this paper, a new algorithm based on gradient projection is proposed, which is referred as Quasi Gradient Projection. The algorithm presented quasi gradient direction and two step sizes schemes along this direction. The algorithm doesn’t need any prior knowledge of the original signal. Simulation results demonstrate that the presented algorithm cans recovery the signal more correctly than GPSR which also don’t need prior knowledge. Meanwhile, the algorithm has a lower computation complexity.

  17. Analysing Music with Point-Set Compression Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David


    Several point-set pattern-discovery and compression algorithms designed for analysing music are reviewed and evaluated. Each algorithm takes as input a point-set representation of a score in which each note is represented as a point in pitch-time space. Each algorithm computes the maximal...... and sections in pieces of classical music. On the first task, the best-performing algorithms achieved success rates of around 84%. In the second task, the best algorithms achieved mean F1 scores of around 0.49, with scores for individual pieces rising as high as 0.71....

  18. Content Adaptive True Motion Estimator for H.264 Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kulla


    Full Text Available Content adaptive true motion estimator for H.264 video coding is a fast block-based matching estimator with implemented multi-stage approach to estimate motion fields between two image frames. It considers the theory of 3D scene objects projection into 2D image plane for selection of motion vector candidates from the higher stages. The stages of the algorithm and its hierarchy are defined upon motion estimation reliability measurement (image blocks including two different directions of spatial gradient, blocks with one dominant spatial gradient and blocks including minimal spatial gradient. Parameters of the image classification into stages are set adaptively upon image structure. Due to search strategy are the estimated motion fields more corresponding to a true motion in an image sequence as in the case of conventional motion estimation algorithms that use fixed sets of motion vector candidates from tight neighborhood.

  19. Continuity-Aware Scheduling Algorithm for Scalable Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atinat Palawan


    Full Text Available The consumer demand for retrieving and delivering visual content through consumer electronic devices has increased rapidly in recent years. The quality of video in packet networks is susceptible to certain traffic characteristics: average bandwidth availability, loss, delay and delay variation (jitter. This paper presents a scheduling algorithm that modifies the stream of scalable video to combat jitter. The algorithm provides unequal look-ahead by safeguarding the base layer (without the need for overhead of the scalable video. The results of the experiments show that our scheduling algorithm reduces the number of frames with a violated deadline and significantly improves the continuity of the video stream without compromising the average Y Peek Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR.

  20. A Super-resolution Reconstruction Algorithm for Surveillance Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shao


    Full Text Available Recent technological developments have resulted in surveillance video becoming a primary method of preserving public security. Many city crimes are observed in surveillance video. The most abundant evidence collected by the police is also acquired through surveillance video sources. Surveillance video footage offers very strong support for solving criminal cases, therefore, creating an effective policy, and applying useful methods to the retrieval of additional evidence is becoming increasingly important. However, surveillance video has had its failings, namely, video footage being captured in low resolution (LR and bad visual quality. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of surveillance video and describe the manual feature registration – maximum a posteriori – projection onto convex sets to develop a super-resolution reconstruction method, which improves the quality of surveillance video. From this method, we can make optimal use of information contained in the LR video image, but we can also control the image edge clearly as well as the convergence of the algorithm. Finally, we make a suggestion on how to adjust the algorithm adaptability by analyzing the prior information of target image.

  1. A hardware-oriented concurrent TZ search algorithm for High-Efficiency Video Coding (United States)

    Doan, Nghia; Kim, Tae Sung; Rhee, Chae Eun; Lee, Hyuk-Jae


    High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is the latest video coding standard, in which the compression performance is double that of its predecessor, the H.264/AVC standard, while the video quality remains unchanged. In HEVC, the test zone (TZ) search algorithm is widely used for integer motion estimation because it effectively searches the good-quality motion vector with a relatively small amount of computation. However, the complex computation structure of the TZ search algorithm makes it difficult to implement it in the hardware. This paper proposes a new integer motion estimation algorithm which is designed for hardware execution by modifying the conventional TZ search to allow parallel motion estimations of all prediction unit (PU) partitions. The algorithm consists of the three phases of zonal, raster, and refinement searches. At the beginning of each phase, the algorithm obtains the search points required by the original TZ search for all PU partitions in a coding unit (CU). Then, all redundant search points are removed prior to the estimation of the motion costs, and the best search points are then selected for all PUs. Compared to the conventional TZ search algorithm, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly decreases the Bjøntegaard Delta bitrate (BD-BR) by 0.84%, and it also reduces the computational complexity by 54.54%.

  2. Compression of Video Tracking and Bandwidth Balancing Routing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Wang


    Full Text Available There has been a tremendous growth in multimedia applications over wireless networks. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks(WMSNs have become the premier choice in many research communities and industry. Many state-of-art applications, such as surveillance, traffic monitoring, and remote heath care are essentially video tracking and transmission in WMSNs. The transmission speed is constrained by the big file size of video data and fixed bandwidth allocation in constant routing paths. In this paper, we present a CamShift based algorithm to compress the tracking of videos. Then we propose a bandwidth balancing strategy in which each sensor node is able to dynamically select the node for the next hop with the highest potential bandwidth capacity to resume communication. Key to this strategy is that each node merely maintains two parameters that contain its historical bandwidth varying trend and then predict its near future bandwidth capacity. Then, the forwarding node selects the next hop with the highest potential bandwidth capacity. Simulations demonstrate that our approach significantly increases the data received by the sink node and decreases the delay on video transmission in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network environments.

  3. A Compression Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks of Bearing Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Bin; Meng Qingfeng; Wang Nan; Li Zhi


    The energy consumption of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is always an important problem in the application of wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes a data compression algorithm to reduce amount of data and energy consumption during the data transmission process in the on-line WSNs-based bearing monitoring system. The proposed compression algorithm is based on lifting wavelets, Zerotree coding and Hoffman coding. Among of that, 5/3 lifting wavelets is used for dividing data into different frequency bands to extract signal characteristics. Zerotree coding is applied to calculate the dynamic thresholds to retain the attribute data. The attribute data are then encoded by Hoffman coding to further enhance the compression ratio. In order to validate the algorithm, simulation is carried out by using Matlab. The result of simulation shows that the proposed algorithm is very suitable for the compression of bearing monitoring data. The algorithm has been successfully used in online WSNs-based bearing monitoring system, in which TI DSP TMS320F2812 is used to realize the algorithm.

  4. Schwarz-based algorithms for compressible flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidriri, M.D. [ICASE, Hampton, VA (United States)


    To compute steady compressible flows one often uses an implicit discretization approach which leads to a large sparse linear system that must be solved at each time step. In the derivation of this system one often uses a defect-correction procedure, in which the left-hand side of the system is discretized with a lower order approximation than that used for the right-hand side. This is due to storage considerations and computational complexity, and also to the fact that the resulting lower order matrix is better conditioned than the higher order matrix. The resulting schemes are only moderately implicit. In the case of structured, body-fitted grids, the linear system can easily be solved using approximate factorization (AF), which is among the most widely used methods for such grids. However, for unstructured grids, such techniques are no longer valid, and the system is solved using direct or iterative techniques. Because of the prohibitive computational costs and large memory requirements for the solution of compressible flows, iterative methods are preferred. In these defect-correction methods, which are implemented in most CFD computer codes, the mismatch in the right and left hand side operators, together with explicit treatment of the boundary conditions, lead to a severely limited CFL number, which results in a slow convergence to steady state aerodynamic solutions. Many authors have tried to replace explicit boundary conditions with implicit ones. Although they clearly demonstrate that high CFL numbers are possible, the reduction in CPU time is not clear cut.

  5. Dual-Layer Video Encryption using RSA Algorithm (United States)

    Chadha, Aman; Mallik, Sushmit; Chadha, Ankit; Johar, Ravdeep; Mani Roja, M.


    This paper proposes a video encryption algorithm using RSA and Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence, aimed at applications requiring sensitive video information transfers. The system is primarily designed to work with files encoded using the Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) codec, although it can be easily ported for use with Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded files. The audio and video components of the source separately undergo two layers of encryption to ensure a reasonable level of security. Encryption of the video component involves applying the RSA algorithm followed by the PN-based encryption. Similarly, the audio component is first encrypted using PN and further subjected to encryption using the Discrete Cosine Transform. Combining these techniques, an efficient system, invulnerable to security breaches and attacks with favorable values of parameters such as encryption/decryption speed, encryption/decryption ratio and visual degradation; has been put forth. For applications requiring encryption of sensitive data wherein stringent security requirements are of prime concern, the system is found to yield negligible similarities in visual perception between the original and the encrypted video sequence. For applications wherein visual similarity is not of major concern, we limit the encryption task to a single level of encryption which is accomplished by using RSA, thereby quickening the encryption process. Although some similarity between the original and encrypted video is observed in this case, it is not enough to comprehend the happenings in the video.

  6. Using general-purpose compression algorithms for music analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louboutin, Corentin; Meredith, David


    General-purpose compression algorithms encode files as dictionaries of substrings with the positions of these strings’ occurrences. We hypothesized that such algorithms could be used for pattern discovery in music. We compared LZ77, LZ78, Burrows–Wheeler and COSIATEC on classifying folk song...... in the input data, COSIATEC outperformed LZ77 with a mean F1 score of 0.123, compared with 0.053 for LZ77. However, when the music was processed a voice at a time, the F1 score for LZ77 more than doubled to 0.124. We also discovered a significant correlation between compression factor and F1 score for all...

  7. SCALCE: boosting sequence compression algorithms using locally consistent encoding. (United States)

    Hach, Faraz; Numanagic, Ibrahim; Alkan, Can; Sahinalp, S Cenk


    The high throughput sequencing (HTS) platforms generate unprecedented amounts of data that introduce challenges for the computational infrastructure. Data management, storage and analysis have become major logistical obstacles for those adopting the new platforms. The requirement for large investment for this purpose almost signalled the end of the Sequence Read Archive hosted at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which holds most of the sequence data generated world wide. Currently, most HTS data are compressed through general purpose algorithms such as gzip. These algorithms are not designed for compressing data generated by the HTS platforms; for example, they do not take advantage of the specific nature of genomic sequence data, that is, limited alphabet size and high similarity among reads. Fast and efficient compression algorithms designed specifically for HTS data should be able to address some of the issues in data management, storage and communication. Such algorithms would also help with analysis provided they offer additional capabilities such as random access to any read and indexing for efficient sequence similarity search. Here we present SCALCE, a 'boosting' scheme based on Locally Consistent Parsing technique, which reorganizes the reads in a way that results in a higher compression speed and compression rate, independent of the compression algorithm in use and without using a reference genome. Our tests indicate that SCALCE can improve the compression rate achieved through gzip by a factor of 4.19-when the goal is to compress the reads alone. In fact, on SCALCE reordered reads, gzip running time can improve by a factor of 15.06 on a standard PC with a single core and 6 GB memory. Interestingly even the running time of SCALCE + gzip improves that of gzip alone by a factor of 2.09. When compared with the recently published BEETL, which aims to sort the (inverted) reads in lexicographic order for improving bzip2, SCALCE + gzip

  8. Multiscale Architectures and Parallel Algorithms for Video Object Tracking (United States)


    larger number of cores using the IBM QS22 Blade for handling higher video processing workloads (but at higher cost per core), low power consumption and...Cell/B.E. Blade processors which have a lot more main memory but also higher power consumption . More detailed performance figures for HD and SD video...Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, pages 289–298, 2007. [3] S. Ali and M. Shah. COCOA - Tracking in aerial imagery. In Daniel J. Henry

  9. Research of Video Steganalysis Algorithm Based on H265 Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kaicheng


    This paper researches LSB matching VSA based on H265 protocol with the research background of 26 original Video sequences, it firstly extracts classification features out from training samples as input of SVM, and trains in SVM to obtain high-quality category classification model, and then tests whether there is suspicious information in the video sample. The experimental results show that VSA algorithm based on LSB matching can be more practical to obtain all frame embedded secret information and carrier and video of local frame embedded. In addition, VSA adopts the method of frame by frame with a strong robustness in resisting attack in the corresponding time domain.

  10. A data compression algorithm for nuclear spectrum files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mika, J.F.; Martin, L.J.; Johnston, P.N.


    The total space occupied by computer files of spectra generated in nuclear spectroscopy systems can lead to problems of storage, and transmission time. An algorithm is presented which significantly reduces the space required to store nuclear spectra, without loss of any information content. Testing indicates that spectrum files can be routinely compressed by a factor of 5. (orig.)

  11. LFQC: a lossless compression algorithm for FASTQ files (United States)

    Nicolae, Marius; Pathak, Sudipta; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar


    Motivation: Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized genomic research by reducing the cost of whole genome sequencing. One of the biggest challenges posed by modern sequencing technology is economic storage of NGS data. Storing raw data is infeasible because of its enormous size and high redundancy. In this article, we address the problem of storage and transmission of large FASTQ files using innovative compression techniques. Results: We introduce a new lossless non-reference based FASTQ compression algorithm named Lossless FASTQ Compressor. We have compared our algorithm with other state of the art big data compression algorithms namely gzip, bzip2, fastqz (Bonfield and Mahoney, 2013), fqzcomp (Bonfield and Mahoney, 2013), Quip (Jones et al., 2012), DSRC2 (Roguski and Deorowicz, 2014). This comparison reveals that our algorithm achieves better compression ratios on LS454 and SOLiD datasets. Availability and implementation: The implementations are freely available for non-commercial purposes. They can be downloaded from Contact: PMID:26093148

  12. On system behaviour using complex networks of a compression algorithm (United States)

    Walker, David M.; Correa, Debora C.; Small, Michael


    We construct complex networks of scalar time series using a data compression algorithm. The structure and statistics of the resulting networks can be used to help characterize complex systems, and one property, in particular, appears to be a useful discriminating statistic in surrogate data hypothesis tests. We demonstrate these ideas on systems with known dynamical behaviour and also show that our approach is capable of identifying behavioural transitions within electroencephalogram recordings as well as changes due to a bifurcation parameter of a chaotic system. The technique we propose is dependent on a coarse grained quantization of the original time series and therefore provides potential for a spatial scale-dependent characterization of the data. Finally the method is as computationally efficient as the underlying compression algorithm and provides a compression of the salient features of long time series.

  13. Self-aligning and compressed autosophy video databases (United States)

    Holtz, Klaus E.


    Autosophy, an emerging new science, explains `self-assembling structures,' such as crystals or living trees, in mathematical terms. This research provides a new mathematical theory of `learning' and a new `information theory' which permits the growing of self-assembling data network in a computer memory similar to the growing of `data crystals' or `data trees' without data processing or programming. Autosophy databases are educated very much like a human child to organize their own internal data storage. Input patterns, such as written questions or images, are converted to points in a mathematical omni dimensional hyperspace. The input patterns are then associated with output patterns, such as written answers or images. Omni dimensional information storage will result in enormous data compression because each pattern fragment is only stored once. Pattern recognition in the text or image files is greatly simplified by the peculiar omni dimensional storage method. Video databases will absorb input images from a TV camera and associate them with textual information. The `black box' operations are totally self-aligning where the input data will determine their own hyperspace storage locations. Self-aligning autosophy databases may lead to a new generation of brain-like devices.

  14. Development of information preserving data compression algorithm for CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio


    Although digital imaging techniques in radiology develop rapidly, problems arise in archival storage and communication of image data. This paper reports on a new information preserving data compression algorithm for computed tomographic (CT) images. This algorithm consists of the following five processes: 1. Pixels surrounding the human body showing CT values smaller than -900 H.U. are eliminated. 2. Each pixel is encoded by its numerical difference from its neighboring pixel along a matrix line. 3. Difference values are encoded by a newly designed code rather than the natural binary code. 4. Image data, obtained with the above process, are decomposed into bit planes. 5. The bit state transitions in each bit plane are encoded by run length coding. Using this new algorithm, the compression ratios of brain, chest, and abdomen CT images are 4.49, 4.34. and 4.40 respectively. (author)

  15. Compression of fingerprint data using the wavelet vector quantization image compression algorithm. 1992 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.


    This report describes the development of a Wavelet Vector Quantization (WVQ) image compression algorithm for fingerprint raster files. The pertinent work was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This document describes a previously-sent package of C-language source code, referred to as LAFPC, that performs the WVQ fingerprint compression and decompression tasks. The particulars of the WVQ algorithm and the associated design procedure are detailed elsewhere; the purpose of this document is to report the results of the design algorithm for the fingerprint application and to delineate the implementation issues that are incorporated in LAFPC. Special attention is paid to the computation of the wavelet transform, the fast search algorithm used for the VQ encoding, and the entropy coding procedure used in the transmission of the source symbols.

  16. The CCSDS Lossless Data Compression Algorithm for Space Applications (United States)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)


    In the late 80's, when the author started working at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), several scientists there were in the process of formulating the next generation of Earth viewing science instruments, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The instrument would have over thirty spectral bands and would transmit enormous data through the communications channel. This was when the author was assigned the task of investigating lossless compression algorithms for space implementation to compress science data in order to reduce the requirement on bandwidth and storage.

  17. A review of lossless audio compression standards and algorithms (United States)

    Muin, Fathiah Abdul; Gunawan, Teddy Surya; Kartiwi, Mira; Elsheikh, Elsheikh M. A.


    Over the years, lossless audio compression has gained popularity as researchers and businesses has become more aware of the need for better quality and higher storage demand. This paper will analyse various lossless audio coding algorithm and standards that are used and available in the market focusing on Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) specifically due to its popularity and robustness in audio compression, nevertheless other prediction methods are compared to verify this. Advanced representation of LPC such as LSP decomposition techniques are also discussed within this paper.

  18. Performance of target detection algorithm in compressive sensing miniature ultraspectral imaging compressed sensing system (United States)

    Gedalin, Daniel; Oiknine, Yaniv; August, Isaac; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rotman, Stanley R.; Stern, Adrian


    Compressive sensing theory was proposed to deal with the high quantity of measurements demanded by traditional hyperspectral systems. Recently, a compressive spectral imaging technique dubbed compressive sensing miniature ultraspectral imaging (CS-MUSI) was presented. This system uses a voltage controlled liquid crystal device to create multiplexed hyperspectral cubes. We evaluate the utility of the data captured using the CS-MUSI system for the task of target detection. Specifically, we compare the performance of the matched filter target detection algorithm in traditional hyperspectral systems and in CS-MUSI multiplexed hyperspectral cubes. We found that the target detection algorithm performs similarly in both cases, despite the fact that the CS-MUSI data is up to an order of magnitude less than that in conventional hyperspectral cubes. Moreover, the target detection is approximately an order of magnitude faster in CS-MUSI data.

  19. Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychis Sifakis


    Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.

  20. VLSI-based video event triggering for image data compression (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.


    Long-duration, on-orbit microgravity experiments require a combination of high resolution and high frame rate video data acquisition. The digitized high-rate video stream presents a difficult data storage problem. Data produced at rates of several hundred million bytes per second may require a total mission video data storage requirement exceeding one terabyte. A NASA-designed, VLSI-based, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term (DC-like) or short term (AC-like) changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pre-trigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable to archiving only the significant video images.

  1. A novel high-frequency encoding algorithm for image compression (United States)

    Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.


    In this paper, a new method for image compression is proposed whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction from 2D images. The method is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) together with a high-frequency minimization encoding algorithm at compression stage and a new concurrent binary search algorithm at decompression stage. The proposed compression method consists of five main steps: (1) divide the image into blocks and apply DCT to each block; (2) apply a high-frequency minimization method to the AC-coefficients reducing each block by 2/3 resulting in a minimized array; (3) build a look up table of probability data to enable the recovery of the original high frequencies at decompression stage; (4) apply a delta or differential operator to the list of DC-components; and (5) apply arithmetic encoding to the outputs of steps (2) and (4). At decompression stage, the look up table and the concurrent binary search algorithm are used to reconstruct all high-frequency AC-coefficients while the DC-components are decoded by reversing the arithmetic coding. Finally, the inverse DCT recovers the original image. We tested the technique by compressing and decompressing 2D images including images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction. The technique is compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results demonstrate that the proposed compression method is perceptually superior to JPEG with equivalent quality to JPEG2000. Concerning 3D surface reconstruction from images, it is demonstrated that the proposed method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000.

  2. BIND – An algorithm for loss-less compression of nucleotide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    constituting the FNA data set. Supplementary table 2. Original and compressed file sizes (obtained using various compression algorithms) for 2679 files constituting the FFN data set. Supplementary table 3. Original and compressed file sizes (obtained using various compression algorithms) for 25 files constituting the ...

  3. Distance Education Technology for the New Millennium Compressed Video Teaching. ZIFF Papiere 101. (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond

    This monograph combines an examination of theoretical issues raised by the introduction of two-way video and similar systems into distance education (DE) with practical advice on using compressed video systems in DE programs. Presented in the first half of the monograph are the following: analysis of the intrinsic links between DE and technology…

  4. 32Still Image Compression Algorithm Based on Directional Filter Banks


    Chunling Yang; Duanwu Cao; Li Ma


    Hybrid wavelet and directional filter banks (HWD) is an effective multi-scale geometrical analysis method. Compared to wavelet transform, it can better capture the directional information of images. But the ringing artifact, which is caused by the coefficient quantization in transform domain, is the biggest drawback of image compression algorithms in HWD domain. In this paper, by researching on the relationship between directional decomposition and ringing artifact, an improved decomposition ...

  5. Towards the compression of parton densities through machine learning algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Carrazza, Stefano


    One of the most fascinating challenges in the context of parton density function (PDF) is the determination of the best combined PDF uncertainty from individual PDF sets. Since 2014 multiple methodologies have been developed to achieve this goal. In this proceedings we first summarize the strategy adopted by the PDF4LHC15 recommendation and then, we discuss about a new approach to Monte Carlo PDF compression based on clustering through machine learning algorithms.

  6. Hybrid compression of video with graphics in DTV communication systems


    Schaar, van der, M.; With, de, P.H.N.


    Advanced broadcast manipulation of TV sequences and enhanced user interfaces for TV systems have resulted in an increased amount of pre- and post-editing of video sequences, where graphical information is inserted. However, in the current broadcasting chain, there are no provisions for enabling an efficient transmission/storage of these mixed video and graphics signals and, at this emerging stage of DTV systems, introducing new standards is not desired. Nevertheless, in the professional video...

  7. Low-Complexity Compression Algorithm for Hyperspectral Images Based on Distributed Source Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Nian


    Full Text Available A low-complexity compression algorithm for hyperspectral images based on distributed source coding (DSC is proposed in this paper. The proposed distributed compression algorithm can realize both lossless and lossy compression, which is implemented by performing scalar quantization strategy on the original hyperspectral images followed by distributed lossless compression. Multilinear regression model is introduced for distributed lossless compression in order to improve the quality of side information. Optimal quantized step is determined according to the restriction of the correct DSC decoding, which makes the proposed algorithm achieve near lossless compression. Moreover, an effective rate distortion algorithm is introduced for the proposed algorithm to achieve low bit rate. Experimental results show that the compression performance of the proposed algorithm is competitive with that of the state-of-the-art compression algorithms for hyperspectral images.

  8. Fast and predictable video compression in software design and implementation of an H.261 codec (United States)

    Geske, Dagmar; Hess, Robert


    The use of software codecs for video compression becomes commonplace in several videoconferencing applications. In order to reduce conflicts with other applications used at the same time, mechanisms for resource reservation on endsystems need to determine an upper bound for computing time used by the codec. This leads to the demand for predictable execution times of compression/decompression. Since compression schemes as H.261 inherently depend on the motion contained in the video, an adaptive admission control is required. This paper presents a data driven approach based on dynamical reduction of the number of processed macroblocks in peak situations. Besides the absolute speed is a point of interest. The question, whether and how software compression of high quality video is feasible on today's desktop computers, is examined.

  9. Spatial compression algorithm for the analysis of very large multivariate images (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM


    A method for spatially compressing data sets enables the efficient analysis of very large multivariate images. The spatial compression algorithms use a wavelet transformation to map an image into a compressed image containing a smaller number of pixels that retain the original image's information content. Image analysis can then be performed on a compressed data matrix consisting of a reduced number of significant wavelet coefficients. Furthermore, a block algorithm can be used for performing common operations more efficiently. The spatial compression algorithms can be combined with spectral compression algorithms to provide further computational efficiencies.

  10. A Robust Parallel Algorithm for Combinatorial Compressed Sensing (United States)

    Mendoza-Smith, Rodrigo; Tanner, Jared W.; Wechsung, Florian


    In previous work two of the authors have shown that a vector $x \\in \\mathbb{R}^n$ with at most $k Parallel-$\\ell_0$ decoding algorithm, where $\\mathrm{nnz}(A)$ denotes the number of nonzero entries in $A \\in \\mathbb{R}^{m \\times n}$. In this paper we present the Robust-$\\ell_0$ decoding algorithm, which robustifies Parallel-$\\ell_0$ when the sketch $Ax$ is corrupted by additive noise. This robustness is achieved by approximating the asymptotic posterior distribution of values in the sketch given its corrupted measurements. We provide analytic expressions that approximate these posteriors under the assumptions that the nonzero entries in the signal and the noise are drawn from continuous distributions. Numerical experiments presented show that Robust-$\\ell_0$ is superior to existing greedy and combinatorial compressed sensing algorithms in the presence of small to moderate signal-to-noise ratios in the setting of Gaussian signals and Gaussian additive noise.

  11. Video segmentation and camera motion characterization using compressed data (United States)

    Milanese, Ruggero; Deguillaume, Frederic; Jacot-Descombes, Alain


    We address the problem of automatically extracting visual indexes from videos, in order to provide sophisticated access methods to the contents of a video server. We focus on tow tasks, namely the decomposition of a video clip into uniform segments, and the characterization of each shot by camera motion parameters. For the first task we use a Bayesian classification approach to detecting scene cuts by analyzing motion vectors. For the second task a least- squares fitting procedure determines the pan/tilt/zoom camera parameters. In order to guarantee the highest processing speed, all techniques process and analyze directly MPEG-1 motion vectors, without need for video decompression. Experimental results are reported for a database of news video clips.

  12. Modified Three-Step Search Block Matching Motion Estimation and Weighted Finite Automata based Fractal Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kamble


    Full Text Available The major challenge with fractal image/video coding technique is that, it requires more encoding time. Therefore, how to reduce the encoding time is the research component remains in the fractal coding. Block matching motion estimation algorithms are used, to reduce the computations performed in the process of encoding. The objective of the proposed work is to develop an approach for video coding using modified three step search (MTSS block matching algorithm and weighted finite automata (WFA coding with a specific focus on reducing the encoding time. The MTSS block matching algorithm are used for computing motion vectors between the two frames i.e. displacement of pixels and WFA is used for the coding as it behaves like the Fractal Coding (FC. WFA represents an image (frame or motion compensated prediction error based on the idea of fractal that the image has self-similarity in itself. The self-similarity is sought from the symmetry of an image, so the encoding algorithm divides an image into multi-levels of quad-tree segmentations and creates an automaton from the sub-images. The proposed MTSS block matching algorithm is based on the combination of rectangular and hexagonal search pattern and compared with the existing New Three-Step Search (NTSS, Three-Step Search (TSS, and Efficient Three-Step Search (ETSS block matching estimation algorithm. The performance of the proposed MTSS block matching algorithm is evaluated on the basis of performance evaluation parameters i.e. mean absolute difference (MAD and average search points required per frame. Mean of absolute difference (MAD distortion function is used as the block distortion measure (BDM. Finally, developed approaches namely, MTSS and WFA, MTSS and FC, and Plane FC (applied on every frame are compared with each other. The experimentations are carried out on the standard uncompressed video databases, namely, akiyo, bus, mobile, suzie, traffic, football, soccer, ice etc. Developed

  13. Compressively sampled MR image reconstruction using generalized thresholding iterative algorithm (United States)

    Elahi, Sana; kaleem, Muhammad; Omer, Hammad


    Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging area of interest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CS is used for the reconstruction of the images from a very limited number of samples in k-space. This significantly reduces the MRI data acquisition time. One important requirement for signal recovery in CS is the use of an appropriate non-linear reconstruction algorithm. It is a challenging task to choose a reconstruction algorithm that would accurately reconstruct the MR images from the under-sampled k-space data. Various algorithms have been used to solve the system of non-linear equations for better image quality and reconstruction speed in CS. In the recent past, iterative soft thresholding algorithm (ISTA) has been introduced in CS-MRI. This algorithm directly cancels the incoherent artifacts produced because of the undersampling in k -space. This paper introduces an improved iterative algorithm based on p -thresholding technique for CS-MRI image reconstruction. The use of p -thresholding function promotes sparsity in the image which is a key factor for CS based image reconstruction. The p -thresholding based iterative algorithm is a modification of ISTA, and minimizes non-convex functions. It has been shown that the proposed p -thresholding iterative algorithm can be used effectively to recover fully sampled image from the under-sampled data in MRI. The performance of the proposed method is verified using simulated and actual MRI data taken at St. Mary's Hospital, London. The quality of the reconstructed images is measured in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), artifact power (AP), and structural similarity index measure (SSIM). The proposed approach shows improved performance when compared to other iterative algorithms based on log thresholding, soft thresholding and hard thresholding techniques at different reduction factors.

  14. A Multiresolution Image Completion Algorithm for Compressing Digital Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gomathi


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new framework for image coding that uses image inpainting method. In the proposed algorithm, the input image is subjected to image analysis to remove some of the portions purposefully. At the same time, edges are extracted from the input image and they are passed to the decoder in the compressed manner. The edges which are transmitted to decoder act as assistant information and they help inpainting process fill the missing regions at the decoder. Textural synthesis and a new shearlet inpainting scheme based on the theory of p-Laplacian operator are proposed for image restoration at the decoder. Shearlets have been mathematically proven to represent distributed discontinuities such as edges better than traditional wavelets and are a suitable tool for edge characterization. This novel shearlet p-Laplacian inpainting model can effectively reduce the staircase effect in Total Variation (TV inpainting model whereas it can still keep edges as well as TV model. In the proposed scheme, neural network is employed to enhance the value of compression ratio for image coding. Test results are compared with JPEG 2000 and H.264 Intracoding algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithm works well.

  15. Passive ultra-brief video training improves performance of compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (United States)

    Benoit, Justin L; Vogele, Jennifer; Hart, Kimberly W; Lindsell, Christopher J; McMullan, Jason T


    Bystander compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. To broaden CPR training, 1-2min ultra-brief videos have been disseminated via the Internet and television. Our objective was to determine whether participants passively exposed to a televised ultra-brief video perform CPR better than unexposed controls. This before-and-after study was conducted with non-patients in an urban Emergency Department waiting room. The intervention was an ultra-brief CPR training video displayed via closed-circuit television 3-6 times/hour. Participants were unaware of the study and not told to watch the video. Pre-intervention, no video was displayed. Participants were asked to demonstrate compression-only CPR on a manikin. Performance was scored based on critical actions: check for responsiveness, call for help, begin compressions immediately, and correct hand placement, compression rate and depth. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who performed all actions correctly. There were 50 control and 50 exposed participants. Mean age was 37, 51% were African-American, 52% were female, and 10% self-reported current CPR certification. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups. The number of participants who performed all actions correctly was 0 (0%) control vs. 10 (20%) exposed (difference 20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.9-31.1%, ptraining is associated with improved performance of compression-only CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sreenivasa Murthy


    Full Text Available With the spurt in the amount of data (Image, video, audio, speech, & text available on the net, there is a huge demand for memory & bandwidth savings. One has to achieve this, by maintaining the quality & fidelity of the data acceptable to the end user. Wavelet transform is an important and practical tool for data compression. Set partitioning in hierarchal trees (SPIHT is a widely used compression algorithm for wavelet transformed images. Among all wavelet transform and zero-tree quantization based image compression algorithms SPIHT has become the benchmark state-of-the-art algorithm because it is simple to implement & yields good results. In this paper we present a comparative study of various wavelet families for image compression with SPIHT algorithm. We have conducted experiments with Daubechies, Coiflet, Symlet, Bi-orthogonal, Reverse Bi-orthogonal and Demeyer wavelet types. The resulting image quality is measured objectively, using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, and subjectively, using perceived image quality (human visual perception, HVP for short. The resulting reduction in the image size is quantified by compression ratio (CR.

  17. Visual content highlighting via automatic extraction of embedded captions on MPEG compressed video (United States)

    Yeo, Boon-Lock; Liu, Bede


    Embedded captions in TV programs such as news broadcasts, documentaries and coverage of sports events provide important information on the underlying events. In digital video libraries, such captions represent a highly condensed form of key information on the contents of the video. In this paper we propose a scheme to automatically detect the presence of captions embedded in video frames. The proposed method operates on reduced image sequences which are efficiently reconstructed from compressed MPEG video and thus does not require full frame decompression. The detection, extraction and analysis of embedded captions help to capture the highlights of visual contents in video documents for better organization of video, to present succinctly the important messages embedded in the images, and to facilitate browsing, searching and retrieval of relevant clips.

  18. Novel Intermode Prediction Algorithm for High Efficiency Video Coding Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-seob Park


    Full Text Available The joint collaborative team on video coding (JCT-VC is developing the next-generation video coding standard which is called high efficiency video coding (HEVC. In the HEVC, there are three units in block structure: coding unit (CU, prediction unit (PU, and transform unit (TU. The CU is the basic unit of region splitting like macroblock (MB. Each CU performs recursive splitting into four blocks with equal size, starting from the tree block. In this paper, we propose a fast CU depth decision algorithm for HEVC technology to reduce its computational complexity. In 2N×2N PU, the proposed method compares the rate-distortion (RD cost and determines the depth using the compared information. Moreover, in order to speed up the encoding time, the efficient merge SKIP detection method is developed additionally based on the contextual mode information of neighboring CUs. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm achieves the average time-saving factor of 44.84% in the random access (RA at Main profile configuration with the HEVC test model (HM 10.0 reference software. Compared to HM 10.0 encoder, a small BD-bitrate loss of 0.17% is also observed without significant loss of image quality.

  19. Spatial correlation genetic algorithm for fractal image compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.-S.; Teng, W.-C.; Jeng, J.-H.; Hsieh, J.-G.


    Fractal image compression explores the self-similarity property of a natural image and utilizes the partitioned iterated function system (PIFS) to encode it. This technique is of great interest both in theory and application. However, it is time-consuming in the encoding process and such drawback renders it impractical for real time applications. The time is mainly spent on the search for the best-match block in a large domain pool. In this paper, a spatial correlation genetic algorithm (SC-GA) is proposed to speed up the encoder. There are two stages for the SC-GA method. The first stage makes use of spatial correlations in images for both the domain pool and the range pool to exploit local optima. The second stage is operated on the whole image to explore more adequate similarities if the local optima are not satisfied. With the aid of spatial correlation in images, the encoding time is 1.5 times faster than that of traditional genetic algorithm method, while the quality of the retrieved image is almost the same. Moreover, about half of the matched blocks come from the correlated space, so fewer bits are required to represent the fractal transform and therefore the compression ratio is also improved

  20. Wavelet compression of multichannel ECG data by enhanced set partitioning in hierarchical trees algorithm. (United States)

    Sharifahmadian, Ershad


    The set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm is very effective and computationally simple technique for image and signal compression. Here the author modified the algorithm which provides even better performance than the SPIHT algorithm. The enhanced set partitioning in hierarchical trees (ESPIHT) algorithm has performance faster than the SPIHT algorithm. In addition, the proposed algorithm reduces the number of bits in a bit stream which is stored or transmitted. I applied it to compression of multichannel ECG data. Also, I presented a specific procedure based on the modified algorithm for more efficient compression of multichannel ECG data. This method employed on selected records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. According to experiments, the proposed method attained the significant results regarding compression of multichannel ECG data. Furthermore, in order to compress one signal which is stored for a long time, the proposed multichannel compression method can be utilized efficiently.

  1. Focal-plane change triggered video compression for low-power vision sensor systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu M Chi

    Full Text Available Video sensors with embedded compression offer significant energy savings in transmission but incur energy losses in the complexity of the encoder. Energy efficient video compression architectures for CMOS image sensors with focal-plane change detection are presented and analyzed. The compression architectures use pixel-level computational circuits to minimize energy usage by selectively processing only pixels which generate significant temporal intensity changes. Using the temporal intensity change detection to gate the operation of a differential DCT based encoder achieves nearly identical image quality to traditional systems (4dB decrease in PSNR while reducing the amount of data that is processed by 67% and reducing overall power consumption reduction of 51%. These typical energy savings, resulting from the sparsity of motion activity in the visual scene, demonstrate the utility of focal-plane change triggered compression to surveillance vision systems.

  2. Brief compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation training video and simulation with homemade mannequin improves CPR skills


    Wanner, Gregory K.; Osborne, Arayel; Greene, Charlotte H.


    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has traditionally involved classroom-based courses or, more recently, home-based video self-instruction. These methods typically require preparation and purchase fee; which can dissuade many potential bystanders from receiving training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching compression-only CPR to previously untrained individuals using our 6-min online CPR training video and skills practice on a homemade mannequin, r...

  3. Hybrid compression of video with graphics in DTV communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaar, van der M.; With, de P.H.N.


    Advanced broadcast manipulation of TV sequences and enhanced user interfaces for TV systems have resulted in an increased amount of pre- and post-editing of video sequences, where graphical information is inserted. However, in the current broadcasting chain, there are no provisions for enabling an

  4. Video game for learning and metaphorization of recursive algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Inacio Alvares Silva


    Full Text Available The learning of recursive algorithms in computer programming is problematic, because its execution and resolution is not natural to the thinking way people are trained and used to since young. As with other topics in algorithms, we use metaphors to make parallels between the abstract and the concrete to help in understanding the operation of recursive algorithms. However, the classic metaphors employed in this area, such as calculating factorial recursively and Towers of Hanoi game, may just confuse more or be insufficient. In this work, we produced a computer game to assist students in computer courses in learning recursive algorithms. It was designed to have regular video game characteristics, with narrative and classical gameplay elements, commonly found in this kind of product. Aiding to education occurs through metaphorization, or in other words, through experiences provided by game situations that refer to recursive algorithms. To this end, we designed and imbued in the game four valid metaphors related to the theory, and other minor references to the subject.

  5. Coronary angiogram video compression for remote browsing and archiving applications. (United States)

    Ouled Zaid, Azza; Fradj, Bilel Ben


    In this paper, we propose a H.264/AVC based compression technique adapted to coronary angiograms. H.264/AVC coder has proven to use the most advanced and accurate motion compensation process, but, at the cost of high computational complexity. On the other hand, analysis of coronary X-ray images reveals large areas containing no diagnostically important information. Our contribution is to exploit the energy characteristics in slice equal size regions to determine the regions with relevant information content, to be encoded using the H.264 coding paradigm. The others regions, are compressed using fixed block motion compensation and conventional hard-decision quantization. Experiments have shown that at the same bitrate, this procedure reduces the H.264 coder computing time of about 25% while attaining the same visual quality. A subjective assessment, based on the consensus approach leads to a compression ratio of 30:1 which insures both a diagnostic adequacy and a sufficient compression in regards to storage and transmission requirements. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Novel 2D Image Compression Algorithm Based on Two Levels DWT and DCT Transforms with Enhanced Minimize-Matrix-Size Algorithm for High Resolution Structured Light 3D Surface Reconstruction (United States)

    Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.


    Image compression techniques are widely used on 2D image 2D video 3D images and 3D video. There are many types of compression techniques and among the most popular are JPEG and JPEG2000. In this research, we introduce a new compression method based on applying a two level discrete cosine transform (DCT) and a two level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in connection with novel compression steps for high-resolution images. The proposed image compression algorithm consists of four steps. (1) Transform an image by a two level DWT followed by a DCT to produce two matrices: DC- and AC-Matrix, or low and high frequency matrix, respectively, (2) apply a second level DCT on the DC-Matrix to generate two arrays, namely nonzero-array and zero-array, (3) apply the Minimize-Matrix-Size algorithm to the AC-Matrix and to the other high-frequencies generated by the second level DWT, (4) apply arithmetic coding to the output of previous steps. A novel decompression algorithm, Fast-Match-Search algorithm (FMS), is used to reconstruct all high-frequency matrices. The FMS-algorithm computes all compressed data probabilities by using a table of data, and then using a binary search algorithm for finding decompressed data inside the table. Thereafter, all decoded DC-values with the decoded AC-coefficients are combined in one matrix followed by inverse two levels DCT with two levels DWT. The technique is tested by compression and reconstruction of 3D surface patches. Additionally, this technique is compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 algorithm through 2D and 3D root-mean-square-error following reconstruction. The results demonstrate that the proposed compression method has better visual properties than JPEG and JPEG2000 and is able to more accurately reconstruct surface patches in 3D.

  7. Brief compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation training video and simulation with homemade mannequin improves CPR skills. (United States)

    Wanner, Gregory K; Osborne, Arayel; Greene, Charlotte H


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has traditionally involved classroom-based courses or, more recently, home-based video self-instruction. These methods typically require preparation and purchase fee; which can dissuade many potential bystanders from receiving training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching compression-only CPR to previously untrained individuals using our 6-min online CPR training video and skills practice on a homemade mannequin, reproduced by viewers with commonly available items (towel, toilet paper roll, t-shirt). Participants viewed the training video and practiced with the homemade mannequin. This was a parallel-design study with pre and post training evaluations of CPR skills (compression rate, depth, hand position, release), and hands-off time (time without compressions). CPR skills were evaluated using a sensor-equipped mannequin and two blinded CPR experts observed testing of participants. Twenty-four participants were included: 12 never-trained and 12 currently certified in CPR. Comparing pre and post training, the never-trained group had improvements in average compression rate per minute (64.3 to 103.9, p = 0.006), compressions with correct hand position in 1 min (8.3 to 54.3, p = 0.002), and correct compression release in 1 min (21.2 to 76.3, p 100/min), but an improved number of compressions with correct release (53.5 to 94.7, p 50 mm) remained problematic in both groups. Comparisons made between groups indicated significant improvements in compression depth, hand position, and hands-off time in never-trained compared to CPR-certified participants. Inter-rater agreement values were also calculated between the CPR experts and sensor-equipped mannequin. A brief internet-based video coupled with skill practice on a homemade mannequin improved compression-only CPR skills, especially in the previously untrained participants. This training method allows for widespread compression-only CPR

  8. The MUSIC algorithm for sparse objects: a compressed sensing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert C


    The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, and its extension for imaging sparse extended objects, with noisy data is analyzed by compressed sensing (CS) techniques. A thresholding rule is developed to augment the standard MUSIC algorithm. The notion of restricted isometry property (RIP) and an upper bound on the restricted isometry constant (RIC) are employed to establish sufficient conditions for the exact localization by MUSIC with or without noise. In the noiseless case, the sufficient condition gives an upper bound on the numbers of random sampling and incident directions necessary for exact localization. In the noisy case, the sufficient condition assumes additionally an upper bound for the noise-to-object ratio in terms of the RIC and the dynamic range of objects. This bound points to the super-resolution capability of the MUSIC algorithm. Rigorous comparison of performance between MUSIC and the CS minimization principle, basis pursuit denoising (BPDN), is given. In general, the MUSIC algorithm guarantees to recover, with high probability, s scatterers with n=O(s 2 ) random sampling and incident directions and sufficiently high frequency. For the favorable imaging geometry where the scatterers are distributed on a transverse plane MUSIC guarantees to recover, with high probability, s scatterers with a median frequency and n=O(s) random sampling/incident directions. Moreover, for the problems of spectral estimation and source localizations both BPDN and MUSIC guarantee, with high probability, to identify exactly the frequencies of random signals with the number n=O(s) of sampling times. However, in the absence of abundant realizations of signals, BPDN is the preferred method for spectral estimation. Indeed, BPDN can identify the frequencies approximately with just one realization of signals with the recovery error at worst linearly proportional to the noise level. Numerical results confirm that BPDN outperforms MUSIC in the well-resolved case while

  9. Using game theory for perceptual tuned rate control algorithm in video coding (United States)

    Luo, Jiancong; Ahmad, Ishfaq


    This paper proposes a game theoretical rate control technique for video compression. Using a cooperative gaming approach, which has been utilized in several branches of natural and social sciences because of its enormous potential for solving constrained optimization problems, we propose a dual-level scheme to optimize the perceptual quality while guaranteeing "fairness" in bit allocation among macroblocks. At the frame level, the algorithm allocates target bits to frames based on their coding complexity. At the macroblock level, the algorithm distributes bits to macroblocks by defining a bargaining game. Macroblocks play cooperatively to compete for shares of resources (bits) to optimize their quantization scales while considering the Human Visual System"s perceptual property. Since the whole frame is an entity perceived by viewers, macroblocks compete cooperatively under a global objective of achieving the best quality with the given bit constraint. The major advantage of the proposed approach is that the cooperative game leads to an optimal and fair bit allocation strategy based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Another advantage is that it allows multi-objective optimization with multiple decision makers (macroblocks). The simulation results testify the algorithm"s ability to achieve accurate bit rate with good perceptual quality, and to maintain a stable buffer level.

  10. Extreme compression for extreme conditions: pilot study to identify optimal compression of CT images using MPEG-4 video compression. (United States)

    Peterson, P Gabriel; Pak, Sung K; Nguyen, Binh; Jacobs, Genevieve; Folio, Les


    This study aims to evaluate the utility of compressed computed tomography (CT) studies (to expedite transmission) using Motion Pictures Experts Group, Layer 4 (MPEG-4) movie formatting in combat hospitals when guiding major treatment regimens. This retrospective analysis was approved by Walter Reed Army Medical Center institutional review board with a waiver for the informed consent requirement. Twenty-five CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis exams were converted from Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine to MPEG-4 movie format at various compression ratios. Three board-certified radiologists reviewed various levels of compression on emergent CT findings on 25 combat casualties and compared with the interpretation of the original series. A Universal Trauma Window was selected at -200 HU level and 1,500 HU width, then compressed at three lossy levels. Sensitivities and specificities for each reviewer were calculated along with 95 % confidence intervals using the method of general estimating equations. The compression ratios compared were 171:1, 86:1, and 41:1 with combined sensitivities of 90 % (95 % confidence interval, 79-95), 94 % (87-97), and 100 % (93-100), respectively. Combined specificities were 100 % (85-100), 100 % (85-100), and 96 % (78-99), respectively. The introduction of CT in combat hospitals with increasing detectors and image data in recent military operations has increased the need for effective teleradiology; mandating compression technology. Image compression is currently used to transmit images from combat hospital to tertiary care centers with subspecialists and our study demonstrates MPEG-4 technology as a reasonable means of achieving such compression.

  11. An Unequal Secure Encryption Scheme for H.264/AVC Video Compression Standard (United States)

    Fan, Yibo; Wang, Jidong; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Tsunoo, Yukiyasu; Goto, Satoshi

    H.264/AVC is the newest video coding standard. There are many new features in it which can be easily used for video encryption. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to do video encryption for H.264/AVC video compression standard. We define Unequal Secure Encryption (USE) as an approach that applies different encryption schemes (with different security strength) to different parts of compressed video data. This USE scheme includes two parts: video data classification and unequal secure video data encryption. Firstly, we classify the video data into two partitions: Important data partition and unimportant data partition. Important data partition has small size with high secure protection, while unimportant data partition has large size with low secure protection. Secondly, we use AES as a block cipher to encrypt the important data partition and use LEX as a stream cipher to encrypt the unimportant data partition. AES is the most widely used symmetric cryptography which can ensure high security. LEX is a new stream cipher which is based on AES and its computational cost is much lower than AES. In this way, our scheme can achieve both high security and low computational cost. Besides the USE scheme, we propose a low cost design of hybrid AES/LEX encryption module. Our experimental results show that the computational cost of the USE scheme is low (about 25% of naive encryption at Level 0 with VEA used). The hardware cost for hybrid AES/LEX module is 4678 Gates and the AES encryption throughput is about 50Mbps.

  12. High-Performance Motion Estimation for Image Sensors with Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhi Xu


    Full Text Available It is important to reduce the time cost of video compression for image sensors in video sensor network. Motion estimation (ME is the most time-consuming part in video compression. Previous work on ME exploited intra-frame data reuse in a reference frame to improve the time efficiency but neglected inter-frame data reuse. We propose a novel inter-frame data reuse scheme which can exploit both intra-frame and inter-frame data reuse for ME in video compression (VC-ME. Pixels of reconstructed frames are kept on-chip until they are used by the next current frame to avoid off-chip memory access. On-chip buffers with smart schedules of data access are designed to perform the new data reuse scheme. Three levels of the proposed inter-frame data reuse scheme are presented and analyzed. They give different choices with tradeoff between off-chip bandwidth requirement and on-chip memory size. All three levels have better data reuse efficiency than their intra-frame counterparts, so off-chip memory traffic is reduced effectively. Comparing the new inter-frame data reuse scheme with the traditional intra-frame data reuse scheme, the memory traffic can be reduced by 50% for VC-ME.

  13. Image-Data Compression Using Edge-Optimizing Algorithm for WFA Inference. (United States)

    Culik, Karel II; Kari, Jarkko


    Presents an inference algorithm that produces a weighted finite automata (WFA), in particular, the grayness functions of graytone images. Image-data compression results based on the new inference algorithm produces a WFA with a relatively small number of edges. Image-data compression results alone and in combination with wavelets are discussed.…

  14. A Novel Range Compression Algorithm for Resolution Enhancement in GNSS-SARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zheng


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel range compression algorithm for enhancing range resolutions of a passive Global Navigation Satellite System-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GNSS-SAR is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, within each azimuth bin, firstly range compression is carried out by correlating a reflected GNSS intermediate frequency (IF signal with a synchronized direct GNSS base-band signal in the range domain. Thereafter, spectrum equalization is applied to the compressed results for suppressing side lobes to obtain a final range-compressed signal. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results have demonstrated that significant range resolution improvement in GNSS-SAR images can be achieved by the proposed range compression algorithm, compared to the conventional range compression algorithm.

  15. A Near-Lossless Image Compression Algorithm Suitable for Hardware Design in Wireless Endoscopy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xiang


    Full Text Available In order to decrease the communication bandwidth and save the transmitting power in the wireless endoscopy capsule, this paper presents a new near-lossless image compression algorithm based on the Bayer format image suitable for hardware design. This algorithm can provide low average compression rate ( bits/pixel with high image quality (larger than dB for endoscopic images. Especially, it has low complexity hardware overhead (only two line buffers and supports real-time compressing. In addition, the algorithm can provide lossless compression for the region of interest (ROI and high-quality compression for other regions. The ROI can be selected arbitrarily by varying ROI parameters. In addition, the VLSI architecture of this compression algorithm is also given out. Its hardware design has been implemented in m CMOS process.

  16. A real-time ECG data compression and transmission algorithm for an e-health device. (United States)

    Lee, SangJoon; Kim, Jungkuk; Lee, Myoungho


    This paper introduces a real-time data compression and transmission algorithm between e-health terminals for a periodic ECGsignal. The proposed algorithm consists of five compression procedures and four reconstruction procedures. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the algorithm was applied to all 48 recordings of MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, and the compress ratio (CR), percent root mean square difference (PRD), percent root mean square difference normalized (PRDN), rms, SNR, and quality score (QS) values were obtained. The result showed that the CR was 27.9:1 and the PRD was 2.93 on average for all 48 data instances with a 15% window size. In addition, the performance of the algorithm was compared to those of similar algorithms introduced recently by others. It was found that the proposed algorithm showed clearly superior performance in all 48 data instances at a compression ratio lower than 15:1, whereas it showed similar or slightly inferior PRD performance for a data compression ratio higher than 20:1. In light of the fact that the similarity with the original data becomes meaningless when the PRD is higher than 2, the proposed algorithm shows significantly better performance compared to the performance levels of other algorithms. Moreover, because the algorithm can compress and transmit data in real time, it can be served as an optimal biosignal data transmission method for limited bandwidth communication between e-health devices.

  17. Verification-Based Interval-Passing Algorithm for Compressed Sensing


    Wu, Xiaofu; Yang, Zhen


    We propose a verification-based Interval-Passing (IP) algorithm for iteratively reconstruction of nonnegative sparse signals using parity check matrices of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes as measurement matrices. The proposed algorithm can be considered as an improved IP algorithm by further incorporation of the mechanism of verification algorithm. It is proved that the proposed algorithm performs always better than either the IP algorithm or the verification algorithm. Simulation resul...

  18. Research on compressive sensing reconstruction algorithm based on total variation model (United States)

    Gao, Yu-xuan; Sun, Huayan; Zhang, Tinghua; Du, Lin


    Compressed sensing for breakthrough Nyquist sampling theorem provides a strong theoretical , making compressive sampling for image signals be carried out simultaneously. In traditional imaging procedures using compressed sensing theory, not only can it reduces the storage space, but also can reduce the demand for detector resolution greatly. Using the sparsity of image signal, by solving the mathematical model of inverse reconfiguration, realize the super-resolution imaging. Reconstruction algorithm is the most critical part of compression perception, to a large extent determine the accuracy of the reconstruction of the image.The reconstruction algorithm based on the total variation (TV) model is more suitable for the compression reconstruction of the two-dimensional image, and the better edge information can be obtained. In order to verify the performance of the algorithm, Simulation Analysis the reconstruction result in different coding mode of the reconstruction algorithm based on the TV reconstruction algorithm. The reconstruction effect of the reconfigurable algorithm based on TV based on the different coding methods is analyzed to verify the stability of the algorithm. This paper compares and analyzes the typical reconstruction algorithm in the same coding mode. On the basis of the minimum total variation algorithm, the Augmented Lagrangian function term is added and the optimal value is solved by the alternating direction method.Experimental results show that the reconstruction algorithm is compared with the traditional classical algorithm based on TV has great advantages, under the low measurement rate can be quickly and accurately recovers target image.

  19. A new DWT/MC/DPCM video compression framework based on EBCOT (United States)

    Mei, L. M.; Wu, H. R.; Tan, D. M.


    A novel Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)/Motion Compensation (MC)/Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) video compression framework is proposed in this paper. Although the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)/MC/DPCM is the mainstream framework for video coders in industry and international standards, the idea of DWT/MC/DPCM has existed for more than one decade in the literature and the investigation is still undergoing. The contribution of this work is twofold. Firstly, the Embedded Block Coding with Optimal Truncation (EBCOT) is used here as the compression engine for both intra- and inter-frame coding, which provides good compression ratio and embedded rate-distortion (R-D) optimization mechanism. This is an extension of the EBCOT application from still images to videos. Secondly, this framework offers a good interface for the Perceptual Distortion Measure (PDM) based on the Human Visual System (HVS) where the Mean Squared Error (MSE) can be easily replaced with the PDM in the R-D optimization. Some of the preliminary results are reported here. They are also compared with benchmarks such as MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 version 2. The results demonstrate that under specified condition the proposed coder outperforms the benchmarks in terms of rate vs. distortion.

  20. A joint image encryption and watermarking algorithm based on compressive sensing and chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Cai Hong-Kun; Zheng Hong-Ying


    In this paper, a compressive sensing (CS) and chaotic map-based joint image encryption and watermarking algorithm is proposed. The transform domain coefficients of the original image are scrambled by Arnold map firstly. Then the watermark is adhered to the scrambled data. By compressive sensing, a set of watermarked measurements is obtained as the watermarked cipher image. In this algorithm, watermark embedding and data compression can be performed without knowing the original image; similarly, watermark extraction will not interfere with decryption. Due to the characteristics of CS, this algorithm features compressible cipher image size, flexible watermark capacity, and lossless watermark extraction from the compressed cipher image as well as robustness against packet loss. Simulation results and analyses show that the algorithm achieves good performance in the sense of security, watermark capacity, extraction accuracy, reconstruction, robustness, etc. (paper)

  1. The compression algorithm for the data acquisition system in HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lin; Luo Jiarong; Li Guiming; Yue Dongli


    HT-7 superconducting tokamak in the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an experimental device for fusion research in China. The main task of the data acquisition system of HT-7 is to acquire, store, analyze and index the data. The volume of the data is nearly up to hundreds of million bytes. Besides the hardware and software support, a great capacity of data storage, process and transfer is a more important problem. To deal with this problem, the key technology is data compression algorithm. In the paper, the data format in HT-7 is introduced first, then the data compression algorithm, LZO, being a kind of portable lossless data compression algorithm with ANSIC, is analyzed. This compression algorithm, which fits well with the data acquisition and distribution in the nuclear fusion experiment, offers a pretty fast compression and extremely fast decompression. At last the performance evaluation of LZO application in HT-7 is given

  2. The effects of scene characteristics, resolution, and compression on the ability to recognize objects in video (United States)

    Dumke, Joel; Ford, Carolyn G.; Stange, Irena W.


    Public safety practitioners increasingly use video for object recognition tasks. These end users need guidance regarding how to identify the level of video quality necessary for their application. The quality of video used in public safety applications must be evaluated in terms of its usability for specific tasks performed by the end user. The Public Safety Communication Research (PSCR) project performed a subjective test as one of the first in a series to explore visual intelligibility in video-a user's ability to recognize an object in a video stream given various conditions. The test sought to measure the effects on visual intelligibility of three scene parameters (target size, scene motion, scene lighting), several compression rates, and two resolutions (VGA (640x480) and CIF (352x288)). Seven similarly sized objects were used as targets in nine sets of near-identical source scenes, where each set was created using a different combination of the parameters under study. Viewers were asked to identify the objects via multiple choice questions. Objective measurements were performed on each of the scenes, and the ability of the measurement to predict visual intelligibility was studied.

  3. Empirical and Statistical Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Four Lossless Data Compression Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Azeez


    Full Text Available Data compression is the process of reducing the size of a file to effectively reduce storage space and communication cost. The evolvement in technology and digital age has led to an unparalleled usage of digital files in this current decade. The usage of data has resulted to an increase in the amount of data being transmitted via various channels of data communication which has prompted the need to look into the current lossless data compression algorithms to check for their level of effectiveness so as to maximally reduce the bandwidth requirement in communication and transfer of data. Four lossless data compression algorithm: Lempel-Ziv Welch algorithm, Shannon-Fano algorithm, Adaptive Huffman algorithm and Run-Length encoding have been selected for implementation. The choice of these algorithms was based on their similarities, particularly in application areas. Their level of efficiency and effectiveness were evaluated using some set of predefined performance evaluation metrics namely compression ratio, compression factor, compression time, saving percentage, entropy and code efficiency. The algorithms implementation was done in the NetBeans Integrated Development Environment using Java as the programming language. Through the statistical analysis performed using Boxplot and ANOVA and comparison made on the four algo

  4. An efficient algorithm for MR image reconstruction and compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hang; Rosenfeld, D.; Braun, M.; Yan, Hong


    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the original data are sampled in the spatial frequency domain. The sampled data thus constitute a set of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients. The image is usually reconstructed by taking inverse DFT. The image data may then be efficiently compressed using the discrete cosine transform (DCT). A method of using DCT to treat the sampled data is presented which combines two procedures, image reconstruction and data compression. This method may be particularly useful in medical picture archiving and communication systems where both image reconstruction and compression are important issues. 11 refs., 3 figs

  5. Video error concealment using block matching and frequency selective extrapolation algorithms (United States)

    P. K., Rajani; Khaparde, Arti


    Error Concealment (EC) is a technique at the decoder side to hide the transmission errors. It is done by analyzing the spatial or temporal information from available video frames. It is very important to recover distorted video because they are used for various applications such as video-telephone, video-conference, TV, DVD, internet video streaming, video games etc .Retransmission-based and resilient-based methods, are also used for error removal. But these methods add delay and redundant data. So error concealment is the best option for error hiding. In this paper, the error concealment methods such as Block Matching error concealment algorithm is compared with Frequency Selective Extrapolation algorithm. Both the works are based on concealment of manually error video frames as input. The parameter used for objective quality measurement was PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) and SSIM(Structural Similarity Index). The original video frames along with error video frames are compared with both the Error concealment algorithms. According to simulation results, Frequency Selective Extrapolation is showing better quality measures such as 48% improved PSNR and 94% increased SSIM than Block Matching Algorithm.

  6. Statistical motion vector analysis for object tracking in compressed video streams (United States)

    Leny, Marc; Prêteux, Françoise; Nicholson, Didier


    Compressed video is the digital raw material provided by video-surveillance systems and used for archiving and indexing purposes. Multimedia standards have therefore a direct impact on such systems. If MPEG-2 used to be the coding standard, MPEG-4 (part 2) has now replaced it in most installations, and MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 solutions are now being released. Finely analysing the complex and rich MPEG-4 streams is a challenging issue addressed in that paper. The system we designed is based on five modules: low-resolution decoder, motion estimation generator, object motion filtering, low-resolution object segmentation, and cooperative decision. Our contributions refer to as the statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the motion vectors, the computation of DCT-based confidence maps, the automatic motion activity detection in the compressed file and a rough indexation by dedicated descriptors. The robustness and accuracy of the system are evaluated on a large corpus (hundreds of hours of in-and outdoor videos with pedestrians and vehicles). The objective benchmarking of the performances is achieved with respect to five metrics allowing to estimate the error part due to each module and for different implementations. This evaluation establishes that our system analyses up to 200 frames (720x288) per second (2.66 GHz CPU).

  7. FPGA Implementation of Gaussian Mixture Model Algorithm for 47 fps Segmentation of 1080p Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Genovese


    Full Text Available Circuits and systems able to process high quality video in real time are fundamental in nowadays imaging systems. The circuit proposed in the paper, aimed at the robust identification of the background in video streams, implements the improved formulation of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM algorithm that is included in the OpenCV library. An innovative, hardware oriented, formulation of the GMM equations, the use of truncated binary multipliers, and ROM compression techniques allow reduced hardware complexity and increased processing capability. The proposed circuit has been designed having commercial FPGA devices as target and provides speed and logic resources occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The circuit, when implemented on Virtex6 or StratixIV, processes more than 45 frame per second in 1080p format and uses few percent of FPGA logic resources.

  8. Image compression-encryption algorithms by combining hyper-chaotic system with discrete fractional random transform (United States)

    Gong, Lihua; Deng, Chengzhi; Pan, Shumin; Zhou, Nanrun


    Based on hyper-chaotic system and discrete fractional random transform, an image compression-encryption algorithm is designed. The original image is first transformed into a spectrum by the discrete cosine transform and the resulting spectrum is compressed according to the method of spectrum cutting. The random matrix of the discrete fractional random transform is controlled by a chaotic sequence originated from the high dimensional hyper-chaotic system. Then the compressed spectrum is encrypted by the discrete fractional random transform. The order of DFrRT and the parameters of the hyper-chaotic system are the main keys of this image compression and encryption algorithm. The proposed algorithm can compress and encrypt image signal, especially can encrypt multiple images once. To achieve the compression of multiple images, the images are transformed into spectra by the discrete cosine transform, and then the spectra are incised and spliced into a composite spectrum by Zigzag scanning. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed image compression and encryption algorithm is of high security and good compression performance.

  9. Methods and Algorithms for Detecting Objects in Video Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen The Cuong


    Full Text Available Video files are files that store motion pictures and sounds like in real life. In today's world, the need for automated processing of information in video files is increasing. Automated processing of information has a wide range of application including office/home surveillance cameras, traffic control, sports applications, remote object detection, and others. In particular, detection and tracking of object movement in video file plays an important role. This article describes the methods of detecting objects in video files. Today, this problem in the field of computer vision is being studied worldwide.

  10. Wavelet compression algorithm applied to abdominal ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cheng-Hsun; Pan, Su-Feng; LU, Chin-Yuan; Lee, Ming-Che


    We sought to investigate acceptable compression ratios of lossy wavelet compression on 640 x 480 x 8 abdominal ultrasound (US) images. We acquired 100 abdominal US images with normal and abnormal findings from the view station of a 932-bed teaching hospital. The US images were then compressed at quality factors (QFs) of 3, 10, 30, and 50 followed outcomes of a pilot study. This was equal to the average compression ratios of 4.3:1, 8.5:1, 20:1 and 36.6:1, respectively. Four objective measurements were carried out to examine and compare the image degradation between original and compressed images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also introduced for subjective assessment. Five experienced and qualified radiologists as reviewers blinded to corresponding pathological findings, analysed paired 400 randomly ordered images with two 17-inch thin film transistor/liquid crystal display (TFT/LCD) monitors. At ROC analysis, the average area under curve (Az) for US abdominal image was 0.874 at the ratio of 36.6:1. The compressed image size was only 2.7% for US original at this ratio. The objective parameters showed the higher the mean squared error (MSE) or root mean squared error (RMSE) values, the poorer the image quality. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) values indicated better image quality. The average RMSE, PSNR at 36.6:1 for US were 4.84 ± 0.14, 35.45 dB, respectively. This finding suggests that, on the basis of the patient sample, wavelet compression of abdominal US to a ratio of 36.6:1 did not adversely affect diagnostic performance or evaluation error for radiologists' interpretation so as to risk affecting diagnosis

  11. A New Algorithm for the On-Board Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Guerra


    Full Text Available Hyperspectral sensors are able to provide information that is useful for many different applications. However, the huge amounts of data collected by these sensors are not exempt of drawbacks, especially in remote sensing environments where the hyperspectral images are collected on-board satellites and need to be transferred to the earth’s surface. In this situation, an efficient compression of the hyperspectral images is mandatory in order to save bandwidth and storage space. Lossless compression algorithms have been traditionally preferred, in order to preserve all the information present in the hyperspectral cube for scientific purposes, despite their limited compression ratio. Nevertheless, the increment in the data-rate of the new-generation sensors is making more critical the necessity of obtaining higher compression ratios, making it necessary to use lossy compression techniques. A new transform-based lossy compression algorithm, namely Lossy Compression Algorithm for Hyperspectral Image Systems (HyperLCA, is proposed in this manuscript. This compressor has been developed for achieving high compression ratios with a good compression performance at a reasonable computational burden. An extensive amount of experiments have been performed in order to evaluate the goodness of the proposed HyperLCA compressor using different calibrated and uncalibrated hyperspectral images from the AVIRIS and Hyperion sensors. The results provided by the proposed HyperLCA compressor have been evaluated and compared against those produced by the most relevant state-of-the-art compression solutions. The theoretical and experimental evidence indicates that the proposed algorithm represents an excellent option for lossy compressing hyperspectral images, especially for applications where the available computational resources are limited, such as on-board scenarios.

  12. Endotracheal Intubation Using the Macintosh Laryngoscope or KingVision Video Laryngoscope during Uninterrupted Chest Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszynska


    Full Text Available Objective. Advanced airway management, endotracheal intubation (ETI, during CPR is more difficult than, for example, during anesthesia. However, new devices such as video laryngoscopes should help in such circumstances. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the KingVision video laryngoscopes in a manikin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR scenario. Methods. Thirty students enrolled in the third year of paramedic school took part in the study. The simulated CPR scenario was ETI using the standard laryngoscope with a Macintosh blade (MCL and ETI using the KingVision video laryngoscope performed during uninterrupted chest compressions. The primary endpoints were the time needed for ETI and the success ratio. Results. The mean time required for intubation was similar for both laryngoscopes: 16.6 (SD 5.11, median 15.64, range 7.9–27.9 seconds versus 17.91 (SD 5.6, median 16.28, range 10.6–28.6 seconds for the MCL and KingVision, respectively (P=0.1888. On the first attempt at ETI, the success rate during CPR was comparable between the evaluated laryngoscopes: P=0.9032. Conclusion. The KingVision video laryngoscope proves to be less superior when used for endotracheal intubation during CPR compared to the standard laryngoscope with a Mackintosh blade. This proves true in terms of shortening the time needed for ETI and increasing the success ratio.

  13. Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on OpenCV Gaussian mixture model algorithm (United States)

    Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore


    The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.

  14. A Secure and Robust Compressed Domain Video Steganography for Intra- and Inter-Frames Using Embedding-Based Byte Differencing (EBBD) Scheme. (United States)

    Idbeaa, Tarik; Abdul Samad, Salina; Husain, Hafizah


    This paper presents a novel secure and robust steganographic technique in the compressed video domain namely embedding-based byte differencing (EBBD). Unlike most of the current video steganographic techniques which take into account only the intra frames for data embedding, the proposed EBBD technique aims to hide information in both intra and inter frames. The information is embedded into a compressed video by simultaneously manipulating the quantized AC coefficients (AC-QTCs) of luminance components of the frames during MPEG-2 encoding process. Later, during the decoding process, the embedded information can be detected and extracted completely. Furthermore, the EBBD basically deals with two security concepts: data encryption and data concealing. Hence, during the embedding process, secret data is encrypted using the simplified data encryption standard (S-DES) algorithm to provide better security to the implemented system. The security of the method lies in selecting candidate AC-QTCs within each non-overlapping 8 × 8 sub-block using a pseudo random key. Basic performance of this steganographic technique verified through experiments on various existing MPEG-2 encoded videos over a wide range of embedded payload rates. Overall, the experimental results verify the excellent performance of the proposed EBBD with a better trade-off in terms of imperceptibility and payload, as compared with previous techniques while at the same time ensuring minimal bitrate increase and negligible degradation of PSNR values.

  15. A Secure and Robust Compressed Domain Video Steganography for Intra- and Inter-Frames Using Embedding-Based Byte Differencing (EBBD Scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Idbeaa

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel secure and robust steganographic technique in the compressed video domain namely embedding-based byte differencing (EBBD. Unlike most of the current video steganographic techniques which take into account only the intra frames for data embedding, the proposed EBBD technique aims to hide information in both intra and inter frames. The information is embedded into a compressed video by simultaneously manipulating the quantized AC coefficients (AC-QTCs of luminance components of the frames during MPEG-2 encoding process. Later, during the decoding process, the embedded information can be detected and extracted completely. Furthermore, the EBBD basically deals with two security concepts: data encryption and data concealing. Hence, during the embedding process, secret data is encrypted using the simplified data encryption standard (S-DES algorithm to provide better security to the implemented system. The security of the method lies in selecting candidate AC-QTCs within each non-overlapping 8 × 8 sub-block using a pseudo random key. Basic performance of this steganographic technique verified through experiments on various existing MPEG-2 encoded videos over a wide range of embedded payload rates. Overall, the experimental results verify the excellent performance of the proposed EBBD with a better trade-off in terms of imperceptibility and payload, as compared with previous techniques while at the same time ensuring minimal bitrate increase and negligible degradation of PSNR values.

  16. Unified compression and encryption algorithm for fast and secure network communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, S.M.J.; Hussain, M.; Qaiser, N.


    Compression and encryption of data are two vital requirements for the fast and secure transmission of data in the network based communications. In this paper an algorithm is presented based on adaptive Huffman encoding for unified compression and encryption of Unicode encoded textual data. The Huffman encoding weakness that same tree is needed for decoding is utilized in the algorithm presented as an extra layer of security, which is updated whenever the frequency change is above the specified threshold level. The results show that we get compression comparable to popular zip format and in addition to that data has got an additional layer of encryption that makes it more secure. Thus unified algorithm presented here can be used for network communications between different branches of banks, e- Government programs and national database and registration centers where data transmission requires both compression and encryption. (author)

  17. Resource efficient data compression algorithms for demanding, WSN based biomedical applications. (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Christos P; Voros, Nikolaos S


    During the last few years, medical research areas of critical importance such as Epilepsy monitoring and study, increasingly utilize wireless sensor network technologies in order to achieve better understanding and significant breakthroughs. However, the limited memory and communication bandwidth offered by WSN platforms comprise a significant shortcoming to such demanding application scenarios. Although, data compression can mitigate such deficiencies there is a lack of objective and comprehensive evaluation of relative approaches and even more on specialized approaches targeting specific demanding applications. The research work presented in this paper focuses on implementing and offering an in-depth experimental study regarding prominent, already existing as well as novel proposed compression algorithms. All algorithms have been implemented in a common Matlab framework. A major contribution of this paper, that differentiates it from similar research efforts, is the employment of real world Electroencephalography (EEG) and Electrocardiography (ECG) datasets comprising the two most demanding Epilepsy modalities. Emphasis is put on WSN applications, thus the respective metrics focus on compression rate and execution latency for the selected datasets. The evaluation results reveal significant performance and behavioral characteristics of the algorithms related to their complexity and the relative negative effect on compression latency as opposed to the increased compression rate. It is noted that the proposed schemes managed to offer considerable advantage especially aiming to achieve the optimum tradeoff between compression rate-latency. Specifically, proposed algorithm managed to combine highly completive level of compression while ensuring minimum latency thus exhibiting real-time capabilities. Additionally, one of the proposed schemes is compared against state-of-the-art general-purpose compression algorithms also exhibiting considerable advantages as far as the

  18. The Physics of Compressive Sensing and the Gradient-Based Recovery Algorithms


    Dai, Qi; Sha, Wei


    The physics of compressive sensing (CS) and the gradient-based recovery algorithms are presented. First, the different forms for CS are summarized. Second, the physical meanings of coherence and measurement are given. Third, the gradient-based recovery algorithms and their geometry explanations are provided. Finally, we conclude the report and give some suggestion for future work.

  19. An Implementation Of Elias Delta Code And ElGamal Algorithm In Image Compression And Security (United States)

    Rachmawati, Dian; Andri Budiman, Mohammad; Saffiera, Cut Amalia


    In data transmission such as transferring an image, confidentiality, integrity, and efficiency of data storage aspects are highly needed. To maintain the confidentiality and integrity of data, one of the techniques used is ElGamal. The strength of this algorithm is found on the difficulty of calculating discrete logs in a large prime modulus. ElGamal belongs to the class of Asymmetric Key Algorithm and resulted in enlargement of the file size, therefore data compression is required. Elias Delta Code is one of the compression algorithms that use delta code table. The image was first compressed using Elias Delta Code Algorithm, then the result of the compression was encrypted by using ElGamal algorithm. Prime test was implemented using Agrawal Biswas Algorithm. The result showed that ElGamal method could maintain the confidentiality and integrity of data with MSE and PSNR values 0 and infinity. The Elias Delta Code method generated compression ratio and space-saving each with average values of 62.49%, and 37.51%.

  20. Fast algorithm for exploring and compressing of large hyperspectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey


    A new method for calculation of latent variable space for exploratory analysis and dimension reduction of large hyperspectral images is proposed. The method is based on significant downsampling of image pixels with preservation of pixels’ structure in feature (variable) space. To achieve this, in...... can be used first of all for fast compression of large data arrays with principal component analysis or similar projection techniques....

  1. [A wavelet neural network algorithm of EEG signals data compression and spikes recognition]. (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Liu, A; Yu, K


    A novel method of EEG signals compression representation and epileptiform spikes recognition based on wavelet neural network and its algorithm is presented. The wavelet network not only can compress data effectively but also can recover original signal. In addition, the characters of the spikes and the spike-slow rhythm are auto-detected from the time-frequency isoline of EEG signal. This method is well worth using in the field of the electrophysiological signal processing and time-frequency analyzing.

  2. High-speed video analysis improves the accuracy of spinal cord compression measurement in a mouse contusion model. (United States)

    Fournely, Marion; Petit, Yvan; Wagnac, Éric; Laurin, Jérôme; Callot, Virginie; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean


    Animal models of spinal cord injuries aim to utilize controlled and reproducible conditions. However, a literature review reveals that mouse contusion studies using equivalent protocols may show large disparities in the observed impact force vs. cord compression relationship. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate possible sources of bias in these measurements. The specific objective was to improve spinal cord compression measurements using a video-based setup to detect the impactor-spinal cord time-to-contact. A force-controlled 30kDyn unilateral contusion at C4 vertebral level was performed in six mice with the Infinite Horizon impactor (IH). High-speed video was used to determine the time-to-contact between the impactor tip and the spinal cord and to compute the related displacement of the tip into the tissue: the spinal cord compression and the compression ratio. Delayed time-to-contact detection with the IH device led to an underestimation of the cord compression. Compression values indicated by the IH were 64% lower than those based on video analysis (0.33mm vs. 0.88mm). Consequently, the mean compression ratio derived from the device was underestimated when compared to the value derived from video analysis (22% vs. 61%). Default time-to-contact detection from the IH led to significant errors in spinal cord compression assessment. Accordingly, this may explain some of the reported data discrepancies in the literature. The proposed setup could be implemented by users of contusion devices to improve the quantative description of the primary injury inflicted to the spinal cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconstruction algorithm in compressed sensing based on maximum a posteriori estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Koujin; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki


    We propose a systematic method for constructing a sparse data reconstruction algorithm in compressed sensing at a relatively low computational cost for general observation matrix. It is known that the cost of ℓ 1 -norm minimization using a standard linear programming algorithm is O(N 3 ). We show that this cost can be reduced to O(N 2 ) by applying the approach of posterior maximization. Furthermore, in principle, the algorithm from our approach is expected to achieve the widest successful reconstruction region, which is evaluated from theoretical argument. We also discuss the relation between the belief propagation-based reconstruction algorithm introduced in preceding works and our approach

  4. Research on the Compression Algorithm of the Infrared Thermal Image Sequence Based on Differential Evolution and Double Exponential Decay Model (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Yu; Meng, Xiang-Bing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong


    This paper has proposed a new thermal wave image sequence compression algorithm by combining double exponential decay fitting model and differential evolution algorithm. This study benchmarked fitting compression results and precision of the proposed method was benchmarked to that of the traditional methods via experiment; it investigated the fitting compression performance under the long time series and improved model and validated the algorithm by practical thermal image sequence compression and reconstruction. The results show that the proposed algorithm is a fast and highly precise infrared image data processing method. PMID:24696649

  5. Research on the Compression Algorithm of the Infrared Thermal Image Sequence Based on Differential Evolution and Double Exponential Decay Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper has proposed a new thermal wave image sequence compression algorithm by combining double exponential decay fitting model and differential evolution algorithm. This study benchmarked fitting compression results and precision of the proposed method was benchmarked to that of the traditional methods via experiment; it investigated the fitting compression performance under the long time series and improved model and validated the algorithm by practical thermal image sequence compression and reconstruction. The results show that the proposed algorithm is a fast and highly precise infrared image data processing method.

  6. Fast vector quantization using a Bat algorithm for image compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjeevi Karri


    Full Text Available Linde–Buzo–Gray (LBG, a traditional method of vector quantization (VQ generates a local optimal codebook which results in lower PSNR value. The performance of vector quantization (VQ depends on the appropriate codebook, so researchers proposed optimization techniques for global codebook generation. Particle swarm optimization (PSO and Firefly algorithm (FA generate an efficient codebook, but undergoes instability in convergence when particle velocity is high and non-availability of brighter fireflies in the search space respectively. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called BA-LBG which uses Bat Algorithm on initial solution of LBG. It produces an efficient codebook with less computational time and results very good PSNR due to its automatic zooming feature using adjustable pulse emission rate and loudness of bats. From the results, we observed that BA-LBG has high PSNR compared to LBG, PSO-LBG, Quantum PSO-LBG, HBMO-LBG and FA-LBG, and its average convergence speed is 1.841 times faster than HBMO-LBG and FA-LBG but no significance difference with PSO.

  7. Robust video watermarking via optimization algorithm for quantization of pseudo-random semi-global statistics (United States)

    Kucukgoz, Mehmet; Harmanci, Oztan; Mihcak, Mehmet K.; Venkatesan, Ramarathnam


    In this paper, we propose a novel semi-blind video watermarking scheme, where we use pseudo-random robust semi-global features of video in the three dimensional wavelet transform domain. We design the watermark sequence via solving an optimization problem, such that the features of the mark-embedded video are the quantized versions of the features of the original video. The exact realizations of the algorithmic parameters are chosen pseudo-randomly via a secure pseudo-random number generator, whose seed is the secret key, that is known (resp. unknown) by the embedder and the receiver (resp. by the public). We experimentally show the robustness of our algorithm against several attacks, such as conventional signal processing modifications and adversarial estimation attacks.

  8. Algorithms for the automatic identification of MARFEs and UFOs in JET database of visible camera videos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Camplani, M.; Cannas, B.; Usai, P.; Mazon, D.; Delaunay, F.


    MARFE instabilities and UFOs leave clear signatures in JET fast visible camera videos. Given the potential harmful consequences of these events, particularly as triggers of disruptions, it would be important to have the means of detecting them automatically. In this paper, the results of various algorithms to identify automatically the MARFEs and UFOs in JET visible videos are reported. The objective is to retrieve the videos, which have captured these events, exploring the whole JET database of images, as a preliminary step to the development of real-time identifiers in the future. For the detection of MARFEs, a complete identifier has been finalized, using morphological operators and Hu moments. The final algorithm manages to identify the videos with MARFEs with a success rate exceeding 80%. Due to the lack of a complete statistics of examples, the UFO identifier is less developed, but a preliminary code can detect UFOs quite reliably. (authors)

  9. Dynamic video encryption algorithm for H.264/AVC based on a spatiotemporal chaos system. (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Tong, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Zhu; Li, Ling-Hao


    Video encryption schemes mostly employ the selective encryption method to encrypt parts of important and sensitive video information, aiming to ensure the real-time performance and encryption efficiency. The classic block cipher is not applicable to video encryption due to the high computational overhead. In this paper, we propose the encryption selection control module to encrypt video syntax elements dynamically which is controlled by the chaotic pseudorandom sequence. A novel spatiotemporal chaos system and binarization method is used to generate a key stream for encrypting the chosen syntax elements. The proposed scheme enhances the resistance against attacks through the dynamic encryption process and high-security stream cipher. Experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits high security and high efficiency with little effect on the compression ratio and time cost.

  10. Multi-source feature extraction and target recognition in wireless sensor networks based on adaptive distributed wavelet compression algorithms (United States)

    Hortos, William S.


    Proposed distributed wavelet-based algorithms are a means to compress sensor data received at the nodes forming a wireless sensor network (WSN) by exchanging information between neighboring sensor nodes. Local collaboration among nodes compacts the measurements, yielding a reduced fused set with equivalent information at far fewer nodes. Nodes may be equipped with multiple sensor types, each capable of sensing distinct phenomena: thermal, humidity, chemical, voltage, or image signals with low or no frequency content as well as audio, seismic or video signals within defined frequency ranges. Compression of the multi-source data through wavelet-based methods, distributed at active nodes, reduces downstream processing and storage requirements along the paths to sink nodes; it also enables noise suppression and more energy-efficient query routing within the WSN. Targets are first detected by the multiple sensors; then wavelet compression and data fusion are applied to the target returns, followed by feature extraction from the reduced data; feature data are input to target recognition/classification routines; targets are tracked during their sojourns through the area monitored by the WSN. Algorithms to perform these tasks are implemented in a distributed manner, based on a partition of the WSN into clusters of nodes. In this work, a scheme of collaborative processing is applied for hierarchical data aggregation and decorrelation, based on the sensor data itself and any redundant information, enabled by a distributed, in-cluster wavelet transform with lifting that allows multiple levels of resolution. The wavelet-based compression algorithm significantly decreases RF bandwidth and other resource use in target processing tasks. Following wavelet compression, features are extracted. The objective of feature extraction is to maximize the probabilities of correct target classification based on multi-source sensor measurements, while minimizing the resource expenditures at

  11. Multiple Moving Object Detection for Fast Video Content Description in Compressed Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Mansencal


    Full Text Available Indexing deals with the automatic extraction of information with the objective of automatically describing and organizing the content. Thinking of a video stream, different types of information can be considered semantically important. Since we can assume that the most relevant one is linked to the presence of moving foreground objects, their number, their shape, and their appearance can constitute a good mean for content description. For this reason, we propose to combine both motion information and region-based color segmentation to extract moving objects from an MPEG2 compressed video stream starting only considering low-resolution data. This approach, which we refer to as “rough indexing,” consists in processing P-frame motion information first, and then in performing I-frame color segmentation. Next, since many details can be lost due to the low-resolution data, to improve the object detection results, a novel spatiotemporal filtering has been developed which is constituted by a quadric surface modeling the object trace along time. This method enables to effectively correct possible former detection errors without heavily increasing the computational effort.

  12. Efficient Foreground Extraction From HEVC Compressed Video for Application to Real-Time Analysis of Surveillance 'Big' Data. (United States)

    Dey, Bhaskar; Kundu, Malay K


    While surveillance video is the biggest source of unstructured Big Data today, the emergence of high-efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard is poised to have a huge role in lowering the costs associated with transmission and storage. Among the benefits of HEVC over the legacy MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding (AVC), is a staggering 40 percent or more bitrate reduction at the same visual quality. Given the bandwidth limitations, video data are compressed essentially by removing spatial and temporal correlations that exist in its uncompressed form. This causes compressed data, which are already de-correlated, to serve as a vital resource for machine learning with significantly fewer samples for training. In this paper, an efficient approach to foreground extraction/segmentation is proposed using novel spatio-temporal de-correlated block features extracted directly from the HEVC compressed video. Most related techniques, in contrast, work on uncompressed images claiming significant storage and computational resources not only for the decoding process prior to initialization but also for the feature selection/extraction and background modeling stage following it. The proposed approach has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated against several other state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Freeing Space for NASA: Incorporating a Lossless Compression Algorithm into NASA's FOSS System (United States)

    Fiechtner, Kaitlyn; Parker, Allen


    NASA's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) system can gather and store up to 1,536,000 bytes (1.46 megabytes) per second. Since the FOSS system typically acquires hours - or even days - of data, the system can gather hundreds of gigabytes of data for a given test event. To store such large quantities of data more effectively, NASA is modifying a Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer (LZO) lossless data compression program to compress data as it is being acquired in real time. After proving that the algorithm is capable of compressing the data from the FOSS system, the LZO program will be modified and incorporated into the FOSS system. Implementing an LZO compression algorithm will instantly free up memory space without compromising any data obtained. With the availability of memory space, the FOSS system can be used more efficiently on test specimens, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that can be in flight for days. By integrating the compression algorithm, the FOSS system can continue gathering data, even on longer flights.

  14. An Improved Fast Compressive Tracking Algorithm Based on Online Random Forest Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Jintao


    Full Text Available The fast compressive tracking (FCT algorithm is a simple and efficient algorithm, which is proposed in recent years. But, it is difficult to deal with the factors such as occlusion, appearance changes, pose variation, etc in processing. The reasons are that, Firstly, even if the naive Bayes classifier is fast in training, it is not robust concerning the noise. Secondly, the parameters are required to vary with the unique environment for accurate tracking. In this paper, we propose an improved fast compressive tracking algorithm based on online random forest (FCT-ORF for robust visual tracking. Firstly, we combine ideas with the adaptive compressive sensing theory regarding the weighted random projection to exploit both local and discriminative information of the object. The second reason is the online random forest classifier for online tracking which is demonstrated with more robust to the noise adaptively and high computational efficiency. The experimental results show that the algorithm we have proposed has a better performance in the field of occlusion, appearance changes, and pose variation than the fast compressive tracking algorithm’s contribution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Alexey Alexeevich


    Full Text Available Comprehensive distributed safety, control, and monitoring systems applied by companies and organizations of different ownership structure play a substantial role in the present-day society. Video surveillance elements that ensure image processing and decision making in automated or automatic modes are the essential components of new systems. This paper covers the modeling of video surveillance systems installed in buildings, and the algorithm, or pattern, of video camera placement with due account for nearly all characteristics of buildings, detection and recognition facilities, and cameras themselves. This algorithm will be subsequently implemented as a user application. The project contemplates a comprehensive approach to the automatic placement of cameras that take account of their mutual positioning and compatibility of tasks. The project objective is to develop the principal elements of the algorithm of recognition of a moving object to be detected by several cameras. The image obtained by different cameras will be processed. Parameters of motion are to be identified to develop a table of possible options of routes. The implementation of the recognition algorithm represents an independent research project to be covered by a different article. This project consists in the assessment of the degree of complexity of an algorithm of camera placement designated for identification of cases of inaccurate algorithm implementation, as well as in the formulation of supplementary requirements and input data by means of intercrossing sectors covered by neighbouring cameras. The project also contemplates identification of potential problems in the course of development of a physical security and monitoring system at the stage of the project design development and testing. The camera placement algorithm has been implemented as a software application that has already been pilot tested on buildings and inside premises that have irregular dimensions. The

  16. General purpose graphic processing unit implementation of adaptive pulse compression algorithms (United States)

    Cai, Jingxiao; Zhang, Yan


    This study introduces a practical approach to implement real-time signal processing algorithms for general surveillance radar based on NVIDIA graphical processing units (GPUs). The pulse compression algorithms are implemented using compute unified device architecture (CUDA) libraries such as CUDA basic linear algebra subroutines and CUDA fast Fourier transform library, which are adopted from open source libraries and optimized for the NVIDIA GPUs. For more advanced, adaptive processing algorithms such as adaptive pulse compression, customized kernel optimization is needed and investigated. A statistical optimization approach is developed for this purpose without needing much knowledge of the physical configurations of the kernels. It was found that the kernel optimization approach can significantly improve the performance. Benchmark performance is compared with the CPU performance in terms of processing accelerations. The proposed implementation framework can be used in various radar systems including ground-based phased array radar, airborne sense and avoid radar, and aerospace surveillance radar.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Karimov


    Full Text Available Videocapillaroscopy is a convenient and non-invasive method of blood flow parameters recovery in the capillaries. Capillaries position can vary at recorded video sequences due to the registration features of capillary blood flow. Stabilization algorithm of video capillary blood flow based on phase correlation is proposed and researched. This algorithm is compared to the known algorithms of video frames stabilization with full-frame superposition and with key points. Programs, based on discussed algorithms, are compared under processing the experimentally recorded video sequences of human capillaries and under processing of computer-simulated sequences of video frames with the specified offset. The full-frame superposition algorithm provides high quality of stabilization; however, the program based on this algorithm requires significant computational resources. Software implementation of the algorithm based on the detection of the key points is characterized by good performance, but provides low quality of stabilization for video sequences capillary blood flow. Algorithm based on phase correlation method provides high quality of stabilization and program realization of this algorithm requires minimal computational resources. It is shown that the phase correlation algorithm is the most useful for stabilization of video sequences for capillaries blood flow. Obtained findings can be used in the software for biomedical diagnostics.

  18. Design of a Lossless Image Compression System for Video Capsule Endoscopy and Its Performance in In-Vivo Trials (United States)

    Khan, Tareq H.; Wahid, Khan A.


    In this paper, a new low complexity and lossless image compression system for capsule endoscopy (CE) is presented. The compressor consists of a low-cost YEF color space converter and variable-length predictive with a combination of Golomb-Rice and unary encoding. All these components have been heavily optimized for low-power and low-cost and lossless in nature. As a result, the entire compression system does not incur any loss of image information. Unlike transform based algorithms, the compressor can be interfaced with commercial image sensors which send pixel data in raster-scan fashion that eliminates the need of having large buffer memory. The compression algorithm is capable to work with white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI) with average compression ratio of 78% and 84% respectively. Finally, a complete capsule endoscopy system is developed on a single, low-power, 65-nm field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) chip. The prototype is developed using circular PCBs having a diameter of 16 mm. Several in-vivo and ex-vivo trials using pig's intestine have been conducted using the prototype to validate the performance of the proposed lossless compression algorithm. The results show that, compared with all other existing works, the proposed algorithm offers a solution to wireless capsule endoscopy with lossless and yet acceptable level of compression. PMID:25375753

  19. Content-based video retrieval by example video clip (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nevenka; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed


    This paper presents a novel approach for video retrieval from a large archive of MPEG or Motion JPEG compressed video clips. We introduce a retrieval algorithm that takes a video clip as a query and searches the database for clips with similar contents. Video clips are characterized by a sequence of representative frame signatures, which are constructed from DC coefficients and motion information (`DC+M' signatures). The similarity between two video clips is determined by using their respective signatures. This method facilitates retrieval of clips for the purpose of video editing, broadcast news retrieval, or copyright violation detection.

  20. Shot Boundary Detection in Soccer Video using Twin-comparison Algorithm and Dominant Color Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matko Šarić


    Full Text Available The first step in generic video processing is temporal segmentation, i.e. shot boundary detection. Camera shot transitions can be either abrupt (e.g. cuts or gradual (e.g. fades, dissolves, wipes. Sports video is one of the most challenging domains for robust shot boundary detection. We proposed a shot boundary detection algorithm for soccer video based on the twin-comparison method and the absolute difference between frames in their ratios of dominant colored pixels to total number of pixels. With this approach the detection of gradual transitions is improved by decreasing the number of false positives caused by some camera operations. We also compared performances of our algorithm and the standard twin-comparison method.

  1. A Compressed Sensing-based Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Solar Flare X-Ray Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Simon; Bolzern, Roman; Battaglia, Marina, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)


    One way of imaging X-ray emission from solar flares is to measure Fourier components of the spatial X-ray source distribution. We present a new compressed sensing-based algorithm named VIS-CS, which reconstructs the spatial distribution from such Fourier components. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm on synthetic and observed solar flare X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite and compare its performance with existing algorithms. VIS-CS produces competitive results with accurate photometry and morphology, without requiring any algorithm- and X-ray-source-specific parameter tuning. Its robustness and performance make this algorithm ideally suited for the generation of quicklook images or large image cubes without user intervention, such as for imaging spectroscopy analysis.

  2. A Compressed Sensing-based Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Solar Flare X-Ray Observations (United States)

    Felix, Simon; Bolzern, Roman; Battaglia, Marina


    One way of imaging X-ray emission from solar flares is to measure Fourier components of the spatial X-ray source distribution. We present a new compressed sensing-based algorithm named VIS_CS, which reconstructs the spatial distribution from such Fourier components. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm on synthetic and observed solar flare X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite and compare its performance with existing algorithms. VIS_CS produces competitive results with accurate photometry and morphology, without requiring any algorithm- and X-ray-source-specific parameter tuning. Its robustness and performance make this algorithm ideally suited for the generation of quicklook images or large image cubes without user intervention, such as for imaging spectroscopy analysis.

  3. Collaborative real-time motion video analysis by human observer and image exploitation algorithms (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen


    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, especially in real-time applications. In most safety and security critical applications, a human observer is an obligatory part of the overall analysis system. Over the last years, substantial progress has been made in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms. Hence, we investigate how the benefits of automated video analysis can be integrated suitably into the current video exploitation systems. In this paper, a system design is introduced which strives to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms, thus aiming to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. The system design builds on prior work where we showed the benefits for the human observer by means of a user interface which utilizes the human visual focus of attention revealed by the eye gaze direction for interaction with the image exploitation system; eye tracker-based interaction allows much faster, more convenient, and equally precise moving target acquisition in video images than traditional computer mouse selection. The system design also builds on prior work we did on automated target detection, segmentation, and tracking algorithms. Beside the system design, a first pilot study is presented, where we investigated how the participants (all non-experts in video analysis) performed in initializing an object tracking subsystem by selecting a target for tracking. Preliminary results show that the gaze + key press technique is an effective, efficient, and easy to use interaction technique when performing selection operations on moving targets in videos in order to initialize an object tracking function.

  4. Wavelet transform and Huffman coding based electrocardiogram compression algorithm: Application to telecardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouakri, S A; Djaafri, O; Taleb-Ahmed, A


    We present in this work an algorithm for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal compression aimed to its transmission via telecommunication channel. Basically, the proposed ECG compression algorithm is articulated on the use of wavelet transform, leading to low/high frequency components separation, high order statistics based thresholding, using level adjusted kurtosis value, to denoise the ECG signal, and next a linear predictive coding filter is applied to the wavelet coefficients producing a lower variance signal. This latter one will be coded using the Huffman encoding yielding an optimal coding length in terms of average value of bits per sample. At the receiver end point, with the assumption of an ideal communication channel, the inverse processes are carried out namely the Huffman decoding, inverse linear predictive coding filter and inverse discrete wavelet transform leading to the estimated version of the ECG signal. The proposed ECG compression algorithm is tested upon a set of ECG records extracted from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Data Base including different cardiac anomalies as well as the normal ECG signal. The obtained results are evaluated in terms of compression ratio and mean square error which are, respectively, around 1:8 and 7%. Besides the numerical evaluation, the visual perception demonstrates the high quality of ECG signal restitution where the different ECG waves are recovered correctly

  5. An compression algorithm for medical images and a display with the decoding function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Shiohara, Morito; Yoshida, Masumi


    This paper describes and efficient image compression method for medical images, a high-speed display with the decoding function. In our method, an input image is divided into blocks, and either of Discrete Cosine Transform coding (DCT) or Block Truncation Coding (BTC) is adaptively applied on each block to improve image quality. The display, we developed, receives the compressed data from the host computer and reconstruct images of good quality at high speed using four decoding microprocessors on which our algorithm is implemented in pipeline. By the experiments, our method and display were verified to be effective. (author)

  6. Efficient Compression of Far Field Matrices in Multipole Algorithms based on Spherical Harmonics and Radiating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schroeder


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a compression of far field matrices in the fast multipole method and its multilevel extension for electromagnetic problems. The compression is based on a spherical harmonic representation of radiation patterns in conjunction with a radiating mode expression of the surface current. The method is applied to study near field effects and the far field of an antenna placed on a ship surface. Furthermore, the electromagnetic scattering of an electrically large plate is investigated. It is demonstrated, that the proposed technique leads to a significant memory saving, making multipole algorithms even more efficient without compromising the accuracy.

  7. Batched QR and SVD Algorithms on GPUs with Applications in Hierarchical Matrix Compression

    KAUST Repository

    Halim Boukaram, Wajih


    We present high performance implementations of the QR and the singular value decomposition of a batch of small matrices hosted on the GPU with applications in the compression of hierarchical matrices. The one-sided Jacobi algorithm is used for its simplicity and inherent parallelism as a building block for the SVD of low rank blocks using randomized methods. We implement multiple kernels based on the level of the GPU memory hierarchy in which the matrices can reside and show substantial speedups against streamed cuSOLVER SVDs. The resulting batched routine is a key component of hierarchical matrix compression, opening up opportunities to perform H-matrix arithmetic efficiently on GPUs.

  8. Batched QR and SVD Algorithms on GPUs with Applications in Hierarchical Matrix Compression

    KAUST Repository

    Halim Boukaram, Wajih; Turkiyyah, George; Ltaief, Hatem; Keyes, David E.


    We present high performance implementations of the QR and the singular value decomposition of a batch of small matrices hosted on the GPU with applications in the compression of hierarchical matrices. The one-sided Jacobi algorithm is used for its simplicity and inherent parallelism as a building block for the SVD of low rank blocks using randomized methods. We implement multiple kernels based on the level of the GPU memory hierarchy in which the matrices can reside and show substantial speedups against streamed cuSOLVER SVDs. The resulting batched routine is a key component of hierarchical matrix compression, opening up opportunities to perform H-matrix arithmetic efficiently on GPUs.

  9. Detection of Defective Sensors in Phased Array Using Compressed Sensing and Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Ullah Khan


    Full Text Available A compressed sensing based array diagnosis technique has been presented. This technique starts from collecting the measurements of the far-field pattern. The system linking the difference between the field measured using the healthy reference array and the field radiated by the array under test is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA, parallel coordinate descent (PCD algorithm, and then a hybridized GA with PCD algorithm. These algorithms are applied for fully and partially defective antenna arrays. The simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms in terms of localization of element failure with a small number of measurements. In the proposed algorithm, the slow and early convergence of GA has been avoided by combining it with PCD algorithm. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-PCD algorithm provides an accurate diagnosis of fully and partially defective sensors as compared to GA or PCD alone. Different simulations have been provided to validate the performance of the designed algorithms in diversified scenarios.

  10. Performance comparison between total variation (TV)-based compressed sensing and statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jie; Nett, Brian E; Chen Guanghong


    Of all available reconstruction methods, statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms appear particularly promising since they enable accurate physical noise modeling. The newly developed compressive sampling/compressed sensing (CS) algorithm has shown the potential to accurately reconstruct images from highly undersampled data. The CS algorithm can be implemented in the statistical reconstruction framework as well. In this study, we compared the performance of two standard statistical reconstruction algorithms (penalized weighted least squares and q-GGMRF) to the CS algorithm. In assessing the image quality using these iterative reconstructions, it is critical to utilize realistic background anatomy as the reconstruction results are object dependent. A cadaver head was scanned on a Varian Trilogy system at different dose levels. Several figures of merit including the relative root mean square error and a quality factor which accounts for the noise performance and the spatial resolution were introduced to objectively evaluate reconstruction performance. A comparison is presented between the three algorithms for a constant undersampling factor comparing different algorithms at several dose levels. To facilitate this comparison, the original CS method was formulated in the framework of the statistical image reconstruction algorithms. Important conclusions of the measurements from our studies are that (1) for realistic neuro-anatomy, over 100 projections are required to avoid streak artifacts in the reconstructed images even with CS reconstruction, (2) regardless of the algorithm employed, it is beneficial to distribute the total dose to more views as long as each view remains quantum noise limited and (3) the total variation-based CS method is not appropriate for very low dose levels because while it can mitigate streaking artifacts, the images exhibit patchy behavior, which is potentially harmful for medical diagnosis.

  11. The Modified Frequency Algorithm of Digital Watermarking of Still Images Resistant to JPEG Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Batura


    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is an effective copyright protection for multimedia products (in particular, still images. Digital marking represents process of embedding into object of protection of a digital watermark which is invisible for a human eye. However there is rather large number of the harmful influences capable to destroy the watermark which is embedded into the still image. The most widespread attack is JPEG compression that is caused by efficiency of this format of compression and its big prevalence on the Internet.The new algorithm which is modification of algorithm of Elham is presented in the present article. The algorithm of digital marking of motionless images carries out embedding of a watermark in frequency coefficients of discrete Hadamard transform of the chosen image blocks. The choice of blocks of the image for embedding of a digital watermark is carried out on the basis of the set threshold of entropy of pixels. The choice of low-frequency coefficients for embedding is carried out on the basis of comparison of values of coefficients of discrete cosine transformation with a predetermined threshold, depending on the product of the built-in watermark coefficient on change coefficient.Resistance of new algorithm to compression of JPEG, noising, filtration, change of color, the size and histogram equalization is in details analysed. Research of algorithm consists in comparison of the appearance taken from the damaged image of a watermark with the introduced logo. Ability of algorithm to embedding of a watermark with a minimum level of distortions of the image is in addition analysed. It is established that the new algorithm in comparison by initial algorithm of Elham showed full resistance to compression of JPEG, and also the improved resistance to a noising, change of brightness and histogram equalization.The developed algorithm can be used for copyright protection on the static images. Further studies will be used to study the

  12. DMPDS: A Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm Targeting High Resolution Videos and Its FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sanchez


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fast motion estimation (ME algorithm targeting high resolution digital videos and its efficient hardware architecture design. The new Dynamic Multipoint Diamond Search (DMPDS algorithm is a fast algorithm which increases the ME quality when compared with other fast ME algorithms. The DMPDS achieves a better digital video quality reducing the occurrence of local minima falls, especially in high definition videos. The quality results show that the DMPDS is able to reach an average PSNR gain of 1.85 dB when compared with the well-known Diamond Search (DS algorithm. When compared to the optimum results generated by the Full Search (FS algorithm the DMPDS shows a lose of only 1.03 dB in the PSNR. On the other hand, the DMPDS reached a complexity reduction higher than 45 times when compared to FS. The quality gains related to DS caused an expected increase in the DMPDS complexity which uses 6.4-times more calculations than DS. The DMPDS architecture was designed focused on high performance and low cost, targeting to process Quad Full High Definition (QFHD videos in real time (30 frames per second. The architecture was described in VHDL and synthesized to Altera Stratix 4 and Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGAs. The synthesis results show that the architecture is able to achieve processing rates higher than 53 QFHD fps, reaching the real-time requirements. The DMPDS architecture achieved the highest processing rate when compared to related works in the literature. This high processing rate was obtained designing an architecture with a high operation frequency and low numbers of cycles necessary to process each block.

  13. Partial Encryption of Entropy-Coded Video Compression Using Coupled Chaotic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Almasalha


    Full Text Available Due to pervasive communication infrastructures, a plethora of enabling technologies is being developed over mobile and wired networks. Among these, video streaming services over IP are the most challenging in terms of quality, real-time requirements and security. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to efficiently secure variable length coded (VLC multimedia bit streams, such as H.264. It is based on code word error diffusion and variable size segment shuffling. The codeword diffusion and the shuffling mechanisms are based on random operations from a secure and computationally efficient chaos-based pseudo-random number generator. The proposed scheme is ubiquitous to the end users and can be deployed at any node in the network. It provides different levels of security, with encrypted data volume fluctuating between 5.5–17%. It works on the compressed bit stream without requiring any decoding. It provides excellent encryption speeds on different platforms, including mobile devices. It is 200% faster and 150% more power efficient when compared with AES software-based full encryption schemes. Regarding security, the scheme is robust to well-known attacks in the literature, such as brute force and known/chosen plain text attacks.

  14. Low-complexity JPEG-based progressive video codec for wireless video transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Forchhammer, Søren


    This paper discusses the question of video codec enhancement for wireless video transmission of high definition video data taking into account constraints on memory and complexity. Starting from parameter adjustment for JPEG2000 compression algorithm used for wireless transmission and achieving...

  15. Simultaneous optical image compression and encryption using error-reduction phase retrieval algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Shutian; Liu, Zhengjun


    We report a simultaneous image compression and encryption scheme based on solving a typical optical inverse problem. The secret images to be processed are multiplexed as the input intensities of a cascaded diffractive optical system. At the output plane, a compressed complex-valued data with a lot fewer measurements can be obtained by utilizing error-reduction phase retrieval algorithm. The magnitude of the output image can serve as the final ciphertext while its phase serves as the decryption key. Therefore the compression and encryption are simultaneously completed without additional encoding and filtering operations. The proposed strategy can be straightforwardly applied to the existing optical security systems that involve diffraction and interference. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and security of the proposal. (paper)

  16. A new chest compression depth feedback algorithm for high-quality CPR based on smartphone. (United States)

    Song, Yeongtak; Oh, Jaehoon; Chee, Youngjoon


    Although many smartphone application (app) programs provide education and guidance for basic life support, they do not commonly provide feedback on the chest compression depth (CCD) and rate. The validation of its accuracy has not been reported to date. This study was a feasibility assessment of use of the smartphone as a CCD feedback device. In this study, we proposed the concept of a new real-time CCD estimation algorithm using a smartphone and evaluated the accuracy of the algorithm. Using the double integration of the acceleration signal, which was obtained from the accelerometer in the smartphone, we estimated the CCD in real time. Based on its periodicity, we removed the bias error from the accelerometer. To evaluate this instrument's accuracy, we used a potentiometer as the reference depth measurement. The evaluation experiments included three levels of CCD (insufficient, adequate, and excessive) and four types of grasping orientations with various compression directions. We used the difference between the reference measurement and the estimated depth as the error. The error was calculated for each compression. When chest compressions were performed with adequate depth for the patient who was lying on a flat floor, the mean (standard deviation) of the errors was 1.43 (1.00) mm. When the patient was lying on an oblique floor, the mean (standard deviation) of the errors was 3.13 (1.88) mm. The error of the CCD estimation was tolerable for the algorithm to be used in the smartphone-based CCD feedback app to compress more than 51 mm, which is the 2010 American Heart Association guideline.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Nadira Banu Kamal


    Full Text Available The storage requirements for images can be excessive, if true color and a high-perceived image quality are desired. An RGB image may be viewed as a stack of three gray-scale images that when fed into the red, green and blue inputs of a color monitor, produce a color image on the screen. The abnormal size of many images leads to long, costly, transmission times. Hence, an iteration free fractal algorithm is proposed in this research paper to design an efficient search of the domain pools for colour image compression using Genetic Algorithm (GA. The proposed methodology reduces the coding process time and intensive computation tasks. Parameters such as image quality, compression ratio and coding time are analyzed. It is observed that the proposed method achieves excellent performance in image quality with reduction in storage space.

  18. An Online Dictionary Learning-Based Compressive Data Gathering Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks. (United States)

    Wang, Donghao; Wan, Jiangwen; Chen, Junying; Zhang, Qiang


    To adapt to sense signals of enormous diversities and dynamics, and to decrease the reconstruction errors caused by ambient noise, a novel online dictionary learning method-based compressive data gathering (ODL-CDG) algorithm is proposed. The proposed dictionary is learned from a two-stage iterative procedure, alternately changing between a sparse coding step and a dictionary update step. The self-coherence of the learned dictionary is introduced as a penalty term during the dictionary update procedure. The dictionary is also constrained with sparse structure. It's theoretically demonstrated that the sensing matrix satisfies the restricted isometry property (RIP) with high probability. In addition, the lower bound of necessary number of measurements for compressive sensing (CS) reconstruction is given. Simulation results show that the proposed ODL-CDG algorithm can enhance the recovery accuracy in the presence of noise, and reduce the energy consumption in comparison with other dictionary based data gathering methods.

  19. An Online Dictionary Learning-Based Compressive Data Gathering Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghao Wang


    Full Text Available To adapt to sense signals of enormous diversities and dynamics, and to decrease the reconstruction errors caused by ambient noise, a novel online dictionary learning method-based compressive data gathering (ODL-CDG algorithm is proposed. The proposed dictionary is learned from a two-stage iterative procedure, alternately changing between a sparse coding step and a dictionary update step. The self-coherence of the learned dictionary is introduced as a penalty term during the dictionary update procedure. The dictionary is also constrained with sparse structure. It’s theoretically demonstrated that the sensing matrix satisfies the restricted isometry property (RIP with high probability. In addition, the lower bound of necessary number of measurements for compressive sensing (CS reconstruction is given. Simulation results show that the proposed ODL-CDG algorithm can enhance the recovery accuracy in the presence of noise, and reduce the energy consumption in comparison with other dictionary based data gathering methods.

  20. Low-Complexity Hierarchical Mode Decision Algorithms Targeting VLSI Architecture Design for the H.264/AVC Video Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Corrêa


    Full Text Available In H.264/AVC, the encoding process can occur according to one of the 13 intraframe coding modes or according to one of the 8 available interframes block sizes, besides the SKIP mode. In the Joint Model reference software, the choice of the best mode is performed through exhaustive executions of the entire encoding process, which significantly increases the encoder's computational complexity and sometimes even forbids its use in real-time applications. Considering this context, this work proposes a set of heuristic algorithms targeting hardware architectures that lead to earlier selection of one encoding mode. The amount of repetitions of the encoding process is reduced by 47 times, at the cost of a relatively small cost in compression performance. When compared to other works, the fast hierarchical mode decision results are expressively more satisfactory in terms of computational complexity reduction, quality, and bit rate. The low-complexity mode decision architecture proposed is thus a very good option for real-time coding of high-resolution videos. The solution is especially interesting for embedded and mobile applications with support to multimedia systems, since it yields good compression rates and image quality with a very high reduction in the encoder complexity.

  1. Novel prediction- and subblock-based algorithm for fractal image compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.-L.; Hsu, C.-H.


    Fractal encoding is the most consuming part in fractal image compression. In this paper, a novel two-phase prediction- and subblock-based fractal encoding algorithm is presented. Initially the original gray image is partitioned into a set of variable-size blocks according to the S-tree- and interpolation-based decomposition principle. In the first phase, each current block of variable-size range block tries to find the best matched domain block based on the proposed prediction-based search strategy which utilizes the relevant neighboring variable-size domain blocks. The first phase leads to a significant computation-saving effect. If the domain block found within the predicted search space is unacceptable, in the second phase, a subblock strategy is employed to partition the current variable-size range block into smaller blocks to improve the image quality. Experimental results show that our proposed prediction- and subblock-based fractal encoding algorithm outperforms the conventional full search algorithm and the recently published spatial-correlation-based algorithm by Truong et al. in terms of encoding time and image quality. In addition, the performance comparison among our proposed algorithm and the other two algorithms, the no search-based algorithm and the quadtree-based algorithm, are also investigated

  2. CPAC: Energy-Efficient Data Collection through Adaptive Selection of Compression Algorithms for Sensor Networks (United States)

    Lee, HyungJune; Kim, HyunSeok; Chang, Ik Joon


    We propose a technique to optimize the energy efficiency of data collection in sensor networks by exploiting a selective data compression. To achieve such an aim, we need to make optimal decisions regarding two aspects: (1) which sensor nodes should execute compression; and (2) which compression algorithm should be used by the selected sensor nodes. We formulate this problem into binary integer programs, which provide an energy-optimal solution under the given latency constraint. Our simulation results show that the optimization algorithm significantly reduces the overall network-wide energy consumption for data collection. In the environment having a stationary sink from stationary sensor nodes, the optimized data collection shows 47% energy savings compared to the state-of-the-art collection protocol (CTP). More importantly, we demonstrate that our optimized data collection provides the best performance in an intermittent network under high interference. In such networks, we found that the selective compression for frequent packet retransmissions saves up to 55% energy compared to the best known protocol. PMID:24721763

  3. Detection of Double-Compressed H.264/AVC Video Incorporating the Features of the String of Data Bits and Skip Macroblocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Yao


    Full Text Available Today’s H.264/AVC coded videos have a high quality, high data-compression ratio. They also have a strong fault tolerance, better network adaptability, and have been widely applied on the Internet. With the popularity of powerful and easy-to-use video editing software, digital videos can be tampered with in various ways. Therefore, the double compression in the H.264/AVC video can be used as a first step in the study of video-tampering forensics. This paper proposes a simple, but effective, double-compression detection method that analyzes the periodic features of the string of data bits (SODBs and the skip macroblocks (S-MBs for all I-frames and P-frames in a double-compressed H.264/AVC video. For a given suspicious video, the SODBs and S-MBs are extracted for each frame. Both features are then incorporated to generate one enhanced feature to represent the periodic artifact of the double-compressed video. Finally, a time-domain analysis is conducted to detect the periodicity of the features. The primary Group of Pictures (GOP size is estimated based on an exhaustive strategy. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  4. Integrating Algorithm Visualization Video into a First-Year Algorithm and Data Structure Course (United States)

    Crescenzi, Pilu; Malizia, Alessio; Verri, M. Cecilia; Diaz, Paloma; Aedo, Ignacio


    In this paper we describe the results that we have obtained while integrating algorithm visualization (AV) movies (strongly tightened with the other teaching material), within a first-year undergraduate course on algorithms and data structures. Our experimental results seem to support the hypothesis that making these movies available significantly…

  5. Quantifying the effect of disruptions to temporal coherence on the intelligibility of compressed American Sign Language video (United States)

    Ciaramello, Frank M.; Hemami, Sheila S.


    Communication of American Sign Language (ASL) over mobile phones would be very beneficial to the Deaf community. ASL video encoded to achieve the rates provided by current cellular networks must be heavily compressed and appropriate assessment techniques are required to analyze the intelligibility of the compressed video. As an extension to a purely spatial measure of intelligibility, this paper quantifies the effect of temporal compression artifacts on sign language intelligibility. These artifacts can be the result of motion-compensation errors that distract the observer or frame rate reductions. They reduce the the perception of smooth motion and disrupt the temporal coherence of the video. Motion-compensation errors that affect temporal coherence are identified by measuring the block-level correlation between co-located macroblocks in adjacent frames. The impact of frame rate reductions was quantified through experimental testing. A subjective study was performed in which fluent ASL participants rated the intelligibility of sequences encoded at a range of 5 different frame rates and with 3 different levels of distortion. The subjective data is used to parameterize an objective intelligibility measure which is highly correlated with subjective ratings at multiple frame rates.

  6. Acquisition, compression and rendering of depth and texture for multi-view video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morvan, Y.


    Three-dimensional (3D) video and imaging technologies is an emerging trend in the development of digital video systems, as we presently witness the appearance of 3D displays, coding systems, and 3D camera setups. Three-dimensional multi-view video is typically obtained from a set of synchronized

  7. Interacting with target tracking algorithms in a gaze-enhanced motion video analysis system (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen


    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, particularly if real-time analysis is required. It is therefore an important issue how to provide suitable assistance for the human operator. Given that the use of customized video analysis systems is more and more established, one supporting measure is to provide system functions which perform subtasks of the analysis. Recent progress in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms allow, e.g., real-time moving target tracking. Another supporting measure is to provide a user interface which strives to reduce the perceptual, cognitive and motor load of the human operator for example by incorporating the operator's visual focus of attention. A gaze-enhanced user interface is able to help here. This work extends prior work on automated target recognition, segmentation, and tracking algorithms as well as about the benefits of a gaze-enhanced user interface for interaction with moving targets. We also propose a prototypical system design aiming to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms in order to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. In this contribution, we address two novel issues analyzing gaze-based interaction with target tracking algorithms. The first issue extends the gaze-based triggering of a target tracking process, e.g., investigating how to best relaunch in the case of track loss. The second issue addresses the initialization of tracking algorithms without motion segmentation where the operator has to provide the system with the object's image region in order to start the tracking algorithm.

  8. Effects of image compression and degradation on an automatic diabetic retinopathy screening algorithm (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Barriga, S.; Murray, V.; Pattichis, M.; Soliz, P.


    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness among adult Americans. Automatic methods for detection of the disease have been developed in recent years, most of them addressing the segmentation of bright and red lesions. In this paper we present an automatic DR screening system that does approach the problem through the segmentation of features. The algorithm determines non-diseased retinal images from those with pathology based on textural features obtained using multiscale Amplitude Modulation-Frequency Modulation (AM-FM) decompositions. The decomposition is represented as features that are the inputs to a classifier. The algorithm achieves 0.88 area under the ROC curve (AROC) for a set of 280 images from the MESSIDOR database. The algorithm is then used to analyze the effects of image compression and degradation, which will be present in most actual clinical or screening environments. Results show that the algorithm is insensitive to illumination variations, but high rates of compression and large blurring effects degrade its performance.

  9. An Algorithm to Compress Line-transition Data for Radiative-transfer Calculations (United States)

    Cubillos, Patricio E.


    Molecular line-transition lists are an essential ingredient for radiative-transfer calculations. With recent databases now surpassing the billion-line mark, handling them has become computationally prohibitive, due to both the required processing power and memory. Here I present a temperature-dependent algorithm to separate strong from weak line transitions, reformatting the large majority of the weaker lines into a cross-section data file, and retaining the detailed line-by-line information of the fewer strong lines. For any given molecule over the 0.3-30 μm range, this algorithm reduces the number of lines to a few million, enabling faster radiative-transfer computations without a significant loss of information. The final compression rate depends on how densely populated the spectrum is. I validate this algorithm by comparing Exomol’s HCN extinction-coefficient spectra between the complete (65 million line transitions) and compressed (7.7 million) line lists. Over the 0.6-33 μm range, the average difference between extinction-coefficient values is less than 1%. A Python/C implementation of this algorithm is open-source and available at So far, this code handles the Exomol and HITRAN line-transition format.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jayaraj


    Full Text Available A Non-linear adaptive decision based algorithm with robust motion estimation technique is proposed for removal of impulse noise, Gaussian noise and mixed noise (impulse and Gaussian with edge and fine detail preservation in images and videos. The algorithm includes detection of corrupted pixels and the estimation of values for replacing the corrupted pixels. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that an appropriate filter is used for replacing the corrupted pixel based on the estimation of the noise variance present in the filtering window. This leads to reduced blurring and better fine detail preservation even at the high mixed noise density. It performs both spatial and temporal filtering for removal of the noises in the filter window of the videos. The Improved Cross Diamond Search Motion Estimation technique uses Least Median Square as a cost function, which shows improved performance than other motion estimation techniques with existing cost functions. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms in the visual point of view and in Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Mean Square Error and Image Enhancement Factor.

  11. Supplementary Material for: Compressing an Ensemble With Statistical Models: An Algorithm for Global 3D Spatio-Temporal Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano; Genton, Marc G.


    algorithms can be used to mitigate this problem, but since they are designed to compress generic scientific datasets, they do not account for the nature of climate model output and they compress only individual simulations. In this work, we propose a

  12. A compressed sensing based 3D resistivity inversion algorithm for hydrogeological applications (United States)

    Ranjan, Shashi; Kambhammettu, B. V. N. P.; Peddinti, Srinivasa Rao; Adinarayana, J.


    Image reconstruction from discrete electrical responses pose a number of computational and mathematical challenges. Application of smoothness constrained regularized inversion from limited measurements may fail to detect resistivity anomalies and sharp interfaces separated by hydro stratigraphic units. Under favourable conditions, compressed sensing (CS) can be thought of an alternative to reconstruct the image features by finding sparse solutions to highly underdetermined linear systems. This paper deals with the development of a CS assisted, 3-D resistivity inversion algorithm for use with hydrogeologists and groundwater scientists. CS based l1-regularized least square algorithm was applied to solve the resistivity inversion problem. Sparseness in the model update vector is introduced through block oriented discrete cosine transformation, with recovery of the signal achieved through convex optimization. The equivalent quadratic program was solved using primal-dual interior point method. Applicability of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated using synthetic and field examples drawn from hydrogeology. The proposed algorithm has outperformed the conventional (smoothness constrained) least square method in recovering the model parameters with much fewer data, yet preserving the sharp resistivity fronts separated by geologic layers. Resistivity anomalies represented by discrete homogeneous blocks embedded in contrasting geologic layers were better imaged using the proposed algorithm. In comparison to conventional algorithm, CS has resulted in an efficient (an increase in R2 from 0.62 to 0.78; a decrease in RMSE from 125.14 Ω-m to 72.46 Ω-m), reliable, and fast converging (run time decreased by about 25%) solution.

  13. Objective video quality measure for application to tele-echocardiography. (United States)

    Moore, Peter Thomas; O'Hare, Neil; Walsh, Kevin P; Ward, Neil; Conlon, Niamh


    Real-time tele-echocardiography is widely used to remotely diagnose or exclude congenital heart defects. Cost effective technical implementation is realised using low-bandwidth transmission systems and lossy compression (videoconferencing) schemes. In our study, DICOM video sequences were converted to common multimedia formats, which were then, compressed using three lossy compression algorithms. We then applied a digital (multimedia) video quality metric (VQM) to determine objectively a value for degradation due to compression. Three levels of compression were simulated by varying system bandwidth and compared to a subjective assessment of video clip quality by three paediatric cardiologists with more than 5 years of experience.

  14. A nonlinear relaxation/quasi-Newton algorithm for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (United States)

    Edwards, Jack R.; Mcrae, D. S.


    A highly efficient implicit method for the computation of steady, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes flowfields is presented. The discretization of the governing equations is hybrid in nature, with flux-vector splitting utilized in the streamwise direction and central differences with flux-limited artificial dissipation used for the transverse fluxes. Line Jacobi relaxation is used to provide a suitable initial guess for a new nonlinear iteration strategy based on line Gauss-Seidel sweeps. The applicability of quasi-Newton methods as convergence accelerators for this and other line relaxation algorithms is discussed, and efficient implementations of such techniques are presented. Convergence histories and comparisons with experimental data are presented for supersonic flow over a flat plate and for several high-speed compression corner interactions. Results indicate a marked improvement in computational efficiency over more conventional upwind relaxation strategies, particularly for flowfields containing large pockets of streamwise subsonic flow.

  15. Motion Vector Estimation Using Line-Square Search Block Matching Algorithm for Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Bao-long


    Full Text Available Motion estimation and compensation techniques are widely used for video coding applications but the real-time motion estimation is not easily achieved due to its enormous computations. In this paper, a new fast motion estimation algorithm based on line search is presented, in which computation complexity is greatly reduced by using the line search strategy and a parallel search pattern. Moreover, the accurate search is achieved because the small square search pattern is used. It has a best-case scenario of only 9 search points, which is 4 search points less than the diamond search algorithm. Simulation results show that, compared with the previous techniques, the LSPS algorithm significantly reduces the computational requirements for finding motion vectors, and also produces close performance in terms of motion compensation errors.

  16. Incorporation of local dependent reliability information into the Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) reconstruction algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaegler, Sven; Sauer, Otto; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Hesser, Juergen


    The reduction of dose in cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) arises from the decrease of the tube current for each projection as well as from the reduction of the number of projections. In order to maintain good image quality, sophisticated image reconstruction techniques are required. The Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) incorporates prior images into the reconstruction algorithm and outperforms the widespread used Feldkamp-Davis-Kress-algorithm (FDK) when the number of projections is reduced. However, prior images that contain major variations are not appropriately considered so far in PICCS. We therefore propose the partial-PICCS (pPICCS) algorithm. This framework is a problem-specific extension of PICCS and enables the incorporation of the reliability of the prior images additionally. We assumed that the prior images are composed of areas with large and small deviations. Accordingly, a weighting matrix considered the assigned areas in the objective function. We applied our algorithm to the problem of image reconstruction from few views by simulations with a computer phantom as well as on clinical CBCT projections from a head-and-neck case. All prior images contained large local variations. The reconstructed images were compared to the reconstruction results by the FDK-algorithm, by Compressed Sensing (CS) and by PICCS. To show the gain of image quality we compared image details with the reference image and used quantitative metrics (root-mean-square error (RMSE), contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR)). The pPICCS reconstruction framework yield images with substantially improved quality even when the number of projections was very small. The images contained less streaking, blurring and inaccurately reconstructed structures compared to the images reconstructed by FDK, CS and conventional PICCS. The increased image quality is also reflected in large RMSE differences. We proposed a modification of the original PICCS algorithm. The pPICCS algorithm

  17. An optimized compression algorithm for real-time ECG data transmission in wireless network of medical information systems. (United States)

    Cho, Gyoun-Yon; Lee, Seo-Joon; Lee, Tae-Ro


    Recent medical information systems are striving towards real-time monitoring models to care patients anytime and anywhere through ECG signals. However, there are several limitations such as data distortion and limited bandwidth in wireless communications. In order to overcome such limitations, this research focuses on compression. Few researches have been made to develop a specialized compression algorithm for ECG data transmission in real-time monitoring wireless network. Not only that, recent researches' algorithm is not appropriate for ECG signals. Therefore this paper presents a more developed algorithm EDLZW for efficient ECG data transmission. Results actually showed that the EDLZW compression ratio was 8.66, which was a performance that was 4 times better than any other recent compression method widely used today.

  18. A New Video Coding Algorithm Using 3D-Subband Coding and Lattice Vector Quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H. [Taejon Junior College, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.Y. [Sung Kyun Kwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, we propose an efficient motion adaptive 3-dimensional (3D) video coding algorithm using 3D subband coding (3D-SBC) and lattice vector quantization (LVQ) for low bit rate. Instead of splitting input video sequences into the fixed number of subbands along the temporal axes, we decompose them into temporal subbands of variable size according to motions in frames. Each spatio-temporally splitted 7 subbands are partitioned by quad tree technique and coded with lattice vector quantization(LVQ). The simulation results show 0.1{approx}4.3dB gain over H.261 in peak signal to noise ratio(PSNR) at low bit rate (64Kbps). (author). 13 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Complexity control algorithm based on adaptive mode selection for interframe coding in high efficiency video coding (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Gao, Zhiyong


    The latest high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard significantly increases the encoding complexity for improving its coding efficiency. Due to the limited computational capability of handheld devices, complexity constrained video coding has drawn great attention in recent years. A complexity control algorithm based on adaptive mode selection is proposed for interframe coding in HEVC. Considering the direct proportionality between encoding time and computational complexity, the computational complexity is measured in terms of encoding time. First, complexity is mapped to a target in terms of prediction modes. Then, an adaptive mode selection algorithm is proposed for the mode decision process. Specifically, the optimal mode combination scheme that is chosen through offline statistics is developed at low complexity. If the complexity budget has not been used up, an adaptive mode sorting method is employed to further improve coding efficiency. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a very large complexity control range (as low as 10%) for the HEVC encoder while maintaining good rate-distortion performance. For the lowdelayP condition, compared with the direct resource allocation method and the state-of-the-art method, an average gain of 0.63 and 0.17 dB in BDPSNR is observed for 18 sequences when the target complexity is around 40%.

  20. Compressing an Ensemble with Statistical Models: An Algorithm for Global 3D Spatio-Temporal Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano


    One of the main challenges when working with modern climate model ensembles is the increasingly larger size of the data produced, and the consequent difficulty in storing large amounts of spatio-temporally resolved information. Many compression algorithms can be used to mitigate this problem, but since they are designed to compress generic scientific data sets, they do not account for the nature of climate model output and they compress only individual simulations. In this work, we propose a different, statistics-based approach that explicitly accounts for the space-time dependence of the data for annual global three-dimensional temperature fields in an initial condition ensemble. The set of estimated parameters is small (compared to the data size) and can be regarded as a summary of the essential structure of the ensemble output; therefore, it can be used to instantaneously reproduce the temperature fields in an ensemble with a substantial saving in storage and time. The statistical model exploits the gridded geometry of the data and parallelization across processors. It is therefore computationally convenient and allows to fit a non-trivial model to a data set of one billion data points with a covariance matrix comprising of 10^18 entries.

  1. Compressing an Ensemble with Statistical Models: An Algorithm for Global 3D Spatio-Temporal Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano; Genton, Marc G.


    One of the main challenges when working with modern climate model ensembles is the increasingly larger size of the data produced, and the consequent difficulty in storing large amounts of spatio-temporally resolved information. Many compression algorithms can be used to mitigate this problem, but since they are designed to compress generic scientific data sets, they do not account for the nature of climate model output and they compress only individual simulations. In this work, we propose a different, statistics-based approach that explicitly accounts for the space-time dependence of the data for annual global three-dimensional temperature fields in an initial condition ensemble. The set of estimated parameters is small (compared to the data size) and can be regarded as a summary of the essential structure of the ensemble output; therefore, it can be used to instantaneously reproduce the temperature fields in an ensemble with a substantial saving in storage and time. The statistical model exploits the gridded geometry of the data and parallelization across processors. It is therefore computationally convenient and allows to fit a non-trivial model to a data set of one billion data points with a covariance matrix comprising of 10^18 entries.

  2. Algorithms for Fast Computing of the 3D-DCT Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hanus


    Full Text Available The algorithm for video compression based on the Three-DimensionalDiscrete Cosine Transform (3D-DCT is presented. The original algorithmof the 3D-DCT has high time complexity. We propose several enhancementsto the original algorithm and make the calculation of the DCT algorithmfeasible for future real-time video compression.

  3. Study on data compression algorithm and its implementation in portable electronic device for Internet of Things applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi Nor Asilah


    Full Text Available An Internet of Things (IoT device is usually powered by a small battery, which does not last long. As a result, saving energy in IoT devices has become an important issue when it comes to this subject. Since power consumption is the primary cause of radio communication, some researchers have proposed several compression algorithms with the purpose of overcoming this particular problem. Several data compression algorithms from previous reference papers are discussed in this paper. The description of the compression algorithm in the reference papers was collected and summarized in a table form. From the analysis, MAS compression algorithm was selected as a project prototype due to its high potential for meeting the project requirements. Besides that, it also produced better performance regarding energy-saving, better memory usage, and data transmission efficiency. This method is also suitable to be implemented in WSN. MAS compression algorithm will be prototyped and applied in portable electronic devices for Internet of Things applications.

  4. Study on data compression algorithm and its implementation in portable electronic device for Internet of Things applications (United States)

    Asilah Khairi, Nor; Bahari Jambek, Asral


    An Internet of Things (IoT) device is usually powered by a small battery, which does not last long. As a result, saving energy in IoT devices has become an important issue when it comes to this subject. Since power consumption is the primary cause of radio communication, some researchers have proposed several compression algorithms with the purpose of overcoming this particular problem. Several data compression algorithms from previous reference papers are discussed in this paper. The description of the compression algorithm in the reference papers was collected and summarized in a table form. From the analysis, MAS compression algorithm was selected as a project prototype due to its high potential for meeting the project requirements. Besides that, it also produced better performance regarding energy-saving, better memory usage, and data transmission efficiency. This method is also suitable to be implemented in WSN. MAS compression algorithm will be prototyped and applied in portable electronic devices for Internet of Things applications.

  5. Innovative Video Diagnostic Equipment for Material Science (United States)

    Capuano, G.; Titomanlio, D.; Soellner, W.; Seidel, A.


    Materials science experiments under microgravity increasingly rely on advanced optical systems to determine the physical properties of the samples under investigation. This includes video systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. The acquisition, handling, storage and transmission to ground of the resulting video data are very challenging. Since the available downlink data rate is limited, the capability to compress the video data significantly without compromising the data quality is essential. We report on the development of a Digital Video System (DVS) for EML (Electro Magnetic Levitator) which provides real-time video acquisition, high compression using advanced Wavelet algorithms, storage and transmission of a continuous flow of video with different characteristics in terms of image dimensions and frame rates. The DVS is able to operate with the latest generation of high-performance cameras acquiring high resolution video images up to 4Mpixels@60 fps or high frame rate video images up to about 1000 fps@512x512pixels.

  6. Using Genetic Algorithm for Eye Detection and Tracking in Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Akashi


    Full Text Available We propose a high-speed size and orientation invariant eye tracking method, which can acquire numerical parameters to represent the size and orientation of the eye. In this paper, we discuss that high tolerance in human head movement and real-time processing that are needed for many applications, such as eye gaze tracking. The generality of the method is also important. We use template matching with genetic algorithm, in order to overcome these problems. A high speed and accuracy tracking scheme using Evolutionary Video Processing for eye detection and tracking is proposed. Usually, a genetic algorithm is unsuitable for a real-time processing, however, we achieved real-time processing. The generality of this proposed method is provided by the artificial iris template used. In our simulations, an eye tracking accuracy is 97.9% and, an average processing time of 28 milliseconds per frame.

  7. Image Steganography of Multiple File Types with Encryption and Compression Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Andreigh C. Centina


    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to develop a system intended for securing files through the technique of image steganography integrated with cryptography by utilizing ZLIB Algorithm for compressing and decompressing secret files, DES Algorithm for encryption and decryption, and Least Significant Bit Algorithm for file embedding and extraction to avoid compromise on highly confidential files from exploits of unauthorized persons. Ensuing to this, the system is in acc ordance with ISO 9126 international quality standards. Every quality criteria of the system was evaluated by 10 Information Technology professionals, and the arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of the survey were computed. The result exhibits that m ost of them strongly agreed that the system is excellently effective based on Functionality, Reliability, Usability, Efficiency, Maintainability and Portability conformance to ISO 9126 standards. The system was found to be a useful tool for both governmen t agencies and private institutions for it could keep not only the message secret but also the existence of that particular message or file et maintaining the privacy of highly confidential and sensitive files from unauthorized access.

  8. Dragonfly: an implementation of the expand-maximize-compress algorithm for single-particle imaging. (United States)

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N Duane


    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map and then phase reconstructed. In this paper, the Dragonfly software package is described, based on a parallel implementation of the expand-maximize-compress reconstruction algorithm that is well suited for this task. Auxiliary modules to simulate SPI data streams are also included to assess the feasibility of proposed SPI experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford, California, USA.

  9. Surpassing the Theoretical 1-Norm Phase Transition in Compressive Sensing by Tuning the Smoothed L0 Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxvig, Christian Schou; Pedersen, Patrick Steffen; Arildsen, Thomas


    Reconstruction of an undersampled signal is at the root of compressive sensing: when is an algorithm capable of reconstructing the signal? what quality is achievable? and how much time does reconstruction require? We have considered the worst-case performance of the smoothed ℓ0 norm reconstruction...... algorithm in a noiseless setup. Through an empirical tuning of its parameters, we have improved the phase transition (capabilities) of the algorithm for fixed quality and required time. In this paper, we present simulation results that show a phase transition surpassing that of the theoretical ℓ1 approach......: the proposed modified algorithm obtains 1-norm phase transition with greatly reduced required computation time....

  10. A Novel Object Tracking Algorithm Based on Compressed Sensing and Entropy of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ma


    Full Text Available Object tracking has always been a hot research topic in the field of computer vision; its purpose is to track objects with specific characteristics or representation and estimate the information of objects such as their locations, sizes, and rotation angles in the current frame. Object tracking in complex scenes will usually encounter various sorts of challenges, such as location change, dimension change, illumination change, perception change, and occlusion. This paper proposed a novel object tracking algorithm based on compressed sensing and information entropy to address these challenges. First, objects are characterized by the Haar (Haar-like and ORB features. Second, the dimensions of computation space of the Haar and ORB features are effectively reduced through compressed sensing. Then the above-mentioned features are fused based on information entropy. Finally, in the particle filter framework, an object location was obtained by selecting candidate object locations in the current frame from the local context neighboring the optimal locations in the last frame. Our extensive experimental results demonstrated that this method was able to effectively address the challenges of perception change, illumination change, and large area occlusion, which made it achieve better performance than existing approaches such as MIL and CT.

  11. On use of image quality metrics for perceptual blur modeling: image/video compression case (United States)

    Cha, Jae H.; Olson, Jeffrey T.; Preece, Bradley L.; Espinola, Richard L.; Abbott, A. Lynn


    Linear system theory is employed to make target acquisition performance predictions for electro-optical/infrared imaging systems where the modulation transfer function (MTF) may be imposed from a nonlinear degradation process. Previous research relying on image quality metrics (IQM) methods, which heuristically estimate perceived MTF has supported that an average perceived MTF can be used to model some types of degradation such as image compression. Here, we discuss the validity of the IQM approach by mathematically analyzing the associated heuristics from the perspective of reliability, robustness, and tractability. Experiments with standard images compressed by x.264 encoding suggest that the compression degradation can be estimated by a perceived MTF within boundaries defined by well-behaved curves with marginal error. Our results confirm that the IQM linearizer methodology provides a credible tool for sensor performance modeling.

  12. Design considerations for view interpolation in a 3D video coding framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morvan, Y.; Farin, D.S.; With, de P.H.N.; Lagendijk, R.L.; Weber, Jos H.; Berg, van den A.F.M.


    A 3D video stream typically consists of a set of views capturing simultaneously the same scene. For an efficient transmission of the 3D video, a compression technique is required. In this paper, we describe a coding architecture and appropriate algorithms that enable the compression and

  13. Resolution enhancement of low quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.


    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of

  14. An efficient HW and SW design of H.264 video compression, storage and playback on FPGA devices for handheld thermal imaging systems (United States)

    Gunay, Omer; Ozsarac, Ismail; Kamisli, Fatih


    Video recording is an essential property of new generation military imaging systems. Playback of the stored video on the same device is also desirable as it provides several operational benefits to end users. Two very important constraints for many military imaging systems, especially for hand-held devices and thermal weapon sights, are power consumption and size. To meet these constraints, it is essential to perform most of the processing applied to the video signal, such as preprocessing, compression, storing, decoding, playback and other system functions on a single programmable chip, such as FPGA, DSP, GPU or ASIC. In this work, H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) compatible video compression, storage, decoding and playback blocks are efficiently designed and implemented on FPGA platforms using FPGA fabric and Altera NIOS II soft processor. Many subblocks that are used in video encoding are also used during video decoding in order to save FPGA resources and power. Computationally complex blocks are designed using FPGA fabric, while blocks such as SD card write/read, H.264 syntax decoding and CAVLC decoding are done using NIOS processor to benefit from software flexibility. In addition, to keep power consumption low, the system was designed to require limited external memory access. The design was tested using 640x480 25 fps thermal camera on CYCLONE V FPGA, which is the ALTERA's lowest power FPGA family, and consumes lower than 40% of CYCLONE V 5CEFA7 FPGA resources on average.

  15. ISTA-Net: Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm Inspired Deep Network for Image Compressive Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jian


    Traditional methods for image compressive sensing (CS) reconstruction solve a well-defined inverse problem that is based on a predefined CS model, which defines the underlying structure of the problem and is generally solved by employing convergent iterative solvers. These optimization-based CS methods face the challenge of choosing optimal transforms and tuning parameters in their solvers, while also suffering from high computational complexity in most cases. Recently, some deep network based CS algorithms have been proposed to improve CS reconstruction performance, while dramatically reducing time complexity as compared to optimization-based methods. Despite their impressive results, the proposed networks (either with fully-connected or repetitive convolutional layers) lack any structural diversity and they are trained as a black box, void of any insights from the CS domain. In this paper, we combine the merits of both types of CS methods: the structure insights of optimization-based method and the performance/speed of network-based ones. We propose a novel structured deep network, dubbed ISTA-Net, which is inspired by the Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm (ISTA) for optimizing a general $l_1$ norm CS reconstruction model. ISTA-Net essentially implements a truncated form of ISTA, where all ISTA-Net parameters are learned end-to-end to minimize a reconstruction error in training. Borrowing more insights from the optimization realm, we propose an accelerated version of ISTA-Net, dubbed FISTA-Net, which is inspired by the fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA). Interestingly, this acceleration naturally leads to skip connections in the underlying network design. Extensive CS experiments demonstrate that the proposed ISTA-Net and FISTA-Net outperform existing optimization-based and network-based CS methods by large margins, while maintaining a fast runtime.

  16. Pilot study on real-time motion detection in UAS video data by human observer and image exploitation algorithm (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Voit, Michael; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen


    Real-time motion video analysis is a challenging and exhausting task for the human observer, particularly in safety and security critical domains. Hence, customized video analysis systems providing functions for the analysis of subtasks like motion detection or target tracking are welcome. While such automated algorithms relieve the human operators from performing basic subtasks, they impose additional interaction duties on them. Prior work shows that, e.g., for interaction with target tracking algorithms, a gaze-enhanced user interface is beneficial. In this contribution, we present an investigation on interaction with an independent motion detection (IDM) algorithm. Besides identifying an appropriate interaction technique for the user interface - again, we compare gaze-based and traditional mouse-based interaction - we focus on the benefit an IDM algorithm might provide for an UAS video analyst. In a pilot study, we exposed ten subjects to the task of moving target detection in UAS video data twice, once performing with automatic support, once performing without it. We compare the two conditions considering performance in terms of effectiveness (correct target selections). Additionally, we report perceived workload (measured using the NASA-TLX questionnaire) and user satisfaction (measured using the ISO 9241-411 questionnaire). The results show that a combination of gaze input and automated IDM algorithm provides valuable support for the human observer, increasing the number of correct target selections up to 62% and reducing workload at the same time.

  17. The formation of spiral galaxies: adiabatic compression with Young's algorithm and the relation of dark matter haloes to their primordial antecedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Sellwood, J. A.; de Blok, W. J. G.

    We utilize Young's algorithm to model the adiabatic compression of the dark matter haloes of galaxies in the THINGS survey to determine the relationship between the halo fit to the rotation curve and the corresponding primordial halo prior to compression. Young's algorithm conserves radial action

  18. A New RTL Design Approach for a DCT/IDCT-Based Image Compression Architecture using the mCBE Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Vidya Wicaksana Putra


    Full Text Available In the literature, several approaches of designing a DCT/IDCT-based image compression system have been proposed. In this paper, we present a new RTL design approach with as main focus developing a DCT/IDCT-based image compression architecture using a self-created algorithm. This algorithm can efficiently minimize the amount of shifter-adders to substitute multipliers. We call this new algorithm the multiplication from Common Binary Expression (mCBE Algorithm. Besides this algorithm, we propose alternative quantization numbers, which can be implemented simply as shifters in digital hardware. Mostly, these numbers can retain a good compressed-image quality compared to JPEG recommendations. These ideas lead to our design being small in circuit area, multiplierless, and low in complexity. The proposed 8-point 1D-DCT design has only six stages, while the 8-point 1D-IDCT design has only seven stages (one stage being defined as equal to the delay of one shifter or 2-input adder. By using the pipelining method, we can achieve a high-speed architecture with latency as a trade-off consideration. The design has been synthesized and can reach a speed of up to 1.41ns critical path delay (709.22MHz.

  19. A 3-Step Algorithm Using Region-Based Active Contours for Video Objects Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Jehan-Besson


    Full Text Available We propose a 3-step algorithm for the automatic detection of moving objects in video sequences using region-based active contours. First, we introduce a very full general framework for region-based active contours with a new Eulerian method to compute the evolution equation of the active contour from a criterion including both region-based and boundary-based terms. This framework can be easily adapted to various applications, thanks to the introduction of functions named descriptors of the different regions. With this new Eulerian method based on shape optimization principles, we can easily take into account the case of descriptors depending upon features globally attached to the regions. Second, we propose a 3-step algorithm for detection of moving objects, with a static or a mobile camera, using region-based active contours. The basic idea is to hierarchically associate temporal and spatial information. The active contour evolves with successively three sets of descriptors: a temporal one, and then two spatial ones. The third spatial descriptor takes advantage of the segmentation of the image in intensity homogeneous regions. User interaction is reduced to the choice of a few parameters at the beginning of the process. Some experimental results are supplied.

  20. Study on a High Compression Processing for Video-on-Demand e-learning System (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshihiko; Matsuda, Ryutaro; Sakamoto, Ryota; Sugiura, Tokuhiro; Matsui, Hirokazu; Kato, Norihiko

    The authors proposed a high-quality and small-capacity lecture-video-file creating system for distance e-learning system. Examining the feature of the lecturing scene, the authors ingeniously employ two kinds of image-capturing equipment having complementary characteristics : one is a digital video camera with a low resolution and a high frame rate, and the other is a digital still camera with a high resolution and a very low frame rate. By managing the two kinds of image-capturing equipment, and by integrating them with image processing, we can produce course materials with the greatly reduced file capacity : the course materials satisfy the requirements both for the temporal resolution to see the lecturer's point-indicating actions and for the high spatial resolution to read the small written letters. As a result of a comparative experiment, the e-lecture using the proposed system was confirmed to be more effective than an ordinary lecture from the viewpoint of educational effect.

  1. Video compression and DICOM proxies for remote viewing of DICOM images (United States)

    Khorasani, Elahe; Sheinin, Vadim; Paulovicks, Brent; Jagmohan, Ashish


    Digital medical images are rapidly growing in size and volume. A typical study includes multiple image "slices." These images have a special format and a communication protocol referred to as DICOM (Digital Imaging Communications in Medicine). Storing, retrieving, and viewing these images are handled by DICOM-enabled systems. DICOM images are stored in central repository servers called PACS (Picture Archival and Communication Systems). Remote viewing stations are DICOM-enabled applications that can query the PACS servers and retrieve the DICOM images for viewing. Modern medical images are quite large, reaching as much as 1 GB per file. When the viewing station is connected to the PACS server via a high-bandwidth local LAN, downloading of the images is relatively efficient and does not cause significant wasted time for physicians. Problems arise when the viewing station is located in a remote facility that has a low-bandwidth link to the PACS server. If the link between the PACS and remote facility is in the range of 1 Mbit/sec, downloading medical images is very slow. To overcome this problem, medical images are compressed to reduce the size for transmission. This paper describes a method of compression that maintains diagnostic quality of images while significantly reducing the volume to be transmitted, without any change to the existing PACS servers and viewer software, and without requiring any change in the way doctors retrieve and view images today.

  2. Multi-objective optimization of an underwater compressed air energy storage system using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Brian C.; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S.K.


    This paper presents the findings from a multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization study on the design parameters of an underwater compressed air energy storage system (UWCAES). A 4 MWh UWCAES system was numerically simulated and its energy, exergy, and exergoeconomics were analysed. Optimal system configurations were determined that maximized the UWCAES system round-trip efficiency and operating profit, and minimized the cost rate of exergy destruction and capital expenditures. The optimal solutions obtained from the multi-objective optimization model formed a Pareto-optimal front, and a single preferred solution was selected using the pseudo-weight vector multi-criteria decision making approach. A sensitivity analysis was performed on interest rates to gauge its impact on preferred system designs. Results showed similar preferred system designs for all interest rates in the studied range. The round-trip efficiency and operating profit of the preferred system designs were approximately 68.5% and $53.5/cycle, respectively. The cost rate of the system increased with interest rates. - Highlights: • UWCAES system configurations were developed using multi-objective optimization. • System was optimized for energy efficiency, exergy, and exergoeconomics • Pareto-optimal solution surfaces were developed at different interest rates. • Similar preferred system configurations were found at all interest rates studied

  3. Film Cooling Optimization Using Numerical Computation of the Compressible Viscous Flow Equations and Simplex Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elsayed


    Full Text Available Film cooling is vital to gas turbine blades to protect them from high temperatures and hence high thermal stresses. In the current work, optimization of film cooling parameters on a flat plate is investigated numerically. The effect of film cooling parameters such as inlet velocity direction, lateral and forward diffusion angles, blowing ratio, and streamwise angle on the cooling effectiveness is studied, and optimum cooling parameters are selected. The numerical simulation of the coolant flow through flat plate hole system is carried out using the “CFDRC package” coupled with the optimization algorithm “simplex” to maximize overall film cooling effectiveness. Unstructured finite volume technique is used to solve the steady, three-dimensional and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The results are compared with the published numerical and experimental data of a cylindrically round-simple hole, and the results show good agreement. In addition, the results indicate that the average overall film cooling effectiveness is enhanced by decreasing the streamwise angle for high blowing ratio and by increasing the lateral and forward diffusion angles. Optimum geometry of the cooling hole on a flat plate is determined. In addition, numerical simulations of film cooling on actual turbine blade are performed using the flat plate optimal hole geometry.

  4. Hierarchical video summarization (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.


    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  5. Method and algorithm for efficient calibration of compressive hyperspectral imaging system based on a liquid crystal retarder (United States)

    Shecter, Liat; Oiknine, Yaniv; August, Isaac; Stern, Adrian


    Recently we presented a Compressive Sensing Miniature Ultra-spectral Imaging System (CS-MUSI)1 . This system consists of a single Liquid Crystal (LC) phase retarder as a spectral modulator and a gray scale sensor array to capture a multiplexed signal of the imaged scene. By designing the LC spectral modulator in compliance with the Compressive Sensing (CS) guidelines and applying appropriate algorithms we demonstrated reconstruction of spectral (hyper/ ultra) datacubes from an order of magnitude fewer samples than taken by conventional sensors. The LC modulator is designed to have an effective width of a few tens of micrometers, therefore it is prone to imperfections and spatial nonuniformity. In this work, we present the study of this nonuniformity and present a mathematical algorithm that allows the inference of the spectral transmission over the entire cell area from only a few calibration measurements.

  6. Basic prediction techniques in modern video coding standards

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Byung-Gyu


    This book discusses in detail the basic algorithms of video compression that are widely used in modern video codec. The authors dissect complicated specifications and present material in a way that gets readers quickly up to speed by describing video compression algorithms succinctly, without going to the mathematical details and technical specifications. For accelerated learning, hybrid codec structure, inter- and intra- prediction techniques in MPEG-4, H.264/AVC, and HEVC are discussed together. In addition, the latest research in the fast encoder design for the HEVC and H.264/AVC is also included.

  7. Telemedicine + OCT: toward design of optimized algorithms for high-quality compressed images (United States)

    Mousavi, Mahta; Lurie, Kristen; Land, Julian; Javidi, Tara; Ellerbee, Audrey K.


    Telemedicine is an emerging technology that aims to provide clinical healthcare at a distance. Among its goals, the transfer of diagnostic images over telecommunication channels has been quite appealing to the medical community. When viewed as an adjunct to biomedical device hardware, one highly important consideration aside from the transfer rate and speed is the accuracy of the reconstructed image at the receiver end. Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an established imaging technique that is ripe for telemedicine, the effects of OCT data compression, which may be necessary on certain telemedicine platforms, have not received much attention in the literature. We investigate the performance and efficiency of several lossless and lossy compression techniques for OCT data and characterize their effectiveness with respect to achievable compression ratio, compression rate and preservation of image quality. We examine the effects of compression in the interferogram vs. A-scan domain as assessed with various objective and subjective metrics.

  8. Supercomputer implementation of finite element algorithms for high speed compressible flows. Progress report, period ending 30 June 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.A.; Ramakrishnan, R.


    Prediction of compressible flow phenomena using the finite element method is of recent origin and considerable interest. Two shock capturing finite element formulations for high speed compressible flows are described. A Taylor-Galerkin formulation uses a Taylor series expansion in time coupled with a Galerkin weighted residual statement. The Taylor-Galerkin algorithms use explicit artificial dissipation, and the performance of three dissipation models are compared. A Petrov-Galerkin algorithm has as its basis the concepts of streamline upwinding. Vectorization strategies are developed to implement the finite element formulations on the NASA Langley VPS-32. The vectorization scheme results in finite element programs that use vectors of length of the order of the number of nodes or elements. The use of the vectorization procedure speeds up processing rates by over two orders of magnitude. The Taylor-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin algorithms are evaluated for 2D inviscid flows on criteria such as solution accuracy, shock resolution, computational speed and storage requirements. The convergence rates for both algorithms are enhanced by local time-stepping schemes. Extension of the vectorization procedure for predicting 2D viscous and 3D inviscid flows are demonstrated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the finite element procedures for realistic problems that require hundreds of thousands of nodes

  9. Dependency of human target detection performance on clutter and quality of supporting image analysis algorithms in a video surveillance task (United States)

    Huber, Samuel; Dunau, Patrick; Wellig, Peter; Stein, Karin


    Background: In target detection, the success rates depend strongly on human observer performances. Two prior studies tested the contributions of target detection algorithms and prior training sessions. The aim of this Swiss-German cooperation study was to evaluate the dependency of human observer performance on the quality of supporting image analysis algorithms. Methods: The participants were presented 15 different video sequences. Their task was to detect all targets in the shortest possible time. Each video sequence showed a heavily cluttered simulated public area from a different viewing angle. In each video sequence, the number of avatars in the area was altered to 100, 150 and 200 subjects. The number of targets appearing was kept at 10%. The number of marked targets varied from 0, 5, 10, 20 up to 40 marked subjects while keeping the positive predictive value of the detection algorithm at 20%. During the task, workload level was assessed by applying an acoustic secondary task. Detection rates and detection times for the targets were analyzed using inferential statistics. Results: The study found Target Detection Time to increase and Target Detection Rates to decrease with increasing numbers of avatars. The same is true for the Secondary Task Reaction Time while there was no effect on Secondary Task Hit Rate. Furthermore, we found a trend for a u-shaped correlation between the numbers of markings and RTST indicating increased workload. Conclusion: The trial results may indicate useful criteria for the design of training and support of observers in observational tasks.

  10. Fundamental study of compression for movie files of coronary angiography (United States)

    Ando, Takekazu; Tsuchiya, Yuichiro; Kodera, Yoshie


    When network distribution of movie files was considered as reference, it could be useful that the lossy compression movie files which has small file size. We chouse three kinds of coronary stricture movies with different moving speed as an examination object; heart rate of slow, normal and fast movies. The movies of MPEG-1, DivX5.11, WMV9 (Windows Media Video 9), and WMV9-VCM (Windows Media Video 9-Video Compression Manager) were made from three kinds of AVI format movies with different moving speeds. Five kinds of movies that are four kinds of compression movies and non-compression AVI instead of the DICOM format were evaluated by Thurstone's method. The Evaluation factors of movies were determined as "sharpness, granularity, contrast, and comprehensive evaluation." In the virtual bradycardia movie, AVI was the best evaluation at all evaluation factors except the granularity. In the virtual normal movie, an excellent compression technique is different in all evaluation factors. In the virtual tachycardia movie, MPEG-1 was the best evaluation at all evaluation factors expects the contrast. There is a good compression form depending on the speed of movies because of the difference of compression algorithm. It is thought that it is an influence by the difference of the compression between frames. The compression algorithm for movie has the compression between the frames and the intra-frame compression. As the compression algorithm give the different influence to image by each compression method, it is necessary to examine the relation of the compression algorithm and our results.

  11. Evaluation of a wavelet-based compression algorithm applied to the silicon drift detectors data of the ALICE experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falchieri, Davide; Gandolfi, Enzo; Masotti, Matteo


    This paper evaluates the performances of a wavelet-based compression algorithm applied to the data produced by the silicon drift detectors of the ALICE experiment at CERN. This compression algorithm is a general purpose lossy technique, in other words, its application could prove useful even on a wide range of other data reduction's problems. In particular the design targets relevant for our wavelet-based compression algorithm are the following ones: a high-compression coefficient, a reconstruction error as small as possible and a very limited execution time. Interestingly, the results obtained are quite close to the ones achieved by the algorithm implemented in the first prototype of the chip CARLOS, the chip that will be used in the silicon drift detectors readout chain

  12. Discontinuity minimization for omnidirectional video projections (United States)

    Alshina, Elena; Zakharchenko, Vladyslav


    Advances in display technologies both for head mounted devices and television panels demand resolution increase beyond 4K for source signal in virtual reality video streaming applications. This poses a problem of content delivery trough a bandwidth limited distribution networks. Considering a fact that source signal covers entire surrounding space investigation reviled that compression efficiency may fluctuate 40% in average depending on origin selection at the conversion stage from 3D space to 2D projection. Based on these knowledge the origin selection algorithm for video compression applications has been proposed. Using discontinuity entropy minimization function projection origin rotation may be defined to provide optimal compression results. Outcome of this research may be applied across various video compression solutions for omnidirectional content.

  13. Application aware approach to compression and transmission of H.264 encoded video for automated and centralized transportation surveillance. (United States)


    In this report we present a transportation video coding and wireless transmission system specically tailored to automated : vehicle tracking applications. By taking into account the video characteristics and the lossy nature of the wireless channe...

  14. Study on the effects of sample selection on spectral reflectance reconstruction based on the algorithm of compressive sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Leihong; Liang, Dong


    In order to solve the problem that reconstruction efficiency and precision is not high, in this paper different samples are selected to reconstruct spectral reflectance, and a new kind of spectral reflectance reconstruction method based on the algorithm of compressive sensing is provided. Four different color numbers of matte color cards such as the ColorChecker Color Rendition Chart and Color Checker SG, the copperplate paper spot color card of Panton, and the Munsell colors card are chosen as training samples, the spectral image is reconstructed respectively by the algorithm of compressive sensing and pseudo-inverse and Wiener, and the results are compared. These methods of spectral reconstruction are evaluated by root mean square error and color difference accuracy. The experiments show that the cumulative contribution rate and color difference of the Munsell colors card are better than those of the other three numbers of color cards in the same conditions of reconstruction, and the accuracy of the spectral reconstruction will be affected by the training sample of different numbers of color cards. The key technology of reconstruction means that the uniformity and representation of the training sample selection has important significance upon reconstruction. In this paper, the influence of the sample selection on the spectral image reconstruction is studied. The precision of the spectral reconstruction based on the algorithm of compressive sensing is higher than that of the traditional algorithm of spectral reconstruction. By the MATLAB simulation results, it can be seen that the spectral reconstruction precision and efficiency are affected by the different color numbers of the training sample. (paper)

  15. Compression and channel-coding algorithms for high-definition television signals (United States)

    Alparone, Luciano; Benelli, Giuliano; Fabbri, A. F.


    In this paper results of investigations about the effects of channel errors in the transmission of images compressed by means of techniques based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DOT) and Vector Quantization (VQ) are presented. Since compressed images are heavily degraded by noise in the transmission channel more seriously for what concern VQ-coded images theoretical studies and simulations are presented in order to define and evaluate this degradation. Some channel coding schemes are proposed in order to protect information during transmission. Hamming codes (7 (15 and (31 have been used for DCT-compressed images more powerful codes such as Golay (23 for VQ-compressed images. Performances attainable with softdecoding techniques are also evaluated better quality images have been obtained than using classical hard decoding techniques. All tests have been carried out to simulate the transmission of a digital image from HDTV signal over an AWGN channel with P5K modulation.

  16. Analysis of Compression Algorithm in Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-GCAS) (United States)

    Schmalz, Tyler; Ryan, Jack


    Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-GCAS) utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) stored onboard a plane to determine potential recovery maneuvers. Because of the current limitations of computer hardware on military airplanes such as the F-22 and F-35, the DTED must be compressed through a lossy technique called binary-tree tip-tilt. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the compressed data with respect to the original DTED. This study is mainly interested in the magnitude of the error between the two as well as the overall distribution of the errors throughout the DTED. By understanding how the errors of the compression technique are affected by various factors (topography, density of sampling points, sub-sampling techniques, etc.), modifications can be made to the compression technique resulting in better accuracy. This, in turn, would minimize unnecessary activation of A-GCAS during flight as well as maximizing its contribution to fighter safety.

  17. Temporal Segmentation of MPEG Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Calic


    Full Text Available Many algorithms for temporal video partitioning rely on the analysis of uncompressed video features. Since the information relevant to the partitioning process can be extracted directly from the MPEG compressed stream, higher efficiency can be achieved utilizing information from the MPEG compressed domain. This paper introduces a real-time algorithm for scene change detection that analyses the statistics of the macroblock features extracted directly from the MPEG stream. A method for extraction of the continuous frame difference that transforms the 3D video stream into a 1D curve is presented. This transform is then further employed to extract temporal units within the analysed video sequence. Results of computer simulations are reported.

  18. Processing Decoded Video for LCD-LED Backlight Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan

    The quality of digital images and video signal on visual media such as TV screens and LCD displays is affected by two main factors; the display technology and compression standards. Accurate knowledge about the characteristics of display and the video signal can be utilized to develop advanced...... on local LED-LCD backlight. Second, removing the digital video codec artifacts such as blocking and ringing artifacts by post-processing algorithms. A novel algorithm based on image features with optimal balance between visual quality and power consumption was developed. In addition, to remove flickering...... algorithms for signal (image or video) enhancement. One particular application of such algorithms is the case of LCDs with dynamic local backlight. The thesis addressed two main problems; first, designing algorithms that improve the visual quality of perceived image and video and reduce power consumption...

  19. Enhancement of Satellite Image Compression Using a Hybrid (DWT-DCT) Algorithm (United States)

    Shihab, Halah Saadoon; Shafie, Suhaidi; Ramli, Abdul Rahman; Ahmad, Fauzan


    Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) image compression techniques have been utilized in most of the earth observation satellites launched during the last few decades. However, these techniques have some issues that should be addressed. The DWT method has proven to be more efficient than DCT for several reasons. Nevertheless, the DCT can be exploited to improve the high-resolution satellite image compression when combined with the DWT technique. Hence, a proposed hybrid (DWT-DCT) method was developed and implemented in the current work, simulating an image compression system on-board on a small remote sensing satellite, with the aim of achieving a higher compression ratio to decrease the onboard data storage and the downlink bandwidth, while avoiding further complex levels of DWT. This method also succeeded in maintaining the reconstructed satellite image quality through replacing the standard forward DWT thresholding and quantization processes with an alternative process that employed the zero-padding technique, which also helped to reduce the processing time of DWT compression. The DCT, DWT and the proposed hybrid methods were implemented individually, for comparison, on three LANDSAT 8 images, using the MATLAB software package. A comparison was also made between the proposed method and three other previously published hybrid methods. The evaluation of all the objective and subjective results indicated the feasibility of using the proposed hybrid (DWT-DCT) method to enhance the image compression process on-board satellites.

  20. Watermarking textures in video games (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin


    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  1. Human features detection in video surveillance


    Barbosa, Patrícia Margarida Silva de Castro Neves


    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Eletrónica Industrial e Computadores Human activity recognition algorithms have been studied actively from decades using a sequence of 2D and 3D images from a video surveillance. This new surveillance solutions and the areas of image processing and analysis have been receiving special attention and interest from the scientific community. Thus, it became possible to witness the appearance of new video compression techniques, the tr...

  2. A Novel High Efficiency Fractal Multiview Video Codec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Zhu


    Full Text Available Multiview video which is one of the main types of three-dimensional (3D video signals, captured by a set of video cameras from various viewpoints, has attracted much interest recently. Data compression for multiview video has become a major issue. In this paper, a novel high efficiency fractal multiview video codec is proposed. Firstly, intraframe algorithm based on the H.264/AVC intraprediction modes and combining fractal and motion compensation (CFMC algorithm in which range blocks are predicted by domain blocks in the previously decoded frame using translational motion with gray value transformation is proposed for compressing the anchor viewpoint video. Then temporal-spatial prediction structure and fast disparity estimation algorithm exploiting parallax distribution constraints are designed to compress the multiview video data. The proposed fractal multiview video codec can exploit temporal and spatial correlations adequately. Experimental results show that it can obtain about 0.36 dB increase in the decoding quality and 36.21% decrease in encoding bitrate compared with JMVC8.5, and the encoding time is saved by 95.71%. The rate-distortion comparisons with other multiview video coding methods also demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme.

  3. Caregiver's satisfaction with a video tutorial for shoulder dystocia management algorithm. (United States)

    Youssef, A; Salsi, G; Ragusa, A; Ghi, T; Pacella, G; Rizzo, N; Pilu, G


    In our questionnaire, a video tutorial illustrating the management of shoulder dystocia was considered by health personnel as a useful complementary training tool. We prepared a 5-min video tutorial on the management of shoulder dystocia, using a simulator that includes maternal pelvic and baby models. We performed a survey among obstetric personnel in order to assess their opinion on the tutorial by inviting them to watch the video tutorial and answer an online questionnaire. Five multiple-choice questions were set, focusing on the video's main objectives: clarity, simplicity and usefulness. Following the collection of answers, global and category-weighted analyses were conducted for each question. Out of 956 invitations sent, 482 (50.4%) answered the survey. More than 90% of all categories found the video tutorial to be clinically relevant and clear. For revising the management of shoulder dystocia most obstetric personnel would use the video tutorial together with traditional textbooks. In conclusion, our video tutorial was considered by health personnel as a useful complementary training tool.

  4. A Comparison of Compressed Sensing and Sparse Recovery Algorithms Applied to Simulation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Ju Fan


    Full Text Available The move toward exascale computing for scientific simulations is placing new demands on compression techniques. It is expected that the I/O system will not be able to support the volume of data that is expected to be written out. To enable quantitative analysis and scientific discovery, we are interested in techniques that compress high-dimensional simulation data and can provide perfect or near-perfect reconstruction.  In this paper, we explore the use of compressed sensing (CS techniques to reduce the size of the data before they are written out. Using large-scale simulation data, we investigate how the sufficient sparsity condition and the contrast in the data affect the quality of reconstruction and the degree of compression.  We provide suggestions for the practical implementation of CS techniques and compare them with other sparse recovery methods. Our results show that despite longer times for reconstruction, compressed sensing techniques can provide near perfect reconstruction over a range of data with varying sparsity.

  5. A compressed sensing based reconstruction algorithm for synchrotron source propagation-based X-ray phase contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melli, Seyed Ali, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wahid, Khan A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Babyn, Paul [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Montgomery, James [College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Snead, Elisabeth [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); El-Gayed, Ali [College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Pettitt, Murray; Wolkowski, Bailey [College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wesolowski, Michal [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    Synchrotron source propagation-based X-ray phase contrast computed tomography is increasingly used in pre-clinical imaging. However, it typically requires a large number of projections, and subsequently a large radiation dose, to produce high quality images. To improve the applicability of this imaging technique, reconstruction algorithms that can reduce the radiation dose and acquisition time without degrading image quality are needed. The proposed research focused on using a novel combination of Douglas–Rachford splitting and randomized Kaczmarz algorithms to solve large-scale total variation based optimization in a compressed sensing framework to reconstruct 2D images from a reduced number of projections. Visual assessment and quantitative performance evaluations of a synthetic abdomen phantom and real reconstructed image of an ex-vivo slice of canine prostate tissue demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive in reconstruction process compared with other well-known algorithms. An additional potential benefit of reducing the number of projections would be reduction of time for motion artifact to occur if the sample moves during image acquisition. Use of this reconstruction algorithm to reduce the required number of projections in synchrotron source propagation-based X-ray phase contrast computed tomography is an effective form of dose reduction that may pave the way for imaging of in-vivo samples.

  6. A Fast and Accurate Algorithm for l1 Minimization Problems in Compressive Sampling (Preprint) (United States)


    However, updating uk+1 via the formulation of Step 2 in Algorithm 1 can be implemented through the use of the component-wise Gauss - Seidel iteration which...may accelerate the rate of convergence of the algorithm and therefore reduce the total CPU-time consumed. The efficiency of component-wise Gauss - Seidel ...Micchelli, L. Shen, and Y. Xu, A proximity algorithm accelerated by Gauss - Seidel iterations for L1/TV denoising models, Inverse Problems, 28 (2012), p

  7. Study on the Detection of Moving Target in the Mining Method Based on Hybrid Algorithm for Sports Video Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tian


    Full Text Available Moving object detection and tracking is the computer vision and image processing is a hot research direction, based on the analysis of the moving target detection and tracking algorithm in common use, focus on the sports video target tracking non rigid body. In sports video, non rigid athletes often have physical deformation in the process of movement, and may be associated with the occurrence of moving target under cover. Media data is surging to fast search and query causes more difficulties in data. However, the majority of users want to be able to quickly from the multimedia data to extract the interested content and implicit knowledge (concepts, rules, rules, models and correlation, retrieval and query quickly to take advantage of them, but also can provide the decision support problem solving hierarchy. Based on the motion in sport video object as the object of study, conducts the system research from the theoretical level and technical framework and so on, from the layer by layer mining between low level motion features to high-level semantic motion video, not only provides support for users to find information quickly, but also can provide decision support for the user to solve the problem.

  8. Investigation of a Huffman-based compression algorithm for the ALICE TPC read-out in LHC Run 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klewin, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration


    Within the scope of the ALICE upgrade towards the Run 3 of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, starting in 2020, the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will be reworked in order to allow for a continuous read-out. This rework includes not only a replacement of the current read-out chambers with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology, but also new front-end electronics. To be able to read out the whole data stream without loosing information, in particular without zero-suppression, a lossless compression algorithm, the Huffman encoding, was investigated and adapted to the needs of the TPC. In this talk, an algorithm, adapted for an FPGA implementation, is presented. We show its capability to reduce the data volume to less than 40% of its original size.

  9. A Novel Compressed Sensing Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Exponential Wavelet Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm with Random Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang


    Full Text Available Aim. It can help improve the hospital throughput to accelerate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanning. Patients will benefit from less waiting time. Task. In the last decade, various rapid MRI techniques on the basis of compressed sensing (CS were proposed. However, both computation time and reconstruction quality of traditional CS-MRI did not meet the requirement of clinical use. Method. In this study, a novel method was proposed with the name of exponential wavelet iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with random shift (abbreviated as EWISTARS. It is composed of three successful components: (i exponential wavelet transform, (ii iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm, and (iii random shift. Results. Experimental results validated that, compared to state-of-the-art approaches, EWISTARS obtained the least mean absolute error, the least mean-squared error, and the highest peak signal-to-noise ratio. Conclusion. EWISTARS is superior to state-of-the-art approaches.

  10. A Novel Compressed Sensing Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Exponential Wavelet Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm with Random Shift (United States)

    Zhang, Yudong; Yang, Jiquan; Yang, Jianfei; Liu, Aijun; Sun, Ping


    Aim. It can help improve the hospital throughput to accelerate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. Patients will benefit from less waiting time. Task. In the last decade, various rapid MRI techniques on the basis of compressed sensing (CS) were proposed. However, both computation time and reconstruction quality of traditional CS-MRI did not meet the requirement of clinical use. Method. In this study, a novel method was proposed with the name of exponential wavelet iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with random shift (abbreviated as EWISTARS). It is composed of three successful components: (i) exponential wavelet transform, (ii) iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm, and (iii) random shift. Results. Experimental results validated that, compared to state-of-the-art approaches, EWISTARS obtained the least mean absolute error, the least mean-squared error, and the highest peak signal-to-noise ratio. Conclusion. EWISTARS is superior to state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:27066068

  11. Compression of Index Term Dictionary in an Inverted-File-Oriented Database: Some Effective Algorithms. (United States)

    Wisniewski, Janusz L.


    Discussion of a new method of index term dictionary compression in an inverted-file-oriented database highlights a technique of word coding, which generates short fixed-length codes obtained from the index terms themselves by analysis of monogram and bigram statistical distributions. Substantial savings in communication channel utilization are…

  12. Comparison of high order algorithms in Aerosol and Aghora for compressible flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbengoue D. A.


    Full Text Available This article summarizes the work done within the Colargol project during CEMRACS 2012. The aim of this project is to compare the implementations of high order finite element methods for compressible flows that have been developed at ONERA and at INRIA for about one year, within the Aghora and Aerosol libraries.

  13. Handling the data management needs of high-throughput sequencing data: SpeedGene, a compression algorithm for the efficient storage of genetic data (United States)


    Background As Next-Generation Sequencing data becomes available, existing hardware environments do not provide sufficient storage space and computational power to store and process the data due to their enormous size. This is and will be a frequent problem that is encountered everyday by researchers who are working on genetic data. There are some options available for compressing and storing such data, such as general-purpose compression software, PBAT/PLINK binary format, etc. However, these currently available methods either do not offer sufficient compression rates, or require a great amount of CPU time for decompression and loading every time the data is accessed. Results Here, we propose a novel and simple algorithm for storing such sequencing data. We show that, the compression factor of the algorithm ranges from 16 to several hundreds, which potentially allows SNP data of hundreds of Gigabytes to be stored in hundreds of Megabytes. We provide a C++ implementation of the algorithm, which supports direct loading and parallel loading of the compressed format without requiring extra time for decompression. By applying the algorithm to simulated and real datasets, we show that the algorithm gives greater compression rate than the commonly used compression methods, and the data-loading process takes less time. Also, The C++ library provides direct-data-retrieving functions, which allows the compressed information to be easily accessed by other C++ programs. Conclusions The SpeedGene algorithm enables the storage and the analysis of next generation sequencing data in current hardware environment, making system upgrades unnecessary. PMID:22591016

  14. A New RTL Design Approach for a DCT/IDCT-Based Image Compression Architecture using the mCBE Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Vidya Wicaksana Putra


    Full Text Available In  the  literature, several approaches  of  designing  a  DCT/IDCT-based image compression system have been proposed.  In this paper,  we present a new RTL design approach with as main  focus developing a  DCT/IDCT-based image compression  architecture  using  a  self-created  algorithm.  This  algorithm  can efficiently  minimize  the  amount  of  shifter -adders  to  substitute  multiplier s.  We call  this  new  algorithm  the  multiplication  from  Common  Binary  Expression (mCBE  Algorithm. Besides this algorithm, we propose alternative quantization numbers,  which  can  be  implemented  simply  as  shifters  in  digital  hardware. Mostly, these numbers can retain a good compressed-image quality  compared to JPEG  recommendations.  These  ideas  lead  to  our  design  being  small  in  circuit area,  multiplierless,  and  low  in  complexity.  The  proposed  8-point  1D-DCT design  has  only  six  stages,  while  the  8-point  1D-IDCT  design  has  only  seven stages  (one  stage  being  defined as  equal  to  the  delay  of  one  shifter  or  2-input adder. By using the pipelining method, we can achieve a high-speed architecture with latency as    a  trade-off consideration. The  design has been synthesized and can reach a speed of up to 1.41ns critical path delay (709.22MHz. 

  15. An Efficient Fractal Video Sequences Codec with Multiviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Zhu


    Full Text Available Multiview video consists of multiple views of the same scene. They require enormous amount of data to achieve high image quality, which makes it indispensable to compress multiview video. Therefore, data compression is a major issue for multiviews. In this paper, we explore an efficient fractal video codec to compress multiviews. The proposed scheme first compresses a view-dependent geometry of the base view using fractal video encoder with homogeneous region condition. With the extended fractional pel motion estimation algorithm and fast disparity estimation algorithm, it then generates prediction images of other views. The prediction image uses the image-based rendering techniques based on the decoded video. And the residual signals are obtained by the prediction image and the original image. Finally, it encodes residual signals by the fractal video encoder. The idea is also to exploit the statistical dependencies from both temporal and interview reference pictures for motion compensated prediction. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is consistently better than JMVC8.5, with 62.25% bit rate decrease and 0.37 dB PSNR increase based on the Bjontegaard metric, and the total encoding time (TET of the proposed algorithm is reduced by 92%.

  16. 3D video coding: an overview of present and upcoming standards (United States)

    Merkle, Philipp; Müller, Karsten; Wiegand, Thomas


    An overview of existing and upcoming 3D video coding standards is given. Various different 3D video formats are available, each with individual pros and cons. The 3D video formats can be separated into two classes: video-only formats (such as stereo and multiview video) and depth-enhanced formats (such as video plus depth and multiview video plus depth). Since all these formats exist of at least two video sequences and possibly additional depth data, efficient compression is essential for the success of 3D video applications and technologies. For the video-only formats the H.264 family of coding standards already provides efficient and widely established compression algorithms: H.264/AVC simulcast, H.264/AVC stereo SEI message, and H.264/MVC. For the depth-enhanced formats standardized coding algorithms are currently being developed. New and specially adapted coding approaches are necessary, as the depth or disparity information included in these formats has significantly different characteristics than video and is not displayed directly, but used for rendering. Motivated by evolving market needs, MPEG has started an activity to develop a generic 3D video standard within the 3DVC ad-hoc group. Key features of the standard are efficient and flexible compression of depth-enhanced 3D video representations and decoupling of content creation and display requirements.

  17. Video quality pooling adaptive to perceptual distortion severity. (United States)

    Park, Jincheol; Seshadrinathan, Kalpana; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan Conrad


    It is generally recognized that severe video distortions that are transient in space and/or time have a large effect on overall perceived video quality. In order to understand this phenomena, we study the distribution of spatio-temporally local quality scores obtained from several video quality assessment (VQA) algorithms on videos suffering from compression and lossy transmission over communication channels. We propose a content adaptive spatial and temporal pooling strategy based on the observed distribution. Our method adaptively emphasizes "worst" scores along both the spatial and temporal dimensions of a video sequence and also considers the perceptual effect of large-area cohesive motion flow such as egomotion. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method by testing it using three different VQA algorithms on the LIVE Video Quality database and the EPFL-PoliMI video quality database.

  18. Supplementary Material for: Compressing an Ensemble With Statistical Models: An Algorithm for Global 3D Spatio-Temporal Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano


    One of the main challenges when working with modern climate model ensembles is the increasingly larger size of the data produced, and the consequent difficulty in storing large amounts of spatio-temporally resolved information. Many compression algorithms can be used to mitigate this problem, but since they are designed to compress generic scientific datasets, they do not account for the nature of climate model output and they compress only individual simulations. In this work, we propose a different, statistics-based approach that explicitly accounts for the space-time dependence of the data for annual global three-dimensional temperature fields in an initial condition ensemble. The set of estimated parameters is small (compared to the data size) and can be regarded as a summary of the essential structure of the ensemble output; therefore, it can be used to instantaneously reproduce the temperature fields in an ensemble with a substantial saving in storage and time. The statistical model exploits the gridded geometry of the data and parallelization across processors. It is therefore computationally convenient and allows to fit a nontrivial model to a dataset of 1 billion data points with a covariance matrix comprising of 1018 entries. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  19. A Multi-Frame Post-Processing Approach to Improved Decoding of H.264/AVC Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren


    Video compression techniques may yield visually annoying artifacts for limited bitrate coding. In order to improve video quality, a multi-frame based motion compensated filtering algorithm is reported based on combining multiple pictures to form a single super-resolution picture and decimation......, and annoying ringing artifacts are effectively suppressed....

  20. Video steganography based on bit-plane decomposition of wavelet-transformed video (United States)

    Noda, Hideki; Furuta, Tomofumi; Niimi, Michiharu; Kawaguchi, Eiji


    This paper presents a steganography method using lossy compressed video which provides a natural way to send a large amount of secret data. The proposed method is based on wavelet compression for video data and bit-plane complexity segmentation (BPCS) steganography. BPCS steganography makes use of bit-plane decomposition and the characteristics of the human vision system, where noise-like regions in bit-planes of a dummy image are replaced with secret data without deteriorating image quality. In wavelet-based video compression methods such as 3-D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm and Motion-JPEG2000, wavelet coefficients in discrete wavelet transformed video are quantized into a bit-plane structure and therefore BPCS steganography can be applied in the wavelet domain. 3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography and Motion-JPEG2000-BPCS steganography are presented and tested, which are the integration of 3-D SPIHT video coding and BPCS steganography, and that of Motion-JPEG2000 and BPCS, respectively. Experimental results show that 3-D SPIHT-BPCS is superior to Motion-JPEG2000-BPCS with regard to embedding performance. In 3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography, embedding rates of around 28% of the compressed video size are achieved for twelve bit representation of wavelet coefficients with no noticeable degradation in video quality.

  1. A Parallel Non-Overlapping Domain-Decomposition Algorithm for Compressible Fluid Flow Problems on Triangulated Domains (United States)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai


    This paper considers an algebraic preconditioning algorithm for hyperbolic-elliptic fluid flow problems. The algorithm is based on a parallel non-overlapping Schur complement domain-decomposition technique for triangulated domains. In the Schur complement technique, the triangulation is first partitioned into a number of non-overlapping subdomains and interfaces. This suggests a reordering of triangulation vertices which separates subdomain and interface solution unknowns. The reordering induces a natural 2 x 2 block partitioning of the discretization matrix. Exact LU factorization of this block system yields a Schur complement matrix which couples subdomains and the interface together. The remaining sections of this paper present a family of approximate techniques for both constructing and applying the Schur complement as a domain-decomposition preconditioner. The approximate Schur complement serves as an algebraic coarse space operator, thus avoiding the known difficulties associated with the direct formation of a coarse space discretization. In developing Schur complement approximations, particular attention has been given to improving sequential and parallel efficiency of implementations without significantly degrading the quality of the preconditioner. A computer code based on these developments has been tested on the IBM SP2 using MPI message passing protocol. A number of 2-D calculations are presented for both scalar advection-diffusion equations as well as the Euler equations governing compressible fluid flow to demonstrate performance of the preconditioning algorithm.

  2. ISTA-Net: Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm Inspired Deep Network for Image Compressive Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jian; Ghanem, Bernard


    and the performance/speed of network-based ones. We propose a novel structured deep network, dubbed ISTA-Net, which is inspired by the Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm (ISTA) for optimizing a general $l_1$ norm CS reconstruction model. ISTA-Net essentially

  3. An object-oriented and quadrilateral-mesh based solution adaptive algorithm for compressible multi-fluid flows (United States)

    Zheng, H. W.; Shu, C.; Chew, Y. T.


    In this paper, an object-oriented and quadrilateral-mesh based solution adaptive algorithm for the simulation of compressible multi-fluid flows is presented. The HLLC scheme (Harten, Lax and van Leer approximate Riemann solver with the Contact wave restored) is extended to adaptively solve the compressible multi-fluid flows under complex geometry on unstructured mesh. It is also extended to the second-order of accuracy by using MUSCL extrapolation. The node, edge and cell are arranged in such an object-oriented manner that each of them inherits from a basic object. A home-made double link list is designed to manage these objects so that the inserting of new objects and removing of the existing objects (nodes, edges and cells) are independent of the number of objects and only of the complexity of O( 1). In addition, the cells with different levels are further stored in different lists. This avoids the recursive calculation of solution of mother (non-leaf) cells. Thus, high efficiency is obtained due to these features. Besides, as compared to other cell-edge adaptive methods, the separation of nodes would reduce the memory requirement of redundant nodes, especially in the cases where the level number is large or the space dimension is three. Five two-dimensional examples are used to examine its performance. These examples include vortex evolution problem, interface only problem under structured mesh and unstructured mesh, bubble explosion under the water, bubble-shock interaction, and shock-interface interaction inside the cylindrical vessel. Numerical results indicate that there is no oscillation of pressure and velocity across the interface and it is feasible to apply it to solve compressible multi-fluid flows with large density ratio (1000) and strong shock wave (the pressure ratio is 10,000) interaction with the interface.

  4. DEFLATE Compression Algorithm Corrects for Overestimation of Phylogenetic Diversity by Grantham Approach to Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arran Schlosberg


    Full Text Available Improvements in speed and cost of genome sequencing are resulting in increasing numbers of novel non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs in genes known to be associated with disease. The large number of nsSNPs makes laboratory-based classification infeasible and familial co-segregation with disease is not always possible. In-silico methods for classification or triage are thus utilised. A popular tool based on multiple-species sequence alignments (MSAs and work by Grantham, Align-GVGD, has been shown to underestimate deleterious effects, particularly as sequence numbers increase. We utilised the DEFLATE compression algorithm to account for expected variation across a number of species. With the adjusted Grantham measure we derived a means of quantitatively clustering known neutral and deleterious nsSNPs from the same gene; this was then used to assign novel variants to the most appropriate cluster as a means of binary classification. Scaling of clusters allows for inter-gene comparison of variants through a single pathogenicity score. The approach improves upon the classification accuracy of Align-GVGD while correcting for sensitivity to large MSAs. Open-source code and a web server are made available at

  5. Fundamental Frequency Estimation of the Speech Signal Compressed by MP3 Algorithm Using PCC Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper the fundamental frequency estimation results of the MP3 modeled speech signal are analyzed. The estimation of the fundamental frequency was performed by the Picking-Peaks algorithm with the implemented Parametric Cubic Convolution (PCC interpolation. The efficiency of PCC was tested for Catmull-Rom, Greville and Greville two-parametric kernel. Depending on MSE, a window that gives optimal results was chosen.

  6. “Mass Centre” Vectorization Algorithm for Vehicle’s Counting Portable Video System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidash Vladislav


    Full Text Available Vehicle counting is one of the most basic challenges during the development and establishment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS. The main reason for vehicle counting is the necessity of monitoring and maintaining the transport infrastructure, preventing different kind of faults such as traffic jams. The main applied solution to this problem is video surveillance, which is presented by different kind of systems. Some of these systems use a network of static traffic cameras, expensive for establish and maintain, or mobile units, fast for redeployment, but fewer in diversity.

  7. Communicating pictures a course in image and video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, David R


    Communicating Pictures starts with a unique historical perspective of the role of images in communications and then builds on this to explain the applications and requirements of a modern video coding system. It draws on the author's extensive academic and professional experience of signal processing and video coding to deliver a text that is algorithmically rigorous, yet accessible, relevant to modern standards, and practical. It offers a thorough grounding in visual perception, and demonstrates how modern image and video compression methods can be designed in order to meet the rate-quality performance levels demanded by today's applications, networks and users. With this book you will learn: Practical issues when implementing a codec, such as picture boundary extension and complexity reduction, with particular emphasis on efficient algorithms for transforms, motion estimators and error resilience Conflicts between conventional video compression, based on variable length coding and spatiotemporal prediction,...

  8. The effect of depth compression on multiview rendering quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkle, P.; Morvan, Y.; Smolic, A.; Farin, D.S.; Mueller, K..; With, de P.H.N.; Wiegand, T.


    This paper presents a comparative study on different techniques for depth-image compression and its implications on the quality of multiview video plus depth virtual view rendering. A novel coding algorithm for depth images that concentrates on their special characteristics, namely smooth regions

  9. Processing Decoded Video for Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari

    rendition of the signals, particularly in the case of LCDs with dynamic local backlight. This thesis shows that it is possible to model LCDs with dynamic backlight to design algorithms that improve the visual quality of 2D and 3D content, and that digital video coding artifacts like blocking or ringing can......Quality of digital image and video signals on TV screens is aected by many factors, including the display technology and compression standards. An accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the display andof the video signals can be used to develop advanced algorithms that improve the visual...... be reduced with post-processing. LCD screens with dynamic local backlight are modeled in their main aspects, like pixel luminance, light diusion and light perception. Following the model, novel algorithms based on optimization are presented and extended, then reduced in complexity, to produce backlights...

  10. Experimental Study of Concealment Data in Video Sequences MPEG-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Alimov


    Full Text Available MPEG-2 uses video compression with loses based on the use of discrete cosine transformation (DCT to small blocks of encoded image. As a result, there is range of factors, each of which corresponds to a frequency index of the encoded block. The human eye, due to natural approximation, does not perceive the difference when the high-frequency DCT coefficients change. The investigated algorithm uses this feature of the human vision to embed required data in video stream invisibly.

  11. An empirical study on collective intelligence algorithms for video games problem-solving


    González-Pardo, Antonio; Palero, Fernando; Camacho, David


    Computational intelligence (CI), such as evolutionary computation or swarm intelligence methods, is a set of bio-inspired algorithms that have been widely used to solve problems in areas like planning, scheduling or constraint satisfaction problems. Constrained satisfaction problems (CSP) have taken an important attention from the research community due to their applicability to real problems. Any CSP problem is usually modelled as a constrained graph where the edges represent a set of restri...

  12. Visual Communications for Heterogeneous Networks/Visually Optimized Scalable Image Compression. Final Report for September 1, 1995 - February 28, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemami, S. S.


    The authors developed image and video compression algorithms that provide scalability, reconstructibility, and network adaptivity, and developed compression and quantization strategies that are visually optimal at all bit rates. The goal of this research is to enable reliable ''universal access'' to visual communications over the National Information Infrastructure (NII). All users, regardless of their individual network connection bandwidths, qualities-of-service, or terminal capabilities, should have the ability to access still images, video clips, and multimedia information services, and to use interactive visual communications services. To do so requires special capabilities for image and video compression algorithms: scalability, reconstructibility, and network adaptivity. Scalability allows an information service to provide visual information at many rates, without requiring additional compression or storage after the stream has been compressed the first time. Reconstructibility allows reliable visual communications over an imperfect network. Network adaptivity permits real-time modification of compression parameters to adjust to changing network conditions. Furthermore, to optimize the efficiency of the compression algorithms, they should be visually optimal, where each bit expended reduces the visual distortion. Visual optimality is achieved through first extensive experimentation to quantify human sensitivity to supra-threshold compression artifacts and then incorporation of these experimental results into quantization strategies and compression algorithms.

  13. Using neutrosophic graph cut segmentation algorithm for qualified rendering image selection in thyroid elastography video. (United States)

    Guo, Yanhui; Jiang, Shuang-Quan; Sun, Baiqing; Siuly, Siuly; Şengür, Abdulkadir; Tian, Jia-Wei


    Recently, elastography has become very popular in clinical investigation for thyroid cancer detection and diagnosis. In elastogram, the stress results of the thyroid are displayed using pseudo colors. Due to variation of the rendering results in different frames, it is difficult for radiologists to manually select the qualified frame image quickly and efficiently. The purpose of this study is to find the qualified rendering result in the thyroid elastogram. This paper employs an efficient thyroid ultrasound image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic graph cut to find the qualified rendering images. Firstly, a thyroid ultrasound image is mapped into neutrosophic set, and an indeterminacy filter is constructed to reduce the indeterminacy of the spatial and intensity information in the image. A graph is defined on the image and the weight for each pixel is represented using the value after indeterminacy filtering. The segmentation results are obtained using a maximum-flow algorithm on the graph. Then the anatomic structure is identified in thyroid ultrasound image. Finally the rendering colors on these anatomic regions are extracted and validated to find the frames which satisfy the selection criteria. To test the performance of the proposed method, a thyroid elastogram dataset is built and totally 33 cases were collected. An experienced radiologist manually evaluates the selection results of the proposed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method finds the qualified rendering frame with 100% accuracy. The proposed scheme assists the radiologists to diagnose the thyroid diseases using the qualified rendering images.

  14. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used to describe an algorithm for execution on a computer. An algorithm expressed using a programming.

  15. Experimental optimization of a direct injection homogeneous charge compression ignition gasoline engine using split injections with fully automated microgenetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli Univ., Izmit (Turkey); Reitz, R.D. [Wisconsin Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)


    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is receiving attention as a new low-emission engine concept. Little is known about the optimal operating conditions for this engine operation mode. Combustion under homogeneous, low equivalence ratio conditions results in modest temperature combustion products, containing very low concentrations of NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) as well as providing high thermal efficiency. However, this combustion mode can produce higher HC and CO emissions than those of conventional engines. An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE), originally designed for heavy-duty diesel applications, was converted to an HCCI direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. The engine features an electronically controlled low-pressure direct injection gasoline (DI-G) injector with a 60 deg spray angle that is capable of multiple injections. The use of double injection was explored for emission control and the engine was optimized using fully automated experiments and a microgenetic algorithm optimization code. The variables changed during the optimization include the intake air temperature, start of injection timing and the split injection parameters (per cent mass of fuel in each injection, dwell between the pulses). The engine performance and emissions were determined at 700 r/min with a constant fuel flowrate at 10 MPa fuel injection pressure. The results show that significant emissions reductions are possible with the use of optimal injection strategies. (Author)

  16. The role of optical flow in automated quality assessment of full-motion video (United States)

    Harguess, Josh; Shafer, Scott; Marez, Diego


    In real-world video data, such as full-motion-video (FMV) taken from unmanned vehicles, surveillance systems, and other sources, various corruptions to the raw data is inevitable. This can be due to the image acquisition process, noise, distortion, and compression artifacts, among other sources of error. However, we desire methods to analyze the quality of the video to determine whether the underlying content of the corrupted video can be analyzed by humans or machines and to what extent. Previous approaches have shown that motion estimation, or optical flow, can be an important cue in automating this video quality assessment. However, there are many different optical flow algorithms in the literature, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. We examine the effect of the choice of optical flow algorithm (including baseline and state-of-the-art), on motionbased automated video quality assessment algorithms.

  17. Video segmentation for post-production (United States)

    Wills, Ciaran


    Specialist post-production is an industry that has much to gain from the application of content-based video analysis techniques. However the types of material handled in specialist post-production, such as television commercials, pop music videos and special effects are quite different in nature from the typical broadcast material which many video analysis techniques are designed to work with; shots are short and highly dynamic, and the transitions are often novel or ambiguous. We address the problem of scene change detection and develop a new algorithm which tackles some of the common aspects of post-production material that cause difficulties for past algorithms, such as illumination changes and jump cuts. Operating in the compressed domain on Motion JPEG compressed video, our algorithm detects cuts and fades by analyzing each JPEG macroblock in the context of its temporal and spatial neighbors. Analyzing the DCT coefficients directly we can extract the mean color of a block and an approximate detail level. We can also perform an approximated cross-correlation between two blocks. The algorithm is part of a set of tools being developed to work with an automated asset management system designed specifically for use in post-production facilities.

  18. Low-complexity transcoding algorithm from H.264/AVC to SVC using data mining (United States)

    Garrido-Cantos, Rosario; De Cock, Jan; Martínez, Jose Luis; Van Leuven, Sebastian; Cuenca, Pedro; Garrido, Antonio


    Nowadays, networks and terminals with diverse characteristics of bandwidth and capabilities coexist. To ensure a good quality of experience, this diverse environment demands adaptability of the video stream. In general, video contents are compressed to save storage capacity and to reduce the bandwidth required for its transmission. Therefore, if these compressed video streams were compressed using scalable video coding schemes, they would be able to adapt to those heterogeneous networks and a wide range of terminals. Since the majority of the multimedia contents are compressed using H.264/AVC, they cannot benefit from that scalability. This paper proposes a low-complexity algorithm to convert an H.264/AVC bitstream without scalability to scalable bitstreams with temporal scalability in baseline and main profiles by accelerating the mode decision task of the scalable video coding encoding stage using machine learning tools. The results show that when our technique is applied, the complexity is reduced by 87% while maintaining coding efficiency.

  19. Holovideo: Real-time 3D range video encoding and decoding on GPU (United States)

    Karpinsky, Nikolaus; Zhang, Song


    We present a 3D video-encoding technique called Holovideo that is capable of encoding high-resolution 3D videos into standard 2D videos, and then decoding the 2D videos back into 3D rapidly without significant loss of quality. Due to the nature of the algorithm, 2D video compression such as JPEG encoding with QuickTime Run Length Encoding (QTRLE) can be applied with little quality loss, resulting in an effective way to store 3D video at very small file sizes. We found that under a compression ratio of 134:1, Holovideo to OBJ file format, the 3D geometry quality drops at a negligible level. Several sets of 3D videos were captured using a structured light scanner, compressed using the Holovideo codec, and then uncompressed and displayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the codec. With the use of OpenGL Shaders (GLSL), the 3D video codec can encode and decode in realtime. We demonstrated that for a video size of 512×512, the decoding speed is 28 frames per second (FPS) with a laptop computer using an embedded NVIDIA GeForce 9400 m graphics processing unit (GPU). Encoding can be done with this same setup at 18 FPS, making this technology suitable for applications such as interactive 3D video games and 3D video conferencing.

  20. The impact of ultra-brief chest compression-only CPR video training on responsiveness, compression rate, and hands-off time interval among bystanders in a shopping mall. (United States)

    Panchal, Ashish R; Meziab, Omar; Stolz, Uwe; Anderson, Wes; Bartlett, Mitchell; Spaite, Daniel W; Bobrow, Bentley J; Kern, Karl B


    Recent studies have demonstrated higher-quality chest compressions (CCs) following a 60 s ultra-brief video (UBV) on compression-only CPR (CO-CPR). However, the effectiveness of UBVs as a CPR-teaching tool for lay bystanders in public venues remains unknown. Determine whether an UBV is effective in teaching laypersons CO-CPR in a public setting and if viewing leads to superior responsiveness and CPR skills. Adult lay bystanders were enrolled in a public shopping mall and randomized to: (1) Control (CTR): sat idle for 60 s; (2) UBV: watched a 60 s UBV on CO-CPR. Subjects were read a scenario detailing a sudden collapse in the mall and asked to do what they "thought was best" on a mannequin. Performance measures were recorded for 2 min: responsiveness (time to call 911 and first CCs) and CPR quality [CC depth, rate, hands-off interval (time without CC after first CC)]. One hundred subjects were enrolled. Demographics were similar between groups. UBV subjects called 911 more frequently (percent difference: 31%) and initiated CCs sooner in the arrest scenario (median difference (MD): 5 s). UBV cohort had increased CC rate (MD: 19 cpm) and decreased hands-off interval (MD: 27 s). There was no difference in CC depth. Bystanders with UBV training in a shopping mall had significantly improved responsiveness, CC rate, and decreased hands-off interval. Given the short length of training, UBV may have potential as a ubiquitous intervention for public venues to help improve bystander reaction to arrest and CO-CPR performance. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sunil Kumar


    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  2. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to as 'divide-and-conquer'. Although there has been a large effort in realizing efficient algorithms, there are not many universally accepted algorithm design paradigms. In this article, we illustrate algorithm design techniques such as balancing, greedy strategy, dynamic programming strategy, and backtracking or traversal of ...

  3. Advanced algorithms for information science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argo, P.; Brislawn, C.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Kelley, B.; Kim, W.H.; Mazieres, B.; Roeder, H.; Strottman, D.


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In a modern information-controlled society the importance of fast computational algorithms facilitating data compression and image analysis cannot be overemphasized. Feature extraction and pattern recognition are key to many LANL projects and the same types of dimensionality reduction and compression used in source coding are also applicable to image understanding. The authors have begun developing wavelet coding which decomposes data into different length-scale and frequency bands. New transform-based source-coding techniques offer potential for achieving better, combined source-channel coding performance by using joint-optimization techniques. They initiated work on a system that compresses the video stream in real time, and which also takes the additional step of analyzing the video stream concurrently. By using object-based compression schemes (where an object is an identifiable feature of the video signal, repeatable in time or space), they believe that the analysis is directly related to the efficiency of the compression.

  4. Advanced algorithms for information science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argo, P.; Brislawn, C.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Kelley, B.; Kim, W.H.; Mazieres, B.; Roeder, H.; Strottman, D.


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In a modern information-controlled society the importance of fast computational algorithms facilitating data compression and image analysis cannot be overemphasized. Feature extraction and pattern recognition are key to many LANL projects and the same types of dimensionality reduction and compression used in source coding are also applicable to image understanding. The authors have begun developing wavelet coding which decomposes data into different length-scale and frequency bands. New transform-based source-coding techniques offer potential for achieving better, combined source-channel coding performance by using joint-optimization techniques. They initiated work on a system that compresses the video stream in real time, and which also takes the additional step of analyzing the video stream concurrently. By using object-based compression schemes (where an object is an identifiable feature of the video signal, repeatable in time or space), they believe that the analysis is directly related to the efficiency of the compression

  5. [Medical image compression: a review]. (United States)

    Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo


    Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings.

  6. Delivering Diagnostic Quality Video over Mobile Wireless Networks for Telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira P. Rao


    Full Text Available In real-time remote diagnosis of emergency medical events, mobility can be enabled by wireless video communications. However, clinical use of this potential advance will depend on definitive and compelling demonstrations of the reliability of diagnostic quality video. Because the medical domain has its own fidelity criteria, it is important to incorporate diagnostic video quality criteria into any video compression system design. To this end, we used flexible algorithms for region-of-interest (ROI video compression and obtained feedback from medical experts to develop criteria for diagnostically lossless (DL quality. The design of the system occurred in three steps-measurement of bit rate at which DL quality is achieved through evaluation of videos by medical experts, incorporation of that information into a flexible video encoder through the notion of encoder states, and an encoder state update option based on a built-in quality criterion. Medical experts then evaluated our system for the diagnostic quality of the video, allowing us to verify that it is possible to realize DL quality in the ROI at practical communication data transfer rates, enabling mobile medical assessment over bit-rate limited wireless channels. This work lays the scientific foundation for additional validation through prototyped technology, field testing, and clinical trials.

  7. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ticians but also forms the foundation of computer science. Two ... with methods of developing algorithms for solving a variety of problems but ... applications of computers in science and engineer- ... numerical calculus are as important. We will ...

  8. New robust algorithm for tracking cells in videos of Drosophila morphogenesis based on finding an ideal path in segmented spatio-temporal cellular structures. (United States)

    Bellaïche, Yohanns; Bosveld, Floris; Graner, François; Mikula, Karol; Remesíková, Mariana; Smísek, Michal


    In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for tracking cells in time lapse confocal microscopy movie of a Drosophila epithelial tissue during pupal morphogenesis. We consider a 2D + time video as a 3D static image, where frames are stacked atop each other, and using a spatio-temporal segmentation algorithm we obtain information about spatio-temporal 3D tubes representing evolutions of cells. The main idea for tracking is the usage of two distance functions--first one from the cells in the initial frame and second one from segmented boundaries. We track the cells backwards in time. The first distance function attracts the subsequently constructed cell trajectories to the cells in the initial frame and the second one forces them to be close to centerlines of the segmented tubular structures. This makes our tracking algorithm robust against noise and missing spatio-temporal boundaries. This approach can be generalized to a 3D + time video analysis, where spatio-temporal tubes are 4D objects.

  9. Selective encryption for H.264/AVC video coding (United States)

    Shi, Tuo; King, Brian; Salama, Paul


    Due to the ease with which digital data can be manipulated and due to the ongoing advancements that have brought us closer to pervasive computing, the secure delivery of video and images has become a challenging problem. Despite the advantages and opportunities that digital video provide, illegal copying and distribution as well as plagiarism of digital audio, images, and video is still ongoing. In this paper we describe two techniques for securing H.264 coded video streams. The first technique, SEH264Algorithm1, groups the data into the following blocks of data: (1) a block that contains the sequence parameter set and the picture parameter set, (2) a block containing a compressed intra coded frame, (3) a block containing the slice header of a P slice, all the headers of the macroblock within the same P slice, and all the luma and chroma DC coefficients belonging to the all the macroblocks within the same slice, (4) a block containing all the ac coefficients, and (5) a block containing all the motion vectors. The first three are encrypted whereas the last two are not. The second method, SEH264Algorithm2, relies on the use of multiple slices per coded frame. The algorithm searches the compressed video sequence for start codes (0x000001) and then encrypts the next N bits of data.

  10. Design of Compressed Sensing Algorithm for Coal Mine IoT Moving Measurement Data Based on a Multi-Hop Network and Total Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang


    Full Text Available As the application of a coal mine Internet of Things (IoT, mobile measurement devices, such as intelligent mine lamps, cause moving measurement data to be increased. How to transmit these large amounts of mobile measurement data effectively has become an urgent problem. This paper presents a compressed sensing algorithm for the large amount of coal mine IoT moving measurement data based on a multi-hop network and total variation. By taking gas data in mobile measurement data as an example, two network models for the transmission of gas data flow, namely single-hop and multi-hop transmission modes, are investigated in depth, and a gas data compressed sensing collection model is built based on a multi-hop network. To utilize the sparse characteristics of gas data, the concept of total variation is introduced and a high-efficiency gas data compression and reconstruction method based on Total Variation Sparsity based on Multi-Hop (TVS-MH is proposed. According to the simulation results, by using the proposed method, the moving measurement data flow from an underground distributed mobile network can be acquired and transmitted efficiently.

  11. Design of Compressed Sensing Algorithm for Coal Mine IoT Moving Measurement Data Based on a Multi-Hop Network and Total Variation. (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zhao, Zhikai; Ning, Yongjie


    As the application of a coal mine Internet of Things (IoT), mobile measurement devices, such as intelligent mine lamps, cause moving measurement data to be increased. How to transmit these large amounts of mobile measurement data effectively has become an urgent problem. This paper presents a compressed sensing algorithm for the large amount of coal mine IoT moving measurement data based on a multi-hop network and total variation. By taking gas data in mobile measurement data as an example, two network models for the transmission of gas data flow, namely single-hop and multi-hop transmission modes, are investigated in depth, and a gas data compressed sensing collection model is built based on a multi-hop network. To utilize the sparse characteristics of gas data, the concept of total variation is introduced and a high-efficiency gas data compression and reconstruction method based on Total Variation Sparsity based on Multi-Hop (TVS-MH) is proposed. According to the simulation results, by using the proposed method, the moving measurement data flow from an underground distributed mobile network can be acquired and transmitted efficiently.

  12. Evaluation of the image quality in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) employed with a compressed-sensing (CS)-based reconstruction algorithm by using the mammographic accreditation phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeonok; Cho, Heemoon; Je, Uikyu; Cho, Hyosung, E-mail:; Park, Chulkyu; Lim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Kyuseok; Kim, Guna; Park, Soyoung; Woo, Taeho; Choi, Sungil


    In this work, we have developed a prototype digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system which mainly consists of an x-ray generator (28 kV{sub p}, 7 mA s), a CMOS-type flat-panel detector (70-μm pixel size, 230.5×339 mm{sup 2} active area), and a rotational arm to move the x-ray generator in an arc. We employed a compressed-sensing (CS)-based reconstruction algorithm, rather than a common filtered-backprojection (FBP) one, for more accurate DBT reconstruction. Here the CS is a state-of-the-art mathematical theory for solving the inverse problems, which exploits the sparsity of the image with substantially high accuracy. We evaluated the reconstruction quality in terms of the detectability, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the slice-sensitive profile (SSP) by using the mammographic accreditation phantom (Model 015, CIRS Inc.) and compared it to the FBP-based quality. The CS-based algorithm yielded much better image quality, preserving superior image homogeneity, edge sharpening, and cross-plane resolution, compared to the FBP-based one. - Highlights: • A prototype digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system is developed. • Compressed-sensing (CS) based reconstruction framework is employed. • We reconstructed high-quality DBT images by using the proposed reconstruction framework.

  13. First- and third-party ground truth for key frame extraction from consumer video clips (United States)

    Costello, Kathleen; Luo, Jiebo


    Extracting key frames (KF) from video is of great interest in many applications, such as video summary, video organization, video compression, and prints from video. KF extraction is not a new problem. However, current literature has been focused mainly on sports or news video. In the consumer video space, the biggest challenges for key frame selection from consumer videos are the unconstrained content and lack of any preimposed structure. In this study, we conduct ground truth collection of key frames from video clips taken by digital cameras (as opposed to camcorders) using both first- and third-party judges. The goals of this study are: (1) to create a reference database of video clips reasonably representative of the consumer video space; (2) to identify associated key frames by which automated algorithms can be compared and judged for effectiveness; and (3) to uncover the criteria used by both first- and thirdparty human judges so these criteria can influence algorithm design. The findings from these ground truths will be discussed.

  14. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm design technique called 'divide-and-conquer'. One of ... Turtle graphics, September. 1996. 5. ... whole list named 'PO' is a pointer to the first element of the list; ..... Program for computing matrices X and Y and placing the result in C *).

  15. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm that it is implicitly understood that we know how to generate the next natural ..... Explicit comparisons are made in line (1) where maximum and minimum is ... It can be shown that the function T(n) = 3/2n -2 is the solution to the above ...

  16. Digital video transcoding for transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Huifang; Chen, Xuemin


    Professionals in the video and multimedia industries need a book that explains industry standards for video coding and how to convert the compressed information between standards. Digital Video Transcoding for Transmission and Storage answers this demand while also supplying the theories and principles of video compression and transcoding technologies. Emphasizing digital video transcoding techniques, this book summarizes its content via examples of practical methods for transcoder implementation. It relates almost all of its featured transcoding technologies to practical applications.This vol

  17. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    will become clear in the next article when we discuss a simple logo like programming language. ... Rod B may be used as an auxiliary store. The problem is to find an algorithm which performs this task. ... No disks are moved from A to Busing C as auxiliary rod. • move _disk (A, C);. (No + l)th disk is moved from A to C directly ...

  18. High Dynamic Range Video

    CERN Document Server

    Myszkowski, Karol


    This book presents a complete pipeline forHDR image and video processing fromacquisition, through compression and quality evaluation, to display. At the HDR image and video acquisition stage specialized HDR sensors or multi-exposure techniques suitable for traditional cameras are discussed. Then, we present a practical solution for pixel values calibration in terms of photometric or radiometric quantities, which are required in some technically oriented applications. Also, we cover the problem of efficient image and video compression and encoding either for storage or transmission purposes, in

  19. Fast and robust wavelet-based dynamic range compression and contrast enhancement model with color restoration (United States)

    Unaldi, Numan; Asari, Vijayan K.; Rahman, Zia-ur


    Recently we proposed a wavelet-based dynamic range compression algorithm to improve the visual quality of digital images captured from high dynamic range scenes with non-uniform lighting conditions. The fast image enhancement algorithm that provides dynamic range compression, while preserving the local contrast and tonal rendition, is also a good candidate for real time video processing applications. Although the colors of the enhanced images produced by the proposed algorithm are consistent with the colors of the original image, the proposed algorithm fails to produce color constant results for some "pathological" scenes that have very strong spectral characteristics in a single band. The linear color restoration process is the main reason for this drawback. Hence, a different approach is required for the final color restoration process. In this paper the latest version of the proposed algorithm, which deals with this issue is presented. The results obtained by applying the algorithm to numerous natural images show strong robustness and high image quality.

  20. Two-terminal video coding. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei


    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  1. Medical video server construction. (United States)

    Dańda, Jacek; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Loziak, Krzysztof; Papir, Zdzisław; Sikora, Marek; Watza, Rafal


    The paper discusses two implementation options for a Digital Video Library, a repository used for archiving, accessing, and browsing of video medical records. Two crucial issues to be decided on are a video compression format and a video streaming platform. The paper presents numerous decision factors that have to be taken into account. The compression formats being compared are DICOM as a format representative for medical applications, both MPEGs, and several new formats targeted for an IP networking. The comparison includes transmission rates supported, compression rates, and at least options for controlling a compression process. The second part of the paper presents the ISDN technique as a solution for provisioning of tele-consultation services between medical parties that are accessing resources uploaded to a digital video library. There are several backbone techniques (like corporate LANs/WANs, leased lines or even radio/satellite links) available, however, the availability of network resources for hospitals was the prevailing choice criterion pointing to ISDN solutions. Another way to provide access to the Digital Video Library is based on radio frequency domain solutions. The paper describes possibilities of both, wireless and cellular network's data transmission service to be used as a medical video server transport layer. For the cellular net-work based solution two communication techniques are used: Circuit Switched Data and Packet Switched Data.

  2. Resolution enhancement of low-quality videos using a high-resolution frame (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Q.; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Schutte, Klamer


    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of corresponding LR-HR pairs of image patches from the HR still image, high-frequency details are transferred from the HR source to the LR video. The DCT-domain algorithm is much faster than example-based SR in spatial domain 6 because of a reduction in search dimensionality, which is a direct result of the compact and uncorrelated DCT representation. Fast searching techniques like tree-structure vector quantization 16 and coherence search1 are also key to the improved efficiency. Preliminary results on MJPEG sequence show promising result of the DCT-domain SR synthesis approach.

  3. Development and Application of New Algorithms for the Simulation of Viscous Compressible Flows with Moving Bodies in Three Dimensions. (United States)


    Internacional de M6todos Numericos en Ingenieria (CIMNE) at the Universidad Polit6cnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain. The support for this visit is...machines. The main inno- vation consisted of new data structures to handle the compatibility of refinement and de -refinement cases allowed [10]. For this...from the discretization of the complete problem. The advantage of this new algorithm is that it allows a cost effective re-use of existing software , with

  4. Demonstration of Inexact Computing Implemented in the JPEG Compression Algorithm using Probabilistic Boolean Logic applied to CMOS Components (United States)


    manufacturing today (namely, the 14nm FinFET silicon CMOS technology). The JPEG algorithm is selected as a motivational example since it is widely...TIFF images of a U.S. Air Force F-16 aircraft provided by the University of Southern California Signal and Image Processing Institute (SIPI) image...silicon CMOS technology currently in high volume manufac- turing today (the 14 nm FinFET silicon CMOS technology). The main contribution of this

  5. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience. (United States)

    Bampis, Christos George; Zhi Li; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad


    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at

  6. Layered compression for high-precision depth data. (United States)

    Miao, Dan; Fu, Jingjing; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng; Chen, Chang Wen


    With the development of depth data acquisition technologies, access to high-precision depth with more than 8-b depths has become much easier and determining how to efficiently represent and compress high-precision depth is essential for practical depth storage and transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a layered high-precision depth compression framework based on an 8-b image/video encoder to achieve efficient compression with low complexity. Within this framework, considering the characteristics of the high-precision depth, a depth map is partitioned into two layers: 1) the most significant bits (MSBs) layer and 2) the least significant bits (LSBs) layer. The MSBs layer provides rough depth value distribution, while the LSBs layer records the details of the depth value variation. For the MSBs layer, an error-controllable pixel domain encoding scheme is proposed to exploit the data correlation of the general depth information with sharp edges and to guarantee the data format of LSBs layer is 8 b after taking the quantization error from MSBs layer. For the LSBs layer, standard 8-b image/video codec is leveraged to perform the compression. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed coding scheme can achieve real-time depth compression with satisfactory reconstruction quality. Moreover, the compressed depth data generated from this scheme can achieve better performance in view synthesis and gesture recognition applications compared with the conventional coding schemes because of the error control algorithm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Nguyen


    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with the motion estimation algorithms for the analysis of video sequences in compression standards MPEG-4 Visual and H.264. Anew algorithm has been offered based on the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithms. Method. Thealgorithm is called hierarchical adaptive rood pattern search (Hierarchical ARPS, HARPS. This new algorithm includes the classic adaptive rood pattern search ARPS and hierarchical search MP (Hierarchical search or Mean pyramid. All motion estimation algorithms have been implemented using MATLAB package and tested with several video sequences. Main Results. The criteria for evaluating the algorithms were: speed, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error and mean absolute deviation. The proposed method showed a much better performance at a comparable error and deviation. The peak signal to noise ratio in different video sequences shows better and worse results than characteristics of known algorithms so it requires further investigation. Practical Relevance. Application of this algorithm in MPEG-4 and H.264 codecs instead of the standard can significantly reduce compression time. This feature enables to recommend it in telecommunication systems for multimedia data storing, transmission and processing.

  8. Compressive Online Robust Principal Component Analysis with Multiple Prior Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Luong, Huynh; Deligiannis, Nikos; Seiler, Jürgen

    -rank components. Unlike conventional batch RPCA, which processes all the data directly, our method considers a small set of measurements taken per data vector (frame). Moreover, our method incorporates multiple prior information signals, namely previous reconstructed frames, to improve these paration...... and thereafter, update the prior information for the next frame. Using experiments on synthetic data, we evaluate the separation performance of the proposed algorithm. In addition, we apply the proposed algorithm to online video foreground and background separation from compressive measurements. The results show...

  9. Automatic video segmentation employing object/camera modeling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farin, D.S.


    Practically established video compression and storage techniques still process video sequences as rectangular images without further semantic structure. However, humans watching a video sequence immediately recognize acting objects as semantic units. This semantic object separation is currently not

  10. Efficient Enhancement for Spatial Scalable Video Coding Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada Khairy


    Full Text Available Scalable Video Coding (SVC is an international standard technique for video compression. It is an extension of H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC. In the encoding of video streams by SVC, it is suitable to employ the macroblock (MB mode because it affords superior coding efficiency. However, the exhaustive mode decision technique that is usually used for SVC increases the computational complexity, resulting in a longer encoding time (ET. Many other algorithms were proposed to solve this problem with imperfection of increasing transmission time (TT across the network. To minimize the ET and TT, this paper introduces four efficient algorithms based on spatial scalability. The algorithms utilize the mode-distribution correlation between the base layer (BL and enhancement layers (ELs and interpolation between the EL frames. The proposed algorithms are of two categories. Those of the first category are based on interlayer residual SVC spatial scalability. They employ two methods, namely, interlayer interpolation (ILIP and the interlayer base mode (ILBM method, and enable ET and TT savings of up to 69.3% and 83.6%, respectively. The algorithms of the second category are based on full-search SVC spatial scalability. They utilize two methods, namely, full interpolation (FIP and the full-base mode (FBM method, and enable ET and TT savings of up to 55.3% and 76.6%, respectively.

  11. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-MartInez R; Lugo-Gonzalez E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa G; Hernandez-Gomez L H; Romero-Angeles B; Torres-San Miguel Ch, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [INSTITUTO POLITECNICO NACIONAL Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E({sigma}{sup 2}{sub x} + {sigma}{sup 2}{sub y}) - {nu}/E({sigma}{sub x}{sigma}{sub y})]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of {theta} of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where {theta} is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  12. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-MartInez R; Lugo-Gonzalez E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa G; Hernandez-Gomez L H; Romero-Angeles B; Torres-San Miguel Ch


    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E(σ 2 x + σ 2 y ) - ν/E(σ x σy)]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of θ of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where θ is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  13. Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization


    H. B. Kekre; Tanuja K. Sarode


    Mostly transforms are used for speech data compressions which are lossy algorithms. Such algorithms are tolerable for speech data compression since the loss in quality is not perceived by the human ear. However the vector quantization (VQ) has a potential to give more data compression maintaining the same quality. In this paper we propose speech data compression algorithm using vector quantization technique. We have used VQ algorithms LBG, KPE and FCG. The results table s...

  14. Extended image differencing for change detection in UAV video mosaics (United States)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Arne


    Change detection is one of the most important tasks when using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. We address changes of short time scale, i.e. the observations are taken in time distances from several minutes up to a few hours. Each observation is a short video sequence acquired by the UAV in near-nadir view and the relevant changes are, e.g., recently parked or moved vehicles. In this paper we extend our previous approach of image differencing for single video frames to video mosaics. A precise image-to-image registration combined with a robust matching approach is needed to stitch the video frames to a mosaic. Additionally, this matching algorithm is applied to mosaic pairs in order to align them to a common geometry. The resulting registered video mosaic pairs are the input of the change detection procedure based on extended image differencing. A change mask is generated by an adaptive threshold applied to a linear combination of difference images of intensity and gradient magnitude. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed size of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. The special effects of video mosaicking such as geometric distortions and artifacts at moving objects have to be considered, too. In our experiments we analyze the influence of these effects on the change detection results by considering several scenes. The results show that for video mosaics this task is more difficult than for single video frames. Therefore, we extended the image registration by estimating an elastic transformation using a thin plate spline approach. The results for mosaics are comparable to that of single video frames and are useful for interactive image exploitation due to a larger scene coverage.

  15. Intelligent video surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, Jean-Yves


    Belonging to the wider academic field of computer vision, video analytics has aroused a phenomenal surge of interest since the current millennium. Video analytics is intended to solve the problem of the incapability of exploiting video streams in real time for the purpose of detection or anticipation. It involves analyzing the videos using algorithms that detect and track objects of interest over time and that indicate the presence of events or suspect behavior involving these objects.The aims of this book are to highlight the operational attempts of video analytics, to identify possi

  16. Robust efficient video fingerprinting (United States)

    Puri, Manika; Lubin, Jeffrey


    We have developed a video fingerprinting system with robustness and efficiency as the primary and secondary design criteria. In extensive testing, the system has shown robustness to cropping, letter-boxing, sub-titling, blur, drastic compression, frame rate changes, size changes and color changes, as well as to the geometric distortions often associated with camcorder capture in cinema settings. Efficiency is afforded by a novel two-stage detection process in which a fast matching process first computes a number of likely candidates, which are then passed to a second slower process that computes the overall best match with minimal false alarm probability. One key component of the algorithm is a maximally stable volume computation - a three-dimensional generalization of maximally stable extremal regions - that provides a content-centric coordinate system for subsequent hash function computation, independent of any affine transformation or extensive cropping. Other key features include an efficient bin-based polling strategy for initial candidate selection, and a final SIFT feature-based computation for final verification. We describe the algorithm and its performance, and then discuss additional modifications that can provide further improvement to efficiency and accuracy.

  17. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.


    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  18. Medical Ultrasound Video Coding with H.265/HEVC Based on ROI Extraction. (United States)

    Wu, Yueying; Liu, Pengyu; Gao, Yuan; Jia, Kebin


    High-efficiency video compression technology is of primary importance to the storage and transmission of digital medical video in modern medical communication systems. To further improve the compression performance of medical ultrasound video, two innovative technologies based on diagnostic region-of-interest (ROI) extraction using the high efficiency video coding (H.265/HEVC) standard are presented in this paper. First, an effective ROI extraction algorithm based on image textural features is proposed to strengthen the applicability of ROI detection results in the H.265/HEVC quad-tree coding structure. Second, a hierarchical coding method based on transform coefficient adjustment and a quantization parameter (QP) selection process is designed to implement the otherness encoding for ROIs and non-ROIs. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed optimization strategy significantly improves the coding performance by achieving a BD-BR reduction of 13.52% and a BD-PSNR gain of 1.16 dB on average compared to H.265/HEVC (HM15.0). The proposed medical video coding algorithm is expected to satisfy low bit-rate compression requirements for modern medical communication systems.

  19. Medical Ultrasound Video Coding with H.265/HEVC Based on ROI Extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueying Wu

    Full Text Available High-efficiency video compression technology is of primary importance to the storage and transmission of digital medical video in modern medical communication systems. To further improve the compression performance of medical ultrasound video, two innovative technologies based on diagnostic region-of-interest (ROI extraction using the high efficiency video coding (H.265/HEVC standard are presented in this paper. First, an effective ROI extraction algorithm based on image textural features is proposed to strengthen the applicability of ROI detection results in the H.265/HEVC quad-tree coding structure. Second, a hierarchical coding method based on transform coefficient adjustment and a quantization parameter (QP selection process is designed to implement the otherness encoding for ROIs and non-ROIs. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed optimization strategy significantly improves the coding performance by achieving a BD-BR reduction of 13.52% and a BD-PSNR gain of 1.16 dB on average compared to H.265/HEVC (HM15.0. The proposed medical video coding algorithm is expected to satisfy low bit-rate compression requirements for modern medical communication systems.

  20. Reconfigurable Secure Video Codec Based on DWT and AES Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rached Tourki


    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a secure video codec based on the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES processor. Either, use of video coding with DWT or encryption using AES is well known. However, linking these two designs to achieve secure video coding is leading. The contributions of our work are as follows. First, a new method for image and video compression is proposed. This codec is a synthesis of JPEG and JPEG2000,which is implemented using Huffman coding to the JPEG and DWT to the JPEG2000. Furthermore, an improved motion estimation algorithm is proposed. Second, the encryptiondecryption effects are achieved by the AES processor. AES is aim to encrypt group of LL bands. The prominent feature of this method is an encryption of LL bands by AES-128 (128-bit keys, or AES-192 (192-bit keys, or AES-256 (256-bit keys.Third, we focus on a method that implements partial encryption of LL bands. Our approach provides considerable levels of security (key size, partial encryption, mode encryption, and has very limited adverse impact on the compression efficiency. The proposed codec can provide up to 9 cipher schemes within a reasonable software cost. Latency, correlation, PSNR and compression rate results are analyzed and shown.

  1. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva


    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...

  2. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J


    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  3. Smartphone based automatic organ validation in ultrasound video. (United States)

    Vaish, Pallavi; Bharath, R; Rajalakshmi, P


    Telesonography involves transmission of ultrasound video from remote areas to the doctors for getting diagnosis. Due to the lack of trained sonographers in remote areas, the ultrasound videos scanned by these untrained persons do not contain the proper information that is required by a physician. As compared to standard methods for video transmission, mHealth driven systems need to be developed for transmitting valid medical videos. To overcome this problem, we are proposing an organ validation algorithm to evaluate the ultrasound video based on the content present. This will guide the semi skilled person to acquire the representative data from patient. Advancement in smartphone technology allows us to perform high medical image processing on smartphone. In this paper we have developed an Application (APP) for a smartphone which can automatically detect the valid frames (which consist of clear organ visibility) in an ultrasound video and ignores the invalid frames (which consist of no-organ visibility), and produces a compressed sized video. This is done by extracting the GIST features from the Region of Interest (ROI) of the frame and then classifying the frame using SVM classifier with quadratic kernel. The developed application resulted with the accuracy of 94.93% in classifying valid and invalid images.

  4. LZ-Compressed String Dictionaries


    Arz, Julian; Fischer, Johannes


    We show how to compress string dictionaries using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ78) data compression algorithm. Our approach is validated experimentally on dictionaries of up to 1.5 GB of uncompressed text. We achieve compression ratios often outperforming the existing alternatives, especially on dictionaries containing many repeated substrings. Our query times remain competitive.

  5. Quality of Experience Assessment of Video Quality in Social Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali Laghari


    Full Text Available Video sharing on social clouds is popular among the users around the world. High-Definition (HD videos have big file size so the storing in cloud storage and streaming of videos with high quality from cloud to the client are a big problem for service providers. Social clouds compress the videos to save storage and stream over slow networks to provide quality of service (QoS. Compression of video decreases the quality compared to original video and parameters are changed during the online play as well as after download. Degradation of video quality due to compression decreases the quality of experience (QoE level of end users. To assess the QoE of video compression, we conducted subjective (QoE experiments by uploading, sharing, and playing videos from social clouds. Three popular social clouds, Facebook, Tumblr, and Twitter, were selected to upload and play videos online for users. The QoE was recorded by using questionnaire given to users to provide their experience about the video quality they perceive. Results show that Facebook and Twitter compressed HD videos more as compared to other clouds. However, Facebook gives a better quality of compressed videos compared to Twitter. Therefore, users assigned low ratings for Twitter for online video quality compared to Tumblr that provided high-quality online play of videos with less compression.

  6. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour. (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J; Brown, André E X


    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. On Normalized Compression Distance and Large Malware


    Borbely, Rebecca Schuller


    Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) is a popular tool that uses compression algorithms to cluster and classify data in a wide range of applications. Existing discussions of NCD's theoretical merit rely on certain theoretical properties of compression algorithms. However, we demonstrate that many popular compression algorithms don't seem to satisfy these theoretical properties. We explore the relationship between some of these properties and file size, demonstrating that this theoretical pro...

  8. EUS-guided rendezvous for difficult biliary cannulation using a standardized algorithm: a multicenter prospective pilot study (with videos). (United States)

    Iwashita, Takuji; Yasuda, Ichiro; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Keisuke; Ando, Nobuhiro; Doi, Shinpei; Nakashima, Masanori; Uemura, Shinya; Mabuchi, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Masahito


    Biliary cannulation is necessary in therapeutic ERCP for biliary disorders. EUS-guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) can salvage failed cannulation. Our aim was to determine the safety and efficacy of EUS-RV by using a standardized algorithm with regard to the endoscope position in a prospective study. EUS-RV was attempted after failed cannulation in 20 patients. In a standardized approach, extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cannulation was preferentially attempted from the second portion of the duodenum (D2) followed by additional approaches to the EHBD from the duodenal bulb (D1) or to the intrahepatic bile duct from the stomach, if necessary. A guidewire was placed in an antegrade fashion into the duodenum. After the guidewire was placed, the endoscope was exchanged for a duodenoscope to complete the cannulation. The bile duct was accessed from the D2 in 10 patients, but from the D1 in 5 patients and the stomach in 4 patients because of no dilation or tumor invasion at the distal EHBD. In the remaining patient, biliary puncture was not attempted due to the presence of collateral vessels. The guidewire was successfully manipulated in 80% of patients: 100% (10/10) with the D2 approach and 66.7% (6/9) with other approaches. The overall success rate was 80% (16/20). Failed EUS-RV was salvaged with a percutaneous approach in 2 patients, repeat ERCP in 1 patient, and conservative management in 1 patient. Minor adverse events occurred in 15% of patients (3/20). EUS-RV is a safe and effective salvage method. Using EUS-RV to approach the EHBD from the D2 may improve success rates. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Benthic Cover Monitoring and Mapping Using Towed Underwater Video Camera and High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohamed


    Full Text Available Benthic habitat monitoring is essential for many applications involving biodiversity, marine resource management, and the estimation of variations over temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, both automatic and semi-automatic analytical methods for deriving ecologically significant information from towed camera images are still limited. This study proposes a methodology that enables a high-resolution towed camera with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to adaptively monitor and map benthic habitats. First, the towed camera finishes a pre-programmed initial survey to collect benthic habitat videos, which can then be converted to geo-located benthic habitat images. Second, an expert labels a number of benthic habitat images to class habitats manually. Third, attributes for categorizing these images are extracted automatically using the Bag of Features (BOF algorithm. Fourth, benthic cover categories are detected automatically using Weighted Majority Voting (WMV ensembles for Support Vector Machines (SVM, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN, and Bagging (BAG classifiers. Fifth, WMV-trained ensembles can be used for categorizing more benthic cover images automatically. Finally, correctly categorized geo-located images can provide ground truth samples for benthic cover mapping using high-resolution satellite imagery. The proposed methodology was tested over Shiraho, Ishigaki Island, Japan, a heterogeneous coastal area. The WMV ensemble exhibited 89% overall accuracy for categorizing corals, sediments, seagrass, and algae species. Furthermore, the same WMV ensemble produced a benthic cover map using a Quickbird satellite image with 92.7% overall accuracy.

  10. Context-dependent JPEG backward-compatible high-dynamic range image compression (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj


    High-dynamic range (HDR) imaging is expected, together with ultrahigh definition and high-frame rate video, to become a technology that may change photo, TV, and film industries. Many cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering both HDR images and video are already available in the market. The popularity and full-public adoption of HDR content is, however, hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of low-dynamic range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate the wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR with commonly used legacy technologies for storage, rendering, and compression of video and images are necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms are developed for generating viewable LDR content from HDR, there is no consensus of which algorithm to use and under which conditions. We, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrate the dependency of the perceptual quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on the context: environmental factors, display parameters, and image content itself. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to deal with HDR images also. An architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG is proposed. A simple implementation of lossy compression demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed architecture compared with the state-of-the-art HDR image compression.

  11. Radiological Image Compression (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict

    The movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve, and transmit the volume of digital images. Basic research into image data compression is necessary in order to move from a film-based department to an efficient digital -based department. Digital data compression technology consists of two types of compression technique: error-free and irreversible. Error -free image compression is desired; however, present techniques can only achieve compression ratio of from 1.5:1 to 3:1, depending upon the image characteristics. Irreversible image compression can achieve a much higher compression ratio; however, the image reconstructed from the compressed data shows some difference from the original image. This dissertation studies both error-free and irreversible image compression techniques. In particular, some modified error-free techniques have been tested and the recommended strategies for various radiological images are discussed. A full-frame bit-allocation irreversible compression technique has been derived. A total of 76 images which include CT head and body, and radiographs digitized to 2048 x 2048, 1024 x 1024, and 512 x 512 have been used to test this algorithm. The normalized mean -square-error (NMSE) on the difference image, defined as the difference between the original and the reconstructed image from a given compression ratio, is used as a global measurement on the quality of the reconstructed image. The NMSE's of total of 380 reconstructed and 380 difference images are measured and the results tabulated. Three complex compression methods are also suggested to compress images with special characteristics. Finally, various parameters which would effect the quality of the reconstructed images are discussed. A proposed hardware compression module is given in the last chapter.

  12. Depth-based Multi-View 3D Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco

    techniques are used to extract dense motion information and generate improved candidate side information. Multiple candidates are merged employing multi-hypothesis strategies. Promising rate-distortion performance improvements compared with state-of-the-art Wyner-Ziv decoders are reported, both when texture......-view video. Depth maps are typically used to synthesize the desired output views, and the performance of view synthesis algorithms strongly depends on the accuracy of depth information. In this thesis, novel algorithms for efficient depth map compression in MVD scenarios are proposed, with particular focus...... on edge-preserving solutions. In a proposed scheme, texture-depth correlation is exploited to predict surface shapes in the depth signal. In this way depth coding performance can be improved in terms of both compression gain and edge-preservation. Another solution proposes a new intra coding mode targeted...

  13. Test and Evaluation of Teleconferencing Video Codecs Transmitting at 1.5 Mbps. (United States)


    video teleconferencing codecs on the market as of November 1984 to facilitate the choice of an appropriate frame format and data compression algorithm...Engineer, computer company, male 5. Chapter Officer, national civic organization, female Group Y: 6. Marketing Representative, communication systems...both mon:tors to C4ve t e evi uators an idea what kind of cictures they will have to ; ucge . Special suggestions were given regardinc the sequences witn

  14. Distortion-Based Link Adaptation for Wireless Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nix


    Full Text Available Wireless local area networks (WLANs such as IEEE 802.11a/g utilise numerous transmission modes, each providing different throughputs and reliability levels. Most link adaptation algorithms proposed in the literature (i maximise the error-free data throughput, (ii do not take into account the content of the data stream, and (iii rely strongly on the use of ARQ. Low-latency applications, such as real-time video transmission, do not permit large numbers of retransmission. In this paper, a novel link adaptation scheme is presented that improves the quality of service (QoS for video transmission. Rather than maximising the error-free throughput, our scheme minimises the video distortion of the received sequence. With the use of simple and local rate distortion measures and end-to-end distortion models at the video encoder, the proposed scheme estimates the received video distortion at the current transmission rate, as well as on the adjacent lower and higher rates. This allows the system to select the link-speed which offers the lowest distortion and to adapt to the channel conditions. Simulation results are presented using the MPEG-4/AVC H.264 video compression standard over IEEE 802.11g. The results show that the proposed system closely follows the optimum theoretic solution.

  15. The art of assessing quality for images and video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deriche, M.


    The early years of this century have witnessed a tremendous growth in the use of digital multimedia data for di?erent communication applications. Researchers from around the world are spending substantial research efforts in developing techniques for improving the appearance of images/video. However, as we know, preserving high quality is a challenging task. Images are subject to distortions during acquisition, compression, transmission, analysis, and reconstruction. For this reason, the research area focusing on image and video quality assessment has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In particular, compression applications and other multimedia applications need powerful techniques for evaluating quality objectively without human interference. This tutorial will cover the di?erent faces of image quality assessment. We will motivate the need for robust image quality assessment techniques, then discuss the main algorithms found in the literature with a critical perspective. We will present the di?erent metrics used for full reference, reduced reference and no reference applications. We will then discuss the difference between image and video quality assessment. In all of the above, we will take a critical approach to explain which metric can be used for which application. Finally we will discuss the different approaches to analyze the performance of image/video quality metrics, and end the tutorial with some perspectives on newly introduced metrics and their potential applications.

  16. Automatic Performance Evaluation for Video Summarization (United States)


    Multimedia 2002, pp.189–198. [14] S. Uchihashi, J. Foote, A. Girgensohn and J. Boreczky, “Video Manga : Generating Seman- tically Meaningful Video...DeMenthon, V. Kobla and D. Doermann, “Video Summarization by Curve Simplification”, ACM Multimedia 98, Bristol, England, pp. 211-218, September 1998. 26 [2...J. Au, “Video Keyframe Production by Efficient Clustering of Compressed Chromaticity Signatures”, ACM Multimedia 2000, Juan-Les-Pins, France, pp. 365

  17. Moving image compression and generalization capability of constructive neural networks (United States)

    Ma, Liying; Khorasani, Khashayar


    To date numerous techniques have been proposed to compress digital images to ease their storage and transmission over communication channels. Recently, a number of image compression algorithms using Neural Networks NNs have been developed. Particularly, several constructive feed-forward neural networks FNNs have been proposed by researchers for image compression, and promising results have been reported. At the previous SPIE AeroSense conference 2000, we proposed to use a constructive One-Hidden-Layer Feedforward Neural Network OHL-FNN for compressing digital images. In this paper, we first investigate the generalization capability of the proposed OHL-FNN in the presence of additive noise for network training and/ or generalization. Extensive experimental results for different scenarios are presented. It is revealed that the constructive OHL-FNN is not as robust to additive noise in input image as expected. Next, the constructive OHL-FNN is applied to moving images, video sequences. The first, or other specified frame in a moving image sequence is used to train the network. The remaining moving images that follow are then generalized/compressed by this trained network. Three types of correlation-like criteria measuring the similarity of any two images are introduced. The relationship between the generalization capability of the constructed net and the similarity of images is investigated in some detail. It is shown that the constructive OHL-FNN is promising even for changing images such as those extracted from a football game.

  18. Compression stockings (United States)

    Call your health insurance or prescription plan: Find out if they pay for compression stockings. Ask if your durable medical equipment benefit pays for compression stockings. Get a prescription from your doctor. Find a medical equipment store where they can ...

  19. Dashboard Videos (United States)

    Gleue, Alan D.; Depcik, Chris; Peltier, Ted


    Last school year, I had a web link emailed to me entitled "A Dashboard Physics Lesson." The link, created and posted by Dale Basier on his "Lab Out Loud" blog, illustrates video of a car's speedometer synchronized with video of the road. These two separate video streams are compiled into one video that students can watch and analyze. After seeing…

  20. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise


    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  1. Non-US data compression and coding research. FASAC Technical Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.M.; Cohn, M.; Craver, L.W.; Gersho, A.; Lookabaugh, T.; Pollara, F.; Vetterli, M.


    This assessment of recent data compression and coding research outside the United States examines fundamental and applied work in the basic areas of signal decomposition, quantization, lossless compression, and error control, as well as application development efforts in image/video compression and speech/audio compression. Seven computer scientists and engineers who are active in development of these technologies in US academia, government, and industry carried out the assessment. Strong industrial and academic research groups in Western Europe, Israel, and the Pacific Rim are active in the worldwide search for compression algorithms that provide good tradeoffs among fidelity, bit rate, and computational complexity, though the theoretical roots and virtually all of the classical compression algorithms were developed in the United States. Certain areas, such as segmentation coding, model-based coding, and trellis-coded modulation, have developed earlier or in more depth outside the United States, though the United States has maintained its early lead in most areas of theory and algorithm development. Researchers abroad are active in other currently popular areas, such as quantizer design techniques based on neural networks and signal decompositions based on fractals and wavelets, but, in most cases, either similar research is or has been going on in the United States, or the work has not led to useful improvements in compression performance. Because there is a high degree of international cooperation and interaction in this field, good ideas spread rapidly across borders (both ways) through international conferences, journals, and technical exchanges. Though there have been no fundamental data compression breakthroughs in the past five years--outside or inside the United State--there have been an enormous number of significant improvements in both places in the tradeoffs among fidelity, bit rate, and computational complexity.

  2. Effect of video decoder errors on video interpretability (United States)

    Young, Darrell L.


    The advancement in video compression technology can result in more sensitivity to bit errors. Bit errors can propagate causing sustained loss of interpretability. In the worst case, the decoder "freezes" until it can re-synchronize with the stream. Detection of artifacts enables downstream processes to avoid corrupted frames. A simple template approach to detect block stripes and a more advanced cascade approach to detect compression artifacts was shown to correlate to the presence of artifacts and decoder messages.

  3. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith


    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  4. Video Inpainting of Complex Scenes


    Newson, Alasdair; Almansa, Andrés; Fradet, Matthieu; Gousseau, Yann; Pérez, Patrick


    We propose an automatic video inpainting algorithm which relies on the optimisation of a global, patch-based functional. Our algorithm is able to deal with a variety of challenging situations which naturally arise in video inpainting, such as the correct reconstruction of dynamic textures, multiple moving objects and moving background. Furthermore, we achieve this in an order of magnitude less execution time with respect to the state-of-the-art. We are also able to achieve good quality result...

  5. An Attention-Information-Based Spatial Adaptation Framework for Browsing Videos via Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Houqiang


    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of personal digital assistant devices and smart phones, more and more consumers are becoming quite enthusiastic to appreciate videos via mobile devices. However, limited display size of the mobile devices has been imposing significant barriers for users to enjoy browsing high-resolution videos. In this paper, we present an attention-information-based spatial adaptation framework to address this problem. The whole framework includes two major parts: video content generation and video adaptation system. During video compression, the attention information in video sequences will be detected using an attention model and embedded into bitstreams with proposed supplement-enhanced information (SEI structure. Furthermore, we also develop an innovative scheme to adaptively adjust quantization parameters in order to simultaneously improve the quality of overall encoding and the quality of transcoding the attention areas. When the high-resolution bitstream is transmitted to mobile users, a fast transcoding algorithm we developed earlier will be applied to generate a new bitstream for attention areas in frames. The new low-resolution bitstream containing mostly attention information, instead of the high-resolution one, will be sent to users for display on the mobile devices. Experimental results show that the proposed spatial adaptation scheme is able to improve both subjective and objective video qualities.

  6. Video pedagogy


    Länsitie, Janne; Stevenson, Blair; Männistö, Riku; Karjalainen, Tommi; Karjalainen, Asko


    The short film is an introduction to the concept of video pedagogy. The five categories of video pedagogy further elaborate how videos can be used as a part of instruction and learning process. Most pedagogical videos represent more than one category. A video itself doesn’t necessarily define the category – the ways in which the video is used as a part of pedagogical script are more defining factors. What five categories did you find? Did you agree with the categories, or are more...

  7. Video processing project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Globisch, R


    Full Text Available Video processing source code for algorithms and tools used in software media pipelines (e.g. image scalers, colour converters, etc.) The currently available source code is written in C++ with their associated libraries and DirectShow- Filters....

  8. Adaptive learning compressive tracking based on Markov location prediction (United States)

    Zhou, Xingyu; Fu, Dongmei; Yang, Tao; Shi, Yanan


    Object tracking is an interdisciplinary research topic in image processing, pattern recognition, and computer vision which has theoretical and practical application value in video surveillance, virtual reality, and automatic navigation. Compressive tracking (CT) has many advantages, such as efficiency and accuracy. However, when there are object occlusion, abrupt motion and blur, similar objects, and scale changing, the CT has the problem of tracking drift. We propose the Markov object location prediction to get the initial position of the object. Then CT is used to locate the object accurately, and the classifier parameter adaptive updating strategy is given based on the confidence map. At the same time according to the object location, extract the scale features, which is able to deal with object scale variations effectively. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better tracking accuracy and robustness than current advanced algorithms and achieves real-time performance.

  9. A new method for robust video watermarking resistant against key estimation attacks (United States)

    Mitekin, Vitaly


    This paper presents a new method for high-capacity robust digital video watermarking and algorithms of embedding and extraction of watermark based on this method. Proposed method uses password-based two-dimensional pseudonoise arrays for watermark embedding, making brute-force attacks aimed at steganographic key retrieval mostly impractical. Proposed algorithm for 2-dimensional "noise-like" watermarking patterns generation also allows to significantly decrease watermark collision probability ( i.e. probability of correct watermark detection and extraction using incorrect steganographic key or password).. Experimental research provided in this work also shows that simple correlation-based watermark detection procedure can be used, providing watermark robustness against lossy compression and watermark estimation attacks. At the same time, without decreasing robustness of embedded watermark, average complexity of the brute-force key retrieval attack can be increased to 1014 watermark extraction attempts (compared to 104-106 for a known robust watermarking schemes). Experimental results also shows that for lowest embedding intensity watermark preserves it's robustness against lossy compression of host video and at the same time preserves higher video quality (PSNR up to 51dB) compared to known wavelet-based and DCT-based watermarking algorithms.

  10. Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M R; Ibrahimy, M I; Motakabber, S M A; Ferdaus, M M; Khan, M N H


    Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms

  11. Spectral Compressive Sensing with Polar Interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Dadkhahi, Hamid; F. Duarte, Marco


    . In this paper, we introduce a greedy recovery algorithm that leverages a band-exclusion function and a polar interpolation function to address these two issues in spectral compressive sensing. Our algorithm is geared towards line spectral estimation from compressive measurements and outperforms most existing...

  12. Real-time heart rate measurement for multi-people using compressive tracking (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Kong, Lingqin; Dong, Liquan; Ma, Feilong; Pang, Zongguang; Cai, Zhi; Zhang, Yachu; Hua, Peng; Yuan, Ruifeng


    The rise of aging population has created a demand for inexpensive, unobtrusive, automated health care solutions. Image PhotoPlethysmoGraphy(IPPG) aids in the development of these solutions by allowing for the extraction of physiological signals from video data. However, the main deficiencies of the recent IPPG methods are non-automated, non-real-time and susceptible to motion artifacts(MA). In this paper, a real-time heart rate(HR) detection method for multiple subjects simultaneously was proposed and realized using the open computer vision(openCV) library, which consists of getting multiple subjects' facial video automatically through a Webcam, detecting the region of interest (ROI) in the video, reducing the false detection rate by our improved Adaboost algorithm, reducing the MA by our improved compress tracking(CT) algorithm, wavelet noise-suppression algorithm for denoising and multi-threads for higher detection speed. For comparison, HR was measured simultaneously using a medical pulse oximetry device for every subject during all sessions. Experimental results on a data set of 30 subjects show that the max average absolute error of heart rate estimation is less than 8 beats per minute (BPM), and the processing speed of every frame has almost reached real-time: the experiments with video recordings of ten subjects under the condition of the pixel resolution of 600× 800 pixels show that the average HR detection time of 10 subjects was about 17 frames per second (fps).

  13. High speed fluorescence imaging with compressed ultrafast photography (United States)

    Thompson, J. V.; Mason, J. D.; Beier, H. T.; Bixler, J. N.


    Fluorescent lifetime imaging is an optical technique that facilitates imaging molecular interactions and cellular functions. Because the excited lifetime of a fluorophore is sensitive to its local microenvironment,1, 2 measurement of fluorescent lifetimes can be used to accurately detect regional changes in temperature, pH, and ion concentration. However, typical state of the art fluorescent lifetime methods are severely limited when it comes to acquisition time (on the order of seconds to minutes) and video rate imaging. Here we show that compressed ultrafast photography (CUP) can be used in conjunction with fluorescent lifetime imaging to overcome these acquisition rate limitations. Frame rates up to one hundred billion frames per second have been demonstrated with compressed ultrafast photography using a streak camera.3 These rates are achieved by encoding time in the spatial direction with a pseudo-random binary pattern. The time domain information is then reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm, resulting in a cube of data (x,y,t) for each readout image. Thus, application of compressed ultrafast photography will allow us to acquire an entire fluorescent lifetime image with a single laser pulse. Using a streak camera with a high-speed CMOS camera, acquisition rates of 100 frames per second can be achieved, which will significantly enhance our ability to quantitatively measure complex biological events with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability of this technique to do single-shot fluorescent lifetime imaging of cells and microspheres.

  14. Performance and Complexity Co-evaluation of the Advanced Video Coding Standard for Cost-Effective Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saponara Sergio


    Full Text Available The advanced video codec (AVC standard, recently defined by a joint video team (JVT of ITU-T and ISO/IEC, is introduced in this paper together with its performance and complexity co-evaluation. While the basic framework is similar to the motion-compensated hybrid scheme of previous video coding standards, additional tools improve the compression efficiency at the expense of an increased implementation cost. As a first step to bridge the gap between the algorithmic design of a complex multimedia system and its cost-effective realization, a high-level co-evaluation approach is proposed and applied to a real-life AVC design. An exhaustive analysis of the codec compression efficiency versus complexity (memory and computational costs project space is carried out at the early algorithmic design phase. If all new coding features are used, the improved AVC compression efficiency (up to 50% compared to current video coding technology comes with a complexity increase of a factor 2 for the decoder and larger than one order of magnitude for the encoder. This represents a challenge for resource-constrained multimedia systems such as wireless devices or high-volume consumer electronics. The analysis also highlights important properties of the AVC framework allowing for complexity reduction at the high system level: when combining the new coding features, the implementation complexity accumulates, while the global compression efficiency saturates. Thus, a proper use of the AVC tools maintains the same performance as the most complex configuration while considerably reducing complexity. The reported results provide inputs to assist the profile definition in the standard, highlight the AVC bottlenecks, and select optimal trade-offs between algorithmic performance and complexity.

  15. Compressive sensing in medical imaging. (United States)

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y


    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  16. A biological compression model and its applications. (United States)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Dix, Trevor I; Allison, Lloyd


    A biological compression model, expert model, is presented which is superior to existing compression algorithms in both compression performance and speed. The model is able to compress whole eukaryotic genomes. Most importantly, the model provides a framework for knowledge discovery from biological data. It can be used for repeat element discovery, sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. We demonstrate that the model can handle statistically biased sequences and distantly related sequences where conventional knowledge discovery tools often fail.

  17. Compressing Data Cube in Parallel OLAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dehne


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient algorithm to compress the cubes in the progress of the parallel data cube generation. This low overhead compression mechanism provides block-by-block and record-by-record compression by using tuple difference coding techniques, thereby maximizing the compression ratio and minimizing the decompression penalty at run-time. The experimental results demonstrate that the typical compression ratio is about 30:1 without sacrificing running time. This paper also demonstrates that the compression method is suitable for Hilbert Space Filling Curve, a mechanism widely used in multi-dimensional indexing.

  18. No Reference Video-Quality-Assessment Model for Monitoring Video Quality of IPTV Services (United States)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Jun; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira

    Service providers should monitor the quality of experience of a communication service in real time to confirm its status. To do this, we previously proposed a packet-layer model that can be used for monitoring the average video quality of typical Internet protocol television content using parameters derived from transmitted packet headers. However, it is difficult to monitor the video quality per user using the average video quality because video quality depends on the video content. To accurately monitor the video quality per user, a model that can be used for estimating the video quality per video content rather than the average video quality should be developed. Therefore, to take into account the impact of video content on video quality, we propose a model that calculates the difference in video quality between the video quality of the estimation-target video and the average video quality estimated using a packet-layer model. We first conducted extensive subjective quality assessments for different codecs and video sequences. We then model their characteristics based on parameters related to compression and packet loss. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed model by applying it to unknown data sets different from the training data sets used for developing the model.

  19. Blind prediction of natural video quality. (United States)

    Saad, Michele A; Bovik, Alan C; Charrier, Christophe


    We propose a blind (no reference or NR) video quality evaluation model that is nondistortion specific. The approach relies on a spatio-temporal model of video scenes in the discrete cosine transform domain, and on a model that characterizes the type of motion occurring in the scenes, to predict video quality. We use the models to define video statistics and perceptual features that are the basis of a video quality assessment (VQA) algorithm that does not require the presence of a pristine video to compare against in order to predict a perceptual quality score. The contributions of this paper are threefold. 1) We propose a spatio-temporal natural scene statistics (NSS) model for videos. 2) We propose a motion model that quantifies motion coherency in video scenes. 3) We show that the proposed NSS and motion coherency models are appropriate for quality assessment of videos, and we utilize them to design a blind VQA algorithm that correlates highly with human judgments of quality. The proposed algorithm, called video BLIINDS, is tested on the LIVE VQA database and on the EPFL-PoliMi video database and shown to perform close to the level of top performing reduced and full reference VQA algorithms.

  20. Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality (United States)

    Lee, Heesub; Rowberg, Alan H.; Frank, Mark S.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin


    Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images compressed with two different methods, an intraframe and interframe coding algorithms. The evaluated raw data were analyzed statistically to measure interrater reliability and reliability of an individual reader. Also, the analysis of variance was used to identify which compression method is better statistically, and from what compression ratio the quality of a compressed image is evaluated as poorer than that of the original. Nine x-ray CT head images from three patients were used as test cases. Six radiologists participated in reading the 99 images (some were duplicates) compressed at four different compression ratios, original, 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. The six readers agree more than by chance alone and their agreement was statistically significant, but there were large variations among readers as well as within a reader. The displacement estimated interframe coding algorithm is significantly better in quality than that of the 2-D block DCT at significance level 0.05. Also, 10:1 compressed images with the interframe coding algorithm do not show any significant differences from the original at level 0.05.

  1. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A


    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en

  2. Contextual analysis of videos

    CERN Document Server

    Thida, Myo; Monekosso, Dorothy


    Video context analysis is an active and vibrant research area, which provides means for extracting, analyzing and understanding behavior of a single target and multiple targets. Over the last few decades, computer vision researchers have been working to improve the accuracy and robustness of algorithms to analyse the context of a video automatically. In general, the research work in this area can be categorized into three major topics: 1) counting number of people in the scene 2) tracking individuals in a crowd and 3) understanding behavior of a single target or multiple targets in the scene.

  3. a Sensor Aided H.264/AVC Video Encoder for Aerial Video Sequences with in the Loop Metadata Correction (United States)

    Cicala, L.; Angelino, C. V.; Ruatta, G.; Baccaglini, E.; Raimondo, N.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are often employed to collect high resolution images in order to perform image mosaicking and/or 3D reconstruction. Images are usually stored on board and then processed with on-ground desktop software. In such a way the computational load, and hence the power consumption, is moved on ground, leaving on board only the task of storing data. Such an approach is important in the case of small multi-rotorcraft UAVs because of their low endurance due to the short battery life. Images can be stored on board with either still image or video data compression. Still image system are preferred when low frame rates are involved, because video coding systems are based on motion estimation and compensation algorithms which fail when the motion vectors are significantly long and when the overlapping between subsequent frames is very small. In this scenario, UAVs attitude and position metadata from the Inertial Navigation System (INS) can be employed to estimate global motion parameters without video analysis. A low complexity image analysis can be still performed in order to refine the motion field estimated using only the metadata. In this work, we propose to use this refinement step in order to improve the position and attitude estimation produced by the navigation system in order to maximize the encoder performance. Experiments are performed on both simulated and real world video sequences.

  4. Immersive video (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.


    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  5. Perform wordcount Map-Reduce Job in Single Node Apache Hadoop cluster and compress data using Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer (LZO) algorithm


    Mirajkar, Nandan; Bhujbal, Sandeep; Deshmukh, Aaradhana


    Applications like Yahoo, Facebook, Twitter have huge data which has to be stored and retrieved as per client access. This huge data storage requires huge database leading to increase in physical storage and becomes complex for analysis required in business growth. This storage capacity can be reduced and distributed processing of huge data can be done using Apache Hadoop which uses Map-reduce algorithm and combines the repeating data so that entire data is stored in reduced format. The paper ...

  6. Visualizing and quantifying movement from pre-recorded videos: The spectral time-lapse (STL algorithm [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Madan


    Full Text Available When studying animal behaviour within an open environment, movement-related data are often important for behavioural analyses. Therefore, simple and efficient techniques are needed to present and analyze the data of such movements. However, it is challenging to present both spatial and temporal information of movements within a two-dimensional image representation. To address this challenge, we developed the spectral time-lapse (STL algorithm that re-codes an animal’s position at every time point with a time-specific color, and overlays it with a reference frame of the video, to produce a summary image. We additionally incorporated automated motion tracking, such that the animal’s position can be extracted and summary statistics such as path length and duration can be calculated, as well as instantaneous velocity and acceleration. Here we describe the STL algorithm and offer a freely available MATLAB toolbox that implements the algorithm and allows for a large degree of end-user control and flexibility.

  7. Video Encryption-A Survey


    Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena


    Multimedia data security is becoming important with the continuous increase of digital communications on internet. The encryption algorithms developed to secure text data are not suitable for multimedia application because of the large data size and real time constraint. In this paper, classification and description of various video encryption algorithms are presented. Analysis and Comparison of these algorithms with respect to various parameters like visual degradation, encryption ratio, spe...

  8. Performance Analysis of Video Transmission Using Sequential Distortion Minimization Method for Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Astin


    Full Text Available This paper presents about the transmission of Digital Video Broadcasting system with streaming video resolution 640x480 on different IQ rate and modulation. In the video transmission, distortion often occurs, so the received video has bad quality. Key frames selection algorithm is flexibel on a change of video, but on these methods, the temporal information of a video sequence is omitted. To minimize distortion between the original video and received video, we aimed at adding methodology using sequential distortion minimization algorithm. Its aim was to create a new video, better than original video without significant loss of content between the original video and received video, fixed sequentially. The reliability of video transmission was observed based on a constellation diagram, with the best result on IQ rate 2 Mhz and modulation 8 QAM. The best video transmission was also investigated using SEDIM (Sequential Distortion Minimization Method and without SEDIM. The experimental result showed that the PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio average of video transmission using SEDIM was an increase from 19,855 dB to 48,386 dB and SSIM (Structural Similarity average increase 10,49%. The experimental results and comparison of proposed method obtained a good performance. USRP board was used as RF front-end on 2,2 GHz.

  9. Compressed sensing for distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico


    This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...

  10. Fast Compressive Tracking. (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan


    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.

  11. Video games


    Kolář, Vojtěch


    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  12. A novel directional asymmetric sampling search algorithm for fast block-matching motion estimation (United States)

    Li, Yue-e.; Wang, Qiang


    This paper proposes a novel directional asymmetric sampling search (DASS) algorithm for video compression. Making full use of the error information (block distortions) of the search patterns, eight different direction search patterns are designed for various situations. The strategy of local sampling search is employed for the search of big-motion vector. In order to further speed up the search, early termination strategy is adopted in procedure of DASS. Compared to conventional fast algorithms, the proposed method has the most satisfactory PSNR values for all test sequences.

  13. Search in Real-Time Video Games


    Cowling, Peter I.; Buro, Michael; Bida, Michal; Botea, Adi; Bouzy, Bruno; Butz, Martin V.; Hingston, Philip; Muñoz-Avila, Hector; Nau, Dana; Sipper, Moshe


    This chapter arises from the discussions of an experienced international group of researchers interested in the potential for creative application of algorithms for searching finite discrete graphs, which have been highly successful in a wide range of application areas, to address a broad range of problems arising in video games. The chapter first summarises the state of the art in search algorithms for games. It then considers the challenges in implementing these algorithms in video games (p...

  14. Algoritmi selektivnog šifrovanja - pregled sa ocenom performansi / Selective encryption algorithms: Overview with performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriša Ž. Jovanović


    Full Text Available Digitalni multimedijalni sadržaj postaje zastupljeniji i sve više se razmenjuje putem računarskih mreža i javnih kanala (satelitske komunikacije, bežične mreže, internet, itd. koji predstavljaju nebezbedne medijume za prenos informacija osetljive sadržine. Sve više na značaju dobijaju mehanizmi kriptološke zaštite slika i video sadržaja. Tradicionalni sistemi kriptografske obrade u sistemima za prenos ovih vrsta informacija garantuju visok stepen sigurnosti, ali i imaju svoje nedostatke - visoku cenu implementacije i znatno kašnjenje u prenosu podataka. Pomenuti nedostaci se prevazilaze primenom algoritama selektivnog šifrovanja. / Digital multimedia content is becoming widely used and increasingly exchanged over computer network and public channels (satelite, wireless networks, Internet, etc. which is unsecured transmission media for ex changing that kind of information. Mechanisms made to encrypt image and video data are becoming more and more significant. Traditional cryptographic techniques can guarantee a high level of security but at the cost of expensive implementation and important transmission delays. These shortcomings can be exceeded using selective encryption algorithms. Introduction In traditional image and video content protection schemes, called fully layered, the whole content is first compressed. Then, the compressed bitstream is entirely encrypted using a standard cipher (DES - Data Encryption Algorithm, IDEA - International Data Encryption Algorithm, AES - Advanced Encryption Algorithm etc.. The specific characteristics of this kind of data, high-transmission rate with limited bandwidth, make standard encryption algorithms inadequate. Another limitation of traditional systems consists of altering the whole bitstream syntax which may disable some codec functionalities on the delivery site coder and decoder on the receiving site. Selective encryption is a new trend in image and video content protection. As its

  15. Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten


    . The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...... with using compressive sensing in communication systems. The main contribution of this thesis is two-fold: 1) a new compressive sensing hardware structure for spread spectrum signals, which is simpler than the current state-of-the-art, and 2) a range of algorithms for parameter estimation for the class...

  16. An efficient and extensible approach for compressing phylogenetic trees

    KAUST Repository

    Matthews, Suzanne J; Williams, Tiffani L


    Background: Biologists require new algorithms to efficiently compress and store their large collections of phylogenetic trees. Our previous work showed that TreeZip is a promising approach for compressing phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we extend

  17. A method of mobile video transmission based on J2ee (United States)

    Guo, Jian-xin; Zhao, Ji-chun; Gong, Jing; Chun, Yang


    As 3G (3rd-generation) networks evolve worldwide, the rising demand for mobile video services and the enormous growth of video on the internet is creating major new revenue opportunities for mobile network operators and application developers. The text introduced a method of mobile video transmission based on J2ME, giving the method of video compressing, then describing the video compressing standard, and then describing the software design. The proposed mobile video method based on J2EE is a typical mobile multimedia application, which has a higher availability and a wide range of applications. The users can get the video through terminal devices such as phone.

  18. Akademisk video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet ...

  19. Indexing Motion Detection Data for Surveillance Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Søren Juhl; Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We show how to compactly index video data to support fast motion detection queries. A query specifies a time interval T, a area A in the video and two thresholds v and p. The answer to a query is a list of timestamps in T where ≥ p% of A has changed by ≥ v values. Our results show that by building...... a small index, we can support queries with a speedup of two to three orders of magnitude compared to motion detection without an index. For high resolution video, the index size is about 20% of the compressed video size....

  20. Enhancement system of nighttime infrared video image and visible video image (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Piao, Yan


    Visibility of Nighttime video image has a great significance for military and medicine areas, but nighttime video image has so poor quality that we can't recognize the target and background. Thus we enhance the nighttime video image by fuse infrared video image and visible video image. According to the characteristics of infrared and visible images, we proposed improved sift algorithm andαβ weighted algorithm to fuse heterologous nighttime images. We would deduced a transfer matrix from improved sift algorithm. The transfer matrix would rapid register heterologous nighttime images. And theαβ weighted algorithm can be applied in any scene. In the video image fusion system, we used the transfer matrix to register every frame and then used αβ weighted method to fuse every frame, which reached the time requirement soft video. The fused video image not only retains the clear target information of infrared video image, but also retains the detail and color information of visible video image and the fused video image can fluency play.

  1. Reconfigurable Secure Video Codec Based on DWT and AES Processor


    Rached Tourki; M. Machhout; B. Bouallegue; M. Atri; M. Zeghid; D. Dia


    In this paper, we proposed a secure video codec based on the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) processor. Either, use of video coding with DWT or encryption using AES is well known. However, linking these two designs to achieve secure video coding is leading. The contributions of our work are as follows. First, a new method for image and video compression is proposed. This codec is a synthesis of JPEG and JPEG2000,which is implemented using Huffm...

  2. On-line compression of symmetrical multidimensional γ-ray spectra using adaptive orthogonal transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.; Matousek, V.


    The efficient algorithm to compress multidimensional symmetrical γ-ray events is presented. The reduction of data volume can be achieved due to both the symmetry of the γ-ray spectra and compression capabilities of the employed adaptive orthogonal transform. Illustrative examples prove in the favor of the proposed compression algorithm. The algorithm was implemented for on-line compression of events. Acquired compressed data can be later processed in an interactive way

  3. Utilization of KSC Present Broadband Communications Data System for Digital Video Services (United States)

    Andrawis, Alfred S.


    This report covers a visibility study of utilizing present KSC broadband communications data system (BCDS) for digital video services. Digital video services include compressed digital TV delivery and video-on-demand. Furthermore, the study examines the possibility of providing interactive video on demand to desktop personal computers via KSC computer network.

  4. Application of digital compression techniques to optical surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.


    There are many benefits to handling video images electronically, however, the amount of digital data in a normal video image is a major obstacle. The solution is to remove the high frequency and redundant information in a process that is referred to as compression. Compression allows the number of digital bits required for a given image to be reduced for more efficient storage or transmission of images. The next question is how much compression can be done without impairing the image quality beyond its usefulness for a given application. This paper discusses image compression that might be applied to provide useful images in unattended nuclear facility surveillance applications

  5. Image compression with Iris-C (United States)

    Gains, David


    Iris-C is an image codec designed for streaming video applications that demand low bit rate, low latency, lossless image compression. To achieve compression and low latency the codec features the discrete wavelet transform, Exp-Golomb coding, and online processes that construct dynamic models of the input video. Like H.264 and Dirac, the Iris-C codec accepts input video from both the YUV and YCOCG colour spaces, but the system can also operate on Bayer RAW data read directly from an image sensor. Testing shows that the Iris-C codec is competitive with the Dirac low delay syntax codec which is typically regarded as the state-of-the-art low latency, lossless video compressor.

  6. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences. (United States)

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf


    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  7. Perceived Quality of Full HD Video - Subjective Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik


    Full Text Available In recent years, an interest in multimedia services has become a global trend and this trend is still rising. The video quality is a very significant part from the bundle of multimedia services, which leads to a requirement for quality assessment in the video domain. Video quality of a streamed video across IP networks is generally influenced by two factors “transmission link imperfection and efficiency of compression standards. This paper deals with subjective video quality assessment and the impact of the compression standards H.264, H.265 and VP9 on perceived video quality of these compression standards. The evaluation is done for four full HD sequences, the difference of scenes is in the content“ distinction is based on Spatial (SI and Temporal (TI Index of test sequences. Finally, experimental results follow up to 30% bitrate reducing of H.265 and VP9 compared with the reference H.264.

  8. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C


    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  9. Video Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm


    This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...

  10. Video games. (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B


    The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.

  11. Music analysis and point-set compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David


    COSIATEC, SIATECCompress and Forth’s algorithm are point-set compression algorithms developed for discovering repeated patterns in music, such as themes and motives that would be of interest to a music analyst. To investigate their effectiveness and versatility, these algorithms were evaluated...... on three analytical tasks that depend on the discovery of repeated patterns: classifying folk song melodies into tune families, discovering themes and sections in polyphonic music, and discovering subject and countersubject entries in fugues. Each algorithm computes a compressed encoding of a point......-set representation of a musical object in the form of a list of compact patterns, each pattern being given with a set of vectors indicating its occurrences. However, the algorithms adopt different strategies in their attempts to discover encodings that maximize compression.The best-performing algorithm on the folk...

  12. Energy minimization of mobile video devices with a hardware H.264/AVC encoder based on energy-rate-distortion optimization (United States)

    Kang, Donghun; Lee, Jungeon; Jung, Jongpil; Lee, Chul-Hee; Kyung, Chong-Min


    In mobile video systems powered by battery, reducing the encoder's compression energy consumption is critical to prolong its lifetime. Previous Energy-rate-distortion (E-R-D) optimization methods based on a software codec is not suitable for practical mobile camera systems because the energy consumption is too large and encoding rate is too low. In this paper, we propose an E-R-D model for the hardware codec based on the gate-level simulation framework to measure the switching activity and the energy consumption. From the proposed E-R-D model, an energy minimizing algorithm for mobile video camera sensor have been developed with the GOP (Group of Pictures) size and QP(Quantization Parameter) as run-time control variables. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides up to 31.76% of energy consumption saving while satisfying the rate and distortion constraints.

  13. Wellhead compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)


    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  14. A high-speed lossless data compression system for space applications (United States)

    Miko, Joe; Fong, Wai; Miller, Warner


    This paper reports on the integration of a lossless data compression/decompression chipset into a space data system architecture. For its compression engine, the data system incorporates the Universal Source Encoder (USE) designed for the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Currently, the data compression testbed generates video frames consisting of 512 lines of 512 pixels having 8-bit resolution. Each image is passed through the USE where the lines are internally partitioned into 16-word blocks. These blocks are adaptively encoded across widely varying entropy levels using a Rice 12-option set coding algorithm. The current system operates at an Input/Output rate of 10 Msamples/s or 80 Mbits/s for each buffered input line. Frame and line synchronization for each image are maintained through the use of uniquely decodable command words. Length information of each variable length compressed image line is also included in the output stream. The data and command information are passed to the next stage of the system architecture through a serial fiber-optic transmitter. The initial segment of this stage consists of packetizer hardware which adds an appropriate CCSDS header to the received source data. An uncompressed mode is optionally available to pass image lines directly to the packetizer hardware. A data decompression testbed has also been developed to confirm the data compression operation.

  15. Deep linear autoencoder and patch clustering-based unified one-dimensional coding of image and video (United States)

    Li, Honggui


    This paper proposes a unified one-dimensional (1-D) coding framework of image and video, which depends on deep learning neural network and image patch clustering. First, an improved K-means clustering algorithm for image patches is employed to obtain the compact inputs of deep artificial neural network. Second, for the purpose of best reconstructing original image patches, deep linear autoencoder (DLA), a linear version of the classical deep nonlinear autoencoder, is introduced to achieve the 1-D representation of image blocks. Under the circumstances of 1-D representation, DLA is capable of attaining zero reconstruction error, which is impossible for the classical nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods. Third, a unified 1-D coding infrastructure for image, intraframe, interframe, multiview video, three-dimensional (3-D) video, and multiview 3-D video is built by incorporating different categories of videos into the inputs of patch clustering algorithm. Finally, it is shown in the results of simulation experiments that the proposed methods can simultaneously gain higher compression ratio and peak signal-to-noise ratio than those of the state-of-the-art methods in the situation of low bitrate transmission.

  16. Efficient burst image compression using H.265/HEVC (United States)

    Roodaki-Lavasani, Hoda; Lainema, Jani


    New imaging use cases are emerging as more powerful camera hardware is entering consumer markets. One family of such use cases is based on capturing multiple pictures instead of just one when taking a photograph. That kind of a camera operation allows e.g. selecting the most successful shot from a sequence of images, showing what happened right before or after the shot was taken or combining the shots by computational means to improve either visible characteristics of the picture (such as dynamic range or focus) or the artistic aspects of the photo (e.g. by superimposing pictures on top of each other). Considering that photographic images are typically of high resolution and quality and the fact that these kind of image bursts can consist of at least tens of individual pictures, an efficient compression algorithm is desired. However, traditional video coding approaches fail to provide the random access properties these use cases require to achieve near-instantaneous access to the pictures in the coded sequence. That feature is critical to allow users to browse the pictures in an arbitrary order or imaging algorithms to extract desired pictures from the sequence quickly. This paper proposes coding structures that provide such random access properties while achieving coding efficiency superior to existing image coders. The results indicate that using HEVC video codec with a single reference picture fixed for the whole sequence can achieve nearly as good compression as traditional IPPP coding structures. It is also shown that the selection of the reference frame can further improve the coding efficiency.

  17. Novel 3D Stereoscopic Film Compression using Multiwavelet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 5, 2018 ... this works based on observing the parsing evaluation of the ... enhance the performance of the quality of the 3D film is .... enhance our understanding of compression the video fra .... rt stereoscopy, for example in future can.

  18. Video Comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.


    The Video Comparator is a comparative gage that uses electronic images from two sources, a standard and an unknown. Two matched video cameras are used to obtain the electronic images. The video signals are mixed and displayed on a single video receiver (CRT). The video system is manufactured by ITP of Chatsworth, CA and is a Tele-Microscope II, Model 148. One of the cameras is mounted on a toolmaker's microscope stand and produces a 250X image of a cast. The other camera is mounted on a stand and produces an image of a 250X template. The two video images are mixed in a control box provided by ITP and displayed on a CRT. The template or the cast can be moved to align the desired features. Vertical reference lines are provided on the CRT, and a feature on the cast can be aligned with a line on the CRT screen. The stage containing the casts can be moved using a Boeckleler micrometer equipped with a digital readout, and a second feature aligned with the reference line and the distance moved obtained from the digital display

  19. Subband Coding Methods for Seismic Data Compression (United States)

    Kiely, A.; Pollara, F.


    This paper presents a study of seismic data compression techniques and a compression algorithm based on subband coding. The compression technique described could be used as a progressive transmission system, where successive refinements of the data can be requested by the user. This allows seismologists to first examine a coarse version of waveforms with minimal usage of the channel and then decide where refinements are required. Rate-distortion performance results are presented and comparisons are made with two block transform methods.

  20. Compression and fast retrieval of SNP data. (United States)

    Sambo, Francesco; Di Camillo, Barbara; Toffolo, Gianna; Cobelli, Claudio


    The increasing interest in rare genetic variants and epistatic genetic effects on complex phenotypic traits is currently pushing genome-wide association study design towards datasets of increasing size, both in the number of studied subjects and in the number of genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This, in turn, is leading to a compelling need for new methods for compression and fast retrieval of SNP data. We present a novel algorithm and file format for compressing and retrieving SNP data, specifically designed for large-scale association studies. Our algorithm is based on two main ideas: (i) compress linkage disequilibrium blocks in terms of differences with a reference SNP and (ii) compress reference SNPs exploiting information on their call rate and minor allele frequency. Tested on two SNP datasets and compared with several state-of-the-art software tools, our compression algorithm is shown to be competitive in terms of compression rate and to outperform all tools in terms of time to load compressed data. Our compression and decompression algorithms are implemented in a C++ library, are released under the GNU General Public License and are freely downloadable from © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  1. Statistical Analysis of Video Frame Size Distribution Originating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ahmadpour


    Full Text Available Designing an effective and high performance network requires an accurate characterization and modeling of network traffic. The modeling of video frame sizes is normally applied in simulation studies and mathematical analysis and generating streams for testing and compliance purposes. Besides, video traffic assumed as a major source of multimedia traffic in future heterogeneous network. Therefore, the statistical distribution of video data can be used as the inputs for performance modeling of networks. The finding of this paper comprises the theoretical definition of distribution which seems to be relevant to the video trace in terms of its statistical properties and finds the best distribution using both the graphical method and the hypothesis test. The data set used in this article consists of layered video traces generating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC video compression technique of three different movies.

  2. Robust steganographic method utilizing properties of MJPEG compression standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Oravec


    Full Text Available This article presents design of steganographic method, which uses video container as cover data. Video track was recorded by webcam and was further encoded by compression standard MJPEG. Proposed method also takes in account effects of lossy compression. The embedding process is realized by switching places of transform coefficients, which are computed by Discrete Cosine Transform. The article contains possibilities, used techniques, advantages and drawbacks of chosen solution. The results are presented at the end of the article.

  3. Analysis by compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    MEL is a geometric music encoding language designed to allow for musical objects to be encoded parsimoniously as sets of points in pitch-time space, generated by performing geometric transformations on component patterns. MEL has been implemented in Java and coupled with the SIATEC pattern...... discovery algorithm to allow for compact encodings to be generated automatically from in extenso note lists. The MEL-SIATEC system is founded on the belief that music analysis and music perception can be modelled as the compression of in extenso descriptions of musical objects....

  4. Compressive full waveform lidar (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun


    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  5. Ductography - video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leginova, L.; Troscakova, I.


    The ductography is imaging of the milky ducts with an positive contrast media by retrograde method. Examination is made at secretion sickness of the mammary glands. Scanning is made on the mammograph in the cranio-caudal and in mediolateral projection with compression and without compression of the data. The contraindication of the ductography are inflammation of the boobs and allergy on the iodine at the hemorrhage secretion

  6. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson


    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  7. Attacks, applications, and evaluation of known watermarking algorithms with Checkmark (United States)

    Meerwald, Peter; Pereira, Shelby


    The Checkmark benchmarking tool was introduced to provide a framework for application-oriented evaluation of watermarking schemes. In this article we introduce new attacks and applications into the existing Checkmark framework. In addition to describing new attacks and applications, we also compare the performance of some well-known watermarking algorithms (proposed by Bruyndonckx,Cox, Fridrich, Dugad, Kim, Wang, Xia, Xie, Zhu and Pereira) with respect to the Checkmark benchmark. In particular, we consider the non-geometric application which contains tests that do not change the geometry of image. This attack constraint is artificial, but yet important for research purposes since a number of algorithms may be interesting, but would score poorly with respect to specific applications simply because geometric compensation has not been incorporated. We note, however, that with the help of image registration, even research algorithms that do not have counter-measures against geometric distortion -- such as a template or reference watermark -- can be evaluated. In the first version of the Checkmark benchmarking program, application-oriented evaluation was introduced, along with many new attacks not already considered in the literature. A second goal of this paper is to introduce new attacks and new applications into the Checkmark framework. In particular, we introduce the following new applications: video frame watermarking, medical imaging and watermarking of logos. Video frame watermarking includes low compression attacks and distortions which warp the edges of the video as well as general projective transformations which may result from someone filming the screen at a cinema. With respect to medical imaging, only small distortions are considered and furthermore it is essential that no distortions are present at embedding. Finally for logos, we consider images of small sizes and particularly compression, scaling, aspect ratio and other small distortions. The challenge


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  9. A New DOA Algorithm Based on Nonlinear Compress Core Function in Symmetric α-stable Distribution Noise Environment%一种对称琢稳定分布噪声环境下DOA估计新算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金全; 葛临东; 童莉


    脉冲噪声环境下波达方向( DOA)估计是阵列信号处理领域一个新兴研究方向。针对α稳定分布噪声环境下经典MUSIC算法性能退化的问题,提出了一种新的基于非线性压缩核函数( NCCF)的DOA估计算法。该算法利用基于NCCF的有界矩阵代替了MUSIC的协方差矩阵,通过对有界矩阵进行特征分解确定信号子空间和噪声子空间,借用MUSIC谱估计公式进行谱峰搜索,得到DOA的估计值。仿真结果表明,NCCF-MUSIC算法运算复杂度较低,相比于基于分数低阶统计量( FLOS)的MUSIC方法和基于广义类相关熵( GCAS)的MUSIC算法,该方法具有更好的准确度和稳定性。%Direction of arrival ( DOA) estimation in the impulse noise environment is a new research direc-tion in the array signal processing field. To solve the problem of performance degradation when applying classic MUSIC algorithm for DOA estimation in the α-stable distribution noise environment,a novel DOA estimation algorithm based on a nonlinear compress core function ( NCCF ) is provided and named as the NCCF-MUSIC. To obtain a DOA estimation,the NCCF-MUSIC method replaces the covariance matrix in MUSIC by a bounded matrix based on the NCCF,and then determines the signal subspace and the noise subspace by feature decomposition, and finally, introduces the MUSIC spectrum estimation algorithm to make a spectral peak searching. Simulation results show that the new NCCF-MUSIC method with a lower computation cost has the higher performance in accuracy and validity than the MUSIC methods based on fractional lower order statistics ( FLOS) or based on generalized correntropy-analogous statistics ( GCAS) .

  10. Short-term change detection for UAV video (United States)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang


    In the last years, there has been an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. An important application in this context is change detection in UAV video data. Here we address short-term change detection, in which the time between observations ranges from several minutes to a few hours. We distinguish this task from video motion detection (shorter time scale) and from long-term change detection, based on time series of still images taken between several days, weeks, or even years. Examples for relevant changes we are looking for are recently parked or moved vehicles. As a pre-requisite, a precise image-to-image registration is needed. Images are selected on the basis of the geo-coordinates of the sensor's footprint and with respect to a certain minimal overlap. The automatic imagebased fine-registration adjusts the image pair to a common geometry by using a robust matching approach to handle outliers. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed length of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. To detect changes in image pairs we analyzed image differencing, local image correlation, and a transformation-based approach (multivariate alteration detection). As input we used color and gradient magnitude images. To cope with local misalignment of image structures we extended the approaches by a local neighborhood search. The algorithms are applied to several examples covering both urban and rural scenes. The local neighborhood search in combination with intensity and gradient magnitude differencing clearly improved the results. Extended image differencing performed better than both the correlation based approach and the multivariate alternation detection. The algorithms are adapted to be used in semi-automatic workflows for the ABUL video exploitation system of Fraunhofer

  11. Video Golf (United States)


    George Nauck of ENCORE!!! invented and markets the Advanced Range Performance (ARPM) Video Golf System for measuring the result of a golf swing. After Nauck requested their assistance, Marshall Space Flight Center scientists suggested video and image processing/computing technology, and provided leads on commercial companies that dealt with the pertinent technologies. Nauck contracted with Applied Research Inc. to develop a prototype. The system employs an elevated camera, which sits behind the tee and follows the flight of the ball down range, catching the point of impact and subsequent roll. Instant replay of the video on a PC monitor at the tee allows measurement of the carry and roll. The unit measures distance and deviation from the target line, as well as distance from the target when one is selected. The information serves as an immediate basis for making adjustments or as a record of skill level progress for golfers.

  12. Image quality (IQ) guided multispectral image compression (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Genshe; Wang, Zhonghai; Blasch, Erik


    Image compression is necessary for data transportation, which saves both transferring time and storage space. In this paper, we focus on our discussion on lossy compression. There are many standard image formats and corresponding compression algorithms, for examples, JPEG (DCT -- discrete cosine transform), JPEG 2000 (DWT -- discrete wavelet transform), BPG (better portable graphics) and TIFF (LZW -- Lempel-Ziv-Welch). The image quality (IQ) of decompressed image will be measured by numerical metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. Given an image and a specified IQ, we will investigate how to select a compression method and its parameters to achieve an expected compression. Our scenario consists of 3 steps. The first step is to compress a set of interested images by varying parameters and compute their IQs for each compression method. The second step is to create several regression models per compression method after analyzing the IQ-measurement versus compression-parameter from a number of compressed images. The third step is to compress the given image with the specified IQ using the selected compression method (JPEG, JPEG2000, BPG, or TIFF) according to the regressed models. The IQ may be specified by a compression ratio (e.g., 100), then we will select the compression method of the highest IQ (SSIM, or PSNR). Or the IQ may be specified by a IQ metric (e.g., SSIM = 0.8, or PSNR = 50), then we will select the compression method of the highest compression ratio. Our experiments tested on thermal (long-wave infrared) images (in gray scales) showed very promising results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pakulova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with video data transmission in format H.264/SVC standard with QoS requirements satisfaction. The Sender-Side Path Scheduling (SSPS algorithm and Sender-Side Video Adaptation (SSVA algorithm were developed. SSPS algorithm gives the possibility to allocate video traffic among several interfaces while SSVA algorithm dynamically changes the quality of video sequence in relation to QoS requirements. It was shown that common usage of two developed algorithms enables to aggregate throughput of access networks, increase parameters of Quality of Experience and decrease losses in comparison with Round Robin algorithm. For evaluation of proposed solution, the set-up was made. The trace files with throughput of existing public networks were used in experiments. Based on this information the throughputs of networks were limited and losses for paths were set. The results of research may be used for study and transmission of video data in heterogeneous wireless networks.

  14. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin


    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  15. Exploring compression techniques for ROOT IO (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Bockelman, B.


    ROOT provides an flexible format used throughout the HEP community. The number of use cases - from an archival data format to end-stage analysis - has required a number of tradeoffs to be exposed to the user. For example, a high “compression level” in the traditional DEFLATE algorithm will result in a smaller file (saving disk space) at the cost of slower decompression (costing CPU time when read). At the scale of the LHC experiment, poor design choices can result in terabytes of wasted space or wasted CPU time. We explore and attempt to quantify some of these tradeoffs. Specifically, we explore: the use of alternate compressing algorithms to optimize for read performance; an alternate method of compressing individual events to allow efficient random access; and a new approach to whole-file compression. Quantitative results are given, as well as guidance on how to make compression decisions for different use cases.

  16. OAS :: Videos (United States)

    subscriptions Videos Photos Live Webcast Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Audios Photos Social Media Facebook Twitter Newsletters Press and Communications Department Contact us at Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber

  17. New Theory and Algorithms for Compressive Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baraniuk, Richard G


    .... We first demonstrated the information scalability of CS. We applied CS principles to analog-to-digital conversion, showing ADC can be accomplished on structured high rate signals with sub-Nyquist sampling...

  18. Scalable video on demand adaptive Internet-based distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Zink, Michael


    In recent years, the proliferation of available video content and the popularity of the Internet have encouraged service providers to develop new ways of distributing content to clients. Increasing video scaling ratios and advanced digital signal processing techniques have led to Internet Video-on-Demand applications, but these currently lack efficiency and quality. Scalable Video on Demand: Adaptive Internet-based Distribution examines how current video compression and streaming can be used to deliver high-quality applications over the Internet. In addition to analysing the problems

  19. Universal data compression and repetition times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Frans M J


    A new universal data compression algorithm is described. This algorithm encodes L source symbols at a time. For the class of binary stationary sources, its rate does not exceed [formula omitted] [formula omitted] bits per source symbol. In our analysis, a property of repetition times turns out to be

  20. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian


    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  1. Attention modeling for video quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew


    averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in modeling visual attention, which is then integrated into IQMs to calculate the local quality of a video frame...... average between the global quality and the local quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the combination of the global quality and local quality outperforms both sole global quality and local quality, as well as other quality models, in video quality assessment. In addition, the proposed video...... quality modeling algorithm can improve the performance of image quality metrics on video quality assessment compared to the normal averaged spatiotemporal pooling scheme....

  2. Effective Quality-of-Service Renegotiating Schemes for Streaming Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hwangjun


    Full Text Available This paper presents effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The conventional network supporting quality of service generally allows a negotiation at a call setup. However, it is not efficient for the video application since the compressed video traffic is statistically nonstationary. Thus, we consider the network supporting quality-of-service renegotiations during the data transmission and study effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The token bucket model, whose parameters are token filling rate and token bucket size, is adopted for the video traffic model. The renegotiating time instants and the parameters are determined by analyzing the statistical information of compressed video traffic. In this paper, two renegotiating approaches, that is, fixed renegotiating interval case and variable renegotiating interval case, are examined. Finally, the experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed schemes.

  3. Compressibility-aware media retargeting with structure preserving. (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Fan; Lai, Shang-Hong


    A number of algorithms have been proposed for intelligent image/video retargeting with image content retained as much as possible. However, they usually suffer from some artifacts in the results, such as ridge or structure twist. In this paper, we present a structure-preserving media retargeting technique that preserves the content and image structure as best as possible. Different from the previous pixel or grid based methods, we estimate the image content saliency from the structure of the content. A block structure energy is introduced with a top-down strategy to constrain the image structure inside to deform uniformly in either x or y direction. However, the flexibilities for retargeting are quite different for different images. To cope with this problem, we propose a compressibility assessment scheme for media retargeting by combining the entropies of image gradient magnitude and orientation distributions. Thus, the resized media is produced to preserve the image content and structure as best as possible. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method provides resized images/videos with better preservation of content and structure than those by the previous methods.

  4. General Video Game AI: Learning from Screen Capture


    Kunanusont, Kamolwan; Lucas, Simon M.; Perez-Liebana, Diego


    General Video Game Artificial Intelligence is a general game playing framework for Artificial General Intelligence research in the video-games domain. In this paper, we propose for the first time a screen capture learning agent for General Video Game AI framework. A Deep Q-Network algorithm was applied and improved to develop an agent capable of learning to play different games in the framework. After testing this algorithm using various games of different categories and difficulty levels, th...

  5. Wide-Range Motion Estimation Architecture with Dual Search Windows for High Resolution Video Coding (United States)

    Dung, Lan-Rong; Lin, Meng-Chun

    This paper presents a memory-efficient motion estimation (ME) technique for high-resolution video compression. The main objective is to reduce the external memory access, especially for limited local memory resource. The reduction of memory access can successfully save the notorious power consumption. The key to reduce the memory accesses is based on center-biased algorithm in that the center-biased algorithm performs the motion vector (MV) searching with the minimum search data. While considering the data reusability, the proposed dual-search-windowing (DSW) approaches use the secondary windowing as an option per searching necessity. By doing so, the loading of search windows can be alleviated and hence reduce the required external memory bandwidth. The proposed techniques can save up to 81% of external memory bandwidth and require only 135 MBytes/sec, while the quality degradation is less than 0.2dB for 720p HDTV clips coded at 8Mbits/sec.

  6. Video segmentation using keywords (United States)

    Ton-That, Vinh; Vong, Chi-Tai; Nguyen-Dao, Xuan-Truong; Tran, Minh-Triet


    At DAVIS-2016 Challenge, many state-of-art video segmentation methods achieve potential results, but they still much depend on annotated frames to distinguish between background and foreground. It takes a lot of time and efforts to create these frames exactly. In this paper, we introduce a method to segment objects from video based on keywords given by user. First, we use a real-time object detection system - YOLOv2 to identify regions containing objects that have labels match with the given keywords in the first frame. Then, for each region identified from the previous step, we use Pyramid Scene Parsing Network to assign each pixel as foreground or background. These frames can be used as input frames for Object Flow algorithm to perform segmentation on entire video. We conduct experiments on a subset of DAVIS-2016 dataset in half the size of its original size, which shows that our method can handle many popular classes in PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset with acceptable accuracy, about 75.03%. We suggest widely testing by combining other methods to improve this result in the future.

  7. Rate control scheme for consistent video quality in scalable video codec. (United States)

    Seo, Chan-Won; Han, Jong-Ki; Nguyen, Truong Q


    Multimedia data delivered to mobile devices over wireless channels or the Internet are complicated by bandwidth fluctuation and the variety of mobile devices. Scalable video coding has been developed as an extension of H.264/AVC to solve this problem. Since scalable video codec provides various scalabilities to adapt the bitstream for the channel conditions and terminal types, scalable codec is one of the useful codecs for wired or wireless multimedia communication systems, such as IPTV and streaming services. In such scalable multimedia communication systems, video quality fluctuation degrades the visual perception significantly. It is important to efficiently use the target bits in order to maintain a consistent video quality or achieve a small distortion variation throughout the whole video sequence. The scheme proposed in this paper provides a useful function to control video quality in applications supporting scalability, whereas conventional schemes have been proposed to control video quality in the H.264 and MPEG-4 systems. The proposed algorithm decides the quantization parameter of the enhancement layer to maintain a consistent video quality throughout the entire sequence. The video quality of the enhancement layer is controlled based on a closed-form formula which utilizes the residual data and quantization error of the base layer. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm controls the frame quality of the enhancement layer in a simple operation, where the parameter decision algorithm is applied to each frame.

  8. Techniques for data compression in experimental nuclear physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byalko, A.A.; Volkov, N.G.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.


    Techniques and ways for data compression during physical experiments are estimated. Data compression algorithms are divided into three groups: the first one includes the algorithms based on coding and which posses only average indexes by data files, the second group includes algorithms with data processing elements, the third one - algorithms for converted data storage. The greatest promise for the techniques connected with data conversion is concluded. The techniques possess high indexes for compression efficiency and for fast response, permit to store information close to the source one

  9. Discrete cosine and sine transforms general properties, fast algorithms and integer approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Britanak, Vladimir; Rao, K R; Rao, K R


    The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used in many applications by the scientific, engineering and research communities and in data compression in particular. Fast algorithms and applications of the DCT Type II (DCT-II) have become the heart of many established international image/video coding standards. Since then other forms of the DCT and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been investigated in detail. This new edition presents the complete set of DCT and DST discrete trigonometric transforms, including their definitions, general mathematical properties, and relations to the optimal Karhune

  10. Video processing for human perceptual visual quality-oriented video coding. (United States)

    Oh, Hyungsuk; Kim, Wonha


    We have developed a video processing method that achieves human perceptual visual quality-oriented video coding. The patterns of moving objects are modeled by considering the limited human capacity for spatial-temporal resolution and the visual sensory memory together, and an online moving pattern classifier is devised by using the Hedge algorithm. The moving pattern classifier is embedded in the existing visual saliency with the purpose of providing a human perceptual video quality saliency model. In order to apply the developed saliency model to video coding, the conventional foveation filtering method is extended. The proposed foveation filter can smooth and enhance the video signals locally, in conformance with the developed saliency model, without causing any artifacts. The performance evaluation results confirm that the proposed video processing method shows reliable improvements in the perceptual quality for various sequences and at various bandwidths, compared to existing saliency-based video coding methods.

  11. Impulsive noise removal from color video with morphological filtering (United States)

    Ruchay, Alexey; Kober, Vitaly


    This paper deals with impulse noise removal from color video. The proposed noise removal algorithm employs a switching filtering for denoising of color video; that is, detection of corrupted pixels by means of a novel morphological filtering followed by removal of the detected pixels on the base of estimation of uncorrupted pixels in the previous scenes. With the help of computer simulation we show that the proposed algorithm is able to well remove impulse noise in color video. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared in terms of image restoration metrics with that of common successful algorithms.

  12. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Katajainen, Jyrki; Merrick, Damian


    such that the most common spatio-temporal queries can still be answered approximately after the compression has taken place. In the process, we develop an implementation of the Douglas–Peucker path-simplification algorithm which works efficiently even in the case where the polygonal path given as input is allowed...... to self-intersect. For a polygonal path of size n, the processing time is O(nlogkn) for k=2 or k=3 depending on the type of simplification....

  13. The Basic Principles and Methods of the System Approach to Compression of Telemetry Data (United States)

    Levenets, A. V.


    The task of data compressing of measurement data is still urgent for information-measurement systems. In paper the basic principles necessary for designing of highly effective systems of compression of telemetric information are offered. A basis of the offered principles is representation of a telemetric frame as whole information space where we can find of existing correlation. The methods of data transformation and compressing algorithms realizing the offered principles are described. The compression ratio for offered compression algorithm is about 1.8 times higher, than for a classic algorithm. Thus, results of a research of methods and algorithms showing their good perspectives.

  14. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li


    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...

  15. Concurrent data compression and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.


    Data compression techniques involve transforming data of a given format, called source message, to data of a smaller sized format, called codeword. The primary objective of data encryption is to ensure security of data if it is intercepted by an eavesdropper. It transforms data of a given format, called plaintext, to another format, called ciphertext, using an encryption key or keys. Thus, combining the processes of compression and encryption together must be done in this order, that is, compression followed by encryption because all compression techniques heavily rely on the redundancies which are inherently a part of a regular text or speech. The aim of this research is to combine two processes of compression (using an existing scheme) with a new encryption scheme which should be compatible with encoding scheme embedded in encoder. The novel technique proposed by the authors is new, unique and is highly secured. The deployment of sentinel marker' enhances the security of the proposed TR-One algorithm from 2/sup 44/ ciphertexts to 2/sup 44/ +2/sub 20/ ciphertexts thus imposing extra challenges to the intruders. (author)

  16. An efficient adaptive arithmetic coding image compression technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Yun Jiao-Jiao; Zhang Yong-Lei


    This paper proposes an efficient lossless image compression scheme for still images based on an adaptive arithmetic coding compression algorithm. The algorithm increases the image coding compression rate and ensures the quality of the decoded image combined with the adaptive probability model and predictive coding. The use of adaptive models for each encoded image block dynamically estimates the probability of the relevant image block. The decoded image block can accurately recover the encoded image according to the code book information. We adopt an adaptive arithmetic coding algorithm for image compression that greatly improves the image compression rate. The results show that it is an effective compression technology. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  17. Adaptive live multicast video streaming of SVC with UEP FEC (United States)

    Lev, Avram; Lasry, Amir; Loants, Maoz; Hadar, Ofer


    Ideally, video streaming systems should provide the best quality video a user's device can handle without compromising on downloading speed. In this article, an improved video transmission system is presented which dynamically enhances the video quality based on a user's current network state and repairs errors from data lost in the video transmission. The system incorporates three main components: Scalable Video Coding (SVC) with three layers, multicast based on Receiver Layered Multicast (RLM) and an UnEqual Forward Error Correction (FEC) algorithm. The SVC provides an efficient method for providing different levels of video quality, stored as enhancement layers. In the presented system, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was implemented to dynamically adjust the video quality, adding or subtracting quality layers as appropriate. In addition, an FEC algorithm was added to compensate for data lost in transmission. A two dimensional FEC was used. The FEC algorithm came from the Pro MPEG code of practice #3 release 2. Several bit errors scenarios were tested (step function, cosine wave) with different bandwidth size and error values were simulated. The suggested scheme which includes SVC video encoding with 3 layers over IP Multicast with Unequal FEC algorithm was investigated under different channel conditions, variable bandwidths and different bit error rates. The results indicate improvement of the video quality in terms of PSNR over previous transmission schemes.

  18. Bitshuffle: Filter for improving compression of typed binary data (United States)

    Masui, Kiyoshi


    Bitshuffle rearranges typed, binary data for improving compression; the algorithm is implemented in a python/C package within the Numpy framework. The library can be used alongside HDF5 to compress and decompress datasets and is integrated through the dynamically loaded filters framework. Algorithmically, Bitshuffle is closely related to HDF5's Shuffle filter except it operates at the bit level instead of the byte level. Arranging a typed data array in to a matrix with the elements as the rows and the bits within the elements as the columns, Bitshuffle "transposes" the matrix, such that all the least-significant-bits are in a row, etc. This transposition is performed within blocks of data roughly 8kB long; this does not in itself compress data, but rearranges it for more efficient compression. A compression library is necessary to perform the actual compression. This scheme has been used for compression of radio data in high performance computing.

  19. Intelligent keyframe extraction for video printing (United States)

    Zhang, Tong


    Nowadays most digital cameras have the functionality of taking short video clips, with the length of video ranging from several seconds to a couple of minutes. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm which extracts an optimal set of keyframes from each short video clip so that the user could obtain proper video frames to print out. In current video printing systems, keyframes are normally obtained by evenly sampling the video clip over time. Such an approach, however, may not reflect highlights or regions of interest in the video. Keyframes derived in this way may also be improper for video printing in terms of either content or image quality. In this paper, we present an intelligent keyframe extraction approach to derive an improved keyframe set by performing semantic analysis of the video content. For a video clip, a number of video and audio features are analyzed to first generate a candidate keyframe set. These features include accumulative color histogram and color layout differences, camera motion estimation, moving object tracking, face detection and audio event detection. Then, the candidate keyframes are clustered and evaluated to obtain a final keyframe set. The objective is to automatically generate a limited number of keyframes to show different views of the scene; to show different people and their actions in the scene; and to tell the story in the video shot. Moreover, frame extraction for video printing, which is a rather subjective problem, is considered in this work for the first time, and a semi-automatic approach is proposed.

  20. Hierarchical event selection for video storyboards with a case study on snooker video visualization. (United States)

    Parry, Matthew L; Legg, Philip A; Chung, David H S; Griffiths, Iwan W; Chen, Min


    Video storyboard, which is a form of video visualization, summarizes the major events in a video using illustrative visualization. There are three main technical challenges in creating a video storyboard, (a) event classification, (b) event selection and (c) event illustration. Among these challenges, (a) is highly application-dependent and requires a significant amount of application specific semantics to be encoded in a system or manually specified by users. This paper focuses on challenges (b) and (c). In particular, we present a framework for hierarchical event representation, and an importance-based selection algorithm for supporting the creation of a video storyboard from a video. We consider the storyboard to be an event summarization for the whole video, whilst each individual illustration on the board is also an event summarization but for a smaller time window. We utilized a 3D visualization template for depicting and annotating events in illustrations. To demonstrate the concepts and algorithms developed, we use Snooker video visualization as a case study, because it has a concrete and agreeable set of semantic definitions for events and can make use of existing techniques of event detection and 3D reconstruction in a reliable manner. Nevertheless, most of our concepts and algorithms developed for challenges (b) and (c) can be applied to other application areas. © 2010 IEEE

  1. High-speed reconstruction of compressed images (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.


    A compression scheme is described that allows high-definition radiological images with greater than 8-bit intensity resolution to be represented by 8-bit pixels. Reconstruction of the images with their original intensity resolution can be carried out by means of a pipeline architecture suitable for compact, high-speed implementation. A reconstruction system is described that can be fabricated according to this approach and placed between an 8-bit display buffer and the display's video system thereby allowing contrast control of images at video rates. Results for 50 CR chest images are described showing that error-free reconstruction of the original 10-bit CR images can be achieved.

  2. Comparing biological networks via graph compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashida Morihiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of various kinds of biological data is one of the main problems in bioinformatics and systems biology. Data compression methods have been applied to comparison of large sequence data and protein structure data. Since it is still difficult to compare global structures of large biological networks, it is reasonable to try to apply data compression methods to comparison of biological networks. In existing compression methods, the uniqueness of compression results is not guaranteed because there is some ambiguity in selection of overlapping edges. Results This paper proposes novel efficient methods, CompressEdge and CompressVertices, for comparing large biological networks. In the proposed methods, an original network structure is compressed by iteratively contracting identical edges and sets of connected edges. Then, the similarity of two networks is measured by a compression ratio of the concatenated networks. The proposed methods are applied to comparison of metabolic networks of several organisms, H. sapiens, M. musculus, A. thaliana, D. melanogaster, C. elegans, E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and B. subtilis, and are compared with an existing method. These results suggest that our methods can efficiently measure the similarities between metabolic networks. Conclusions Our proposed algorithms, which compress node-labeled networks, are useful for measuring the similarity of large biological networks.

  3. The possibilities of compressed sensing based migration

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Linearized waveform inversion or Least-square migration helps reduce migration artifacts caused by limited acquisition aperture, coarse sampling of sources and receivers, and low subsurface illumination. However, leastsquare migration, based on L2-norm minimization of the misfit function, tends to produce a smeared (smoothed) depiction of the true subsurface reflectivity. Assuming that the subsurface reflectivity distribution is a sparse signal, we use a compressed-sensing (Basis Pursuit) algorithm to retrieve this sparse distribution from a small number of linear measurements. We applied a compressed-sensing algorithm to image a synthetic fault model using dense and sparse acquisition geometries. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate the ability of compressed-sensing to produce highly resolved migrated images. We, also, studied the robustness of the Basis Pursuit algorithm in the presence of Gaussian random noise.

  4. The possibilities of compressed sensing based migration

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali


    Linearized waveform inversion or Least-square migration helps reduce migration artifacts caused by limited acquisition aperture, coarse sampling of sources and receivers, and low subsurface illumination. However, leastsquare migration, based on L2-norm minimization of the misfit function, tends to produce a smeared (smoothed) depiction of the true subsurface reflectivity. Assuming that the subsurface reflectivity distribution is a sparse signal, we use a compressed-sensing (Basis Pursuit) algorithm to retrieve this sparse distribution from a small number of linear measurements. We applied a compressed-sensing algorithm to image a synthetic fault model using dense and sparse acquisition geometries. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate the ability of compressed-sensing to produce highly resolved migrated images. We, also, studied the robustness of the Basis Pursuit algorithm in the presence of Gaussian random noise.

  5. Enhance Video Film using Retnix method (United States)

    Awad, Rasha; Al-Zuky, Ali A.; Al-Saleh, Anwar H.; Mohamad, Haidar J.


    An enhancement technique used to improve the studied video quality. Algorithms like mean and standard deviation are used as a criterion within this paper, and it applied for each video clip that divided into 80 images. The studied filming environment has different light intensity (315, 566, and 644Lux). This different environment gives similar reality to the outdoor filming. The outputs of the suggested algorithm are compared with the results before applying it. This method is applied into two ways: first, it is applied for the full video clip to get the enhanced film; second, it is applied for every individual image to get the enhanced image then compiler them to get the enhanced film. This paper shows that the enhancement technique gives good quality video film depending on a statistical method, and it is recommended to use it in different application.

  6. Turning Video Resource Management into Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou


    Full Text Available Big data makes cloud computing more and more popular in various fields. Video resources are very useful and important to education, security monitoring, and so on. However, issues of their huge volumes, complex data types, inefficient processing performance, weak security, and long times for loading pose challenges in video resource management. The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS is an open-source framework, which can provide cloud-based platforms and presents an opportunity for solving these problems. This paper presents video resource management architecture based on HDFS to provide a uniform framework and a five-layer model for standardizing the current various algorithms and applications. The architecture, basic model, and key algorithms are designed for turning video resources into a cloud computing environment. The design was tested by establishing a simulation system prototype.

  7. Design and Implementation of Video Shot Detection on Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jharna Majumdar


    Full Text Available Video has become an interactive medium of communication in everyday life. The sheer volume of video makes it extremely difficult to browse through and find the required data. Hence extraction of key frames from the video which represents the abstract of the entire video becomes necessary. The aim of the video shot detection is to find the position of the shot boundaries, so that key frames can be selected from each shot for subsequent processing such as video summarization, indexing etc. For most of the surveillance applications like video summery, face recognition etc., the hardware (real time implementation of these algorithms becomes necessary. Here in this paper we present the architecture for simultaneous accessing of consecutive frames, which are then used for the implementation of various Video Shot Detection algorithms. We also present the real time implementation of three video shot detection algorithms using the above mentioned architecture on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays.

  8. Data Partitioning Technique for Improved Video Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amin Ali


    Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.

  9. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation (United States)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos


    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  10. Combined Sparsifying Transforms for Compressive Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO, L.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new compressive image fusion method based on combined sparsifying transforms. First, the framework of compressive image fusion is introduced briefly. Then, combined sparsifying transforms are presented to enhance the sparsity of images. Finally, a reconstruction algorithm based on the nonlinear conjugate gradient is presented to get the fused image. The simulations demonstrate that by using the combined sparsifying transforms better results can be achieved in terms of both the subjective visual effect and the objective evaluation indexes than using only a single sparsifying transform for compressive image fusion.

  11. Cosmological Particle Data Compression in Practice (United States)

    Zeyen, M.; Ahrens, J.; Hagen, H.; Heitmann, K.; Habib, S.


    In cosmological simulations trillions of particles are handled and several terabytes of unstructured particle data are generated in each time step. Transferring this data directly from memory to disk in an uncompressed way results in a massive load on I/O and storage systems. Hence, one goal of domain scientists is to compress the data before storing it to disk while minimizing the loss of information. To prevent reading back uncompressed data from disk, this can be done in an in-situ process. Since the simulation continuously generates data, the available time for the compression of one time step is limited. Therefore, the evaluation of compression techniques has shifted from only focusing on compression rates to include run-times and scalability.In recent years several compression techniques for cosmological data have become available. These techniques can be either lossy or lossless, depending on the technique. For both cases, this study aims to evaluate and compare the state of the art compression techniques for unstructured particle data. This study focuses on the techniques available in the Blosc framework with its multi-threading support, the XZ Utils toolkit with the LZMA algorithm that achieves high compression rates, and the widespread FPZIP and ZFP methods for lossy compressions.For the investigated compression techniques, quantitative performance indicators such as compression rates, run-time/throughput, and reconstruction errors are measured. Based on these factors, this study offers a comprehensive analysis of the individual techniques and discusses their applicability for in-situ compression. In addition, domain specific measures are evaluated on the reconstructed data sets, and the relative error rates and statistical properties are analyzed and compared. Based on this study future challenges and directions in the compression of unstructured cosmological particle data were identified.

  12. Cloud Optimized Image Format and Compression (United States)

    Becker, P.; Plesea, L.; Maurer, T.


    Cloud based image storage and processing requires revaluation of formats and processing methods. For the true value of the massive volumes of earth observation data to be realized, the image data needs to be accessible from the cloud. Traditional file formats such as TIF and NITF were developed in the hay day of the desktop and assumed fast low latency file access. Other formats such as JPEG2000 provide for streaming protocols for pixel data, but still require a server to have file access. These concepts no longer truly hold in cloud based elastic storage and computation environments. This paper will provide details of a newly evolving image storage format (MRF) and compression that is optimized for cloud environments. Although the cost of storage continues to fall for large data volumes, there is still significant value in compression. For imagery data to be used in analysis and exploit the extended dynamic range of the new sensors, lossless or controlled lossy compression is of high value. Compression decreases the data volumes stored and reduces the data transferred, but the reduced data size must be balanced with the CPU required to decompress. The paper also outlines a new compression algorithm (LERC) for imagery and elevation data that optimizes this balance. Advantages of the compression include its simple to implement algorithm that enables it to be efficiently accessed using JavaScript. Combing this new cloud based image storage format and compression will help resolve some of the challenges of big image data on the internet.

  13. The experiments and analysis of several selective video encryption methods (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Lei


    This paper presents four methods for selective video encryption based on the MPEG-2 video compression,including the slices, the I-frames, the motion vectors, and the DCT coefficients. We use the AES encryption method for simulation experiment for the four methods on VS2010 Platform, and compare the video effects and the processing speed of each frame after the video encrypted. The encryption depth can be arbitrarily selected, and design the encryption depth by using the double limit counting method, so the accuracy can be increased.

  14. Code domain steganography in video tracks (United States)

    Rymaszewski, Sławomir


    This article is dealing with a practical method of hiding secret information in video stream. Method is dedicated for MPEG-2 stream. The algorithm takes to consider not only MPEG video coding scheme described in standard but also bits PES-packets encapsulation in MPEG-2 Program Stream (PS). This modification give higher capacity and more effective bit rate control for output stream than previously proposed methods.

  15. A hybrid data compression approach for online backup service (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Zhou, Ke; Qin, MingKang


    With the popularity of Saas (Software as a service), backup service has becoming a hot topic of storage application. Due to the numerous backup users, how to reduce the massive data load is a key problem for system designer. Data compression provides a good solution. Traditional data compression application used to adopt a single method, which has limitations in some respects. For example data stream compression can only realize intra-file compression, de-duplication is used to eliminate inter-file redundant data, compression efficiency cannot meet the need of backup service software. This paper proposes a novel hybrid compression approach, which includes two levels: global compression and block compression. The former can eliminate redundant inter-file copies across different users, the latter adopts data stream compression technology to realize intra-file de-duplication. Several compressing algorithms were adopted to measure the compression ratio and CPU time. Adaptability using different algorithm in certain situation is also analyzed. The performance analysis shows that great improvement is made through the hybrid compression policy.

  16. Damaged Watermarks Detection in Frequency Domain as a Primary Method for Video Concealment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hudec


    Full Text Available This paper deals with video transmission over lossy communication networks. The main idea is to develop video concealment method for information losses and errors correction. At the beginning, three main groups of video concealment methods, divided by encoder/decoder collaboration, are briefly described. The modified algorithm based on the detection and filtration of damaged watermark blocks encapsulated to the transmitted video was developed. Finally, the efficiency of developed algorithm is presented in experimental part of this paper.

  17. Countermeasures for unintentional and intentional video watermarking attacks (United States)

    Deguillaume, Frederic; Csurka, Gabriela; Pun, Thierry


    These last years, the rapidly growing digital multimedia market has revealed an urgent need for effective copyright protection mechanisms. Therefore, digital audio, image and video watermarking has recently become a very active area of research, as a solution to this problem. Many important issues have been pointed out, one of them being the robustness to non-intentional and intentional attacks. This paper studies some attacks and proposes countermeasures applied to videos. General attacks are lossy copying/transcoding such as MPEG compression and digital/analog (D/A) conversion, changes of frame-rate, changes of display format, and geometrical distortions. More specific attacks are sequence edition, and statistical attacks such as averaging or collusion. Averaging attack consists of averaging locally consecutive frames to cancel the watermark. This attack works well for schemes which embed random independent marks into frames. In the collusion attack the watermark is estimated from single frames (based on image denoising), and averaged over different scenes for better accuracy. The estimated watermark is then subtracted from each frame. Collusion requires that the same mark is embedded into all frames. The proposed countermeasures first ensures robustness to general attacks by spread spectrum encoding in the frequency domain and by the use of an additional template. Secondly, a Bayesian criterion, evaluating the probability of a correctly decoded watermark, is used for rejection of outliers, and to implement an algorithm against statistical attacks. The idea is to embed randomly chosen marks among a finite set of marks, into subsequences of videos which are long enough to resist averaging attacks, but short enough to avoid collusion attacks. The Bayesian criterion is needed to select the correct mark at the decoding step. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  18. Airborne Video Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blask, Steven


    The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...

  19. Detection of Upscale-Crop and Partial Manipulation in Surveillance Video Based on Sensor Pattern Noise (United States)

    Hyun, Dai-Kyung; Ryu, Seung-Jin; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Lee, Heung-Kyu


    In many court cases, surveillance videos are used as significant court evidence. As these surveillance videos can easily be forged, it may cause serious social issues, such as convicting an innocent person. Nevertheless, there is little research being done on forgery of surveillance videos. This paper proposes a forensic technique to detect forgeries of surveillance video based on sensor pattern noise (SPN). We exploit the scaling invariance of the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH) correlation filter to reliably unveil traces of upscaling in videos. By excluding the high-frequency components of the investigated video and adaptively choosing the size of the local search window, the proposed method effectively localizes partially manipulated regions. Empirical evidence from a large database of test videos, including RGB (Red, Green, Blue)/infrared video, dynamic-/static-scene video and compressed video, indicates the superior performance of the proposed method. PMID:24051524

  20. Video auto stitching in multicamera surveillance system (United States)

    He, Bin; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Qifang; Li, Yangyang


    This paper concerns the problem of video stitching automatically in a multi-camera surveillance system. Previous approaches have used multiple calibrated cameras for video mosaic in large scale monitoring application. In this work, we formulate video stitching as a multi-image registration and blending problem, and not all cameras are needed to be calibrated except a few selected master cameras. SURF is used to find matched pairs of image key points from different cameras, and then camera pose is estimated and refined. Homography matrix is employed to calculate overlapping pixels and finally implement boundary resample algorithm to blend images. The result of simulation demonstrates the efficiency of our method.

  1. Performance evaluation software moving object detection and tracking in videos

    CERN Document Server

    Karasulu, Bahadir


    Performance Evaluation Software: Moving Object Detection and Tracking in Videos introduces a software approach for the real-time evaluation and performance comparison of the methods specializing in moving object detection and/or tracking (D&T) in video processing. Digital video content analysis is an important item for multimedia content-based indexing (MCBI), content-based video retrieval (CBVR) and visual surveillance systems. There are some frequently-used generic algorithms for video object D&T in the literature, such as Background Subtraction (BS), Continuously Adaptive Mean-shift (CMS),

  2. Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval. (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve


    Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene.

  3. Resource-Constrained Low-Complexity Video Coding for Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann

    of video quality. We proposed a new metric for objective quality assessment that considers frame rate. As many applications deal with wireless video transmission, we performed an analysis of compression and transmission systems with a focus on power-distortion trade-off. We proposed an approach...... for ratedistortion-complexity optimization of upcoming video compression standard HEVC. We also provided a new method allowing decrease of power consumption on mobile devices in 3G networks. Finally, we proposed low-delay and low-power approaches for video transmission over wireless personal area networks, including......Constrained resources like memory, power, bandwidth and delay requirements in many mobile systems pose limitations for video applications. Standard approaches for video compression and transmission do not always satisfy system requirements. In this thesis we have shown that it is possible to modify...

  4. Physics and Video Analysis (United States)

    Allain, Rhett


    We currently live in a world filled with videos. There are videos on YouTube, feature movies and even videos recorded with our own cameras and smartphones. These videos present an excellent opportunity to not only explore physical concepts, but also inspire others to investigate physics ideas. With video analysis, we can explore the fantasy world in science-fiction films. We can also look at online videos to determine if they are genuine or fake. Video analysis can be used in the introductory physics lab and it can even be used to explore the make-believe physics embedded in video games. This book covers the basic ideas behind video analysis along with the fundamental physics principles used in video analysis. The book also includes several examples of the unique situations in which video analysis can be used.

  5. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  6. A video authentication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.


    Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

  7. A Novel Quantum Video Steganography Protocol with Large Payload Based on MCQI Quantum Video (United States)

    Qu, Zhiguo; Chen, Siyi; Ji, Sai


    As one of important multimedia forms in quantum network, quantum video attracts more and more attention of experts and scholars in the world. A secure quantum video steganography protocol with large payload based on the video strip encoding method called as MCQI (Multi-Channel Quantum Images) is proposed in this paper. The new protocol randomly embeds the secret information with the form of quantum video into quantum carrier video on the basis of unique features of video frames. It exploits to embed quantum video as secret information for covert communication. As a result, its capacity are greatly expanded compared with the previous quantum steganography achievements. Meanwhile, the new protocol also achieves good security and imperceptibility by virtue of the randomization of embedding positions and efficient use of redundant frames. Furthermore, the receiver enables to extract secret information from stego video without retaining the original carrier video, and restore the original quantum video as a follow. The simulation and experiment results prove that the algorithm not only has good imperceptibility, high security, but also has large payload.

  8. Application of content-based image compression to telepathology (United States)

    Varga, Margaret J.; Ducksbury, Paul G.; Callagy, Grace


    Telepathology is a means of practicing pathology at a distance, viewing images on a computer display rather than directly through a microscope. Without compression, images take too long to transmit to a remote location and are very expensive to store for future examination. However, to date the use of compressed images in pathology remains controversial. This is because commercial image compression algorithms such as JPEG achieve data compression without knowledge of the diagnostic content. Often images are lossily compressed at the expense of corrupting informative content. None of the currently available lossy compression techniques are concerned with what information has been preserved and what data has been discarded. Their sole objective is to compress and transmit the images as fast as possible. By contrast, this paper presents a novel image compression technique, which exploits knowledge of the slide diagnostic content. This 'content based' approach combines visually lossless and lossy compression techniques, judiciously applying each in the appropriate context across an image so as to maintain 'diagnostic' information while still maximising the possible compression. Standard compression algorithms, e.g. wavelets, can still be used, but their use in a context sensitive manner can offer high compression ratios and preservation of diagnostically important information. When compared with lossless compression the novel content-based approach can potentially provide the same degree of information with a smaller amount of data. When compared with lossy compression it can provide more information for a given amount of compression. The precise gain in the compression performance depends on the application (e.g. database archive or second opinion consultation) and the diagnostic content of the images.

  9. Medical image compression and its application to TDIS-FILE equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubura, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Eitaro; Iwai, Shunsuke


    In order to compress medical images for filing and communication, we have developed a compression algorithm which compresses images with remarkable quality using a high-pass filtering method. Hardware for this compression algorithm was also developed and applied to TDIS (total digital imaging system)-FILE equipment. In the future, hardware based on this algorithm will be developed for various types of diagnostic equipment and PACS. This technique has the following characteristics: (1) significant reduction of artifacts; (2) acceptable quality for clinical evaluation at 15:1 to 20:1 compression ratio; and (3) high-speed processing and compact hardware. (author)

  10. Content Adaptive Lagrange Multiplier Selection for Rate-Distortion Optimization in 3-D Wavelet-Based Scalable Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen


    Full Text Available Rate-distortion optimization (RDO plays an essential role in substantially enhancing the coding efficiency. Currently, rate-distortion optimized mode decision is widely used in scalable video coding (SVC. Among all the possible coding modes, it aims to select the one which has the best trade-off between bitrate and compression distortion. Specifically, this tradeoff is tuned through the choice of the Lagrange multiplier. Despite the prevalence of conventional method for Lagrange multiplier selection in hybrid video coding, the underlying formulation is not applicable to 3-D wavelet-based SVC where the explicit values of the quantization step are not available, with on consideration of the content features of input signal. In this paper, an efficient content adaptive Lagrange multiplier selection algorithm is proposed in the context of RDO for 3-D wavelet-based SVC targeting quality scalability. Our contributions are two-fold. First, we introduce a novel weighting method, which takes account of the mutual information, gradient per pixel, and texture homogeneity to measure the temporal subband characteristics after applying the motion-compensated temporal filtering (MCTF technique. Second, based on the proposed subband weighting factor model, we derive the optimal Lagrange multiplier. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm enables more satisfactory video quality with negligible additional computational complexity.

  11. A Method for Counting Moving People in Video Surveillance Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vento


    Full Text Available People counting is an important problem in video surveillance applications. This problem has been faced either by trying to detect people in the scene and then counting them or by establishing a mapping between some scene feature and the number of people (avoiding the complex detection problem. This paper presents a novel method, following this second approach, that is based on the use of SURF features and of an ϵ-SVR regressor provide an estimate of this count. The algorithm takes specifically into account problems due to partial occlusions and to perspective. In the experimental evaluation, the proposed method has been compared with the algorithm by Albiol et al., winner of the PETS 2009 contest on people counting, using the same PETS 2009 database. The provided results confirm that the proposed method yields an improved accuracy, while retaining the robustness of Albiol's algorithm.

  12. A Method for Counting Moving People in Video Surveillance Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conte Donatello


    Full Text Available People counting is an important problem in video surveillance applications. This problem has been faced either by trying to detect people in the scene and then counting them or by establishing a mapping between some scene feature and the number of people (avoiding the complex detection problem. This paper presents a novel method, following this second approach, that is based on the use of SURF features and of an -SVR regressor provide an estimate of this count. The algorithm takes specifically into account problems due to partial occlusions and to perspective. In the experimental evaluation, the proposed method has been compared with the algorithm by Albiol et al., winner of the PETS 2009 contest on people counting, using the same PETS 2009 database. The provided results confirm that the proposed method yields an improved accuracy, while retaining the robustness of Albiol's algorithm.

  13. A Method for Counting Moving People in Video Surveillance Videos (United States)

    Conte, Donatello; Foggia, Pasquale; Percannella, Gennaro; Tufano, Francesco; Vento, Mario


    People counting is an important problem in video surveillance applications. This problem has been faced either by trying to detect people in the scene and then counting them or by establishing a mapping between some scene feature and the number of people (avoiding the complex detection problem). This paper presents a novel method, following this second approach, that is based on the use of SURF features and of an [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-SVR regressor provide an estimate of this count. The algorithm takes specifically into account problems due to partial occlusions and to perspective. In the experimental evaluation, the proposed method has been compared with the algorithm by Albiol et al., winner of the PETS 2009 contest on people counting, using the same PETS 2009 database. The provided results confirm that the proposed method yields an improved accuracy, while retaining the robustness of Albiol's algorithm.

  14. Quality and noise measurements in mobile phone video capture (United States)

    Petrescu, Doina; Pincenti, John


    The quality of videos captured with mobile phones has become increasingly important particularly since resolutions and formats have reached a level that rivals the capabilities available in the digital camcorder market, and since many mobile phones now allow direct playback on large HDTVs. The video quality is determined by the combined quality of the individual parts of the imaging system including the image sensor, the digital color processing, and the video compression, each of which has been studied independently. In this work, we study the combined effect of these elements on the overall video quality. We do this by evaluating the capture under various lighting, color processing, and video compression conditions. First, we measure full reference quality metrics between encoder input and the reconstructed sequence, where the encoder input changes with light and color processing modifications. Second, we introduce a system model which includes all elements that affect video quality, including a low light additive noise model, ISP color processing, as well as the video encoder. Our experiments show that in low light conditions and for certain choices of color processing the system level visual quality may not improve when the encoder becomes more capable or the compression ratio is reduced.

  15. Toward a Better Compression for DNA Sequences Using Huffman Encoding. (United States)

    Al-Okaily, Anas; Almarri, Badar; Al Yami, Sultan; Huang, Chun-Hsi


    Due to the significant amount of DNA data that are being generated by next-generation sequencing machines for genomes of lengths ranging from megabases to gigabases, there is an increasing need to compress such data to a less space and a faster transmission. Different implementations of Huffman encoding incorporating the characteristics of DNA sequences prove to better compress DNA data. These implementations center on the concepts of selecting frequent repeats so as to force a skewed Huffman tree, as well as the construction of multiple Huffman trees when encoding. The implementations demonstrate improvements on the compression ratios for five genomes with lengths ranging from 5 to 50 Mbp, compared with the standard Huffman tree algorithm. The research hence suggests an improvement on all such DNA sequence compression algorithms that use the conventional Huffman encoding. The research suggests an improvement on all DNA sequence compression algorithms that use the conventional Huffman encoding. Accompanying software is publicly available (AL-Okaily, 2016 ).

  16. An Effective Transform Unit Size Decision Method for High Efficiency Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Chen Wang


    Full Text Available High efficiency video coding (HEVC is the latest video coding standard. HEVC can achieve higher compression performance than previous standards, such as MPEG-4, H.263, and H.264/AVC. However, HEVC requires enormous computational complexity in encoding process due to quadtree structure. In order to reduce the computational burden of HEVC encoder, an early transform unit (TU decision algorithm (ETDA is adopted to pruning the residual quadtree (RQT at early stage based on the number of nonzero DCT coefficients (called NNZ-EDTA to accelerate the encoding process. However, the NNZ-ETDA cannot effectively reduce the computational load for sequences with active motion or rich texture. Therefore, in order to further improve the performance of NNZ-ETDA, we propose an adaptive RQT-depth decision for NNZ-ETDA (called ARD-NNZ-ETDA by exploiting the characteristics of high temporal-spatial correlation that exist in nature video sequences. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve time improving ratio (TIR about 61.26%~81.48% when compared to the HEVC test model 8.1 (HM 8.1 with insignificant loss of image quality. Compared with the NNZ-ETDA, the proposed method can further achieve an average TIR about 8.29%~17.92%.

  17. Frame-Based and Subpicture-Based Parallelization Approaches of the HEVC Video Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Migallón


    Full Text Available The most recent video coding standard, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC, is able to significantly improve the compression performance at the expense of a huge computational complexity increase with respect to its predecessor, H.264/AVC. Parallel versions of the HEVC encoder may help to reduce the overall encoding time in order to make it more suitable for practical applications. In this work, we study two parallelization strategies. One of them follows a coarse-grain approach, where parallelization is based on frames, and the other one follows a fine-grain approach, where parallelization is performed at subpicture level. Two different frame-based approaches have been developed. The first one only uses MPI and the second one is a hybrid MPI/OpenMP algorithm. An exhaustive experimental test was carried out to study the performance of both approaches in order to find out the best setup in terms of parallel efficiency and coding performance. Both frame-based and subpicture-based approaches are compared under the same hardware platform. Although subpicture-based schemes provide an excellent performance with high-resolution video sequences, scalability is limited by resolution, and the coding performance worsens by increasing the number of processes. Conversely, the proposed frame-based approaches provide the best results with respect to both parallel performance (increasing scalability and coding performance (not degrading the rate/distortion behavior.

  18. Rare Disease Video Portal


    Sánchez Bocanegra, Carlos Luis


    Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) is a portal web where contains videos from Youtube including all details from 12 channels of Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) es un portal web que contiene los vídeos de Youtube incluyendo todos los detalles de 12 canales de Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) és un portal web que conté els vídeos de Youtube i que inclou tots els detalls de 12 Canals de Youtube.

  19. Image compression-encryption scheme based on hyper-chaotic system and 2D compressive sensing (United States)

    Zhou, Nanrun; Pan, Shumin; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Zhihong


    Most image encryption algorithms based on low-dimensional chaos systems bear security risks and suffer encryption data expansion when adopting nonlinear transformation directly. To overcome these weaknesses and reduce the possible transmission burden, an efficient image compression-encryption scheme based on hyper-chaotic system and 2D compressive sensing is proposed. The original image is measured by the measurement matrices in two directions to achieve compression and encryption simultaneously, and then the resulting image is re-encrypted by the cycle shift operation controlled by a hyper-chaotic system. Cycle shift operation can change the values of the pixels efficiently. The proposed cryptosystem decreases the volume of data to be transmitted and simplifies the keys distribution simultaneously as a nonlinear encryption system. Simulation results verify the validity and the reliability of the proposed algorithm with acceptable compression and security performance.

  20. The compressed word problem for groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lohrey, Markus


    The Compressed Word Problem for Groups provides a detailed exposition of known results on the compressed word problem, emphasizing efficient algorithms for the compressed word problem in various groups. The author presents the necessary background along with the most recent results on the compressed word problem to create a cohesive self-contained book accessible to computer scientists as well as mathematicians. Readers will quickly reach the frontier of current research which makes the book especially appealing for students looking for a currently active research topic at the intersection of group theory and computer science. The word problem introduced in 1910 by Max Dehn is one of the most important decision problems in group theory. For many groups, highly efficient algorithms for the word problem exist. In recent years, a new technique based on data compression for providing more efficient algorithms for word problems, has been developed, by representing long words over group generators in a compres...