WorldWideScience

Sample records for video coding environments

  1. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  2. Distributed source coding of video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh

    2015-01-01

    A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...

  3. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  4. Scalable Video Coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choupani, R.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid improvements in digital communication technologies, distributing high-definition visual information has become more widespread. However, the available technologies were not sufficient to support the rising demand for high-definition video. This situation is further complicated when

  5. Video Coding for ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Coding tasks, a valuable technique for teaching English as a Second Language, are presented that enable students to look at patterns and structures of marital communication as well as objectively evaluate the degree of happiness or distress in the marriage. (seven references) (JL)

  6. Multiresolution coding for video-based service applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavi, Hami

    1995-12-01

    The video coding and distribution approach presented in this paper has two key characteristics that make it ideal for integration of video communication services over common broadband digital networks. The modular multi-resolution nature of the coding scheme provides the necessary flexibility to accommodate future advances in video technology as well as robust distribution over various network environments. This paper will present an efficient and scalable coding scheme for video communications. The scheme is capable of encoding and decoding video signals in a hierarchical, multilayer fashion to provide video at differing quality grades. Subsequently, the utilization of this approach to enable efficient bandwidth sharing and robust distribution of video signals in multipoint communications is presented. Coding and distribution architectures are discussed which include multi-party communications in a multi-window fashion within ATM environments. Furthermore, under the limited capabilities typical of wideband/broadband access networks, this architecture accommodates important video-based service applications such as Interactive Distance Learning.

  7. Very low bit rate video coding standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Qin

    1995-04-01

    Very low bit rate video coding has received considerable attention in academia and industry in terms of both coding algorithms and standards activities. In addition to the earlier ITU-T efforts on H.320 standardization for video conferencing from 64 kbps to 1.544 Mbps in ISDN environment, the ITU-T/SG15 has formed an expert group on low bit coding (LBC) for visual telephone below 64 kbps. The ITU-T/SG15/LBC work consists of two phases: the near-term and long-term. The near-term standard H.32P/N, based on existing compression technologies, mainly addresses the issues related to visual telephony at below 28.8 kbps, the V.34 modem rate used in the existing Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). H.32P/N will be technically frozen in January '95. The long-term standard H.32P/L, relying on fundamentally new compression technologies with much improved performance, will address video telephony in both PSTN and mobile environment. The ISO/SG29/WG11, after its highly visible and successful MPEG 1/2 work, is starting to focus on the next- generation audiovisual multimedia coding standard MPEG 4. With the recent change of direction, MPEG 4 intends to provide an audio visual coding standard allowing for interactivity, high compression, and/or universal accessibility, with high degree of flexibility and extensibility. This paper briefly summarizes these on-going standards activities undertaken by ITU-T/LBC and ISO/MPEG 4 as of December 1994.

  8. Multi-hypothesis distributed stereo video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm that exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of the Side Information (SI). Stereo sequences are constituted by two views to give the user an illusion of depth. In this paper, we present a DVC decoder...

  9. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  10. Layered Wyner-Ziv video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Xiong, Zixiang

    2006-12-01

    Following recent theoretical works on successive Wyner-Ziv coding (WZC), we propose a practical layered Wyner-Ziv video coder using the DCT, nested scalar quantization, and irregular LDPC code based Slepian-Wolf coding (or lossless source coding with side information at the decoder). Our main novelty is to use the base layer of a standard scalable video coder (e.g., MPEG-4/H.26L FGS or H.263+) as the decoder side information and perform layered WZC for quality enhancement. Similar to FGS coding, there is no performance difference between layered and monolithic WZC when the enhancement bitstream is generated in our proposed coder. Using an H.26L coded version as the base layer, experiments indicate that WZC gives slightly worse performance than FGS coding when the channel (for both the base and enhancement layers) is noiseless. However, when the channel is noisy, extensive simulations of video transmission over wireless networks conforming to the CDMA2000 1X standard show that H.26L base layer coding plus Wyner-Ziv enhancement layer coding are more robust against channel errors than H.26L FGS coding. These results demonstrate that layered Wyner-Ziv video coding is a promising new technique for video streaming over wireless networks.

  11. Distributed video coding with multiple side information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Brites, C.; Ascenso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of some decoder side information. The quality of the side information has a major impact on the DVC rate-distortion (RD) performance in the same way...... the quality of the predictions had a major impact in predictive video coding. In this paper, a DVC solution exploiting multiple side information is proposed; the multiple side information is generated by frame interpolation and frame extrapolation targeting to improve the side information of a single...

  12. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  13. Motion estimation techniques for digital video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Metkar, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    The book deals with the development of a methodology to estimate the motion field between two frames for video coding applications. This book proposes an exhaustive study of the motion estimation process in the framework of a general video coder. The conceptual explanations are discussed in a simple language and with the use of suitable figures. The book will serve as a guide for new researchers working in the field of motion estimation techniques.

  14. Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Falade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital video compression technologies have become part of life, in the way visual information is created, communicated and consumed. Some application areas of video compression focused on the problem of optimizing storage space and transmission bandwidth (BW. The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT is an integral part of video and image compression, which is used in Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG encoding standards. Thus, several video compression algorithms had been developed to reduce the data quantity and provide the acceptable quality standard. In the proposed study, the Matlab Simulink Model (MSM has been used for video coding/compression. The approach is more modern and reduces error resilience image distortion.

  15. Coding Transparency in Object-Based Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2006-01-01

    A novel algorithm for coding gray level alpha planes in object-based video is presented. The scheme is based on segmentation in multiple layers. Different coders are specifically designed for each layer. In order to reduce the bit rate, cross-layer redundancies as well as temporal correlation...... are exploited. Coding results show the superior efficiency of the proposed scheme compared with MPEG-4...

  16. Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van

    at the decoder side offering such benefits for these applications. Although there have been some advanced improvement techniques, improving the DVC coding efficiency is still challenging. The thesis addresses this challenge by proposing several iterative algorithms at different working levels, e.g. bitplane......, band, and frame levels. In order to show the information theoretic basis, theoretical foundations of DVC are introduced. The first proposed algorithm applies parallel iterative decoding using multiple LDPC decoders to utilize cross bitplane correlation. To improve Side Information (SI) generation...... and noise modeling and also learn from the previous decoded Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames, side information and noise learning (SING) is proposed. The SING scheme introduces an optical flow technique to compensate the weaknesses of the block based SI generation and also utilizes clustering of DCT blocks to capture...

  17. Fast prediction algorithm for multiview video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Mein, Stephen James; Varley, Martin Roy; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel

    2013-03-01

    The H.264/multiview video coding (MVC) standard has been developed to enable efficient coding for three-dimensional and multiple viewpoint video sequences. The inter-view statistical dependencies are utilized and an inter-view prediction is employed to provide more efficient coding; however, this increases the overall encoding complexity. Motion homogeneity is exploited here to selectively enable inter-view prediction, and to reduce complexity in the motion estimation (ME) and the mode selection processes. This has been accomplished by defining situations that relate macro-blocks' motion characteristics to the mode selection and the inter-view prediction processes. When comparing the proposed algorithm to the H.264/MVC reference software and other recent work, the experimental results demonstrate a significant reduction in ME time while maintaining similar rate-distortion performance.

  18. Application-adapted mobile 3D video coding and streaming — A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanwei; Ci, Song; Tang, Hui; Ye, Yun

    2012-03-01

    3D video technologies have been gradually matured to be moved into mobile platforms. In the mobile environments, the specific characteristics of wireless network and mobile device present great challenges for 3D video coding and streaming. The application-adapted mobile 3D video coding and streaming technologies are urgently needed. Based on the mobile 3D video application framework, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art technologies of mobile 3D video coding and streaming. Specifically, the mobile 3D video formats and the corresponding coding methods are firstly reviewed and then the streaming adaptation technologies including 3D video transcoding, 3D video rate control and cross-layer optimized 3D video streaming are surveyed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Adaptive subband coding of full motion video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Kamran; Xiao, Leping; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In this paper a new algorithm for digital video coding is presented that is suitable for digital storage and video transmission applications in the range of 5 to 10 Mbps. The scheme is based on frame differencing and, unlike recent proposals, does not employ motion estimation and compensation. A novel adaptive grouping structure is used to segment the video sequence into groups of frames of variable sizes. Within each group, the frame difference is taken in a closed loop Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) structure and then decomposed into different frequency subbands. The important subbands are transformed using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the resulting coefficients are adaptively quantized and runlength coded. The adaptation is based on the variance of sample values in each subband. To reduce the computation load, a very simple and efficient way has been used to estimate the variance of the subbands. It is shown that for many types of sequences, the performance of the proposed coder is comparable to that of coding methods which use motion parameters.

  20. Distributed Video Coding for Multiview and Video-plus-depth Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo

    The interest in Distributed Video Coding (DVC) systems has grown considerably in the academic world in recent years. With DVC the correlation between frames is exploited at the decoder (joint decoding). The encoder codes the frame independently, performing relatively simple operations. Therefore......, with DVC the complexity is shifted from encoder to decoder, making the coding architecture a viable solution for encoders with limited resources. DVC may empower new applications which can benefit from this reversed coding architecture. Multiview Distributed Video Coding (M-DVC) is the application...... of the DVC principles to camera networks. Thanks to its reversed coding paradigm M-DVC enables the exploitation of inter-camera redundancy without inter-camera communication, because the frames are encoded independently. One of the key elements in DVC is the Side Information (SI) which is an estimation...

  1. Fully scalable video coding in multicast applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Sam; De Sutter, Robbie; Lambert, Peter; Van de Walle, Rik

    2004-01-01

    The increasing diversity of the characteristics of the terminals and networks that are used to access multimedia content through the internet introduces new challenges for the distribution of multimedia data. Scalable video coding will be one of the elementary solutions in this domain. This type of coding allows to adapt an encoded video sequence to the limitations of the network or the receiving device by means of very basic operations. Algorithms for creating fully scalable video streams, in which multiple types of scalability are offered at the same time, are becoming mature. On the other hand, research on applications that use such bitstreams is only recently emerging. In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for describing such bitstreams. In addition, we show how we can model applications that use scalable bitstreams by means of definitions that are built on top of this model. In particular, we chose to describe a multicast protocol that is targeted at scalable bitstreams. This way, we will demonstrate that it is possible to define an abstract model for scalable bitstreams, that can be used as a tool for reasoning about such bitstreams and related applications.

  2. Overview of MPEG internet video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. G.; Li, G.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; Huang, T.; Jang, E. S.; Gao, W.

    2015-09-01

    MPEG has produced standards that have provided the industry with the best video compression technologies. In order to address the diversified needs of the Internet, MPEG issued the Call for Proposals (CfP) for internet video coding in July, 2011. It is anticipated that any patent declaration associated with the Baseline Profile of this standard will indicate that the patent owner is prepared to grant a free of charge license to an unrestricted number of applicants on a worldwide, non-discriminatory basis and under other reasonable terms and conditions to make, use, and sell implementations of the Baseline Profile of this standard in accordance with the ITU-T/ITU-R/ISO/IEC Common Patent Policy. Three different codecs had responded to the CfP, which are WVC, VCB and IVC. WVC was proposed jointly by Apple, Cisco, Fraunhofer HHI, Magnum Semiconductor, Polycom and RIM etc. it's in fact AVC baseline. VCB was proposed by Google, and it's in fact VP8. IVC was proposed by several Universities (Peking University, Tsinghua University, Zhejiang University, Hanyang University and Korea Aerospace University etc.) and its coding tools was developed from Zero. In this paper, we give an overview of the coding tools in IVC, and evaluate its performance by comparing it with WVC, VCB and AVC High Profile.

  3. Wyner-Ziv Bayer-pattern video coding

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hu

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of Bayer-pattern video communications using Wyner-Ziv video coding. There are three major contributions. Firstly, a state-of-the-art Wyner-Ziv video codec using turbo codes is optimized and its functionality is extended. Secondly, it is studied how to realize joint source-channel coding using Wyner-Ziv video coding. The motivation is to achieve high error resiliency for wireless video transmission. Thirdly, a new color space transform method is proposed speci...

  4. SCTP as scalable video coding transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jordi; Graciá, Eduardo Martínez; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Stream Transmission Control Protocol (SCTP) for the transport of the scalable video codec (SVC), proposed by MPEG as an extension to H.264/AVC. Both technologies fit together properly. On the one hand, SVC permits to split easily the bitstream into substreams carrying different video layers, each with different importance for the reconstruction of the complete video sequence at the receiver end. On the other hand, SCTP includes features, such as the multi-streaming and multi-homing capabilities, that permit to transport robustly and efficiently the SVC layers. Several transmission strategies supported on baseline SCTP and its concurrent multipath transfer (CMT) extension are compared with the classical solutions based on the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Realtime Transmission Protocol (RTP). Using ns-2 simulations, it is shown that CMT-SCTP outperforms TCP and RTP in error-prone networking environments. The comparison is established according to several performance measurements, including delay, throughput, packet loss, and peak signal-to-noise ratio of the received video.

  5. Low Bit Rate Video Coding | Mishra | Nigerian Journal of Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... length bit rate (VLBR) broadly encompasses video coding which mandates a temporal frequency of 10 frames per second (fps) or less. Object-based video coding represents a very promising option for VLBR coding, though the problems of object identification and segmentation need to be addressed by further research.

  6. Distributed Coding/Decoding Complexity in Video Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Paulo J.; Assunção, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Video Sensor Networks (VSNs) are recent communication infrastructures used to capture and transmit dense visual information from an application context. In such large scale environments which include video coding, transmission and display/storage, there are several open problems to overcome in practical implementations. This paper addresses the most relevant challenges posed by VSNs, namely stringent bandwidth usage and processing time/power constraints. In particular, the paper proposes a novel VSN architecture where large sets of visual sensors with embedded processors are used for compression and transmission of coded streams to gateways, which in turn transrate the incoming streams and adapt them to the variable complexity requirements of both the sensor encoders and end-user decoder terminals. Such gateways provide real-time transcoding functionalities for bandwidth adaptation and coding/decoding complexity distribution by transferring the most complex video encoding/decoding tasks to the transcoding gateway at the expense of a limited increase in bit rate. Then, a method to reduce the decoding complexity, suitable for system-on-chip implementation, is proposed to operate at the transcoding gateway whenever decoders with constrained resources are targeted. The results show that the proposed method achieves good performance and its inclusion into the VSN infrastructure provides an additional level of complexity control functionality. PMID:22736972

  7. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...

  8. Error resilience technique for video coding using concealment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Yu, Sheng-sheng; Zhu, Li

    2009-10-01

    The traditional error resilience technique has been widely used in video coding. Many literatures have shown that with the technique's help, the video coding bit stream can been protected and the reconstructed image will get high improvement. In this paper, we review the error resilience for video coding and give the experiment of this new technology. These techniques are based on coding simultaneously for synchronization and error protection or detection. We apply the techniques to improve the performance of the multiplexing protocol and also to improve the robustness of the coded video. The techniques proposed for the video also have the advantage of simple trans-coding with bit streams complying in H.263.

  9. Patent landscape for royalty-free video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Cliff

    2016-09-01

    Digital video coding is over 60 years old and the first major video coding standard - H.261 - is over 25 years old, yet today there are more patents than ever related to, or evaluated as essential to video coding standards. This paper examines the historical development of video coding standards, from the perspective of when the significant contributions for video coding technology were made, what performance can be attributed to those contributions and when original patents were filed for those contributions. These patents have now expired, so the main video coding tools, which provide the significant majority of coding performance, are now royalty-free. The deployment of video coding tools in a standard involves several related developments. The tools themselves have evolved over time to become more adaptive, taking advantage of the increased complexity afforded by advances in semiconductor technology. In most cases, the improvement in performance for any given tool has been incremental, although significant improvement has occurred in aggregate across all tools. The adaptivity must be mirrored by the encoder and decoder, and advances have been made in reducing the overhead of signaling adaptive modes and parameters. Efficient syntax has been developed to provide such signaling. Furthermore, efficient ways of implementing the tools with limited precision, simple mathematical operators have been developed. Correspondingly, categories of patents related to video coding can be defined. Without discussing active patents, this paper provides the timeline of the developments of video coding and lays out the landscape of patents related to video coding. This provides a foundation on which royalty free video codec design can take place.

  10. Expressing Youth Voice through Video Games and Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Crystle

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research focuses on the impact of video games and coding on learning. The research often elevates learning the technical skills associated with video games and coding or the importance of problem solving and computational thinking, which are, of course, necessary and relevant. However, the literature less often explores how young…

  11. Coding the Complexity of Activity in Video Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harter, Christopher Daniel; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical approach to coding and analyzing video data on human interaction and activity, using principles found in cultural historical activity theory. The systematic classification or coding of information contained in video data on activity can be arduous and time consum...

  12. P2P Video Streaming Strategies based on Scalable Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. López-Fuentes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Video streaming over the Internet has gained significant popularity during the last years, and the academy and industry have realized a great research effort in this direction. In this scenario, scalable video coding (SVC has emerged as an important video standard to provide more functionality to video transmission and storage applications. This paper proposes and evaluates two strategies based on scalable video coding for P2P video streaming services. In the first strategy, SVC is used to offer differentiated quality video to peers with heterogeneous capacities. The second strategy uses SVC to reach a homogeneous video quality between different videos from different sources. The obtained results show that our proposed strategies enable a system to improve its performance and introduce benefits such as differentiated quality of video for clients with heterogeneous capacities and variable network conditions.

  13. Joint distributed source-channel coding for 3D videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Veronica; Cancellaro, Michela; Neri, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a distributed joint source-channel 3D video coding system. Our aim is the design of an efficient coding scheme for stereoscopic video communication over noisy channels that preserves the perceived visual quality while guaranteeing a low computational complexity. The drawback in using stereo sequences is the increased amount of data to be transmitted. Several methods are being used in the literature for encoding stereoscopic video. A significantly different approach respect to traditional video coding has been represented by Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which introduces a flexible architecture with the design of low complex video encoders. In this paper we propose a novel method for joint source-channel coding in a distributed approach. We choose turbo code for our application and study the new setting of distributed joint source channel coding of a video. Turbo code allows to send the minimum amount of data while guaranteeing near channel capacity error correcting performance. In this contribution, the mathematical framework will be fully detailed and tradeoff among redundancy and perceived quality and quality of experience will be analyzed with the aid of numerical experiments.

  14. Video over DSL with LDGM Codes for Interactive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Al-Jobouri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Subscriber Line (DSL network access is subject to error bursts, which, for interactive video, can introduce unacceptable latencies if video packets need to be re-sent. If the video packets are protected against errors with Forward Error Correction (FEC, calculation of the application-layer channel codes themselves may also introduce additional latency. This paper proposes Low-Density Generator Matrix (LDGM codes rather than other popular codes because they are more suitable for interactive video streaming, not only for their computational simplicity but also for their licensing advantage. The paper demonstrates that a reduction of up to 4 dB in video distortion is achievable with LDGM Application Layer (AL FEC. In addition, an extension to the LDGM scheme is demonstrated, which works by rearranging the columns of the parity check matrix so as to make it even more resilient to burst errors. Telemedicine and video conferencing are typical target applications.

  15. Super-Resolution Still and Video Reconstruction from MPEG Coded Video

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altunbasak, Yucel

    2004-01-01

    Transform coding is a popular and effective compression method for both still images and video sequences, as is evident from its widespread use in international media coding standards such as MPEG, H.263 and JPEG...

  16. Scalable-to-lossless transform domain distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Ukhanova, Ann; Veselov, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a novel approach providing new features as low complexity encoding by mainly exploiting the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of decoder side information. In this paper, scalable-tolossless DVC is presented based on extending a lossy...... TransformDomain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) distributed video codec with feedback.The lossless coding is obtained by using a reversible integer DCT.Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed scalable-to-lossless TDWZ video codec can outperform alternatives based on the JPEG 2000 standard. The TDWZ...... codec provides frame by frame encoding. Comparing the lossless coding efficiency, the proposed scalable-to-lossless TDWZ video codec can save up to 5%-13% bits compared to JPEG LS and H.264 Intra frame lossless coding and do so as a scalable-to-lossless coding....

  17. Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is an integral part of video and image compression, which is used ... Park, 1989). MPEG-1 systems and MPEG-2 video have been developed collaboratively with the International. Telecommunications Union- (ITU-T). The DVB selected. MPEG-2 added specifications ...

  18. Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital video compression technologies have become part of life, in the way visual information is created, communicated and consumed. Some application areas of video compression focused on the problem of optimizing storage space and transmission bandwidth (BW). The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D ...

  19. Improved side information generation for distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    As a new coding paradigm, distributed video coding (DVC) deals with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. The performance of DVC highly depends on the quality of side information. With a better side...... information generation method, fewer bits will be requested from the encoder and more reliable decoded frames will be obtained. In this paper, a side information generation method is introduced to further improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of transform domain distributed video coding. This algorithm...... consists of a variable block size based Y, U and V component motion estimation and an adaptive weighted overlapped block motion compensation (OBMC). The proposal is tested and compared with the results of an executable DVC codec released by DISCOVER group (DIStributed COding for Video sERvices). RD...

  20. Communicating pictures a course in image and video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, David R

    2014-01-01

    Communicating Pictures starts with a unique historical perspective of the role of images in communications and then builds on this to explain the applications and requirements of a modern video coding system. It draws on the author's extensive academic and professional experience of signal processing and video coding to deliver a text that is algorithmically rigorous, yet accessible, relevant to modern standards, and practical. It offers a thorough grounding in visual perception, and demonstrates how modern image and video compression methods can be designed in order to meet the rate-quality performance levels demanded by today's applications, networks and users. With this book you will learn: Practical issues when implementing a codec, such as picture boundary extension and complexity reduction, with particular emphasis on efficient algorithms for transforms, motion estimators and error resilience Conflicts between conventional video compression, based on variable length coding and spatiotemporal prediction,...

  1. Scalable video transmission over Rayleigh fading channels using LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Manu; Kondi, Lisimachos P.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate an important problem of efficiently utilizing the available resources for video transmission over wireless channels while maintaining a good decoded video quality and resilience to channel impairments. Our system consists of the video codec based on 3-D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (3-D SPIHT) algorithm and employs two different schemes using low-density parity check (LDPC) codes for channel error protection. The first method uses the serial concatenation of the constant-rate LDPC code and rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC) codes. Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is used to detect transmission errors. In the other scheme, we use the product code structure consisting of a constant rate LDPC/CRC code across the rows of the `blocks' of source data and an erasure-correction systematic Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the column code. In both the schemes introduced here, we use fixed-length source packets protected with unequal forward error correction coding ensuring a strictly decreasing protection across the bitstream. A Rayleigh flat-fading channel with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is modeled for the transmission. The rate-distortion optimization algorithm is developed and carried out for the selection of source coding and channel coding rates using Lagrangian optimization. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this system under different wireless channel conditions and both the proposed methods (LDPC+RCPC/CRC and RS+LDPC/CRC) outperform the more conventional schemes such as those employing RCPC/CRC.

  2. Feature-based fast coding unit partition algorithm for high efficiency video coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Chuan Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC, which is the newest video coding standard, has been developed for the efficient compression of ultra high definition videos. One of the important features in HEVC is the adoption of a quad-tree based video coding structure, in which each incoming frame is represented as a set of non-overlapped coding tree blocks (CTB by variable-block sized prediction and coding process. To do this, each CTB needs to be recursively partitioned into coding unit (CU, predict unit (PU and transform unit (TU during the coding process, leading to a huge computational load in the coding of each video frame. This paper proposes to extract visual features in a CTB and uses them to simplify the coding procedure by reducing the depth of quad-tree partition for each CTB in HEVC intra coding mode. A measure for the edge strength in a CTB, which is defined with simple Sobel edge detection, is used to constrain the possible maximum depth of quad-tree partition of the CTB. With the constrained partition depth, the proposed method can reduce a lot of encoding time. Experimental results by HM10.1 show that the average time-savings is about 13.4% under the increase of encoded BD-Rate by only 0.02%, which is a less performance degradation in comparison to other similar methods.

  3. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Budagavi, Madhukar; Sullivan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This book provides developers, engineers, researchers and students with detailed knowledge about the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. HEVC is the successor to the widely successful H.264/AVC video compression standard, and it provides around twice as much compression as H.264/AVC for the same level of quality. The applications for HEVC will not only cover the space of the well-known current uses and capabilities of digital video – they will also include the deployment of new services and the delivery of enhanced video quality, such as ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) and video with higher dynamic range, wider range of representable color, and greater representation precision than what is typically found today. HEVC is the next major generation of video coding design – a flexible, reliable and robust solution that will support the next decade of video applications and ease the burden of video on world-wide network traffic. This book provides a detailed explanation of the various parts ...

  4. Error Transmission in Video Coding with Gaussian Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Purwadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In video transmission, there is a possibility of packet lost and a large load variation in the bandwidth. These are the sources of network congestion, which can interfere the communication data rate. The coding system used is a video coding standard, which is either MPEG-2 or H.263 with SNR scalability. The algorithm used for motion compensation, temporal redundancy and spatial redundancy is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and quantization. The transmission error is simulated by adding Gaussian noise (error on motion vectors. From the simulation results, the SNR and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR in the noisy video frames decline with averages of 3dB and increase Mean Square Error (MSE on video frames received noise.

  5. Least-Square Prediction for Backward Adaptive Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all existing approaches towards video coding exploit the temporal redundancy by block-matching-based motion estimation and compensation. Regardless of its popularity, block matching still reflects an ad hoc understanding of the relationship between motion and intensity uncertainty models. In this paper, we present a novel backward adaptive approach, named "least-square prediction" (LSP, and demonstrate its potential in video coding. Motivated by the duality between edge contour in images and motion trajectory in video, we propose to derive the best prediction of the current frame from its causal past using least-square method. It is demonstrated that LSP is particularly effective for modeling video material with slow motion and can be extended to handle fast motion by temporal warping and forward adaptation. For typical QCIF test sequences, LSP often achieves smaller MSE than , full-search, quarter-pel block matching algorithm (BMA without the need of transmitting any overhead.

  6. Context based Coding of Quantized Alpha Planes for Video Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2002-01-01

    In object based video, each frame is a composition of objects that are coded separately. The composition is performed through the alpha plane that represents the transparency of the object. We present an alternative to MPEG-4 for coding of alpha planes that considers their specific properties. Co....... Comparisons in terms of rate and distortion are provided, showing that the proposed coding scheme for still alpha planes is better than the algorithms for I-frames used in MPEG-4.......In object based video, each frame is a composition of objects that are coded separately. The composition is performed through the alpha plane that represents the transparency of the object. We present an alternative to MPEG-4 for coding of alpha planes that considers their specific properties...

  7. EZBC video streaming with channel coding and error concealment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajic, Ivan V.; Woods, John W.

    2003-06-01

    In this text we present a system for streaming video content encoded using the motion-compensated Embedded Zero Block Coder (EZBC). The system incorporates unequal loss protection in the form of multiple description FEC (MD-FEC) coding, which provides adequate protection for the embedded video bitstream when the loss process is not very bursty. The adverse effects of burst losses are reduced using a novel motion-compensated error concealmet method.

  8. Combined Scalable Video Coding Method for Wireless Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Affandi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile video streaming is one of multimedia services that has developed very rapidly. Recently, bandwidth utilization for wireless transmission is the main problem in the field of multimedia communications. In this research, we offer a combination of scalable methods as the most attractive solution to this problem. Scalable method for wireless communication should adapt to input video sequence. Standard ITU (International Telecommunication Union - Joint Scalable Video Model (JSVM is employed to produce combined scalable video coding (CSVC method that match the required quality of video streaming services for wireless transmission. The investigation in this paper shows that combined scalable technique outperforms the non-scalable one, in using bit rate capacity at certain layer.

  9. Efficient Coding of Shape and Transparency for Video Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A novel scheme for coding gray-level alpha planes in object-based video is presented. Gray-level alpha planes convey the shape and the transparency information, which are required for smooth composition of video objects. The algorithm proposed is based on the segmentation of the alpha plane...... shape layer is processed by a novel video shape coder. In intra mode, the DSLSC binary image coder presented in is used. This is extended here with an intermode utilizing temporal redundancies in shape image sequences. Then the opaque layer is compressed by a newly designed scheme which models...

  10. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider a wireless multimedia system by mapping scalable video coded (SVC) bit stream upon superposition coded (SPC) signals, referred to as (SVC-SPC) architecture. Empirical experiments using a software-defined radio(SDR) emulator are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer should be approximately four times higher than the power allocated to the enhancement layer.

  11. Distributed source coding of video with non-stationary side-information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, P.F.A.; Westerlaken, R.P.; Klein Gunnewiek, R.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    In distributed video coding, the complexity of the video encoder is reduced at the cost of a more complex video decoder. Using the principles of Slepian andWolf, video compression is then carried out using channel coding principles, under the assumption that the video decoder can temporally predict

  12. Intra prediction using face continuity in 360-degree video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhart, Philippe; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new reference sample derivation method for intra prediction in 360-degree video coding. Unlike the conventional reference sample derivation method for 2D video coding, which uses the samples located directly above and on the left of the current block, the proposed method considers the spherical nature of 360-degree video when deriving reference samples located outside the current face to which the block belongs, and derives reference samples that are geometric neighbors on the sphere. The proposed reference sample derivation method was implemented in the Joint Exploration Model 3.0 (JEM-3.0) for the cubemap projection format. Simulation results for the all intra configuration show that, when compared with the conventional reference sample derivation method, the proposed method gives, on average, luma BD-rate reduction of 0.3% in terms of the weighted spherical PSNR (WS-PSNR) and spherical PSNR (SPSNR) metrics.

  13. Two-description distributed video coding for robust transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a two-description distributed video coding (2D-DVC is proposed to address the robust video transmission of low-power capturers. The odd/even frame-splitting partitions a video into two sub-sequences to produce two descriptions. Each description consists of two parts, where part 1 is a zero-motion based H.264-coded bitstream of a sub-sequence and part 2 is a Wyner-Ziv (WZ-coded bitstream of the other sub-sequence. As the redundant part, the WZ-coded bitstream guarantees that the lost sub-sequence is recovered when one description is lost. On the other hand, the redundancy degrades the rate-distortion performance as no loss occurs. A residual 2D-DVC is employed to further improve the rate-distortion performance, where the difference of two sub-sequences is WZ encoded to generate part 2 in each description. Furthermore, an optimization method is applied to control an appropriate amount of redundancy and therefore facilitate the tuning of central/side distortion tradeoff. The experimental results show that the proposed schemes achieve better performance than the referenced one especially for low-motion videos. Moreover, our schemes still maintain low-complexity encoding property.

  14. Empirical Evaluation of Superposition Coded Multicasting for Scalable Video

    KAUST Repository

    Chun Pong Lau

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we investigate cross-layer superposition coded multicast (SCM). Previous studies have proven its effectiveness in exploiting better channel capacity and service granularities via both analytical and simulation approaches. However, it has never been practically implemented using a commercial 4G system. This paper demonstrates our prototype in achieving the SCM using a standard 802.16 based testbed for scalable video transmissions. In particular, to implement the superposition coded (SPC) modulation, we take advantage a novel software approach, namely logical SPC (L-SPC), which aims to mimic the physical layer superposition coded modulation. The emulation results show improved throughput comparing with generic multicast method.

  15. Error Resilience in Current Distributed Video Coding Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonoli Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In distributed video coding the signal prediction is shifted at the decoder side, giving therefore most of the computational complexity burden at the receiver. Moreover, since no prediction loop exists before transmission, an intrinsic robustness to transmission errors has been claimed. This work evaluates and compares the error resilience performance of two distributed video coding architectures. In particular, we have considered a video codec based on the Stanford architecture (DISCOVER codec and a video codec based on the PRISM architecture. Specifically, an accurate temporal and rate/distortion based evaluation of the effects of the transmission errors for both the considered DVC architectures has been performed and discussed. These approaches have been also compared with H.264/AVC, in both cases of no error protection, and simple FEC error protection. Our evaluations have highlighted in all cases a strong dependence of the behavior of the various codecs to the content of the considered video sequence. In particular, PRISM seems to be particularly well suited for low-motion sequences, whereas DISCOVER provides better performance in the other cases.

  16. Efficient Enhancement for Spatial Scalable Video Coding Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada Khairy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalable Video Coding (SVC is an international standard technique for video compression. It is an extension of H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC. In the encoding of video streams by SVC, it is suitable to employ the macroblock (MB mode because it affords superior coding efficiency. However, the exhaustive mode decision technique that is usually used for SVC increases the computational complexity, resulting in a longer encoding time (ET. Many other algorithms were proposed to solve this problem with imperfection of increasing transmission time (TT across the network. To minimize the ET and TT, this paper introduces four efficient algorithms based on spatial scalability. The algorithms utilize the mode-distribution correlation between the base layer (BL and enhancement layers (ELs and interpolation between the EL frames. The proposed algorithms are of two categories. Those of the first category are based on interlayer residual SVC spatial scalability. They employ two methods, namely, interlayer interpolation (ILIP and the interlayer base mode (ILBM method, and enable ET and TT savings of up to 69.3% and 83.6%, respectively. The algorithms of the second category are based on full-search SVC spatial scalability. They utilize two methods, namely, full interpolation (FIP and the full-base mode (FBM method, and enable ET and TT savings of up to 55.3% and 76.6%, respectively.

  17. Scene-aware joint global and local homographic video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng; Sullivan, Gary J.

    2016-09-01

    Perspective motion is commonly represented in video content that is captured and compressed for various applications including cloud gaming, vehicle and aerial monitoring, etc. Existing approaches based on an eight-parameter homography motion model cannot deal with this efficiently, either due to low prediction accuracy or excessive bit rate overhead. In this paper, we consider the camera motion model and scene structure in such video content and propose a joint global and local homography motion coding approach for video with perspective motion. The camera motion is estimated by a computer vision approach, and camera intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are globally coded at the frame level. The scene is modeled as piece-wise planes, and three plane parameters are coded at the block level. Fast gradient-based approaches are employed to search for the plane parameters for each block region. In this way, improved prediction accuracy and low bit costs are achieved. Experimental results based on the HEVC test model show that up to 9.1% bit rate savings can be achieved (with equal PSNR quality) on test video content with perspective motion. Test sequences for the example applications showed a bit rate savings ranging from 3.7 to 9.1%.

  18. Probabilistic Decision Based Block Partitioning for Future Video Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhao

    2017-11-29

    In the latest Joint Video Exploration Team development, the quadtree plus binary tree (QTBT) block partitioning structure has been proposed for future video coding. Compared to the traditional quadtree structure of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, QTBT provides more flexible patterns for splitting the blocks, which results in dramatically increased combinations of block partitions and high computational complexity. In view of this, a confidence interval based early termination (CIET) scheme is proposed for QTBT to identify the unnecessary partition modes in the sense of rate-distortion (RD) optimization. In particular, a RD model is established to predict the RD cost of each partition pattern without the full encoding process. Subsequently, the mode decision problem is casted into a probabilistic framework to select the final partition based on the confidence interval decision strategy. Experimental results show that the proposed CIET algorithm can speed up QTBT block partitioning structure by reducing 54.7% encoding time with only 1.12% increase in terms of bit rate. Moreover, the proposed scheme performs consistently well for the high resolution sequences, of which the video coding efficiency is crucial in real applications.

  19. Novel Intermode Prediction Algorithm for High Efficiency Video Coding Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-seob Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint collaborative team on video coding (JCT-VC is developing the next-generation video coding standard which is called high efficiency video coding (HEVC. In the HEVC, there are three units in block structure: coding unit (CU, prediction unit (PU, and transform unit (TU. The CU is the basic unit of region splitting like macroblock (MB. Each CU performs recursive splitting into four blocks with equal size, starting from the tree block. In this paper, we propose a fast CU depth decision algorithm for HEVC technology to reduce its computational complexity. In 2N×2N PU, the proposed method compares the rate-distortion (RD cost and determines the depth using the compared information. Moreover, in order to speed up the encoding time, the efficient merge SKIP detection method is developed additionally based on the contextual mode information of neighboring CUs. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm achieves the average time-saving factor of 44.84% in the random access (RA at Main profile configuration with the HEVC test model (HM 10.0 reference software. Compared to HM 10.0 encoder, a small BD-bitrate loss of 0.17% is also observed without significant loss of image quality.

  20. Coding B-Frames of Color Videos with Fuzzy Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Di Martino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a new method based on discrete fuzzy transforms for coding/decoding frames of color videos in which we determine dynamically the GOP sequences. Frames can be differentiated into intraframes, predictive frames, and bidirectional frames, and we consider particular frames, called Δ-frames (resp., R-frames, for coding P-frames (resp., B-frames by using two similarity measures based on Lukasiewicz -norm; moreover, a preprocessing phase is proposed to determine similarity thresholds for classifying the above types of frame. The proposed method provides acceptable results in terms of quality of the reconstructed videos to a certain extent if compared with classical-based F-transforms method and the standard MPEG-4.

  1. Noise Residual Learning for Noise Modeling in Distributed Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The noise model is one of the inherently difficult challenges in DVC. This paper considers Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes...... noise residual learning techniques that take residues from previously decoded frames into account to estimate the decoding residue more precisely. Moreover, the techniques calculate a number of candidate noise residual distributions within a frame to adaptively optimize the soft side information during...... decoding. A residual refinement step is also introduced to take advantage of correlation of DCT coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed techniques robustly improve the coding efficiency of TDWZ DVC and for GOP=2 bit-rate savings up to 35% on WZ frames are achieved compared with DISCOVER....

  2. Robust video transmission with distributed source coded auxiliary channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajun; Majumdar, Abhik; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2009-12-01

    We propose a novel solution to the problem of robust, low-latency video transmission over lossy channels. Predictive video codecs, such as MPEG and H.26x, are very susceptible to prediction mismatch between encoder and decoder or "drift" when there are packet losses. These mismatches lead to a significant degradation in the decoded quality. To address this problem, we propose an auxiliary codec system that sends additional information alongside an MPEG or H.26x compressed video stream to correct for errors in decoded frames and mitigate drift. The proposed system is based on the principles of distributed source coding and uses the (possibly erroneous) MPEG/H.26x decoder reconstruction as side information at the auxiliary decoder. The distributed source coding framework depends upon knowing the statistical dependency (or correlation) between the source and the side information. We propose a recursive algorithm to analytically track the correlation between the original source frame and the erroneous MPEG/H.26x decoded frame. Finally, we propose a rate-distortion optimization scheme to allocate the rate used by the auxiliary encoder among the encoding blocks within a video frame. We implement the proposed system and present extensive simulation results that demonstrate significant gains in performance both visually and objectively (on the order of 2 dB in PSNR over forward error correction based solutions and 1.5 dB in PSNR over intrarefresh based solutions for typical scenarios) under tight latency constraints.

  3. Performance evaluation of nonscalable MPEG-2 video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert L.; Puri, Atul; Haskell, Barry G.

    1994-09-01

    The second phase of the ISO Moving Picture Experts Group audio-visual coding standard (MPEG-2) is nearly complete and this standard is expected to be used in a wide range of applications at variety of bitrates. While the standard specifies the syntax of the compressed bitstream and the semantics of the decoding process, it allows considerably flexibility in choice of encoding parameters and options enabling appropriate tradeoffs in performance versus complexity as might be suitable for an application. First, we present a review of profile and level structure in MPEG-2 which is the key for enabling use of coding tools in MPEG-2. Next, we include a brief review of tools for nonscalable coding within MPEG-2 standard. Finally, we investigate via simulations, tradeoffs in coding performance with choice of various parameters and options so that within the encoder complexity that can be afforded, encoder design with good performance tradeoffs can be accomplished. Simulations are performed on standard TV and HDTV resolution video of various formats and at many bitrates using nonscalable (single layer) video coding tools of the MPEG-2 standard.

  4. Video coding for decoding power-constrained embedded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ligang; Sheinin, Vadim

    2004-01-01

    Low power dissipation and fast processing time are crucial requirements for embedded multimedia devices. This paper presents a technique in video coding to decrease the power consumption at a standard video decoder. Coupled with a small dedicated video internal memory cache on a decoder, the technique can substantially decrease the amount of data traffic to the external memory at the decoder. A decrease in data traffic to the external memory at decoder will result in multiple benefits: faster real-time processing and power savings. The encoder, given prior knowledge of the decoder"s dedicated video internal memory cache management scheme, regulates its choice of motion compensated predictors to reduce the decoder"s external memory accesses. This technique can be used in any standard or proprietary encoder scheme to generate a compliant output bit stream decodable by standard CPU-based and dedicated hardware-based decoders for power savings with the best quality-power cost trade off. Our simulation results show that with a relatively small amount of dedicated video internal memory cache, the technique may decrease the traffic between CPU and external memory over 50%.

  5. Interlayer Simplified Depth Coding for Quality Scalability on 3D High Efficiency Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quality scalable extension design is proposed for the upcoming 3D video on the emerging standard for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC. A novel interlayer simplified depth coding (SDC prediction tool is added to reduce the amount of bits for depth maps representation by exploiting the correlation between coding layers. To further improve the coding performance, the coded prediction quadtree and texture data from corresponding SDC-coded blocks in the base layer can be used in interlayer simplified depth coding. In the proposed design, the multiloop decoder solution is also extended into the proposed scalable scenario for texture views and depth maps, and will be achieved by the interlayer texture prediction method. The experimental results indicate that the average Bjøntegaard Delta bitrate decrease of 54.4% can be gained in interlayer simplified depth coding prediction tool on multiloop decoder solution compared with simulcast. Consequently, significant rate savings confirm that the proposed method achieves better performance.

  6. Scalable Video Coding with Interlayer Signal Decorrelation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenxian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalability is one of the essential requirements in the compression of visual data for present-day multimedia communications and storage. The basic building block for providing the spatial scalability in the scalable video coding (SVC standard is the well-known Laplacian pyramid (LP. An LP achieves the multiscale representation of the video as a base-layer signal at lower resolution together with several enhancement-layer signals at successive higher resolutions. In this paper, we propose to improve the coding performance of the enhancement layers through efficient interlayer decorrelation techniques. We first show that, with nonbiorthogonal upsampling and downsampling filters, the base layer and the enhancement layers are correlated. We investigate two structures to reduce this correlation. The first structure updates the base-layer signal by subtracting from it the low-frequency component of the enhancement layer signal. The second structure modifies the prediction in order that the low-frequency component in the new enhancement layer is diminished. The second structure is integrated in the JSVM 4.0 codec with suitable modifications in the prediction modes. Experimental results with some standard test sequences demonstrate coding gains up to 1 dB for I pictures and up to 0.7 dB for both I and P pictures.

  7. Cross-band noise model refinement for transform domain Wyner–Ziv video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    TDWZ video coding trails that of conventional video coding solutions, mainly due to the quality of side information, inaccurate noise modeling and loss in the final coding step. The major goal of this paper is to enhance the accuracy of the noise modeling, which is one of the most important aspects...... that the proposed noise model and noise residue refinement scheme can improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of TDWZ video coding significantly. The quality of the side information modeling is also evaluated by a measure of the ideal code length.......Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm, which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of decoder side information. One approach to DVC is feedback channel based Transform Domain Wyner–Ziv (TDWZ) video coding. The efficiency of current...

  8. An Evolutionary Video Assignment Optimization Technique for VOD System in Heterogeneous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Man Ho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the video assignment problem of a hierarchical Video-on-Demand (VOD system in heterogeneous environments where different quality levels of videos can be encoded using either replication or layering. In such systems, videos are delivered to clients either through a proxy server or video broadcast/unicast channels. The objective of our work is to determine the appropriate coding strategy as well as the suitable delivery mechanism for a specific quality level of a video such that the overall system blocking probability is minimized. In order to find a near-optimal solution for such a complex video assignment problem, an evolutionary approach based on genetic algorithm (GA is proposed. From the results, it is shown that the system performance can be significantly enhanced by efficiently coupling the various techniques.

  9. Fast motion prediction algorithm for multiview video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Zhang, Guang Y.; Mein, Stephen J.; Varley, Martin R.; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel

    2011-06-01

    Multiview Video Coding (MVC) is an extension to the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video compression standard developed with joint efforts by MPEG/VCEG to enable efficient encoding of sequences captured simultaneously from multiple cameras using a single video stream. Therefore the design is aimed at exploiting inter-view dependencies in addition to reducing temporal redundancies. However, this further increases the overall encoding complexity In this paper, the high correlation between a macroblock and its enclosed partitions is utilised to estimate motion homogeneity, and based on the result inter-view prediction is selectively enabled or disabled. Moreover, if the MVC is divided into three layers in terms of motion prediction; the first being the full and sub-pixel motion search, the second being the mode selection process and the third being repetition of the first and second for inter-view prediction, the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the complexity in the three layers. To assess the proposed algorithm, a comprehensive set of experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the motion estimation time whilst maintaining similar Rate Distortion performance, when compared to both the H.264/MVC reference software and recently reported work.

  10. Complexity control algorithm based on adaptive mode selection for interframe coding in high efficiency video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Gao, Zhiyong

    2017-07-01

    The latest high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard significantly increases the encoding complexity for improving its coding efficiency. Due to the limited computational capability of handheld devices, complexity constrained video coding has drawn great attention in recent years. A complexity control algorithm based on adaptive mode selection is proposed for interframe coding in HEVC. Considering the direct proportionality between encoding time and computational complexity, the computational complexity is measured in terms of encoding time. First, complexity is mapped to a target in terms of prediction modes. Then, an adaptive mode selection algorithm is proposed for the mode decision process. Specifically, the optimal mode combination scheme that is chosen through offline statistics is developed at low complexity. If the complexity budget has not been used up, an adaptive mode sorting method is employed to further improve coding efficiency. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a very large complexity control range (as low as 10%) for the HEVC encoder while maintaining good rate-distortion performance. For the lowdelayP condition, compared with the direct resource allocation method and the state-of-the-art method, an average gain of 0.63 and 0.17 dB in BDPSNR is observed for 18 sequences when the target complexity is around 40%.

  11. 3D Scan-Based Wavelet Transform and Quality Control for Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisot Christophe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet coding has been shown to achieve better compression than DCT coding and moreover allows scalability. 2D DWT can be easily extended to 3D and thus applied to video coding. However, 3D subband coding of video suffers from two drawbacks. The first is the amount of memory required for coding large 3D blocks; the second is the lack of temporal quality due to the sequence temporal splitting. In fact, 3D block-based video coders produce jerks. They appear at blocks temporal borders during video playback. In this paper, we propose a new temporal scan-based wavelet transform method for video coding combining the advantages of wavelet coding (performance, scalability with acceptable reduced memory requirements, no additional CPU complexity, and avoiding jerks. We also propose an efficient quality allocation procedure to ensure a constant quality over time.

  12. 3D Scan-Based Wavelet Transform and Quality Control for Video Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Christophe; Antonini, Marc; Barlaud, Michel

    2003-12-01

    Wavelet coding has been shown to achieve better compression than DCT coding and moreover allows scalability. 2D DWT can be easily extended to 3D and thus applied to video coding. However, 3D subband coding of video suffers from two drawbacks. The first is the amount of memory required for coding large 3D blocks; the second is the lack of temporal quality due to the sequence temporal splitting. In fact, 3D block-based video coders produce jerks. They appear at blocks temporal borders during video playback. In this paper, we propose a new temporal scan-based wavelet transform method for video coding combining the advantages of wavelet coding (performance, scalability) with acceptable reduced memory requirements, no additional CPU complexity, and avoiding jerks. We also propose an efficient quality allocation procedure to ensure a constant quality over time.

  13. Transform domain Wyner-Ziv video coding with refinement of noise residue and side information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2010-01-01

    are successively updating the estimated noise residue for noise modeling and side information frame quality during decoding. Experimental results show that the proposed decoder can improve the Rate- Distortion (RD) performance of a state-of-the-art Wyner Ziv video codec for the set of test sequences.......Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of side information at the decoder. This paper considers feedback channel based Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) DVC. The coding efficiency of TDWZ video...... coding does not match that of conventional video coding yet, mainly due to the quality of side information and inaccurate noise estimation. In this context, a novel TDWZ video decoder with noise residue refinement (NRR) and side information refinement (SIR) is proposed. The proposed refinement schemes...

  14. 3-D model-based frame interpolation for distributed video coding of static scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitre, Matthieu; Guillemot, Christine; Morin, Luce

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of side information extraction for distributed coding of videos captured by a camera moving in a 3-D static environment. Examples of targeted applications are augmented reality, remote-controlled robots operating in hazardous environments, or remote exploration by drones. It explores the benefits of the structure-from-motion paradigm for distributed coding of this type of video content. Two interpolation methods constrained by the scene geometry, based either on block matching along epipolar lines or on 3-D mesh fitting, are first developed. These techniques are based on a robust algorithm for sub-pel matching of feature points, which leads to semi-dense correspondences between key frames. However, their rate-distortion (RD) performances are limited by misalignments between the side information and the actual Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames due to the assumption of linear motion between key frames. To cope with this problem, two feature point tracking techniques are introduced, which recover the camera parameters of the WZ frames. A first technique, in which the frames remain encoded separately, performs tracking at the decoder and leads to significant RD performance gains. A second technique further improves the RD performances by allowing a limited tracking at the encoder. As an additional benefit, statistics on tracks allow the encoder to adapt the key frame frequency to the video motion content.

  15. 3D video coding: an overview of present and upcoming standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Philipp; Müller, Karsten; Wiegand, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    An overview of existing and upcoming 3D video coding standards is given. Various different 3D video formats are available, each with individual pros and cons. The 3D video formats can be separated into two classes: video-only formats (such as stereo and multiview video) and depth-enhanced formats (such as video plus depth and multiview video plus depth). Since all these formats exist of at least two video sequences and possibly additional depth data, efficient compression is essential for the success of 3D video applications and technologies. For the video-only formats the H.264 family of coding standards already provides efficient and widely established compression algorithms: H.264/AVC simulcast, H.264/AVC stereo SEI message, and H.264/MVC. For the depth-enhanced formats standardized coding algorithms are currently being developed. New and specially adapted coding approaches are necessary, as the depth or disparity information included in these formats has significantly different characteristics than video and is not displayed directly, but used for rendering. Motivated by evolving market needs, MPEG has started an activity to develop a generic 3D video standard within the 3DVC ad-hoc group. Key features of the standard are efficient and flexible compression of depth-enhanced 3D video representations and decoupling of content creation and display requirements.

  16. 3D video coding for embedded devices energy efficient algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Zatt, Bruno; Bampi, Sergio; Henkel, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    This book shows readers how to develop energy-efficient algorithms and hardware architectures to enable high-definition 3D video coding on resource-constrained embedded devices.  Users of the Multiview Video Coding (MVC) standard face the challenge of exploiting its 3D video-specific coding tools for increasing compression efficiency at the cost of increasing computational complexity and, consequently, the energy consumption.  This book enables readers to reduce the multiview video coding energy consumption through jointly considering the algorithmic and architectural levels.  Coverage includes an introduction to 3D videos and an extensive discussion of the current state-of-the-art of 3D video coding, as well as energy-efficient algorithms for 3D video coding and energy-efficient hardware architecture for 3D video coding.     ·         Discusses challenges related to performance and power in 3D video coding for embedded devices; ·         Describes energy-efficient algorithms for reduci...

  17. 3D Scan-Based Wavelet Transform and Quality Control for Video Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Parisot Christophe; Antonini Marc; Barlaud Michel

    2003-01-01

    Wavelet coding has been shown to achieve better compression than DCT coding and moreover allows scalability. 2D DWT can be easily extended to 3D and thus applied to video coding. However, 3D subband coding of video suffers from two drawbacks. The first is the amount of memory required for coding large 3D blocks; the second is the lack of temporal quality due to the sequence temporal splitting. In fact, 3D block-based video coders produce jerks. They appear at blocks temporal borders during v...

  18. Joint Source-Channel Coding for Wavelet-Based Scalable Video Transmission Using an Adaptive Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzan Naeem

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach for joint source and channel coding is presented. The proposed approach exploits the joint optimization of a wavelet-based scalable video coding framework and a forward error correction method based on turbo codes. The scheme minimizes the reconstructed video distortion at the decoder subject to a constraint on the overall transmission bitrate budget. The minimization is achieved by exploiting the source rate distortion characteristics and the statistics of the available codes. Here, the critical problem of estimating the bit error rate probability in error-prone applications is discussed. Aiming at improving the overall performance of the underlying joint source-channel coding, the combination of the packet size, interleaver, and channel coding rate is optimized using Lagrangian optimization. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms conventional forward error correction techniques at all bit error rates. It also significantly improves the performance of end-to-end scalable video transmission at all channel bit rates.

  19. Joint Source-Channel Coding for Wavelet-Based Scalable Video Transmission Using an Adaptive Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ramzan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach for joint source and channel coding is presented. The proposed approach exploits the joint optimization of a wavelet-based scalable video coding framework and a forward error correction method based on turbo codes. The scheme minimizes the reconstructed video distortion at the decoder subject to a constraint on the overall transmission bitrate budget. The minimization is achieved by exploiting the source rate distortion characteristics and the statistics of the available codes. Here, the critical problem of estimating the bit error rate probability in error-prone applications is discussed. Aiming at improving the overall performance of the underlying joint source-channel coding, the combination of the packet size, interleaver, and channel coding rate is optimized using Lagrangian optimization. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms conventional forward error correction techniques at all bit error rates. It also significantly improves the performance of end-to-end scalable video transmission at all channel bit rates.

  20. Standards-based approaches to 3D and multiview video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary J.

    2009-08-01

    The extension of video applications to enable 3D perception, which typically is considered to include a stereo viewing experience, is emerging as a mass market phenomenon, as is evident from the recent prevalence of 3D major cinema title releases. For high quality 3D video to become a commonplace user experience beyond limited cinema distribution, adoption of an interoperable coded 3D digital video format will be needed. Stereo-view video can also be studied as a special case of the more general technologies of multiview and "free-viewpoint" video systems. The history of standardization work on this topic is actually richer than people may typically realize. The ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), in particular, has been developing interoperability standards to specify various such coding schemes since the advent of digital video as we know it. More recently, the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG) has been involved as well in the Joint Video Team (JVT) work on development of 3D features for H.264/14496-10 Advanced Video Coding, including Multiview Video Coding (MVC) extensions. This paper surveys the prior, ongoing, and anticipated future standardization efforts on this subject to provide an overview and historical perspective on feasible approaches to 3D and multiview video coding.

  1. Scene-library-based video coding scheme exploiting long-term temporal correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xuguang; Yu, Lu; Yu, Hualong; Mao, Jue; Zhao, Yin

    2017-07-01

    In movies and TV shows, it is common that several scenes repeat alternately. These videos are characterized with the long-term temporal correlation, which can be exploited to improve video coding efficiency. However, in applications supporting random access (RA), a video is typically divided into a number of RA segments (RASs) by RA points (RAPs), and different RASs are coded independently. In such a way, the long-term temporal correlation among RASs with similar scenes cannot be used. We present a scene-library-based video coding scheme for the coding of videos with repeated scenes. First, a compact scene library is built by clustering similar scenes and extracting representative frames in encoding video. Then, the video is coded using a layered scene-library-based coding structure, in which the library frames serve as long-term reference frames. The scene library is not cleared by RAPs so that the long-term temporal correlation between RASs from similar scenes can be exploited. Furthermore, the RAP frames are coded as interframes by only referencing library frames so as to improve coding efficiency while maintaining RA property. Experimental results show that the coding scheme can achieve significant coding gain over state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Emerging technologies for 3D video creation, coding, transmission and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Dufaux, Frederic; Cagnazzo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    With the expectation of greatly enhanced user experience, 3D video is widely perceived as the next major advancement in video technology. In order to fulfil the expectation of enhanced user experience, 3D video calls for new technologies addressing efficient content creation, representation/coding, transmission and display. Emerging Technologies for 3D Video will deal with all aspects involved in 3D video systems and services, including content acquisition and creation, data representation and coding, transmission, view synthesis, rendering, display technologies, human percepti

  3. Mutiple LDPC Decoding using Bitplane Correlation for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is an emerging video coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. This paper considers a Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) based Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video...... codec. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of TDWZ, this paper proposes a Wyner-Ziv video codec using bitplane correlation through multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme utilizes inter bitplane correlation to enhance the bitplane decoding performance. Experimental results...

  4. Depth-based coding of MVD data for 3D video extension of H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanovskyy, Dmytro; Hannuksela, Miska M.; Su, Wenyi

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a novel approach of using depth information for advanced coding of associated video data in Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD)-based 3D video systems. As a possible implementation of this conception, we describe two coding tools that have been developed for H.264/AVC based 3D Video Codec as response to Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) Call for Proposals (CfP). These tools are Depth-based Motion Vector Prediction (DMVP) and Backward View Synthesis Prediction (BVSP). Simulation results conducted under JCT-3V/MPEG 3DV Common Test Conditions show, that proposed in this paper tools reduce bit rate of coded video data by 15% of average delta bit rate reduction, which results in 13% of bit rate savings on total for the MVD data over the state-of-the-art MVC+D coding. Moreover, presented in this paper conception of depth-based coding of video has been further developed by MPEG 3DV and JCT-3V and this work resulted in even higher compression efficiency, bringing about 20% of delta bit rate reduction on total for coded MVD data over the reference MVC+D coding. Considering significant gains, proposed in this paper coding approach can be beneficial for development of new 3D video coding standards. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Improved virtual channel noise model for transform domain Wyner-Ziv video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) has been proposed as a new video coding paradigm to deal with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. A virtual channel noise model is utilized at the decoder to estimate...... the noise distribution between the side information frame and the original frame. This is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of DVC. Noise models with different granularity have been proposed. In this paper, an improved noise model for transform domain Wyner-Ziv video...

  6. Integer-Linear-Programing Optimization in Scalable Video Multicast with Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyul Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.

  7. Integer-linear-programing optimization in scalable video multicast with adaptive modulation and coding in wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongyul; Lee, Chaewoo

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.

  8. Application of Enhanced Hadamard Error Correcting Code in Video-Watermarking and his comparison to Reed-Solomon Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziech Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Error Correcting Codes are playing a very important role in Video Watermarking technology. Because of very high compression rate (about 1:200 normally the watermarks can barely survive such massive attacks, despite very sophisticated embedding strategies. It can only work with a sufficient error correcting code method. In this paper, the authors compare the new developed Enhanced Hadamard Error Correcting Code (EHC with well known Reed-Solomon Code regarding its ability to preserve watermarks in the embedded video. The main idea of this new developed multidimensional Enhanced Hadamard Error Correcting Code is to map the 2D basis images into a collection of one-dimensional rows and to apply a 1D Hadamard decoding procedure on them. After this, the image is reassembled, and the 2D decoding procedure can be applied more efficiently. With this approach, it is possible to overcome the theoretical limit of error correcting capability of (d-1/2 bits, where d is a Hamming distance. Even better results could be achieved by expanding the 2D EHC to 3D. To prove the efficiency and practicability of this new Enhanced Hadamard Code, the method was applied to a video Watermarking Coding Scheme. The Video Watermarking Embedding procedure decomposes the initial video trough multi-Level Interframe Wavelet Transform. The low pass filtered part of the video stream is used for embedding the watermarks, which are protected respectively by Enhanced Hadamard or Reed-Solomon Correcting Code. The experimental results show that EHC performs much better than RS Code and seems to be very robust against strong MPEG compression.

  9. A comparative study of scalable video coding schemes utilizing wavelet technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkens, Peter; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Barbarien, Joeri; Clerckx, Tom; Verdicchio, Fabio; Munteanu, Adrian; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2004-02-01

    Video transmission over variable-bandwidth networks requires instantaneous bit-rate adaptation at the server site to provide an acceptable decoding quality. For this purpose, recent developments in video coding aim at providing a fully embedded bit-stream with seamless adaptation capabilities in bit-rate, frame-rate and resolution. A new promising technology in this context is wavelet-based video coding. Wavelets have already demonstrated their potential for quality and resolution scalability in still-image coding. This led to the investigation of various schemes for the compression of video, exploiting similar principles to generate embedded bit-streams. In this paper we present scalable wavelet-based video-coding technology with competitive rate-distortion behavior compared to standardized non-scalable technology.

  10. Basic prediction techniques in modern video coding standards

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Byung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the basic algorithms of video compression that are widely used in modern video codec. The authors dissect complicated specifications and present material in a way that gets readers quickly up to speed by describing video compression algorithms succinctly, without going to the mathematical details and technical specifications. For accelerated learning, hybrid codec structure, inter- and intra- prediction techniques in MPEG-4, H.264/AVC, and HEVC are discussed together. In addition, the latest research in the fast encoder design for the HEVC and H.264/AVC is also included.

  11. Resource allocation for error resilient video coding over AWGN using optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Cheolhong; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2008-12-01

    The number of slices for error resilient video coding is jointly optimized with 802.11a-like media access control and the physical layers with automatic repeat request and rate compatible punctured convolutional code over additive white gaussian noise channel as well as channel times allocation for time division multiple access. For error resilient video coding, the relation between the number of slices and coding efficiency is analyzed and formulated as a mathematical model. It is applied for the joint optimization problem, and the problem is solved by a convex optimization method such as the primal-dual decomposition method. We compare the performance of a video communication system which uses the optimal number of slices with one that codes a picture as one slice. From numerical examples, end-to-end distortion of utility functions can be significantly reduced with the optimal slices of a picture especially at low signal-to-noise ratio.

  12. Variable disparity-motion estimation based fast three-view video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Hwang, Yong Seok; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, variable disparity-motion estimation (VDME) based 3-view video coding is proposed. In the encoding, key-frame coding (KFC) based motion estimation and variable disparity estimation (VDE) for effectively fast three-view video encoding are processed. These proposed algorithms enhance the performance of 3-D video encoding/decoding system in terms of accuracy of disparity estimation and computational overhead. From some experiments, stereo sequences of 'Pot Plant' and 'IVO', it is shown that the proposed algorithm's PSNRs is 37.66 and 40.55 dB, and the processing time is 0.139 and 0.124 sec/frame, respectively.

  13. Depth-based Multi-View 3D Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco

    on edge-preserving solutions. In a proposed scheme, texture-depth correlation is exploited to predict surface shapes in the depth signal. In this way depth coding performance can be improved in terms of both compression gain and edge-preservation. Another solution proposes a new intra coding mode targeted...... to depth blocks featuring arbitrarily-shaped edges. Edge information is encoded exploiting previously coded edge blocks. Integrated in H.264/AVC, the proposed mode allows significant bit rate savings compared with a number of state-of-the-art depth codecs. View synthesis performances are also improved......, both in terms of objective and visual evaluations. Depth coding based on standard H.264/AVC is explored for multi-view plus depth image coding. A single depth map is used to disparity-compensate multiple views and allow more efficient coding than H.264 MVC at low bit rates. Lossless coding of depth...

  14. Low-Complexity Saliency Detection Algorithm for Fast Perceptual Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-complexity saliency detection algorithm for perceptual video coding is proposed; low-level encoding information is adopted as the characteristics of visual perception analysis. Firstly, this algorithm employs motion vector (MV to extract temporal saliency region through fast MV noise filtering and translational MV checking procedure. Secondly, spatial saliency region is detected based on optimal prediction mode distributions in I-frame and P-frame. Then, it combines the spatiotemporal saliency detection results to define the video region of interest (VROI. The simulation results validate that the proposed algorithm can avoid a large amount of computation work in the visual perception characteristics analysis processing compared with other existing algorithms; it also has better performance in saliency detection for videos and can realize fast saliency detection. It can be used as a part of the video standard codec at medium-to-low bit-rates or combined with other algorithms in fast video coding.

  15. Joint disparity and motion estimation using optical flow for multiview Distributed Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Raket, Lars Lau; Brites, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm where the source statistics are exploited at the decoder based on the availability of Side Information (SI). In a monoview video codec, the SI is generated by exploiting the temporal redundancy of the video, through motion estimation and c...... flow. The proposed SI generation algorithm allows for RD improvements up to 10% (Bjøntegaard) in bit-rate savings, when compared with block-based SI generation algorithms leveraging temporal and inter-view redundancies....... and compensation techniques. In a multiview scenario, the correlation between views can also be exploited to further enhance the overall Rate-Distortion (RD) performance. Thus, to generate SI in a multiview distributed coding scenario, a joint disparity and motion estimation technique is proposed, based on optical...

  16. Motion estimation for video coding efficient algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Indrajit; Chatterjee, Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The need of video compression in the modern age of visual communication cannot be over-emphasized. This monograph will provide useful information to the postgraduate students and researchers who wish to work in the domain of VLSI design for video processing applications. In this book, one can find an in-depth discussion of several motion estimation algorithms and their VLSI implementation as conceived and developed by the authors. It records an account of research done involving fast three step search, successive elimination, one-bit transformation and its effective combination with diamond search and dynamic pixel truncation techniques. Two appendices provide a number of instances of proof of concept through Matlab and Verilog program segments. In this aspect, the book can be considered as first of its kind. The architectures have been developed with an eye to their applicability in everyday low-power handheld appliances including video camcorders and smartphones.

  17. Spatial Pyramid Covariance based Compact Video Code for Robust Face Retrieval in TV-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ruiping; Cui, Zhen; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin

    2016-10-10

    We address the problem of face video retrieval in TV-series which searches video clips based on the presence of specific character, given one face track of his/her. This is tremendously challenging because on one hand, faces in TV-series are captured in largely uncontrolled conditions with complex appearance variations, and on the other hand retrieval task typically needs efficient representation with low time and space complexity. To handle this problem, we propose a compact and discriminative representation for the huge body of video data, named Compact Video Code (CVC). Our method first models the face track by its sample (i.e., frame) covariance matrix to capture the video data variations in a statistical manner. To incorporate discriminative information and obtain more compact video signature suitable for retrieval, the high-dimensional covariance representation is further encoded as a much lower-dimensional binary vector, which finally yields the proposed CVC. Specifically, each bit of the code, i.e., each dimension of the binary vector, is produced via supervised learning in a max margin framework, which aims to make a balance between the discriminability and stability of the code. Besides, we further extend the descriptive granularity of covariance matrix from traditional pixel-level to more general patchlevel, and proceed to propose a novel hierarchical video representation named Spatial Pyramid Covariance (SPC) along with a fast calculation method. Face retrieval experiments on two challenging TV-series video databases, i.e., the Big Bang Theory and Prison Break, demonstrate the competitiveness of the proposed CVC over state-of-the-art retrieval methods. In addition, as a general video matching algorithm, CVC is also evaluated in traditional video face recognition task on a standard Internet database, i.e., YouTube Celebrities, showing its quite promising performance by using an extremely compact code with only 128 bits.

  18. Real-time transmission of digital video using variable-length coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, Thomas P.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Huffman coding is a variable-length lossless compression technique where data with a high probability of occurrence is represented with short codewords, while 'not-so-likely' data is assigned longer codewords. Compression is achieved when the high-probability levels occur so frequently that their benefit outweighs any penalty paid when a less likely input occurs. One instance where Huffman coding is extremely effective occurs when data is highly predictable and differential coding can be applied (as with a digital video signal). For that reason, it is desirable to apply this compression technique to digital video transmission; however, special care must be taken in order to implement a communication protocol utilizing Huffman coding. This paper addresses several of the issues relating to the real-time transmission of Huffman-coded digital video over a constant-rate serial channel. Topics discussed include data rate conversion (from variable to a fixed rate), efficient data buffering, channel coding, recovery from communication errors, decoder synchronization, and decoder architectures. A description of the hardware developed to execute Huffman coding and serial transmission is also included. Although this paper focuses on matters relating to Huffman-coded digital video, the techniques discussed can easily be generalized for a variety of applications which require transmission of variable-length data.

  19. Video coding for 3D-HEVC based on saliency information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; An, Ping; Yang, Chao; You, Zhixiang; Shen, Liquan

    2016-11-01

    As an extension of High Efficiency Video Coding ( HEVC), 3D-HEVC has been widely researched under the impetus of the new generation coding standard in recent years. Compared with H.264/AVC, its compression efficiency is doubled while keeping the same video quality. However, its higher encoding complexity and longer encoding time are not negligible. To reduce the computational complexity and guarantee the subjective quality of virtual views, this paper presents a novel video coding method for 3D-HEVC based on the saliency informat ion which is an important part of Human Visual System (HVS). First of all, the relationship between the current coding unit and its adjacent units is used to adjust the maximum depth of each largest coding unit (LCU) and determine the SKIP mode reasonably. Then, according to the saliency informat ion of each frame image, the texture and its corresponding depth map will be divided into three regions, that is, salient area, middle area and non-salient area. Afterwards, d ifferent quantization parameters will be assigned to different regions to conduct low complexity coding. Finally, the compressed video will generate new view point videos through the renderer tool. As shown in our experiments, the proposed method saves more bit rate than other approaches and achieves up to highest 38% encoding time reduction without subjective quality loss in compression or rendering.

  20. Single-layer HDR video coding with SDR backward compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, S.; François, E.; Le Léannec, F.; Touzé, D.

    2016-09-01

    The migration from High Definition (HD) TV to Ultra High Definition (UHD) is already underway. In addition to an increase of picture spatial resolution, UHD will bring more color and higher contrast by introducing Wide Color Gamut (WCG) and High Dynamic Range (HDR) video. As both Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) and HDR devices will coexist in the ecosystem, the transition from Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) to HDR will require distribution solutions supporting some level of backward compatibility. This paper presents a new HDR content distribution scheme, named SL-HDR1, using a single layer codec design and providing SDR compatibility. The solution is based on a pre-encoding HDR-to-SDR conversion, generating a backward compatible SDR video, with side dynamic metadata. The resulting SDR video is then compressed, distributed and decoded using standard-compliant decoders (e.g. HEVC Main 10 compliant). The decoded SDR video can be directly rendered on SDR displays without adaptation. Dynamic metadata of limited size are generated by the pre-processing and used to reconstruct the HDR signal from the decoded SDR video, using a post-processing that is the functional inverse of the pre-processing. Both HDR quality and artistic intent are preserved. Pre- and post-processing are applied independently per picture, do not involve any inter-pixel dependency, and are codec agnostic. Compression performance, and SDR quality are shown to be solidly improved compared to the non-backward and backward-compatible approaches, respectively using the Perceptual Quantization (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) Opto-Electronic Transfer Functions (OETF).

  1. RD Optimized, Adaptive, Error-Resilient Transmission of MJPEG2000-Coded Video over Multiple Time-Varying Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezan Scott

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To reliably transmit video over error-prone channels, the data should be both source and channel coded. When multiple channels are available for transmission, the problem extends to that of partitioning the data across these channels. The condition of transmission channels, however, varies with time. Therefore, the error protection added to the data at one instant of time may not be optimal at the next. In this paper, we propose a method for adaptively adding error correction code in a rate-distortion (RD optimized manner using rate-compatible punctured convolutional codes to an MJPEG2000 constant rate-coded frame of video. We perform an analysis on the rate-distortion tradeoff of each of the coding units (tiles and packets in each frame and adapt the error correction code assigned to the unit taking into account the bandwidth and error characteristics of the channels. This method is applied to both single and multiple time-varying channel environments. We compare our method with a basic protection method in which data is either not transmitted, transmitted with no protection, or transmitted with a fixed amount of protection. Simulation results show promising performance for our proposed method.

  2. Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Miličević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

  3. Video annotations of Mexican nature in a collaborative environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa Morales, Lester Arturo; Montoya Obeso, Abraham; Hernández García, Rosaura; Cocolán Almeda, Sara Ivonne; García Vázquez, Mireya Saraí; Benois-Pineau, Jenny; Zamudio Fuentes, Luis Miguel; Martinez Nuño, Jesús A.; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    Multimedia content production and storage in repositories are now an increasingly widespread practice. Indexing concepts for search in multimedia libraries are very useful for users of the repositories. However the search tools of content-based retrieval and automatic video tagging, still do not have great consistency. Regardless of how these systems are implemented, it is of vital importance to possess lots of videos that have concepts tagged with ground truth (training and testing sets). This paper describes a novel methodology to make complex annotations on video resources through ELAN software. The concepts are annotated and related to Mexican nature in a High Level Features (HLF) from development set of TRECVID 2014 in a collaborative environment. Based on this set, each nature concept observed is tagged on each video shot using concepts of the TRECVid 2014 dataset. We also propose new concepts, -like tropical settings, urban scenes, actions, events, weather, places for name a few. We also propose specific concepts that best describe video content of Mexican culture. We have been careful to get the database tagged with concepts of nature and ground truth. It is evident that a collaborative environment is more suitable for annotation of concepts related to ground truth and nature. As a result a Mexican nature database was built. It also is the basis for testing and training sets to automatically classify new multimedia content of Mexican nature.

  4. CowLog – Cross-Platform Application for Coding Behaviours from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Pastell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available CowLog is a cross-platform application to code behaviours from video recordings for use in behavioural research. The software has been used in several studies e.g. to study sleep in dairy calves, emotions in goats and the mind wandering related to computer use during lectures. CowLog 3 is implemented using JavaScript and HTML using the Electron framework. The framework allows the development of packaged cross-platform applications using features from web browser (Chromium as well as server side JavaScript from Node.js. The program supports using multiple videos simultaneously and HTML5 and VLC video players. CowLog can be used for any project that requires coding the time of events from digital video. It is released under GNU GPL v2 making it possible for users to modify the application for their own needs. The software is available through its website http://cowlog.org.

  5. Optimization of high-definition video coding and hybrid fiber-wireless transmission in the 60 GHz band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Pham, Tien Thang; Beltrán, Marta

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that, by jointly optimizing video coding and radio-over-fibre transmission, we extend the reach of 60-GHz wireless distribution of high-quality high-definition video satisfying low complexity and low delay constraints, while preserving superb video quality.......We demonstrate that, by jointly optimizing video coding and radio-over-fibre transmission, we extend the reach of 60-GHz wireless distribution of high-quality high-definition video satisfying low complexity and low delay constraints, while preserving superb video quality....

  6. Low-Complexity Multiple Description Coding of Video Based on 3D Block Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Norkin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multiple description (MD video coder based on three-dimensional (3D transforms. Two balanced descriptions are created from a video sequence. In the encoder, video sequence is represented in a form of coarse sequence approximation (shaper included in both descriptions and residual sequence (details which is split between two descriptions. The shaper is obtained by block-wise pruned 3D-DCT. The residual sequence is coded by 3D-DCT or hybrid, LOT+DCT, 3D-transform. The coding scheme is targeted to mobile devices. It has low computational complexity and improved robustness of transmission over unreliable networks. The coder is able to work at very low redundancies. The coding scheme is simple, yet it outperforms some MD coders based on motion-compensated prediction, especially in the low-redundancy region. The margin is up to 3 dB for reconstruction from one description.

  7. Transform Domain Unidirectional Distributed Video Coding Using Dynamic Parity Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badem, Murat B.; Fernando, Anil; Weerakkody, Rajitha; Arachchi, Hemantha K.; Kondoz, Ahmet M.

    DVC based video codecs proposed in the literature generally include a reverse (feedback) channel between the encoder and the decoder. This channel is used to communicate the dynamic parity bit request messages from the decoder to the encoder resulting in an optimum dynamic variable rate control implementation. However it is observed that this dynamic feedback mechanism is a practical hindrance in a number of practical consumer electronics applications. In this paper we proposed a novel transform domain Unidirectional Distributed Video Codec (UDVC) without a feedback channel. First, all Wyner-Ziv frames are divided into rectangular macroblocks. A simple metric is used for each block to represent the correlations between the corresponding blocks in the adjacent key frame and the Wyner-Ziv frame. Based on the value of this metric, parity is allocated dynamically for each block. These parities are either stored for offline processing or transmitted to the DVC decoder for on line processing. Simulation results show that the proposed codec outperforms the existing UDVC solutions by a significant margin.

  8. SBASIC video coding and its 3D-DCT extension for MPEG-4 multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Atul; Schmidt, Robert L.; Haskell, Barry G.

    1996-02-01

    Due to the need to interchange video data in a seamless and cost effective manner, interoperability between applications, terminals and services has become increasingly important. The ISO Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) has developed the MPEG-1 and the MPEG-2 audio-visual coding standards to meet these challenges; these standards allow a range of applications at bitrates from 1 Mbits to 100 Mbit/s. However, in the meantime, a new breed of applications has arisen which demand higher compression, more interactivity and increased error resilience. These applications are expected to be addressed by the next phase standard, called MPEG-4, which is currently in progress. We discuss the various functionalities expected to be offered by the MPEG-4 standard along with the development plan and the framework used for evaluation of video coding proposals in the recent first evaluation tests. Having clarified the requirements, functionalities and the development process of MPEG-4, we propose a generalized approach for video coding referred to as adaptive scalable interframe coding (ASIC) for MPEG-4. Using this generalized approach we develop a video coding scheme suitable for MPEG-4 based multimedia applications in bitrate range of 320 kbit/s to 1024 kbit/s. The proposed scheme is referred to as source and bandwidth adaptive scalable interframe coding (SBASIC) and builds not only on the proven framework of motion compensated DCT coding and scalability but also introduces several new concepts. The SNR and MPEG-4 subjective evaluation results are presented to show the good performance achieved by SBASIC. Next, extension of SBASIC by motion compensated 3D- DCT coding is discussed. It is envisaged that this extension when complete will further improve the coding efficiency of SBASIC.

  9. Efficient temporal and interlayer parameter prediction for weighted prediction in scalable high efficiency video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sik-Ho; Chan, Yui-Lam; Siu, Wan-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Weighted prediction (WP) is an efficient video coding tool that was introduced since the establishment of the H.264/AVC video coding standard, for compensating the temporal illumination change in motion estimation and compensation. WP parameters, including a multiplicative weight and an additive offset for each reference frame, are required to be estimated and transmitted to the decoder by slice header. These parameters cause extra bits in the coded video bitstream. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) provides WP parameter prediction to reduce the overhead. Therefore, WP parameter prediction is crucial to research works or applications, which are related to WP. Prior art has been suggested to further improve the WP parameter prediction by implicit prediction of image characteristics and derivation of parameters. By exploiting both temporal and interlayer redundancies, we propose three WP parameter prediction algorithms, enhanced implicit WP parameter, enhanced direct WP parameter derivation, and interlayer WP parameter, to further improve the coding efficiency of HEVC. Results show that our proposed algorithms can achieve up to 5.83% and 5.23% bitrate reduction compared to the conventional scalable HEVC in the base layer for SNR scalability and 2× spatial scalability, respectively.

  10. A robust fusion method for multiview distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Ascenso, Joao; Brites, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    to have the various views available simultaneously. However, in multiview DVC (M-DVC), the decoder can still exploit the redundancy between views, avoiding the need for inter-camera communication. The key element of every DVC decoder is the side information (SI), which can be generated by leveraging intra......-view or inter-view redundancy for multiview video data. In this paper, a novel learning-based fusion technique is proposed, which is able to robustly fuse an inter-view SI and an intra-view (temporal) SI. An inter-view SI generation method capable of identifying occluded areas is proposed and is coupled...... values. The proposed solution is able to achieve gains up to 0.9 dB in Bjøntegaard difference when compared with the best-performing (in a RD sense) single SI DVC decoder, chosen as the best of an inter-view and a temporal SI-based decoder one....

  11. Managed Code Rootkits Hooking into Runtime Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Metula, Erez

    2010-01-01

    Imagine being able to change the languages for the applications that a computer is running and taking control over it. That is exactly what managed code rootkits can do when they are placed within a computer. This new type of rootkit is hiding in a place that had previously been safe from this type of attack-the application level. Code reviews do not currently look for back doors in the virtual machine (VM) where this new rootkit would be injected. An invasion of this magnitude allows an attacker to steal information on the infected computer, provide false information, and disable securit

  12. Re-estimation of Motion and Reconstruction for Distributed Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Raket, Lars Lau; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Transform domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding is an efficient approach to distributed video coding (DVC), which provides low complexity encoding by exploiting the source statistics at the decoder side. The DVC coding efficiency depends mainly on side information and noise modeling. This paper...... proposes a motion re-estimation technique based on optical flow to improve side information and noise residual frames by taking partially decoded information into account. To improve noise modeling, a noise residual motion re-estimation technique is proposed. Residual motion compensation with motion...... re-estimation (MORE) are integrated in the SING TDWZ codec, which uses side information and noise learning. For Wyner-Ziv frames using GOP size 2, the MORE codec significantly improves the TDWZ coding efficiency with an average (Bjøntegaard) PSNR improvement of 2.5 dB and up to 6 dB improvement...

  13. Building Codes, Energy, and the Environment How Model Building Codes Affect Sustanability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    What is needed is a general set of codes that also focus on life cycle costs of structures as those costs relate to energy use and the environment . This...identifies ways in which those codes and standards could be changed to reduce energy consumption and negative effects on the environment .

  14. Region-of-interest based rate control for UAV video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-lei; Dai, Ming; Xiong, Jing-ying

    2016-05-01

    To meet the requirement of high-quality transmission of videos captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with low bandwidth, a novel rate control (RC) scheme based on region-of-interest (ROI) is proposed. First, the ROI information is sent to the encoder with the latest high efficient video coding (HEVC) standard to generate an ROI map. Then, by using the ROI map, bit allocation methods are developed at frame level and large coding unit (LCU) level, to avoid inaccurate bit allocation produced by camera movement. At last, by using a better robustness R- λ model, the quantization parameter ( QP) for each LCU is calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed RC method can get a lower bitrate error and a higher quality for reconstructed video by choosing appropriate pixel weight on the HEVC platform.

  15. Extending JPEG-LS for low-complexity scalable video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Anna; Sergeev, Anton; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-01-01

    JPEG-LS, the well-known international standard for lossless and near-lossless image compression, was originally designed for non-scalable applications. In this paper we propose a scalable modification of JPEG-LS and compare it with the leading image and video coding standards JPEG2000 and H.264/SVC...

  16. Video Streaming Transfer in a Smart Satellite Mobile Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedo Celandroni

    2009-01-01

    satellite link for transmitting video streams to a bus, where they are relayed to passengers' devices. We say that a bus works in smart mode if it takes advantage of the knowledge of the exact points where fixed obstacles will prevent receiving the satellite signal for a certain time period. This information is sent to the hub via a return channel. The hub, in its turn, suspends the transmissions to that specific bus for the given time interval, thus avoiding information losses and unnecessary bandwidth occupation. Buffering video packets, without any quality of service (QoS degradation, seamlessly compensates channel blockages up to a given duration. We determine the most appropriate transmission parameters for video streaming with good video QoS in a mobile satellite environment; moreover, we evaluate how “smart” the system can be in terms of bandwidth saving, by comparing it with the situation where the bus does not exploit the description of its route, still maintaining the same QoS requirements.

  17. Optimization of high-definition video coding and hybrid fiber-wireless transmission in the 60 GHz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Pham, Tien Thang; Beltrán, Marta; Yu, Xianbin; Ukhanova, Anna; Llorente, Roberto; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-12-12

    The paper addresses the problem of distribution of high-definition video over fiber-wireless networks. The physical layer architecture with the low complexity envelope detection solution is investigated. We present both experimental studies and simulation of high quality high-definition compressed video transmission over 60 GHz fiber-wireless link. Using advanced video coding we satisfy low complexity and low delay constraints, meanwhile preserving the superb video quality after significantly extended wireless distance. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Spherical rotation orientation indication for HEVC and JEM coding of 360 degree video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jill; Xu, Qian

    2017-09-01

    Omnidirectional (or "360 degree") video, representing a panoramic view of a spherical 360° ×180° scene, can be encoded using conventional video compression standards, once it has been projection mapped to a 2D rectangular format. Equirectangular projection format is currently used for mapping 360 degree video to a rectangular representation for coding using HEVC/JEM. However, video in the top and bottom regions of the image, corresponding to the "north pole" and "south pole" of the spherical representation, is significantly warped. We propose to perform spherical rotation of the input video prior to HEVC/JEM encoding in order to improve the coding efficiency, and to signal parameters in a supplemental enhancement information (SEI) message that describe the inverse rotation process recommended to be applied following HEVC/JEM decoding, prior to display. Experiment results show that up to 17.8% bitrate gain (using the WS-PSNR end-to-end metric) can be achieved for the Chairlift sequence using HM16.15 and 11.9% gain using JEM6.0, and an average gain of 2.9% for HM16.15 and 2.2% for JEM6.0.

  19. Combined Wavelet Video Coding and Error Control for Internet Streaming and Multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tianli; Xiong, Zixiang

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes an integrated approach to Internet video streaming and multicast (e.g., receiver-driven layered multicast (RLM) by McCanne) based on combined wavelet video coding and error control. We design a packetized wavelet video (PWV) coder to facilitate its integration with error control. The PWV coder produces packetized layered bitstreams that are independent among layers while being embedded within each layer. Thus, a lost packet only renders the following packets in the same layer useless. Based on the PWV coder, we search for a multilayered error-control strategy that optimally trades off source and channel coding for each layer under a given transmission rate to mitigate the effects of packet loss. While both the PWV coder and the error-control strategy are new—the former incorporates embedded wavelet video coding and packetization and the latter extends the single-layered approach for RLM by Chou et al.—the main distinction of this paper lies in the seamless integration of the two parts. Theoretical analysis shows a gain of up to 1 dB on a channel with 20% packet loss using our combined approach over separate designs of the source coder and the error-control mechanism. This is also substantiated by our simulations with a gain of up to 0.6 dB. In addition, our simulations show a gain of up to 2.2 dB over previous results reported by Chou et al.

  20. Iterative Multiview Side Information for Enhanced Reconstruction in Distributed Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed video coding (DVC is a new paradigm for video compression based on the information theoretical results of Slepian and Wolf (SW and Wyner and Ziv (WZ. DVC entails low-complexity encoders as well as separate encoding of correlated video sources. This is particularly attractive for multiview camera systems in video surveillance and camera sensor network applications, where low complexity is required at the encoder. In addition, the separate encoding of the sources implies no communication between the cameras in a practical scenario. This is an advantage since communication is time and power consuming and requires complex networking. In this work, different intercamera estimation techniques for side information (SI generation are explored and compared in terms of estimating quality, complexity, and rate distortion (RD performance. Further, a technique called iterative multiview side information (IMSI is introduced, where the final SI is used in an iterative reconstruction process. The simulation results show that IMSI significantly improves the RD performance for video with significant motion and activity. Furthermore, DVC outperforms AVC/H.264 Intra for video with average and low motion but it is still inferior to the Inter No Motion and Inter Motion modes.

  1. Lightweight Object Tracking in Compressed Video Streams Demonstrated in Region-of-Interest Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Van de Walle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4%.

  2. Lightweight Object Tracking in Compressed Video Streams Demonstrated in Region-of-Interest Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerouge Sam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4 .

  3. Video coding standards AVS China, H.264/MPEG-4 PART 10, HEVC, VP6, DIRAC and VC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K R; Hwang, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Review by Ashraf A. Kassim, Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, and Associate Dean, School of Engineering, National University of Singapore.     The book consists of eight chapters of which the first two provide an overview of various video & image coding standards, and video formats. The next four chapters present in detail the Audio & video standard (AVS) of China, the H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced video coding (AVC) standard, High efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard and the VP6 video coding standard (now VP10) respectively. The performance of the wavelet based Dirac video codec is compared with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC in chapter 7. Finally in chapter 8, the VC-1 video coding standard is presented together with VC-2 which is based on the intra frame coding of Dirac and an outline of a H.264/AVC to VC-1 transcoder.   The authors also present and discuss relevant research literature such as those which document improved methods & techniques, and also point to other related reso...

  4. Exploiting the Error-Correcting Capabilities of Low Density Parity Check Codes in Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Søgaard, Jacob; Salmistraro, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We consider Distributed Video Coding (DVC) in presence of communication errors. First, we present DVC side information generation based on a new method of optical flow driven frame interpolation, where a highly optimized TV-L1 algorithm is used for the flow calculations and combine three flows....... Thereafter methods for exploiting the error-correcting capabilities of the LDPCA code in DVC are investigated. The proposed frame interpolation includes a symmetric flow constraint to the standard forward-backward frame interpolation scheme, which improves quality and handling of large motion. The three...... flows are combined in one solution. The proposed frame interpolation method consistently outperforms an overlapped block motion compensation scheme and a previous TV-L1 optical flow frame interpolation method with an average PSNR improvement of 1.3 dB and 2.3 dB respectively. For a GOP size of 2...

  5. JPEG2000-Compatible Scalable Scheme for Wavelet-Based Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas André

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple yet efficient scalable scheme for wavelet-based video coders, able to provide on-demand spatial, temporal, and SNR scalability, and fully compatible with the still-image coding standard JPEG2000. Whereas hybrid video coders must undergo significant changes in order to support scalability, our coder only requires a specific wavelet filter for temporal analysis, as well as an adapted bit allocation procedure based on models of rate-distortion curves. Our study shows that scalably encoded sequences have the same or almost the same quality than nonscalably encoded ones, without a significant increase in complexity. A full compatibility with Motion JPEG2000, which tends to be a serious candidate for the compression of high-definition video sequences, is ensured.

  6. JPEG2000-Compatible Scalable Scheme for Wavelet-Based Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple yet efficient scalable scheme for wavelet-based video coders, able to provide on-demand spatial, temporal, and SNR scalability, and fully compatible with the still-image coding standard JPEG2000. Whereas hybrid video coders must undergo significant changes in order to support scalability, our coder only requires a specific wavelet filter for temporal analysis, as well as an adapted bit allocation procedure based on models of rate-distortion curves. Our study shows that scalably encoded sequences have the same or almost the same quality than nonscalably encoded ones, without a significant increase in complexity. A full compatibility with Motion JPEG2000, which tends to be a serious candidate for the compression of high-definition video sequences, is ensured.

  7. A Complete Video Coding Chain Based on Multi-Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fryza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a video compression method based on the multi-dimensional discrete cosine transform. In the text, the encoder and decoder architectures including the definitions of all mathematical operations like the forward and inverse 3-D DCT, quantization and thresholding are presented. According to the particular number of currently processed pictures, the new quantization tables and entropy code dictionaries are proposed in the paper. The practical properties of the 3-D DCT coding chain compared with the modern video compression methods (such as H.264 and WebM and the computing complexity are presented as well. It will be proved the best compress properties could be achieved by complex H.264 codec. On the other hand the computing complexity - especially on the encoding side - is lower for the 3-D DCT method.

  8. Distributed video streaming using multiple description coding and unequal error protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohee; Mersereau, Russell M; Altunbasak, Yucel

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a distributed video streaming framework using unbalanced multiple description coding (MDC) and unequal error protection. In the proposed video streaming framework, two senders simultaneously stream complementary descriptions to a single receiver over different paths. To minimize the overall distortion and exploit the benefits of multipath transport when the characteristics of each path are different, an unbalanced MDC method for wavelet-based coders combined with a TCP-friendly rate allocation algorithm is proposed. The proposed rate allocation algorithm adjusts the transmission rates and the channel coding rates for all senders in a coordinated fashion to minimize the overall distortion. Simulation results show that the proposed unbalanced MDC combined with our rate allocation algorithm achieves about 1-6 dB higher peal signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional balanced MDC when the available bandwidths along the two paths are different under time-varying network conditions.

  9. Side Information and Noise Learning for Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow and Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Huang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The coding efficiency of DVC critically depends on the quality of side information generation and accuracy of noise modeling. This paper considers...... side information frames. Clustering is introduced to capture cross band correlation and increase local adaptivity in the noise modeling. This paper also proposes techniques to learn from previously decoded (WZ) frames. Different techniques are combined by calculating a number of candidate soft side...... information for (LDPCA) decoding. The proposed decoder side techniques for side information and noise learning (SING) are integrated in a TDWZ scheme. On test sequences, the proposed SING codec robustly improves the coding efficiency of TDWZ DVC. For WZ frames using a GOP size of 2, up to 4dB improvement...

  10. Bridging Inter-flow and Intra-flow Network Coding for Video Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    enhance reliability, common of the former, while maintaining an efficient spectrum usage, typical of the latter. This paper uses the intuition provided in [1] to propose a practical implementation of the protocol leveraging Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) for intra-flow coding, a credit based packet...... transmission approach to decide how much and when to send redundancy in the network, and a minimalistic feedback mechanism to guarantee delivery of generations of the different flows. Given the delay constraints of video applications, we proposed a simple yet effective coding mechanism, Block Coding On The Fly...... (BCFly), that allows a block encoder to be fed on-the-fly, thus reducing the delay to accumulate enough packets that is introduced by typical generation based NC techniques. Our measurements and comparison to forwarding and COPE show that CORE not only outperforms these schemes even for small packet...

  11. Mixture block coding with progressive transmission in packet video. Appendix 1: Item 2. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Chung

    1989-01-01

    Video transmission will become an important part of future multimedia communication because of dramatically increasing user demand for video, and rapid evolution of coding algorithm and VLSI technology. Video transmission will be part of the broadband-integrated services digital network (B-ISDN). Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a viable candidate for implementation of B-ISDN due to its inherent flexibility, service independency, and high performance. According to the characteristics of ATM, the information has to be coded into discrete cells which travel independently in the packet switching network. A practical realization of an ATM video codec called Mixture Block Coding with Progressive Transmission (MBCPT) is presented. This variable bit rate coding algorithm shows how a constant quality performance can be obtained according to user demand. Interactions between codec and network are emphasized including packetization, service synchronization, flow control, and error recovery. Finally, some simulation results based on MBCPT coding with error recovery are presented.

  12. Improved Side Information Generation for Distributed Video Coding by Exploiting Spatial and Temporal Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Shuiming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed video coding (DVC is a video coding paradigm allowing low complexity encoding for emerging applications such as wireless video surveillance. Side information (SI generation is a key function in the DVC decoder, and plays a key-role in determining the performance of the codec. This paper proposes an improved SI generation for DVC, which exploits both spatial and temporal correlations in the sequences. Partially decoded Wyner-Ziv (WZ frames, based on initial SI by motion compensated temporal interpolation, are exploited to improve the performance of the whole SI generation. More specifically, an enhanced temporal frame interpolation is proposed, including motion vector refinement and smoothing, optimal compensation mode selection, and a new matching criterion for motion estimation. The improved SI technique is also applied to a new hybrid spatial and temporal error concealment scheme to conceal errors in WZ frames. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve up to 1.0 dB improvement in rate distortion performance in WZ frames for video with high motion, when compared to state-of-the-art DVC. In addition, both the objective and perceptual qualities of the corrupted sequences are significantly improved by the proposed hybrid error concealment scheme, outperforming both spatial and temporal concealments alone.

  13. Traffic and Quality Characterization of the H.264/AVC Scalable Video Coding Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Van der Auwera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent scalable video coding (SVC extension to the H.264/AVC video coding standard has unprecedented compression efficiency while supporting a wide range of scalability modes, including temporal, spatial, and quality (SNR scalability, as well as combined spatiotemporal SNR scalability. The traffic characteristics, especially the bit rate variabilities, of the individual layer streams critically affect their network transport. We study the SVC traffic statistics, including the bit rate distortion and bit rate variability distortion, with long CIF resolution video sequences and compare them with the corresponding MPEG-4 Part 2 traffic statistics. We consider (i temporal scalability with three temporal layers, (ii spatial scalability with a QCIF base layer and a CIF enhancement layer, as well as (iii quality scalability modes FGS and MGS. We find that the significant improvement in RD efficiency of SVC is accompanied by substantially higher traffic variabilities as compared to the equivalent MPEG-4 Part 2 streams. We find that separately analyzing the traffic of temporal-scalability only encodings gives reasonable estimates of the traffic statistics of the temporal layers embedded in combined spatiotemporal encodings and in the base layer of combined FGS-temporal encodings. Overall, we find that SVC achieves significantly higher compression ratios than MPEG-4 Part 2, but produces unprecedented levels of traffic variability, thus presenting new challenges for the network transport of scalable video.

  14. Impact of scan conversion methods on the performance of scalable video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Eric; Baaziz, Nadia; Matta, Marwan

    1995-04-01

    The ability to flexibly access coded video data at different resolutions or bit rates is referred to as scalability. We are concerned here with the class of methods referred to as pyramidal embedded coding in which specific subsets of the binary data can be used to decode lower- resolution versions of the video sequence. Two key techniques in such a pyramidal coder are the scan-conversion operations of down-conversion and up-conversion. Down-conversion is required to produce the smaller, lower-resolution versions of the image sequence. Up- conversion is used to perform conditional coding, whereby the coded lower-resolution image is interpolated to the same resolution as the next higher image and used to assist in the encoding of that level. The coding efficiency depends on the accuracy of this up-conversion process. In this paper techniques for down-conversion and up-conversion are addressed in the context of a two-level pyramidal representation. We first present the pyramidal technique for spatial scalability and review the methods used in MPEG-2. We then discuss some enhanced methods for down- and up-conversion, and evaluate their performance in the context of the two-level scalable system.

  15. Directed Hidden-Code Extractor for Environment-Sensitive Malwares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunfu; Wang, Zhi; Lu, Kai; Liu, Xinhai; Liu, Xin

    Malware writers often use packing technique to hide malicious payload. A number of dynamic unpacking tools are.designed in order to identify and extract the hidden code in the packed malware. However, such unpacking methods.are all based on a highly controlled environment that is vulnerable to various anti-unpacking techniques. If execution.environment is suspicious, malwares may stay inactive for a long time or stop execution immediately to evade.detection. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach that automatically reasons about the environment requirements.imposed by malware, then directs a unpacking tool to change the controlled environment to extract the hide code at.the new environment. The experimental results show that our approach significantly increases the resilience of the.traditional unpacking tools to environment-sensitive malware.

  16. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding-based data hiding in partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2015-05-01

    A scheme of data hiding directly in a partially encrypted version of H.264/AVC videos is proposed which includes three parts, i.e., selective encryption, data embedding and data extraction. Selective encryption is performed on context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) bin-strings via stream ciphers. By careful selection of CABAC entropy coder syntax elements for selective encryption, the encrypted bitstream is format-compliant and has exactly the same bit rate. Then a data-hider embeds the additional data into partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos using a CABAC bin-string substitution technique without accessing the plaintext of the video content. Since bin-string substitution is carried out on those residual coefficients with approximately the same magnitude, the quality of the decrypted video is satisfactory. Video file size is strictly preserved even after data embedding. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  17. Progressive Dictionary Learning with Hierarchical Predictive Structure for Scalable Video Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenrui; Shen, Yangmei; Xiong, Hongkai; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Zou, Junni; Taubman, David

    2017-04-12

    Dictionary learning has emerged as a promising alternative to the conventional hybrid coding framework. However, the rigid structure of sequential training and prediction degrades its performance in scalable video coding. This paper proposes a progressive dictionary learning framework with hierarchical predictive structure for scalable video coding, especially in low bitrate region. For pyramidal layers, sparse representation based on spatio-temporal dictionary is adopted to improve the coding efficiency of enhancement layers (ELs) with a guarantee of reconstruction performance. The overcomplete dictionary is trained to adaptively capture local structures along motion trajectories as well as exploit the correlations between neighboring layers of resolutions. Furthermore, progressive dictionary learning is developed to enable the scalability in temporal domain and restrict the error propagation in a close-loop predictor. Under the hierarchical predictive structure, online learning is leveraged to guarantee the training and prediction performance with an improved convergence rate. To accommodate with the stateof- the-art scalable extension of H.264/AVC and latest HEVC, standardized codec cores are utilized to encode the base and enhancement layers. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the latest SHVC and HEVC simulcast over extensive test sequences with various resolutions.

  18. Joint Machine Learning and Game Theory for Rate Control in High Efficiency Video Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Kwong, Sam; Jia, Yuheng

    2017-08-25

    In this paper, a joint machine learning and game theory modeling (MLGT) framework is proposed for inter frame coding tree unit (CTU) level bit allocation and rate control (RC) optimization in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). First, a support vector machine (SVM) based multi-classification scheme is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of CTU-level Rate-Distortion (R-D) model. The legacy "chicken-and-egg" dilemma in video coding is proposed to be overcome by the learning-based R-D model. Second, a mixed R-D model based cooperative bargaining game theory is proposed for bit allocation optimization, where the convexity of the mixed R-D model based utility function is proved, and Nash bargaining solution (NBS) is achieved by the proposed iterative solution search method. The minimum utility is adjusted by the reference coding distortion and frame-level Quantization parameter (QP) change. Lastly, intra frame QP and inter frame adaptive bit ratios are adjusted to make inter frames have more bit resources to maintain smooth quality and bit consumption in the bargaining game optimization. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MLGT based RC method can achieve much better R-D performances, quality smoothness, bit rate accuracy, buffer control results and subjective visual quality than the other state-of-the-art one-pass RC methods, and the achieved R-D performances are very close to the performance limits from the FixedQP method.

  19. Combined Wavelet Video Coding and Error Control for Internet Streaming and Multicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianli Chu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an integrated approach to Internet video streaming and multicast (e.g., receiver-driven layered multicast (RLM by McCanne based on combined wavelet video coding and error control. We design a packetized wavelet video (PWV coder to facilitate its integration with error control. The PWV coder produces packetized layered bitstreams that are independent among layers while being embedded within each layer. Thus, a lost packet only renders the following packets in the same layer useless. Based on the PWV coder, we search for a multilayered error-control strategy that optimally trades off source and channel coding for each layer under a given transmission rate to mitigate the effects of packet loss. While both the PWV coder and the error-control strategy are new—the former incorporates embedded wavelet video coding and packetization and the latter extends the single-layered approach for RLM by Chou et al.—the main distinction of this paper lies in the seamless integration of the two parts. Theoretical analysis shows a gain of up to 1 dB on a channel with 20% packet loss using our combined approach over separate designs of the source coder and the error-control mechanism. This is also substantiated by our simulations with a gain of up to 0.6 dB. In addition, our simulations show a gain of up to 2.2 dB over previous results reported by Chou et al.

  20. Adaptive mode decision with residual motion compensation for distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren; Slowack, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm that entails low complexity encoding by exploiting the source statistics at the decoder. To improve the DVC coding efficiency, this paper proposes a novel adaptive technique for mode decision to control and take advantage of skip mode and intra...... mode in DVC. The adaptive mode decision is not only based on quality of key frames but also the rate of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames. To improve noise distribution estimation for a more accurate mode decision, a residual motion compensation is proposed to estimate a current noise residue based on a previously...... decoded frame. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptive mode decision DVC significantly improves the rate distortion performance without increasing the encoding complexity. For a GOP size of 2 on the set of test sequences, the average bitrate saving of the proposed codec is 35.5% on WZ...

  1. Adaptive mode decision with residual motion compensation for distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren; Slowack, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm that entails low complexity encoding by exploiting the source statistics at the decoder. To improve the DVC coding efficiency, this paper proposes a novel adaptive technique for mode decision to control and take advantage of skip mode and intra...... mode in DVC. The adaptive mode decision is not only based on quality of key frames but also the rate of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames. To improve noise distribution estimation for a more accurate mode decision, a residual motion compensation is proposed to estimate a current noise residue based on a previously...... decoded frame. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptive mode decision DVC significantly improves the rate distortion performance without increasing the encoding complexity. For a GOP size of 2 on the set of test sequences, the average bitrate saving of the proposed codec is 35.5% on WZ...

  2. A high-efficient significant coefficient scanning algorithm for 3-D embedded wavelet video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haohao; Yu, Songyu; Song, Li; Xiong, Hongkai

    2005-07-01

    3-D embedded wavelet video coding (3-D EWVC) algorithms become a vital scheme for state-of-the-art scalable video coding. A major objective in a progressive transmission scheme is to select the most important information which yields the largest distortion reduction to be transmitted first, so traditional 3-D EWVC algorithms scan coefficients according to bit-plane order. To significant bit information of the same bit-plane, however, these algorithms neglect the different effect of coefficients in different subbands to distortion. In this paper, we analyze different effect of significant information bits of the same bit-plane in different subbands to distortion and propose a high-efficient significant coefficient scanning algorithm. Experimental results of 3-D SPIHT and 3-D SPECK show that high-efficient significant coefficient scanning algorithm can improve traditional 3-D EWVC algorithms' ability of compression, and make reconstructed videos have higher PSNR and better visual effects in the same bit rate compared to original significant coefficient scanning algorithms respectively.

  3. A Scalable Multiple Description Scheme for 3D Video Coding Based on the Interlayer Prediction Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Favalli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent literature indicates multiple description coding (MDC as a promising coding approach to handle the problem of video transmission over unreliable networks with different quality and bandwidth constraints. Furthermore, following recent commercial availability of autostereoscopic 3D displays that allow 3D visual data to be viewed without the use of special headgear or glasses, it is anticipated that the applications of 3D video will increase rapidly in the near future. Moving from the concept of spatial MDC, in this paper we introduce some efficient algorithms to obtain 3D substreams that also exploit some form of scalability. These algorithms are then applied to both coded stereo sequences and to depth image-based rendering (DIBR. In these algorithms, we first generate four 3D subsequences by subsampling, and then two of these subsequences are jointly used to form each of the two descriptions. For each description, one of the original subsequences is predicted from the other one via some scalable algorithms, focusing on the inter layer prediction scheme. The proposed algorithms can be implemented as pre- and postprocessing of the standard H.264/SVC coder that remains fully compatible with any standard coder. The experimental results presented show that these algorithms provide excellent results.

  4. Game-Theoretic Rate-Distortion-Complexity Optimization of High Efficiency Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Milani, Simone; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for rate-distortioncomplexity optimization for the emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, whose high computational requirements urge the need for low-complexity optimization algorithms. Optimization approaches need to specify different complexity...... profiles in order to tailor the computational load to the different hardware and power-supply resources of devices. In this work, we focus on optimizing the quantization parameter and partition depth in HEVC via a game-theoretic approach. The proposed rate control strategy alone provides 0.2 dB improvement...

  5. Screen Codes: Efficient Data Transfer from Video Displays to Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Collomosse, J.; Kindberg, T.

    2007-01-01

    We present ‘Screen codes’ - a space- and time-efficient, aesthetically compelling method for transferring data from a display to a camera-equipped mobile device. Screen codes encode data as a grid of luminosity fluctuations within an arbitrary image, displayed on the video screen and decoded on a mobile device. These ‘twinkling’ images are a form of ‘visual hyperlink’, by which users can move dynamically generated content to and from their mobile devices. They help bridge the ‘content divide’...

  6. CowLog – Cross-Platform Application for Coding Behaviours from Video

    OpenAIRE

    Pastell, Matti

    2016-01-01

    CowLog is a cross-platform application to code behaviours from video recordings for use in behavioural research. The software has been used in several studies e.g. to study sleep in dairy calves, emotions in goats and the mind wandering related to computer use during lectures. CowLog 3 is implemented using JavaScript and HTML using the Electron framework. The framework allows the development of packaged cross-platform applications using features from web browser (Chromium) as well as server s...

  7. A Fast PDE Algorithm Using Adaptive Scan and Search for Video Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Nam

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that reduces unnecessary computations, while keeping the same prediction quality as that of the full search algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, we can reduce unnecessary computations efficiently by calculating initial matching error point from first 1/N partial errors. We can increase the probability that hits minimum error point as soon as possible. Our algorithm decreases the computational amount by about 20% of the conventional PDE algorithm without any degradation of prediction quality. Our algorithm would be useful in real-time video coding applications using MPEG-2/4 AVC standards.

  8. Region of interest video coding for low bit-rate transmission of carotid ultrasound videos over 3G wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapatsoulis, Nicolas; Loizou, Christos; Pattichis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    Efficient medical video transmission over 3G wireless is of great importance for fast diagnosis and on site medical staff training purposes. In this paper we present a region of interest based ultrasound video compression study which shows that significant reduction of the required, for transmission, bit rate can be achieved without altering the design of existing video codecs. Simple preprocessing of the original videos to define visually and clinically important areas is the only requirement.

  9. Efficient biprediction decision scheme for fast high efficiency video coding encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-hyo; Lee, Seung-ho; Jang, Euee S.; Jun, Dongsan; Kang, Jung-Won

    2016-11-01

    An efficient biprediction decision scheme of high efficiency video coding (HEVC) is proposed for fast-encoding applications. For low-delay video applications, bidirectional prediction can be used to increase compression performance efficiently with previous reference frames. However, at the same time, the computational complexity of the HEVC encoder is significantly increased due to the additional biprediction search. Although a some research has attempted to reduce this complexity, whether the prediction is strongly related to both motion complexity and prediction modes in a coding unit has not yet been investigated. A method that avoids most compression-inefficient search points is proposed so that the computational complexity of the motion estimation process can be dramatically decreased. To determine if biprediction is critical, the proposed method exploits the stochastic correlation of the context of prediction units (PUs): the direction of a PU and the accuracy of a motion vector. Through experimental results, the proposed method showed that the time complexity of biprediction can be reduced to 30% on average, outperforming existing methods in view of encoding time, number of function calls, and memory access.

  10. The future of 3D and video coding in mobile and the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolarski, Lazar

    2013-09-01

    The current Internet success has already changed our social and economic world and is still continuing to revolutionize the information exchange. The exponential increase of amount and types of data that is currently exchanged on the Internet represents significant challenge for the design of future architectures and solutions. This paper reviews the current status and trends in the design of solutions and research activities in the future Internet from point of view of managing the growth of bandwidth requirements and complexity of the multimedia that is being created and shared. Outlines the challenges that are present before the video coding and approaches to the design of standardized media formats and protocols while considering the expected convergence of multimedia formats and exchange interfaces. The rapid growth of connected mobile devices adds to the current and the future challenges in combination with the expected, in near future, arrival of multitude of connected devices. The new Internet technologies connecting the Internet of Things with wireless visual sensor networks and 3D virtual worlds requires conceptually new approaches of media content handling from acquisition to presentation in the 3D Media Internet. Accounting for the entire transmission system properties and enabling adaptation in real-time to context and content throughout the media proceeding path will be paramount in enabling the new media architectures as well as the new applications and services. The common video coding formats will need to be conceptually redesigned to allow for the implementation of the necessary 3D Media Internet features.

  11. Bit Plane Coding based Steganography Technique for JPEG2000 Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kasana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Bit Plane Coding (BPC based steganography technique for JPEG2000 images and Motion JPEG2000 video is proposed. Embedding in this technique is performed in the lowest significant bit planes of the wavelet coefficients of a cover image. In JPEG2000 standard, the number of bit planes of wavelet coefficients to be used in encoding is dependent on the compression rate and are used in Tier-2 process of JPEG2000. In the proposed technique, Tier-1 and Tier-2 processes of JPEG2000 and Motion JPEG2000 are executed twice on the encoder side to collect the information about the lowest bit planes of all code blocks of a cover image, which is utilized in embedding and transmitted to the decoder. After embedding secret data, Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP is applied on stego images to enhance its visual quality. Experimental results show that proposed technique provides large embedding capacity and better visual quality of stego images than existing steganography techniques for JPEG2000 compressed images and videos. Extracted secret image is similar to the original secret image.

  12. Interactive Video Coding and Transmission over Heterogeneous Wired-to-Wireless IP Networks Using an Edge Proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestino James W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital video delivered over wired-to-wireless networks is expected to suffer quality degradation from both packet loss and bit errors in the payload. In this paper, the quality degradation due to packet loss and bit errors in the payload are quantitatively evaluated and their effects are assessed. We propose the use of a concatenated forward error correction (FEC coding scheme employing Reed-Solomon (RS codes and rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC codes to protect the video data from packet loss and bit errors, respectively. Furthermore, the performance of a joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach employing this concatenated FEC coding scheme for video transmission is studied. Finally, we describe an improved end-to-end architecture using an edge proxy in a mobile support station to implement differential error protection for the corresponding channel impairments expected on the two networks. Results indicate that with an appropriate JSCC approach and the use of an edge proxy, FEC-based error-control techniques together with passive error-recovery techniques can significantly improve the effective video throughput and lead to acceptable video delivery quality over time-varying heterogeneous wired-to-wireless IP networks.

  13. Temporal Scalability through Adaptive -Band Filter Banks for Robust H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents different structures that use adaptive -band hierarchical filter banks for temporal scalability. Open-loop and closed-loop configurations are introduced and illustrated using existing video codecs. In particular, it is shown that the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC codec allows us to introduce scalability by frame shuffling operations, thus keeping backward compatibility with the standard. The large set of shuffling patterns introduced here can be exploited to adapt the encoding process to the video content features, as well as to the user equipment and transmission channel characteristics. Furthermore, simulation results show that this scalability is obtained with no degradation in terms of subjective and objective quality in error-free environments, while in error-prone channels the scalable versions provide increased robustness.

  14. Transform extension for block-based hybrid video codec with decoupling transform sizes from prediction sizes and coding sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Li, Ge; Fan, Kui; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2017-09-01

    In the block-based hybrid video coding framework, transform is applied to the residual signal resulting from intra/inter prediction. Thus in the most of video codecs, transform block (TB) size is equal to the prediction block (PB) size. To further improve coding efficiency, recent video coding techniques have supported decoupling transform and prediction sizes. By splitting one prediction block into small transform blocks, the Residual Quad-tree (RQT) structure attempts to search the best transform size. However, in the current RQT, the transform size cannot be larger than the size of prediction block. In this paper, we introduce a transform extension method by decoupling transform sizes from prediction sizes and coding sizes. In addition to getting the transform block within the current PB partition, we combine multiple adjacent PBs to form a larger TB and select best block size accordingly. According to our experiment on top of the newest reference software (ITM17.0) of MPEG Internet Video Coding (IVC) standard, consistent coding performance gains are obtained.

  15. Jointly optimized spatial prediction and block transform for video and image coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingning; Saxena, Ankur; Melkote, Vinay; Rose, Kenneth

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to jointly optimize spatial prediction and the choice of the subsequent transform in video and image compression. Under the assumption of a separable first-order Gauss-Markov model for the image signal, it is shown that the optimal Karhunen-Loeve Transform, given available partial boundary information, is well approximated by a close relative of the discrete sine transform (DST), with basis vectors that tend to vanish at the known boundary and maximize energy at the unknown boundary. The overall intraframe coding scheme thus switches between this variant of the DST named asymmetric DST (ADST), and traditional discrete cosine transform (DCT), depending on prediction direction and boundary information. The ADST is first compared with DCT in terms of coding gain under ideal model conditions and is demonstrated to provide significantly improved compression efficiency. The proposed adaptive prediction and transform scheme is then implemented within the H.264/AVC intra-mode framework and is experimentally shown to significantly outperform the standard intra coding mode. As an added benefit, it achieves substantial reduction in blocking artifacts due to the fact that the transform now adapts to the statistics of block edges. An integer version of this ADST is also proposed.

  16. A model of R-D performance evaluation for Rate-Distortion-Complexity evaluation of H.264 video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a method for evaluation of Rate-Distortion-Complexity (R-D-C) performance of video coding. A statistical model of the transformed coefficients is used to estimate the Rate-Distortion (R-D) performance. A model frame work for rate, distortion and slope of the R-D curve for inter...... and intra frame is presented. Assumptions are given for analyzing an R-D model for fast R-D-C evaluation. The theoretical expressions are combined with H.264 video coding, and confirmed by experimental results. The complexity frame work is applied to the integer motion estimation....

  17. Rate Allocation in predictive video coding using a Convex Optimization Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiengo, Aniello; Chierchia, Giovanni; Cagnazzo, Marco; Pesquet-Popescu, Beatrice

    2016-10-26

    Optimal rate allocation is among the most challenging tasks to perform in the context of predictive video coding, because of the dependencies between frames induced by motion compensation. In this paper, using a recursive rate-distortion model that explicitly takes into account these dependencies, we approach the frame-level rate allocation as a convex optimization problem. This technique is integrated into the recent HEVC encoder, and tested on several standard sequences. Experiments indicate that the proposed rate allocation ensures a better performance (in the rate-distortion sense) than the standard HEVC rate control, and with a little loss w.r.t. an optimal exhaustive research which is largely compensated by a much shorter execution time.

  18. Real-time distributed video coding for 1K-pixel visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanca, Jan; Deligiannis, Nikos; Munteanu, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Many applications in visual sensor networks (VSNs) demand the low-cost wireless transmission of video data. In this context, distributed video coding (DVC) has proven its potential to achieve state-of-the-art compression performance while maintaining low computational complexity of the encoder. Despite their proven capabilities, current DVC solutions overlook hardware constraints, and this renders them unsuitable for practical implementations. This paper introduces a DVC architecture that offers highly efficient wireless communication in real-world VSNs. The design takes into account the severe computational and memory constraints imposed by practical implementations on low-resolution visual sensors. We study performance-complexity trade-offs for feedback-channel removal, propose learning-based techniques for rate allocation, and investigate various simplifications of side information generation yielding real-time decoding. The proposed system is evaluated against H.264/AVC intra, Motion-JPEG, and our previously designed DVC prototype for low-resolution visual sensors. Extensive experimental results on various data show significant improvements in multiple configurations. The proposed encoder achieves real-time performance on a 1k-pixel visual sensor mote. Real-time decoding is performed on a Raspberry Pi single-board computer or a low-end notebook PC. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed codec is the first practical DVC deployment on low-resolution VSNs.

  19. Intra Frame Coding In Advanced Video Coding Standard (H.264) to Obtain Consistent PSNR and Reduce Bit Rate for Diagonal Down Left Mode Using Gaussian Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjanaik, N.; Parameshachari, B. D.; Hanumanthappa, S. N.; Banu, Reshma

    2017-08-01

    Intra prediction process of H.264 video coding standard used to code first frame i.e. Intra frame of video to obtain good coding efficiency compare to previous video coding standard series. More benefit of intra frame coding is to reduce spatial pixel redundancy with in current frame, reduces computational complexity and provides better rate distortion performance. To code Intra frame it use existing process Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO) method. This method increases computational complexity, increases in bit rate and reduces picture quality so it is difficult to implement in real time applications, so the many researcher has been developed fast mode decision algorithm for coding of intra frame. The previous work carried on Intra frame coding in H.264 standard using fast decision mode intra prediction algorithm based on different techniques was achieved increased in bit rate, degradation of picture quality(PSNR) for different quantization parameters. Many previous approaches of fast mode decision algorithms on intra frame coding achieved only reduction of computational complexity or it save encoding time and limitation was increase in bit rate with loss of quality of picture. In order to avoid increase in bit rate and loss of picture quality a better approach was developed. In this paper developed a better approach i.e. Gaussian pulse for Intra frame coding using diagonal down left intra prediction mode to achieve higher coding efficiency in terms of PSNR and bitrate. In proposed method Gaussian pulse is multiplied with each 4x4 frequency domain coefficients of 4x4 sub macro block of macro block of current frame before quantization process. Multiplication of Gaussian pulse for each 4x4 integer transformed coefficients at macro block levels scales the information of the coefficients in a reversible manner. The resulting signal would turn abstract. Frequency samples are abstract in a known and controllable manner without intermixing of coefficients, it avoids

  20. Partial Encryption of Entropy-Coded Video Compression Using Coupled Chaotic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Almasalha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to pervasive communication infrastructures, a plethora of enabling technologies is being developed over mobile and wired networks. Among these, video streaming services over IP are the most challenging in terms of quality, real-time requirements and security. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to efficiently secure variable length coded (VLC multimedia bit streams, such as H.264. It is based on code word error diffusion and variable size segment shuffling. The codeword diffusion and the shuffling mechanisms are based on random operations from a secure and computationally efficient chaos-based pseudo-random number generator. The proposed scheme is ubiquitous to the end users and can be deployed at any node in the network. It provides different levels of security, with encrypted data volume fluctuating between 5.5–17%. It works on the compressed bit stream without requiring any decoding. It provides excellent encryption speeds on different platforms, including mobile devices. It is 200% faster and 150% more power efficient when compared with AES software-based full encryption schemes. Regarding security, the scheme is robust to well-known attacks in the literature, such as brute force and known/chosen plain text attacks.

  1. MPEG-2 video coding with an adaptive selection of scanning path and picture structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minhua; De Lameillieure, Jan L.; Schaefer, Ralf

    1996-09-01

    In the MPEG-2 video coding an interlaced frame can be encoded as either a frame-picture or two field-pictures. The selection of picture structure (frame/field) has a strong impact on picture quality. In order to achieve the best possible picture quality, an adaptive scheme is proposed in this paper to select the optimal picture structure on a frame by frame basis. The selection of picture structure is performed in connection with that of the optimal scanning path. First, the scanning path (zig-zag scan/alternate scan) is chosen based on a post-analysis of DCT-coefficients. Secondly, the optimal picture structure is selected for the next frame according to the chosen scanning path, i.e. a zig-zag scan corresponds to frame picture structure, while an alternate scan corresponds to field picture structure. Furthermore, the TM5 buffer control algorithm is extended to support the coding with adaptive frame/field picture structure. Finally, simulation results verify the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper.

  2. Solid-State Video Camera for the Accelerator Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R

    2004-05-27

    Solid-State video cameras employing CMOS technology have been developed and tested for several years in the SLAC accelerator; notably the PEPII (BaBar) injection lines. They have proven much more robust than their CCD counterparts in radiation areas. Repair is simple, inexpensive, and generates very little radioactive waste.

  3. Student Views on Learning Environments Enriched by Video Clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterelioglu, Ilker

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to identify student views regarding the enrichment of instructional process via video clips based on the goals of the class. The study was conducted in Educational Psychology classes at Amasya University Faculty of Education during the 2012-2013 academic year. The study was implemented on students in the Classroom Teaching and…

  4. Efficient 3D Watermarked Video Communication with Chaotic Interleaving, Convolution Coding, and LMMSE Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafai, W.; El-Bakary, E. M.; El-Rabaie, S.; Zahran, O.; El-Halawany, M.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2017-06-01

    Three-Dimensional Multi-View Video (3D-MVV) transmission over wireless networks suffers from Macro-Blocks losses due to either packet dropping or fading-motivated bit errors. Thus, the robust performance of 3D-MVV transmission schemes over wireless channels becomes a recent considerable hot research issue due to the restricted resources and the presence of severe channel errors. The 3D-MVV is composed of multiple video streams shot by several cameras around a single object, simultaneously. Therefore, it is an urgent task to achieve high compression ratios to meet future bandwidth constraints. Unfortunately, the highly-compressed 3D-MVV data becomes more sensitive and vulnerable to packet losses, especially in the case of heavy channel faults. Thus, in this paper, we suggest the application of a chaotic Baker interleaving approach with equalization and convolution coding for efficient Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) watermarked 3D-MVV transmission over an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing wireless system. Rayleigh fading and Additive White Gaussian Noise are considered in the real scenario of 3D-MVV transmission. The SVD watermarked 3D-MVV frames are primarily converted to their luminance and chrominance components, which are then converted to binary data format. After that, chaotic interleaving is applied prior to the modulation process. It is used to reduce the channel effects on the transmitted bit streams and it also adds a degree of encryption to the transmitted 3D-MVV frames. To test the performance of the proposed framework; several simulation experiments on different SVD watermarked 3D-MVV frames have been executed. The experimental results show that the received SVD watermarked 3D-MVV frames still have high Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratios and watermark extraction is possible in the proposed framework.

  5. Fast Mode Decision in the HEVC Video Coding Standard by Exploiting Region with Dominated Motion and Saliency Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Pallab Kanti; Paul, Manoranjan; Murshed, Manzur

    2016-01-01

    The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard introduces a number of innovative and powerful coding tools to acquire better compression efficiency compared to its predecessor H.264. The encoding time complexities have also increased multiple times that is not suitable for realtime video coding applications. To address this limitation, this paper employs a novel coding strategy to reduce the time complexity in HEVC encoder by efficient selection of appropriate block-partitioning modes based on human visual features (HVF). The HVF in the proposed technique comprise with human visual attention modelling-based saliency feature and phase correlation-based motion features. The features are innovatively combined through a fusion process by developing a content-based adaptive weighted cost function to determine the region with dominated motion/saliency (RDMS)- based binary pattern for the current block. The generated binary pattern is then compared with a codebook of predefined binary pattern templates aligned to the HEVC recommended block-paritioning to estimate a subset of inter-prediction modes. Without exhaustive exploration of all modes available in the HEVC standard, only the selected subset of modes are motion estimated and motion compensated for a particular coding unit. The experimental evaluation reveals that the proposed technique notably down-scales the average computational time of the latest HEVC reference encoder by 34% while providing similar rate-distortion (RD) performance for a wide range of video sequences.

  6. Partially blind instantly decodable network codes for lossy feedback environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study the multicast completion and decoding delay minimization problems for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) in the case of lossy feedback. When feedback loss events occur, the sender falls into uncertainties about packet reception at the different receivers, which forces it to perform partially blind selections of packet combinations in subsequent transmissions. To determine efficient selection policies that reduce the completion and decoding delays of IDNC in such an environment, we first extend the perfect feedback formulation in our previous works to the lossy feedback environment, by incorporating the uncertainties resulting from unheard feedback events in these formulations. For the completion delay problem, we use this formulation to identify the maximum likelihood state of the network in events of unheard feedback and employ it to design a partially blind graph update extension to the multicast IDNC algorithm in our earlier work. For the decoding delay problem, we derive an expression for the expected decoding delay increment for any arbitrary transmission. This expression is then used to find the optimal policy that reduces the decoding delay in such lossy feedback environment. Results show that our proposed solutions both outperform previously proposed approaches and achieve tolerable degradation even at relatively high feedback loss rates.

  7. Deep linear autoencoder and patch clustering-based unified one-dimensional coding of image and video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honggui

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a unified one-dimensional (1-D) coding framework of image and video, which depends on deep learning neural network and image patch clustering. First, an improved K-means clustering algorithm for image patches is employed to obtain the compact inputs of deep artificial neural network. Second, for the purpose of best reconstructing original image patches, deep linear autoencoder (DLA), a linear version of the classical deep nonlinear autoencoder, is introduced to achieve the 1-D representation of image blocks. Under the circumstances of 1-D representation, DLA is capable of attaining zero reconstruction error, which is impossible for the classical nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods. Third, a unified 1-D coding infrastructure for image, intraframe, interframe, multiview video, three-dimensional (3-D) video, and multiview 3-D video is built by incorporating different categories of videos into the inputs of patch clustering algorithm. Finally, it is shown in the results of simulation experiments that the proposed methods can simultaneously gain higher compression ratio and peak signal-to-noise ratio than those of the state-of-the-art methods in the situation of low bitrate transmission.

  8. Stereoscopic Visual Attention-Based Regional Bit Allocation Optimization for Multiview Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Stereoscopic Visual Attention- (SVA- based regional bit allocation optimization for Multiview Video Coding (MVC by the exploiting visual redundancies from human perceptions. We propose a novel SVA model, where multiple perceptual stimuli including depth, motion, intensity, color, and orientation contrast are utilized, to simulate the visual attention mechanisms of human visual system with stereoscopic perception. Then, a semantic region-of-interest (ROI is extracted based on the saliency maps of SVA. Both objective and subjective evaluations of extracted ROIs indicated that the proposed SVA model based on ROI extraction scheme outperforms the schemes only using spatial or/and temporal visual attention clues. Finally, by using the extracted SVA-based ROIs, a regional bit allocation optimization scheme is presented to allocate more bits on SVA-based ROIs for high image quality and fewer bits on background regions for efficient compression purpose. Experimental results on MVC show that the proposed regional bit allocation algorithm can achieve over 20∼30% bit-rate saving while maintaining the subjective image quality. Meanwhile, the image quality of ROIs is improved by 0.46∼0.61 dB at the cost of insensitive image quality degradation of the background image.

  9. Stereoscopic Visual Attention-Based Regional Bit Allocation Optimization for Multiview Video Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Chen, Ken; Dai, Qionghai

    2010-12-01

    We propose a Stereoscopic Visual Attention- (SVA-) based regional bit allocation optimization for Multiview Video Coding (MVC) by the exploiting visual redundancies from human perceptions. We propose a novel SVA model, where multiple perceptual stimuli including depth, motion, intensity, color, and orientation contrast are utilized, to simulate the visual attention mechanisms of human visual system with stereoscopic perception. Then, a semantic region-of-interest (ROI) is extracted based on the saliency maps of SVA. Both objective and subjective evaluations of extracted ROIs indicated that the proposed SVA model based on ROI extraction scheme outperforms the schemes only using spatial or/and temporal visual attention clues. Finally, by using the extracted SVA-based ROIs, a regional bit allocation optimization scheme is presented to allocate more bits on SVA-based ROIs for high image quality and fewer bits on background regions for efficient compression purpose. Experimental results on MVC show that the proposed regional bit allocation algorithm can achieve over [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]% bit-rate saving while maintaining the subjective image quality. Meanwhile, the image quality of ROIs is improved by [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] dB at the cost of insensitive image quality degradation of the background image.

  10. Stereo side information generation in low-delay distributed stereo video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a technique that allows shifting the computational complexity from the encoder to the decoder. One of the core elements of the decoder is the creation of the Side Information (SI), which is a hypothesis of what the to-be-decoded frame looks like. Much work on DVC...... has been carried out: often the decoder can use future and past frames in order to obtain the SI exploiting the time redundancy. Other work has addressed a Multiview scenario; exploiting the frames coming from cameras close to the one we are decoding (usually a left and right camera) it is possible...... to create SI exploiting the inter-view spatial redundancy. A careful fusion of the two SI should be done in order to use the best part of each SI. In this work we study a Stereo Low-Delay scenario using only two views. Due to the delay constraint we use only past frames of the sequence we are decoding...

  11. Bitstream decoding processor for fast entropy decoding of variable length coding-based multiformat videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyunho; Sim, Donggyu

    2014-06-01

    We present a bitstream decoding processor for entropy decoding of variable length coding-based multiformat videos. Since most of the computational complexity of entropy decoders comes from bitstream accesses and table look-up process, the developed bitstream processing unit (BsPU) has several designated instructions to access bitstreams and to minimize branch operations in the table look-up process. In addition, the instruction for bitstream access has the capability to remove emulation prevention bytes (EPBs) of H.264/AVC without initial delay, repeated memory accesses, and additional buffer. Experimental results show that the proposed method for EPB removal achieves a speed-up of 1.23 times compared to the conventional EPB removal method. In addition, the BsPU achieves speed-ups of 5.6 and 3.5 times in entropy decoding of H.264/AVC and MPEG-4 Visual bitstreams, respectively, compared to an existing processor without designated instructions and a new table mapping algorithm. The BsPU is implemented on a Xilinx Virtex5 LX330 field-programmable gate array. The MPEG-4 Visual (ASP, Level 5) and H.264/AVC (Main Profile, Level 4) are processed using the developed BsPU with a core clock speed of under 250 MHz in real time.

  12. Stereoscopic Visual Attention-Based Regional Bit Allocation Optimization for Multiview Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Qionghai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Stereoscopic Visual Attention- (SVA- based regional bit allocation optimization for Multiview Video Coding (MVC by the exploiting visual redundancies from human perceptions. We propose a novel SVA model, where multiple perceptual stimuli including depth, motion, intensity, color, and orientation contrast are utilized, to simulate the visual attention mechanisms of human visual system with stereoscopic perception. Then, a semantic region-of-interest (ROI is extracted based on the saliency maps of SVA. Both objective and subjective evaluations of extracted ROIs indicated that the proposed SVA model based on ROI extraction scheme outperforms the schemes only using spatial or/and temporal visual attention clues. Finally, by using the extracted SVA-based ROIs, a regional bit allocation optimization scheme is presented to allocate more bits on SVA-based ROIs for high image quality and fewer bits on background regions for efficient compression purpose. Experimental results on MVC show that the proposed regional bit allocation algorithm can achieve over % bit-rate saving while maintaining the subjective image quality. Meanwhile, the image quality of ROIs is improved by  dB at the cost of insensitive image quality degradation of the background image.

  13. Feasibility Study: Moving Non-Homogeneous Teams in Congested Video Game Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hang; Yang, Jingxing; Cohen, Liron; Kumar, T. K. Satish; Koenig, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Multi-agent path finding (MAPF) is a well-studied problem in artificial intelligence, where one needs to find collision-free paths for agents with given start and goal locations. In video games, agents of different types often form teams. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of MAPF algorithms from artificial intelligence for moving such non-homogeneous teams in congested video game environments.

  14. Developing Self-Regulation by Using Reflective Support in a Video-Digital Microteaching Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehavit Kohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research efforts have established that self-regulated learning (SRL is necessary for teachers to attain successful professional development. Our study addresses two central questions: under what conditions in preservice teachers' education can SRL processes be enhanced to the optimum level, and how can we assess these processes? The participants of the study were ninety-seven preservice teachers, who were engaged in real-time teaching in a video-digital Microteaching environment. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of two groups: reflective support (RS for SRL or no support (NS for SRL. Participants in the RS group were explicitly exposed to SRL aspects and were directed to address these aspects in their reflective discussions of the teaching experience. The SRL process was measured as an online event during real-time teaching exercises, based on a coding scheme developed for this study to identify and assess the SRL skills by two major aspects: metacognition (planning, information management, monitoring, debugging, and evaluating and motivation (interest and value, self-efficacy, and teaching anxiety. Results indicate that the RS group outperformed the NS group in all SRL measures. Implications for reflective support for SRL and event measures of real-time observations of preservice teachers' SRL are discussed.

  15. MATIN: a random network coding based framework for high quality peer-to-peer live video streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.

  16. MATIN: a random network coding based framework for high quality peer-to-peer live video streaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Barekatain

    Full Text Available In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.

  17. Resource-Constrained Low-Complexity Video Coding for Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann

    of video quality. We proposed a new metric for objective quality assessment that considers frame rate. As many applications deal with wireless video transmission, we performed an analysis of compression and transmission systems with a focus on power-distortion trade-off. We proposed an approach......Constrained resources like memory, power, bandwidth and delay requirements in many mobile systems pose limitations for video applications. Standard approaches for video compression and transmission do not always satisfy system requirements. In this thesis we have shown that it is possible to modify...... for ratedistortion-complexity optimization of upcoming video compression standard HEVC. We also provided a new method allowing decrease of power consumption on mobile devices in 3G networks. Finally, we proposed low-delay and low-power approaches for video transmission over wireless personal area networks, including...

  18. Source Coding for Wireless Distributed Microphones in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel

    2016-01-01

    the distributed source coding part, we use zero error coding as a suboptimal implementation. We show that significant gains are achievable using the sufficient statistics for joint coding, and small gains can also be obtained by our suboptimal implementation of the distributed source coding scenario......Modern multimedia systems are more and more shifting toward distributed and networked structures. This includes audio systems, where networks of wireless distributed microphones are replacing the traditional microphone arrays. This allows for flexibility of placement and high spatial diversity...... for the transmitting microphone to reduce the rate by using distributed source coding. Within this framework, we apply our coding schemes to Gaussian signals as well as audio measurements and compare the rate-distortion performances for distributed and non-distributed source coding scenarios. We also compare...

  19. Performance and Complexity Co-evaluation of the Advanced Video Coding Standard for Cost-Effective Multimedia Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, Sergio; Denolf, Kristof; Lafruit, Gauthier; Blanch, Carolina; Bormans, Jan

    2004-12-01

    The advanced video codec (AVC) standard, recently defined by a joint video team (JVT) of ITU-T and ISO/IEC, is introduced in this paper together with its performance and complexity co-evaluation. While the basic framework is similar to the motion-compensated hybrid scheme of previous video coding standards, additional tools improve the compression efficiency at the expense of an increased implementation cost. As a first step to bridge the gap between the algorithmic design of a complex multimedia system and its cost-effective realization, a high-level co-evaluation approach is proposed and applied to a real-life AVC design. An exhaustive analysis of the codec compression efficiency versus complexity (memory and computational costs) project space is carried out at the early algorithmic design phase. If all new coding features are used, the improved AVC compression efficiency (up to 50% compared to current video coding technology) comes with a complexity increase of a factor 2 for the decoder and larger than one order of magnitude for the encoder. This represents a challenge for resource-constrained multimedia systems such as wireless devices or high-volume consumer electronics. The analysis also highlights important properties of the AVC framework allowing for complexity reduction at the high system level: when combining the new coding features, the implementation complexity accumulates, while the global compression efficiency saturates. Thus, a proper use of the AVC tools maintains the same performance as the most complex configuration while considerably reducing complexity. The reported results provide inputs to assist the profile definition in the standard, highlight the AVC bottlenecks, and select optimal trade-offs between algorithmic performance and complexity.

  20. Performance and Complexity Co-evaluation of the Advanced Video Coding Standard for Cost-Effective Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saponara Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The advanced video codec (AVC standard, recently defined by a joint video team (JVT of ITU-T and ISO/IEC, is introduced in this paper together with its performance and complexity co-evaluation. While the basic framework is similar to the motion-compensated hybrid scheme of previous video coding standards, additional tools improve the compression efficiency at the expense of an increased implementation cost. As a first step to bridge the gap between the algorithmic design of a complex multimedia system and its cost-effective realization, a high-level co-evaluation approach is proposed and applied to a real-life AVC design. An exhaustive analysis of the codec compression efficiency versus complexity (memory and computational costs project space is carried out at the early algorithmic design phase. If all new coding features are used, the improved AVC compression efficiency (up to 50% compared to current video coding technology comes with a complexity increase of a factor 2 for the decoder and larger than one order of magnitude for the encoder. This represents a challenge for resource-constrained multimedia systems such as wireless devices or high-volume consumer electronics. The analysis also highlights important properties of the AVC framework allowing for complexity reduction at the high system level: when combining the new coding features, the implementation complexity accumulates, while the global compression efficiency saturates. Thus, a proper use of the AVC tools maintains the same performance as the most complex configuration while considerably reducing complexity. The reported results provide inputs to assist the profile definition in the standard, highlight the AVC bottlenecks, and select optimal trade-offs between algorithmic performance and complexity.

  1. Are you ready for an office code blue? : online video to prepare for office emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Medical emergencies occur commonly in offices of family physicians, yet many offices are poorly prepared for emergencies. An Internet-based educational video discussing office emergencies might improve the responses of physicians and their staff to emergencies, yet such a tool has not been previously described. To use evidence-based practices to develop an educational video detailing preparation for emergencies in medical offices, disseminate the video online, and evaluate the attitudes of physicians and their staff toward the video. A 6-minute video was created using a review of recent literature and Canadian regulatory body policies. The video describes recommended emergency equipment, emergency response improvement, and office staff training. Physicians and their staff were invited to view the video online at www.OfficeEmergencies.ca. Viewers' opinions of the video format and content were assessed by survey (n = 275). Survey findings indicated the video was well presented and relevant, and the Web-based format was considered convenient and satisfactory. Participants would take other courses using this technology, and agreed this program would enhance patient care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  2. Effect of embedded streaming video strategy in an online learning environment on the learning of neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantrarungroj, Pornsook

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the embedded streaming video strategy in an online learning environment on declarative knowledge learning of neuroscience. The design used in this study was the posttest-only control-group design. A sample of 92 undergraduate students from a Midwestern university was recruited for the study. The students in the experimental group received online text-based instruction with static graphics and embedded streaming video, while the control group received the online text-based instruction with static graphics. No significant difference in students' immediate learning performance was found as measured by the content-related immediate posttest; however, a significant difference was found in students' knowledge retention as measured by the content-related retention posttest. The student' perception of the effectiveness of streaming video according to gender was also administered by the web-form survey. No significant gender difference was found to exist in students' perceptions toward the effectiveness of embedded streaming video. Results of the web-form survey of respondents' attitude regarding the effectiveness of streaming video are also presented. Adding streaming video to the online learning environment is recommended as one way to increase student learning performance.

  3. Coding strategies for cochlear implants under adverse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmina, Qudsia

    Cochlear implants are electronic prosthetic devices that restores partial hearing in patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Although most coding strategies have significantly improved the perception of speech in quite listening conditions, there remains limitations on speech perception under adverse environments such as in background noise, reverberation and band-limited channels, and we propose strategies that improve the intelligibility of speech transmitted over the telephone networks, reverberated speech and speech in the presence of background noise. For telephone processed speech, we propose to examine the effects of adding low-frequency and high- frequency information to the band-limited telephone speech. Four listening conditions were designed to simulate the receiving frequency characteristics of telephone handsets. Results indicated improvement in cochlear implant and bimodal listening when telephone speech was augmented with high frequency information and therefore this study provides support for design of algorithms to extend the bandwidth towards higher frequencies. The results also indicated added benefit from hearing aids for bimodal listeners in all four types of listening conditions. Speech understanding in acoustically reverberant environments is always a difficult task for hearing impaired listeners. Reverberated sounds consists of direct sound, early reflections and late reflections. Late reflections are known to be detrimental to speech intelligibility. In this study, we propose a reverberation suppression strategy based on spectral subtraction to suppress the reverberant energies from late reflections. Results from listening tests for two reverberant conditions (RT60 = 0.3s and 1.0s) indicated significant improvement when stimuli was processed with SS strategy. The proposed strategy operates with little to no prior information on the signal and the room characteristics and therefore, can potentially be implemented in real-time CI

  4. A model for treating voice disorders in school-age children within a video gaming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Suzanne N; Davis, Larry; Lehman, Jeffrey J; Ruddy, Bari Hoffman

    2012-09-01

    Clinicians use a variety of approaches to motivate children with hyperfunctional voice disorders to comply with voice therapy in a therapeutic session and improve the motivation of children to practice home-based exercises. Utilization of current entertainment technology in such approaches may improve participation and motivation in voice therapy. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of using an entertainment video game as a therapy device. Prospective cohort and case-control study. Three levels of game testing were conducted to an existing entertainment video game for use as a voice therapy protocol. The game was tested by two computer programmers and five normal participants. The third level of testing was a case study with a child diagnosed with a hyperfunctional voice disorder. Modifications to the game were made after each feasibility test. Errors with the video game performance were modified, including the addition of a time stamp directory and game controller. Resonance voice exercises were modified to accommodate the gaming environment and unique competitive situation, including speech rate, acoustic parameters, game speed, and point allocations. The development of video games for voice therapeutic purposes attempt to replicate the high levels of engagement and motivation attained with entertainment video games, stimulating a more productive means of learning while doing. This case study found that a purely entertainment video game can be implemented as a voice therapeutic protocol based on information obtained from the case study. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing Negotiation of Meaning through Task Familiarity Using Subtitled Videos in an Online TBLL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanyilmaz, Abdurrahman; Pedersen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of task familiarity through the use of subtitled videos on negotiation of meaning in an online task-based language learning (TBLL) environment. It explores the amount of negotiation of meaning produced by non-native speakers (NNSs) aimed at improving input comprehension to enhance second language acquisition. Ten…

  6. Can Mood-Inducing Videos Affect Problem-Solving Activities in a Web-Based Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleur, Ria; Verhagen, Plon W.; Heuvelman, Ard

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a video-induced positive and negative mood has a differential effect on subsequent problem-solving activities in a web-based environment. The study also examined whether task conditions (task demands) moderated the mood effect. As in traditional experimental mood-effect studies, the affective video…

  7. An Interactive Reverse Engineering Environment for Large-Scale C++ Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Voinea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    Few toolsets for reverse-engineering and understanding of C++ code provide parsing and fact extraction, querying, analysis and code metrics, navigation, and visualization of source-code-level facts in a way which is as easy-to-use as integrated development environments (IDEs) are for forward

  8. A Smart Video Coding Method for Time Lag Reduction in Telesurgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Mingui; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Jian; Kassam, Amin; Enos, Sharon E; Marchessault, Ronald; Gilbert, Gary; Sclabassi, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    .... These advances have made remotely operable telemedicine possible. However, a key technology that rapidly encodes, transmits, and decodes surgical video with the minimum round-trip delay and the least influence by network jitter...

  9. Analysis of Packet-Loss-Induced Distortion in View Synthesis Prediction-Based 3D Video Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pan; Peng, Qiang; Xiang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    View synthesis prediction (VSP) is a crucial coding tool for improving compression efficiency in the next generation 3D video systems. However, VSP is susceptible to catastrophic error propagation when multi-view video plus depth (MVD) data are transmitted over lossy networks. This paper aims at accurately modeling the transmission errors propagated in the inter-view direction caused by VSP. Toward this end, we first study how channel errors gradually propagate along the VSP-based inter-view prediction path. Then, a new recursive model is formulated to estimate the expected end-to-end distortion caused by those channel losses. For the proposed model, the compound impact of the transmission distortions of both the texture video and depth map on the quality of the synthetic reference view is mathematically analyzed. Especially, the expected view synthesis distortion due to depth errors is characterized in the frequency domain using a new approach, which combines the energy densities of the reconstructed texture image and the channel errors. The proposed model also explicitly considers the disparity rounding operation invoked for the sub-pixel precision rendering of the synthesized reference view. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed analytic model is capable of effectively modeling the channel-induced distortion for MVD-based 3D video transmission.

  10. Accelerating Wavelet-Based Video Coding on Graphics Hardware using CUDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Wladimir J. van der; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Jalba, Andrei C.; Zinterhof, P; Loncaric, S; Uhl, A; Carini, A

    2009-01-01

    The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has a wide range of applications from signal processing to video and image compression. This transform, by means of the lifting scheme, can be performed in a memory mid computation efficient way on modern, programmable GPUs, which can be regarded as massively

  11. Prediction accuracy in estimating joint angle trajectories using a video posture coding method for sagittal lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chien-Chi; McGorry, Raymond W; Lin, Jia-Hua; Xu, Xu; Hsiang, Simon M

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated prediction accuracy of a video posture coding method for lifting joint trajectory estimation. From three filming angles, the coder selected four key snapshots, identified joint angles and then a prediction program estimated the joint trajectories over the course of a lift. Results revealed a limited range of differences of joint angles (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle) between the manual coding method and the electromagnetic motion tracking system approach. Lifting range significantly affected estimate accuracy for all joints and camcorder filming angle had a significant effect on all joints but the hip. Joint trajectory predictions were more accurate for knuckle-to-shoulder lifts than for floor-to-shoulder or floor-to-knuckle lifts with average root mean square errors (RMSE) of 8.65 degrees , 11.15 degrees and 11.93 degrees , respectively. Accuracy was also greater for the filming angles orthogonal to the participant's sagittal plane (RMSE = 9.97 degrees ) as compared to filming angles of 45 degrees (RMSE = 11.01 degrees ) or 135 degrees (10.71 degrees ). The effects of lifting speed and loading conditions were minimal. To further increase prediction accuracy, improved prediction algorithms and/or better posture matching methods should be investigated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Observation and classification of postures are common steps in risk assessment of manual materials handling tasks. The ability to accurately predict lifting patterns through video coding can provide ergonomists with greater resolution in characterising or assessing the lifting tasks than evaluation based solely on sampling with a single lifting posture event.

  12. Breaking the Code: Changing Our Thinking about Children's Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    It is the responsibility of educators and architects of classrooms to create spaces that promote positive relationships between people and their environments. Life in early childhood classrooms organizes and clusters around the relationships between adults, children, and the space they occupy. Classrooms become living systems, which experience…

  13. One Spatial Map or Many? Spatial Coding of Connected Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Becker, Suzanna

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how humans encode large-scale spatial environments using a virtual taxi game. We hypothesized that if 2 connected neighborhoods are explored jointly, people will form a single integrated spatial representation of the town. However, if the neighborhoods are first learned separately and later observed to be connected, people will…

  14. Search 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): Protection of the Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Title 40 is the section of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) that deals with EPA's mission of protecting human health and the environment. This web page provides...

  15. Cross-Layer Design for Video Transmission over Wireless Rician Slow-Fading Channels Using an Adaptive Multiresolution Modulation and Coding Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Modestino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multilayered video transport scheme for wireless channels capable of adapting to channel conditions in order to maximize end-to-end quality of service (QoS. This scheme combines a scalable H.263+ video source coder with unequal error protection (UEP across layers. The UEP is achieved by employing different channel codes together with a multiresolution modulation approach to transport the different priority layers. Adaptivity to channel conditions is provided through a joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach which attempts to jointly optimize the source and channel coding rates together with the modulation parameters to obtain the maximum achievable end-to-end QoS for the prevailing channel conditions. In this work, we model the wireless links as slow-fading Rician channel where the channel conditions can be described in terms of the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the ratio of specular-to-diffuse energy ζ2. The multiresolution modulation/coding scheme consists of binary rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC codes used together with nonuniform phase-shift keyed (PSK signaling constellations. Results indicate that this adaptive JSCC scheme employing scalable video encoding together with a multiresolution modulation/coding approach leads to significant improvements in delivered video quality for specified channel conditions. In particular, the approach results in considerably improved graceful degradation properties for decreasing channel SNR.

  16. Cross-Layer Design for Video Transmission over Wireless Rician Slow-Fading Channels Using an Adaptive Multiresolution Modulation and Coding Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestino James W

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multilayered video transport scheme for wireless channels capable of adapting to channel conditions in order to maximize end-to-end quality of service (QoS. This scheme combines a scalable H.263+ video source coder with unequal error protection (UEP across layers. The UEP is achieved by employing different channel codes together with a multiresolution modulation approach to transport the different priority layers. Adaptivity to channel conditions is provided through a joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach which attempts to jointly optimize the source and channel coding rates together with the modulation parameters to obtain the maximum achievable end-to-end QoS for the prevailing channel conditions. In this work, we model the wireless links as slow-fading Rician channel where the channel conditions can be described in terms of the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the ratio of specular-to-diffuse energy . The multiresolution modulation/coding scheme consists of binary rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC codes used together with nonuniform phase-shift keyed (PSK signaling constellations. Results indicate that this adaptive JSCC scheme employing scalable video encoding together with a multiresolution modulation/coding approach leads to significant improvements in delivered video quality for specified channel conditions. In particular, the approach results in considerably improved graceful degradation properties for decreasing channel SNR.

  17. An electrocorticographic BCI using code-based VEP for control in video applications: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeller, Christoph; Kamada, Kyousuke; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Prueckl, Robert; Scharinger, Josef; Guger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    A brain-computer-interface (BCI) allows the user to control a device or software with brain activity. Many BCIs rely on visual stimuli with constant stimulation cycles that elicit steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This EEG response can be generated with a LED or a computer screen flashing at a constant frequency, and similar EEG activity can be elicited with pseudo-random stimulation sequences on a screen (code-based BCI). Using electrocorticography (ECoG) instead of EEG promises higher spatial and temporal resolution and leads to more dominant evoked potentials due to visual stimulation. This work is focused on BCIs based on visual evoked potentials (VEP) and its capability as a continuous control interface for augmentation of video applications. One 35 year old female subject with implanted subdural grids participated in the study. The task was to select one out of four visual targets, while each was flickering with a code sequence. After a calibration run including 200 code sequences, a linear classifier was used during an evaluation run to identify the selected visual target based on the generated code-based VEPs over 20 trials. Multiple ECoG buffer lengths were tested and the subject reached a mean online classification accuracy of 99.21% for a window length of 3.15 s. Finally, the subject performed an unsupervised free run in combination with visual feedback of the current selection. Additionally, an algorithm was implemented that allowed to suppress false positive selections and this allowed the subject to start and stop the BCI at any time. The code-based BCI system attained very high online accuracy, which makes this approach very promising for control applications where a continuous control signal is needed.

  18. Development of a Coding Instrument to Assess the Quality and Content of Anti-Tobacco Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M; Watson, Anna M; Barnett, Tracey E; Mercado, Rebeccah; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown the use of electronic video games as an effective method for increasing content knowledge about the risks of drugs and alcohol use for adolescents. Although best practice suggests that theory, health communication strategies, and game appeal are important characteristics for developing games, no instruments are currently available to examine the quality and content of tobacco prevention and cessation electronic games. This study presents the systematic development of a coding instrument to measure the quality, use of theory, and health communication strategies of tobacco cessation and prevention electronic games. Using previous research and expert review, a content analysis coding instrument measuring 67 characteristics was developed with three overarching categories: type and quality of games, theory and approach, and type and format of messages. Two trained coders applied the instrument to 88 games on four platforms (personal computer, Nintendo DS, iPhone, and Android phone) to field test the instrument. Cohen's kappa for each item ranged from 0.66 to 1.00, with an average kappa value of 0.97. Future research can adapt this coding instrument to games addressing other health issues. In addition, the instrument questions can serve as a useful guide for evidence-based game development.

  19. Development of a Coding Instrument to Assess the Quality and Content of Anti-Tobacco Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M.; Watson, Anna M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Mercado, Rebeccah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has shown the use of electronic video games as an effective method for increasing content knowledge about the risks of drugs and alcohol use for adolescents. Although best practice suggests that theory, health communication strategies, and game appeal are important characteristics for developing games, no instruments are currently available to examine the quality and content of tobacco prevention and cessation electronic games. This study presents the systematic development of a coding instrument to measure the quality, use of theory, and health communication strategies of tobacco cessation and prevention electronic games. Using previous research and expert review, a content analysis coding instrument measuring 67 characteristics was developed with three overarching categories: type and quality of games, theory and approach, and type and format of messages. Two trained coders applied the instrument to 88 games on four platforms (personal computer, Nintendo DS, iPhone, and Android phone) to field test the instrument. Cohen's kappa for each item ranged from 0.66 to 1.00, with an average kappa value of 0.97. Future research can adapt this coding instrument to games addressing other health issues. In addition, the instrument questions can serve as a useful guide for evidence-based game development. PMID:26167842

  20. Optimisation Issues of High Throughput Medical Data and Video Streaming Traffic in 3G Wireless Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe some of the optimisation issues relevant to the requirements of high throughput of medical data and video streaming traffic in 3G wireless environments. In particular we present a challenging 3G mobile health care application that requires a demanding 3G medical data throughput. We also describe the 3G QoS requirement of mObile Tele-Echography ultra-Light rObot system (OTELO that is designed to provide seamless 3G connectivity for real-time ultrasound medical video streams and diagnosis from a remote site (robotic and patient station) manipulated by an expert side (specialists) that is controlling the robotic scanning operation and presenting a real-time feedback diagnosis using 3G wireless communication links.

  1. On Cross-Layer Design for Streaming Video Delivery in Multiuser Wireless Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellerer Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We exploit the interlayer coupling of a cross-layer design concept for streaming video delivery in a multiuser wireless environment. We propose a cross-layer optimization between application layer, data link layer, and physical layer. Our aim is to optimize the end-to-end quality of the wireless streaming video application as well as efficiently utilizing the wireless resources. A possible architecture for achieving this goal is proposed and formulated. This architecture consists of the process of parameter abstraction, a cross-layer optimizer, and the process of decision distribution. In addition, numerical results obtained with different operating modes are provided. The results demonstrate the potential of this proposed joint optimization.

  2. A Hybrid Scheme Based on Pipelining and Multitasking in Mobile Application Processors for Advanced Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key requirements for mobile devices is to provide high-performance computing at lower power consumption. The processors used in these devices provide specific hardware resources to handle computationally intensive video processing and interactive graphical applications. Moreover, processors designed for low-power applications may introduce limitations on the availability and usage of resources, which present additional challenges to the system designers. Owing to the specific design of the JZ47x series of mobile application processors, a hybrid software-hardware implementation scheme for H.264/AVC encoder is proposed in this work. The proposed scheme distributes the encoding tasks among hardware and software modules. A series of optimization techniques are developed to speed up the memory access and data transferring among memories. Moreover, an efficient data reusage design is proposed for the deblock filter video processing unit to reduce the memory accesses. Furthermore, fine grained macroblock (MB level parallelism is effectively exploited and a pipelined approach is proposed for efficient utilization of hardware processing cores. Finally, based on parallelism in the proposed design, encoding tasks are distributed between two processing cores. Experiments show that the hybrid encoder is 12 times faster than a highly optimized sequential encoder due to proposed techniques.

  3. Multiple description coding for SNR scalable video transmission over unreliable networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choupani, R.; Wong, S.; Tolun, M.

    2012-01-01

    Streaming multimedia data on best-effort networks such as the Internet requires measures against bandwidth fluctuations and frame loss. Multiple Description Coding (MDC) methods are used to overcome the jitter and delay problems arising from frame losses by making the transmitted data more error

  4. Coding Local and Global Binary Visual Features Extracted From Video Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroffio, Luca; Canclini, Antonio; Cesana, Matteo; Redondi, Alessandro; Tagliasacchi, Marco; Tubaro, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Binary local features represent an effective alternative to real-valued descriptors, leading to comparable results for many visual analysis tasks while being characterized by significantly lower computational complexity and memory requirements. When dealing with large collections, a more compact representation based on global features is often preferred, which can be obtained from local features by means of, e.g., the bag-of-visual word model. Several applications, including, for example, visual sensor networks and mobile augmented reality, require visual features to be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited network, thus calling for coding techniques that aim at reducing the required bit budget while attaining a target level of efficiency. In this paper, we investigate a coding scheme tailored to both local and global binary features, which aims at exploiting both spatial and temporal redundancy by means of intra- and inter-frame coding. In this respect, the proposed coding scheme can conveniently be adopted to support the analyze-then-compress (ATC) paradigm. That is, visual features are extracted from the acquired content, encoded at remote nodes, and finally transmitted to a central controller that performs the visual analysis. This is in contrast with the traditional approach, in which visual content is acquired at a node, compressed and then sent to a central unit for further processing, according to the compress-then-analyze (CTA) paradigm. In this paper, we experimentally compare the ATC and the CTA by means of rate-efficiency curves in the context of two different visual analysis tasks: 1) homography estimation and 2) content-based retrieval. Our results show that the novel ATC paradigm based on the proposed coding primitives can be competitive with the CTA, especially in bandwidth limited scenarios.

  5. Fast mode decision for the H.264/AVC video coding standard based on frequency domain motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Mein, Stephen J.; Varley, Martin R.; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel

    2011-07-01

    The H.264 video coding standard achieves high performance compression and image quality at the expense of increased encoding complexity. Consequently, several fast mode decision and motion estimation techniques have been developed to reduce the computational cost. These approaches successfully reduce the computational time by reducing the image quality and/or increasing the bitrate. In this paper we propose a novel fast mode decision and motion estimation technique. The algorithm utilizes preprocessing frequency domain motion estimation in order to accurately predict the best mode and the search range. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the motion estimation time by up to 97%, while maintaining similar rate distortion performance when compared to the Joint Model software.

  6. Optimal modulation and coding scheme allocation of scalable video multicast over IEEE 802.16e networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chia-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the rapid development of wireless communication technology and the rapid increase in demand for network bandwidth, IEEE 802.16e is an emerging network technique that has been deployed in many metropolises. In addition to the features of high data rate and large coverage, it also enables scalable video multicasting, which is a potentially promising application, over an IEEE 802.16e network. How to optimally assign the modulation and coding scheme (MCS of the scalable video stream for the mobile subscriber stations to improve spectral efficiency and maximize utility is a crucial task. We formulate this MCS assignment problem as an optimization problem, called the total utility maximization problem (TUMP. This article transforms the TUMP into a precedence constraint knapsack problem, which is a NP-complete problem. Then, a branch and bound method, which is based on two dominance rules and a lower bound, is presented to solve the TUMP. The simulation results show that the proposed branch and bound method can find the optimal solution efficiently.

  7. Using High-Fidelity Simulation and Video-Assisted Debriefing to Enhance Obstetrical Hemorrhage Mock Code Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Peggy J

    The purpose of this descriptive, one-group posttest study was to explore the nursing staff's perception of the benefits of using high-fidelity simulation during mandated obstetrical hemorrhage mock code training. In addition, the use of video-assisted debriefing was used to enhance the nursing staff's evaluation of their communication and teamwork processes during a simulated obstetrical crisis. The convenience sample of 84 members of the nursing staff consented to completing data collection forms and being videotaped during the simulation. Quantitative results for the postsimulation survey showed that 93% of participants agreed or totally agreed that the use of SimMan made the simulation more realistic and enhanced learning and that debriefing and the use of videotaped playback improved their evaluation of team communication. Participants derived greatest benefit from reviewing their performance on videotape and discussing it during postsimulation debriefing. Simulation with video-assisted debriefing offers hospital educators the ability to evaluate team processes and offer support to improve teamwork with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes during obstetrical hemorrhage.

  8. LDPC concatenated space-time block coded system in multipath fading environment: Analysis and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Sharma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have been found to show exceptionally good performance for single antenna systems over a wide class of channels. In this paper, the performance of LDPC codes with multiple antenna systems is investigated in flat Rayleigh and Rician fading channels for different modulation schemes. The focus of attention is mainly on the concatenation of irregular LDPC codes with complex orthogonal space-time codes. Iterative decoding is carried out with a density evolution method that sets a threshold above which the code performs well. For the proposed concatenated system, the simulation results show that the QAM technique achieves a higher coding gain of 8.8 dB and 3.2 dB over the QPSK technique in Rician (LOS and Rayleigh (NLOS faded environments respectively.

  9. A parallel 3-D discrete wavelet transform architecture using pipelined lifting scheme approach for video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Ganapathi; Vaya, Pukhraj

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a parallel architecture for 3-D discrete wavelet transform (3-DDWT). The proposed design is based on the 1-D pipelined lifting scheme. The architecture is fully scalable beyond the present coherent Daubechies filter bank (9, 7). This 3-DDWT architecture has advantages such as no group of pictures restriction and reduced memory referencing. It offers low power consumption, low latency and high throughput. The computing technique is based on the concept that lifting scheme minimises the storage requirement. The application specific integrated circuit implementation of the proposed architecture is done by synthesising it using 65 nm Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company standard cell library. It offers a speed of 486 MHz with a power consumption of 2.56 mW. This architecture is suitable for real-time video compression even with large frame dimensions.

  10. Performance of super-orthogonal space-time trellis code in a multipath environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sokoya, OA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available and the original state number of the SOSTTC. Simulation result (i.e. frame error rate) shows that the SOSTTC in such environment (i.e. frequency selective) could not take full advantage of the multipath environment to increase coding advantage (i.e. shift of error...

  11. An adaptive scan of high frequency subbands for dyadic intra frame in MPEG4-AVC/H.264 scalable video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Z.; Chaumont, M.; Puech, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a new adaptive scanning methodology for intra frame scalable coding framework based on a subband/wavelet(DWTSB) coding approach for MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 scalable video coding (SVC). It attempts to take advantage of the prior knowledge of the frequencies which are present in different higher frequency subbands. We propose dyadic intra frame coding method with adaptive scan (DWTSB-AS) for each subband as traditional zigzag scan is not suitable for high frequency subbands. Thus, by just modification of the scan order of the intra frame scalable coding framework of H.264, we can get better compression. The proposed algorithm has been theoretically justified and is thoroughly evaluated against the current SVC test model JSVM and DWTSB through extensive coding experiments for scalable coding of intra frame. The simulation results show the proposed scanning algorithm consistently outperforms JSVM and DWTSB in PSNR performance. This results in extra compression for intra frames, along with spatial scalability. Thus Image and video coding applications, traditionally serviced by separate coders, can be efficiently provided by an integrated coding system.

  12. ‘PhysTrack’: a Matlab based environment for video tracking of kinematics in the physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Hassan, Muhammad; Sabieh Anwar, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    In the past two decades, several computer software tools have been developed to investigate the motion of moving bodies in physics laboratories. In this article we report a Matlab based video tracking library, PhysTrack, primarily designed to investigate kinematics. We compare PhysTrack with other commonly available video tracking tools and outline its salient features. The general methodology of the whole video tracking process is described with a step by step explanation of several functionalities. Furthermore, results of some real physics experiments are also provided to demonstrate the working of the automated video tracking, data extraction, data analysis and presentation tools that come with this development environment. We believe that PhysTrack will be valuable for the large community of physics teachers and students already employing Matlab.

  13. Binary Large Object-Based Approach for QR Code Detection in Uncontrolled Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lopez-Rincon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response QR barcode detection in nonarbitrary environment is still a challenging task despite many existing applications for finding 2D symbols. The main disadvantage of recent applications for QR code detection is a low performance for rotated and distorted single or multiple symbols in images with variable illumination and presence of noise. In this paper, a particular solution for QR code detection in uncontrolled environments is presented. The proposal consists in recognizing geometrical features of QR code using a binary large object- (BLOB- based algorithm with subsequent iterative filtering QR symbol position detection patterns that do not require complex processing and training of classifiers frequently used for these purposes. The high precision and speed are achieved by adaptive threshold binarization of integral images. In contrast to well-known scanners, which fail to detect QR code with medium to strong blurring, significant nonuniform illumination, considerable symbol deformations, and noising, the proposed technique provides high recognition rate of 80%–100% with a speed compatible to real-time applications. In particular, speed varies from 200 ms to 800 ms per single or multiple QR code detected simultaneously in images with resolution from 640 × 480 to 4080 × 2720, respectively.

  14. A Study on Architecture of Malicious Code Blocking Scheme with White List in Smartphone Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kijeong; Tolentino, Randy S.; Park, Gil-Cheol; Kim, Yong-Tae

    Recently, the interest and demands for mobile communications are growing so fast because of the increasing prevalence of smartphones around the world. In addition, the existing feature phones were replaced by smartphones and it has widely improved while using the explosive growth of Internet users using smartphones, e-commerce enabled Internet banking transactions and the importance of protecting personal information. Therefore, the development of smartphones antivirus products was developed and launched in order to prevent malicious code or virus infection. In this paper, we proposed a new scheme to protect the smartphone from malicious codes and malicious applications that are element of security threats in mobile environment and to prevent information leakage from malicious code infection. The proposed scheme is based on the white list smartphone application which only allows installing authorized applications and to prevent the installation of malicious and untrusted mobile applications which can possibly infect the applications and programs of smartphones.

  15. Location Based Service in Indoor Environment Using Quick Response Code Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimpour, F.; Zare Zardiny, A.

    2014-10-01

    Today by extensive use of intelligent mobile phones, increased size of screens and enriching the mobile phones by Global Positioning System (GPS) technology use of location based services have been considered by public users more than ever.. Based on the position of users, they can receive the desired information from different LBS providers. Any LBS system generally includes five main parts: mobile devices, communication network, positioning system, service provider and data provider. By now many advances have been gained in relation to any of these parts; however the users positioning especially in indoor environments is propounded as an essential and critical issue in LBS. It is well known that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. On the other hand, current indoor positioning technologies such as using RFID or WiFi network need different hardware and software infrastructures. In this paper, we propose a new method to overcome these challenges. This method is using the Quick Response (QR) Code Technology. QR Code is a 2D encrypted barcode with a matrix structure which consists of black modules arranged in a square grid. Scanning and data retrieving process from QR Code is possible by use of different camera-enabled mobile phones only by installing the barcode reader software. This paper reviews the capabilities of QR Code technology and then discusses the advantages of using QR Code in Indoor LBS (ILBS) system in comparison to other technologies. Finally, some prospects of using QR Code are illustrated through implementation of a scenario. The most important advantages of using this new technology in ILBS are easy implementation, spending less expenses, quick data retrieval, possibility of printing the QR Code on different products and no need for complicated hardware and software infrastructures.

  16. A Framework-Based Environment for Object-Oriented Scientific Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Ballance

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Frameworks are reusable object-oriented designs for domain-specific programs. In our estimation, frameworks are the key to productivity and reuse. However, frameworks require increased support from the programming environment. A framework-based environment must include design aides and project browsers that can mediate between the user and the framework. A framework-based approach also places new requirements on conventional tools such as compilers. This article explores the impact of object-oriented frameworks upon a programming environment, in the context of object-oriented finite element and finite difference codes. The role of tools such as design aides and project browsers is discussed, and the impact of a framework-based approach upon compilers is examined. Examples are drawn from our prototype C++ based environment.

  17. Load Scheduling in a Cloud Based Massive Video-Storage Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayyapu, Karunakar Reddy; Fischer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We propose an architecture for a storage system of surveillance videos. Such systems have to handle massive amounts of incoming video streams and relatively few requests for replay. In such a system load (i.e., Write requests) scheduling is essential to guarantee performance. Large-scale data-sto...

  18. Immersive video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  19. The music video in an environment of media convergence: regimes of meaning and interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sílvia Lopes Davi Médola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the changes in the relations between communicationand forms of consumption of the video formats guided by new interactivecontent and enabled by the digital technologies of contemporary medias. In light of sociosemiotics by Eric Landowski, regimes of meaning and interaction in the fruition process present in the music video The Time/Dirty Bit, of Black Eyed Peas, and the respective application for mobile devices BEP 360 are discussed.

  20. Frame Rate Exclusive Sync Management of Live Video Streams in Collaborative Mobile Production Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Mudassar Ahmad; Zoric, Goranka; Juhlin, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    We discuss synchronization problem in an emerging type of multimedia applications, called live mobile collaborative video production systems. The mobile character of the production system allows a director to be present at the site where he/she can see the event directly as well as through the mixer display. In such a situation production of a consistent broadcast is sensitive to delay and asynchrony of video streams in the mixer console. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for this situat...

  1. Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) Software for the Visualization of Large Data Sets on a Video Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, G.; Srikishen, J.; Edwards, R.; Cross, D.; Welch, J. D.; Smith, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The use of collaborative scientific visualization systems for the analysis, visualization, and sharing of 'big data' available from new high resolution remote sensing satellite sensors or four-dimensional numerical model simulations is propelling the wider adoption of ultra-resolution tiled display walls interconnected by high speed networks. These systems require a globally connected and well-integrated operating environment that provides persistent visualization and collaboration services. This abstract and subsequent presentation describes a new collaborative visualization system installed for NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program at Marshall Space Flight Center and its use for Earth science applications. The system consists of a 3 x 4 array of 1920 x 1080 pixel thin bezel video monitors mounted on a wall in a scientific collaboration lab. The monitors are physically and virtually integrated into a 14' x 7' for video display. The display of scientific data on the video wall is controlled by a single Alienware Aurora PC with a 2nd Generation Intel Core 4.1 GHz processor, 32 GB memory, and an AMD Fire Pro W600 video card with 6 mini display port connections. Six mini display-to-dual DVI cables are used to connect the 12 individual video monitors. The open source Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) windowing and media control framework, running on top of the Ubuntu 12 Linux operating system, allows several users to simultaneously control the display and storage of high resolution still and moving graphics in a variety of formats, on tiled display walls of any size. The Ubuntu operating system supports the open source Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) software which provides a common environment, or framework, enabling its users to access, display and share a variety of data-intensive information. This information can be digital-cinema animations, high-resolution images, high-definition video

  2. Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) Software for the Visualization of Large Data Sets on a Video Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Edwards, Rita; Cross, David; Welch, Jon; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The use of collaborative scientific visualization systems for the analysis, visualization, and sharing of "big data" available from new high resolution remote sensing satellite sensors or four-dimensional numerical model simulations is propelling the wider adoption of ultra-resolution tiled display walls interconnected by high speed networks. These systems require a globally connected and well-integrated operating environment that provides persistent visualization and collaboration services. This abstract and subsequent presentation describes a new collaborative visualization system installed for NASA's Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program at Marshall Space Flight Center and its use for Earth science applications. The system consists of a 3 x 4 array of 1920 x 1080 pixel thin bezel video monitors mounted on a wall in a scientific collaboration lab. The monitors are physically and virtually integrated into a 14' x 7' for video display. The display of scientific data on the video wall is controlled by a single Alienware Aurora PC with a 2nd Generation Intel Core 4.1 GHz processor, 32 GB memory, and an AMD Fire Pro W600 video card with 6 mini display port connections. Six mini display-to-dual DVI cables are used to connect the 12 individual video monitors. The open source Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) windowing and media control framework, running on top of the Ubuntu 12 Linux operating system, allows several users to simultaneously control the display and storage of high resolution still and moving graphics in a variety of formats, on tiled display walls of any size. The Ubuntu operating system supports the open source Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) software which provides a common environment, or framework, enabling its users to access, display and share a variety of data-intensive information. This information can be digital-cinema animations, high-resolution images, high-definition video

  3. Performance Analysis of Multicast Video Streaming in IEEE 802.11 b/g/n Testbed Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuch, Aleksander; Gierłowski, Krzysztof; Wozniak, Jozef

    The aim of the work is to analyse capabilities and limitations of different IEEE 802.11 technologies (IEEE 802.11 b/g/n), utilized for both multicast and unicast video streaming transmissions directed to mobile devices. Our preliminary research showed that results obtained with currently popular simulation tools can be drastically different than these possible in real-world environment, so, in order to correctly evaluate performance of video streaming, a simple wireless test-bed infrastructure has been created. The results show a strong dependence of the quality of video streaming on the chosen transmission technology. At the same time there are significant differences in perception quality between multicast (1:n) and unicast (1:1) streams, and also between devices offered by different manufacturers. The overall results seem to demonstrate, that, while multicast support quality in different products is still varied and often requires additional configuration, it is possible to select a WiFi access point model and determine the best system parameters to ensure a good video transfer conditions in terms of acceptable QoP/E (Quality of Perception/Exellence).

  4. 4K Video Traffic Prediction using Seasonal Autoregressive Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Marković

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of average viewer, high definition video streams such as HD (High Definition and UHD (Ultra HD are increasing their internet presence year over year. This is not surprising, having in mind expansion of HD streaming services, such as YouTube, Netflix etc. Therefore, high definition video streams are starting to challenge network resource allocation with their bandwidth requirements and statistical characteristics. Need for analysis and modeling of this demanding video traffic has essential importance for better quality of service and experience support. In this paper we use an easy-to-apply statistical model for prediction of 4K video traffic. Namely, seasonal autoregressive modeling is applied in prediction of 4K video traffic, encoded with HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding. Analysis and modeling were performed within R programming environment using over 17.000 high definition video frames. It is shown that the proposed methodology provides good accuracy in high definition video traffic modeling.

  5. On the Impact of Zero-padding in Network Coding Efficiency with Internet Traffic and Video Traces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    compiled by Arizona State University. Our numerical results show the dependence of the zero-padding overhead with the number of packets combined in a generation using RLNC. Surprisingly, medium and large TCP generations are strongly affected with more than 100% of padding overhead. Although all video...

  6. Optimization of high-definition video coding and hybrid fiber-wireless transmission in the 60 GHz band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Pham, Tien Thang; Beltrán, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of distribution of highdefinition video over fiber-wireless networks. The physical layer architecture with the low complexity envelope detection solution is investigated. We present both experimental studies and simulation of high quality high-definition compressed...

  7. Final Report A Multi-Language Environment For Programmable Code Optimization and Empirical Tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Qing [Univ. of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Whaley, Richard Clint [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Qasem, Apan [Texas State Univ., San Marcos, TX (United States); Quinlan, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-23

    This report summarizes our effort and results of building an integrated optimization environment to effectively combine the programmable control and the empirical tuning of source-to-source compiler optimizations within the framework of multiple existing languages, specifically C, C++, and Fortran. The environment contains two main components: the ROSE analysis engine, which is based on the ROSE C/C++/Fortran2003 source-to-source compiler developed by Co-PI Dr.Quinlan et. al at DOE/LLNL, and the POET transformation engine, which is based on an interpreted program transformation language developed by Dr. Yi at University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The ROSE analysis engine performs advanced compiler analysis, identifies profitable code transformations, and then produces output in POET, a language designed to provide programmable control of compiler optimizations to application developers and to support the parameterization of architecture-sensitive optimizations so that their configurations can be empirically tuned later. This POET output can then be ported to different machines together with the user application, where a POET-based search engine empirically reconfigures the parameterized optimizations until satisfactory performance is found. Computational specialists can write POET scripts to directly control the optimization of their code. Application developers can interact with ROSE to obtain optimization feedback as well as provide domain-specific knowledge and high-level optimization strategies. The optimization environment is expected to support different levels of automation and programmer intervention, from fully-automated tuning to semi-automated development and to manual programmable control.

  8. Fragility issues of medical video streaming over 802.11e-WLAN m-health environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yow-Yiong Edwin; Philip, Nada; Istepanian, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents some of the fragility issues of a medical video streaming over 802.11e-WLAN in m-health applications. In particular, we present a medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) scheme for enhanced QoS support for IEEE 802.11 (WLAN), as a modification for the standard 802.11e enhanced distributed coordination function (EDCF) is proposed for enhanced medical data performance. The medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) proposed extends the EDCF, by halving the contention window (CW) after zeta consecutive successful transmissions to reduce the collision probability when channel is busy. Simulation results show that MCAFA outperforms EDCF in-terms of overall performance relevant to the requirements of high throughput of medical data and video streaming traffic in 3G/WLAN wireless environments.

  9. A new urban planning code's impact on walking: the residential environments project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna; Foster, Sarah; Divitini, Mark; Middleton, Nicholas; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2013-07-01

    We examined whether people moving into a housing development designed according to a state government livable neighborhoods subdivision code engage in more walking than do people who move to other types of developments. In a natural experiment of 1813 people building homes in 73 new housing developments in Perth, Western Australia, we surveyed participants before and then 12 and 36 months after moving. We measured self-reported walking using the Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire and collected perceptions of the environment and self-selection factors. We calculated objective measures of the built environment using a Geographic Information System. After relocation, participants in livable versus conventional developments had greater street connectivity, residential density, land use mix, and access to destinations and more positive perceptions of their neighborhood (all P .05). Implementation of the Livable Neighborhoods Guidelines produced more supportive environments; however, the level of intervention was insufficient to encourage more walking. Evaluations of new urban planning policies need to incorporate longer term follow-up to allow time for new neighborhoods to develop.

  10. A Model for Video Quality Assessment Considering Packet Loss for Broadcast Digital Television Coded in H.264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Joskowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to predict video quality perceived by the broadcast digital television (DTV viewer. We present how noise on DTV can introduce individual transport stream (TS packet losses at the receiver. The type of these errors is different than the produced on IP networks. Different scenarios of TS packet loss are analyzed, including uniform and burst distributions. The results show that there is a high variability on the perceived quality for a given percentage of packet loss and type of error. This implies that there is practically no correlation between the type of error or the percentage of packets loss and the perceived degradation. A new metric is introduced, the weighted percentage of slice loss, which takes into account the affected slice type in each lost TS packet. We show that this metric is correlated with the video quality degradation. A novel parametric model for video quality estimation is proposed, designed, and verified based on the results of subjective tests in SD and HD. The results were compared to a standard model used in IP transmission scenarios. The proposed model improves Pearson Correlation and root mean square error between the subjective and the predicted MOS.

  11. Developing Community and Building Knowledge Online Using a Virtual Reality Environment and Student-Created Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eileen A.

    2018-01-01

    Within an online science teacher education course, an important although secondary goal was to prepare students for a high-stakes licensure portfolio at some time after course completion. Thus, various communication technologies including synchronous virtual reality meetings and asynchronous student self-created video commentaries were interwoven…

  12. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  13. A depth video sensor-based life-logging human activity recognition system for elderly care in smart indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Ahmad; Kamal, Shaharyar; Kim, Daijin

    2014-07-02

    Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR) realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital.

  14. A fast method for video deblurring based on a combination of gradient methods and denoising algorithms in Matlab and C environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Zeynab; Mehri, Razieh; Rabbani, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the degraded video with blur and noise is enhanced by using an algorithm based on an iterative procedure. In this algorithm at first we estimate the clean data and blur function using Newton optimization method and then the estimation procedure is improved using appropriate denoising methods. These noise reduction techniques are based on local statistics of clean data and blur function. For estimated blur function we use LPA-ICI (local polynomial approximation - intersection of confidence intervals) method that use an anisotropic window around each point and obtain the enhanced data employing Wiener filter in this local window. Similarly, to improvement the quality of estimated clean video, at first we transform the data to wavelet transform domain and then improve our estimation using maximum a posterior (MAP) estimator and local Laplace prior. This procedure (initial estimation and improvement of estimation by denoising) is iterated and finally the clean video is obtained. The implementation of this algorithm is slow in MATLAB1 environment and so it is not suitable for online applications. However, MATLAB has the capability of running functions written in C. The files which hold the source for these functions are called MEX-Files. The MEX functions allow system-specific APIs to be called to extend MATLAB's abilities. So, in this paper to speed up our algorithm, the written code in MATLAB is sectioned and the elapsed time for each section is measured and slow sections (that use 60% of complete running time) are selected. Then these slow sections are translated to C++ and linked to MATLAB. In fact, the high loads of information in images and processed data in the "for" loops of relevant code, makes MATLAB an unsuitable candidate for writing such programs. The written code for our video deblurring algorithm in MATLAB contains eight "for" loops. These eighth "for" utilize 60% of the total execution time of the entire program and so the runtime should be

  15. “First-person view” of pathogen transmission and hand hygiene – use of a new head-mounted video capture and coding tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Clack

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare workers’ hands are the foremost means of pathogen transmission in healthcare, but detailed hand trajectories have been insufficiently researched so far. We developed and applied a new method to systematically document hand-to-surface exposures (HSE to delineate true hand transmission pathways in real-life healthcare settings. Methods A head-mounted camera and commercial coding software were used to capture ten active care episodes by eight nurses and two physicians and code HSE type and duration using a hierarchical coding scheme. We identified HSE sequences of particular relevance to infectious risks for patients based on the WHO ‘Five Moments for Hand Hygiene’. The study took place in a trauma intensive care unit in a 900-bed university hospital in Switzerland. Results Overall, the ten videos totaled 296.5 min and featured eight nurses and two physicians. A total of 4222 HSE were identified (1 HSE every 4.2 s, which concerned bare (79% and gloved (21% hands. The HSE inside the patient zone (n = 1775; 42% included mobile objects (33%, immobile surfaces (5%, and patient intact skin (4%, while HSE outside the patient zone (n = 1953; 46% included HCW’s own body (10%, mobile objects (28%, and immobile surfaces (8%. A further 494 (12% events involved patient critical sites. Sequential analysis revealed 291 HSE transitions from outside to inside patient zone, i.e. “colonization events”, and 217 from any surface to critical sites, i.e. “infection events”. Hand hygiene occurred 97 times, 14 (5% adherence times at colonization events and three (1% adherence times at infection events. On average, hand rubbing lasted 13 ± 9 s. Conclusions The abundance of HSE underscores the central role of hands in the spread of potential pathogens while hand hygiene occurred rarely at potential colonization and infection events. Our approach produced a valid video and coding instrument for in-depth analysis of

  16. "First-person view" of pathogen transmission and hand hygiene - use of a new head-mounted video capture and coding tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Lauren; Scotoni, Manuela; Wolfensberger, Aline; Sax, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare workers' hands are the foremost means of pathogen transmission in healthcare, but detailed hand trajectories have been insufficiently researched so far. We developed and applied a new method to systematically document hand-to-surface exposures (HSE) to delineate true hand transmission pathways in real-life healthcare settings. A head-mounted camera and commercial coding software were used to capture ten active care episodes by eight nurses and two physicians and code HSE type and duration using a hierarchical coding scheme. We identified HSE sequences of particular relevance to infectious risks for patients based on the WHO 'Five Moments for Hand Hygiene'. The study took place in a trauma intensive care unit in a 900-bed university hospital in Switzerland. Overall, the ten videos totaled 296.5 min and featured eight nurses and two physicians. A total of 4222 HSE were identified (1 HSE every 4.2 s), which concerned bare (79%) and gloved (21%) hands. The HSE inside the patient zone (n = 1775; 42%) included mobile objects (33%), immobile surfaces (5%), and patient intact skin (4%), while HSE outside the patient zone (n = 1953; 46%) included HCW's own body (10%), mobile objects (28%), and immobile surfaces (8%). A further 494 (12%) events involved patient critical sites. Sequential analysis revealed 291 HSE transitions from outside to inside patient zone, i.e. "colonization events", and 217 from any surface to critical sites, i.e. "infection events". Hand hygiene occurred 97 times, 14 (5% adherence) times at colonization events and three (1% adherence) times at infection events. On average, hand rubbing lasted 13 ± 9 s. The abundance of HSE underscores the central role of hands in the spread of potential pathogens while hand hygiene occurred rarely at potential colonization and infection events. Our approach produced a valid video and coding instrument for in-depth analysis of hand trajectories during active patient care that may help to design

  17. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1991-01-01

    Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

  18. Individualising Media Practice Education Using a Feedback Loop and Instructional Videos Within an eLearning Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Harris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the development and impact of the author’s TELE (Technology Enhanced Learning Environment action research project for individualising media practice education. The latest iteration of different classroom methodologies being employed to develop high-level skills in media production, the author has combined an interactive eLearning approach with instructional videos and, crucially, an individual feedback loop in order to widen access to the curriculum and create a more efficient teaching and learning environment. The focus therefore is on student engagement and organisational efficiencies as a result of the research. It should be noted that there has been no funding attached to this work, nor are there any institutional imperatives or other stakeholder involvement in this research. This project has been undertaken by the author as an evolutionary development of the various methodologies developed, cognisant of the increased technology literacy of the student cohort. The educational benefit of bringing video instruction into the curriculum as part of the project is examined as a creative pedagogy of direct benefit to students rather than as a subliminal marketing tool that other systems are often used for. Over 16K words of written data was collected during the project, and this is analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively with reference to the initial objectives of the research

  19. Transmission of compressed video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, H. L.

    1990-09-01

    An overview of video coding is presented. The aim is not to give a technical summary of possible coding techniques, but to address subjects related to video compression in general and to the transmission of compressed video in more detail. Bit rate reduction is in general possible by removing redundant information; removing information the eye does not use anyway; and reducing the quality of the video. The codecs which are used for reducing the bit rate, can be divided into two groups: Constant Bit rate Codecs (CBC's), which keep the bit rate constant, but vary the video quality; and Variable Bit rate Codecs (VBC's), which keep the video quality constant by varying the bit rate. VBC's can be in general reach a higher video quality than CBC's using less bandwidth, but need a transmission system that allows the bandwidth of a connection to fluctuate in time. The current and the next generation of the PSTN does not allow this; ATM might. There are several factors which influence the quality of video: the bit error rate of the transmission channel, slip rate, packet loss rate/packet insertion rate, end-to-end delay, phase shift between voice and video, and bit rate. Based on the bit rate of the coded video, the following classification of coded video can be made: High Definition Television (HDTV); Broadcast Quality Television (BQTV); video conferencing; and video telephony. The properties of these classes are given. The video conferencing and video telephony equipment available now and in the next few years can be divided into three categories: conforming to 1984 CCITT standard for video conferencing; conforming to 1988 CCITT standard; and conforming to no standard.

  20. Instructional DVD video lesson with code switching: its effect on the performance level in dancing social dance among grade 10 special program in the art students of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capilitan Fernando T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the experimental group who are exposed to DVD Video Lesson that uses code switching language has an average mean score in the pretest of 1.56, and this increased to an average mean of 3.50 in the posttest. The control group that uses DVD Video Lesson that uses purely English language got an average mean of 1.06 in the pretest and increased to 1.53 in the posttest. Based on the results of the performance posttest taken by the two groups, the experimental group has a dramatic increase in scores from the pretest to posttest. Although both groups had increased in their performance scores from pretest to posttest, the experimental group (code switching language performs well in the posttest than the control group. As revealed in this findings , there is a significant difference in the posttest scores between the experimental group who are exposed to DVD lesson that uses code switching as a medium of instruction and the control group who are exposed to DVD lesson that uses English. The students who are exposed to the Video Lesson that uses code switching perform well than those students who are exposed in DVD video lesson that uses purely English language. DVD Video lesson that uses code switching as a medium of instruction in teaching social dance is the useful approach in teaching Grade 10 Special Program in the Art students. The language used (code switching is the powerful medium of instruction that enhances the learning outcomes of the students to perform well. This paper could be an eye opener to the Department of Education to inculcate the used of first language/local language or MTB-MLE, not only in Grade I to III but all level in K to 12 programs, since education is a key factor for building a better nation.

  1. Motion estimation optimization in a MPEG-1-like video coding scheme for low-bit-rate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Miguel; Villegas, Paulo

    1994-05-01

    In this paper we present a work based on a coding algorithm for visual information that follows the International Standard ISO-IEC IS 11172, `Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital Storage Media up to about 1.5 Mbit/s', widely known as MPEG1. The main intention in the definition of the MPEG 1 standard was to provide a large degree of flexibility to be used in many different applications. The interest of this paper is to adapt the MPEG 1 scheme for low bitrate operation and optimize it for special situations, as for example, a talking head with low movement, which is a usual situation in videotelephony application. An adapted and compatible MPEG 1 scheme, previously developed, able to operate at px8 Kbit/s will be used in this work. Looking for a low complexity scheme and taking into account that the most expensive (from the point of view of consumed computer time) step in the scheme is the motion estimation process (almost 80% of the total computer time is spent on the ME), an improvement of the motion estimation module based on the use of a new search pattern is presented in this paper.

  2. Immersion in the virtual environment: the effect of a musical score on the video gaming experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Scott D; Zehnder, Sean M

    2004-11-01

    This study provides one of very few experimental investigations into the impact of a musical soundtrack on the video gaming experience. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: game-with-music, game-without-music, or music-only. After playing each of three segments of The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (Electronic Arts, 2002)--or, in the music-only condition, listening to the musical score that accompanies the scene--subjects responded on 21 verbal scales. Results revealed that some, but not all, of the verbal scales exhibited a statistically significant difference due to the presence of a musical score. In addition, both gender and age level were shown to be significant factors for some, but not all, of the verbal scales. Details of the specific ways in which music affects the gaming experience are provided in the body of the paper.

  3. Creating Next Generation Blended Learning Environments Using Mixed Reality, Video Games and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkley, Sonny E.; Kirkley, Jamie R.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the challenges and issues of designing next generation learning environments using current and emerging technologies are addressed. An overview of the issues is provided as well as design principles that support the design of instruction and the overall learning environment. Specific methods for creating cognitively complex,…

  4. Robustness of Video and Image Compression in Noisy Source and Communication Channel Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jawerth, Bjorn

    1998-01-01

    ... physical and communication environments. A fundamental criterion of the "defining" phase is to apply compatibly efficient methods and to investigate relationships within the available information space that are hierarchical...

  5. Color Coded Cards for Student Behavior Management in Higher Education Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhalabi, Wadee; Alhalabi, Mobeen

    2017-01-01

    The Color Coded Cards system as a possibly effective class management tool is the focus of this research. The Color Coded Cards system involves each student being given a card with a specific color based on his or her behavior. The main objective of the research is to find out whether this system effectively improves students' behavior, thus…

  6. Spacelabs Innovative Project Award winner--2008. Megacode simulation workshop and education video--a megatonne of care and Code blue: live and interactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Lynda; Leskowski, Jessica; Fallis, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Skill acquisition and knowledge translation of best practices can be successfully facilitated using simulation methods. The 2008 Spacelabs Innovative Project Award was awarded for a unique training workshop that used simulation in the area of cardiac life support and resuscitation to train multiple health care personnel in basic and advanced skills. The megacode simulation workshop and education video was an educational event held in 2007 in Winnipeg, MB, for close to 60 participants and trainers from multiple disciplines across the provinces of Manitoba and Northwestern Ontario. The event included lectures, live simulation of a megacode, and hands-on training in the latest techniques in resuscitation. The goals of this project were to promote efficiency and better outcomes related to resuscitation measures, to foster teamwork, to emphasize the importance of each team member's role, and to improve knowledge and skills in resuscitation. The workshop was filmed to produce a training DVD that could be used for future knowledge enhancement and introductory training of health care personnel. Substantial positive feedback was received and evaluations indicated that participants reported improvement and expansion of their knowledge of advanced cardiac life support. Given their regular participation in cardiac arrest codes and the importance of staying up-to-date on best practice, the workshop was particularly useful to health care staff and nurses working in critical care areas. In addition, those who participate less frequently in cardiac resuscitation will benefit from the educational video for ongoing competency. Through accelerating knowledge translation from the literature to the bedside, it is hoped that this event contributed to improved patient care and outcomes with respect to advanced cardiac life support.

  7. Video transmission on ATM networks. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Chung

    1993-01-01

    The broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) is expected to provide high-speed and flexible multimedia applications. Multimedia includes data, graphics, image, voice, and video. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the adopted transport techniques for B-ISDN and has the potential for providing a more efficient and integrated environment for multimedia. It is believed that most broadband applications will make heavy use of visual information. The prospect of wide spread use of image and video communication has led to interest in coding algorithms for reducing bandwidth requirements and improving image quality. The major results of a study on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding are: Using two representative video sequences, several video source models are developed. The fitness of these models are validated through the use of statistical tests and network queuing performance. A dual leaky bucket algorithm is proposed as an effective network policing function. The concept of the dual leaky bucket algorithm can be applied to a prioritized coding approach to achieve transmission efficiency. A mapping of the performance/control parameters at the network level into equivalent parameters at the video coding level is developed. Based on that, a complete set of principles for the design of video codecs for network transmission is proposed.

  8. Learning Design Patterns for Hybrid Synchronous Video-Mediated Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovative learning environment where remote and face-to-face full-time general upper secondary adult students jointly participate in the same live classes at VUC Storstrøm, an adult learning centre in Denmark. The teachers developed new learning designs as a part...... of their daily practices and also participated in a design-based research project exploring new learning designs for this environment (Weitze, 2015). The teachers’ traditional learning designs were challenged, and this led to altered pedagogical approaches with less group-work and an extensive use of monologue......-based teaching. The findings were, however, that the teachers, through pedagogically innovative strategies, developed knowledge about how their pedagogical patterns in this hybrid synchronous learning situation could be supported by an array of additional educational technologies and strategies to create...

  9. The Feasibility of Web-Enabled Digitized Video in a Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    to grasp the concepts. Pavlov initially identified the first model, classical conditioning, in the salivation reflex of dogs . Salivation is an...innate reflex, or unconditioned response, to the presentation of food, an unconditioned stimulus. Pavlov showed that dogs could be conditioned to...Learning Environment 6. AUTHOR Lanier A. Westmoreland 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate

  10. Deciphering the Fluorine Code-The Many Hats Fluorine Wears in a Protein Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allison Ann; Völler, Jan-Stefan; Budisa, Nediljko; Koksch, Beate

    2017-09-19

    Deciphering the fluorine code is how we describe not only the focus of this Account, but also the systematic approach to studying the impact of fluorine's incorporation on the properties of peptides and proteins used by our groups and others. The introduction of fluorine has been shown to impart favorable, but seldom predictable, properties to peptides and proteins, but up until about two decades ago the outcomes of fluorine modification of peptides and proteins were largely left to chance. Driven by the motivation to extend the application of the unique properties of the element fluorine from medicinal and agro chemistry to peptide and protein engineering we have established extensive research programs that enable the systematic investigation of effects that accompany the introduction of fluorine into this class of biopolymers. The introduction of fluorine into amino acids offers a universe of options for modifications with regard to number and position of fluorine substituents in the amino acid side chain. Moreover, it is important to emphasize that the consequences of incorporating the C-F bond into a biopolymer can be attributed to two distinct yet related phenomena: (i) the fluorine substituent can directly engage in intermolecular interactions with its environment and/or (ii) the other functional groups present in the molecule can be influenced by the electron withdrawing nature of this element (intramolecular) and in turn interact differently with their immediate environment (intermolecular). Based on our studies, we have shown that a change in number and/or position of as subtle as one single fluorine substituent has the power to considerably modify key properties of amino acids such as hydrophobicity, polarity, and secondary structure propensity. These properties are crucial factors in peptide and protein engineering, and thus, fluorinated amino acids can be applied to fine-tune properties such as protein folding, proteolytic stability, and protein

  11. Real behavior in virtual environments: psychology experiments in a simple virtual-reality paradigm using video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Johansen, Mark K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to illustrate the broad usefulness of simple video-game-based virtual environments (VEs) for psychological research on real-world behavior. To this end, this research explored several high-level social phenomena in a simple, inexpensive computer-game environment: the reduced likelihood of helping under time pressure and the bystander effect, which is reduced helping in the presence of bystanders. In the first experiment, participants had to find the exit in a virtual labyrinth under either high or low time pressure. They encountered rooms with and without virtual bystanders, and in each room, a virtual person requested assistance. Participants helped significantly less frequently under time pressure but the presence/absence of a small number of bystanders did not significantly moderate helping. The second experiment increased the number of virtual bystanders, and participants were instructed to imagine that these were real people. Participants helped significantly less in rooms with large numbers of bystanders compared to rooms with no bystanders, thus demonstrating a bystander effect. These results indicate that even sophisticated high-level social behaviors can be observed and experimentally manipulated in simple VEs, thus implying the broad usefulness of this paradigm in psychological research as a good compromise between experimental control and ecological validity.

  12. Safety and Security in a School Environment: The Role of Dress Code Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Beth Winfrey

    2006-01-01

    This study examined high school student handbooks for evidence that school administrators consider dress codes as one strategy to address the physical and psychological security of students. "Physical" security refers to freedom from actual harm to the body. "Psychological security refers to freedom from implied threats to personal well-being.…

  13. Code-Switching in Higher Education in a Multilingual Environment: A Lebanese Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahous, Rima N.; Nabhani, Mona Baroud; Bacha, Nahla Nola

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that code-switching (CS) between languages in spoken discourse is prevalent in multilingual contexts and is used for many purposes. More recently, it has become the subject of much concern in academic contexts in negatively affecting students' language use and learning. However, while the concern has been increasing, no rigorous…

  14. low bit rate video coding low bit rate video coding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    bottom-up merging procedure is to find out motion vector of current frame by any kind of motion estimation algorithm. Once, the motion vectors are available to motion compensation module, then the bottom-up merging process is implemented in two steps. Firstly, the VBMC merges macro-block into the bigger block, and ...

  15. Do violent video games impair the effectiveness of in-game advertisements? The impact of gaming environment on brand recall, brand attitude, and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Chul; Peña, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether a violent video game impairs the effectiveness of in-game advertisements compared to a nonviolent video game. Participants recalled and evaluated in-game ads after navigating identical violent or nonviolent game scenarios. Participants' brand recall, recognition, and attitudes were comparatively lower after navigating the violent video game. Also, females in the violent game condition reported lower brand attitudes in comparison to males in the violent game condition, thus suggesting that the effects of gaming environment interacts with participants' gender. The findings supported the predictions of the limited capacity model of attention and cognitive priming effects. The results also extend previous studies on how violent media impair advertising effectiveness and provide practical implications for researchers and practitioners.

  16. Creating a YouTube-Like Collaborative Environment in Mathematics: Integrating Animated Geogebra Constructions and Student-Generated Screencast Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jill; Roulet, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the integration of student-generated GeoGebra applets and Jing screencast videos to create a YouTube-like medium for sharing in mathematics. The value of combining dynamic mathematics software and screencast videos for facilitating communication and representations in a digital era is demonstrated herein. We share our…

  17. Adaptive Multi-Layered Space-Time Block Coded Systems in Wireless Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ghadhban, Samir

    2014-12-23

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Multi-layered space-time block coded systems (MLSTBC) strike a balance between spatial multiplexing and transmit diversity. In this paper, we analyze the block error rate performance of MLSTBC. In addition, we propose an adaptive MLSTBC schemes that are capable of accommodating the channel signal-to-noise ratio variation of wireless systems by near instantaneously adapting the uplink transmission configuration. The main results demonstrate that significant effective throughput improvements can be achieved while maintaining a certain target bit error rate.

  18. SPECIAL REPORT: Creating Conference Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel F. Peden

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Capturing video at a conference is easy. Doing it so the product is useful is another matter. Many subtle problems come into play so that video and audio obtained can be used to create a final product. This article discusses what the author learned in the two years of shooting and editing video for Code4Lib conference.

  19. Transcoding-Based Error-Resilient Video Adaptation for 3G Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Safak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcoding is an effective method to provide video adaptation for heterogeneous internetwork video access and communication environments, which require the tailoring (i.e., repurposing of coded video properties to channel conditions, terminal capabilities, and user preferences. This paper presents a video transcoding system that is capable of applying a suite of error resilience tools on the input compressed video streams while controlling the output rates to provide robust communications over error-prone and bandwidth-limited 3G wireless networks. The transcoder is also designed to employ a new adaptive intra-refresh algorithm, which is responsive to the detected scene activity inherently embedded into the video content and the reported time-varying channel error conditions of the wireless network. Comprehensive computer simulations demonstrate significant improvements in the received video quality performances using the new transcoding architecture without an extra computational cost.

  20. Transcoding-Based Error-Resilient Video Adaptation for 3G Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminsoy, Sertac; Dogan, Safak; Kondoz, Ahmet M.

    2007-12-01

    Transcoding is an effective method to provide video adaptation for heterogeneous internetwork video access and communication environments, which require the tailoring (i.e., repurposing) of coded video properties to channel conditions, terminal capabilities, and user preferences. This paper presents a video transcoding system that is capable of applying a suite of error resilience tools on the input compressed video streams while controlling the output rates to provide robust communications over error-prone and bandwidth-limited 3G wireless networks. The transcoder is also designed to employ a new adaptive intra-refresh algorithm, which is responsive to the detected scene activity inherently embedded into the video content and the reported time-varying channel error conditions of the wireless network. Comprehensive computer simulations demonstrate significant improvements in the received video quality performances using the new transcoding architecture without an extra computational cost.

  1. Long-time efficacy of the surface code in the presence of a super-Ohmic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, D. A.; Novais, E.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Caldeira, A. O.

    2017-06-01

    We study the long-time evolution of a quantum memory coupled to a bosonic environment on which quantum error correction (QEC) is performed using the surface code. The memory's evolution encompasses N QEC cycles, each of them yielding a nonerror syndrome. This assumption makes our analysis independent of the recovery process. We map the expression for the time evolution of the memory onto the partition function of an equivalent statistical-mechanical spin system. In the super-Ohmic dissipation case the long-time evolution of the memory has the same behavior as the time evolution for just one QEC cycle. For this case we find analytical expressions for the critical parameters of the order-disorder phase transition of an equivalent spin system. These critical parameters determine the threshold value for the system-environment coupling below which it is possible to preserve the memory's state.

  2. The dantesque code, "Phillipps 9589" study on the state of conservation and microclimatic monitoring of the preservation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the Dante Code, catalogued at the Library of the Dante Centre of the "Frati Minori Conventuali"of Ravenna such as manuscript n. 2 and known to the international scientific community with the code: "Phillipps 9589". In detail, the study of the Code has taken into consideration the historical-artistic, diagnostic-material and environmental aspects, with reference to the analytics description and to the excutive techniques, to the characterization of the constituent materials and to the evaluation of the restoration state in relation to the microclimatic parameters of its environmental collocation. According to this, some diagnostic techniques have been carried out in order to highlight the "scriptio inferior" and to create alteration and degradation areas, therefore the aim of creating a documentation based on a digital support has been expressed, with the purpose of finding out the causes of decay and of a possible work of restoration. At last, the microclimatic monitoring has completed the analysis of the manuscript-environment system, coming at a reliable and objective evaluation of the current situation and condition.

  3. Multiview video codec based on KTA techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungdong; Kim, Donghyun; Ryu, Seungchul; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2011-03-01

    Multi-view video coding (MVC) is a video coding standard developed by MPEG and VCEG for multi-view video. It showed average PSNR gain of 1.5dB compared with view-independent coding by H.264/AVC. However, because resolutions of multi-view video are getting higher for more realistic 3D effect, high performance video codec is needed. MVC adopted hierarchical B-picture structure and inter-view prediction as core techniques. The hierarchical B-picture structure removes the temporal redundancy, and the inter-view prediction reduces the inter-view redundancy by compensated prediction from the reconstructed neighboring views. Nevertheless, MVC has inherent limitation in coding efficiency, because it is based on H.264/AVC. To overcome the limit, an enhanced video codec for multi-view video based on Key Technology Area (KTA) is proposed. KTA is a high efficiency video codec by Video Coding Expert Group (VCEG), and it was carried out for coding efficiency beyond H.264/AVC. The KTA software showed better coding gain than H.264/AVC by using additional coding techniques. The techniques and the inter-view prediction are implemented into the proposed codec, which showed high coding gain compared with the view-independent coding result by KTA. The results presents that the inter-view prediction can achieve higher efficiency in a multi-view video codec based on a high performance video codec such as HEVC.

  4. Bird-borne video-cameras show that seabird movement patterns relate to previously unrevealed proximate environment, not prey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Yann; Thiebault, Andréa; Mullers, Ralf; Pistorius, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental contexts. Here, using miniaturized video cameras and GPS tracking recorders simultaneously, we show for the first time that information on the immediate visual surroundings of a foraging seabird, the Cape...

  5. Video processing project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Globisch, R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Video processing source code for algorithms and tools used in software media pipelines (e.g. image scalers, colour converters, etc.) The currently available source code is written in C++ with their associated libraries and DirectShow- Filters....

  6. A Monte Carlo transport code study of the space radiation environment using FLUKA and ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, T; Carminati, F; Brun, R; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Empl, A; MacGibbon, J

    2001-01-01

    We report on the progress of a current study aimed at developing a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo computer simulation of the space radiation environment using advanced computer software techniques recently available at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland. By taking the next-generation computer software appearing at CERN and adapting it to known problems in the implementation of space exploration strategies, this research is identifying changes necessary to bring these two advanced technologies together. The radiation transport tool being developed is tailored to the problem of taking measured space radiation fluxes impinging on the geometry of any particular spacecraft or planetary habitat and simulating the evolution of that flux through an accurate model of the spacecraft material. The simulation uses the latest known results in low-energy and high-energy physics. The output is a prediction of the detailed nature of the radiation environment experienced in space as well a...

  7. Universal Design Criteria in Standards and Codes About Accessibility of Built Environments in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marcelo Pinto

    2016-01-01

    This paper includes some criticism in analysis of the development and implementation of the national standards for accessibility of the built environment in Brazil, i.e., the NBR9050. Currently, the 2015 version of it resembles an encyclopaedia including a variety of exotic contributions gathered historically from different sources; however, that characteristic makes it work like a puzzle that keeps alive prejudices about users' needs and disabilities. Besides, there are conflicts between recommended ideas and previous requirements from older versions. The definition of Universal Design has been published since 2004, but there is still no indication of how to make the principles work in practice. Therefore, it is very hard for city officials to assess quality of environments, and professionals have serious constraints to explore their skills further while addressing users' diversified needs. Certainly, the current NBR9050 requires further editorial work. Nevertheless, an important decision is necessary: it is important to organize information so that readers may identify in each topic whether Universal Design application can be achieved or whether the proposed technical solution may lead to construction of limited spatial adaptation and reach only some poor accommodation of users with uncommon needs. Presenting some examples in context of socially inclusive environments, the newer revised version of NBR9050 is necessary to explain about pitfalls of bad design of accessibility for discriminated disabled users. Readers should be able to establish conceptual links between the best ideas so that Universal Design could be easily understood.

  8. Indexing, Browsing, and Searching of Digital Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Alan F.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to indexing, browsing, and searching of digital video: video coding and standards; conventional approaches to accessing digital video; automatically structuring and indexing digital video; searching, browsing, and summarization; measurement and evaluation of the effectiveness of…

  9. Using video-based observation research methods in primary care health encounters to evaluate complex interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Asan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of video-based observation research methods in primary care environment and highlight important methodological considerations and provide practical guidance for primary care and human factors researchers conducting video studies to understand patient–clinician interaction in primary care settings.Methods We reviewed studies in the literature which used video methods in health care research, and we also used our own experience based on the video studies we conducted in primary care settings.Results This paper highlighted the benefits of using video techniques, such as multi-channel recording and video coding, and compared “unmanned” video recording with the traditional observation method in primary care research. We proposed a list that can be followed step by step to conduct an effective video study in a primary care setting for a given problem. This paper also described obstacles, researchers should anticipate when using video recording methods in future studies.Conclusion With the new technological improvements, video-based observation research is becoming a promising method in primary care and HFE research. Video recording has been under-utilised as a data collection tool because of confidentiality and privacy issues. However, it has many benefits as opposed to traditional observations, and recent studies using video recording methods have introduced new research areas and approaches.

  10. Using video-based observation research methods in primary care health encounters to evaluate complex interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of video-based observation research methods in primary care environment and highlight important methodological considerations and provide practical guidance for primary care and human factors researchers conducting video studies to understand patient-clinician interaction in primary care settings. We reviewed studies in the literature which used video methods in health care research, and we also used our own experience based on the video studies we conducted in primary care settings. This paper highlighted the benefits of using video techniques, such as multi-channel recording and video coding, and compared "unmanned" video recording with the traditional observation method in primary care research. We proposed a list that can be followed step by step to conduct an effective video study in a primary care setting for a given problem. This paper also described obstacles, researchers should anticipate when using video recording methods in future studies. With the new technological improvements, video-based observation research is becoming a promising method in primary care and HFE research. Video recording has been under-utilised as a data collection tool because of confidentiality and privacy issues. However, it has many benefits as opposed to traditional observations, and recent studies using video recording methods have introduced new research areas and approaches.

  11. Long-term accelerometry-triggered video monitoring and detection of tonic-clonic and clonic seizures in a home environment: Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vel, Anouk; Milosevic, Milica; Bonroy, Bert; Cuppens, Kris; Lagae, Lieven; Vanrumste, Bart; Van Huffel, Sabine; Ceulemans, Berten

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the VARIA system (video, accelerometry, and radar-induced activity recording) and validation of accelerometry-based detection algorithms for nocturnal tonic-clonic and clonic seizures developed by our team. We present the results of two patients with tonic-clonic and clonic seizures, measured for about one month in a home environment with four wireless accelerometers (ACM) attached to wrists and ankles. The algorithms were developed using wired ACM data synchronized with the gold standard video-/electroencephalography (EEG) and then run offline on the wireless ACM signals. Detection of seizures was compared with semicontinuous monitoring by professional caregivers (keeping an eye on multiple patients). The best result for the two patients was obtained with the semipatient-specific algorithm which was developed using all patients with tonic-clonic and clonic seizures in our database with wired ACM. It gave a mean sensitivity of 66.87% and false detection rate of 1.16 per night. This included 13 extra seizures detected (31%) compared with professional caregivers' observations. While the algorithms were previously validated in a controlled video/EEG monitoring unit with wired sensors, we now show the first results of long-term, wireless testing in a home environment.

  12. From M.C. Escher to Mass Effect: impossible spaces and hyper-real worlds in video games. How can hyper-real worlds be designed and interpreted in a 2D, 2.5D and 3D virtual environment and how will this implementation affect the stereoscopic 3D video games of the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Petrovits

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Game developers, even during the early years of game design, have always searched for new and interesting ways of creating more elaborate, immersive and realistic environments for their video games.

  13. Metal isotope coded profiling of organic ligands by mass spectrometry in aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichard, Thomas; Deicke, Michael; Frieder Mohr, Jan; Klein, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Metal isotope coded profiling (MICP) introduces a universal discovery platform for metal chelating natural products that act as metallophores, ion buffers or sequestering agents. The detection of cation and oxoanion complexing ligands is facilitated by the identification of unique isotopic signatures created by the application of isotopically pure metals. We present a targeted analysis of low-molecular-weight organic ligands based on fast UHPLC-ESI-MS measurements. Replacement of, for example, natural iron or molybdenum with isotopically pure 54Fe/58Fe (ratio 1:1) or 95Mo/98Mo (ratio 1:1) causes easily detectable unique isotopic signatures in the mass spectra of potential metal-complexing ligands. This can be achieved under laboratory conditions not only in growth media, but also by spiking directly aqueous samples or solid-phase extracts. Importantly, as the relative affinity of the metallophores for e.g., Mo or Fe is dependent on the pH, all experiments needs to be conducted under pH-controlled conditions. The improved ionization efficiency of some metal complexes helps to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio compared to the free ligand at the same chromatographic conditions. The methodology does not necessarily depend on HR-ESI-MS measurements (e.g., Q-Exactive Orbitrap) and can be applied to any mass spectrometer. With MICP, two birds can be killed with one stone: (i) the identification of metallophores (e.g., siderophores, molybdophores) for metal uptake by any organism and (ii) organic ligands which solely work as metal buffer in dissolved organic matter (DOM). We currently address following two main research lines: First, DOM has often been used as a proxy for bio-productivity in terms of a carbon source; however, the specific impact of DOM as a "metal buffer" for biological processes is still under-investigated. Upon the administration of individual isotopes or isotopic pairs, for example, 54Fe/58Fe, 63Cu/65Cu, 66Zn/68Zn, or 95Mo/98Mo and subsequent

  14. Design and implementation of embedded hardware accelerator for diagnosing HDL-CODE in assertion-based verification environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. U. Ngene

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of assertions for monitoring the designer’s intention in hardware description language (HDL model is gaining popularity as it helps the designer to observe internal errors at the output ports of the device under verification. During verification assertions are synthesised and the generated data are represented in a tabular forms. The amount of data generated can be enormous depending on the size of the code and the number of modules that constitute the code. Furthermore, to manually inspect these data and diagnose the module with functional violation is a time consuming process which negatively affects the overall product development time. To locate the module with functional violation within acceptable diagnostic time, the data processing and analysis procedure must be accelerated. In this paper a multi-array processor (hardware accelerator was designed and implemented in Virtex6 field programmable gate array (FPGA and it can be integrated into verification environment. The design was captured in very high speed integrated circuit HDL (VHDL. The design was synthesised with Xilinx design suite ISE 13.1 and simulated with Xilinx ISIM. The multi-array processor (MAP executes three logical operations (AND, OR, XOR and a one’s compaction operation on array of data in parallel. An improvement in processing and analysis time was recorded as compared to the manual procedure after the multi-array processor was integrated into the verification environment. It was also found that the multi-array processor which was developed as an Intellectual Property (IP core can also be used in applications where output responses and golden model that are represented in the form of matrices can be compared for searching, recognition and decision-making.

  15. MagRad: A code to optimize the operation of superconducting magnets in a radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeaw, Christopher T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A powerful computational tool, called MagRad, has been developed which optimizes magnet design for operation in radiation fields. Specifically, MagRad has been used for the analysis and design modification of the cable-in-conduit conductors of the TF magnet systems in fusion reactor designs. Since the TF magnets must operate in a radiation environment which damages the material components of the conductor and degrades their performance, the optimization of conductor design must account not only for start-up magnet performance, but also shut-down performance. The degradation in performance consists primarily of three effects: reduced stability margin of the conductor; a transition out of the well-cooled operating regime; and an increased maximum quench temperature attained in the conductor. Full analysis of the magnet performance over the lifetime of the reactor includes: radiation damage to the conductor, stability, protection, steady state heat removal, shielding effectiveness, optimal annealing schedules, and finally costing of the magnet and reactor. Free variables include primary and secondary conductor geometric and compositional parameters, as well as fusion reactor parameters. A means of dealing with the radiation damage to the conductor, namely high temperature superconductor anneals, is proposed, examined, and demonstrated to be both technically feasible and cost effective. Additionally, two relevant reactor designs (ITER CDA and ARIES-II/IV) have been analyzed. Upon addition of pure copper strands to the cable, the ITER CDA TF magnet design was found to be marginally acceptable, although much room for both performance improvement and cost reduction exists. A cost reduction of 10-15% of the capital cost of the reactor can be achieved by adopting a suitable superconductor annealing schedule. In both of these reactor analyses, the performance predictive capability of MagRad and its associated costing techniques have been demonstrated.

  16. An Integrated Textbook, Video, and Software Environment for Novice and Expert Prolog Programmers. Technical Report No. 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, Marc; Brayshaw, Mike

    This paper describes a Prolog execution model which serves as the uniform basis of textbook material, video-based teaching material, and an advanced graphical user interface for Prolog programmers. The model, based upon an augmented AND/OR tree representation of Prolog programs, uses an enriched "status box" in place of the traditional…

  17. A video annotation methodology for interactive video sequence generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Lindley; R.A. Earnshaw; J.A. Vince

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe FRAMES project within the RDN CRC (Cooperative Research Centre for Research Data Networks) has developed an experimental environment for dynamic virtual video sequence synthesis from databases of video data. A major issue for the development of dynamic interactive video applications

  18. Video-recorded simulated patient interactions: can they help develop clinical and communication skills in today's learning environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Gretchen A; Brown, Debora

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to provide real-world learning experiences for students to master clinical and communication skills. The purpose of this paper is to describe a novel instructional method using self- and peer-assessment, reflection, and technology to help students develop effective interpersonal and clinical skills. The teaching method is described by the constructivist learning theory and incorporates the use of educational technology. The learning activities were incorporated into the pre-clinical didactic curriculum. The students participated in two video-recording assignments and performed self-assessments on each and had a peer-assessment on the second video-recording. The learning activity was evaluated through the self- and peer-assessments and an instructor-designed survey. This evaluation identified several themes related to the assignment, student performance, clinical behaviors and establishing rapport. Overall the students perceived that the learning activities assisted in the development of clinical and communication skills prior to direct patient care. The use of video recordings of a simulated history and examination is a unique learning activity for preclinical PT students in the development of clinical and communication skills.

  19. Digital video transcoding for transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Huifang; Chen, Xuemin

    2004-01-01

    Professionals in the video and multimedia industries need a book that explains industry standards for video coding and how to convert the compressed information between standards. Digital Video Transcoding for Transmission and Storage answers this demand while also supplying the theories and principles of video compression and transcoding technologies. Emphasizing digital video transcoding techniques, this book summarizes its content via examples of practical methods for transcoder implementation. It relates almost all of its featured transcoding technologies to practical applications.This vol

  20. Quality scalable video data stream

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, T.; Kirchhoffer, H.; Schwarz, H

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus for generating a quality-scalable video data stream (36) is described which comprises means (42) for coding a video signal (18) using block-wise transformation to obtain transform blocks (146, 148) of transformation coefficient values for a picture (140) of the video signal, a predetermined scan order (154, 156, 164, 166) with possible scan positions being defined among the transformation coefficient values within the transform blocks so that in each transform block, for each pos...

  1. Virtual environments for the transfer of navigation skills in the blind: a comparison of directed instruction vs. video game based learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Erin C.; Chrastil, Elizabeth R.; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B.

    2014-01-01

    For profoundly blind individuals, navigating in an unfamiliar building can represent a significant challenge. We investigated the use of an audio-based, virtual environment called Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) that can be explored for the purposes of learning the layout of an unfamiliar, complex indoor environment. Furthermore, we compared two modes of interaction with AbES. In one group, blind participants implicitly learned the layout of a target environment while playing an exploratory, goal-directed video game. By comparison, a second group was explicitly taught the same layout following a standard route and instructions provided by a sighted facilitator. As a control, a third group interacted with AbES while playing an exploratory, goal-directed video game however, the explored environment did not correspond to the target layout. Following interaction with AbES, a series of route navigation tasks were carried out in the virtual and physical building represented in the training environment to assess the transfer of acquired spatial information. We found that participants from both modes of interaction were able to transfer the spatial knowledge gained as indexed by their successful route navigation performance. This transfer was not apparent in the control participants. Most notably, the game-based learning strategy was also associated with enhanced performance when participants were required to find alternate routes and short cuts within the target building suggesting that a ludic-based training approach may provide for a more flexible mental representation of the environment. Furthermore, outcome comparisons between early and late blind individuals suggested that greater prior visual experience did not have a significant effect on overall navigation performance following training. Finally, performance did not appear to be associated with other factors of interest such as age, gender, and verbal memory recall. We conclude that the highly interactive

  2. Virtual environments for the transfer of navigation skills in the blind: a comparison of directed instruction vs. video game based learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Erin C; Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-01-01

    For profoundly blind individuals, navigating in an unfamiliar building can represent a significant challenge. We investigated the use of an audio-based, virtual environment called Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) that can be explored for the purposes of learning the layout of an unfamiliar, complex indoor environment. Furthermore, we compared two modes of interaction with AbES. In one group, blind participants implicitly learned the layout of a target environment while playing an exploratory, goal-directed video game. By comparison, a second group was explicitly taught the same layout following a standard route and instructions provided by a sighted facilitator. As a control, a third group interacted with AbES while playing an exploratory, goal-directed video game however, the explored environment did not correspond to the target layout. Following interaction with AbES, a series of route navigation tasks were carried out in the virtual and physical building represented in the training environment to assess the transfer of acquired spatial information. We found that participants from both modes of interaction were able to transfer the spatial knowledge gained as indexed by their successful route navigation performance. This transfer was not apparent in the control participants. Most notably, the game-based learning strategy was also associated with enhanced performance when participants were required to find alternate routes and short cuts within the target building suggesting that a ludic-based training approach may provide for a more flexible mental representation of the environment. Furthermore, outcome comparisons between early and late blind individuals suggested that greater prior visual experience did not have a significant effect on overall navigation performance following training. Finally, performance did not appear to be associated with other factors of interest such as age, gender, and verbal memory recall. We conclude that the highly interactive

  3. Video microblogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....

  4. Low complexity hevc intra coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Coll, José Damián

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, much research has focused on the development and optimization of video codecs for media distribution to end-users via the Internet, broadcasts or mobile networks, but also for videoconferencing and for the recording on optical disks for media distribution. Most of the video coding standards for delivery are characterized by using a high efficiency hybrid schema, based on inter-prediction coding for temporal picture decorrelation, and intra-prediction coding for spat...

  5. Effects of Mode of Target Task Selection on Learning about Plants in a Mobile Learning Environment: Effortful Manual Selection versus Effortless QR-Code Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of effortless selection of target plants using quick respond (QR) code technology to effortful manual search and selection of target plants on learning about plants in a mobile device supported learning environment. In addition, it was investigated whether the effectiveness of the 2 selection methods was…

  6. Representing videos in tangible products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageth, Reiner; Weiting, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    Videos can be taken with nearly every camera, digital point and shoot cameras, DSLRs as well as smartphones and more and more with so-called action cameras mounted on sports devices. The implementation of videos while generating QR codes and relevant pictures out of the video stream via a software implementation was contents in last years' paper. This year we present first data about what contents is displayed and how the users represent their videos in printed products, e.g. CEWE PHOTOBOOKS and greeting cards. We report the share of the different video formats used, the number of images extracted out of the video in order to represent the video, the positions in the book and different design strategies compared to regular books.

  7. Video demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.

  8. Research on key technologies in multiview video and interactive multiview video streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Xiu, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Emerging video applications are being developed where multiple views of a scene are captured. Two central issues in the deployment of future multiview video (MVV) systems are compression efficiency and interactive video experience, which makes it necessary to develop advanced technologies on multiview video coding (MVC) and interactive multiview video streaming (IMVS). The former aims at efficient compression of all MVV data in a ratedistortion (RD) optimal manner by exploiting both temporal ...

  9. On the Combination of Multi-Layer Source Coding and Network Coding for Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a mutually beneficial interplay between network coding and scalable video source coding in order to propose an energy-efficient video streaming approach accommodating multiple heterogeneous receivers, for which current solutions are either inefficient or insufficient. State...... support of multi-resolution video streaming....

  10. Mutual-probability prediction and higher-order correlation effects among acoustic, light and electromagnetic waves in a video display terminal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Hitoshi; Ikuta, Akira

    2005-08-01

    A probabilistic signal processing method, with which is possible to get some methodological suggestion to the measurement method of correlative and/or accumulative effects in the compound environment of sound, light and electromagnetic (EM) waves is discussed. In order to extract various types of latent interrelation characteristics among wave environmental factors leaked from an actually operating video display terminal (VDT), an extended regression system model, hierarchically reflecting not only linear correlation information but also nonlinear correlation information, is first introduced, especially from a viewpoint of 'relationism-first'. Then, through estimating each regression parameter of this model, some original evaluation methods for predicting a whole probability distribution form, from one another, are proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of the methods is experimentally confirmed, by applying them to the actual observed data leaked by a VDT with some television games. To cite this article: M. Ohta et al., C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  11. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  12. Reading the Second Code: Mapping Epigenomes to Understand Plant Growth, Development, and Adaptation to the Environment[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We have entered a new era in agricultural and biomedical science made possible by remarkable advances in DNA sequencing technologies. The complete sequence of an individual’s set of chromosomes (collectively, its genome) provides a primary genetic code for what makes that individual unique, just as the contents of every personal computer reflect the unique attributes of its owner. But a second code, composed of “epigenetic” layers of information, affects the accessibility of the stored information and the execution of specific tasks. Nature’s second code is enigmatic and must be deciphered if we are to fully understand and optimize the genetic potential of crop plants. The goal of the Epigenomics of Plants International Consortium is to crack this second code, and ultimately master its control, to help catalyze a new green revolution. PMID:22751210

  13. Digital video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike

    2004-04-01

    The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.

  14. Performance analysis of variable code rate signals transmitted over frequency-nonselective, slowly fading channels in a pulse-interference environment

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Wan-Chun

    2005-01-01

    Wireless systems, including wireless local area networks (WLAN) and cellular networks, are increasingly being used for both commercial and military applications. For military applications, it is important to analyze the effect of interference on wireless communications systems. The objective of this research is to investigate the performance of variable code rate signals transmitted over frequency-nonselective, slowly fading channels in a worst case, pulse-noise interference environment. ...

  15. Open-source tool for automatic import of coded surveying data to multiple vector layers in GIS environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Stopková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a tool that enables import of the coded data in a singletext file to more than one vector layers (including attribute tables, together withautomatic drawing of line and polygon objects and with optional conversion toCAD. Python script v.in.survey is available as an add-on for open-source softwareGRASS GIS (GRASS Development Team. The paper describes a case study basedon surveying at the archaeological mission at Tell-el Retaba (Egypt. Advantagesof the tool (e.g. significant optimization of surveying work and its limits (demandson keeping conventions for the points’ names coding are discussed here as well.Possibilities of future development are suggested (e.g. generalization of points’names coding or more complex attribute table creation.

  16. Compression of mixed video and graphics images for TV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaar-Mitrea, Mihaela; de With, Peter H. N.

    1998-01-01

    The diversity in TV images has augmented with the increased application of computer graphics. In this paper we study z coding system that supports both the lossless coding of such graphics data and regular lossy video compression. The lossless coding techniques are based on runlength and arithmetical coding. For video compression, we introduce a simple block predictive coding technique featuring individual pixel access, so that it enables a gradual shift from lossless coding of graphics to the lossy coding of video. An overall bit rate control completes the system. Computer simulations show a very high quality with a compression factor between 2-3.

  17. No-reference pixel based video quality assessment for HEVC decoded video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a No-Reference (NR) Video Quality Assessment (VQA) method for videos subject to the distortion given by the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) scheme. The assessment is performed without access to the bitstream. The proposed analysis is based on the transform coefficients...

  18. mGrid: a load-balanced distributed computing environment for the remote execution of the user-defined Matlab code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Almeida, Jonas S

    2006-03-15

    Matlab, a powerful and productive language that allows for rapid prototyping, modeling and simulation, is widely used in computational biology. Modeling and simulation of large biological systems often require more computational resources then are available on a single computer. Existing distributed computing environments like the Distributed Computing Toolbox, MatlabMPI, Matlab*G and others allow for the remote (and possibly parallel) execution of Matlab commands with varying support for features like an easy-to-use application programming interface, load-balanced utilization of resources, extensibility over the wide area network, and minimal system administration skill requirements. However, all of these environments require some level of access to participating machines to manually distribute the user-defined libraries that the remote call may invoke. mGrid augments the usual process distribution seen in other similar distributed systems by adding facilities for user code distribution. mGrid's client-side interface is an easy-to-use native Matlab toolbox that transparently executes user-defined code on remote machines (i.e. the user is unaware that the code is executing somewhere else). Run-time variables are automatically packed and distributed with the user-defined code and automated load-balancing of remote resources enables smooth concurrent execution. mGrid is an open source environment. Apart from the programming language itself, all other components are also open source, freely available tools: light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server. Transparent, load-balanced distribution of user-defined Matlab toolboxes and rapid prototyping of many simple parallel applications can now be done with a single easy-to-use Matlab command. Because mGrid utilizes only Matlab, light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server, installation and configuration are very simple. Moreover, the web-based infrastructure of mGrid allows for it to be easily extensible over

  19. mGrid: A load-balanced distributed computing environment for the remote execution of the user-defined Matlab code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jonas S

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matlab, a powerful and productive language that allows for rapid prototyping, modeling and simulation, is widely used in computational biology. Modeling and simulation of large biological systems often require more computational resources then are available on a single computer. Existing distributed computing environments like the Distributed Computing Toolbox, MatlabMPI, Matlab*G and others allow for the remote (and possibly parallel execution of Matlab commands with varying support for features like an easy-to-use application programming interface, load-balanced utilization of resources, extensibility over the wide area network, and minimal system administration skill requirements. However, all of these environments require some level of access to participating machines to manually distribute the user-defined libraries that the remote call may invoke. Results mGrid augments the usual process distribution seen in other similar distributed systems by adding facilities for user code distribution. mGrid's client-side interface is an easy-to-use native Matlab toolbox that transparently executes user-defined code on remote machines (i.e. the user is unaware that the code is executing somewhere else. Run-time variables are automatically packed and distributed with the user-defined code and automated load-balancing of remote resources enables smooth concurrent execution. mGrid is an open source environment. Apart from the programming language itself, all other components are also open source, freely available tools: light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server. Conclusion Transparent, load-balanced distribution of user-defined Matlab toolboxes and rapid prototyping of many simple parallel applications can now be done with a single easy-to-use Matlab command. Because mGrid utilizes only Matlab, light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server, installation and configuration are very simple. Moreover, the web

  20. Video games

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  1. Video surveillance system based on MPEG-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Zhang, Guoping; Yang, Zongkai

    2008-03-01

    Multimedia technology and networks protocol are the basic technology of the video surveillance system. A network remote video surveillance system based on MPEG-4 video coding standards is designed and implemented in this paper. The advantages of the MPEG-4 are analyzed in detail in the surveillance field, and then the real-time protocol and real-time control protocol (RTP/RTCP) are chosen as the networks transmission protocol. The whole system includes video coding control module, playing back module, network transmission module and network receiver module The scheme of management, control and storage about video data are discussed. The DirectShow technology is used to playback video data. The transmission scheme of digital video processing in networks, RTP packaging of MPEG-4 video stream is discussed. The receiver scheme of video date and mechanism of buffer are discussed. The most of the functions are archived by software, except that the video coding control module is achieved by hardware. The experiment results show that it provides good video quality and has the real-time performance. This system can be applied into wide fields.

  2. Rate-Adaptive Video Compression (RAVC) Universal Video Stick (UVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hench, David L.

    2009-05-01

    The H.264 video compression standard, aka MPEG 4 Part 10 aka Advanced Video Coding (AVC) allows new flexibility in the use of video in the battlefield. This standard necessitates encoder chips to effectively utilize the increased capabilities. Such chips are designed to cover the full range of the standard with designers of individual products given the capability of selecting the parameters that differentiate a broadcast system from a video conferencing system. The SmartCapture commercial product and the Universal Video Stick (UVS) military versions are about the size of a thumb drive with analog video input and USB (Universal Serial Bus) output and allow the user to select the parameters of imaging to the. Thereby, allowing the user to select video bandwidth (and video quality) using four dimensions of quality, on the fly, without stopping video transmission. The four dimensions are: 1) spatial, change from 720 pixel x 480 pixel to 320 pixel x 360 pixel to 160 pixel x 180 pixel, 2) temporal, change from 30 frames/ sec to 5 frames/sec, 3) transform quality with a 5 to 1 range, 4) and Group of Pictures (GOP) that affects noise immunity. The host processor simply wraps the H.264 network abstraction layer packets into the appropriate network packets. We also discuss the recently adopted scalable amendment to H.264 that will allow limit RAVC at any point in the communication chain by throwing away preselected packets.

  3. Spatial resolution enhancement residual coding using hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the increasing demands of video communication that motivates researchers to develop cutting- edge algorithms. All the video coding standards, to date, make use of various ... quantization and entropy coding to minimize spatio- temporal, intra-frame, visual, and statistical redundancies, respectively. Intra and inter prediction.

  4. 61214++++','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="+++++https://jual.nipissingu.ca/wp-content/uploads/sites/25/2014/06/v61214.m4v">61214++++">Jailed - Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron CULBERT

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As the public education system in Northern Ontario continues to take a downward spiral, a plethora of secondary school students are being placed in an alternative educational environment. Juxtaposing the two educational settings reveals very similar methods and characteristics of educating our youth as opposed to using a truly alternative approach to education. This video reviews the relationship between public education and alternative education in a remote Northern Ontario setting. It is my belief that the traditional methods of teaching are not appropriate in educating at risk students in alternative schools. Paper and pencil worksheets do not motivate these students to learn and succeed. Alternative education should emphasize experiential learning, a just in time curriculum based on every unique individual and the students true passion for everyday life. Cameron Culbert was born on February 3rd, 1977 in North Bay, Ontario. His teenage years were split between attending public school and his willed curriculum on the ski hill. Culbert spent 10 years (1996-2002 & 2006-2010 competing for Canada as an alpine ski racer. His passion for teaching and coaching began as an athlete and has now transferred into the classroom and the community. As a graduate of Nipissing University (BA, BEd, MEd. Camerons research interests are alternative education, physical education and technology in the classroom. Currently Cameron is an active educator and coach in Northern Ontario.

  5. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  6. Build Less Code, Deliver More Science: An Experience Report on Composing Scientific Environments using Component-based and Commodity Software Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Liu, Yan [Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, (Canada).; Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Elsethagen, Todd O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division

    2013-07-17

    Modern scientific software is daunting in its diversity and complexity. From massively parallel simulations running on the world’s largest supercomputers, to visualizations and user support environments that manage ever growing complex data collections, the challenges for software engineers are plentiful. While high performance simulators are necessarily specialized codes to maximize performance on specific supercomputer architectures, we argue the vast majority of supporting infrastructure, data management and analysis tools can leverage commodity open source and component-based technologies. This approach can significantly drive down the effort and costs of building complex, collaborative scientific user environments, as well as increase their reliability and extensibility. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating an initial user environment for scientists involved in modeling the detailed effects of climate change on the environment of selected geographical regions. Our approach composes the user environment using the Velo scientific knowledge management platform and the MeDICi Integration Framework for scientific workflows. These established platforms leverage component-based technologies and extend commodity open source platforms with abstractions and capabilities that make them amenable for broad use in science. Using this approach we were able to deliver an operational user environment capable of running thousands of simulations in a 7 month period, and achieve significant software reuse.

  7. Video Malware - Behavioral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeepsinh Dodia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The counts of malware attacks exploiting the internet increasing day by day and has become a serious threat. The latest malware spreading out through the media players embedded using the video clip of funny in nature to lure the end users. Once it is executed and installed then the behavior of the malware is in the malware authors hand. The spread of the malware emulates through Internet USB drives sharing of the files and folders can be anything which makes presence concealed. The funny video named as it connected to the film celebrity where the malware variant was collected from the laptop of the terror outfit organization .It runs in the backend which it contains malicious code which steals the user sensitive information like banking credentials username amp password and send it to the remote host user called command amp control. The stealed data is directed to the email encapsulated in the malicious code. The potential malware will spread through the USB and other devices .In summary the analysis reveals the presence of malicious code in executable video file and its behavior.

  8. Beat the Fear of Public Speaking: Mobile 360° Video Virtual Reality Exposure Training in Home Environment Reduces Public Speaking Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupar-Rutenfrans, Snežana; Ketelaars, Loes E H; van Gisbergen, Marnix S

    2017-10-01

    With this article, we aim to increase our understanding of how mobile virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) can help reduce speaking anxiety. Using the results of a longitudinal study, we examined the effect of a new VRET strategy (Public Speech Trainer, PST), that incorporates 360° live recorded VR environments, on the reduction of public speaking anxiety. The PST was developed as a 360° smartphone application for a VR head-mounted device that participants could use at home. Realistic anxiety experiences were created by means of live 360° video recordings of a lecture hall containing three training sessions based on graded exposure framework; empty classroom (a) and with a small (b) and large audience (c). Thirty-five students participated in all sessions using PST. Anxiety levels were measured before and after each session over a period of 4 weeks. As expected, speaking anxiety significantly decreased after the completion of all PST sessions, and the decrement was the strongest in participants with initially high speaking anxiety baseline levels. Results also revealed that participants with moderate and high speaking anxiety baseline level differ in the anxiety state pattern over time. Conclusively and in line with habituation theory, the results supported the notion that VRET is more effective when aimed at reducing high-state anxiety levels. Further implications for future research and improvement of current VRET strategies are discussed.

  9. Data Partitioning Technique for Improved Video Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amin Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.

  10. Automatic Traffic Data Collection under Varying Lighting and Temperature Conditions in Multimodal Environments: Thermal versus Visible Spectrum Video-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based monitoring systems using visible spectrum (regular video cameras can complement or substitute conventional sensors and provide rich positional and classification data. Although new camera technologies, including thermal video sensors, may improve the performance of digital video-based sensors, their performance under various conditions has rarely been evaluated at multimodal facilities. The purpose of this research is to integrate existing computer vision methods for automated data collection and evaluate the detection, classification, and speed measurement performance of thermal video sensors under varying lighting and temperature conditions. Thermal and regular video data was collected simultaneously under different conditions across multiple sites. Although the regular video sensor narrowly outperformed the thermal sensor during daytime, the performance of the thermal sensor is significantly better for low visibility and shadow conditions, particularly for pedestrians and cyclists. Retraining the algorithm on thermal data yielded an improvement in the global accuracy of 48%. Thermal speed measurements were consistently more accurate than for the regular video at daytime and nighttime. Thermal video is insensitive to lighting interference and pavement temperature, solves issues associated with visible light cameras for traffic data collection, and offers other benefits such as privacy, insensitivity to glare, storage space, and lower processing requirements.

  11. Watermarking textures in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  12. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction ...

  13. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment by HEVC Codec Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    the transform coefficients, estimates the distortion, and assesses the video quality. The proposed scheme generates VQA features based on Intra coded frames, and then maps features using an Elastic Net to predict subjective video quality. A set of HEVC coded 4K UHD sequences are tested. Results show......This paper proposes a No-Reference (NR) Video Quality Assessment (VQA) method for videos subject to the distortion given by High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). The proposed assessment can be performed either as a BitstreamBased (BB) method or as a Pixel-Based (PB). It extracts or estimates...

  14. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment using MPEG Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for No-Reference (NR) Video Quality Assessment (VQA) for decoded video without access to the bitstream. This is achieved by extracting and pooling features from a NR image quality assessment method used frame by frame. We also present methods to identify the video coding...... and estimate the video coding parameters for MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC which can be used to improve the VQA. The analysis differs from most other video coding analysis methods since it is without access to the bitstream. The results show that our proposed method is competitive with other recent NR VQA methods...

  15. HEVC performance and complexity for 4K video

    OpenAIRE

    Bross, Benjamin; George, Valeri; Álvarez-Mesa, Mauricio; Mayer, Tobias; Chi, Chi Ching; Brandenburg, Jens; Schierl, Thomas; Marpe, Detlev; Juurlink, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The recently finalized High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard was jointly developed by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) to improve the compression performance of current video coding standards by 50%. Especially when it comes to transmit high resolution video like 4K over the internet or in broadcast, the 50% bitrate reduction is essential. This paper shows that real-time decoding of 4K video with a frame-level parallel deco...

  16. Mapping coral and sponge habitats on a shelf-depth environment using multibeam sonar and ROV video observations: Learmonth Bank, northern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Bárbara M.; Du Preez, Cherisse; Edinger, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to locate and map deep-water coral and sponge habitats are essential for the effective management and conservation of these vulnerable marine ecosystems. Here we test the applicability of a simple multibeam sonar classification method developed for fjord environments to map the distribution of shelf-depth substrates and gorgonian coral- and sponge-dominated biotopes. The studied area is a shelf-depth feature Learmonth Bank, northern British Columbia, Canada and the method was applied aiming to map primarily non-reef forming coral and sponge biotopes. Aside from producing high-resolution maps (5 m2 raster grid), biotope-substrate associations were also investigated. A multibeam sonar survey yielded bathymetry, acoustic backscatter strength and slope. From benthic video transects recorded by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) six primary substrate types and twelve biotope categories were identified, defined by the primary sediment and dominant biological structure, respectively. Substrate and biotope maps were produced using a supervised classification mostly based on the inter-quartile range of the acoustic variables for each substrate type and biotope. Twenty-five percent of the video observations were randomly reserved for testing the classification accuracy. The dominant biotope-defining corals were red tree coral Primnoa pacifica and small styasterids, of which Stylaster parageus was common. Demosponges and hexactinellid sponges were frequently observed but no sponge reefs were observed. The substrate classification readily distinguished fine sediment, Sand and Bedrock from the other substrate types, but had greater difficulty distinguishing Bedrock from Boulders and Cobble. The biotope classification accurately identified Gardens (dense aggregations of sponges and corals) and Primnoa-dominated biotopes (67% accuracy), but most other biotopes had lower accuracies. There was a significant correspondence between Learmonth's biotopes and substrate types

  17. Video Content Foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Ynze; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Enser, Peter; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Smeulders, Arnold W.M.

    2004-01-01

    With information systems, the real design problem is not increased access to information, but greater efficiency in finding useful information. In our approach to video content browsing, we try to match the browsing environment with human information processing structures by applying ideas from

  18. ToonTalk(TM)--An Animated Programming Environment for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ken

    This paper describes ToonTalk, a general-purpose concurrent programming system in which the source code is animated and the programming environment is a video game. The design objectives of ToonTalk were to create a self-teaching programming system for children that was also a very powerful and flexible programming tool. A keyboard can be used for…

  19. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  20. TRAFFIC SIGN RECOGNATION WITH VIDEO PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa AYDIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, traffic signs are aimed to be recognized and identified from a video image which is taken through a video camera. To accomplish our aim, a traffic sign recognition program has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The target traffic sign are recognized in the video image with the developed program.

  1. Computational Thinking in Constructionist Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintrop, David; Holbert, Nathan; Horn, Michael S.; Wilensky, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Video games offer an exciting opportunity for learners to engage in computational thinking in informal contexts. This paper describes a genre of learning environments called constructionist video games that are especially well suited for developing learners' computational thinking skills. These games blend features of conventional video games with…

  2. A novel 3D scalable video compression algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Siva; Subbalakshmi, Koduvayur P.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we propose a scalable video coding scheme that utilizes the embedded block coding with optimal truncation (EBCOT) compression algorithm. Three dimensional spatio-temporal decomposition of the video sequence succeeded by compression using the EBCOT generates a SNR and resolution scalable bit stream. The proposed video coding algorithm not only performs closer to the MPEG-4 video coding standard in compression efficiency but also provides better SNR and resolution scalability. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm does better than the 3-D SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchial Trees) algorithm by 1.5dB.

  3. An improvement of estimation method of source term to the environment for interfacing system LOCA for typical PWR using MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok Jung; Kim, Tae Woon; Ahn, Kwang Il [Risk and Environmental Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Interfacing-system loss-of-coolant-accident (ISLOCA) has been identified as the most hazardous accident scenario in the typical PWR plants. The present study as an effort to improve the knowledge of the source term to the environment during ISLOCA focuses on an improvement of the estimation method. The improvement was performed to take into account an effect of broken pipeline and auxiliary building structures relevant to ISLOCA. An estimation of the source term to the environment was for the OPR-1000 plants by MELOCR code version 1.8.6. The key features of the source term showed that the massive amount of fission products departed from the beginning of core degradation to the vessel breach. The release amount of fission products may be affected by the broken pipeline and the auxiliary building structure associated with release pathway.

  4. Cracking Her Codes: Understanding Shared Technology Resources as Positioning Artifacts for Power and Status in CSCL Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amber; Bannister, Nicole; Matthews, Gretchen

    2017-01-01

    There is a positive relationship between student participation in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments and improved complex problem-solving strategies, increased learning gains, higher engagement in the thinking of their peers, and an enthusiastic disposition toward groupwork. However, student participation varies from…

  5. Associations of Home and Classroom Environments with Head Start Children's Code-Related and Oral Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jisu; Schlieber, Marisa; Gregory, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    This study used data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 4-year-old cohort to examine associations among family characteristics, home and classroom environments, and the emergent literacy skills of Head Start children. Results from hierarchical linear models suggest that both family and classroom contexts play a…

  6. Video Podcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2016-01-01

    This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...

  7. The need for standards and codes to ensure an acoustically comfortable environment in multifamily housing buildings in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasek Gonzalez, Eduardo; Rodriguez Manzo, Fausto

    2002-11-01

    It is clear that almost all kinds of buildings require protection against noise and undesirable sounds, however, there are some countries where this is not yet regulated, such is the case of Mexico. Mexico City, the biggest city in the world could also be the noisiest. This is a problem which is today being debated; in fact there is no doubt that this has an important influence on the acoustic comfort conditions of dwellings, besides the habits and culture of the inhabitants, which are very different from those in the Anglo-Saxon countries. These are all details that must be taken into account in the design of an acoustic comfort standard for buildings in cities like Mexico. In this paper we deal with this problem and it suggests some recommendations to consider in a proposed acoustic comfort standard or code to be applied in the design of multifamily housing buildings in Mexico City.

  8. Priority-based methods for reducing the impact of packet loss on HEVC encoded video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2013-02-01

    The rapid growth in the use of video streaming over IP networks has outstripped the rate at which new network infrastructure has been deployed. These bandwidth-hungry applications now comprise a significant part of all Internet traffic and present major challenges for network service providers. The situation is more acute in mobile networks where the available bandwidth is often limited. Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently on track for completion in 2013. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC) for the same quality. However, there has been very little published research on HEVC streaming or the challenges of delivering HEVC streams in resource-constrained network environments. In this paper we consider the problem of adapting an HEVC encoded video stream to meet the bandwidth limitation in a mobile networks environment. Video sequences were encoded using the Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM6) for HEVC. Network abstraction layers (NAL) units were packetized, on a one NAL unit per RTP packet basis, and transmitted over a realistic hybrid wired/wireless testbed configured with dynamically changing network path conditions and multiple independent network paths from the streamer to the client. Two different schemes for the prioritisation of RTP packets, based on the NAL units they contain, have been implemented and empirically compared using a range of video sequences, encoder configurations, bandwidths and network topologies. In the first prioritisation method the importance of an RTP packet was determined by the type of picture and the temporal switching point information carried in the NAL unit header. Packets containing parameter set NAL units and video coding layer (VCL) NAL units of the instantaneous decoder refresh (IDR) and the clean random access (CRA) pictures were given the

  9. Identification of genes coding for putative wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes in terrestrial and marine environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P.; Alvarez, Adri?n F; Alvarez, H?ctor M.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of neutral lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and wax esters (WE) is catalyzed in bacteria by wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes (WS/DGAT). We investigated the diversity of genes encoding this enzyme in contrasting natural environments from Patagonia (Argentina). The content of petroleum hydrocarbons in samples collected from oil-producing areas was measured. PCR-based analysis covered WS/DGAT occurrence in marine sediments and soil. No product was obtained...

  10. Identification of genes coding for putative wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes in terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Alvarez, Adrián F; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of neutral lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and wax esters (WE) is catalyzed in bacteria by wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes (WS/DGAT). We investigated the diversity of genes encoding this enzyme in contrasting natural environments from Patagonia (Argentina). The content of petroleum hydrocarbons in samples collected from oil-producing areas was measured. PCR-based analysis covered WS/DGAT occurrence in marine sediments and soil. No product was obtained in seawater samples. All clones retrieved from marine sediments affiliated with gammaproteobacterial sequences and within them, most phylotypes formed a unique cluster related to putative WS/DGAT belonging to marine OM60 clade. In contrast, soils samples contained phylotypes only related to actinomycetes. Among them, phylotypes affiliated with representatives largely or recently reported as oleaginous bacteria, as well as with others considered as possible lipid-accumulating bacteria based on the analysis of their annotated genomes. Our study shows for the first time that the environment could contain a higher variety of ws/dgat than that reported from bacterial isolates. The results of this study highlight the relevance of the environment in a natural process such as the synthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids. Particularly, both marine sediments and soil may serve as a useful source for novel WS/DGAT with biotechnological interest.

  11. Video Classification and Adaptive QoP/QoS Control for Multiresolution Video Applications on IPTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shyh-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of heterogeneous networks and video coding standards, multiresolution video applications over networks become important. It is critical to ensure the service quality of the network for time-sensitive video services. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX is a good candidate for delivering video signals because through WIMAX the delivery quality based on the quality-of-service (QoS setting can be guaranteed. The selection of suitable QoS parameters is, however, not trivial for service users. Instead, what a video service user really concerns with is the video quality of presentation (QoP which includes the video resolution, the fidelity, and the frame rate. In this paper, we present a quality control mechanism in multiresolution video coding structures over WIMAX networks and also investigate the relationship between QoP and QoS in end-to-end connections. Consequently, the video presentation quality can be simply mapped to the network requirements by a mapping table, and then the end-to-end QoS is achieved. We performed experiments with multiresolution MPEG coding over WIMAX networks. In addition to the QoP parameters, the video characteristics, such as, the picture activity and the video mobility, also affect the QoS significantly.

  12. Bird-Borne Video-Cameras Show That Seabird Movement Patterns Relate to Previously Unrevealed Proximate Environment, Not Prey: e88424

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yann Tremblay; Andréa Thiebault; Ralf Mullers; Pierre Pistorius

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental contexts. Here, using miniaturized video cameras and GPS tracking recorders simultaneously, we show for the first time that information on the immediate visual surroundings of a foraging seabird, the Cape...

  13. Video Conferencing for a Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Fosgerau, A.; Hansen, Peter Søren K.

    2002-01-01

    A PC-based video conferencing system for a virtual seminar room is presented. The platform is enhanced with DSPs for audio and video coding and processing. A microphone array is used to facilitate audio based speaker tracking, which is used for adaptive beam-forming and automatic camera-control...

  14. Real-time data compression of broadcast video signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkauser, Mary Jo W. (Inventor); Whyte, Wayne A., Jr. (Inventor); Barnes, Scott P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A non-adaptive predictor, a nonuniform quantizer, and a multi-level Huffman coder are incorporated into a differential pulse code modulation system for coding and decoding broadcast video signals in real time.

  15. Approaches to the study of neural coding of sound source location and sound envelope in real environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, Shigeyuki; Bishop, Brian; Kim, Duck O.

    2012-01-01

    The major functions of the auditory system are recognition (what is the sound) and localization (where is the sound). Although each of these has received considerable attention, rarely are they studied in combination. Furthermore, the stimuli used in the bulk of studies did not represent sound location in real environments and ignored the effects of reverberation. Another ignored dimension is the distance of a sound source. Finally, there is a scarcity of studies conducted in unanesthetized animals. We illustrate a set of efficient methods that overcome these shortcomings. We use the virtual auditory space method (VAS) to efficiently present sounds at different azimuths, different distances and in different environments. Additionally, this method allows for efficient switching between binaural and monaural stimulation and alteration of acoustic cues singly or in combination to elucidate neural mechanisms underlying localization and recognition. Such procedures cannot be performed with real sound field stimulation. Our research is designed to address the following questions: Are IC neurons specialized to process what and where auditory information? How does reverberation and distance of the sound source affect this processing? How do IC neurons represent sound source distance? Are neural mechanisms underlying envelope processing binaural or monaural? PMID:22754505

  16. Approaches to the study of neural coding of sound source location and sound envelope in real environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki eKuwada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The major functions of the auditory system are recognition (what is the sound and localization (where is the sound. Although each of these has received considerable attention, rarely are they studied in combination. Furthermore, the stimuli used in the bulk of studies did not represent sound location in real environments and ignored the effects of reverberation. Another ignored dimension is the distance of a sound source. Finally, there is a scarcity of studies conducted in unanesthetized animals. We illustrate a set of efficient methods that overcome these shortcomings. We use the virtual auditory space method (VAS to efficiently present sounds at different azimuths, different distances and in different environments. Additionally, this method allows for efficient switching between binaural and monaural stimulation and alteration of acoustic cues singly or in combination to elucidate neural mechanisms underlying localization and recognition. Such procedures cannot be performed with real sound field stimulation. Our research is designed to address the following questions: Are IC neurons specialized to process what and where auditory information? How does reverberation and distance of the sound source affect this processing? How do IC neurons represent sound source distance? Are neural mechanisms underlying envelope processing binaural or monaural ?

  17. Mobile Video in Everyday Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Erika; Lehikoinen, Jaakko; Impiö, Jussi

    Video recording has become a spontaneous everyday activity for many people, thanks to the video capabilities of modern mobile phones. Internet connectivity of mobile phones enables fluent sharing of captured material even real-time, which makes video an up-and-coming everyday interaction medium. In this article we discuss the effect of the video camera in the social environment, everyday life situations, mainly based on a study where four groups of people used digital video cameras in their normal settings. We also reflect on another study of ours, relating to real-time mobile video communication and discuss future views. The aim of our research is to understand the possibilities in the domain of mobile video. Live and delayed sharing seem to have their special characteristics, live video being used as a virtual window between places whereas delayed video usage has more scope for good-quality content. While this novel way of interacting via mobile video enables new social patterns, it also raises new concerns for privacy and trust between participating persons in all roles, largely due to the widely spreading possibilities of videos. Video in a social situation affects cameramen (who record), targets (who are recorded), passers-by (who are unintentionally in the situation), and the audience (who follow the videos or recording situations) but also the other way around, the participants affect the video by their varying and evolving personal and communicational motivations for recording.

  18. Generic Film Forms for Dynamic Virtual Video Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Lindley

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe FRAMES project within the RDN CRC (Cooperative Research Centre for Research Data Networks) is developing an experimental environment for video content-based retrieval and dynamic virtual video synthesis from archives of video data. The FRAMES research prototype is a video synthesis

  19. SDC: Scalable description coding for adaptive streaming media

    OpenAIRE

    Quinlan, Jason J.; Zahran, Ahmed H.; Sreenan, Cormac J.

    2012-01-01

    Video compression techniques enable adaptive media streaming over heterogeneous links to end-devices. Scalable Video Coding (SVC) and Multiple Description Coding (MDC) represent well-known techniques for video compression with distinct characteristics in terms of bandwidth efficiency and resiliency to packet loss. In this paper, we present Scalable Description Coding (SDC), a technique to compromise the tradeoff between bandwidth efficiency and error resiliency without sacrificing user-percei...

  20. Akademisk video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet er...... der dog opstået nye muligheder og udfordringer i forhold til at formidle og distribuere forskningsresultater til forskellige målgrupper via video. Samtidig er klassiske metodologiske problematikker som forskerens positionering i forhold til det undersøgte stadig aktuelle. Både klassiske og nye...... problemstillinger diskuteres i kapitlet, som rammesætter diskussionen ud fra forskellige positioneringsmuligheder: formidler, historiefortæller, eller dialogist. Disse positioner relaterer sig til genrer inden for ’akademisk video’. Afslutningsvis præsenteres en metodisk værktøjskasse med redskaber til planlægning...

  1. Video outside versus video inside the web: do media setting and image size have an impact on the emotion-evoking potential of video?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verleur, R.; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Crawford, Margaret; Simonson, Michael; Lamboy, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    To explore the educational potential of video-evoked affective responses in a Web-based environment, the question was raised whether video in a Web-based environment is experienced differently from video in a traditional context. An experiment was conducted that studied the affect-evoking power of

  2. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  3. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  4. Intelligent Model for Video Survillance Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vidhya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance system senses and trails out all the threatening issues in the real time environment. It prevents from security threats with the help of visual devices which gather the information related to videos like CCTV’S and IP (Internet Protocol cameras. Video surveillance system has become a key for addressing problems in the public security. They are mostly deployed on the IP based network. So, all the possible security threats exist in the IP based application might also be the threats available for the reliable application which is available for video surveillance. In result, it may increase cybercrime, illegal video access, mishandling videos and so on. Hence, in this paper an intelligent model is used to propose security for video surveillance system which ensures safety and it provides secured access on video.

  5. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real W...

  6. Learners' Use of Communication Strategies in Text-Based and Video-Based Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication Environments: Opportunities for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Wan; Higgins, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the different learning opportunities enabled by text-based and video-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) from an interactionist perspective. Six Chinese-speaking learners of English and six English-speaking learners of Chinese were paired up as tandem (reciprocal) learning dyads. Each dyad participated…

  7. Video Resources for Learning Assistant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel; Goerzen, Renee Michelle

    2012-02-01

    The Video Resource for Learning Assistant Development is a package (under development) of thematic case-based ``video workshops,'' designed to supplement the University of Colorado's widely disseminated LA development program. In a video workshop, short, compelling video episodes are accompanied by captions, transcript, excerpts from instructional materials, and targeted discussion questions to help LAs and faculty explore the principles and values that inform instructor and student behavior. The video episodes for this project will showcase a variety of exemplary (yet real-life) LA-relevant instructional formats including Tutorials in Introductory Physics, Modeling Instruction, Investigative Science Learning Environment, and Open Source Tutorials.

  8. Layer-Optimized Streaming of Motion-Compensated Orthogonal Video

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN, Wenjie

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a layer-optimized streaming technique for delivering video content over the Internet using quality-scalable motion-compensated orthogonal video. We use Motion-Compensated Orthogonal Transforms (MCOT) to remove temporal and spatial redundancy. The resulting subbands are quantized and entropy coded by Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncations (EBCOT). Therefore, we are able to encode the input video into multiple quality layers with sequential decoding dependency. A ...

  9. Video Primal Sketch: A Unified Middle-Level Representation for Video

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Zhi; Xu, Zongben; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a middle-level video representation named Video Primal Sketch (VPS), which integrates two regimes of models: i) sparse coding model using static or moving primitives to explicitly represent moving corners, lines, feature points, etc., ii) FRAME /MRF model reproducing feature statistics extracted from input video to implicitly represent textured motion, such as water and fire. The feature statistics include histograms of spatio-temporal filters and velocity distributions. T...

  10. Fast compressed domain motion detection in H.264 video streams for video surveillance applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    numbers of video streams on a single server. The focus of the work is on using the information in coded video streams to reduce the computational complexity and memory requirements, which translates into reduced hardware requirements and costs. The devised algorithm detects and segments activity based...

  11. Fragile watermarking scheme for H.264 video authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuen-Ching; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2010-02-01

    A novel H.264 advanced video coding fragile watermarking method is proposed that enables the authenticity and integrity of the video streams to be verified. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by way of experimental simulations. The results show that by embedding the watermark information in the last nonzero-quantized coefficient in each discrete cosine transform block, the proposed scheme induces no more than a minor distortion of the video content. In addition, we show that the proposed scheme is able to detect unauthorized changes in the watermarked video content without the original video. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed video authentication system.

  12. Image content authentication based on channel coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The content authentication determines whether an image has been tampered or not, and if necessary, locate malicious alterations made on the image. Authentication on a still image or a video are motivated by recipient's interest, and its principle is that a receiver must be able to identify the source of this document reliably. Several techniques and concepts based on data hiding or steganography designed as a means for the image authentication. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The high bits of color digital image are coded by the convolution codes for the tamper detection and localization. The authentication messages are hidden in the low bits of image in order to keep the invisibility of authentication. All communications channels are subject to errors introduced because of additive Gaussian noise in their environment. Data perturbations cannot be eliminated but their effect can be minimized by the use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques in the transmitted data stream and decoders in the receiving system that detect and correct bits in error. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The message of each pixel is convolution encoded with the encoder. After the process of parity check and block interleaving, the redundant bits are embedded in the image offset. The tamper can be detected and restored need not accessing the original image.

  13. Temporal scalability comparison of the H.264/SVC and distributed video codec

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the multimedia scalable video streaming is a current topic of interest. There exist many methods for scalable video coding. This paper is focused on the scalable extension of H.264/AVC (H.264/SVC) and distributed video coding (DVC). The paper presents an efficiency comparison of SVC...

  14. Internet video-on-demand e-commerce system based on multilevel video metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiali; Jin, Jesse S.

    2000-10-01

    Video-On-Demand is a new development on the Internet. In order to manage the rich multimedia information and the large number of users, we present an Internet Video-On-Demand system with some E- Commerce flavors. This paper presents the system architecture and technologies required in the implementation. It provides interactive Video-On-Demand services in which the user has a complete control over the session presentation. It allows the user to select and receive specific video information by retrieving the database. For improving the performance of video information retrieval and management, the video information is represented by hierarchical video metadata in XML format. Video metadatabase stored the video information in this hierarchical structure and allows user to search the video shots at different semantic levels in the database. To browse the searched video, the user not only has full-function VCR capabilities as the traditional Video-On-Demand, but also can browse the video in a hierarchical method to view different shots. In order to perform management of large number of users over the Internet, a membership database designed and managed in an E-Commerce environment, which allows the user to access the video database based on different access levels.

  15. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...

  16. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...

  17. Calculation of electron dose to target cells in a complex environment by Monte Carlo code ''CELLDOSE''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindie, Elif; Moretti, Jean-Luc [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France)]|[Universite Paris 7, Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, Paris (France); Champion, Christophe [Universite Paul Verlaine, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Metz Institut de Physique, Metz (France); Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Ravasi, Laura [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DSV/I2BM/SHFJ/LIME, Orsay (France); Rubello, Domenico [Instituto Oncologico Veneto (IOV) - IRCCS, Department of Nuclear Medicine - PET Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Colas-Linhart, Nicole [Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, Laboratoire de Biophysique, Paris (France)

    2009-01-15

    We used the Monte Carlo code ''CELLDOSE'' to assess the dose received by specific target cells from electron emissions in a complex environment. {sup 131}I in a simulated thyroid was used as a model. Thyroid follicles were represented by 170{mu}m diameter spherical units made of a lumen of 150{mu}m diameter containing colloidal matter and a peripheral layer of 10{mu}m thick thyroid cells. Neighbouring follicles are 4{mu}m apart. {sup 131}I was assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the lumen and absent in cells. We firstly assessed electron dose distribution in a single follicle. Then, we expanded the simulation by progressively adding neighbouring layers of follicles, so to reassess the electron dose to this single follicle implemented with the contribution of the added layers. Electron dose gradient around a point source showed that the {sup 131}I electron dose is close to zero after 2,100{mu}m. Therefore, we studied all contributions to the central follicle deriving from follicles within 12 orders of neighbourhood (15,624 follicles surrounding the central follicle). The dose to colloid of the single follicle was twice as high as the dose to thyroid cells. Even when all neighbours were taken into account, the dose in the central follicle remained heterogeneous. For a 1-Gy average dose to tissue, the dose to colloidal matter was 1.168 Gy, the dose to thyroid cells was 0.982 Gy, and the dose to the inter-follicular tissue was 0.895 Gy. Analysis of the different contributions to thyroid cell dose showed that 17.3% of the dose derived from the colloidal matter of their own follicle, while the remaining 82.7% was delivered by the surrounding follicles. On the basis of these data, it is shown that when different follicles contain different concentrations of {sup 131}I, the impact in terms of cell dose heterogeneity can be important. By means of {sup 131}I in the thyroid as a theoretical model, we showed how a Monte Carlo code can be used to map

  18. Multimedia signal coding and transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical background of one- and multidimensional signal processing, statistical analysis and modelling, coding and information theory with regard to the principles and design of image, video and audio compression systems. The theoretical concepts are augmented by practical examples of algorithms for multimedia signal coding technology, and related transmission aspects. On this basis, principles behind multimedia coding standards, including most recent developments like High Efficiency Video Coding, can be well understood. Furthermore, potential advances in future development are pointed out. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the concepts covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia compression systems in industry.

  19. Optimal Multi-Interface Selection for Mobile Video Streaming in Efficient Battery Consumption and Data Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Moon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of high-performance, large-screen mobile devices, users’ expectations of having access to high-resolution video content in smooth network environments are steadily growing. To guarantee such stable streaming, a high cellular network bandwidth is required; yet network providers often charge high prices for even limited data plans. Moreover, the costs of smoothly streaming high-resolution videos are not merely monetary; the device’s battery life must also be accounted for. To resolve these problems, we design an optimal multi-interface selection system for streaming video over HTTP/TCP. An optimization problem including battery life and LTE data constraints is derived and then solved using binary integer programming. Additionally, the system is designed with an adoption of split-layer scalable video coding, which provides direct adaptations of video quality and prevents out-of-order packet delivery problems. The proposed system is evaluated using a prototype application in a real, iOS-based device as well as through experiments conducted in heterogeneous mobile scenarios. Results show that the system not only guarantees the highest-possible video quality, but also prevents reckless consumption of LTE data and battery life.

  20. Artificial Intelligence in Video Games: Towards a Unified Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Safadi, Firas; Fonteneau, Raphael; Ernst, Damien

    2015-01-01

    With modern video games frequently featuring sophisticated and realistic environments, the need for smart and comprehensive agents that understand the various aspects of complex environments is pressing. Since video game AI is often specifically designed for each game, video game AI tools currently focus on allowing video game developers to quickly and efficiently create specific AI. One issue with this approach is that it does not efficiently exploit the numerous similarities that exist betw...

  1. Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 polymorphisms are associated with components of energy balance in the Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics (CODING) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Thorburn, James; Gregory, Anne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2014-02-01

    The melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates energy balance and body composition in animal models. Inconsistent effects of MCHR1 polymorphisms on energy homeostasis in humans may partly be attributable to environmental factors. We examined the effect of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs133073, rs133074, rs9611386, and rs882111) in the MCHR1 gene on body composition as well as energy-related lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity). We also examined the effect of gene-lifestyle interactions on body composition. A total of 1153 participants (248 men and 905 women) from the cross-sectional Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics (CODING) study were genotyped by using probe-based chemistry validated assays. Diet and physical activity were estimated by using validated frequency questionnaires, and body composition was assessed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Three polymorphisms (rs9611386, rs882111, and rs133073) were associated with differences in body-composition measurements (all P physical activity score on body-composition measurements (all P composition and interact with physiologic and energy-related lifestyle factors.

  2. Model-based video segmentation for vision-augmented interactive games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lurng-Kuo

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an architecture and algorithms for model based video object segmentation and its applications to vision augmented interactive game. We are especially interested in real time low cost vision based applications that can be implemented in software in a PC. We use different models for background and a player object. The object segmentation algorithm is performed in two different levels: pixel level and object level. At pixel level, the segmentation algorithm is formulated as a maximizing a posteriori probability (MAP) problem. The statistical likelihood of each pixel is calculated and used in the MAP problem. Object level segmentation is used to improve segmentation quality by utilizing the information about the spatial and temporal extent of the object. The concept of an active region, which is defined based on motion histogram and trajectory prediction, is introduced to indicate the possibility of a video object region for both background and foreground modeling. It also reduces the overall computation complexity. In contrast with other applications, the proposed video object segmentation system is able to create background and foreground models on the fly even without introductory background frames. Furthermore, we apply different rate of self-tuning on the scene model so that the system can adapt to the environment when there is a scene change. We applied the proposed video object segmentation algorithms to several prototype virtual interactive games. In our prototype vision augmented interactive games, a player can immerse himself/herself inside a game and can virtually interact with other animated characters in a real time manner without being constrained by helmets, gloves, special sensing devices, or background environment. The potential applications of the proposed algorithms including human computer gesture interface and object based video coding such as MPEG-4 video coding.

  3. Cyclone Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Schindelhauer, Christian; Jakoby, Andreas; Köhler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Cyclone codes which are rateless erasure resilient codes. They combine Pair codes with Luby Transform (LT) codes by computing a code symbol from a random set of data symbols using bitwise XOR and cyclic shift operations. The number of data symbols is chosen according to the Robust Soliton distribution. XOR and cyclic shift operations establish a unitary commutative ring if data symbols have a length of $p-1$ bits, for some prime number $p$. We consider the graph given by code sym...

  4. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  5. Multimedia image and video processing

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Ling

    2012-01-01

    As multimedia applications have become part of contemporary daily life, numerous paradigm-shifting technologies in multimedia processing have emerged over the last decade. Substantially updated with 21 new chapters, Multimedia Image and Video Processing, Second Edition explores the most recent advances in multimedia research and applications. This edition presents a comprehensive treatment of multimedia information mining, security, systems, coding, search, hardware, and communications as well as multimodal information fusion and interaction. Clearly divided into seven parts, the book begins w

  6. Digital video technologies and their network requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Tsang; H. Y. Chen; J. M. Brandt; J. A. Hutchins

    1999-11-01

    Coded digital video signals are considered to be one of the most difficult data types to transport due to their real-time requirements and high bit rate variability. In this study, the authors discuss the coding mechanisms incorporated by the major compression standards bodies, i.e., JPEG and MPEG, as well as more advanced coding mechanisms such as wavelet and fractal techniques. The relationship between the applications which use these coding schemes and their network requirements are the major focus of this study. Specifically, the authors relate network latency, channel transmission reliability, random access speed, buffering and network bandwidth with the various coding techniques as a function of the applications which use them. Such applications include High-Definition Television, Video Conferencing, Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), and Medical Imaging.

  7. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  8. ALD: adaptive layer distribution for scalable video

    OpenAIRE

    Quinlan, Jason J.; Zahran, Ahmed H.; Sreenan, Cormac J.

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth constriction and datagram loss are prominent issues that affect the perceived quality of streaming video over lossy networks, such as wireless. The use of layered video coding seems attractive as a means to alleviate these issues, but its adoption has been held back in large part by the inherent priority assigned to the critical lower layers and the consequences for quality that result from their loss. The proposed use of forward error correction (FEC) as a solution only further bur...

  9. code {poems}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishac Bertran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available "Exploring the potential of code to communicate at the level of poetry," the code­ {poems} project solicited submissions from code­writers in response to the notion of a poem, written in a software language which is semantically valid. These selections reveal the inner workings, constitutive elements, and styles of both a particular software and its authors.

  10. SUSD3D Computer Code as Part of the XSUN-2017 Windows Interface Environment for Deterministic Radiation Transport and Cross-Section Sensitivity-Uncertainty Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Kodeli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Windows interface XSUN-2017 facilitating the deterministic radiation transport and cross-section sensitivity-uncertainty (S/U calculation is presented. The package was developed to assist the users in the preparation of input cards, rapid modification, and execution of the complete chain of codes including TRANSX, PARTISN, and SUSD3D, all available from the OECD/NEA Data Bank and RSICC. The objective of this work was to make the input and output handling for these codes as user-friendly as possible, passing information among codes internally. XSUN-2017 allows a user-friendly viewing of results obtained from the PARTISN and SUSD3D programs. The first version of the Windows interface XSUN-2013 was developed in 2013 and submitted to OECD/NEA Data Bank Computer Code Collection and RSICC in early 2014. An updated version, XSUN-2017, will be released in 2017. The package includes also the new version of the SUSD3D code. The XSUN-2017 and SUSD3D code systems and recent improvements and updates are described. Examples of the use and validation are presented, including the S/U intercomparison exercise using the SNEAK-7 benchmarks involving the XSUN-2017 code system comparison with the codes such as TSUNAMI, SERPENT, and MCNP6, and the S/U analysis of the keff and βeff parameters for the MYRRHA accelerator driven system (ADS.

  11. Perceptual compressive sensing scalability in mobile video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolarski, Lazar

    2011-09-01

    Scalability features embedded within the video sequences allows for streaming over heterogeneous networks to a variety of end devices. Compressive sensing techniques that will allow for lowering the complexity increase the robustness of the video scalability are reviewed. Human visual system models are often used in establishing perceptual metrics that would evaluate quality of video. Combining of perceptual and compressive sensing approach outlined from recent investigations. The performance and the complexity of different scalability techniques are evaluated. Application of perceptual models to evaluation of the quality of compressive sensing scalability is considered in the near perceptually lossless case and to the appropriate coding schemes is reviewed.

  12. Inner Radiation Belt Representation of the Energetic Electron Environment: Model and Data Synthesis Using the Salammbo Radiation Belt Transport Code and Los Alamos Geosynchronous and GPS Energetic Particle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, R. H. W.; Bourdarie, S.; Fennell, J.; Kanekal, S.; Cayton, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    The highly energetic electron environment in the inner magnetosphere (GEO inward) has received a lot of research attention in resent years, as the dynamics of relativistic electron acceleration and transport are not yet fully understood. These electrons can cause deep dielectric charging in any space hardware in the MEO to GEO region. We use a new and novel approach to obtain a global representation of the inner magnetospheric energetic electron environment, which can reproduce the absolute environment (flux) for any spacecraft orbit in that region to within a factor of 2 for the energy range of 100 KeV to 5 MeV electrons, for any levels of magnetospheric activity. We combine the extensive set of inner magnetospheric energetic electron observations available at Los Alamos with the physics based Salammbo transport code, using the data assimilation technique of "nudging". This in effect input in-situ data into the code and allows the diffusion mechanisms in the code to interpolate the data into regions and times of no data availability. We present here details of the methods used, both in the data assimilation process and in the necessary inter-calibration of the input data used. We will present sample runs of the model/data code and compare the results to test spacecraft data not used in the data assimilation process.

  13. Design of convolutional tornado code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Yang, Yao; Gao, Hongmin; Tan, Lu

    2017-09-01

    As a linear block code, the traditional tornado (tTN) code is inefficient in burst-erasure environment and its multi-level structure may lead to high encoding/decoding complexity. This paper presents a convolutional tornado (cTN) code which is able to improve the burst-erasure protection capability by applying the convolution property to the tTN code, and reduce computational complexity by abrogating the multi-level structure. The simulation results show that cTN code can provide a better packet loss protection performance with lower computation complexity than tTN code.

  14. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimation......-predictors and intra-frame predictors as well. As proposed by Ribas-Corbera (see PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1996), we use bi-linear interpolation in order to achieve sub-pixel precision of the motion field. Using more reference images is another way of achieving higher accuracy of the match. The motion...

  15. Radiation Tolerant Software Defined Video Processor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MaXentric's is proposing a radiation tolerant Software Define Video Processor, codenamed SDVP, for the problem of advanced motion imaging in the space environment....

  16. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  17. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...

  18. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...

  19. Does exposure to music videos predict adolescents' sexual attitudes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music

  20. Does Exposure to Music Videos Predict Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music

  1. Does exposure to music videos predict adolescents’ sexual attitudes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed ... Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic ...

  3. Design and Smartphone-Based Implementation of a Chaotic Video Communication Scheme via WAN Remote Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuosheng; Yu, Simin; Li, Chengqing; Lü, Jinhu; Wang, Qianxue

    This paper proposes a chaotic secure video remote communication scheme that can perform on real WAN networks, and implements it on a smartphone hardware platform. First, a joint encryption and compression scheme is designed by embedding a chaotic encryption scheme into the MJPG-Streamer source codes. Then, multiuser smartphone communications between the sender and the receiver are implemented via WAN remote transmission. Finally, the transmitted video data are received with the given IP address and port in an Android smartphone. It should be noted that, this is the first time that chaotic video encryption schemes are implemented on such a hardware platform. The experimental results demonstrate that the technical challenges on hardware implementation of secure video communication are successfully solved, reaching a balance amongst sufficient security level, real-time processing of massive video data, and utilization of available resources in the hardware environment. The proposed scheme can serve as a good application example of chaotic secure communications for smartphone and other mobile facilities in the future.

  4. An improvement analysis on video compression using file segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shubhankar; Singh, K. John; Priya, M.

    2017-11-01

    From the past two decades the extreme evolution of the Internet has lead a massive rise in video technology and significantly video consumption over the Internet which inhabits the bulk of data traffic in general. Clearly, video consumes that so much data size on the World Wide Web, to reduce the burden on the Internet and deduction of bandwidth consume by video so that the user can easily access the video data.For this, many video codecs are developed such as HEVC/H.265 and V9. Although after seeing codec like this one gets a dilemma of which would be improved technology in the manner of rate distortion and the coding standard.This paper gives a solution about the difficulty for getting low delay in video compression and video application e.g. ad-hoc video conferencing/streaming or observation by surveillance. Also this paper describes the benchmark of HEVC and V9 technique of video compression on subjective oral estimations of High Definition video content, playback on web browsers. Moreover, this gives the experimental ideology of dividing the video file into several segments for compression and putting back together to improve the efficiency of video compression on the web as well as on the offline mode.

  5. Video Clips for Youtube: Collaborative Video Creation as an Educational Concept for Knowledge Acquisition and Attitude Change Related to Obesity Stigmatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Carmen; Schaeffeler, Norbert; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Wessel, Daniel; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones and advanced web-based video tools have pushed forward new paradigms for using video in education: Today, students can readily create and broadcast their own digital videos for others and create entirely new patterns of video-based information structures for modern online-communities and multimedia environments. This paradigm shift…

  6. Dynamic quality of service differentiation using fixed code weight in optical CDMA networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaee, Majid H.; Essa, Shawnim I.; Abd, Thanaa H.; Seyedzadeh, Saleh

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of network-driven applications, such as internet, video conferencing, and online gaming, brings in the need for a network the environments with capability of providing diverse Quality of Services (QoS). In this paper, a new code family of novel spreading sequences, called a Multi-Service (MS) code, has been constructed to support multiple services in Optical- Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The proposed method uses fixed weight for all services, however reducing the interfering codewords for the users requiring higher QoS. The performance of the proposed code is demonstrated using mathematical analysis. It shown that the total number of served users with satisfactory BER of 10-9 using NB=2 is 82, while they are only 36 and 10 when NB=3 and 4 respectively. The developed MS code is compared with variable-weight codes such as Variable Weight-Khazani Syed (VW-KS) and Multi-Weight-Random Diagonal (MW-RD). Different numbers of basic users (NB) are used to support triple-play services (audio, data and video) with different QoS requirements. Furthermore, reference to the BER of 10-12, 10-9, and 10-3 for video, data and audio, respectively, the system can support up to 45 total users. Hence, results show that the technique can clearly provide a relative QoS differentiation with lower value of basic users can support larger number of subscribers as well as better performance in terms of acceptable BER of 10-9 at fixed code weight.

  7. Sharing code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  8. Video Marketing: How Important are Videos for the Hospitality Industry in Finland?

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstede, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been many changes to the business environment of many companies. This has led to the development of new marketing forms, such as video marketing. Video marketing is increasingly popular. However, not all companies are successful in their video marketing efforts and researchers struggle to reach consensus in solving certain problems. The popularity and uncertainty of this topic has led to the decision to use it for this research. The objective of this paper is ...

  9. Analog Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CODING, ANALOG SYSTEMS), INFORMATION THEORY, DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , TRANSMITTER RECEIVERS, WHITE NOISE, PROBABILITY, ERRORS, PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SET THEORY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS

  10. Automated Video Quality Assessment for Deep-Sea Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kalmbach, A.; Sadhu, T.; Branzan Albu, A.; Glotin, H.; Jeffries, M. A.; Bui, A. O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Video provides a rich source of data for geophysical analysis, often supplying detailed information about the environment when other instruments may not. This is especially true of deep-sea environments, where direct visual observations cannot be made. As computer vision techniques improve and volumes of video data increase, automated video analysis is emerging as a practical alternative to labor-intensive manual analysis. Automated techniques can be much more sensitive to video quality than their manual counterparts, so performing quality assessment before doing full analysis is critical to producing valid results.Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories that supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea, including video and still cameras. This network of ocean observatories has produced almost 20,000 hours of video (about 38 hours are recorded each day) and an additional 8,000 hours of logs from remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. We begin by surveying some ways in which deep-sea video poses challenges for automated analysis, including: 1. Non-uniform lighting: Single, directional, light sources produce uneven luminance distributions and shadows; remotely operated lighting equipment are also susceptible to technical failures. 2. Particulate noise: Turbidity and marine snow are often present in underwater video; particles in the water column can have sharper focus and higher contrast than the objects of interest due to their proximity to the light source and can also influence the camera's autofocus and auto white-balance routines. 3. Color distortion (low contrast): The rate of absorption of light in water varies by wavelength, and is higher overall than in air, altering apparent colors and lowering the contrast of objects at a distance.We also describe measures under development at ONC for detecting and mitigating

  11. Video Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...

  12. Characterization of social video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jeffrey R.; Sarhan, Nabil J.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of social media has grown dramatically over the World Wide Web. In this paper, we analyze the video popularity distribution of well-known social video websites (YouTube, Google Video, and the AOL Truveo Video Search engine) and characterize their workload. We identify trends in the categories, lengths, and formats of those videos, as well as characterize the evolution of those videos over time. We further provide an extensive analysis and comparison of video content amongst the main regions of the world.

  13. Divergence coding for convolutional codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Zolotarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we propose a new coding/decoding on the divergence principle. A new divergent multithreshold decoder (MTD for convolutional self-orthogonal codes contains two threshold elements. The second threshold element decodes the code with the code distance one greater than for the first threshold element. Errorcorrecting possibility of the new MTD modification have been higher than traditional MTD. Simulation results show that the performance of the divergent schemes allow to approach area of its effective work to channel capacity approximately on 0,5 dB. Note that we include the enough effective Viterbi decoder instead of the first threshold element, the divergence principle can reach more. Index Terms — error-correcting coding, convolutional code, decoder, multithreshold decoder, Viterbi algorithm.

  14. Video Analytics for Business Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Porikli, Fatih; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-01-01

    Closed Circuit TeleVision (CCTV) cameras have been increasingly deployed pervasively in public spaces including retail centres and shopping malls. Intelligent video analytics aims to automatically analyze content of massive amount of public space video data and has been one of the most active areas of computer vision research in the last two decades. Current focus of video analytics research has been largely on detecting alarm events and abnormal behaviours for public safety and security applications. However, increasingly CCTV installations have also been exploited for gathering and analyzing business intelligence information, in order to enhance marketing and operational efficiency. For example, in retail environments, surveillance cameras can be utilised to collect statistical information about shopping behaviour and preference for marketing (e.g., how many people entered a shop; how many females/males or which age groups of people showed interests to a particular product; how long did they stay in the sho...

  15. Video visual analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Höferlin, Markus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The amount of video data recorded world-wide is tremendously growing and has already reached hardly manageable dimensions. It originates from a wide range of application areas, such as surveillance, sports analysis, scientific video analysis, surgery documentation, and entertainment, and its analysis represents one of the challenges in computer science. The vast amount of video data renders manual analysis by watching the video data impractical. However, automatic evaluation of video material...

  16. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech......; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...

  17. Temporal compressive imaging for video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Linxia; Ke, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In many situations, imagers are required to have higher imaging speed, such as gunpowder blasting analysis and observing high-speed biology phenomena. However, measuring high-speed video is a challenge to camera design, especially, in infrared spectrum. In this paper, we reconstruct a high-frame-rate video from compressive video measurements using temporal compressive imaging (TCI) with a temporal compression ratio T=8. This means that, 8 unique high-speed temporal frames will be obtained from a single compressive frame using a reconstruction algorithm. Equivalently, the video frame rates is increased by 8 times. Two methods, two-step iterative shrinkage/threshold (TwIST) algorithm and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) method, are used for reconstruction. To reduce reconstruction time and memory usage, each frame of size 256×256 is divided into patches of size 8×8. The influence of different coded mask to reconstruction is discussed. The reconstruction qualities using TwIST and GMM are also compared.

  18. Video surveillance using JPEG 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a video surveillance system which is composed of three key components, smart cameras, a server, and clients, connected through IP-networks in wired or wireless configurations. The system has been designed so as to protect the privacy of people under surveillance. Smart cameras are based on JPEG 2000 compression where an analysis module allows for events detection and regions of interest identification. The resulting regions of interest can then be encoded with better quality and scrambled. Compressed video streams are scrambled and signed for the purpose of privacy and data integrity verification using JPSEC compliant methods. The same bitstream may also be protected for robustness to transmission errors based on JPWL compliant methods. The server receives, stores, manages and transmits the video sequences on wired and wireless channels to a variety of clients and users with different device capabilities, channel characteristics and preferences. Use of seamless scalable coding of video sequences prevents any need for transcoding operations at any point in the system.

  19. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo Code to Simulate the Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter to Assist and Aid Our Understanding of Ground Based Accelerator Testing, Space Hardware Design, and Secondary Space Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Designing hardware to operate in the space radiation environment is a very difficult and costly activity. Ground based particle accelerators can be used to test for exposure to the radiation environment, one species at a time, however, the actual space environment cannot be duplicated because of the range of energies and isotropic nature of space radiation. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is an integrated physics package based at CERN that has been under development for the last 40+ years and includes the most up-to-date fundamental physics theory and particle physics data. This work presents an overview of FLUKA and how it has been used in conjunction with ground based radiation testing for NASA and improve our understanding of secondary particle environments resulting from the interaction of space radiation with matter.

  20. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; den Hartog, Jurgen; den Hartog, Jeremy; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  1. Application aware approach to compression and transmission of H.264 encoded video for automated and centralized transportation surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    In this report we present a transportation video coding and wireless transmission system specically tailored to automated : vehicle tracking applications. By taking into account the video characteristics and the lossy nature of the wireless channe...

  2. Code of Practice for Scientific Diving: Principles for the Safe Practice of Scientific Diving in Different Environments. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, N. C., Ed.; Max, M. D., Ed.

    This publication has been prepared to provide scientific divers with guidance on safe practice under varying experimental and environmental conditions. The Code offers advice and recommendations on administrative practices, insurance, terms of employment, medical standards, training standards, dive planning, safety with different breathing gases…

  3. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  4. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-01

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental conditions

  5. Distributed multi-hypothesis coding of depth maps using texture motion information and optical flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Zamarin, Marco; Rakêt, Lars Lau

    2013-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm allowing a shift of complexity from the encoder to the decoder. Depth maps are images enabling the calculation of the distance of an object from the camera, which can be used in multiview coding in order to generate virtual views, but also...... in single view coding for motion detection or image segmentation. In this work, we address the problem of depth map video DVC encoding in a single-view scenario. We exploit the motion of the corresponding texture video which is highly correlated with the depth maps. In order to extract the motion...

  6. Artificial Intelligence in Video Games: Towards a Unified Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Safadi, Firas

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation revolves around the problem of designing artificial intelligence (AI) for video games. This problem becomes increasingly challenging as video games grow in complexity. With modern video games frequently featuring sophisticated and realistic environments, the need for smart and comprehensive agents that understand the various aspects of these environments is pressing. Although machine learning techniques are being successfully applied in a multitude of d...

  7. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  8. Coding labour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCosker, Anthony; Milne, Esther

    2014-01-01

    ... software. Code encompasses the laws that regulate human affairs and the operation of capital, behavioural mores and accepted ways of acting, but it also defines the building blocks of life as DNA...

  9. A multipath video delivery scheme over diffserv wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Hong; Li, Yang

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a joint source coding and networking scheme for video delivery over ad hoc wireless local area networks. The objective is to improve the end-to-end video quality with the constraint of the physical network. The proposed video transport scheme effectively integrates several networking components including load-aware multipath routing, class based queuing (CBQ), and scalable (or layered) video source coding techniques. A typical progressive video coder, 3D-SPIHT, is used to generate multi-layer source data streams. The coded bitstreams are then segmented into multiple sub-streams, each with a different level of importance towards the final video reconstruction. The underlay wireless ad hoc network is designed to support service differentiation. A contention sensitive load aware routing (CSLAR) protocol is proposed. The approach is to discover multiple routes between the source and the destination, and label each route with a load value which indicates its quality of service (QoS) characteristics. The video sub-streams will be distributed among these paths according to their QoS priority. CBQ is also applied to all intermediate nodes, which gives preference to important sub-streams. Through this approach, the scalable source coding techniques are incorporated with differentiated service (DiffServ) networking techniques so that the overall system performance is effectively improved. Simulations have been conducted on the network simulator (ns-2). Both network layer performance and application layer performance are evaluated. Significant improvements over traditional ad hoc wireless network transport schemes have been observed.

  10. Color spaces in digital video

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    . For example, humans `see` more white-to-black (luminance) detail then red, green, or blue color detail. Also, the eye is most sensitive to green colors. Taking advantage of this, both composite and component video allocates more bandwidth for the luma (Y`) signal than the chroma signals. Y`611 is composed of 59% green`, 30% red`, and 11% blue` (prime symbol denotes gamma corrected colors). This luma signal also maintains compatibility with black and white television receivers. Component digital video converts R`G`B` signals (either from a camera or a computer) to a monochromatic brightness signal Y` (referred here as luma to distinguish it from the CIE luminance linear- light quantity), and two color difference signals Cb and Cr. These last two are the blue and red signals with the luma component subtracted out. As you know, computer graphic images are composed of red, green, and blue elements defined in a linear color space. Color monitors do not display RGB linearly. A linear RGB color space image must be gamma corrected to be displayed properly on a CRT. Gamma correction, which is approximately a 0.45 power function, must also be employed before converting an RGB image to video color space. Gamma correction is defined for video in the international standard: ITU-Rec. BT.709-4. The gamma correction transform is the same for red, green, and blue. The color coding standard for component digital video and high definition video symbolizes gamma corrected luma by Y`, the blue difference signal by Cb (Cb = B` -Y`), and the red color difference signal by Cr (Cr = R` - Y`). Component analog HDTV uses Y`PbPr. To reduce conversion errors, clip in R`G`B`, not in Y`CbCr space. View video on a video monitor, computer monitor phosphors are wrong. Use a large word size (double precision) to avoid warp around, the0232n round the results to values between 0 and 255. And finally, recall that multiplying two 8- bit numbers results in a 16-bit number, so values need to be clipped to 8

  11. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ... group for me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ...

  12. Video Games and Citizenship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Soetaert, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    ... by exploring a particular aspect of digitization that affects young people, namely video games. They explore the new social spaces which emerge in video game culture and how these spaces relate to community building and citizenship...

  13. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles News Provider Directory Donate Resources Links Videos Podcasts ...

  14. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For ... Doctor Find a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Provider Directory Donate Resources Links Videos ...

  15. Digital Video in Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    questions of our media literacy pertaining to authoring multimodal texts (visual, verbal, audial, etc.) in research practice and the status of multimodal texts in academia. The implications of academic video extend to wider issues of how researchers harness opportunities to author different types of texts......Is video becoming “the new black” in academia, if so, what are the challenges? The integration of video in research methodology (for collection, analysis) is well-known, but the use of “academic video” for dissemination is relatively new (Eriksson and Sørensen). The focus of this paper is academic...... video, or short video essays produced for the explicit purpose of communicating research processes, topics, and research-based knowledge (see the journal of academic videos: www.audiovisualthinking.org). Video is increasingly used in popular showcases for video online, such as YouTube and Vimeo, as well...

  16. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back Support Groups Is a support group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo ... Support Groups Back Is a support group for me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library ...

  17. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork ... for me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support Back ...

  18. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For ... Family Caregivers Glossary Menu In this section Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For ...

  19. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For ... Family Caregivers Glossary Menu In this section Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For ...

  20. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media ... a Provider Meet the Team Blog Articles & Stories News Provider Directory Donate Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars ...

  1. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork Peer ... me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support Back ANetwork ...

  2. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  3. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Resources Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For Policymakers For Family Caregivers Glossary ... this section Links Videos Podcasts Webinars For the Media For Clinicians For Policymakers For Family Caregivers Glossary ...

  4. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Making good physics videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-05-01

    Online videos are an increasingly important way technology is contributing to the improvement of physics teaching. Students and teachers have begun to rely on online videos to provide them with content knowledge and instructional strategies. Online audiences are expecting greater production value, and departments are sometimes requesting educators to post video pre-labs or to flip our classrooms. In this article, I share my advice on creating engaging physics videos.

  6. Desktop video conferencing

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Ray; Roberts, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This guide aims to provide an introduction to Desktop Video Conferencing. You may be familiar with video conferencing, where participants typically book a designated conference room and communicate with another group in a similar room on another site via a large screen display. Desktop video conferencing (DVC), as the name suggests, allows users to video conference from the comfort of their own office, workplace or home via a desktop/laptop Personal Computer. DVC provides live audio and visua...

  7. 47 CFR 79.3 - Video description of video programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Video description of video programming. 79.3... CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.3 Video description of video programming. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section the following definitions shall apply: (1...

  8. Creating engagement with old research videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caglio, Agnese; Buur, Jacob

    User-centred design projects that utilize ethnographic research tend to produce hours and hours of contextual video footage that seldom gets used again once the project is complete. The richness of such research video could, however, make it attractive for other project teams or researchers...... screens to colleague designers and researchers. The setup we designed included large and small screens placed in a social space of a research environment, the communal kitchen. Through screenings of ten different 'old' research videos accompanied by various prompt questions and activities we built...

  9. Error and Congestion Resilient Video Streaming over Broadband Wireless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Al-Jobouri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, error resilience is achieved by adaptive, application-layer rateless channel coding, which is used to protect H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec data-partitioned videos. A packetization strategy is an effective tool to control error rates and, in the paper, source-coded data partitioning serves to allocate smaller packets to more important compressed video data. The scheme for doing this is applied to real-time streaming across a broadband wireless link. The advantages of rateless code rate adaptivity are then demonstrated in the paper. Because the data partitions of a video slice are each assigned to different network packets, in congestion-prone wireless networks the increased number of packets per slice and their size disparity may increase the packet loss rate from buffer overflows. As a form of congestion resilience, this paper recommends packet-size dependent scheduling as a relatively simple way of alleviating the buffer-overflow problem arising from data-partitioned packets. The paper also contributes an analysis of data partitioning and packet sizes as a prelude to considering scheduling regimes. The combination of adaptive channel coding and prioritized packetization for error resilience with packet-size dependent packet scheduling results in a robust streaming scheme specialized for broadband wireless and real-time streaming applications such as video conferencing, video telephony, and telemedicine.

  10. Video Self-Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…

  11. Tracing Sequential Video Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2015-01-01

    With an interest in learning that is set in collaborative situations, the data session presents excerpts from video data produced by two of fifteen students from a class of 5th semester techno-anthropology course. Students used video cameras to capture the time they spent working with a scientist...... video, nature of the interactional space, and material and spatial semiotics....

  12. Developing a Promotional Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  13. Designing educational video games in Unity

    OpenAIRE

    Brglez, Domen

    2017-01-01

    We are always trying to improve learning process by finding new ways to increase motivation, make things easier to understand and last but not least to get better learning results. One method to do that is by creating educational video games. Video games are used in situations that can explain certain situations better, where we can make safe environment for students to experiment new things, to simulate real life situations and last but not least to increase their motivation in learning p...

  14. Digital Video Stabilization with Inertial Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, William John

    2013-01-01

    As computing power becomes more and more available, robotic systems are moving away from active sensors for environmental awareness and transitioning into passive vision sensors.  With the advent of teleoperation and real-time video tracking of dynamic environments, the need to stabilize video onboard mobile robots has become more prevalent. This thesis presents a digital stabilization method that incorporates inertial fusion with a Kalman filter.  The camera motion is derived visually by tra...

  15. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso JoséI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  16. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Perez Leal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  17. Risky health environments: women sex workers' struggles to find safe, secure and non-exploitative housing in Canada's poorest postal code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K

    2011-12-01

    This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women's agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated 'enabling environments' where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for public

  18. Establishing the reliability of rhesus macaque social network assessment from video observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Eric; Mitchell, Thomas A J; Walum, Hasse; Brooks, Jenna M; Heitz, Thomas R; Young, Larry J; Parr, Lisa A

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the properties of a social environment is important for understanding the dynamics of social relationships. Understanding such dynamics is relevant for multiple fields, ranging from animal behaviour to social and cognitive neuroscience. To quantify social environment properties, recent studies have incorporated social network analysis. Social network analysis quantifies both the global and local properties of a social environment, such as social network efficiency and the roles played by specific individuals, respectively. Despite the plethora of studies incorporating social network analysis, methods to determine the amount of data necessary to derive reliable social networks are still being developed. Determining the amount of data necessary for a reliable network is critical for measuring changes in the social environment, for example following an experimental manipulation, and therefore may be critical for using social network analysis to statistically assess social behaviour. In this paper, we extend methods for measuring error in acquired data and for determining the amount of data necessary to generate reliable social networks. We derived social networks from a group of 10 male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, for three behaviours: spatial proximity, grooming and mounting. Behaviours were coded using a video observation technique, where video cameras recorded the compound where the 10 macaques resided. We collected, coded and used 10 h of video data to construct these networks. Using the methods described here, we found in our data that 1 h of spatial proximity observations produced reliable social networks. However, this may not be true for other studies due to differences in data acquisition. Our results have broad implications for measuring and predicting the amount of error in any social network, regardless of species.

  19. Establishing the reliability of rhesus macaque social network assessment from video observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Eric; Mitchell, Thomas A. J.; Walum, Hasse; Brooks, Jenna M.; Heitz, Thomas R.; Young, Larry J.; Parr, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the properties of a social environment is important for understanding the dynamics of social relationships. Understanding such dynamics is relevant for multiple fields, ranging from animal behaviour to social and cognitive neuroscience. To quantify social environment properties, recent studies have incorporated social network analysis. Social network analysis quantifies both the global and local properties of a social environment, such as social network efficiency and the roles played by specific individuals, respectively. Despite the plethora of studies incorporating social network analysis, methods to determine the amount of data necessary to derive reliable social networks are still being developed. Determining the amount of data necessary for a reliable network is critical for measuring changes in the social environment, for example following an experimental manipulation, and therefore may be critical for using social network analysis to statistically assess social behaviour. In this paper, we extend methods for measuring error in acquired data and for determining the amount of data necessary to generate reliable social networks. We derived social networks from a group of 10 male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, for three behaviours: spatial proximity, grooming and mounting. Behaviours were coded using a video observation technique, where video cameras recorded the compound where the 10 macaques resided. We collected, coded and used 10 h of video data to construct these networks. Using the methods described here, we found in our data that 1 h of spatial proximity observations produced reliable social networks. However, this may not be true for other studies due to differences in data acquisition. Our results have broad implications for measuring and predicting the amount of error in any social network, regardless of species. PMID:26392632

  20. A source-based congestion control strategy for real-time video transport on IP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Cai, Canhui

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to design a TCP friendly real-time video transport protocol that will not only utilize network resource efficiently, but also prevent network congestion from the real-time video transmitting effectively. To this end, we proposed a source based congestion control scheme to adapt video coding rate to the channel capacity of the IP network, including three stages: rate control, rate-adaptive video encoding, and rate shaping.

  1. Fast and Accurate Video PQoS Estimation over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Viterbo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a curve fitting technique for fast and accurate estimation of the perceived quality of streaming media contents, delivered within a wireless network. The model accounts for the effects of various network parameters such as congestion, radio link power, and video transmission bit rate. The evaluation of the perceived quality of service (PQoS is based on the well-known VQM objective metric, a powerful technique which is highly correlated to the more expensive and time consuming subjective metrics. Currently, PQoS is used only for offline analysis after delivery of the entire video content. Thanks to the proposed simple model, we can estimate in real time the video PQoS and we can rapidly adapt the content transmission through scalable video coding and bit rates in order to offer the best perceived quality to the end users. The designed model has been validated through many different measurements in realistic wireless environments using an ad hoc WiFi test bed.

  2. Implementing a hardware-friendly wavelet entropy codec for scalable video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Hendrik; Christiaens, Mark; Devos, Harald; Stroobandt, Dirk

    2005-11-01

    In the RESUME project (Reconfigurable Embedded Systems for Use in Multimedia Environments) we explore the benefits of an implementation of scalable multimedia applications using reconfigurable hardware by building an FPGA implementation of a scalable wavelet-based video decoder. The term "scalable" refers to a design that can easily accommodate changes in quality of service with minimal computational overhead. This is important for portable devices that have different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements and have varying power restrictions. The scalable video decoder consists of three major blocks: a Wavelet Entropy Decoder (WED), an Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transformer (IDWT) and a Motion Compensator (MC). The WED decodes entropy encoded parts of the video stream into wavelet transformed frames. These frames are decoded bitlayer per bitlayer. The more bitlayers are decoded the higher the image quality (scalability in image quality). Resolution scalability is obtained as an inherent property of the IDWT. Finally framerate scalability is achieved through hierarchical motion compensation. In this article we present the results of our investigation into the hardware implementation of such a scalable video codec. In particular we found that the implementation of the entropy codec is a significant bottleneck. We present an alternative, hardware-friendly algorithm for entropy coding with excellent data locality (both temporal and spatial), streaming capabilities, a high degree of parallelism, a smaller memory footprint and state-of-the-art compression while maintaining all required scalability properties. These claims are supported by an effective hardware implementation on an FPGA.

  3. Intelligent video surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Belonging to the wider academic field of computer vision, video analytics has aroused a phenomenal surge of interest since the current millennium. Video analytics is intended to solve the problem of the incapability of exploiting video streams in real time for the purpose of detection or anticipation. It involves analyzing the videos using algorithms that detect and track objects of interest over time and that indicate the presence of events or suspect behavior involving these objects.The aims of this book are to highlight the operational attempts of video analytics, to identify possi

  4. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  5. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  6. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  7. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  8. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621. Keywords.

  9. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  10. Studying the Positive Influence of the Use of Video in Teaching & Learning Environments, Focusing on Registration of the Directions Where It Improves the PBL Effectiveness: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report the involvement of the use of video in the frameworks of problem-based learning (PBL), case-based learning, and project-based learning. This systematic literature review, through two research questions, explores the positive influence of the use of video in those instructional methods, and, while focusing on PBL, identifies…

  11. Flip Video for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsko, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The full-color guide to shooting great video with the Flip Video camera. The inexpensive Flip Video camera is currently one of the hottest must-have gadgets. It's portable and connects easily to any computer to transfer video you shoot onto your PC or Mac. Although the Flip Video camera comes with a quick-start guide, it lacks a how-to manual, and this full-color book fills that void! Packed with full-color screen shots throughout, Flip Video For Dummies shows you how to shoot the best possible footage in a variety of situations. You'll learn how to transfer video to your computer and then edi

  12. Towards User Experience-Driven Adaptive Uplink Video Transmission for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lottermann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is to enable user experience-driven uplink video streaming from mobile video sources with limited computational capacity and to apply these to resource-constraint automotive environments. The first part investigates perceptual quality-aware encoding of videos, the second part proposes camera context-based estimators of temporal and spatial activities for videos captured by a front-facing camera of a vehicle, and the last part studies the upstreaming of videos from a m...

  13. Screen Codes: Visual Hyperlinks for Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Collomosse, J.; Kindberg, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present 'Screen codes' - a space- and time-efficient, aesthetically compelling method for transferring data from a display to a camera-equipped mobile device. Screen codes encode data as a grid of luminosity fluctuations within an arbitrary image, displayed on the video screen and decoded on a mobile device. These 'twinkling' images are a form of 'visual hyperlink', by which users can move dynamically generated content to and from their mobile devices. They help bridge the 'content divide'...

  14. On Delayed Sequential Coding of Correlated Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Nan; Wang, Ye; Ishwar, Prakash

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by video coding applications, the problem of sequential coding of correlated sources with encoding and/or decoding frame-delays is studied. The fundamental tradeoffs between individual frame rates, individual frame distortions, and encoding/decoding frame-delays are derived in terms of a single-letter information-theoretic characterization of the rate-distortion region for general inter-frame source correlations and certain types of potentially frame specific and coupled single-lett...

  15. Modeling 3D Unknown object by Range Finder and Video Camera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    real world); proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors allowing the recreating of the 3D geometric database of an environment (virtual world). The virtual world is projected onto a video display terminal (VDT). Computer-generated and video ...

  16. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    added by the decoder is K/ρ+Td. By the last assumption, Td and Te are both ≤ K/ρ, so the total latency added is between 2K/ρ and 4K /ρ. For example...better resolution near the decision point. Reference [12] showed that in decoding a (1024, 512) polar code, using 6-bit LLRs resulted in per- formance

  17. Error coding simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-11-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  18. View Synthesis for Advanced 3D Video Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interest in 3D video applications and systems is growing rapidly and technology is maturating. It is expected that multiview autostereoscopic displays will play an important role in home user environments, since they support multiuser 3D sensation and motion parallax impression. The tremendous data rate cannot be handled efficiently by representation and coding formats such as MVC or MPEG-C Part 3. Multiview video plus depth (MVD is a new format that efficiently supports such advanced 3DV systems, but this requires high-quality intermediate view synthesis. For this, a new approach is presented that separates unreliable image regions along depth discontinuities from reliable image regions, which are treated separately and fused to the final interpolated view. In contrast to previous layered approaches, our algorithm uses two boundary layers and one reliable layer, performs image-based 3D warping only, and was generically implemented, that is, does not necessarily rely on 3D graphics support. Furthermore, different hole-filling and filtering methods are added to provide high-quality intermediate views. As a result, high-quality intermediate views for an existing 9-view auto-stereoscopic display as well as other stereo- and multiscopic displays are presented, which prove the suitability of our approach for advanced 3DV systems.

  19. Urban Code/ Urban Code Deploy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — COTS databases to support the automation of application deployments through different environments. It keeps track of software deliverables at various stages of SDLC...

  20. Using QR Codes to Differentiate Learning for Gifted and Talented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2015-01-01

    QR codes are two-dimensional square patterns that are capable of coding information that ranges from web addresses to links to YouTube video. The codes save time typing and eliminate errors in entering addresses incorrectly. These codes make learning with technology easier for students and motivationally engage them in news ways.

  1. Reconstructing Interlaced High-Dynamic-Range Video Using Joint Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inchang; Baek, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Min H

    2017-11-01

    For extending the dynamic range of video, it is a common practice to capture multiple frames sequentially with different exposures and combine them to extend the dynamic range of each video frame. However, this approach results in typical ghosting artifacts due to fast and complex motion in nature. As an alternative, video imaging with interlaced exposures has been introduced to extend the dynamic range. However, the interlaced approach has been hindered by jaggy artifacts and sensor noise, leading to concerns over image quality. In this paper, we propose a data-driven approach for jointly solving two specific problems of deinterlacing and denoising that arise in interlaced video imaging with different exposures. First, we solve the deinterlacing problem using joint dictionary learning via sparse coding. Since partial information of detail in differently exposed rows is often available via interlacing, we make use of the information to reconstruct details of the extended dynamic range from the interlaced video input. Second, we jointly solve the denoising problem by tailoring sparse coding to better handle additive noise in low-/high-exposure rows, and also adopt multiscale homography flow to temporal sequences for denoising. We anticipate that the proposed method will allow for concurrent capture of higher dynamic range video frames without suffering from ghosting artifacts. We demonstrate the advantages of our interlaced video imaging compared with the state-of-the-art high-dynamic-range video methods.

  2. Turning Video Resource Management into Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Big data makes cloud computing more and more popular in various fields. Video resources are very useful and important to education, security monitoring, and so on. However, issues of their huge volumes, complex data types, inefficient processing performance, weak security, and long times for loading pose challenges in video resource management. The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS is an open-source framework, which can provide cloud-based platforms and presents an opportunity for solving these problems. This paper presents video resource management architecture based on HDFS to provide a uniform framework and a five-layer model for standardizing the current various algorithms and applications. The architecture, basic model, and key algorithms are designed for turning video resources into a cloud computing environment. The design was tested by establishing a simulation system prototype.

  3. THE EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Claudia CHIRCA (NEACȘU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays' world, technological assistance is no longer confined to its primary purpose of communication or informational support and the boundaries between real and virtual world are becoming increasingly harder to be defined. This is the world of digital natives, today's children, who grow up in a technology-brimming environment and who spend most of their time playing video games. Are these video games constructive in any way? Scientific studies state they are. Video games help children in setting their goals, provide constant feedback and offer immediate rewards, along with the opportunity to collaborate with other players. Furthermore, video games can generate strong emotional reactions, such as joy or fear, and they have a captivating story line, which reveals itself within a realm of elaborate graphics.

  4. Video Games as a Multifaceted Medium: A Review of Quantitative Social Science Research on Video Games and a Typology of Video Game Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ivory

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about games’ social function that are often difficult to reconcile— or even contradictory. Research is also often categorized by topic area, rendering a comprehensive view of video games’ social role across topic areas difficult. This interpretive review presents a novel typology of four identified approaches that categorize much of the quantitative social science video game research conducted to date: “video games as stimulus,” “video games as avocation,” “video games as skill,” and “video games as social environment.” This typology is useful because it provides an organizational structure within which the large and growing number of studies on video games can be categorized, guiding comparisons between studies on different research topics and aiding a more comprehensive understanding of video games’ social role. Categorizing the different approaches to video game research provides a useful heuristic for those critiquing and expanding that research, as well as an understandable entry point for scholars new to video game research. Further, and perhaps more importantly, the typology indicates when topics should be explored using different approaches than usual to shed new light on the topic areas. Lastly, the typology exposes the conceptual disconnects between the different approaches to video game research, allowing researchers to consider new ways to bridge gaps between the different approaches’ strengths and limitations with novel methods.

  5. Understanding Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon

    From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...

  6. Collaborative Video Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Birgitte; Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Hautopp, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces to what we define as a collaborative video sketching process. This process links various sketching techniques with digital storytelling approaches and creative reflection processes in video productions. Traditionally, sketching has been used by designers across various...... forms and through empirical examples, we present and discuss the video recording of sketching sessions, as well as development of video sketches by rethinking, redoing and editing the recorded sessions. The empirical data is based on workshop sessions with researchers and students from universities...... and university colleges and primary and secondary school teachers. As researchers, we have had different roles in these action research case studies where various video sketching techniques were applied.The analysis illustrates that video sketching can take many forms, and two common features are important...

  7. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  8. Processing Decoded Video for Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari

    Quality of digital image and video signals on TV screens is aected by many factors, including the display technology and compression standards. An accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the display andof the video signals can be used to develop advanced algorithms that improve the visual...... rendition of the signals, particularly in the case of LCDs with dynamic local backlight. This thesis shows that it is possible to model LCDs with dynamic backlight to design algorithms that improve the visual quality of 2D and 3D content, and that digital video coding artifacts like blocking or ringing can...... be reduced with post-processing. LCD screens with dynamic local backlight are modeled in their main aspects, like pixel luminance, light diusion and light perception. Following the model, novel algorithms based on optimization are presented and extended, then reduced in complexity, to produce backlights...

  9. Convolutional-Code-Specific CRC Code Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Chung-Yu; Daneshrad, Babak; Wesel, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) codes check if a codeword is correctly received. This paper presents an algorithm to design CRC codes that are optimized for the code-specific error behavior of a specified feedforward convolutional code. The algorithm utilizes two distinct approaches to computing undetected error probability of a CRC code used with a specific convolutional code. The first approach enumerates the error patterns of the convolutional code and tests if each of them is detectable. Th...

  10. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  11. Green Power Partnership Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  12. Energy intake during activity enhanced video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellecker, Robin R; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A; McManus, Alison M

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the addition of a motor component to video gaming alters energy consumption. To address this problem we used an experimental manipulation design with 9-13 year olds incorporating 'seated video game' and 'activity enhanced video game' conditions, whilst allowing snacks ad libitum. No difference in snacking between the two video gaming conditions was apparent. The children consumed 374 and 383kcalh(-1) during seated and activity enhanced video gaming, respectively. A secondary purpose was to examine consistency of energy intake during free choice video game play. We found no difference in energy intake between four 1h free choice video gaming sessions. Snacking energy intake whilst video gaming was 166% more than the calories required during resting conditions. This study has shown that the addition of a motor component to the video game environment does not alter snack energy intake. However, the high calorific consumption during both seated and activity enhanced video game play highlights the need for an active attempt to restrict snacking whilst playing video games.

  13. Context adaptive coding of bi-level images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    for the modern paradigm of data compression based on a modelling and a coding stage. One advantage of contexts is their flexibility, e.g. choosing a two-dimensional ("-D) context facilitates efficient image coding. The area of image coding has greatly been influenced by context adaptive coding, applied e.......g. in the lossless JBIG bi-level image coding standard, and in the entropy coding of contemporary lossless and lossy image and video coding standards and schemes. The theoretical work and analysis of universal context based coding has addressed sequences of data and finite memory models as Markov chains and sources...... to 2-D of a finite memory source. Further developments of causal image models, e.g. to approximate MRF, lead to considering hidden states in the context formation. These causal image models provides image coding models and they are here related to context based image coding. The entropy of the image...

  14. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  15. Concatenated codes with convolutional inner codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Zyablov, Viktor

    1988-01-01

    The minimum distance of concatenated codes with Reed-Solomon outer codes and convolutional inner codes is studied. For suitable combinations of parameters the minimum distance can be lower-bounded by the product of the minimum distances of the inner and outer codes. For a randomized ensemble...... of concatenated codes a lower bound of the Gilbert-Varshamov type is proved...

  16. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  17. Layered video coder with self-concealed capability using frequency scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieu, Liem H.; Ngan, King N.

    1993-10-01

    In this paper, the frequency scanning and the Modified Universal Variable Length Coding (MUVLC) technique is examined as a means to improve the cell loss resilience of video codecs. An appropriate implementation of this technique for effective use in a pyramid layered coding scheme is described. Simulation results are presented which show the superior performance of this slice based coding technique in comparison to the conventional block scanning and Variable Length Coding (VLC) technique having similar coding efficiency.

  18. Notions of Video Game Addiction and Their Relation to Self-Reported Addiction among Players of World of Warcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, Jean; Sammis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft, completed a survey about video game addiction and answered an open-ended question about behaviors they considered characteristic of video game addiction. Responses were coded and correlated with players' self-reports of being addicted to games and scores on a modified video…

  19. Streaming Video to Enhance Students' Reflection in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijen, Ali; Lam, Ineke; Wildschut, Liesbeth; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation case study that describes the experiences of 15 students and 2 teachers using a video-based learning environment, DiViDU, to facilitate students' daily reflection activities in a composition course and a ballet course. To support dance students' reflection processes streaming video was applied as follows: video…

  20. Video games: a route to large-scale STEM education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Merrilea J

    2009-01-02

    Video games have enormous mass appeal, reaching audiences in the hundreds of thousands to millions. They also embed many pedagogical practices known to be effective in other environments. This article reviews the sparse but encouraging data on learning outcomes for video games in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, then reviews the infrastructural obstacles to wider adoption of this new medium.

  1. Hardware implementation of machine vision systems: image and video processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Guillermo; García, Carlos; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    This contribution focuses on different topics covered by the special issue titled `Hardware Implementation of Machine vision Systems' including FPGAs, GPUS, embedded systems, multicore implementations for image analysis such as edge detection, segmentation, pattern recognition and object recognition/interpretation, image enhancement/restoration, image/video compression, image similarity and retrieval, satellite image processing, medical image processing, motion estimation, neuromorphic and bioinspired vision systems, video processing, image formation and physics based vision, 3D processing/coding, scene understanding, and multimedia.

  2. An Experimental Video Disc for Map and Image Display,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    a member of the American Y Codes Society of Photogrammetry . D va±1 apnd/or ABSTRACT A cooperative effort between four government recently resulted in...video tapes# to movie film, to transparencies, to paper photographic prints, to paper maps, charts, and documents. Bach of these media has its own space...perspective terrain views, engineering "* drawihgs, harbor charts, ground photographs, slides, movies , video tapes# documents, and organizaticnal logos

  3. Adaptive and ubiquitous video streaming over Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Mubashir Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the dramatic improvement on scalability of H.264/MPEG-4 standard and growing demand for new multimedia services have spurred the research on scalable video streaming over wireless networks in both industry and academia. Video streaming applications are increasingly being deployed in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs. However, robust streaming of video over WMNs poses many challenges due to varying nature of wireless networks. Bit-errors, packet-losses and burst-packet-losses are very common in such type of networks, which severely influence the perceived video quality at receiving end. Therefore, a carefully-designed error recovery scheme must be employed. In this paper, we propose an interactive and ubiquitous video streaming scheme for Scalable Video Coding (SVC based video streaming over WMNs towards heterogeneous receivers. Intelligently taking the benefit of path diversity, the proposed scheme initially calculates the quality of all candidate paths and then based on quality of path it decides adaptively the size and level of error protection for all packets in order to combat the effect of losses on perceived quality of reconstructed video at receiving end. Our experimental results show that the proposed streaming approach can react to varying channel conditions with less degradation in video quality.

  4. Web-based Video Annotation and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Nagao, Katashi

    In this paper, we developed a Web-based video annotation system, named iVAS (intelligent Video Annotation Server). Audiences can associate any video content on the Internet with annotations. The system analyzes video content in order to acquire cut/shot information and color histograms. And it also automatically generates a Web page for editing annotations. Then, audiences can create annotation data by two methods. The first one helps the users to create text data such as person/object names, scene descriptions, and comments interactively. The second method facilitates the users associating any video fragments with their subjective impression by just clicking a mouse button. The generated annotation data are accumulated and managed by an XML database connected with iVAS. We also developed some application systems based on annotations such as video retrieval, video simplification, and video-content-based community support. One of the major advantages of our approach is easy integration of hand-coded and automatically-generated (such as color histograms and cut/shot information) annotations. Additionally, since our annotation system is open for public, we must consider some reliability or correctness of annotation data. We also developed an automatic evaluation method of annotation reliability using the users' feedback. In the future, these fundamental technologies will contribute to the formation of new communities centered around video content.

  5. Authorized MPEG-4 video fruition via watermarking recovering and smart card certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldelli, Roberto; Bartolini, Franco

    2003-01-01

    A client-server application for MPEG-4 video distribution, in a VOD (Video-On-Demand) infrastructure, has been built up granting authorized fruition by means of digital watermarking. Once the consumer has chosen to watch a program, his smart card code, plugged in the set top box, is sent back to the server side. This code will be embedded, exactly at that time, in the video sequence before streaming it towards the client through the network (the code will be obviously used for payment too). The client side, adequately equipped with the watermark detector, receives the video and checks it by extracting the identifying code, this one is matched with the code located in the end user smart card and if the comparison is right rendering is allowed, otherwise decoding is stopped and fruition is inhibited.

  6. Adaptive Noise Model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video using Clustering of DCT Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The noise model is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of Distributed Video Coding. This paper proposes a novel noise model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding by using clustering of DCT blocks. The clustering algorithm takes advantage of the residual...... information of all frequency bands, iteratively classifies blocks into different categories and estimates the noise parameter in each category. The experimental results show that the coding performance of the proposed cluster level noise model is competitive with state-ofthe- art coefficient level noise...... modelling. Furthermore, the proposed cluster level noise model is adaptively combined with a coefficient level noise model in this paper to robustly improve coding performance of TDWZ video codec up to 1.24 dB (by Bjøntegaard metric) compared to the DISCOVER TDWZ video codec....

  7. Index coding via linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Anna; Lubetzky, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    Index Coding has received considerable attention recently motivated in part by applications such as fast video-on-demand and efficient communication in wireless networks and in part by its connection to Network Coding. The basic setting of Index Coding encodes the side-information relation, the problem input, as an undirected graph and the fundamental parameter is the broadcast rate $\\beta$, the average communication cost per bit for sufficiently long messages (i.e. the non-linear vector capacity). Recent nontrivial bounds on $\\beta$ were derived from the study of other Index Coding capacities (e.g. the scalar capacity $\\beta_1$) by Bar-Yossef et al (FOCS'06), Lubetzky and Stav (FOCS'07) and Alon et al (FOCS'08). However, these indirect bounds shed little light on the behavior of $\\beta$ and its exact value remained unknown for \\emph{any graph} where Index Coding is nontrivial. Our main contribution is a hierarchy of linear programs whose solutions trap $\\beta$ between them. This enables a direct information-...

  8. Music, videos and the risk for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    Do you like listening to music while working? What about watching videos during leisure time? Sure this is fun. Having your colleagues participating in this is even more fun. However, this fun is usually not free. There are music and film companies who earn their living from music and videos. Thus, if you want to listen to music or watch films at CERN, make sure that you own the proper rights to do so (and you have the agreement of your supervisor to do this during working hours). Note that these rights are personal: You usually do not have the right to share this music or these videos with third parties without violating copyrights. Therefore, making copyrighted music and videos public, or sharing music and video files as well as other copyrighted material, is forbidden at CERN --- and also outside CERN. It violates the CERN Computing Rules (http://cern.ch/ComputingRules) and it contradicts CERN's Code of Coduct (https://cern.ch/hr-info/codeofconduct.asp) which expects each of us to behave ethically and be ...

  9. Music, videos and the risk for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you like listening to music while you work? What about watching videos during your leisure time? Sure this is fun. Having your colleagues participate in this is even more fun. However, this fun is usually not free. There are artists and the music and film companies who earn their living from music and videos.   Thus, if you want to listen to music or watch films at CERN, make sure that you own the proper rights to do so (and that you have the agreement of your supervisor to do this during working hours). Note that these rights are personal: you usually do not have the right to share music or videos with third parties without violating copyrights. Therefore, making copyrighted music and videos public, or sharing music and videos as well as other copyrighted material, is forbidden at CERN and outside CERN. It violates the CERN Computing Rules and it contradicts CERN's Code of Conduct, which expects each of us to behave ethically and honestly, and to credit others for their c...

  10. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork Peer Support Program Community Connections Overview ... group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support Back ANetwork Peer Support Program ...

  11. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  12. Digital Video Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Monica Adams, head librarian at Robinson Secondary in Fairfax country, Virginia, states that librarians should have the technical knowledge to support projects related to digital video editing. The process of digital video editing and the cables, storage issues and the computer system with software is described.

  13. AudioMove Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Live drawing video experimenting with low tech techniques in the field of sketching and visual sense making. In collaboration with Rune Wehner and Teater Katapult.......Live drawing video experimenting with low tech techniques in the field of sketching and visual sense making. In collaboration with Rune Wehner and Teater Katapult....

  14. Making Good Physics Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-01-01

    Online videos are an increasingly important way technology is contributing to the improvement of physics teaching. Students and teachers have begun to rely on online videos to provide them with content knowledge and instructional strategies. Online audiences are expecting greater production value, and departments are sometimes requesting educators…

  15. SECRETS OF SONG VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the song videos as TV and Internet-genre. In addition, it considers problems of screen images creation depending on the musical form and the text of a songs in connection with relevant principles of accent and phraseological video editing and filming techniques as well as with additional frames and sound elements.

  16. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork Peer ... group for me? Find a group Back Upcoming events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support Back ANetwork ...

  17. Personal Digital Video Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Henningsen, Birgitte Sølbeck; Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    2016-01-01

    agenda focusing on video productions in combination with digital storytelling, followed by a presentation of the digital storytelling features. The paper concludes with a suggestion to initiate research in what is identified as Personal Digital Video (PDV) Stories within longitudinal settings, while...

  18. The Video Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Video games are neither neutral nor harmless but represent very specific social and symbolic constructs. Research on the social content of today's video games reveals that sex bias and gender stereotyping are widely evident throughout the Nintendo games. Violence and aggression also pervade the great majority of the games. (MLF)

  19. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  20. MPEG2 video parameter and no reference PSNR estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    MPEG coded video may be processed for quality assessment or postprocessed to reduce coding artifacts or transcoded. Utilizing information about the MPEG stream may be useful for these tasks. This paper deals with estimating MPEG parameter information from the decoded video stream without access...... to the MPEG stream. This may be used in systems and applications where the coded stream is not accessible. Detection of MPEG I-frames and DCT (discrete cosine transform) block size is presented. For the I-frames, the quantization parameters are estimated. Combining these with statistics of the reconstructed...... DCT coefficients, the PSNR is estimated from the decoded video without reference images. Tests on decoded fixed rate MPEG2 sequences demonstrate perfect detection rates and good performance of the PSNR estimation....