Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho
This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers.
Chicken breast dipped with citric acid (CA) was treated by sous vide processing and stored in a refrigerated state for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 14 d. A non-dipped control group (CON) and three groups dipped in different concentrations of citric acid concentration were analyzed (0.5%, 0.5CIT; 2.0%, 2CIT and 5.0%, 5CIT; w/v). Cooking yield and moisture content increased due to the citric acid. While the redness of the juice and meat in all groups showed significant increase during storage, the redness of the citric acid groups was reduced compared to the control group (pcitric acid-treated samples than in untreated ones, indicating extended shelf life of the cooked chicken breast dipped in citric acid solution. The shear force of the 2CIT and 5CIT groups was significantly lower (pcitric acid concentrations. PMID:26761885
The heat resistance of a cocktail of five Salmonella strains and five L. monocytogenes strains was determined in teriyaki-marinated chicken breasts. Inoculated meat, packaged in bags, were completely immersed in a circulating water bath and cooked to a final temperature of 55, 57.5 or 60C in one h...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.
Cakmak, Hulya; Altinel, Burak; Kumcuoglu, Seher; Kisla, Duygu; Tavman, Sebnem
Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder) were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.
Dinesh D. Jayasena
Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for
Full Text Available 1024x768 The quality of meat changges during storage. The experiment was performed on the final fattening type of chickens COBB 500. Chickens were fed by feed mixture with aetheroleum. Premix of aetheroleum contained aetheroleum from Origanum vulgare L. (30 g, Thymus vulgaris L. (10 g and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (10 g. The carcass was stored at -18 °C in a freezer box. Acid number of fat in chicken meat was ranged from 4.74 to 14.57 mg KOH/g fat after 9 months and after 12 months was ranged from 5.75 to 9.11 mg KOH/g fat.doi:10.5219/267 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE
Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor and free range rearing systems. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study involves the analysis of the chemical composition of white meat (breast muscles) and dark meat (leg muscles) of broilers in extensive indoor and free range systems.
Full Text Available The meat of chicken is very significant animal food in human nutrition. Because of high nutrition value, characterized by high protein content and relatively low fat content, it is also considered as dietetic product. The aim of our research was to analyze chemical composition of muscles of "white" and "red" meat (mucles of breast and thighs with drumsticks regarding the contents of protein, fat, ash, water, macro and microelements. The composition of saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids was also analysed. The content of basic nutritive matters in white and red meat was as follows: protein 24.15% and 20.96% resp., water 74.01% and 74.56% resp., fat 0.62% and 3.29% resp., ash 1.22% and 1.19% resp. The following contents of macro and trace elements were determined in 100 g white and red meat: K 359.22 mg and 322.00 mg resp., Mg 39.35 mg and 27.11 mg resp., Na 61.86 mg and 86.45 mg resp., Mn 0.08 mg and 0.09 mg resp., Zn 1.09 mg and 2.30 mg resp., Fe 1.79 mg and 1.98 mg resp. PUFA omega 3 (C 18:3ω3, C 20:5ω3, C 22:5ω3 and C 22:6ω3 and PUFA omega 6 (C18:2ω6, C 20:2ω6 and C 20:4ω6 fatty acids ratio in white and red meat was 3.11 and 4.43 resp.
Anna Vladimirovna Belova
Full Text Available The global meat market and primarily the chicken meat market represents a very dynamically developing area. The objective of the present article is the analysis of the chicken meat market in the world in order to identify the basic development trends associated with the development of production of and trade in chicken meat, and also in order to identify the individual entities controlling the global chicken meat market. In methodological terms, the article analyzes the development of production of, consumption of and trade (export and import in chicken meat in the years 1961–2009. The main sources of data necessary for the processing of the individual analyses are the FAOSTAT and UN COMTRADE databases. The results of the conducted analysis show the following findings. World production of poultry meat increased from 7.5 million tons to more than 86 million tons. The global market reacted in a flexible manner, in which there was an increase in volumes of executed trade from 271 thousand tons/year in the year 1961 to more than 10.7 million tons/year in the year 2010. Further, the value of world trade in chicken meat within the analyzed period increased from approximately USD 169 million to approximately USD 16 billion. If we analyze the global chicken meat market, it may be stated that it is very concentrated. The analysis of the global market further shows that Brazil, the USA and China represent, in terms of global production, consumption and trade, the main driving force on the chicken meat market. These three countries have a share in global production of approximately 46%, their share in global consumption ranges at a level of over 40%. The share of these countries in global export ranges at a level exceeding 50%.
...-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken slaughter...
Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption.
Perlo, F; Bonato, P; Teira, G; Fabre, R; Kueider, S
The effects of different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%) of washed mechanically deboned chicken meat (WM) as a substitute for hand deboned chicken meat, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of chicken nuggets were evaluated. The addition of WM increased fat content, but it was only significant (P0.05) in ΔE(*) color scores. The addition of WM did not affect (P>0.05) sensory attributes of chicken nuggets. From a technical viewpoint, up to 40% WM could be incorporated into nugget formulation instead of hand deboned chicken meat without affecting sensory attributes of the product. Minor changes in composition were observed but they were probably not detrimental to the product.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine content of nutrients and carnosine concentration in thighs (dark meat of chickens of the Ross 308 provenance with respect to chicken gender. Amount of carnosine is determined by the HPLC device. Thigh muscle tissue of female and male chickens contains 339.28±68.17 μg/g and 319.29±65.47 μg/g of carnosine (P>0.05, respectively. Live end weights of chickens are also shown, with average male chickens weights of 2377 g and female chickens 2104 g (P0.05 are also shown. The obtained research results are explained in the context of other relevant studies on a similar topic.
Full Text Available Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria, such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE, pose a challenge to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been detected increasingly outside the hospital environment. Also the contamination of food with MDR bacteria, particularly of meat and meat products, is a concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of MDR bacteria in chicken meat on the Austrian market. For this study, 50 chicken meat samples were analysed. All samples originated from chickens slaughtered in Austrian slaughterhouses and were marked as produced in Austria. Samples were analysed for the presence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococci and VRE. Resistance genes of the isolated bacteria were characterised by PCR and sequencing. In the present study 26 ESBL producing E. coli, five mecA gene harbouring Staphylococci (but no MRSA, and four VRE were detected in chicken meat samples of Austrian origin. In 24 (48% of the samples no ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA, methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS or VRE could be detected. None of the samples contained all three types of investigated multiresistant bacteria. In concordance to previous studies, CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 were the dominant ESBL genes.
M. M. Momchilovа
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the structural characteristics of the texture of chilled and frozen meat of chickens and turkeys. The object of the study were chicken and turkey breast and legs frozen and refrigerated. Research was carried out using two methods - the analysis of the profile of texture (TPA and shear Warner-Bratzler (WB. The total chemical composition determined by methods: total protein - Kjeldahl, carbohydrates, fats and total ash down in the relevant known methods. Samples have similar protein containing identical anatomical sites, have some differences in the content of fat and minerals. The results show that the water content of the turkey breasts and legs lower than with the chicken at about equal protein content. According to analysis of variance (ANOVA, a statistical difference was observed between the shear forces of refrigerated and frozen chicken legs, but no significant differences in the results of the shear characteristics of the refrigerated and frozen chicken breast samples were detected. Parameters produced by Warner-Bratzler correlates well with the characteristics of strength, hardness and wiry, obtained by texture profile analysis. The results indicate that the test samples have different textural characteristics depending on the type of meat and the thermal state. Methods of Warner-Bratzler and ATP method in combination with others, may be used to determine in which the thermal state (chilled or frozen were meat turkey and chicken.
An experiment was conducted to determine the dietary effect of different levels of black pepper (BP) on carcass yield, meat quality, meat pH and internal organs of broiler chickens. Five dietary treatments were formulated such that diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 % BP respectively. The inclusion ...
Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken
Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168, w...
This study determined meat quality characteristics of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing systems. After brooding for 2 weeks, a total of 75 male and female chicks, respectively were confined on deep litter and on deep litter with a run having three replications of 25 ...
Khare, Anshul Kumar; Biswas, Asim Kumar; Balasubramanium, S; Chatli, Manish Kumar; Sahoo, Jhari
... from experiments simultaneously. In present study optimum meat level and processing conditions for development of shelf stable chicken meat noodles was determined using central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM...
El-Aziz, Doaa M Abd
To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR ampliﬁcation of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40% and 48% in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.
Tang, H; Gong, Y Z; Wu, C X; Jiang, J; Wang, Y; Li, K
The main objective of this study was to examine the diversity of meat quality traits among 5 chicken genotypes. The genotypes included 2 Chinese native breeds (Wenchang,WCH, and Xianju), 1 commercial broiler line (Avian, AV), 1 commercial layer line (Hy-Line Brown, HLB), and 1 Chinese commercial broiler line (Lingnanhuang, LNH) synthesized by exotic and native breeds, which were slaughtered at their market ages: 16, 7, 16, and 8 wk, respectively. The effects of genotype, muscle type, and sex on meat quality traits were examined. Birds from slow-growing genotypes (WCH, Xianju, and HLB) exhibited higher shear value, inosine-5'-monophosphate concentration, lower cook loss, and more fat than those from fast-growing genotypes (AV and LNH). Chickens from WCH possessed the lowest expressible moisture, cook loss, and the highest lipid (%) among the 3 slow-growing genotypes. The HLB birds were intermediate in expressible moisture and cook loss and lowest in lipid among all genotypes. The LNH cross birds were similar to AV broilers in most meat quality parameters, although they had a lower shear force value and higher fat content than AV broilers. Breast muscle had higher expressible moisture, shear force, protein (%), inosine-5'-monophosphate content, lower cook loss, and lipid (%) than leg muscle. Muscles from male chickens had higher expressible moisture than those from the females. Variability of meat quality characteristics is mainly related to genotype and muscle type differences.
Full Text Available Recently there has, been growing a increase in consumption of poultry meat in Poland. The most important material for slaughter poultry are broilers. Among factors that influence rising demand for poultry meat are: low price, availability of raw materials and promotional campaigns of safe nutrition. Its nutritional and sensory value makes it a choice product. University students are a specific group that has aroused the interest of nutritionists. The students’ lifestyle is characterised by high active social life and intense responsibilities, which ought to be augmented with a carefully chosen diet. The youth do not only have significant impact on the family purchasing decisions but display a strong purchasing power due to financial resources at their disposal and would in the future become mature and rational consumers. The article lists factors that determine purchasing needs, reasons for choice of markets and the consumption frequency of broiler meat. The feeling of lack of other products coupled with current sales promotions were, in the opinion of the students surveyed, often responsible for the decision to purchase of broiler chicken meat. Low price and the ease of preparation were also key reasons for the choice of this meat product. Responding students noted that skinless chicken breast fillet was most commonly consumed.
Toyomizu, Masaaki; Kikusato, Motoi; Kawabata, Yusuke; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Inui, Eriko; Amo, Taku
Meat-type chickens show high feed efficiency and have a very rapid growth rate compared with laying-type chickens. To clarify whether the type-specific difference in feed conversion efficiency is involved in mitochondrial bioenergetics, modular kinetic analysis was applied to oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria of both type chickens. Mitochondria from skeletal muscle of meat-type chickens showed greater substrate oxidation and phosphorylating activities, and less proton leak than those of the laying-type, resulting in a higher efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Gene expression and protein content of uncoupling protein (avUCP) but not adenine nucleotide translocase (avANT) gene expression were lower in skeletal muscle mitochondria of meat-type chickens than the laying-type. The current results regarding a higher efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and UCP content may partially support the high feed efficiency of meat-type chickens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168......, which were not significantly different from the reduction obtained by sterile water (0.95 log). Statistically larger reductions (1.57 to 3.81 log) were caused by formic acid (2%), lactic acid (2.5%), trisodium phosphate (10%), capric acid sodium salt (5%), grapefruit seed extract (1...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...
Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah
This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.
Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng
Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (Pcontent than FC and LC (Pprotein content (Pprotein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (Pmeat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.
Schaumburg, F.; A.S. Alabi; Frielinghaus, L. (Lisa); Grobusch, M.; Köck, R.; Becker, K.; Issifou, S.; P.G. Kremsner; Peters, G; Mellmann, A.
Background: A main export market for chicken meat from industrialized countries is sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that antibiotic resistant bacteria could be exported to developing countries through chicken meat trade. The objective was to investigate the occurrence and molecular types of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in chicken meat in Gabon and to assess their dissemination among humans. Results: Frozen chicken meat samples imported from industrialized cou...
The objective of this study was to investigate and model the behavior of Salmonella on different types of chicken meat during frozen and refrigerated storage. Portions (0.69 to 0.83 g) of chicken meat (breast, skin, or thigh) were inoculated with a single strain (ATCC 700408) of Salmonella Typhimur...
Change in freshness of chicken meat was assessed through measurement of the dielectric properties with a vector network analyzer and an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at 23 oC. Chicken meat samples were stored in a refrigerator for 8 days at 4 oC. Changes in dielectric cons...
Kurt, Ş; Kılınççeker, O
... (WPI) on chicken meat, the effects of SPI (0 to 10%), WPI (0 to 10%), and pH (3 to 8) on coating pickup, frying loss, yield, moisture, and fat content of chicken meat were investigated by response surface methodology...
Results: Atopic dermatitis was the most common (55%) clinical condition. Out of the total 60 patients harboring hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies high levels of egg white, yolk and chicken meat specific IgEs were detected in 58 (96.6%), 37 (61.6%) and 6 (10%) patients respectively. Both the egg white and ...
Juneja, Vijay K
Clostridium perfringens growth from a spore inoculum was investigated in vacuum-packaged, cook-in-bag marinated chicken breast that included 0%, 1.5%, 3%, or 4.8% sodium lactate (NaL; w/w). The packages were processed to an internal temperature of 71.1 degrees C, ice chilled and stored at 4, 19, and 25 degrees C. The total C. perfringens population was determined by plating diluted samples on Tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar followed by anaerobic incubation for 48 h at 37 degrees C. At 25 degrees C, addition of 1.5% NaL was effective in delaying growth for 29 h. Increasing the NaL level to 4.8%, C. perfringens growth from a spore inoculum during storage at 25 degrees C for 480 h was not observed. At 19 degrees C, the growth was > 6 log 10 cfu/g by 288 h in control samples. In samples with 3.0% or 4.8% NaL, the growth of C. perfringens from spores was dramatically restricted with little or no growth in 648 h at 19 degrees C. C. perfringens growth was not observed at 4 degrees C regardless of NaL concentration. The D-values at 55 degrees C ranged from 47.40 (no NaL) to 57.58 min (1.5% NaL). Cyclic and static temperature abuse of refrigerated products for 20 h did not permit C. perfringens growth. However, temperature abuse of products for periods 24 h or longer in the absence of NaL led to growth of C. perfringens from a spore inoculum. An extra degree of safety may be assured in such products by supplementation with NaL at 1.5-4.8% NaL level.
Carlos Alberto de Oliveira
Full Text Available Mozambican poultry industry might be an option to facilitate people's access to animal protein, as well as to reduce the dependence on imports of the product, bringing jobs and income forth. This study aimed to characterize and to analyze the competitiveness of poultry industry in Mozambique. Porter’s Five Forces Model, which focuses on the five strengths that shape business competition, was applied. The results show a low level of competition within the industry, a limited supply of raw material and the fact that national products are commodities and competes with strong foreign participants. Domestic demand for chicken meat is increasing, but buyers base their decision mainly on price. Challenges include establishment of governance structure and policies for poultry sector and consumer welfare. Another alternative to improve the poultry industry in Mozambique is to promote technical cooperation with other countries, such as Brazil, in order to acquire specific structures for chicken production, genetic material and adequate nutrition.
Full Text Available Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours and thawed by five different methods (under refrigeration, in a microwave, in a oven with air circulation, placed in cold water, or at room temperature. After thawing, the following parameters were evaluated: moisture content, drip loss (syneresis, water activity (aw, and shear force. Samples were also histologically evaluated by light microscopy. The results indicated that, despite being submitted to fast freezing, thawing affected (p <0.05 most of the physicochemical and structural properties of the meat, except for aw. Thawing in cold water (packed in low-density polyethylene bags and placed in cold water at approximately 10 °C for 2 hours and 15 minutes presented the best results due to lesser damage to the cell structure, as shown by the lower drip loss, higher moisture content, and greater tenderness of the samples compared to those thawed using the other methods. Histological examination showed that muscle fiber structural features and organization were maintained. Thawing at low temperatures seems to cause less damage to the meat structure and allows maintaining of its properties. It was concluded that the meat quality is not related only with the freezing method, but also with the method and conditions used in thawing.
Gündoğan, Neslihan; DEVREN, Aslı
A total of 270 samples of raw meat (minced calf meat, chicken carcasses) and meatballs (ready-toeat meat) were analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. From these samples, 148 S. aureus isolates were obtained, which were investigated for proteolytic and lipolytic activity under psychrotrophic conditions (+4 oC and +20 oC) associated with meat spoilage. Both proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria can change the quality of raw meat and decrease the shelf-life, resulti...
Luna C, P.C
In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)
Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui
Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.
Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun
This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P meat lost significant amounts of all bioactive compounds during cooking (P meat had high retention percentages of carnosine and anserine after cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Chumngoen, W; Chen, C F; Chen, H Y; Tan, F J
This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness, of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. Meat from BRs and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics. TNC meat had longer cooking time and lower myofibrillar fragmentation index than BR meat did. TNC meat had higher collagen content, shear force values and springiness but lower collagen solubility than BR meat did. BR meat had significantly higher onset and end transition temperatures than TNC meat did. In BR meat, a sensory analysis revealed that moisture release decreased and chicken flavour increased with increasing temperature. Protein solubility, cooking loss and the texture of heated meat were highly correlated. This study scientifically assessed the performances of the two breeds of chickens with different thermal treatments; producers could utilise the information to produce poultry products with more desirable qualities.
Full Text Available A simple colorimetric assay was developed to identify chicken tissues in meat and meat products by utilizing thiol-labeled primers and unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Primers were designed based on the chicken-specific mitochondrial D-loop gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is applied to amplify the target gene, and the PCR products labeled with thiol at one end were obtained. Following the mixing of AuNPs with the PCR products, the thiol binds to the surface of AuNPs, resulting in the formation of GNP-PCR products. The resultant PCR products had abundant negative charges, which made AuNPs maintain dispersion under the role of electrostatic repulsion. As a result, in the presence of PCR products, AuNPs remained red in the presence of salt. In the absence of PCR products, the color of AuNPs changed from red to blue; therefore, the method described here could be exploited for the verification of chicken tissues with high accuracy.
Nguyen Van Duy; Vu Dinh, Ton; Nguyen Thi, Phuong
This study was carried out at the experimental farm of Vietnam National University of Agriculture from January to December, 2016 on H’mong chickens that were raised by industrial farming. H’mong chickens were raised in three lots in order to observe the survival rate, growth capacity, FCR and quality of meat. The results show that Hmong chicken adapted well with industrial farming method, which supposedly contributed to the improvement in survival rate of chickens (94,1%) compared to tradit...
Full Text Available Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR and Taiwan native chicken (TNC breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1, TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2, TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3, TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.
Kurt, Ş; Kilinççeker, O
To determine the optimum meat mixture combination, the effects of different meat sources on physical, chemical, and sensory properties of cooked or stored meat patties were investigated using a response surface methodology mixture design. Meat patties were prepared using chicken, turkey, beef, and beef back fat. They were divided 2 groups, with 1 group cooked and 1 group stored. The first part was cooked with a preheated grill, and the second part was stored at -20°C for 2 mo. The effects of the meat mixtures on pH, proximate composition, cooking yield, dimension reduction, thiobarbituric acid, free fatty acid, proteolysis, and sensory properties of patties were studied. The influence of beef, turkey, and chicken meat on patties was found to be significant (P beef and chicken meat on the sensory properties of patties were also found to be significant (P chemical, and sensory qualities of patties. The optimum combination of beef, turkey, and chicken was found to be 34.87, 12.23, and 52.89%, respectively.
Full Text Available Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh as compared with some conventional methods, i.e. boiling, pressure and roasting
Kamboh, Asghar A; Zhu, Wei-Yun
There is growing interest in improving the production and meat quality of farm animals through dietary supplementation with phytochemical (e.g. flavonoids)-rich plants and/or their extracts. This study was conducted to analyse the supplemental effects of two purified flavonoids (genistein and hesperidin) individually and in combination on the oxidative status, sensory score and quality of breast meat in meat-type broiler chickens. A significant increase (P hesperidin. Water-holding capacity was also improved significantly (P hesperidin-treated groups, while the sensory quality of breast meat remained unaffected. Lipid oxidation of breast meat was reduced significantly (P hesperidin supplementation to broilers improved meat quality in a dose-dependent fashion, with pronounced effects of combined treatment. The results indicated that purified flavonoids such as genistein and hesperidin could potentially be used as feed additives in broiler production to promote meat quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Seo, Dong Won; Park, Hee Bok; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun
This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC) for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female) and meat type (breast and thigh meat) was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y]) from 70 full-sib families were used. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of the meats were significantly affected by line, gender, and meat type (pprotein and the lowest fat content of the meats. l-carnitine and betaine content showed effects of meat type, line, and gender (pcontent was found in breast and thigh meats from line Y in both genders. The breast meat from line G and the thigh meat from line R had the highest betaine content in males. The female breast and thigh meats showed the highest betaine content in line R. These data could be valuable for establishing selection strategies for developing highly nutritious chicken meat breeds in Korea.
Full Text Available This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female and meat type (breast and thigh meat was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y] from 70 full-sib families were used. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of the meats were significantly affected by line, gender, and meat type (p<0.05. The males in line G and females in line B showed the highest protein and the lowest fat content of the meats. l-carnitine and betaine content showed effects of meat type, line, and gender (p<0.05. The highest l-carnitine content was found in breast and thigh meats from line Y in both genders. The breast meat from line G and the thigh meat from line R had the highest betaine content in males. The female breast and thigh meats showed the highest betaine content in line R. These data could be valuable for establishing selection strategies for developing highly nutritious chicken meat breeds in Korea.
Gian Maria Chiericato
Full Text Available A trial was carried out to study the slaughter performance and the meat quality of three Italian dual-purpose chicken breeds: Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, Robusta lionata (RL and Robusta maculata (RM. Females were studied from June to October from 47 days of life until slaughtered age, at 138 (I age and 168 (II age days of age. Each genotype had access to outdoor and indoor spaces. RL and RM birds showed a higher final body weight, and provided heavier carcass and commercial cuts than ER (P<0.01, at both ages. The dressing-out percentage of RL and RM females was more favourable than ER ones, in particular at II age (P<0.01. Differences in carcass conformation were observed at II age: the ER carcass showed a higher (P<0.01 proportion of leg and wing. The RM carcass had a higher (P<0.01 proportion of breast. The thigh meat/ bone ratio was higher in RL at I age (P<0.01 and II (P<0.05 age. Significant differences in breast colour were observed among the breeds; ER thigh showed the highest (P<0.05 a* value. At II age, lipids were lower (P<0.01 in ER breast; thigh lipids were similar among the groups. Slaughtering at I age seem to be more advantageous for the ER breed since it is more precocious.
Conclusions: The results implied that the bacteriological quality of red and chicken meat fluctuates with environmental status (especially temperature, sanitary status and personal hygiene. Regular control, improving of sanitary health, and staff training are necessary for elimination of bacterial contamination.
Nishchal K. Sharma
Full Text Available Abatement of odour emissions has become an important consideration to agricultural industries, including poultry production. The link between diet and odour emissions was studied in two experiments using Ross 308 male meat chickens reared in specially designed chambers in a climate controlled room. In the first experiment, two treatments were compared using three replicates of two birds per chamber. Two wheat-soy based treatment diets were formulated with or without canola seed, an ingredient rich in sulfur amino acids. Treatment 1 (T1 had 13.39 MJ/kg ME (as fed and used 60 g/kg canola seed without corn while Treatment 2 (T2 contained 12.90 MJ/kg ME (as fed and used 150 g/kg corn without canola seed. In the second experiment, birds were assigned to three dietary treatments of five replicates with five birds per replicate (chamber. The basal starter, grower and finisher diets in the control group (SBM group contained soybean meal in the range of 227–291 g/kg (as fed as the main protein source. The other treatments (CM and MBM groups contained either high levels of canola meal (174–190 g/kg or meat meal (74–110 g/kg at the expense of soybean meal. In both experiments, diets were isocaloric, isonitrogenous and contained similar digestible amino acid contents as per 2007 Aviagen Ross 308 guidelines. Emissions of odour were measured using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. In both experiments, major odorous compounds detected included 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl, 2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, ethyl mercaptan, 2-butanol, 3-methyl-butanal, phenol and m-cresol. In the first experiment, T1 (with canola seed produced higher concentration of methyl mercaptan (P < 0.05 and lower diacetyl (P < 0.01 than T2. In the second experiment, methyl mercaptan emission was higher in SBM group (P = 0.01 and total elemental sulfur were higher in SBM and CM groups up to day 24 (P < 0.01. Results of these experiments
Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng
Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (Pbirds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (Pbirds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206
Kramer, J.; Visscher, A.H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.
1. Several studies have shown that genetic variation exists in response to various Salmonella strains in mammals and poultry. In the current study immunocompetence traits related to natural resistance to Salmonella were measured in 7 genetic groups of meat-type chickens (in total 296 chickens
This study focuses on the performance and phytate utilization of meat-type chickens fed varied levels of acidified diets. Anti-nutrients such as phytate can inhibit growth performance in chickens; hence the need to supplement additives such as feed grade acidifiers that enhance digestibility and feed utilization.
Both the egg white and yolk antibodies coexisted in 35 (58.3%) patients. Conclusion: Sensitization against hen's egg was higher compared to the chicken meat. Egg white sensitization higher than the egg yolk particularly in Saudi children with food related allergic disorders. Key words: Allergy, atopic dermatitis, chicken ...
An experiment was carried out to investigate the proximate composition and effects of aging time on local chicken meat quality. ... half carcasses samples were chilled for 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours post mortem (PM) at 4oC. pH values were measured for each sample followed by storage at -20oC to arrest further changes in meat.
CAN,Hayriye Yeşim; Elmal?, Mehmet; Karag?z, Alper
The objectives of this study were: i) to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in raw milk, cheese, beef minced meat, and chicken meat samples; ii) to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates; and iii) to determine clonal relation among the isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Therefore, a total of 160 food samples were randomly collected between August 2014 and May 2015 in Hatay province, located ...
Odwar, Joyce Arua; Kikuvi, Gideon; Kariuki, James Ngumo; Kariuki, Samuel
Background Chicken is a rich source of meat protein and is increasingly being consumed in urban areas in Kenya. However, under poor hygienic environment, raw chicken meat presents an ideal substrate supporting the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Coliform bacteria indicating the potential presence of other pathogenic bacteria; this may constitute a major source of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study sought to assess the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meat so...
Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne
The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential
Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.
Wei, Ran; Wang, Peng; Han, Minyi; Chen, Tianhao; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong
The objective of this research was to study the electrical properties and quality of frozen-thawed chicken breast meat and to investigate the relationship between these parameters at different times of frozen storage. Thawed samples of chicken breast muscles were evaluated after being kept in frozen storage at -18°C for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 months). The results showed that water-holding capacity (WHC) and protein solubility decreased while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content increased with increasing storage time. The impedance module of samples decreased during 8-month frozen storage. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the impedance change ratio (Q value) was significantly (pprotein solubility, indicating a good relationship between the electrical properties and qualities of frozen-thawed chicken breast meat. Impedance measurement has a potential to assess the quality of frozen chicken meat combining with quality indices.
Moayedi, V; Omana, D. A; Chan, J; Xu, Y; Betti, M
... to 12.0, on the alkaline solubilization process of chicken dark meat. Aspects studied were the effect of the alkali-aided process on protein content, lipid composition, lipid oxidation, and color characteristics of the extracted meat...
D and z values of Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200 and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples, inoculated with L.monoc...
Mitchell, Natalie M.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha
Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat an...
Schaumburg, Frieder; Alabi, Abraham S; Frielinghaus, Lisa; Grobusch, Martin P; Köck, Robin; Becker, Karsten; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G; Peters, Georg; Mellmann, Alexander
A main export market for chicken meat from industrialized countries is sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that antibiotic resistant bacteria could be exported to developing countries through chicken meat trade. The objective was to investigate the occurrence and molecular types of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in chicken meat in Gabon and to assess their dissemination among humans. Frozen chicken meat samples imported from industrialized countries to Gabon (n = 151) were screened for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and S. aureus. Genotypes and resistance genes (SHV, TEM, CTX-M, CMY-2) of isolates from meat were compared with isolates derived from humans. The contamination rate per chicken part (i. e. leg, wing) with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL E. coli, no other ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found) and S. aureus was 23% and 3%, respectively. The beta-lactamase CTX-M 1 was predominant in ESBL E. coli from meat samples but was not found in isolates from cases of human colonization or infection. S. aureus belonging to spa type t002 (multilocus sequence type ST5) were found both in chicken meat and humans. There is a risk to import ESBL E. coli to Gabon but molecular differences between isolates from humans and chicken meat argue against a further dissemination. No MRSA isolate was detected in imported chicken meat.
Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei
This study was conducted to determine the effects of using mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) and collagen on quality characteristics of semi-dried chicken jerky. In experiment I, semi-dried chicken jerky was prepared with the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM (0, 10, 20, and 30%). The pH value of the jerky formulated with only chicken breast was 5.94, while the replacement of chicken breast with MDCM significantly increased the pH (pprotein content and shear force of the jerkies decreased with increasing amounts of MDCM, whereas the fat, ash content and processing yield showed the opposite tendency (pchicken jerky. In experiment II, four levels of pork collagen (0, 1, 2, and 3%) were added to the semi-dried chicken jerky formulated with 90% chicken breast and 10% MDCM. The addition of collagen increased the moisture content, but decreased the ash content of the jerkies produced (pchicken jerky. The optimal levels of MDCM and collagen which could be added without adverse effects on the sensory characteristics were up to 10% and 2%, respectively.
Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J Manuel; Becerril-Pérez, C; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Ruiz-Feria, C A; Hernández-Cázares, A S; Narciso-Gaytán, C
The oxidation of fatty acids decreases the quality and shelf-life of meats. To reduce this process, dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants were evaluated on the lipid oxidative stability of cooked chicken meat. Broilers were fed 2 levels of vitamin E (10 or 100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; VE-10 and VE-100, respectively) or oregano essential oil (100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; OR-100). Additionally, honey (3%) or butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%; BHT) were added to chicken meat from the control treatment (VE-10). Breast meat was ground, formed into patties, and cooked on electric grills until it reached an internal temperature of 74°C. Cooked meat was cooled at room temperature, packaged, and stored under refrigeration for 9 d (4°C) or frozen for 45 d (-20°C). The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance test was used to quantify malondialdehyde (MDA) values in the meat. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design, 5 treatments with 12 replications each, and the least squares means were compared with 4 orthogonal contrasts. The results showed that the meat of the VE-10 treatment had higher values of MDA (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the other antioxidant treatments in all the storage days. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.05) in MDA values between the dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidant treatments. The meat added with honey had lower MDA values than the one with BHT (P ≤ 0.05). Meat of the VE-100 treatment showed lower MDA values than the one of OR-100 (P ≤ 0.05) in most storage days. In conclusion, supplementation of 10 mg•kg(-1) of vitamin E to the diet resulted in a higher development of lipid oxidation in the meat. Both dietary supplemented or meat-added antioxidants had similar effects on the lipid oxidative stability. The addition of honey maintained longer the lipid oxidative stability of the meat than BHT. Finally, dietary supplementation of vitamin E at the same level of oregano oil, 100 mg•kg(-1), resulted in a higher antioxidant
Full Text Available : Chilled and frozen chicken breast and thigh meat were stored at +4±1 oC and - 20±1 oC, respectively. Maillard reaction between ribose and meat proteins of the chicken samples was initiated. The changes in the ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate during chilled and frozen storage of chicken meat were evaluated on the bases of corrected absorbance values (A420* and bovine melanoidin equivalent values (mg BME/g. Application of BME as a measure of ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate enables comparability of the data obtained by different spectrophotometers. It was found that the BME values of chicken meat frozen stored for more than 15 days were significantly (P<0.05 lower than BME values of chilled-stored samples. According to the suggested threshold limit values the chicken thigh and breast meat with BME values lower than 30 mg BME/g and 51 mg BME/g, respectively could be classified as frozen-thawed.
Funaro, A; Cardenia, V; Petracci, M; Rimini, S; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Cavani, C
The aim of this research was to evaluate quality traits and oxidative stability of meat products from free-range (FR) and conventionally (C) raised chickens as they actually reach consumers in the Italian retail market. Free-range female and male chickens (n = 1,500 + 1,500), medium growing ISA strain, were raised under commercial conditions for 56 (1.8 kg of live weight) and 70 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively; C female and male birds (n = 5,000 + 5,000) were a fast growing hybrid (Ross 708) and were separately raised for 39 (1.9 kg of live weight) and 50 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively. A total of 96 chickens (equally divided by production system and sex) were slaughtered in 2 separate sessions to obtain the main 2 commercial categories (rotisserie and cut-up, respectively). After slaughtering, 12 carcasses of each treatment group were randomly selected and used to assess quality properties, chemical composition, and oxidation stability of breast and leg meat. The C birds had dramatic higher carcass and breast meat yield, whereas FR had higher wing and leg yields. The FR birds exhibited higher water holding capacity in both breast and leg meat. Although shear force did not differ in breast meat, legs from FR birds were tougher. Fatty acid composition of FR breast and thigh meat of both categories were characterized by a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6-/n-3 ratio. In general, a low lipid oxidation level (peroxide value meat, whereas FR led to a significantly higher TBA reactive substances in breast meat. Our results demonstrated that free range can modify the properties of chicken meat and also highlighted the importance of the bird genetic background to select nutritional strategies to improve meat quality traits and oxidative stability in poultry. Poultry Science Association Inc.
Renata A. Labanca
Full Text Available The levels of starch were determined in chicken based meat products commercialized in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, from December 1996 to March 1997. Samples were analyzed for moisture and starch contents. Starch was acid hydrolyzed and the resulting glucose was determined at 620 nm after reaction with anthrone. The method was observed to be accurate (92.7% recovery, precise (CV = 3.0%, sensitive (quantification limit = 1.25 g/100 g and simple in the determination of starch in meat products. Among products analyzed, starch was detected in 100% of meat balls and nuggets samples, in 60% of the sausage, 50% of the bologna and 30% of the frankfurter. Starch was not detected in hamburger samples analyzed. Higher mean starch levels were found in nuggets (14.85 g/100 g followed by meat balls (4.45 g/100 g, sausage (1.73 g/100 g, bologna (1.14 g/100 g and frankfurter (0.57 g/100 g. Mean moisture content varied from 35.68 in sausage to 46.24 g/100 g in nuggets. No significant correlation was observed between moisture and starch contents. Every sample of bologna and 90% of the frankfurter contained starch levels according to the Brazilian legislation. Starch levels varied considerably within brands as well as within lots of the same brand.Os teores de amido foram determinados em produtos a base de frango comercializados em Belo Horizonte, MG, no período de dezembro de 1996 a março de 1997. As amostras foram analisadas quanto aos teores de umidade e amido. O amido foi submetido a hidrolise ácida e a glicose resultante foi determinada a 620 nm após reação com antrona. O método apresentou exatidão (92,7% de recuperação, precisão (CV = 3,0%, sensibilidade (limite de quantificação = 1,25 g/100 g e simplicidade na determinação de amido em produtos cárneos. Dentre os produtos analisados, amido foi detectado em 100% das amostras de almôndega e empanado, 60% das de lingüiça, 50% das de mortadela e 30% das de salsicha. Amido não foi detectado nas
Serkan Kemal BÜYÜKÜNAL
Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are some of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. They are mainly considered as foodborne pathogens that are found in raw or undercooked poultry and serve as an important source of sporadic campylobacteriosis. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 176 samples of chicken meat were analyzed using PCM and BAX® system. The samples analyzed included: 56 samples of whole chicken, 27 samples of chicken breast, 33 samples of chicken thigh, 25 samples of chicken drumstick and 35 samples of chicken wings. Samples of all the fresh chicken meat sold in İstanbul were randomly purchased from different major supermarkets in their original, individual packages. Laboratory analyses to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were performed in accordance with the ISO 10272-1, 2006 standard (qualitative analysis. API® Campy (BioMerieux, Marcy-l’Etoile, France was used for the confirmation of presumptive colonies. Campylobacter isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests by the disc diffusion method as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Zones of growth inhibition were evaluated according to the NCCLS standards. Using PCM, the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari was determined as 15.34, 8.52 and 1.7%, respectively. However, using BAX® system, the prevalence was determined as 15.90, 18.75 and 1.7% for C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari, respectively. C. coli was resistant to nalidixic acid (78.57%, ofloxacin (14.29% norfloxacin (10.71% and ampicillin (10.71%. But the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (90.91% for C. jejuni and (100% for C. lari. In conclusion, considering the public health, chicken meat is a common source for Campylobacter strains and antibiotics should be used carefully in veterinary medicine.
Schaumburg, Frieder; Alabi, Abraham S.; Frielinghaus, Lisa; Grobusch, Martin P.; Köck, Robin; Becker, Karsten; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.; Peters, Georg; Mellmann, Alexander
A main export market for chicken meat from industrialized countries is sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that antibiotic resistant bacteria could be exported to developing countries through chicken meat trade. The objective was to investigate the occurrence and molecular types of ESBL-producing
Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to determine the effect of the alfalfa meal component in feed mixtures of Ross broiler chickens on oxidative stability of meat. Proportion of alfalfa meal in feed mixtures was 4 and 6%. The results were compared to the control group without alfalfa meal in feed mixtures. At the end of the experiment (day 38, 6 pcs of broiler chickens from each group with an average live body weight over 1 800 g were randomly selected. The samples for chemical analysis consisted of identical proportion of breast and thigh muscle, and about 1 cm2 of skin with subcutaneous fat. Fat from the meat was obtained after the samples drying. A fat was determined by extraction by means of laboratory instrument Det N Gras Selecta P. The oxidative stability of meat on the basis of acid number of fat was determided by chemical analysis. Chicken meat was stored at -18 °C for 12 months and 18 months. The acid number of fat of stored meat for 12 months was 7.38 mg KOH per g in the control group, 7.42 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 11.18 mg KOH per g in the group with proportion 6% alfalfa meal. An acid number of fat of stored meat for 18 months was 5.90 mg KOH per g in the control group, 4.65 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 7.07 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 6% alfalfa meal. Chicken meat is notably sensitive to lipid oxidation because of its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Legislation in Title 5 of Part 3 of the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the Government Regulation No. 286/2003 Coll. in the Annex 4 in Part B provide the requirements for animal fats and meat products. Regulation of the European Parliament and Council (EC No. 853/2004 lays down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. In particular, determination of free fatty acids content of rendered animal fat (tallow, lard, other animal fat. Legislative regulation does
Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Alahakoon, Amali U; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun
In this study the effects of sex, meat cut and thermal processing on the carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine and carnitine contents of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat were determined. Forty 1-day-old chicks (20 chicks of each sex) from a commercial KNC strain (Woorimatdag™) were reared under similar standard commercial conditions with similar diets, and ten birds of each sex were randomly selected and slaughtered at 14 weeks of age. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared from both breast and leg meats and analyzed for the aforementioned functional compounds. Female KNCs had significantly higher betaine and creatine contents. The breast meat showed significantly higher carnosine and anserine contents, whereas the leg meat had a higher betaine and carnitine content. The content of all functional compounds was significantly depleted by thermal processing. This study confirms that KNC meat is a good source of the above-mentioned functional compounds, which can be considered attractive nutritional quality factors. However, their concentrations were significantly affected by thermal processing conditions, meat cut and sex. Further experiments are needed to select the best thermal processing method to preserve these functional compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels
as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were...... phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported...... chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed...
Cui, X; Liu, R; Cui, H; Zhao, G; Zheng, M; Li, Q; Liu, J; Liu, Z; Wen, J
Capons and ovariectomized chickens are birds that have been gonadectomized to improve the meat quality. This study investigated the effects of caponization and ovariectomy on physical, chemical, and fatty acid and amino acid profiles of meat from Beijing-You chickens (a Chinese local breed) at market age (17 wk). All birds (20 capons, 20 ovariectomized, and 40 controls) were reared under the same conditions. Breast muscle fiber diameter and area were significantly smaller and the fiber density was higher in capons and ovariectomized chickens than in controls (P 0.05). Overall, this study indicates that both caponization and ovariectomy likely improve the meat quality of the breast muscle based on the objective indices of IMF, appearance (color), texture, and minor change of the fatty acid profile; ovariectomy improves flavor-related indices. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li
To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (pprotein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (pChickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (pmeat increased significantly (pmeat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selani, M M; Contreras-Castillo, C J; Shirahigue, L D; Gallo, C R; Plata-Oviedo, M; Montes-Villanueva, N D
The effect of Isabel (IGE) and Niagara (NGE) grape seed and peel extracts on lipid oxidation, instrumental colour, pH and sensory properties of raw and cooked processed chicken meat stored at -18°C for nine months was evaluated. The pH of raw and cooked samples was not affected by the addition of grape extracts. IGE and NGE were effective in inhibiting the lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken meat, with results comparable to synthetic antioxidants. The extracts caused alterations in colour, as evidenced by the instrumental (darkening and lower intensity of red and yellow colour) and sensory results of cooked samples. In the sensory evaluation of odour and flavour, IGE produced satisfactory results, which did not differ from synthetic antioxidants. These findings suggest that the IGE and NGE are effective in retarding lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken meat during frozen storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C
Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.
Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva
This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality.
Xiong, Zhenjie; Xie, Anguo; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan
Currently, the issue of food safety and quality is a great public concern. In order to satisfy the demands of consumers and obtain superior food qualities, non-destructive and fast methods are required for quality evaluation. As one of these methods, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique has emerged as a smart and promising analytical tool for quality evaluation purposes and has attracted much interest in non-destructive analysis of different food products. With the main advantage of combining both spectroscopy technique and imaging technique, HSI technique shows a convinced attitude to detect and evaluate chicken meat quality objectively. Moreover, developing a quality evaluation system based on HSI technology would bring economic benefits to the chicken meat industry. Therefore, in recent years, many studies have been conducted on using HSI technology for the safety and quality detection and evaluation of chicken meat. The aim of this review is thus to give a detailed overview about HSI and focus on the recently developed methods exerted in HSI technology developed for microbiological spoilage detection and quality classification of chicken meat. Moreover, the usefulness of HSI technique for detecting fecal contamination and bone fragments of chicken carcasses are presented. Finally, some viewpoints on its future research and applicability in the modern poultry industry are proposed.
Moayedi, V; Omana, D A; Chan, J; Xu, Y; Betti, M
Chicken dark meat has been considered as a major underused commodity due to the increasing demand for further-processed breast meat products. One option to increase the utilization of chicken dark meat is to extract myofibrillar proteins and separate them from fat and pigments to enhance their application for the preparation of further-processed meat products. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pH, in the range of 10.5 to 12.0, on the alkaline solubilization process of chicken dark meat. Aspects studied were the effect of the alkali-aided process on protein content, lipid composition, lipid oxidation, and color characteristics of the extracted meat. Each experiment and each assay were done at least in triplicate. Lipid content of the extracted meat showed a 50% reduction compared with the chicken dark meat. Neutral lipids were reduced by 61.51%, whereas polar lipids were not affected by the alkali treatments. There was a higher amount of TBA reactive substances observed in the extracted meat compared with chicken dark meat, indicating that extracted meat was more susceptible to oxidation. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (22:4n-6, 20:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), which were detected only in the polar lipids, were responsible for increasing lipid oxidation susceptibility of extracted meat compared with chicken dark meat. Alkali-aided extraction of chicken dark meat lightened the color of the meat. The redness, yellowness, and total heme pigments in extracted meat significantly decreased by 83, 11, and 53%, respectively, compared with chicken dark meat. Even though this process did not remove polar lipids, based on our early findings, the extracted meat had considerable physicochemical and textural properties for product preparation compared with those of raw dark meat. Hence, alkali recovery of protein can be considered a potentially useful method to increase the utilization of dark chicken meat.
Adriano Henrique Ferrarez; Delly Oliveira Filho; Adílio Flauzino de Lacerda Filho; José Márcio Costa; Fabrício Segui Aparisi
The main use of electrical energy in the chicken meat processing unit is refrigeration. About 70% of the electricity is consumed in the compressors for the refrigeration system. Through this study, the energetic viability of using biogas from poultry litter in supplying the demand for the refrigeration process was found. The meat processing unit studied has the potential to process about a hundred and sixty thousand chickens a day. The potential biogas production from poultry litter is 60,754...
Zanetti, E; De Marchi, M; Dalvit, C; Molette, C; Remignon, H; Cassandro, M
1. An experiment involving 60 male chickens reared in an organic production system was carried out in order to investigate carcase characteristics and qualitative meat traits of three slow-growing Italian local breeds of chicken (Ermellinata, Padovana and Pepoi). 2. Chicks were randomly selected at hatch, raised together under the same conditions, slaughtered at 190 d of age, dissected for carcase traits, and meat (breast and thigh) stored for subsequent analysis of quality parameters. 3. Ermellinata (EA) chickens were significantly different from Padovana (PA) and Pepoi (PI) chickens for live, carcase and thigh weights. Breeds were also different for breast muscle protein content (EA > PI and PA), shear force (PA PA and EA) values. 4. The CIE system values of lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) evidenced a distinctive darker meat and lighter skin colour of PA breast meat. 5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids composition of breast meat was similar among the analysed breeds. EA had significantly higher saturated but significantly lower monounsaturated fatty acid contents than the other two breeds.
H. D. Yin
Full Text Available Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03 of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01. The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05. Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05 compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken.
RG Garcia; LW Freitas; AW Schwingel; RM Farias; FR Caldara; AMA Gabriel; JD Graciano; CM Komiyama; ICL Almeida Paz
It is known that PSE meat present important functional defects, such as low water holding capacity and ultimate pH, which may compromise the quality of further-processed meat products. In this study, L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values of 500 chicken breast fillets were determined using a portable colorimeter (Minolta, model CR-400) in a commercial processing plant. Fillets were considered pale when their L* was >49. Out of those samples, 30 fillets with normal color a...
Yacoub, Haitham A; Sadek, Mahmoud A
This study was conducted to find out the fraud in chicken-processed meat ingredients to protect consumers from commercial adulteration and authentication through a reliable way: direct amplification of conserved segment of cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA, in addition, using species-specific primer assay for a certain cytochrome b. The results reported that chicken-processed meats were identified as a chicken meat based on amplification of conserved cytochrome b gene of mtDNA, while different fragments sizes were produced after the application of species-specific primer as follows: 227, 157, 274, 331, 389 and 439 bp for raw meat of chicken, goat, cattle, sheep, pig and horse, respectively. The results revealed that all chicken meat products are produced with 227 bp in size. While, an adulteration with pork stuffs was observed in some of the chicken meat products using a species-specific primer of cytochrome b gene, namely, chicken luncheon and chicken burger. This study represents a reliable technique that could be used to provide a promising solution for identifying the commercial adulteration and substitutions in processed meat in retail markets.
Casella, Tiago; Nogueira, Mara Correa Lelles; Saras, Estelle; Haenni, Marisa; Madec, Jean-Yves
Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are critically important antibiotics for humans and their use in animals poses a potential threat for public health. Chicken represents an increasing part of the human diet and has also been regarded as a source of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae because of the worldwide off-label use of ceftiofur, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Thus, numerous studies pointed out chicken as a reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC genes, plasmids and/or clones at risk for humans. In France, late 2011, strong political pressure led to a drastic reduction of ceftiofur use and all other antibiotics in chicken production. Here, we ascertained the potential impact of those efforts on the prevalence of ESC-resistant E. coli in retail chicken. From October 2015 to January 2016, of 48 unrelated pieces of meat (chicken legs) belonging to four different brands, 44 (91.7%) were positive for ESC-resistant E. coli. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was highly prevalent (68/74, 91.9%), mostly located on IncI1/ST3 plasmids (65/68, 95.6%). Other ESBL/pAmpC genes (blaTEM-52, blaSHV-12, blaCMY-2) were carried by IncX1, IncI1/ST36, IncI1/ST95, IncA/C or IncK plasmids. The positive isolates were non-clonal, suggesting a horizontal spread of the ESBL/pAmpC genes. Obviously, the strong decrease of antimicrobial use in chicken farms had no impact yet on the ESBL/pAmpC prevalence in retail chicken meat in France. A human source of these ESBL/pAmpC genes is unlikely as blaCTX-M-1 IncI1/ST3 plasmids are dominant in animals and rare in humans. Our data question the real impact of the decrease of antimicrobial use in chicken production on ESBL contamination of chicken meat and point out the risk of ESBL/AmpCs human transfer through the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Melone, Antonio; De Feo, Vincenzo; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena
The present study evaluated the effects of thyme and balm essential oils on the 3-wk storage of fresh chicken breast meat at 4 °C. Thyme and, to a lesser extent, balm essential oils reduced DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical formation in the meat (25% to 30% and 20%, respectively). Treatment with the 2 essential oils also limited lipid peroxidation and the deterioration of sarcoplasmic proteins, helping to preserve the meat even after 2 wk of storage. Thyme and balm essential oils decreased the natural microflora present in the meat; total microbial content decreased down to 50% in comparison to the control samples. In addition, a clear effect on lactic acid bacterial growth was recorded. Balm essential oil significantly limited the growth of Salmonella sp., whereas thyme essential oil effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Our data demonstrate that these 2 essential oils effectively reduced deteriorative processes in chicken meat and extended the shelf life of this fresh product. Practical Application: The essential oils of thyme and balm can protect the chicken meat from decomposition during the storage time.
Tiffani J. Howell
Full Text Available Evidence suggests that there is variation in support for specific chicken farming practices amongst stakeholder groups, and this should be explored in more detail to understand the nature of these differences and work towards convergence. Online focus groups were used to assess attitudes to animal welfare in meat chicken farming in this pilot study. Across six online chats, 25 participants (general public, n = 8; animal advocacy group, n = 11, meat chicken industry, n = 3; research or veterinary practice who had experience with poultry but no declared industry affiliation, n = 3 discussed meat chicken intensification and welfare. Of those, 21 participants completed pre- and post-chat surveys gauging perceptions and objective knowledge about meat chicken management. Main reasons for intensification support were perceptions of improved bird health, and perceptions that it is a cost-effective, sustainable farming system. Reasons for opposition included perceptions that a large number of birds kept are in close proximity and have limited ability to perform natural behaviours. Misunderstandings about current practices were clarified in chats which contained industry representation. Participants agreed on the need for enforceable standards and industry transparency. Industry-affiliated members rated welfare of meat chickens higher, and gave lower ratings for the importance of natural living, than other stakeholder groups (both p = 0.001. On average, while objective knowledge of intensification increased after chat participation (p = 0.03, general welfare ratings and support for intensification did not change over time, counter to assertions that lack of knowledge results in lack of support for some practices.
Angela Bullanday Scott
Full Text Available There are few published studies describing the unique management practices, farm design and housing characteristics of commercial meat chicken and layer farms in Australia. In particular, there has been a large expansion of free range poultry production in Australia in recent years, but limited information about this enterprise exists. This study aimed to describe features of Australian commercial chicken farms, with particular interest in free range farms, by conducting on-farm interviews of 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. Comparisons between the different enterprises (cage, barn and free range were explored, including stocking densities, depopulation procedures, environmental control methods and sources of information for farmers. Additional information collected for free range farms include range size, range characteristics and range access. The median number of chickens per shed was greatest in free range meat chicken farms (31,058, followed by barn meat chicken (20,817, free range layer (10,713, barn layer (9,300 and cage layer farms (9,000. Sheds had cooling pads and tunnel ventilation in just over half of both barn and free range meat chicken farms (53%, n = 8 and was least common in free range layer farms (16%, n = 4. Range access in free range meat chicken farms was from sunrise to dark in the majority (93%, n = 14 of free range meat chicken farms. Over half of free range layer farms (56%, n = 14 granted range access at a set time each morning; most commonly between 9:00 to 10.00am (86%, n = 12, and chickens were placed back inside sheds when it was dusk.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C, imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB, and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB. The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF] compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing
Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong
The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and
Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Debut, Martine; Berri, Cécile M; Sellier, Nadine; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Jégo, Yves; Beaumont, Catherine
The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3) were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu), color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP) at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43). There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg) with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97), suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76), it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58), and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84). This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3 were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu, color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43. There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97, suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76, it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58, and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84. Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line.
Dos Santos, V M; Dallago, B S L; Racanicci, A M C; Santana, Â P; Bernal, F E M
This research aims to evaluate the microclimate of commercial loads of broiler chickens at different distances in the summer (rainy) and winter (dry) seasons and their effects on meat quality. Twelve broiler loads were monitored with a total of 24 crates per load. Data loggers were used to record temperature and relative humidity. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with 48 treatments in a factorial scheme (2 seasons: rainy and dry) x 2 (distances: short and long) x 12 (positions), with 3 replicates per experimental group. In the rainy season, meat quality was influenced by transport distance. For longer distances, it recorded the highest enthalpy comfort index (ECI), suggesting a tendency of dark, firm, and dry meat (DFD-like) and lower cooking losses (CL). The lowest ECI was recorded during the transport in dry season. Broiler chickens transported and slaughtered in the winter presented meat pH and L* (lightness) classified as "normal," but with higher cooking losses. For the shear force (SF), the seasons and distances had no significant influence on tenderness of the meat. Regarding the crate positioning in the load, no effect was observed during transport on this variable, given the meat quality characteristics of pH, L*, CL, and SF. These results suggest that the distance and the seasons present more influence on broiler meat quality than crate position in the truck. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Kudra, L L; Sebranek, J G; Dickson, J S; Mendonca, A F; Zhang, Q; Jackson-Davis, A; Prusa, K J
Salmonella is one of the leading causes of human foodborne illnesses originating from meat and poultry products. Cross-contamination of Salmonella from raw to cooked products continues to be problematic in the food industry. Therefore, new intervention strategies are needed for meat and poultry products. Vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) are common packaging techniques used to extend the shelf life of meat products. Irradiation has been well established as an antibacterial treatment to reduce pathogens on meat and poultry. Combining irradiation with high-CO(2)+CO MAP was investigated in this study for improving the control of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on chicken breast meat. The radiation sensitivities (D10-values) of this pathogen in chicken breast meat were found to be similar in vacuum and in high-CO(2)+CO MAP (0.55 ± 0.03 kGy and 0.54 ± 0.03 kGy, respectively). Irradiation at 1.5 kGy reduced the Salmonella population by an average of 3 log. Some Salmonella cells survived in both vacuum and high-CO(2) + CO MAP through 6 weeks of refrigerated storage following irradiation. This pathogen also grew in both vacuum and MAP when the product was held at 25°C. This study demonstrated that irradiation is an effective means of reducing Salmonella on meat or poultry, but packaging in either vacuum or MAP had little impact during subsequent refrigerated storage.
Two hundred and fifty-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used to investigate the dietary supplementation effects of different levels of 0.0 turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) (free TRP, F.TRP), 0.25 (low TRP, L.TRP), 0.5 (medium TRP, M.TRP) and 0.75% TRP (high TRP, H.TRP) or 50 mg/kg vitamin E (VE) on antioxidant properties of thigh meat in broiler chickens after slaughter. No effect of treatment was observed for the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in thigh meat (P > 0.05) but all were reduced over time (P meat GPX activity (P = 0.02). Significant effects of treatment and time were observed for malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P meat MDA content at slaughter (P > 0.05). Three days after refrigerator storage, MDA content in thigh meat of M.TRP birds was lower than that of F.TRP birds (P content in thigh meat as compared with F.TRP birds 7 days after storage (P meat shelf-life storage and quality in broiler chickens after slaughter. © 2012 The Author. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
The present study compared the effects of fasting on circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and glucagon in male and female modern meat-type chickens (Ross 708) at three ages (19 d, 33 d and 47 d). Plasma concentrations of glucose were reduced by fasting with reductions of 24.9% (19-d-old),...
Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from -20 degree C to +25 degree C. To ensure temperature uniformity between the different components of the measurement assembly, the measurements were ...
Radha krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sasikala, M; Sabina, K; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M
The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of different spice extracts in raw chicken meat during storage for 15 days at 4 °C were studied. Raw chicken meat was treated with BHT (positive control), Syzygium aromaticum (SA), Cinnmomum cassia (CC), Origanum vulgare (OV), and Brassica nigra (BN) extracts and the different combinations as well as the results were compared to raw chicken meat without any additive (negative control). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of spice extracts were determined. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were ranged from 14.09 ± 0.78 to 24.65 ± 0.83 mg of GAE/g and 7.07 ± 0.15 to 12.13 ± 0.24 mg of quercetin/g, respectively. The pH, instrumental color (CIE L*, a*, b*), total viable counts (TVC), Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, Pseudomonas spp. counts and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined at a gap of 3 days interval for a period of 15 days. The bacterial counts of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lower than control samples during storage. T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples maintained significantly (Pantioxidant in raw chicken meats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of human diarrhea worldwide. In the present work, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to study the genotypic diversity of 145 C. jejuni isolates from 135 chicken meat preparations sampled across Belgium. Isolates were further typed by p...
Osman, Kamelia M; Amer, Aziza M; Badr, Jihan M; Saad, Aalaa S A
Coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative (CNS) staphylococci cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Recently, CPS and CNS have received increasing attention due to their potential role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers. The present study aimed to evaluate CPS and CNS species distribution and their antibiotic resistance profile isolated from chicken and beef meat. Fifty fresh, uncooked chicken parts and 50 beef meat cuts (local n=27; imported n=23) were used. One hundred staphylococcal isolates belonging to 11 species were isolated and identified from chicken (n=50) and beef (n=50) raw meat samples. Staphylococcus hyicus (26/100), lugdunensis (18/100), aureus (15/100) and epidermidis (14/100) were dominant. S. aureus was 100% resistant to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus showed intermediate resistance (51%), which might indicate the dissemination of vancomycin resistance in the community and imply food safety hazards. The percentage of resistance to β-lactams was variable, with the highest resistance being to penicillin (94%) and lowest to ampicillin-sulbactam (22%). Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against penicillin (94%), clindamycin (90%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (82%). The results indicate that chicken and beef raw meat are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CPS and CNS.
Kurt, S; Kilinççeker, O
To determine the optimal coating performance of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) on chicken meat, the effects of SPI (0 to 10%), WPI (0 to 10%), and pH (3 to 8) on coating pickup, frying loss, yield, moisture, and fat content of chicken meat were investigated by response surface methodology. Chicken breast meat samples were dipped in protein solutions with different pH and then drained. Subsequently, they were coated with a dry commercial coating mixture, and the coated samples were deep-fat fried in margarine. Soy protein isolate had better performance on chicken meat than WPI. The performance increased significantly at higher pH values. Optimal responses were the minimum for coating pickup, yield, and moisture content and the maximum for frying loss and fat content. Critical values for the optimal responses were between 5.05 and 5.80 pH, 2.74 and 4.65% SPI, and 3.10 and 4.74% WPI, respectively. However, the optimal breading performance combination was 7.13 pH, 9.0% SPI, and 0.6% WPI.
Yin, H D; Gilbert, E R; Chen, S Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Zhao, X L; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q
Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (pmeat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken.
Mangen, M.J.J.; Havelaar, A.H.; Poppe, K.J.; Ardine de Wit, G.
The current article describes the economic evaluation of interventions to control Campylobacter on chicken meat by means of a cost-utility analysis. Apart from the used, the main focus of this article is on data gaps and assumptions made, and their on results and conclusions. The direct intervention
Oscar, Thomas P
A study was undertaken to investigate and model behavior of Salmonella on chicken meat during cold storage at constant temperatures. Chicken meat (white, dark, or skin) portions (0.75 cm(3)) were inoculated with a single strain of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (2.8 log) followed by storage for 0 to 8 d at -8, 0, 8, 12, 14, or 16 °C for model development and at -4, 4, 10, or 14 °C for model validation. A general regression neural network model was developed with commercial software. Performance of the model was considered acceptable when the proportion of residuals (observed--predicted) in an acceptable prediction zone (pAPZ) from -1 log (fail-safe) to 0.5 logs (fail-dangerous) was ≥ 0.7. Growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken meat was observed at 12, 14, and 16 °C and was highest on dark meat, intermediate on skin, and lowest on white meat. At lower temperatures (-8 to 10 °C) Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 remained at initial levels throughout 8 d of storage except at 4 °C where there was a small (0.4 log) but significant decline. The model had acceptable performance (pAPZ = 0.929) for dependent data (n = 482) and acceptable performance (pAPZ = 0.923) for independent data (n = 235). Results indicated that it is important to include type of meat as an independent variable in the model and that the model provided valid predictions of the behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin, white, and dark meat during storage for 0 to 8 d at constant temperatures from -8 to 16 °C. A model for predicting behavior of Salmonella on chicken meat during cold storage was developed and validated. The model will help the chicken industry to better predict and manage this risk to public health. Journal of Food Science © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.
Chen, X; Jiang, W; Tan, H Z; Xu, G F; Zhang, X B; Wei, S; Wang, X Q
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of outdoor access on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Thirty-five-day-old female broilers were divided into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 124 birds each: (1) birds reared indoors (control group); (2) birds reared with outdoor access since 36 d of age (35-d group); and (3) birds reared with outdoor access since 71 d of age (70-d group). The results showed that outdoor access had no effect on growth performance, carcass yield, meat yield, muscle protein content, muscle fiber characteristics, or water-holding capacity (P > 0.05). Chickens from the outdoor access groups had a better appearance and degree of evenness. Birds in the outdoor access groups had a significantly lower lung percentage than birds in the control group (P meat of chickens in the 35-d group had higher L* values than that of the control group (P Birds in the 35-d group also had lower fat content in their thigh muscles than did the birds in the 70-d group (P birds in the 35-d group showed lower levels of MUFA and higher levels of PUFA than those of the control group and 70-d group (P meat quality; birds reared with outdoor access from 36 d of age had better appearance and meat quality than those with outdoor access from 71 d of age.
C. A. Patria
Full Text Available The crossbreeding between broiler and kampong chickens has been performed to develop a kampong-broiler strain chicken. The chicken stocking condition needs more attention as a part of animal welfare. This study was performed to identify the relationship between the stocking density and the stress based on Temperature Humidity Index (THI and the effect of stocking density on meat quality, i.e., physical, microbiological, and organoleptic. Ninety DOCs of Kampong-Broiler (KB were assigned into a completely randomized design with 3 treatments of stocking density i.e., 8, 10, and 12 birds m-2. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. The experimental chickens were housed in 9 blocks of housing each with 1 x 1 m2 size. Data on physical and microbiology of meat qualities were analyzed with analysis of variance and continued with Duncan’s multiple range test. The organoleptic data were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result showed that the stocking density did not significantly affect the physical and hedonic quality of KB chicken’s breast. The stocking densities significantly affected (P<0.05 the microbiological variables of breast meat. The average value of THI during maintenance reached 28.98±1.25–29.33±1.32oC. The higher the animal density the higher the THI value that correlated to the stress condition. However, high stocking density did not affect the physical and hedonic quality of breast meat, thus it can be accepted by the consumers. The higher the stocking density the higher the total plate count, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, without the presence of Salmonella sp. The meat quality of KB chickens raised in the stocking density of 10 birds m-2 meets the requirement of SNI 01-3924-2009.
Sommers, Christopher H; Scullen, O J; Sheen, Shiowshuh
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, including uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are common contaminants in poultry meat and may cause urinary tract infections after colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and transfer of contaminated feces to the urethra. Three non-thermal processing technologies used to improve the safety and shelf-life of both human and pet foods include high pressure processing (HPP), ionizing (gamma) radiation (GR), and ultraviolet light (UV-C). Multi-isolate cocktails of UPEC were inoculated into ground chicken which was then treated with HPP (4°C, 0-25 min) at 300, 400, or 500 MPa. HPP D10, the processing conditions needed to inactivate 1 log of UPEC, was 30.6, 8.37, and 4.43 min at 300, 400, and 500 MPa, respectively. When the UPEC was inoculated into ground chicken and gamma irradiated (4 and -20°C) the GR D10 were 0.28 and 0.36 kGy, respectively. The UV-C D10 of UPEC in chicken suspended in exudate and placed on stainless steel and plastic food contact surfaces ranged from 11.4 to 12.9 mJ/cm(2). UV-C inactivated ca. 0.6 log of UPEC on chicken breast meat. These results indicate that existing non-thermal processing technologies such as HPP, GR, and UV-C can significantly reduce UPEC levels in poultry meat or exudate and provide safer poultry products for at-risk consumers.
Tang, S Z; Kerry, J P; Sheehan, D; Buckley, D J; Morrissey, P A
The effects of dietary tea catechins (TC) supplementation at levels of 50 (TC 50), 100 (TC 100), 200 (TC 200), and 300 (TC 300) mg kg(-1) feed on susceptibility of chicken breast meat, thigh meat, liver and heart to iron-induced lipid oxidation were investigated. Day old chicks (n=200) were randomly divided into six groups. Chicks were fed diets containing either basal (C), or α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at a level of 200 mg kg(-1) feed (VE 200), or TC supplementation for 6 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring malondialdehyde formation with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay. TC supplementation at all levels exerted antioxidative effects for all tissues with the exception of 50 mg kg(-1) feed for breast meat. TC supplementation at levels of 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) feed were found to be significantly (Poxidation in all tissues, compared to the control. TC supplementation at a level of 300 mg kg(-1) feed was also found to be significantly (Pvitamin E supplementation at a level of 200 mg kg(-1) feed (VE 200) for oxidative stability in chicken thigh meat, but it was inferior to VE 200 in chicken liver and heart. TC supplementation at a level of 50 mg kg(-1) feed was found to be pro-oxidative in breast meat, but this did not occur in chicken thigh meat, liver and heart. The variation of TC antioxidative properties in different tissues may be explained by the uneven distribution of lipid, iron and TC accumulation in tissues.
M. A. Santi
Full Text Available This research aimed to increase functional value of broiler-chicken meat containing high antioxidant and low cholesterol through substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM. The experiment used 160 day old broiler chicken (Cobb strain. The experimental chicken were provided dietary treatments when they were 15-days old (initial body weight of 460.5±1.56 g/bird and terminated on day 35. A completely randomized design (CRD with four treatments and four replications and ten birds in each replication was used in this experiment. Dietary treatments were: R1= diet containing 20% soybean meal (SBM without I. zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM; R2= diet containing 16% SBM and 5.9% ILM; R3= diet containing 12% SBM and 11.8% ILM; R4= diet containing 8% SBM and 17.74% ILM. Variables measured were performances (feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion and the quality of broiler meat (cholesterol, fat content, and malondialdehyde [MDA] concentration. The results showed that supplementation of 17.74% ILM (R4 as the substitution of 60% soybean meal protein produced the same performances of broilers as those of control diet (R1. Supplementation of 11.8% ILM as the substitution of 40% soybean meal protein (R3 decreased meat cholesterol by 34.70%, meat fat content by 52.93%, and MDA concentration by 62.52%. The conclusion of this study was that supplementation of 17.74% ILM produced the same performances as that of control diet, increased antioxidant content of the meat, indicated by a lower MDA concentration, and decreased cholesterol, as well as fat content of broiler-chicken meat.
Full Text Available The inhibitory effects of Adhatoda vasica ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE against Listeria monocytogenes were examined to assess its potential to preserve minimally processed meat products safely. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and alkaloid levels in AVELE were 10.09 ± 4.52 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g, 22.43 ± 1.62 mg of quercetin equivalents/g, and 19.43 ± 3.90 mg/g, respectively. AVELE (1, 5, 10, or 20% had considerable antibacterial effects against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 in terms of the inhibitory zones (7.4–13.6 mm, MIC (100 mg/mL or 10% formulated solution, reduced cell viability, potassium ion efflux, and the release of 260-nm absorbing materials and extracellular ATP. AVELE was used as a rinse solution (5, 10, and 20% for raw chicken breast meat. A 20% rinsing solution applied for 60 min inhibited the L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 counts significantly on raw chicken breast meat. Moreover, L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 did not grow in the meat sample when the rinse time was increased to 90 min at the same concentration. L. monocytogenes showed a greater reduction to ~3 CFU/g after rinsing with a 10 and 20% AVELE solution for 30 min than with a 5% AVELE solution. The rinsing processes with AVELE produced the final cooked chicken products with higher sensory attribute scores, such as taste, juiciness, and tenderness, compared to the control group along with a decrease in microbial contamination. Chicken meat rinsed with AVELE (rinsing time of 90 min showed better sensory attribute scores of juiciness and tenderness, as well as the overall sensory quality compared to the untreated group. This research highlights the effectiveness of AVELE against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563, suggesting that AVELE can be used as an effective antimicrobial marinade and/or a rinse for meat preservation.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of feed mixtures with proportion of alflafa meal 4% on body weight of broiler chickens, fat content their meat and oxidative stability meat fat under storage conditions. Final hybrid Cobb 500 chickens were used in the experiment. The broiler chickens were fed with feed mixtures starter from the 1st to the 18th day, grower from the 19th to the 31st day and finisher from the 32nd to the 38th ad libitum. An alfalfa meal of 4% was added in the feed mixtures of experimental group. In our experiment, we used alfalfa meal, which was made from Medicago sativa L. harvested in the bud's phase. The carcasses of broilers were stored at -18° C for a period of nine months. The average weight of chickens at the end of our experiment, the control group was 1685.6 g. In experimental group with addition of 4% alfalfa meal in feed mixtures, the chickens weighed 1709.6 g. The difference in body weight between the groups was not statistically significant (p >0.05. The average fat content in chicken meat was lower in the group with a share of 4% alfalfa meal 2.33 g.100g-1 compared to the fat content in meat chickens control group 2.59 g.100g-1. Differences in fat content in meat between the groups were not statistically significant (p >0.05. In our experiment, the average peroxide value of fat in meat under storage conditions 9 months at -18°C was lower in the group with a share of 4% alfalfa meal 2.42 µmol O2.g-1 compared with an average value of peroxide number 5.79 µmol O2.g-1 in the control group. Medicago sativa L. is an interesting object for research. It is characterized by high content of protein and biologically active substances that are effective for the promotion of health, and also an improvement the nutritional value and technological properties of the poultry food, when is used in feed mixtures.
Zhang, Wangang; Marwan, Al-Hijazeen; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the quality of broiler chicken meat during postmortem storage. Eighteen broiler chickens were slaughtered and breast meat was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments including the control group, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor group, and NO enhancer group. The breast samples were incubated with water, NO enhancer, and NO inhibitor for 1 d and then stored at 4°C under atmospheric conditions for 4 and 7 d. Left side of breast meat was used to determine protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, water-holding capacity, and pH, whereas the right side was used for the measurement of color and drip loss. Breast meat from NO enhancer group showed the lowest water-holding capacity during refrigerated storage, whereas drip losses were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among 3 treatments. Lipid oxidation showed a significant difference (P refrigerated storage. Lightness of breast meat in the NOS inhibitor group was greater, whereas redness was lower than the control and NO enhancer group at 4 and 7 d of refrigerated storage. The ultimate pH of 3 treatments was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from one another. These data indicate that NO could play a significant role in modulating the quality of fresh broiler breast meat during refrigerated storage.
Zakaria Husein Abdurrahman
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the meat characteristic of crossbred local chicken fed diet containing both dahlia tuber powder as inulin source and probiotic Lactobacillus sp. The experimental animals were 168 crossbred local chickens which were randomly divided into 6 groups of treatment (4 replications each when they were 21-d old. A completely randomized design with 2 x 3 factorial pattern consisted of 2 levels of prebiotic [(0.8% (D1 and 1.2% (D2] and 3 levels of probiotic [without probiotic (L0, 1.2 mL (L1, and 2.4 mL (L2] was arranged in the present study. One mL probiotic (Lactobacillus sp. was equal to 108 cfu. Results showed that the supplementation of prebiotic and probiotic significantly (P<0.05 affected breast meat color in terms of L* (lightness and b* (yellowness. The meat fat mass and cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05 decreased by the combination of prebiotic and probiotic. The hardness of meat was not affected significantly by all treatments. The conclusion is that breast meat color could be improved, and both meat fat mass and cholesterol content could be decreased by feeding a combination of 1.2% dahlia tuber powder as inulin source and 1.2 mL probiotic Lactobacillus sp.
Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T
Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in BC. Total fluid release (TFR), water release (WR) and fat release (FR) was lowest in BC. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher lightness (L) in BC and redness (a) in FP emulsion were observed. Higher firmness, gumminess, chewiness and cohesiveness were observed in BC emulsion. SEM studies revealed a dense and compact protein matrix characteristic of heat induced protein gels. All micrographs showed structures that are compatible with fat globules, muscle fiber, meat protein matrix and heat induced gel/protein matrix. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference between three treatments for colour, flavour, texture and acceptability scores. Thus, food processor and indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products.
Aziza, A E; Quezada, N; Cherian, G
Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop of the Brassica (Cruciferae) family that has gained increased popularity as a biofuel source. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding C. sativa meal to broiler birds on phenolic compounds, tocopherols, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation in chicken thigh meat during short (4°C for 2 or 7 d) or long-term (-20°C for 90 d) storage and cooking. One hundred sixty 1-d-old Cobb chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet with added Camelina meal at 0% (control), 2.5% (CAM2.5), 5% (CAM5), and 10% (CAM10). The experimental diets were fed for a period of 42 d. Feeding Camelina meal at 5 or 10% led to a 1.6-fold increase in γ-tocopherols in the thigh meat when compared with control birds (P meat and α-tocopherols in the thigh and breast meat was observed (P > 0.05). Antioxidant activity measured as 2,2-azino-bis [3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] radical scavenging capacity in the thigh meat from CAM2.5, CAM5, and CAM10 was higher than control birds (P meat, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical scavenging capacity was highest in CAM10 (P meat from CAM5 and CAM10 were reduced up to 49 or 36% during 2- or 90-d storage, respectively, when compared with control (P meat TBARS at 7 d of storage was observed among treatment groups. Overall, TBARS were highest in the thigh meat from control and CAM2.5 birds (P meat from CAM10 birds, which was over 48% lower than in meat from birds fed the control diet (P meat.
Trends in occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases in Denmark.
Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Larsen, Lars S; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, Stefan S; Ejlertsen, Tove; Holt, Hanne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hammerum, Anette M
Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food. In Denmark, the use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry has been restricted since 2003. The purpose of the present study was to look at trends in occurrence of resistance among C. jejuni from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat and human domestically acquired or travel associated cases. From 1997 through 2007, C. jejuni isolates were obtained from The Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) and susceptibility tested for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Erythromycin resistance was at a low level in all the reservoirs during the study period. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in C. jejuni from imported broiler chicken meat compared to Danish broiler chicken meat. In domestically acquired human C. jejuni isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was for most years significantly higher compared to the level found in isolates from Danish broiler chicken meat, whereas the resistance level was similar to the level found in isolates from imported broiler chicken meat. Imported broiler chicken meat may therefore contribute to the high level of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in C. jejuni isolates from domestically acquired human infections. In 2006 and 2007, the occurrence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in travel associated C. jejuni isolates compared to isolates acquired domestically. Even though the use of fluoroquinolones is restricted for animal use in Denmark, Danes are still often infected by fluoroquinolone resistant C. jejuni from imported chicken meat or
Musundire, M T; Halimani, T E; Chimonyo, M
1. The effects of age and sex on body weight, carcass traits, physical and chemical properties of breast muscle from chickens and helmeted guinea fowls managed under village free-range conditions were assessed in random samples of 48 guinea fowls and 48 chickens obtained from local markets. 2. Guinea fowls had higher body weight, hot carcass weight, cold dressed weight and breast weight than chickens. 3. Guinea fowls had more dry matter, protein and less fat than chickens. Ash content did not differ between guinea fowls and chickens. Protein and fat increased, whereas dry matter and ash decreased with age (P Chicken meat was lighter, less red and more yellow than guinea fowl meat. Cooking loss was higher in guinea fowls, male and grower birds than chickens, females and adult birds, respectively. Shear force was affected by age, as mature birds had a higher value than growers. 5. Guinea fowl carcasses contained more meat that was leaner, higher in protein and redder compared with chicken meat. As age increased the meat increased in protein and fat content and shear force, whereas colour became darker, redder and yellower.
Martins, Paula Dalcin; de Almeida, Taiana Trindade; Basso, Ana Paula; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Frazzon, Jeverson; Tondo, Eduardo César; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes
Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Recently, these bacteria have received increasing attention due to their potential role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers. The present study aimed to evaluate coagulase-positive staphylococci counts, species distribution, enterotoxin genes prevalence, and the antibiotic resistance profile of CPS isolated from in natura chicken meat. Fifteen frozen and 15 chilled industrialized, uncooked chicken parts or entire carcasses were used. Staphylococcal counts revealed that frozen chicken meat samples displayed the lowest CPS count compared with chilled chicken meat samples (pStaphylococcus aureus (62%) was the most common species, followed by S. intermedius, S. delphini, and S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans (10% each) and S. hyicus (8%). The polymerase chain reaction identification of sea, seb, sec, sed, and see genes revealed that 70% of the isolates harbored at least one enterotoxin gene, with sea and sed being the most frequently encountered ones. Two of the 50 investigated strains harbored three different enterotoxin genes. A high frequency of isolates resistant to penicillin, teicoplanin, oxacillin, and clindamycin was observed, and 80% of CPS were found to be resistant to at least one of the 11 tested antimicrobials. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus and S. intermedius showed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 and 64 μg/mL, respectively. These isolates might indicate the dissemination of vancomycin resistance in the community and imply food safety hazards.
Full Text Available Objective The objective of this research was to study the electrical properties and quality of frozen-thawed chicken breast meat and to investigate the relationship between these parameters at different times of frozen storage. Methods Thawed samples of chicken breast muscles were evaluated after being kept in frozen storage at −18°C for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 months. Results The results showed that water-holding capacity (WHC and protein solubility decreased while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content increased with increasing storage time. The impedance module of samples decreased during 8-month frozen storage. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the impedance change ratio (Q value was significantly (p<0.05 related to pH, color, WHC, lipid oxidation and protein solubility, indicating a good relationship between the electrical properties and qualities of frozen-thawed chicken breast meat. Conclusion Impedance measurement has a potential to assess the quality of frozen chicken meat combining with quality indices.
Full Text Available A present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of bee pollen extract on meat performance of Ross 308 broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old Ross chicks were involved in experiment. Chickens were divided into 2 groups, an experimental group (E and a control group (C. No added supplement was given to the control group, while the experimental group was given the feed mixture supplemented with bee pollen in an amount of 400 mg.kg-1, during the whole fattening period. Data of live body weight, carcass weight, giblets weight and carcass yield were determined at 42 days of the age. The supplementation of bee pollen increased final body weight of broilers by 68.5 g. Each of investigated parameters of meat performance in experimental group was higher to that in control group, although the difference among the groups was not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The addition of bee pollen at dose 400 mg.kg-1 in the feed mixture indicates the slight effect on meat performance of chickens which can be beneficial for fattening of broiler chickens.
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different fasting periods and water spray during lairage on the quality of chicken meat. A number of 300 male Ross broilers were reared up to 42 days of age, and submitted to four pre-slaughter fasting periods (4, 8, 12, and 16 hours and sprayed with water or not during lairage. Deboned breast meat was submitted to the following analysis: pH, color, drip loss, water retention capacity, cooking loss, and shear force. There was a significant effect (p < 0.05 of fasting period on meat luminosity was significantly different, with the highest value obtained for 4-hour fasting, whereas no difference was found among the other fasting periods. Meat pH values were different among fasting periods when birds received water spray, with birds fasted for 4, 8, and 12 hours of fasting presenting lower meat pH values (5.87, 5.87, and 6.04, respectively. The interaction between fasting period and water spray influenced meat drip loss and cooking loss, with birds fasted for 16h and not receiving water spray presenting higher drip loss (4.88 and higher cooking loss (28.24 as compared to the other birds. Fasting period affects meat quality, and very short periods (4h impair meat quality.
Rababah, T M; Ereifej, K I; Al-Mahasneh, M A; Al-Rababah, M A
This study evaluated effects of vacuum-infused fresh chicken breast meats with grape seed extracts, green tea extracts, or tertiary butyl hydroquinone on pH, texture, color, and thiobarbituric reactive substances after cooking using a microwave or conventional electric oven for 12 d storage at 5 degrees C. Thiobarbituric reactive substances values of uncooked (raw) chicken breast meats for 0 to 12 d of storage ranged from 1.12 to 3.5 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken. During 0 to 12 d of storage, thiobarbituric reactive substances values ranged from 2.50 to 7.80 and from 2.4 to 7.35 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken breast meat cooked by microwave and conventional electric oven, respectively. Meats cooked by microwave had higher redness and lower lightness values than those cooked by conventional electric oven. Also, meats cooked by microwave had higher maximum shear force, working of shear, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values than meats cooked by conventional electric oven. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone was the most effective in raw and cooked meats in reducing lipid oxidation, followed by grape seed and green tea extracts. Plant extracts are effective in preventing undesirable changes in chemical properties in chicken breast meat caused by microwave and conventional electric oven cooking.
H. K. Bett
Full Text Available This study intends to estimate the demand for indigenous chicken meat in Kenya, including other available meat products for comparison purposes. Data used was collected from six counties. A total 930 rural and urban households were sampled. Linear Approximated Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS model was used to obtain the demand elasticities and to examine the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the meat budget shares. The results ascertain that the socio-demographic factors such as household location, the proportion of household members and the family size are important factors in explaining perceived variations in the consumption of meat products. Indigenous chicken meat, beef and mutton, were identified as necessities. Indigenous chicken meat and beef were identified as substitutes while indigenous chicken, goat and exotic chicken meats were complements. In view of the high expenditure elasticities, therefore, considering a policy option that would enhance consumer income is desirable, since it will result in high consumption thereby providing more incentives for production of meat products. The information generated would be more beneficial to the interest groups in the livestock sector as a whole. This would be utilised in the formulation of effective policies in line with food security and poverty alleviation.
Holownia, K; Chinnan, M S; Reynolds, A E; Koehler, P E
The objective of the study was to establish a pink threshold and simulate the pink defect in cooked chicken breast meat with treatment combinations that would induce significant changes in the color of raw and cooked meat. The subjective pink threshold used in judging pink discoloration was established at a* = 3.8. Samples of three color groups (normal, lighter than normal, and darker than normal) of boneless, skinless chicken breast muscles were selected based on instrumental color values. The in situ changes were induced using sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium erythorbate, and sodium nitrite at two levels: present and not present. Fillets in all treatments were subjected to individual injections, followed by tumbling, cooking, and chilling. Samples were analyzed for color [lightness (L*), red/green axis (a*), yellow/blue axis (b*)] and reflectance spectra. Simulation of the pink defect was achieved in eight of the 16 treatment combinations when sodium nitrite was present and in an additional two treatment combinations when it was absent. Pinking in cooked samples was affected (P meat color. Results confirmed that it was possible to simulate the undesired pinking in cooked chicken white meat when in situ conditions were induced by sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium nitrite. The continuation of the simulation study can aid in developing alternative processing methods to eliminate potential pink defects.
Cohen Stuart, James; van den Munckhof, Thijs; Voets, Guido; Scharringa, Jelle; Fluit, Ad; Hall, Maurine Leverstein-Van
Contamination of retail chicken meat by Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria likely contributes to the increasing incidence of infections with these bacteria in humans. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and load of ESBL positive isolates between organic and conventional retail chicken meat samples, and to compare the distribution of ESBL genes, strain genotypes and co-resistance. In 2010, 98 raw chicken breasts (n=60 conventional; n=38 organic) were collected from 12 local stores in the Netherlands. Prevalence of ESBL producing micro-organisms was 100% on conventional and 84% on organic samples (porganisms were 80 (range conventional, and organic samples (p=0.001). The distribution of ESBL genes in conventional samples and organic samples was 42% versus 56%, respectively (N.S.), for CTX-M-1, 20% versus 42% (N.S.) for TEM-52, and 23% versus 3% (pconventional samples. Co-resistance rates of ESBL positive isolates were not different between conventional and organic samples (co-trimoxazole 56%, ciprofloxacin 14%, and tobramycin 2%), except for tetracycline, 73% and 46%, respectively, pconventional meat samples harbored 4 MLST types also reported in humans and 5 of 10 organic samples harbored 3 MLST types also reported in humans (2 ST10, 2 ST23, ST354). In conclusion, the majority of organic chicken meat samples were also contaminated with ESBL producing E. coli, and the ESBL genes and strain types were largely the same as in conventional meat samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keokamnerd, T; Acton, J C; Han, I Y; Dawson, P L
Four commercial rosemary oleoresin preparations were added to ground chicken thigh meat at the recommended levels of the manufacturer then packaged in 80% O(2)-20% CO(2) modified atmosphere trays. The rosemary preparations differed in oil and water solubility, dispersion properties, or both. Addition of rosemary to ground chicken had an overall positive effect on raw meat appearance during storage and cooked meat flavor. No effect on bacterial growth was observed due to rosemary addition. However, oxidation was slowed in meat with added rosemary as indicated by lower TBA values, lower hexanal concentrations, and sensory scores. Color (redness) was more stable in meat with added rosemary compared with meat without rosemary, as reflected in redness (a*) values, hue angles, and visual scores. Of the 4 rosemary preparations tested, the oil-soluble, most concentrated preparation (HT-O) was most effective in maintaining meat quality compared with the other 3 types tested.
Schaumburg, Frieder; Alabi, Abraham S; Frielinghaus, Lisa; Grobusch, Martin P; Köck, Robin; Becker, Karsten; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G; Peters, Georg; Mellmann, Alexander
.... The objective was to investigate the occurrence and molecular types of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in chicken meat in Gabon and to assess their dissemination among humans...
Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S
This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (Pgarlic supplementation resulted in lower shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (Pgarlic led to decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in broiler blood, and the greatest level of garlic supplementation decreased saturated fatty acid and increased unsaturated fatty acid levels (%) in broiler thigh muscle (Pgarlic dietary supplementation (Pgarlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.
Jun 28, 2010 ... B5 - leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial .... consumer is a possible reason for the survival of these pathogens in suya ...
Kalender, H.; Sen, S.; Hasman, Henrik
isolates were resistant to gentamicin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and sulphamethoxazole and one of these in addition to nalidixic acid. Two isolates were resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid. An additional nine isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid only. All six streptomycin-resistant isolates......Thirty-eight Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from chickens and chicken meat in Turkey were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, phage types, plasmid profiles, and resistance genes. Seven different PFGE patterns were observed......, with the most common accounting for 71% (X1). The most common phage type was PT4, followed by PT7, PT16, PT1, PT6, and PT35. Different phage types shared the same PFGE pattern. Twenty-one isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested whereas eight were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Six...
Jlali, M; Gigaud, V; Métayer-Coustard, S; Sellier, N; Tesseraud, S; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of 2 isoenergetic growing diets with different CP (17 vs. 23%) on the performance and breast meat quality of 2 lines of chicken divergently selected for abdominal fatness [i.e., fat and lean (LL) lines]. Growth performance, breast and abdominal fat yields, breast meat quality parameters (pH, color, drip loss), and muscle glycogen storage at death were measured. Increased dietary CP resulted in increased BW, increased breast meat yield, and reduced abdominal fatness at slaughter regardless of genotype (P meat quality parameters only in the LL chickens. Giving LL chickens the low-CP diet led to reduced concentration of muscle glycogen (P meat with a higher (P content observed in LL receiving the low-CP diet compared with the high-CP diet occurred concomitantly with greater phosphorylation amount for the α-catalytic subunit of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and glycogen synthase. This was consistent with the reduced muscle glycogen content observed in LL fed the low-CP diet because adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibits glycogen synthesis through its action on glycogen synthase. Our results demonstrated that nutrition is an effective means of modulating breast meat properties in the chicken. The results also highlighted the need to take into account interaction with the genetic background of the animal to select nutritional strategies to improve meat quality traits in poultry.
Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G
1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.
Camila Barbosa Carvalho
Full Text Available In many industrialized countries, including Brazil, sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations. Excessive consumption is associated with hypertension and premature death by cardiovascular diseases. The industry's challenge is to produce products with reduced sodium that are similar to regular products in texture and flavor and consistent with consumers' dietary habits. The present study aimed at substituting 25 and 50% NaCl for KCl in marinated beef and chicken meat with the addition of aromatic herbs and spices. The following microbiological analyses were carried out: macronutrient, chemical composition, and sensorial analysis. The meats showed a reduction in NaCl contents without any changes in their physical and chemical characteristics, and the products´ quality and microbiological safety were maintained. Beef and chicken tenderness was maintained for both treatments. Furthermore, the use of 50% KCl did not cause any changes in the products' sensory quality, and the overall acceptance of both types of meat was maintained. Results showed that a reduction by 50% in the NaCl contents of marinated meat products with a combination of herbs and spices is possible. Future applications in other meat products and sausages are highly promising.
Dinesh D. Jayasena
Full Text Available With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL, KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS, broiler for baeksuk (BL, and broiler for samgyetang (BS were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines.
Miguel, J. A.; Escoda, L.; Cubilo, M. D.; Tor, M.; Asenjo, B.; Ciria, J.; Francesch, A.
The present study analysed the meat characteristics of i) improved Castellana Negra chickens slaughtered at 18 weeks (CN-18) and ii) F1 crossbred chickens from improved Castellana Negra hens and improved Penedesenca Negra cocks (CNPN) slaughtered at 12 weeks and 18 weeks of age (young and adult animals, respectively). Purebred and crossbred specimens were compared at similar weights (CN-18 and CNPN-12) and ages (CN-18 and CNPN-18). The protein content of the meat was similar for the three types of animals; heavier animals (CNPN-18) had more fat than those slaughtered at lower weights (CNPN-12 and CN-18). Adults had a higher saturated fatty acid content and the young CNPN chickens had more monounsaturated fatty acids than CN chickens. In the CNPN adults, less water was lost during cooking, which is directly related to the juiciness of the meat. With regard to sensory analysis, a darker colour was observed in the meat as much as the internal fat of adult animals, in addition to greater colour uniformity. The meat of young CNPN birds was juicier, whereas that of the CN chickens was more fibrous. Therefore, we conclude that meat from CNPN chickens presents chemical, physical, and sensorial characteristics that make these animals a genetic base for alternative poultry production. (Author) 42 refs.
Suriya Kumari Ramiah
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P<0.05. Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON group. The total CLA increased significantly (P<0.05 in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P<0.05 and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P<0.05. It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC, low density protein (LDL, and HDL (high-density lipoprotein/LDL ratio in chickens (P<0.05.
Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun
With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5'-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines.
CM Komiyama; AA Mendes; SE Takahashi; Moreira, J.; RG Garcia; Sanfelice,C; HS Borba; FR Leonel; ICL Almeida Paz; Balog, A.
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different fasting periods and water spray during lairage on the quality of chicken meat. A number of 300 male Ross broilers were reared up to 42 days of age, and submitted to four pre-slaughter fasting periods (4, 8, 12, and 16 hours) and sprayed with water or not during lairage. Deboned breast meat was submitted to the following analysis: pH, color, drip loss, water retention capacity, cooking loss, and shear force. There was a significant effect ...
Jun 28, 2010 ... security programme (Bryan et al., 1988). However, consumers of street vended meat are little aware of the high health risks they face. Street foods are ..... and coughing among vendors can result in contamination of the products. In addition, hand picking of nose and improper washing of such hands before ...
Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), including Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are common contaminants in poultry meat, and are a major pathogen associated with inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, sepsis, and urinary tract infections. The purpose of this study was to determ...
Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T
The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair
Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.
Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Imran, Ali; Hussain, Shahzad
Chicken meat contains higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are susceptible to oxidative deterioration ultimately leading towards lower consumer acceptability for chicken meat products. Accordingly, meat processing industries are looking for combinations of natural antioxidants to enhance the oxidative stability and consumer acceptability of meat based products. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of directly added quercetin dihydrate in combination with α-tocopherol on oxidative stability, color characteristics, total carbonyls and flavor volatile compounds in chicken meat patties. Considering the preliminary studies, 3 levels of quercetin dihdrate @ 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg meat in combination with α-tocopherol at the rate 100 and 200 mg/kg meat were added to develop chicken meat patties and were stored at refrigeration temperature for 7 days. The oxidative stability of the antioxidant treated patties was determined by measuring malonaldehydes using TBARS and total carbonyls assay. The color (Lightness, redness and yellowness) of the patties was determined by using Konica Minolta Color Meter. Moreover, the volatile compounds were measured through gas chromatography at various storage intervals. The results elucidated that quercetin dehydrate inclusion at the rate of 50 mg/kg meat as well as particularly 100 mg/kg meat decreased the oxidation by reducing generation of malonaldehydes and total carbonyls in treated patties. Highest value for TBARS at initiation of storage was reported in (T0) as 1.93 ± 0.02 whereas lowest were reported in T6 and T5 as 0.37 ± 0.01 and 0.38 ± 0.03 that were increased to 3.47 ± 0.14, 0.90 ± 0.05 and 0.94 ± 0.34 at the completion of storage. Moreover, the lowest carbonyls also reported in T6 and the values at various storage intervals (1st, 3rd and 7th) were as 0.59 ± 0.025, 0.77 ± 0.015 and 1.02 ± 0.031, respectively. The antioxidants inclusion also
Zouaghi, Ferdaous; Cantalejo, María J
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions on the physicochemical and sensory properties of ozonated freeze-dried chicken meat stored at 21±1°C for 28days. To this end, 14 MAP treatments were performed to obtain the most suitable packaging atmosphere. High concentrations of O2 in MAP promoted loss of redness and increased the pH values. Moreover, when the concentration of CO2 in MAP was more than 40%, high values of textural parameters and low scores of sensory hardness and chewiness were achieved. The 20%CO2/80%N2 gas combination was found to be the most effective treatment for best maintaining the physicochemical and sensory quality of ozonated dried chicken samples similar to that of raw meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We carried out an experiment using chickens producig meat Cobb 500 form 1 to 42 days of age and microbial 6-phytase. The aim of study was to determinate the impact of microbial 6-phytase on the quality of broiler chickens production. In our experiment were used standard soybean-cereal feed mixtures. The content of the nutrients and metabolizable energy was balanced in control group in terms of the broiler chickens physiological needs. In experimental feed mixtures was reduced phosphorus content through the feed addition of dicalcium phosphate about 37.7% in starter, about 35% in grower and about 35.14% in finisher of the sdandardized physiological needs for broiler chickens. A body weight of chickens aged 42 days was 2302.0 g compared with 2197.0 g of the broiler chickens of the control group with not statistically significant difference (P>0.05. Feed conversion was 1.69 versus 1.71 of the control group. Crude protein content of breast muscle was 23.52 g per 100 g compared with 23.36 g per 100 g of the control group with not statistically significant difference (P>0.05. Crude protein content in the thigh muscle was 18.33 g per 100 g compared with 18.20 g per 100 g of the control group with not statistically significant difference (P>0.05.
Mitchell, Natalie M; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha
Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; Corradine, Silvana da Silva; Reche, Péricles Martim; Pozza, Magali Soares dos Santos; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do
In many industrialized countries, including Brazil, sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations. Excessive consumption is associated with hypertension and premature death by cardiovascular diseases. The industry's challenge is to produce products with reduced sodium that are similar to regular products in texture and flavor and consistent with consumers' dietary habits. The present study aimed at substituting 25 and 50% NaCl for KCl in marinated beef and chicken meat with the additi...
Full Text Available Chicken meat chips with different extenders (Bengal gram flour, Black gram flour and cooked mashed potato each at 15% level and control were prepared and stored up to 8 weeks both at ambient (37+2°C and refrigerated (7+ 1°C temperature. The samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory quality characteristics. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 182-184
Prices increased steadily between 1995 and 1999 and sharply between 1999 and 2000 for all the items and in all the locations. Annual price increases of 19.77 to 27.23%, 16.62 to 20.12%, 18.44 to 24.97% and 13.71 and 17.82% were recorded for beef, mutton, goat meat and chicken respectively. Price increase were ...
Wanwisa Chumngoen; Fa-Jui Tan
Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercia...
Full Text Available Improved meat quality and greater muscle yield are highly sought after in high-quality chicken breeding programs. Past studies indicated that polymorphisms of the Perilipin gene (PLIN1 are highly associated with adiposity in mammals and are potential molecular markers for improving meat quality and carcass traits in chickens. In the present study, we screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in all exons of the PLIN1 gene with a direct sequencing method in six populations with different genetic backgrounds (total 240 individuals. We evaluated the association between the polymorphisms and carcass and meat quality traits. We identified three SNPs, located on the 5′ flanking region and exon 1 of PLIN1 on chromosome 10 (rs315831750, rs313726543, and rs80724063, respectively. Eight main haplotypes were constructed based on these SNPs. We calculated the allelic and genotypic frequencies, and genetic diversity parameters of the three SNPs. The polymorphism information content (PIC ranged from 0.2768 to 0.3750, which reflected an intermediate genetic diversity for all chickens. The CC, CT, and TT genotypes influenced the percentage of breast muscle (PBM, percentage of leg muscle (PLM and percentage of abdominal fat at rs315831750 (p<0.05. Diplotypes (haplotype pairs affected the percentage of eviscerated weight (PEW and PBM (p<0.05. Compared with chickens carrying other diplotypes, H3H7 had the greatest PEW and H2H2 had the greatest PBM, and those with diplotype H7H7 had the smallest PEW and PBM. We conclude that PLIN1 gene polymorphisms may affect broiler carcass and breast muscle yields, and diplotypes H3H7 and H2H2 could be positive molecular markers to enhance PEW and PBM in chickens.
The post mortem changes taking place in poultry muscular tissue and the resulting meat quality, until the moment of consumption of the meat by the consumer are described. Modern broiler chickens grow 'at the edge of what is metabolically possible'. This hypothesis is derived from the fact
Ibidhi, Ridha; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.Winnie; Chouchane, Hatem
Meat production puts larger demands on water and land and results in larger greenhouse gas emissions than alternative forms of food. This study uses footprint indicators, the water, land and carbon footprint, to assess natural resources use and greenhouse gas emissions for sheep and chicken meat
Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs share phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance with community-dwelling humans and patients with urinary tract infection.
Jakobsen, Lotte; Kurbasic, Azra; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ejrnaes, Karen; Porsbo, Lone J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, Katharina E P; Aarestrup, Frank M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M
Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), Danish broiler chickens (n = 138), Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and Danish pigs (n = 145) were tested for phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D, and nontypeable [NT] isolates) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phylogroup A, B1, B2, D, and NT isolates were detected among all groups of isolates except for imported pork isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to three (for B2 isolates) or five antimicrobial agents (for A, B1, D, and NT isolates) was shared among isolates regardless of origin. Using cluster analysis to investigate antimicrobial resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist for UTI-causing E. coli.
Full Text Available White striping defect (appearance of white striations parallel to muscle fiber on surface of breast is considered an emerging issue in chicken breast meat which is related to increasing growth rate of modern hybrid birds. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat. During three replications, a total of 108 Pectoralis major muscles representing three degrees of white striping (absence=normal; presence classified in 2 levels as moderate or severe were selected to determine proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and collagen as well as sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both severe and moderate white-striped fillets had higher fat content (2.53 vs 1.46 vs 0.78%; P<0.001, lower protein level (20.9 vs 22.2 vs 22.9%; P<0.001, decreased quality of protein as proven by higher collagen content (1.30 vs 1.37 vs 1.43%; P<0.001, and different pattern on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions when compared to normal fillets. Moreover, severe white-striped fillets exhibited higher energy content (450.7 vs 421.1 kJ/100g; P<0.01 with respect to normal meat. In conclusion, there was a large worsening of nutritional value of chicken breast meat following occurrence of white striping and this might impair consumer attitude towards poultry meat.
Náira da Silva CAMPOS
Full Text Available Abstract A 32 factorial design was employed to develop an in vitro digestion method for estimation of Fe bioaccessible fractions in cooked chicken meat. The effects of sample size and the in vitro bioaccessible fractions of this essential element were evaluated. A sample preparation method employing a microwave assisted digestion with dilute nitric acid was used prior to total Fe determination. For the bioacessibility studies, the optimized procedure employed 7.5 g of sample and 6% w/v of an acid pepsin solution. This procedure was applied to two kinds of chicken meat samples: breast and liver. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to determine total and bioaccessible (chyme or soluble portion levels of iron in the samples. With respect to total Fe content, the bioaccessible fractions of Fe found in these samples were around 23% and 56 %, for breast and chicken liver, respectively. The chicken liver sample showed the highest total (400 ± 10 mg kg-1 and bioaccessible Fe contents (223 ± 18 mg kg-1 and stands out as a good source of this micronutrient.
Sampaio, G R; Saldanha, T; Soares, R A M; Torres, E A F S
The effect of combinations of sage, oregano and honey on lipid oxidation in cooked chicken meat during refrigeration at 4°C for 96h was determined. Chicken samples (thigh and breast) were then separated into five groups: control; butylated hydroxytoluene; oregano+sage; oregano+sage+5%honey and oregano+sage+10%honey. Quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, hexanal, fatty acids, cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Acceptability and preference were also evaluated. The effectiveness of the natural antioxidants for reducing the velocity of lipid oxidation in cooked chicken thigh and breast was demonstrated after 48 and 96h of refrigeration at 4°C. The treatments that presented the lowest hexanal values after 96h of refrigeration were oregano+sage+5%honey and oregano+sage+10%honey. Only traces of free cholesterol oxides were found (25-OH, 7-k, 7α-OH and 7β-OH). The natural antioxidants protected cooked chicken meat from oxidation processes and resulted in great acceptability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on gamma radiation levels on the physical and microbiological characteristics of chicken breast meat. A completely randomized experimental design in a 4x2x3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Treatments consisted of four radiation concentrations (0, 2, 4, or 8kGy, two package sealing methods (with or without vacuum, and three storage times (01, 07, or 14 days, with ten replicates each, totaling 240 chicken breast fillets. Packaging and radiation had no influence (p>0.05 on chicken breast meat pH, water retention capacity, or presence of Salmonella spp. Breast fillets not submitted to radiation and vacuum packed presented higher water retention capacity (p<0.05 than those radiated at 4kGy and vacuum packed. Drip loss in fillets radiated at 8kGy and not vacuum packed was higher (p<0.05 than in non-radiated and non-vacuum packed fillets; however, both were not different from the other treatments. Coliform presence increased with storage time in non-radiated samples; however, when these were vacuum-packed, their development was slower. The results of the present experiment suggest that the use of a low radiation dose (2kGy, combined with vacuum packing, may minimize the harmful effects of storage on chicken breast fillets.
Suriya Kumari Ramiah; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatt...
Marius Mihai Ciobanu
Full Text Available Due to the fact that meat colour represents an important aspect for sensorial evaluation of any food product,research in the field of poultry meat processing regarding efficient methods for hoarding/storage on long term ofindustrially slaughtered poultry carcasses approaches a continuous finding/optimization of certain solutions foravoiding negative consequences due to oxidation, which could include colour loss and/or its modification.The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of three storage regimes differing by temperature and time(L = -14°C, 30 days; L = -16°C, 60 days; L = -18°C, 90 days on three anatomical cut regions (breast, upper thighand lower thigh, to characterize the colour of broiler chicken meat. Objective description of colour for frozen anddefrosted chicken meat was realised through the CIEL*a*b* Cartesian coordinate system.Overall, the preservation method determines a higher luminosity at samples gathered from L batch chickencarcasses for breast and upper thigh musculature, and L for lower thigh musculature in comparison with thecounterparts from the other experimental batches
Full Text Available The effect of genotype on the oxidative stability and other qualitative traits of chicken meat was studied. Two groups of 200 chicks (Ross 205 and Kabir were reared according to the organic farming system. At 81 d of age 20 birds per group were slaughtered and after refrigeration (24 h at 4°C of the carcasses, Pectoralis majormuscles were excised for anal- yses. Samples were analysed after 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of storage at 4°C under continuous fluorescent illumina- tion (2300 lux. The analyses concerned the chemical composition and the shear force (only at time 0 and the progress of several traits as pH, CIELAB values, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS, panel test and fatty acid com- position (at 0 and after 96 h. Genotype greatly affected the physico-chemical characteristics and the sensory evalua- tion. The meat from Ross chickens showed high TBARS values, perhaps due to selection for growth rate that reduced their adaptability to greater space allowance and to poorer environmental conditions; these higher TBARS values were also negatively correlated to lightness and yellowness. The initial level of TBARS affected the oxidative stability of breast meat during storage. The amount of TBARS showed significantly negative relationship with the sensory evaluation; breast meat of Kabir had higher scores for liking when the level of malondialdehyde (MDA was less than 2.5 mg kg-1.
Baéza, E; Arnould, C; Jlali, M; Chartrin, P; Gigaud, V; Mercerand, F; Durand, C; Méteau, K; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C
Because of the increasing demand for raw cuts and processed products, there is a trend to producing very heavy broilers. Breeds that are used for such kinds of production have been intensively selected for growth rate and breast meat yield, and birds are reared for a longer period than standard broilers. This study was to evaluate the effects of increasing slaughter age on technical and economic factors, including production efficiency and environmental costs, bird welfare, and breast meat quality in a modern heavy broiler line. Five groups of 300 male Ross 708 chickens were reared until slaughter ages of 35, 42, 49, 56, or 63 d. Increasing age at slaughter from 35 to 63 d resulted in a 7.4-fold increase (P content of litter increased (P meat traits were observed between 35 and 49 d of age, with an increase in muscle pH at 15 min (P protein and lipid content of raw breast meat also increased (P chickens of heavy line at 42 d of age.
Yana Jorge POLIZER
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a chicken nugget formulation with partial substitution of the meat or fat by pea fibre. Three formulations were developed: Control (C – commercial formulation, Fibre Less Meat (FLM – reduction of 10% of meat and addition of 2% of pea fibre and Fibre Less Fat (FLF – reduction of 10% of fat and addition of 2% pea fibre. The products were characterized for their pH value, instrumental colour, texture, cooking loss (frying, proximate composition, and sensory properties (acceptance test. The control treatment presented lower (p0.05 amongst the treatments. The texture analysis showed no significant differences amongst the treatments for elasticity and cohesiveness, although the FLF batch was firmer than the others (p0.05 amongst the three treatments for aroma, texture, flavour or overall acceptability. One can conclude that it is possible to partially replace meat and fat by pea fibre in chicken nuggets, without compromising most of the physicochemical characteristics and without altering the sensory acceptance.
Skrivan, M; Marounek, M; Dlouhá, G; Sevcíková, S
1. The influence of different forms of dietary selenium (Se) on vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and Se contents of egg yolk and chicken meat was investigated. 2. Eggs were collected from laying hens subjected to 4 different dietary treatments after 24 weeks of age. Treatments compared the effects of inorganic Se supplementation (selenite) to those of organic (Se-enriched yeast, Se-enriched alga Chlorella) supplements. In a second experiment the effect of the above organic dietary Se supplementation on the alpha-tocopherol contents of meat from broiler chickens was evaluated. 3. Dietary Se supplementation increased the alpha-tocopherol content of egg yolks from 297 mg/kg dry matter in treatment without supplementation to 311 mg/kg when selenium was supplemented as selenite, and to 370-375 mg/kg when organic supplements were used. The Se and alpha-tocopherol contents of breast and thigh meat in broilers were significantly increased by organic dietary Se supplementation. 4. The inclusion of organic dietary Se sources in the diets of laying hens and broilers would enhance the nutritional value (vitamin E and Se contents) of products (eggs and meat) for human consumption.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different genotypes and of feeding on meat chemical composition, including fatty acid profile, of chickens reared under organic conditions. Twomeat–typefast-growing(FG andmedium-growing(MG, andoneegg-typeslow-growing(SG wo meat–type fast-growing (FG and medium-growing (MG, and one egg-type slow-growing (SG strains were assigned to 2 different diets differing for the protein source: soybean (SB and faba bean (FB in partial substitution of soybean. Genotypemarkedlyaffectedthemeatchemical composition. Genotype markedly affected the meat chemical composition. SG breast and thigh meat showed lower content of lipids (P<0.01 than FG. Thehighestproportions he highest proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n-6 and n-3 and the lowest proportion of monounsaturated (MUFA (P<0.01, as well as the lowest ratio of PUFA n6/n3 (P<0.01 were found in SG breast and thigh meat. MG showed always intermediate values. Asforfeeding, FBtreatmentproducedonlya As for feeding, FB treatment produced only a slight increment of protein in breast and a decrease of fat and ash in thigh meat. Total PUFA and PUFA n-6 resulted lower in both thigh and breast meat of FB groups compared to SB (P<0.01.
Maraschiello, C; Sárraga, C; García Regueiro, J A
This study investigated the effect of feeding broilers with diets differing in dietary fat source (lard, sunflower oil, olive oil) and vitamin E (basal vs supplemented with 200 mg of alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg) on meat lipid oxidative stability. The diets differed by their degree of unsaturation and included the natural antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity was measured in raw meat and ranged from 3.62 to 8.06 nmol NADPH/min/mg protein. The enzyme activity was influenced by the degree of unsaturation of the diet. Capillary gas chromatography analyses showed that dietary alpha-tocopherol accumulated in the muscle tissue and contributed to a better oxidative stability of the raw and cooked meat. Thigh meat alpha-tocopherol levels ranged from 2.73 to 3.62 microg/g in unsupplemented chickens whereas levels from 8.69 to 13.37 microg/g were observed in the thigh meat from alpha-tocopherol supplemented animals. The inclusion of olive oil and alpha-tocopherol in the animal diet gave lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and lower GSHPx activity. High correlations were found between the parameters studied. The results suggest that the glutathione peroxidase activity could be used as an indicator of the meat oxidative stability. A negative relationship was observed between GSHPx activity and tissue alpha-tocopherol levels, and a positive relationship was evidenced between TBARS and antioxidant enzyme activity.
KANG, Zhuang-Li; ZOU, Yu-Feng; XU, Xing-Lian; ZHU, Chao-Zhi; WANG, Peng; ZHOU, Guang-Hong
...% on quality attributes of raw meat-emulsion batters and kung-wans were investigated. Increasing the content of chicken breast meat altered the color by increasing lightness and yellowness, increased protein solubility, and increased hardness...
O'Neill, L M; Galvin, K; Morrissey, P A; Buckley, D J
The effect of carnosine on lipid and cholesterol oxidation in salted chicken thigh meat and its relationship to dietary α-tocopherol supplementation was examined. Broilers (Cobb 500) were fed diets with a basal (30 mg kg(-1)) or supplemental (200 mg kg(-1)) level of α-tocopheryl acetate for 6 weeks. Thigh meat patties were prepared with carnosine (1.5%), salt (1%) or salt plus carnosine. Salt accelerated lipid and cholesterol oxidation following cooking and refrigerated storage. However, carnosine inhibited lipid and cholesterol oxidation in salted patties. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation also reduced the extent of lipid and cholesterol oxidation in salted patties. The combination of carnosine and dietary α-tocopherol resulted in the greatest lipid and cholesterol stability in salted meat.
Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun
The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P meat lost significant amounts of all the taste-active compounds, excluding oleic and linoleic acids, during the cooking process (P bird age only had a minor effect on the levels of these taste-active compounds. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the levels of taste-active compounds in KNC meat from birds of different ages, and their fate during the cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of natural feed additives, namely bee pollen extract, propolis extract and probiotic preparation, on technological properties of meat in order to evaluate the meat quality of Ross 308 broiler chickens. The feeding of chickens (180 pcs lasted for a period of 42 days. The experiment was carried out without segregation between the genders. The chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, whereas the other three groups were fed diets supplemented with natural additives, i.e. bee pollen extract at level of 400 mg.kg-1 of feed mixture, propolis extract at level of 400 mg.kg-1 of feed mixture, and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1.109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium in an amount of 3.3 g added to water (for 30 pcs chickens until 21 days of age, for 20 pcs chickens from 22nd to 42nd day of age given to group E1, group E2 and group E3, respectively. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. During the whole period of experiment, the broiler chickens had ad libitum access to feed and water. The following technological properties were examined: cooling loss (after 24 h of storage at 4 °C, freezing loss (after 3 months of storage at -18 °C, roasting loss (performed on roasted meat that was stored at -18 °C for 3 months before thawing, colour parameters based on CIELab system (the L*, a*, b* values of raw breast and thigh muscle, and tenderness (as shear force of roasted breast and thigh muscle. We have made a finding, that the examined additives had only little impact on meat quality in most of the investigated parameters, except the significant increase (p ≤0.05 in redness (a* values and the slight decrease in roasting loss and shear force determination after propolis extract supplementation. Therefore, it may be inferred that propolis extract has been shown as the most appropriate
Xing, Tong; Zhao, Xue; Han, Minyi; Cai, Linlin; Deng, Shaolin; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian
The selection of broilers for augmented growth rate and breast has brought about wooden-breast (WB) muscle abnormalities, which caused substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to compare water holding capacity, water mobility and distribution, salt-soluble protein (SSP) content, and protein profiles of normal and WB chicken meat with different additions of NaCl. Thirty WB and 30 normal chicken breasts were selected from a deboning line of a major Chinese processing plant at 2 to 3 h post mortem. Two different meat batters were formulated to 150 mg/g meat protein and different NaCl contents (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). Results indicated that as NaCl contents increased, the cooking loss of meat batters decreased (P meat showed different protein profiles, with myosin heavy chain exhibiting a higher intensity at ≥3% salt level. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR)revealed an increased T22 and higher P22 in raw WB meat compared to normal meat (P meat batters, WB meat batters had reduced T21 and lower immobilized water proportions at low NaCl contents (meat gels. Meat gels prepared from WB had a lower proportion of water within the myofibrillar protein matrix and a greater proportion of exuded bulk water at NaCl contents water retention capacity. In conclusion, for raw meat, meat batters and gels, water distribution and mobility of WB exhibited significant differences compared to normal meat. The addition of NaCl affected water mobility and distributions in meat batters, with a level of 3% NaCl eliminating the differences between processed normal and WB meat products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Overdevest, I T M A; Heck, M; van der Zwaluw, K; Huijsdens, X; van Santen, M; Rijnsburger, M; Eustace, A; Xu, L; Hawkey, P; Savelkoul, P; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C; Willemsen, I; van der Ven, J; Verhulst, C; Kluytmans, J A J W
Recently, chicken meat was identified as a plausible source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli in humans. We investigated the relatedness of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. in chicken meat and humans. Furthermore, we tested the performance of SpectraCell RA(®) (River Diagnostics), a new typing method based on Raman spectroscopy, in comparison with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Twenty-seven phenotypically and genotypically confirmed ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates were typed with MLST and SpectraCell RA. The isolates derived from chicken meat, human rectal swabs and clinical blood cultures. In the 22 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, CTX-M15 was the predominant genotype, found in five isolates of human origin and in one chicken meat isolate. With MLST, 16 different STs were found, including five new STs. Comparing the results of SpectraCell RA with MLST, we found a sensitivity of 70.0% and a specificity of 81.8% for the new SpectraCell RA typing method. Therefore, we conclude that SpectraCell RA is not a suitable typing method when evaluating relationships of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. at the population level. Although no clustering was found with isolates of chicken meat and human origin containing the same ESBL genes, MLST showed no clustering into distinctive clones of isolates from chicken meat and human origin. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of chicken meat in the rise of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. in humans. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence and distribution of Salmonella species in selected meat and chicken products purchased from retail supermarkets in Assiut, Egypt. A total of 75 samples including 25 samples each of minced frozen beef, frozen chicken legs and frozen chicken fillets were collected over a 7-month period between January and July 2009 and examined for the presence of Salmonella species. In addition, 28 children stool cultures were collected from hospitalized children resident in Pediatric University Hospital with diarrhea or fever. Out of the total 75 meat samples examined, Salmonella was detected in 5 (20% of minced frozen beef, 9 (36% of frozen chicken leg and 13 (52% of frozen chicken fillet samples analyzed. Regarding the examined 28 children stool cultures, 3 (10.71 % were found Salmonella positive. Of the total 30 Salmonella positive samples from all examined samples, five selected Salmonella isolates were further identified using multiplex PCR (m-PCR. Two serovars were the dominant serovar identified was Salmonella entrica subsp. entrica serovar Enteritidis (2 chicken leg isolates and 2 chicken breast fillets followed by Salmonella entrica subsp. entrica serovar Kentucky (one minced beef isolate. The public health hazards of Salmonella were discussed and the suggestive measures to protect the consumers and improve the quality of meat and chicken products were given. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 5-11
Full Text Available Background: Adding edible acids to food products not only has inhibitory effects on microorganisms, but also causes an appropriate flavor and color. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the preservation effect of organic acids on microbial, chemical and organoleptic parameters of chicken meat. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 200 samples of chicken meat in Koohdasht, 2014. The chicken thighs were sprayed with sterilized citric acid 1%, acetic acid 1%, and propionic acid 1%. The samples were packed and were kept at 4º C temperature, and were examined with 2 days intervals. The effect of different treatments were studied in terms of microbial (count of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, psychotropic bacteria and anaerobes, chemical (pH, total volatile nitrogen, and organoleptic (drip loss, flavor, and color quality parameters. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, LSD and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Findings: The bacterial growth and shelf life were significantly different between the controls and the samples treated with acetic acid and propionic acid. The samples treated with citric acid were significantly different from the samples treated with acetic acid and propionic acid in terms of bacterial growth and shelf life. But there was no significant difference between the samples treated with acetic acid and propionic acid. With regards to the microbial, chemical, and organoleptic parameters, the controls, the samples treated with citric acid, and the samples treated with acetic acid and propionic acid were preserved for 4 days, 5 days, and 6-7 days, respectively. Conclusion: With regards to the results, organic acids (1% were effective in extending the shelf life of chicken meat without adverse effect on organoleptic parameters.
Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Folegatti, E; Franchini, A; Meluzzi, A
The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits was determined on a total of 18 flocks reared and processed under commercial conditions. According to the Italian poultry production system the following classes of birds were considered: light size (1.2 kg of carcass weight; n = 90) and medium size (1.8 kg of carcass weight; n = 90), represented by females slaughtered at 40 and 52 d old, respectively, whereas heavy size were 57-d-old male broilers (2.4 kg of carcass weight; n = 90). After slaughter, 15 carcasses per flock (n = 270) were randomly collected during winter (n = 135) and summer (n = 135) seasons and used at 24 h postmortem to determine breast (pectoralis major) meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), pH, drip and cook loss, as well as Allo-Kramer (AK) shear values. Furthermore, pectoralis minor muscles were used to determine lipid, protein, moisture, and ash content. Finally, because the flocks included white- and yellow-skinned broilers, the color of the carcass skin was measured to assess the relationship between skin and raw breast meat color. With regard to the season, breast meat from birds slaughtered during summer exhibited a paler and less red color, lower pH, higher drip and cook losses, lower AK-shear, and a higher content of moisture and a lower content of protein and ash. In respect to medium and heavy birds, light broilers produced breast meat with higher values of redness, lower pH and cook loss, higher AK-shear values, and a higher content of moisture and ash. Finally, a positive correlation (r = +0.92; P meat yellowness was found. These results indicate that during summer, broiler breast meat undergoes a depression of its functionality and quality. Moreover, the market class of birds also determined some differences in breast meat quality attributes.
Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J M; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P; Humphrey, Tom; Hilbert, Friederike
Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Boothe, D D; Arnold, J W; Chew, V
Understanding and controlling the metabolic processes of microorganisms associated with chicken meat can lead to safer poultry products with a longer shelf life. The objective of the present study was threefold: 1) to determine the feasibility of using 96-well Biolog GN microtiter plates to assess substrate utilization profiles of bacterial communities (biofilm) as they develop on poultry products, 2) to identify substrates metabolized by microbial populations associated with stored chicken meat, and 3) to compare the substrate utilization profiles of biofilm communities as they develop on meat stored at 4 C (refrigeration temperature) for up to 5 d or at 13 C (a temperature common in poultry processing areas) for 2 d. The protocol used herein for preparing inocula for microplates was acceptable for the collection of optical density values (590 nm) in microplate wells as an indicator of microbial substrate utilization over time. Data from treatment of chicken meat samples using this protocol indicate that most of the 95 substrates tested were metabolized by microbial communities present as early as 1 d after storage at 4 or at 13 C. However, the rapidity (incubation time required for initial substrate utilization) and frequency (percentage of plates positive for transformation of an individual substrate) of metabolism of the substrates by the biofilm communities varied from 4 to 164 h of plate incubation and from 17 to 100% of microplates, respectively. At 13 C, polymers were the most rapidly metabolized substrate group, followed by carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, miscellaneous or amino acids, and amides or amines. Initial utilization of these substrate groups at 4 C occurred within a consistently shorter period (24 h of plate incubation). The frequency of metabolism of each individual substrate group varied only 3 to 16% between samples stored at 4 and 13 C. However, a greater difference in frequency of utilization of some individual substrates was noted. Such
Qabajah, M; Awwad, E; Ashhab, Y
1. The aim of this work was to compare a group of virulence-associated characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens that had died with signs of colibacillosis against E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank. 2. The isolates were investigated to determine the virulence factor (VF) profile, phylogenetic group and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). A total of 66 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains from different affected broiler farms and 21 E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken carcasses (hereinafter called meat strains) from 8 slaughter houses were analysed. 3. The overall content of VFs was significantly higher (P chicken meat can be contaminated with APEC strains (≥4 VF). A significant percentage of the meat strains fall in the B2 group, which is a phylogroup largely associated with human pathogenic ExPEC strains. The results of ESBL screening indicated that broiler chicken products in Palestine represent a potential reservoir of ESBL genes and therefore could be considered a possible public health risk.
Baéza, E; Chartrin, P; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Lessire, M; Besnard, J; Berri, C
The aim of this study was to determine the specific characteristics of carcass and meat from an old French chicken breed, the 'Géline de Touraine' (GT), characterised by a very slow-growing rate and usually slaughtered at 120 days of age. For this purpose, we compared the GT with an experimental crossbreed (EC) exhibiting the same growth rate, and with a 'Label rouge' (LR) genotype usually slaughtered at 84 days of age. A total of 250 males and 250 females per genotype were reared by separating sexes and genotypes. The growth performances were recorded. At 84 days of age, 80 birds per sex and per genotype were slaughtered. The frequency of clawing and pecking injuries on the carcass was noted. We also measured the skin colour and the thickness of wing membrane. The relative percentages of carcass, breast, thigh + drumstick, abdominal fat, testis or ovary to body weight were determined. On breast and thigh muscles the ultimate pH (pHu) and colour were measured. The juice loss after 3 days' storage at +4°C and after cooking at 85°C, and the shear force value of Warner-Bratzler were only measured on breast muscles. At 120 days of age, we repeated the same measurements but only on EC and GT genotypes in order to compare birds at the same age or at the respective slaughter age for each production. Whatever the slaughter age, the body weight of males was always higher than that of the females but the carcass yield was similar for both sexes. The females had higher breast yield and carcass fatness but lower thigh + drumstick yield than the males. The yellowness of skin and meat was higher for the females than for the males while the contrary was observed for the redness of the meat. The breast meat of the females also had higher cooking loss than that of the males. GT and EC birds exhibited a higher occurrence of carcass defects and a higher pHu in meat than LR birds. The GT chickens were characterised by a lower breast yield, a higher fattiness and an earlier sexual
Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lai, Cheng-Hung; Ho, Wai-Jane; Huang, Su-Chen; Ko, Wen-Ching
One of the most popular issues in electrostatic biology is the effects of a high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) on the thawing of chicken thigh meat. In this study, chicken thigh meat was treated with HVEF (E-group), and compared to samples stored in a common refrigerator (R-group), to investigate how HVEF affects chicken thigh meat quality after thawing at low temperature storage (-3 and 4 degrees C). The results showed that there were no significant differences in biochemical and microorganism indices at -3 degrees C. However, the HVEF can significantly shorten thawing time for frozen chicken thigh meat at -3 degrees C. After thawing chicken thigh meat and storing at 4 degrees C, the total viable counts reached the Intl. Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods limit of 10(7) CFU/g on the 6 and 8 d for the R- and E-group, respectively. On the 8th d, the volatile basic nitrogen had increased from 11.24 mg/100 g to 21.9 mg/100 g for the E-group and 39.9 mg/100 g for the R-group, respectively. The biochemical and microorganism indices also indicated that the E-group treatment yielded better results on thawing than the R-group treatment. The application of this model has the potential to keep products fresh.
Al-Hijazeen, M; Mendonca, A; Lee, E J; Ahn, D U
The antioxidant effects of oregano essential oil and tannic acid combinations on ground chicken breast and thigh meats were studied. Six treatments, including: 1) control (none added), 2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil + 5 ppm tannic acid, 3) 100 ppm oregano essential oil + 10 ppm tannic acid, 4) 200 ppm oregano essential oil + 5 ppm tannic acid, 5) 200 ppm oregano essential oil + 10 ppm tannic acid, and 6) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) for breast or 14 ppm for thigh meat, were prepared. Cooked meat samples were individually vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75°C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meat was re-packaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Cooked ground chicken meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation and volatiles at 0, 3, and 7 d of storage. The significant differences among the treatments were very clear in cooked meat samples: Thigh meat patties showed higher 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total carbonyl, and volatiles content compared to the breast meat during storage. A combination of 200 ppm oregano oil with 10 ppm tannic acid showed the most significant effects (P oil (200 ppm) and 10 ppm tannic acid combination also showed positive effects on the sensory scores of chicken thigh meat. In conclusion, the combination of 200 ppm oregano oil and 10 ppm tannic acid could be a good replacement for the synthetic antioxidants in ground cooked chicken meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The processing ability of poultry meat is highly related to its ultimate pH, the latter being mainly determined by the amount of glycogen in the muscle at death. The genetic determinism of glycogen and related meat quality traits has been established in the chicken but the molecular mechanisms involved in variations in these traits remain to be fully described. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays (20 K were used to compare muscle gene expression profiles of chickens from Fat (F and Lean (L lines that exhibited high and low muscle glycogen content, respectively, and of individuals exhibiting extremely high (G+ or low (G- muscle glycogen content originating from the F2 cross between the Fat and Lean lines. Real-time RT-PCR was subsequently performed to validate the differential expression of genes either selected from the microarray analysis or whose function in regulating glycogen metabolism was well known. Results Among the genes found to be expressed in chicken P. major muscle, 197 and 254 transcripts appeared to be differentially expressed on microarrays for the F vs. L and the G+ vs. G- comparisons, respectively. Some involved particularly in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were selected for further validation studies by real-time RT-PCR. We confirmed that, as in mammals, the down-regulation of CEBPB and RGS2 coincides with a decrease in peripheral adiposity in the chicken, but these genes are also suggested to affect muscle glycogen turnover through their role in the cAMP-dependent signalling pathway. Several other genes were suggested to have roles in the regulation of glycogen storage in chicken muscle. PDK4 may act as a glycogen sensor in muscle, UGDH may compete for glycogen synthesis by using UDP-glucose for glucoronidation, and PRKAB1, PRKAG2, and PHKD may impact on glycogen turnover in muscle, through AMP-activated signalling pathways. Conclusions This study is the first stage in the understanding of molecular
Fofana, A; Bada Alambedji, R; Seydi, M; Akakpo, A J
Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and others pathogens bacteria can be transferred from animals to humans through consumption of contaminated food and foods products and thus present a public health risk. The increase in E. coli resistance to commonly used antimicrobials both in the public health and veterinary sectors is one of the major threats of health care worldwide. The present study was undertaken to estimate the antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from raw chicken meat in Dakar. Levying of skin and muscle have been carried out on 120 chicken carcasses bought from 13 sale points and 23 flocks beetween November 2003 and April 2004. 102 Escherichia coli strains have been isolated, among which, 90 were tested for their susceptibilities to 16 selected antibiotics by agar diffusion method. All Escherichia coli strains (100%), were resistant to one or more antibiotic; 60 strains (66.66%) being resistant to more than five antibiotics. Those frequently encountererd are: ampicillin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole, tetracycline, sulfonamides, streptomycin, nalidixic acid. Multiple resistances to 12 antibiotics were also observed. The lowest resistances were noted with gentamicin (3.33%) and neomycin (5.56%). This study showed the significance of chicken meat as source of Escherichia coli strains with a simple or multiple resistance to various antibiotics tested. Further studies are necessary in order to determine bacterium mechanisms of resistance.
Full Text Available In the experiment, we used propolis extract (200 mg.kg-1 in feed mixture during 40 days of feeding (experimental group of Ross 308 chickens. Then, we evaluated technological properties of poultry meat stored by freezing at -18 °C for 3 months. In the breast muscle, pH was 6.04 for control group and significantly lower (P≤0.01 5.86 for experimental group but without negative influence on meat quality. In the thigh muscle, pH values between the groups (control – 6.12; experimental – 6.15 were not significant (P≥0.05. In the breast muscle, colour of meat was 26.17% R (control group and 25.85% R (experimental group. Paler colour of meat was insignificantly recorded in control group. In thigh muscle, we found (P≥0.05 a higher value 18.78% R in experimental group compared with control group (18.57% R. In the breast muscle, shear force was slightly higher (P≥0.05 in experimental group (1.59 kg.cm-2 compared with control group (1.58 kg.cm-2. In the thigh muscle, higher value of shear force (P≥0.05 was recorded in control group (1.35 kg.cm-2 compared with experimental group (1.29 kg.cm-2. Baking losses were higher by 1.19% (P≥0.05 in experimental group (30.59% compared with control group (29.40%. Results of the experiment confirm that propolis extract (200 mg.kg-1 can be applied in nutrition of Ross 308 chickens, because it has not negative effects and has not significant influence on selected technological indicators of poultry meat quality.
Sonia Y. Liu
Full Text Available The inclusion of grain sorghum in diets for broiler chickens is quite common; however, under Australian conditions, the utilisation of starch/energy by birds offered sorghum-based diets appears inadequate. Various factors inherent in sorghum, including kafirin, phenolic compounds and phytate, may limit energy utilisation. The recent quantification of kafirin, the dominant protein fraction in sorghum, has allowed its nutritional significance to be assessed. This is important as indirect evidence suggests that kafirin concentrations in local sorghums are increasing as an unintended consequence of breeding programs. Presently, Australian sorghums do not contain condensed tannin but, from analyses and assessments of other polyphenolic compounds and phenolic acids, “non-tannin” phenols appear to be negative influences. Anecdotally, white sorghums are considered to be superior to red varieties thus the fact that polyphenolic pigments are responsible for the “redness” of sorghum assumes relevance. Inclusions of sulphite reducing agents in broiler diets have generated promising responses but seem dependent on sorghum properties. Preliminary studies have shown the possibilities of using rapid visco-analyser (RVA starch pasting profiles, promatest protein solubilities and grain textures to indicate sorghum quality and further studies are required to confirm these hypotheses. These assessments may indicate which sorghums will best respond to reducing agents such as sodium metabisulphite. Finally, the usually modest responses of broilers to exogenous feed enzyme inclusions in sorghum-based are considered in this review.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa, also known in Brazil as saffron, on the reduction of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli counts in chicken meat. Forty breast meat samples were divided in two groups (A and B. In group A, 10³-10(4E. coli (ATCC 25922 cells were inoculated and group B samples were inoculated with 10(4-10(5S. aureus (ATCC 9801 cells, after which each group was divided in three samples. The first sample was analyzed immediately after inoculation. The second sample (control group was stored at 4 ºC for 48 hours and turmeric at 1% (w/w was added to the third sample, which was homogenized and then stored under the same conditions as the second sample. E. coli and S. aureus were enumerated in all samples. Mean bacterial counts determined for the control samples and for the samples with turmeric addition after 48h of storage were 1.83 x 10(4 CFU g-1 and 1.80 x 10(4 CFU g-1 for S. aureus, and 9.36 x 10³ CFU g-1 and 7.25 x 10³ CFU g-1 for E. coli, respectively. The results showed that there was no significant reduction in bacterial counts with the addition of 1% turmeric to chicken breast meat.
Carvalho, Rafael Humberto; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Grespan, Moisés; Spurio, Rafael Sanches; Coró, Fábio Augusto Garcia; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami
Meat production with minimum animal suffering is a humanitarian concern. Thus, the objective of this work was to observe the performance of Cobb broiler chickens from 7 to 46 days of age when raised under different installations: dark house system (DHS), conventional yellow system (CYC) and conventional blue system (CBC). The feed conversion ratio for the birds raised on the DHS was 3.8% and 2.7% lower than those for the CYC and CBC systems, respectively. Compared with the CYC and CBC systems, average daily gain under the DHS was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively, and body weight at 46 days was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The birds' welfare was assessed based on their stress by determining the amount of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat in the breast fillets. The CYC and CBC birds had 24.3% and 25.3% PSE meat, respectively, whereas the DHS birds had 37.0%. We concluded that the DHS has a greater potential to produce broiler chickens, with superior performance to conventional systems, despite the higher stress faced by the birds during the maneuvers just before slaughter. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami
Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P ≥ 0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P < 0.05) in the occurrence of PSE meat by 66.3% and 49.6% with and without wetting, respectively. The results of this experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4 °C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05).
Bucher, Oliver; D'Aoust, J-Y; Holley, Richard A
Raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips available at retail and prepared at home before consumption have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting food-borne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis from consumption of these products may be due, in part, to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. In this study the thermal resistances of Salmonella strains isolated from chicken nuggets and strips, chicken nugget/strip meat and broiler feed were determined to assess whether they exhibited enhanced thermal resistance. Thermal resistances (D- and z- values) of 7 cocktails (25 isolates, 4 serovars) were determined in commercially prepared irradiation-treated chicken nugget/strip meat blend, and heated in a constant temperature waterbath. The thermal resistances found were lower than those reported for similar strains in the literature. D-values ranged from 6.93 to 0.12 min at 55 and 62 degrees C respectively, with z-values from 4.10 to 5.17 degrees C. Two strains of S. Enteritidis separately isolated from pelleted feed and chicken nugget meat blend, with indistinguishable geno- and phenotypes, had lower (and probably identical) thermal resistances than the other isolates. Results indicated that the strains of Salmonella isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips and pelleted broiler feed did not exhibit unusually high thermal resistance, and that normal heating (71 degrees C) prior to consumption should eliminate these organisms from chicken nuggets/strips.
Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the fennel and savory essential oils on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were used chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period. The obtained fresh chicken thigh with skin from left half-carcass were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with fennel (Foeniculum vulgare essential oil at concentrations 0.2% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with savory (Satureja hortensis essential oil at concentration 0.2% v/w. The essential oils were applicate on surface chicken thighs. The chicken thighs were packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and stored in refrigerate at 4 ±0.5 °C. The value of thiobarbituric acid (TBA expressed as amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample was measured during storage in 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day. The treatments of chicken thighs with fennel and savory essential oils show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in thigh muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group (0.359 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.129 mg.kg-1, A2 (0.091 mg.kg-1, A3 (0.084 mg.kg-1 and A4 (0.089 mg.kg-1 after 16-day of chilled storage. Experiment results show that the treatment of chicken thigh with fennel and savory essential oils had positive influence on the reduction of oxidative processes in thigh muscles during chilling storage and use of essential oil is one of the options increase shelf life of fresh chicken meat.
Noriega, Estefanía; Shama, Gilbert; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario; Kong, Michael G
Gas plasmas generated at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperatures offer a possible decontamination method for poultry products. The efficacy of cold atmospheric gas plasmas for decontaminating chicken skin and muscle inoculated with Listeria innocua was examined. Optimization of operating conditions for maximal bacterial inactivation was first achieved using membrane filters on which L. innocua had been deposited. Higher values of AC voltage, excitation frequency and the presence of oxygen in the carrier gas resulted in the greatest inactivation efficiency, and this was confirmed with further studies on chicken muscle and skin. Under optimal conditions, a 10 s treatment gave > 3 log reductions of L. innocua on membrane filters, an 8 min treatment gave 1 log reduction on skin, and a 4 min treatment gave > 3 log reductions on muscle. These results show that the efficacy of gas plasma treatment is greatly affected by surface topography. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of chicken muscle and skin revealed surface features wherein bacteria could effectively be protected from the chemical species generated within the gas plasma. The developments in gas plasma technology necessary for its commercial application to foods are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yamauchi, Kohsyo; Manabe, Noboru; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Takenoyama, Shin-ichi; Yamauchi, Koh-en
We comprehensively evaluated meat quality in chickens fed a diet consisting of wood charcoal and vinegar (WCV) using food scientific and histological approaches. In culled hens, lipid and fatty acid in Musculus semimembranosus, cooking loss and sensory tests of whole thigh meat, and meat texture of breast meat were observed. In male broilers, cross section of M. semimembranosus was used for observations on muscle area, perimysium, non-collagen total protein and total collagen content, and anti-collagen I and III reactions. In frozen male broilers, conventional morphology of M. semimembranosus as well as chicken anti-collagen III reaction to selected muscles of thigh meat and breast meat were compared between the control and WCV-fed birds. Increased lipid and fatty acids, decreased cooking loss, high score in total evaluation for sensory test of thigh meat, and decreased meat texture values were observed for culled hens fed WCV. The higher values of muscle area, total collagen and collagen III were observed for broilers fed WCV. No perimysium collapse for M. semitendinosus or increased collagen III reactions of M. tensor fasciae latae, the flexor muscle group and M. pectoralis superficialis were observed for frozen muscles in the WCV group. These total results suggest that WCV produces palatable and tender meat by increasing collagen III. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Full Text Available The target of the research was 6-phytase of microbial origin. It was used in feed mixtures for chickens determined to meat production. Its effect has been studied in relation to the tibia mineralization by calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. 6-phytase is a product of Aspergillus oryzae. That was obtained by means of biotechnological processes of production of commercially available enzymes. It was incorporated in the feed mixtures 0.1%. In a 38-day feeding trial, 300 one-day-old, as hatched, Cobb 500 chickens determined to meat production (100 birds per group were fed on one concentrations of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (2.32, 2.31 g.kg-1, respectively and supplemental microbial phytase (0 and 500 FTU.kg-1 feed mixtures. Control group was used to compare the results and control feed mixtures contained 4.5 g.kg-1 without microbial phytase. At days 40 it was selected 6 birds in every group, which were slaughter in accordance with the principles of welfare. Left tibias of every bird were used to determination of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents. According to in vivo, it was found that the addition of microbial phytase to reduced dietary non-phytate phosphorus increased concentrations of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and magnesium (Mg in tibia. The differences among groups were statistically significant (p <0.05. It was concluded that reducing of dietary non-phytate phosphorus on the 2.32, 2.31 g.kg-1, respectively, by monocalcium phosphate and microbial phytase supplementation in feed mixtures facilitated tibia mineralization at chicken determined to meat production. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE
Sandusky, C L; Heath, J L
Instrument values were compared to sensory perception of ground breast and thigh meat color. Different patty thicknesses (0.5, 1.5, and 2.0) and background colors (white, pink, green, and gray), previously found to cause differences in instrument-measured color, were used. Sensory descriptive analysis scores for lightness, hue, and chroma were compared to instrument-measured L* values, hue, and chroma. Sensory ordinal rank scores for lightness, redness, and yellowness were compared to instrument-generated L*, a*, and b* values. Sensory descriptive analysis scores and instrument values agreed in two of six comparisons using breast and thigh patties. They agreed when thigh hue and chroma were measured. Sensory ordinal rank scores were different from instrument color values in the ability to detect color changes caused by white, pink, green, and gray background colors. Instrument values agreed with sensory scores for lightness only when white and pink backgrounds were used. Instrument and sensory methods agreed when a* values and redness scores were compared using each of the backgrounds. The sensory panel did not detect differences in yellowness found by the instrument when samples on white and pink backgrounds were compared to samples on green and gray backgrounds. A majority of panelists (84 of 85) preferred samples on white or pink backgrounds. Red color of breast patties was associated with freshness. Reflective lighting was compared to transmission lighting using patties of different thicknesses. Sensory evaluation detected no differences in lightness due to breast patty thickness when reflective lighting was used. Increased thickness caused the patties to appear darker when transmission lighting was used. Decreased transmission lighting penetrating the sample made the patties appear more red. Reflective lighting made thigh patties appear lighter. Lightness decreased when thigh patty thickness increased with both reflective and transmission lighting
Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata
To determine the influence of glycine-Cu chelates (Gly-Cu) on chemical composition and sensory characteristic of chickens meat, two hundred of Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing 16 mg kg(-1) of copper sulfate (S-Cu; control group) or 16, 8 and 4 mg/kg of Cu-glycine chelate (Gly-Cu). The chemical composition was determined in crude and prepared (cooked and grilled) breast and thigh samples. No significant influence of Gly-Cu on the content of the protein, fat and ash in the breast meat was found. Substituting S-Cu with Gly-Cu at different doses in feed did not significantly modify the fatty acids profile of the meat. The breast meat from chickens administered with Gly-Cu contained significantly less cholesterol than that in S-Cu. No different effect of the experimental agent was observed regarding the content of Cu, Zn and Ca in the breast meat, while in chickens from all the groups administered Gly-Cu there was more significantly Fe (P meat revealed significantly (P meat was observed.
Sun, Yanfa; Zhao, Guiping; Liu, Ranran; Zheng, Maiqing; Hu, Yaodong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Peng; Wen, Jie
Meat quality is an important economic trait in chickens. To identify loci and genes associated with meat quality traits, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of F2 populations derived from a local Chinese breed (Beijing-You chickens) and a commercial fast-growing broiler line (Cobb-Vantress). In the present study, 33 association signals were detected from the compressed mixed linear model (MLM) for 10 meat quality traits: dry matter in breast muscle (DMBr), dry matter in thigh muscle (DMTh), intramuscular fat content in breast muscle (IMFBr), meat color lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values, skin color L*, a* (redness) and b* values, abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Relative expressions of candidate genes identified near significant signals were compared using samples of chickens with High and Low phenotypic values. A total of 14 genes associated with IMFBr, meat color L*, AbFW, and AbFP, were differentially expressed between the High and Low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for meat quality traits: protein tyrosine kinase (TYRO3) and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) for IMFBr; collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) for meat color L*; and RET proto-oncogene (RET), natriuretic peptide B (NPPB) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) for the abdominal fat (AbF) traits. Based on the association signals and differential expression of nearby genes, 14 candidate loci and genes for IMFBr, meat L* and b* values, and AbF are identified. The results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality traits in chickens.
Full Text Available The data about changes in neutrophils stimulation index in men blood after consumption of broiler chicken meat with the natural origin immunomodulators, introduced in feed before slaughter, is presented in this paper. Spleen extract biologically active substances were used as immunomodulators and anti-stressors during pre-slaughter period. Biologically active substances influence on putrescin, spermine and spermidine content in broiler chicken blood before slaughter and on some non-specific resistance indices in people was determined after consumption of broiler chicken meat. Two groups of broiler chickens at one month age were formed for the study. The spleen extract obtained with ultrasound application (I research group served as biologically active substances was added to the feed of broiler chickens in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. Blood polyamines such as putrescin, spermine and spermidine were determined by the method of High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on the liquid chromatograph Agilent 1200 (USA. The second experiment was conducted on 10 people. We recruited 10 healthy male medical students (20 years old, on average after the National Medical license examination. Spleen extract polyamines as immunomodulators and anti-stressors have the most effective influence on total quantity of polyamines in broiler chicken blood. As a result of research, it is found that aerosol introduction of spleen extract into broiler chicken feed reliably increases total quantity of polyamines by 39% and, in particular, spermidine concentration by 34%, and spermine by 40% compared with broiler chickens of the control group. Some non-specific body resistance indices in men blood upon consumption of broiler chicken meat varied within the physiological norm. The neutrophils stimulation index increased in men blood (+0,82 after consumption of meat of broiler chickens to which spleen extract as immunomodulator and anti-stressor was
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of linoleic acid which was added in the broiler chickens feed mixtures in relation to chemical composition of meat, content of fatty acids and composition of blood serum. There were compared the characteristics of two groups of ROSS 308 chickens in the experiment (the experimental group with 5% addition of linoleic acid and the control group. The protein content of breast was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in the experimental group than in the control group. There were found significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 in the protein content between sexes. There was found statistically significant (P ≤ 0.01 higher fat content in the breast of experimental group in comparison with control group. Statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were found in fat from the thigh meat of experimental group than the control group. The analysis of the chemical composition showed higher content of fat in the breast (1.9 g.100 g−1 than in the thigh (11.66 g.100 g−1 of chickens which were fed with the addition of linoleic acid to feed mixture. This resulted in lower share of the other components. The addition of linoleic acid in the chickens feed mixture showed significantly higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (0.76. Analysis of blood serum showed higher concentration of chlorides (P ≤ 0.01 in the group with the addition of linoleic acid than the control group. Proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids was 47.06% in the experimental group and significantly higher one (53.77% was found in the control group.
Eva Yuniarti Utami
Full Text Available The research was purposed find out the effect of substitution broiler meat with white jelly mushroom (Tremella fuciformis on qualities and organoleptic of chicken nugget. The result were expected to be used as an information about the effect of substitution broiler meat with white jelly mushroom on the qualities and organoleptic of chicken nuggets and these informations can also be used for further research. The material of the research were chicken nuggets with different level substitution of mushroom. Design used in this research was Completely Randomized Design (CDR with three replication. The treatments were the concentration of the white jelly mushroom substitution, i.e: without substitution (P0, 15% (P1, 30% (P2 and 45% (P3. The parameter measured were texture, microstructure, WHC, pH, organoletic, water, lipid and protein content. Data were analyzed by analysis.of variance and if there were significantly different means among treatments it was then followed by Duncan’s multiple Range Test. The result of research showed that chicken nugget with different level substitution mushroom was high significant different effect (P0.05 of texture, WHC, pH, lipid content and organoleptic. The average texture of (P0, (P1, (P2 and (P3 was; 11.76 N, 14.4 N, 14.22 N and 17.38 N respectively. The WHC 55.83 %, 58.7 %, 63.58 % and 65.08%. pH 6.53, 6.41, 6.32 and 6.25 and lipid content 1.16%, 1.23%, 1% and 1.14%. the treatments also gave a different discription on microstructure.
Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl
on conversion of nifursol and its metabolites with an intact 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid hydrazide (DNSH) side chain to the 2-nitrophenyl analogue of nifursol (NPDNSH) by treatment with dilute hydrochloric acid and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. Nifuroxazide (salicylic acid (5-nitrofurfurylidene) hydrazide) added......Nifursol (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (5-nitrofurfurylidene) hydrazide) is mainly used as a feed additive for the prevention of blackhead disease in turkeys. The objective of the present work was to establish information on nifursol residues in turkey and chicken meat. The analytical method was based...
Cortinas Hernández, Lucía
The present study was carried out to evaluate the influence of increasing amounts of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TA) supplementation on lipid oxidation of raw and cooked thigh meat stored under refrigeration. One hundred ninety-two female, 1-d-old, broiler chickens were randomly distributed into 16 experimental treatments resulting from the combination of 4 levels of dietary PUFA (15, 34, 45, and 61 g/kg) and 4 levels of supplementation with α-TA (0,...
Jokanović Marija R.
Full Text Available The still-marinating process is a simplified technology used to tenderize and to improve the flavour, colour and juiciness of meat products. The effects of marinade type, addition of ground paprika (P or paprika oleoresin (O, on the instrumental and sensory properties of cooked marinated chicken fillets were investigated. It was observed that marinade uptake was greater (P > 0.05 for the fillets marinated with paprika oleoresin. Cooking loss was lowest for experimental group O, and signifycantly lower (P<0.05 comparing to control group. Determined L
The objectives of this study were: i) to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in raw milk, cheese, beef minced meat, and chicken meat samples; ii) to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates; and iii) to determine clonal relation among the isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Therefore, a total of 160 food samples were randomly collected between August 2014 and May 2015 in Hatay province, located in the southern Turkey. Twenty (12.5%) of the samples were found to be contaminated with S. aureus. A total of 40 isolates from the 20 positive samples were confirmed to be S. aureus by multiplex PCR based on 16S rRNA and nuc gene. The mec A gene was not detected in any of the S. aureus strains. In the present study, 39 out of 40 (97.5%) isolates were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. All of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, oxacillin, and vancomycin. The highest resistance rate was detected in penicillin (95%) and ampicillin (92.5%), followed by tetracycline (30%), erythromycin (20%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%). Nine major patterns were determined by PFGE. In 6 of these patterns, thirty-six strains (90%) had identical PFGE profiles. PMID:28515641
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the meat quality attributes of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with silver nanoparticles coated on zeolite. A total of 375 one-day-old broilers was assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 treatment groups including: basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 1% zeolite, and basal diet supplemented with one of the three levels of zeolite coated with 25, 50 and 75 ppm nanosilver. On d 42, five birds per treatment were slaughtered to assess the meat quality attributes of breast and thigh. Breast meat quality attributes were not influenced by the dietary treatment. Birds fed basal diet supplemented with 50 and 75 ppm nanosilver had higher levels of water-holding capacity than those fed on diets containing 1% zeolite (P. Thigh muscle of birds fed basal diet supplemented with 50 and 75 ppm nanosilver had a higher L* value than the control diet (P. For b* values, thigh muscle of birds fed the control diet were significantly higher than those of birds fed zeolite coated with 75 ppm nanosilver diet. The highest value of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness for breast meat were recorded by birds fed zeolite coated with 75 ppm nanosilver diet. The highest values of gumminess and chewiness of broiler chickens thigh muscle were observed in the group of birds receiving zeolite diets without nanosilver supplementation (P. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with silver nanoparticles coated on zeolite improved water-holding capacity of thigh muscle; although, further studies are needed to provide strong evidences to the exact mechanisms of action for silver nanoparticles coated on zeolite.
Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F
A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of myodegeneration of pectoralis major muscle on quality traits and chemical composition of breast meat of heavy-size male broilers. For this purpose, a total of 72 pectoralis major muscles were randomly collected from broilers farmed under homogeneous conditions and graded into three categories (mild, n=22; moderate, n=33; and severe, n=17) based on the presence of abnormal fibers (giant fibers, fibers with hyaline degeneration, and damaged and/or necrotic fibers) evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Color, pH, drip loss, Allo-Kramer shear values, and chemical composition (moisture, proteins, total lipids, ashes, and collagen) were determined on nonmarinated breast meat. Purge loss and cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer shear values were measured on vacuum-tumbled samples. Samples showing moderate myodegeneration had the highest mean cross-sectional area of the fibers, while samples with severe myodegeneration had myofibers of different diameter and without the characteristic polygonal shape, multifocal degeneration and necrosis, as well as infiltration of CD3-immunoreactive cells. Cooking losses of nonmarinated meat were lower in the mild group with respect to moderate and severe groups (21.4 vs. 24.7 and 24.7%; Pprotein percentages (21.1 vs. 22.6%; Pcontent was not modified by histological lesion levels. Marinated meat from the mild group had higher uptake and total marinade yield after cooking. In conclusion, almost all breast fillets of heavy broiler chickens produced under intensive farming systems had histological lesions, which reflected on the chemical composition of the meat and the impaired water holding/binding capacities of the meat. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available It is known that PSE meat present important functional defects, such as low water holding capacity and ultimate pH, which may compromise the quality of further-processed meat products. In this study, L* (lightness, a* (redness, and b* (yellowness values of 500 chicken breast fillets were determined using a portable colorimeter (Minolta, model CR-400 in a commercial processing plant. Fillets were considered pale when their L* was >49. Out of those samples, 30 fillets with normal color and 30 pale fillets were evaluated as to pH, drip loss, cooking loss, water holding capacity, shear force, and submitted to sensorial analysis. An incidence of 10.20% PSE meat was determined. Pale and normal fillets presented significantly different (p0.05 between pale and normal fillets. Despite the significant differences in meat physical properties, these were not perceived by consumers in terms of tenderness, aspect, and flavor. The observed incidence of PSE may cause losses due to its low water retention capacity.
Al-Masri, M. R.
Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.
Fearnley, Emily; Raupach, Jane; Lagala, Fil; Cameron, Scott
Varieties of Salmonella enterica are the second most commonly notified causes of gastroenteritis in Australia. Outbreaks of Salmonella infection are commonly linked to food, particularly foods containing chicken meat and eggs. A number of European countries have introduced interventions based on Salmonella surveillance systems in the food industry and these have led to subsequent decreases in notification rates in humans. A descriptive case-series of human Salmonella infections notified in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, was conducted in 2008. Human Salmonella serotypes identified were then compared to serotypes identified from a retail chicken and egg survey conducted over the same time period in Adelaide. Ninety-four human cases of salmonellosis were included in the study. Thirty-one serotypes were identified and 61.7% of these were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). In the week prior to illness, 62.8% of participants reported eating chicken and 47.9% reported eating eggs. Salmonella was identified in 38.8% of retail chicken samples; S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium phage type 135a were most commonly identified. No egg contents were found to contain Salmonella, but the pathogen was isolated on 3.5% of egg external surface samples. Eleven serotypes were common to both chicken and human samples, two serotypes were common to eggs and humans, and one serotype (S. Infantis) was common to all three sources. Serotypes of Salmonella isolated from chicken and egg samples included serotypes that were also isolated from humans, in cases included in this study, and in outbreaks previously investigated within Australia. Poultry meat and eggs are potential sources of introducing a defined range of human pathogens into South Australian kitchens. Ongoing systematic surveillance of animals and their food products, at farm and retail level for Salmonella could provide more definitive evidence of links between food sources and human infections; and also
Escherichia coli Isolates from Broiler Chicken Meat, Broiler Chickens, Pork, and Pigs Share Phylogroups and Antimicrobial Resistance with Community-Dwelling Humans and Patients with Urinary Tract Infection
Jakobsen, L.; Kurbasic, A.; Skjot-Rasmussen, L.
, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n......Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance......, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist...
S. N. Depamede
Full Text Available A rapid immunodiagnostic test that provides visual evidence of the presence of pork components in raw beef and chicken meats was developed. Colloidal gold was prepared and conjugated with anti-Swine IgG polyclonal antibody. Immunochromatographic test strips were produced, and then were used to test laboratory adulterated raw meat samples. The samples consisted adulteration meat, immunodiagnostic, pork, rapid test of pork-in-beef, or pork-in-chicken at 1/0; 1/100; 1/1,000; 1/5,000; 1/10,000 (w/w adulteration levels that were extracted in phosphate-buffered saline. Raw beef and chicken meats without pork were included as controls. Analysis was completed in 10 min. Detection limit was 1/5,000 (w/w, although 1/10,000 was also observed. This immunodiagnostic tests can be conveniently applied to detect low levels of pork components in raw beef and chicken meat products. For the commercial purposes, further studies need to be carried out.
The post mortem changes taking place in poultry muscular tissue and the resulting meat quality, until the moment of consumption of the meat by the consumer are described. Modern broiler chickens grow 'at the edge of what is metabolically possible'. This hypothesis is derived from the fact that muscle, and thus protein, accretion is accomplished through a dynamic equilibrium between synthesis and degradation. The cell reaches a certain maximum synthesis capacity. To grow beyond this m...
Shrestha, Anil; Bajracharya, Anup Muni; Subedi, Hemraj; Turha, Raju Shah; Kafle, Sachin; Sharma, Saroj; Neupane, Sunil; Chaudhary, Dhiraj Kumar
Multidrug resistance (MDR) and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producer Gram negative bacteria are considered as a major health problem, globally. ESBL enzyme hydrolyses the beta lactam ring of third generation cephalosporins, which alters the structure of the antibiotic. Due to the modification in structure of the antibiotic, bacteria show resistance to these antibiotics. Resistant bacterial strains are transmitted to humans from animals through consumption of uncooked meat, through contact with uncooked meat and meat surfaces. This study aims to assess bacteriological profile and analyze the situation of antibiotic resistance, multidrug resistance, and ESBL producing Gram negative bacteria in chicken meat. A total of 38 chicken meat samples were studied in which 103 Gram negative bacteria were isolated. Species of Gram negative bacteria were identified as Citrobacter spp. (44.7%), Salmonella spp. (26.2%), Proteus spp. (18.4%), Escherichia coli (4.8%), Shigella spp. (3.9%), Pseudomonas spp. (1.9%), and Klebsiella spp. (1.0%). The prevalence of MDR isolates was found to be 79.6%. Total ESBL producer was 36.9% and ESBL producer among MDR was 34.9%. This concludes wide range of antibiotic resistance bacteria is prevalent in raw chicken meat.
Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Nine hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups with three replicate pens of 100 broiler chicks. Three treatments were i control, ii basal diets supplemented with 1 ml of B. licheniformis for each in feed water per day iii basal diets supplemented with 2 ml of B. licheniformis per chick in feed water per day. The supplementation of B. licheniformis significantly increased body weight in grower chickens (p<0.05, and significantly improved the feed conversion in 3 to 6 and 0 to 6 wk feeding period compared with the control group (p<0.05. Additionally, the supplement also resulted in increased protein and free amino acid contents, and decreased fat content in chicken breast fillet (p<0.05. Furthermore, improvement in sensory attributes was observed in broilers fed with the probiotic. In conclusion, B. licheniformis treatments resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05 in broiler productivity based on an index taking into account daily weight gain and feed conversion rate. Meanwhile, the probiotic contributed towards an improvement of the chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of breast fillet. Overall, the study indicates that B. licheniformis can be used as a growth promoter and meat quality enhancer in broiler poultry.
Adriano Henrique Ferrarez
Full Text Available The main use of electrical energy in the chicken meat processing unit is refrigeration. About 70% of the electricity is consumed in the compressors for the refrigeration system. Through this study, the energetic viability of using biogas from poultry litter in supplying the demand for the refrigeration process was found. The meat processing unit studied has the potential to process about a hundred and sixty thousand chickens a day. The potential biogas production from poultry litter is 60,754,298.91 m3.year-1. There will be a surplus of approximately 8,103MWh per month of electric energy generated from biogas. An economic analysis was performed considering a planning horizon of 20 years and the discount rate of 12% per year. The economic analysis was performed considering scenario 1: sale of all electricity generated by the thermoelectric facility, and scenario 2: sale of the surplus electricity generated after complying with the demands of the refrigeration process and all other electrical energy and thermal energy use. Economic indicators obtained for scenarios 1 and 2 were favorable for the project implementation.
González, Isabel; Fernández-Tomé, Samuel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario
The number of emerging pathogenic species described within the genus Arcobacter has increased rapidly during the last few years. In this work a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of the species of Arcobacter most commonly associated with foods. The assay uses primers designed to amplify an 85 bp DNA fragment on the 16S rRNA gene and was applied to the detection of Arcobacter spp. in retail chicken meat. Primer specificity was tested against a panel of Arcobacter spp., related Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. and other food bacteria. Arcobacter primers consistently and selectively amplified the expected DNA fragment in all tested Arcobacter spp. Bacterial control primers confirmed the presence of amplifiable DNA in the samples. The applicability of the PCR assay to food was validated through screening of fresh retail chicken samples for the presence of Arcobacter spp., with a result of 45% (23 out of 51) positive samples. The genus-specific PCR assay developed has the potential to be used as a quick and sensitive alternative method for the survey of Arcobacter contamination in meats. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Cette seconde édition, 20 ans après la première, devrait continuer à aider les techniciens pour la réalisation de leur système de vide. La technologie du vide est utilisée, à présent, dans de nombreux domaines très différents les uns des autres et avec des matériels très fiables. Or, elle est souvent bien peu étudiée, de plus, c'est une discipline où le savoir-faire prend tout son sens. Malheureusement la transmission par des ingénieurs et techniciens expérimentés ne se fait plus ou trop rapidement. La technologie du vide fait appel à la physique, à la chimie, à la mécanique, à la métallurgie, au dessin industriel, à l'électronique, à la thermique, etc. Cette discipline demande donc de maîtriser des techniques de domaines très divers, et ce n'est pas chose facile. Chaque installation est en soi un cas particulier avec ses besoins, sa façon de traiter les matériaux et celle d'utiliser les matériels. Les systèmes de vide sont parfois copiés d'un laboratoire à un autre et le...
Christine C. Gaylarde
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the interaction between bacteria and food processing surfaces using novel methods. Microbial cross contamination between stainless steel, a common food processing material, and raw chicken was studied using microbiological culture, specialized microscope and molecular techniques. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM allowed the visualization of biofilms containing single or dual species of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, formed after 6 days’ incubation on stainless steel or 4h on raw chicken. The results provided information on intra-biofilm location and stratification of species within dual species biofilms. Top-to-bottom Z-stack images revealed that, on both materials, S. typhimurium and E. coli attached concurrently, the former in greater numbers. E. coli and B. cereus segregated on steel, E. coli more frequent near the metal surface, B. cereus almost the only species in outer layers. Few cells of S. aureus, found at all depths, were seen in the 2.9 µm thick biofilm on steel with E. coli. Greatest attachment was shown by P. aeruginosa, followed by S. typhimurium, E. coli and finally Gram positive species. Large amounts of EPS in P. aeruginosa biofilms made visualization difficult on both materials, but especially on chicken meat, a limitation of this technique. Nevertheless, CLSM was useful for determining time sequence of adhesion and species makeup of thin biofilms. The technique showed that five min contact between bacterially-contaminated chicken and sterile steel resulted in greatest transfer of P. aeruginosa, followed by S. typhimurium. This was confirmed using DGGE. Gram positive bacteria transferred poorly. A biofilm containing 2.3 × 105 cfu·cm−2 B. cereus on steel transferred an undetectable number of cells to chicken after 5 min contact. This species was unable to form biofilm on chicken when incubated for 4 h
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different feed additives (bee pollen extract, propolis extract, and probiotic on meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old broiler chicks of mixed sex (Ross 308 were randomly divided into 3 groups. Dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet, free of supplements (control group; C; basal diet plus 400 mg bee pollen extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E1; basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. In the experiment, the probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1.109 CFU.g-1 of bearing medium was used. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. Meat quality was evaluated by following technological properties: cooling, freezing and roasting loss; colour parameters based on CIELab system; and shear force. Both dietary supplementations led to decrease in cooling (p ≤0.05 and freezing (p ≥0.05 losses compared with control. On the contrary, the supplemented diet tended to increase roasting losses (p ≤0.05 and shear force values in thigh muscle (p ≤0.05. Significantly higher L* values (p ≤0.05 in breast and thigh muscles, as well as the b* values in thigh muscle, were found when broiler chickens were fed the supplements, especially bee pollen extract and probiotics. In addition, the supplements improve redness (a* of meat. The redness of breast muscle appeared to be the most affected (p ≥0.05 by propolis extract plus probiotics supplementation, while thigh muscle had the highest value (p ≤0.05 in bee pollen extract plus probiotics supplemented group. These findings suggested that the supplements have a beneficial effect on quality of chicken meat due to positive changes in most of quality indicators investigated in the
U-Chupaj, J; Malila, Y; Gamonpilas, C; Kijroongrojana, K; Petracci, M; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W
This study was aimed at evaluating textural properties of cooked chicken breast meats obtained from 3 production systems (conventional raising, feed modification, and caponization) and determining the relationship between instrumental parameters and sensory attributes associated with the texture of capon meat. Texture of cooked breast meats was determined using 3 instrumental methods: Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS), texture profile analysis (TPA), and uniaxial compression (UC), and sensory analysis by trained panelists. The results indicated that cooked caponized meat showed the lowest values of WBS force, shear energy, hardness, Young's modulus of UC, and the 2 sensory attributes (firmness and number of chews) (P modulus of UC, gumminess, and springiness were strongly correlated with 3 sensory attributes (firmness, number of chews, and juiciness). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) demonstrated that 72% of all sensory attributes for the first 2 PLSR components were explained by 36% of the instrumental parameters and the production systems. Loading and score plot illustrated that conventional raising contributed to a high degree of firmness and number of chews, and positively correlated with shear energy, WBS force, gumminess, hardness, and Young's modulus. Contrarily, caponization was negatively correlated with those sensory attributes. The univariate analysis indicated that firmness and number of chews were positively correlated with all instrumental parameters, except springiness. Juiciness was positively correlated with springiness but negatively correlated with the others. The study suggested that the cooked meat of capons could be differentiated from those of broilers raised conventionally and with feed-modified diets based on textural properties. Based on the optimized simulating equation, texture of caponized breast could be explained by WBS force, shear energy, Young's modulus, and gumminess. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available Introduction:Despite advances in disease prevention and food materials technology, food – borne diseases are still a major problem in both developed and developing countries. Morever, meat plays a key role in transfer of bacteria, especially “Zoonotic” to humans. Therefore, we decided to investigate the outbreak of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella,Campylobacter, Yersinia and Aeromonas in red meat and chicken offered as packed and unpacked in areas under the authority of Tehran university of medical sciences . Methods: 630 samples including 315 raw chicken meat and 315 raw red meat samples were collected and tested for a period of one year from July, 2004 to August,2005. Samples were collected from shops selling packed meat and chicken as well as shops selling unpacked meat and chicken in different parts of the south of Tehran The methods used for the laboratory investigation were based on Iranian National Standard Procedure No. 2394. Results: Of the 630 samples of chicken and meat, 183 samples (29 % were contaminated. 49.2 percent of the contaminated samples were chicken meat and 8.9 percent were red meat. From the total, 71 samples were contaminated with salmonella (11.3 %, 68 samples with Campylobacter (10.8 %, 26 samples with Yersinia entrocolitica (4.1 % and 18 samples with Aeromonas (2.9 %. In red meat samples, microbial contamination was observed in 4.9 % of packed and 10.3 percent of unpacked samples. Contamination rate of chicken samples was higher including 59.3 % of packed and 45.7 % of unpacked chicken samples. The observed difference between the remitting samples of packed and unpacked chicken was statistically significant. (P 0.05
De Koning, D J; Haley, C S; Windsor, D; Hocking, P M; Griffin, H; Morris, A; Vincent, J; Burt, D W
This study investigated whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) identified in experimental crosses of chickens provide a short cut to the identification of QTL in commercial populations. A commercial population of broilers was targeted for chromosomal regions in which QTL for traits associated with meat production have previously been detected in extreme crosses. A three-generation design, consisting of 15 grandsires, 608 half-sib hens and over 15 000 third-generation offspring, was implemented within the existing breeding scheme of a broiler breeding company. The first two generations were typed for 52 microsatellite markers spanning regions of nine chicken chromosomes and covering a total of 730 cM, approximately one-fifth of the chicken genome. Using half-sib analyses with a multiple QTL model, linkage was studied between these regions and 17 growth and carcass traits. Out of 153 trait x region comparisons, 53 QTL exceeded the threshold for genome-wide significance while an additional 23 QTL were significant at the nominal 1% level. Many of the QTL affect the carcass proportions and feed intake, for which there are few published studies. Given intensive selection for efficient growth in broilers for more than 50 generations it is surprising that many QTL affecting these traits are still segregating. Future fine-mapping efforts could elucidate whether ancestral mutations are still segregating as a result of pleiotropic effects on fitness traits or whether this variation is due to new mutations.
Abd-Elghany, S M; Sallam, K I; Abd-Elkhalek, A; Tamura, T
SUMMARY This study was undertaken to survey the presence of Salmonella in 200 chicken samples collected from Mansoura, Egypt. Salmonella was detected in 16% (8/50), 28% (14/50), 32% (16/50) and 60% (30/50) of whole chicken carcasses, drumsticks, livers and gizzards, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 34% (68/200) among all samples. One hundred and sixty-six isolates were identified biochemically as Salmonella, and confirmed genetically by PCR, based on the presence of invA and stn genes. The spvC gene, however, was detected in only 25.3% (42/166) of the isolates. Isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Enteritidis (37.3%), S. Typhimurium (30.1%), S. Kentucky (10.8%), S. Muenster (8.4%), S. Virchow (4.8%), S. Anatum (4.8%), S. Haifa (1.2%), and four were non-typable. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of the Salmonella isolates revealed that 100% were resistant to each of erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin, while 98.8%, 96.4%, 95.2%, and 91.6% were resistant to nalidixic acid, sulphamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, and ampicillin, respectively. Multidrug resistance was evident for 92.8% of the isolates. The high contamination level of chicken meat with multidrug-resistant Salmonella can constitute a problem for public health.
Full Text Available Furazolidone (FZD, furaltadone (FTD, nitrofurantoin (NFT and nitrofurazone (NFZ are veterinary drugs that belong to the nitrofurans (NFs group and employed as feed additives for growth promotion and theurapetic treatment of gastrointestinal infections caused by Eschericia coli and Salmonella spp. The occurrence of NFs in animal products will end to cause health problem in human consumed such food. This research conducted to study the analysis of NF residues in chicken meat by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and to study the occurrence of NFs residues in samples collected from traditional markets and supermarkets in Bandung, Bogor and Depok. The results of validation method on several parameters for each NF showed that the average of the relative standard deviation (RSD from the precision study were 2.15 to 2.38%, the R2 values of the linearity study were 0.9964 to 0.9995; recoveries were 75.90 % to 91.50 % and the detection limits were 12.01 to 37.25 ng/g. The residual level of NFs for 42 field samples showed that 2 samples positive for NFZ (9.09 and 10.74 ng/g, 1 positive for NFT (10.46 ng/g, 4 positive for FTD (16.44 up to 27.21 ng/g and none positive for FZD. Present results showed that analysis of NFs in broiler chicken meat can be done using an HPLC and the analysis results from field samples showed that these types of drugs were being used for broiler chicken production both as single and/or combination drugs, therefore it is necessary to raise public awareness to monitor the use of NF in livestock production in Indonesia.
Kim, H W; Yan, F F; Hu, J Y; Cheng, H W; Kim, Y H B
This study evaluated the effects of dietary probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality of chicken breast during retail display. A total of 35 birds were randomly obtained from 3 feeding groups (control without probiotic supplement, 250 ppm Sporulin, and 500 ppm PoultryStar). The probiotic supplement had no influence on feed conversion ratio and body weight gain, as well as body weight at 29 and 44 d (P > 0.05). After slaughter, each side of the breast muscles (M. Pectoralis major) was assigned to either one d or 5 d of postmortem storage. Probiotic supplement had no influence on the rate of pH decline of chicken breast muscles during the initial 6 h postmortem (P > 0.05). No interactions between probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality were found (P > 0.05). Postmortem storage decreased drip loss from 25.30 to 18.05% (P Probiotics-fed chicken groups, particularly PoultryStar treatment, had a higher myofibrillar fragmentation index than the control group (P probiotic treatments. Decreases in color and lipid stabilities of breast muscles were found during display (P probiotic supplement (P > 0.05). Our result suggests that probiotic supplement had no adverse impacts on proteolysis and oxidative changes during 5 d postmortem display storage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Full Text Available The effect of feeding of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L and combination of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L and hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L on oxidative stability and sensory properties of produced poultry meat was investigated. Sixty one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (ROSS 308 were used in our experiment, divided into 3 groups, and fed 41 days, as follows: control (K was fed with standard diet without supplementation of plants; second group (M was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded lemon balm in concentration 2 % per 1 kg; and third group was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded yarrow (2 % and hawthorn (1 %. Results showed that supplementation with lemon balm, and mainly combination of yarrow and hawthorn in the diet significantly caused reduction of lipid oxidation processes in thigh meat during chilling storage of samples. In addition, supplementation of plants in the diet had positive effect on sensory quality of meat of broiler chickens. doi:10.5219/38
Full Text Available Abstract Evaluate of Origanum syriacum L. essential oil grown in Jordan, and other comparable antioxidant on TBARS, total carbonyl, color values, and sensory attributes of raw chicken meat was investigated. Six treatments were prepared: (1 control (no additive; (2 100 ppm oregano essential oil (OE; (3 150 ppm OE; (4 300 ppm L-ascorbic acid (E-300; (5 5 and 14 ppm butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA/E-320 for both breast and thigh meat respectively, and 6 150 ppm Sodium nitrite (E-250, were prepared using ground chicken meat. Generally, OE at level of 150 ppm was the most effective decreasing TBARS, and total carbonyl values compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, it showed better color values (L* and a* in term of meat color stability. However, OE and E-250 also showed the highest significant values among the other treatments. Sensory evaluation results showed that adding OE at level of 150 ppm and 100 ppm were the best values maintaining meat storage stability. Therefore, it can be recommended that OE at level of 150 ppm could be an excellent replacement to the synthetic antioxidant in the future of uncured, natural fresh meat products, and raw meat prepared for processing.
Felício, A M; Boschiero, C; Balieiro, J C C; Ledur, M C; Ferraz, J B S; Moura, A S A M T; Coutinho, L L
In the past, the focus of broiler breeding programs on yield and carcass traits improvement led to problems related to meat quality. Awareness of public concern for quality resulted in inclusion of meat quality traits in the evaluation process. Nevertheless, few genes associated with meat quality attributes are known. Previous studies mapped quantitative trait loci for weight at 35 and 42 days in a region of GGA4 flanked by the microsatellite markers, MCW0240 and LEI0063. In this region, there are 2 fibroblast growth factor binding protein (FGFBP) genes that play an important role in embryogenesis, cellular differentiation, and proliferation in chickens. The objective of this study was to identify and associate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGFBP1 and FGFBP2 with performance, carcass, and meat quality in experimental and commercial chicken populations. In the commercial population, SNP g.2014G>A in FGFBP1 was associated with decreased carcass weight (P A in FGFBP2 was associated with thawing loss and meat redness content (P meat redness content. The diplotypes were associated with thawing loss, lightness, and redness content. The SNPs evaluated in the present study may be used as markers in poultry breeding programs to aid in improving growth and meat quality traits.
Full Text Available Trials were conducted to study the effect of pomegranate rind powder extract as natural antioxidant in chicken meat balls during refrigerated storage. Significantly (p<0.05 lower values for cooking loss, pH and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBARS values and higher values for emulsion stability were obtained due to the incorporation of pomegranate rind powder extract at 5 percent level followed by 2.5 percent level than the other treatments. There was a significant (p<0.05 increase in cooking loss, pH, 2-TBARS values and free fatty acid content as the storage period progressed from 0 to 8 days, however emulsion stability of chicken meat balls decreased significantly (p<0.05 during the course of refrigeration. Microbial quality evaluation revealed that chicken meat balls incorporated with pomegranate rind powder extract at 5 percent level had significantly (p<0.05 lower standard plate count during refrigerated storage and a significant (p<0.05 increase in microbial load was observed. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that addition of pomegranate rind powder extract at 5 and 2.5 percent levels to chicken meat balls registered significantly (p<0.05 higher sensory scores for various eating quality attributes than the other treatments. However there was a significant (p<0.05 in all the organoleptic attributes of the product as the storage period increased.
Full Text Available Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53% and Qatari (45.9% producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis.
Abu-Madi, Marawan; Behnke, Jerzy M; Sharma, Aarti; Bearden, Rebecca; Al-Banna, Nadia
Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali) were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis.
Belmar Campos, Cristina; Fenner, Ines; Wiese, Nicole; Lensing, Carmen; Christner, Martin; Rohde, Holger; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Fenner, Thomas; Hentschke, Moritz
Chicken meat has been proposed to constitute a source for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-carrying Enterobacteriaceae that colonize and infect humans. In this study the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in stool samples from ambulatory patients who presented in the emergency department of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf with gastrointestinal complains and in chicken meat samples from the Hamburg region were analysed and compared with respect to ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance profiles. Twenty-nine (4.1%) of 707 stool samples and 72 (60%) of 120 chicken meat samples were positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The distribution of ESBL genes in the stool vs. chicken meat isolates (given as % of total isolates from stool vs. chicken meat) was as follows: CTX-M-15 (38% vs. 0%), CTX-M-14 (17% vs. 6%), CTX-M-1 (17% vs. 69%), SHV-12 (3% vs. 18%) and TEM-52 (3% each). Comparison of ESBL- and multilocus sequence type revealed no correlation between isolates of human and chicken. Furthermore, ESBL-producing E. coli from stool samples were significantly more resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than chicken isolates. The differences in ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance patterns indicate that in our clinical setting chicken meat is not a major contributor to human colonization with ESBL-carrying Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to verify the effect of different feed additives in nutrition of Cobb 500 broiler chickens on the sensory quality of breast and thigh muscle modified by baking at temperature 200 ºC for 60 minutes. The experiment included 250 one-day-old Cobb 500 hybrid chickens, which were divided into 5 groups (n=50: control (I and experimental groups (E1 with Agolin Poultry at doses of 100 mg.kg-1, E2 with Agolin Tannin Plus at doses of 500 mg.kg-1, E3 with Biostrong 510+FortiBac at doses of 1000 mg.kg-1 and E4 with Agolin Acid at doses of 1000 mg.kg-1. The chickens were fed during 42 days of age by ad libitum system with feed mixtures: BR1 starter feed mixture (until the of 10th day of age, BR2 growth feed mixture (from 11th to 20th day of age, BR3 growth feed mixture (from 21st to 35th days of age and BR4 final feed mixture (from 36th to 42nd days of age. Feed mixtures were produced with coccidiostats in powder form. Panellists evaluate aroma, juiciness, taste and tenderness on 5 point hedonic scale where 1 (the worst and 5 (the best were the extremes of each characteristic. Significant differences were found between control and experimental group E3 in juiciness and tenderness of breast muscles and between control and experimental group E2 in smell of thigh muscles. Sensory evaluation of breast and thigh muscles in Cobb 500 chickens after application of different feed additives indicated that these additives have not worsened the quality of meat. The highest sensory score was obtained in experimental group E4 (with addition of Agolin Acid at the dose of 1000 mg.kg-1. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE
Kudra, Li L; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Zhang, Q; Jackson-Davis, Armitra; Prusa, Kenneth J
Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of human foodborne illnesses originating from meat and poultry products. Cross-contamination of this organism occurs in many poultry processing plants, and can occur in the kitchens and refrigerators of consumers. Therefore, new intervention strategies are needed for meat and poultry products to better protect consumers from this pathogen. Vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging is a common packaging technique used by the meat and poultry industry to extend the shelf life of meat products. In addition, irradiation has been well established as an antibacterial treatment to reduce pathogens on meat and poultry products. Irradiation in combination with high-CO(2) + CO modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was investigated in this study for the control of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken breast meat. The radiation sensitivity (D(10)-value) of this foodborne pathogen in chicken breast meat was similar in vacuum or high-O(2) MAP (0.31 ± 0.01 kGy in vacuum packaging and 0.29 ± 0.03 kGy in MAP). C. jejuni survived in both vacuum and high-CO(2) MAP through 6 weeks of refrigerated storage. Irradiation was effective for eliminating C. jejuni from meat or poultry packaged in vacuum or MAP, and should reduce the chance of cross-contamination in retail stores or home kitchens. However, irradiated off-odor and sour aroma were observed for raw, irradiated chicken breast packaged with either vacuum or MAP. Therefore, additional means to mitigate quality changes appear necessary for these products.
Marcinčák, Slavomír; Popelka, Peter; Bystrický, Pavel; Hussein, Khaled; Hudecová, Katarína
Lipid oxidation is a major cause of meat quality deterioration. Lipid oxidation is an important determinant of shelf life of meat and meat products. Antioxidants are natural or synthetic substances used to prevent lipid oxidation. Meat protection, primarily against lipid components, is possible by addition of antioxidants to feed mixes. This is the way to ensure oxidative stability of meat fats during the postslaughter processing of carcasses and storage of meat. The aim of our project was to...
Full Text Available Essential oils and their components, as a group of phytogenic feed additive, have great potential uses in broiler fattening. Due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and effects on improved food digestibility their positive impact on animals the health status can be expected, and therefore better final fattening results. In this research we studied the impact of XTRACTTM (a combination of essential oils components carvacrol, cinnamaldehid and capsicum Oleoresin, Arom Korm ® (essential oil combination of Foeniculum vulgare and Citrus limon, zeolite and a combination of zeolite with XTRACTTM or Aroma Korma ® on the fattening performance of chickens, their immunostimulating effect, the impact on the antioxidant status of the blood and muscle tissue, the impact on intestine micropopulation of chickens, effect on microbial contamination of meat, the impact on processing performances of broiler chicken and meat properties, and impact on the sensory quality of the chicken meat. The experiment was conducted on Ross 308 broilers, divided into 6 groups (control and treatment groups depending on the different supplements of essential oils, zeolites, or combinations thereof. The fattening lasted 42 days and total of 288 both sex chicks were included (48 per in each group. Influence of the addition of essential oils and natural zeolite had a different impact on the observed individual values. Separately added XTRACTTM and Aroma Korm ® had a good effect on the observed properties of fattening, the technological properties of meat, chicken health status, antioxidant parameters of blood and meat, microbiological contamination and organoleptic properties. Zeolite, as a standalone supplement, had the lowest impact on the observed properties, but in combination with Aroma Korm ® or XTRACTTM, Zeolite improved their activity.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stability (TBARS method of breast and thigh muscle after application of feed mixtures enriched by phytogenic additives. The experiment started with 250 pieces one-day-old chicks of Cobb 500 hybrid combination. They were divided into one control (C and four experimental groups (1st EG, 2nd EG, 3rd EG, 4th EG. Each group included 50 chicks. In experimental groups, feed additives were applied as followed: 100 mg kg-1 Agolin Poultry (in the 1st EG, 500 mg kg-1 Agolin Tannin Plus (in the 2nd EG, 1000 mg kg-1 Biostrong 510 + FortiBac (in the 3rd EG and 1000 mg kg-1 Agolin Acid (in the 4th EG. We recorded positive influence on chicken meat oxidative stability in all experimental groups with application of plant feed additives. Experimental broiler chickens were fed during 42 days by ad libitum. Chicken meat samples of breast and thigh muscle were analyzed in the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day of storage in cold conditions at 4 °C. Obtained results showed that applied phytogenic additives had positive influence on oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles. At the end of cold store (in 7th day, we found higher malondialdehyde (MDA values and lower oxidative stability (P<0.05 of breast muscle in control group (0.157 mg kg-1 compared to experimental groups (from 0.124 mg kg-1 in the 3rd EG to 0.133 mg kg-1 in the 1st EG. In the thigh muscle, we found similar tendency of oxidative changes as in the breast muscle. At the end of cold store (in the 7th day, MDA average values of thigh muscle were higher (P<0.05 in control group (0.179 mg kg-1 compared to experimental groups (from 0.136 mg kg-1 in the 4th EG to 0.141 mg kg-1 in the 1st EG. Significant differences (P<0.05 between the control and experimental groups were found from the 5th day of storage in thigh muscle in contrast to breast muscle. Obtained results indicate positive influence of phytogenic additives applied in chicken nutrition, namely on
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Barn and cage-fed chickens have presented several problems, such as high rates of infectious disease and consequent antibiotic abuse, poorer chicken health and welfare, and often poorer meat and egg quality compared with free-range chickens. The poultry agroforestry system is becoming increasingly popular in many poultry farms nowadays. In this study, to evaluate the contribution of poultry agroforestry system to enhance some meat and egg traits of Beijing-you chickens, some indexes of meat and egg qualities, some indexes of slaughter traits, and the feed conversion efficiency were investigated in rotational grazing Beijing-you chickens on chicory (Cichorium intybus L. pasture (CGRG group and only free-ranging chickens on bare land without forage (control group in chestnut forest. Results showed that the live body weight, the dressing weight, the thigh muscle weight, and the breast muscle weight were increased (p<0.05 based on the decrease of 15% feed concentration in the CGRG group relative to the control. Furthermore, compared with the control, the crude ash, the essential amino acid content, and the inosinic acid content were increased (p<0.05, and the crude fat contents were decreased (p<0.05 in the thigh and breast muscles, while the yolk cholesterol and the feed conversion ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.05 in the CGRG group. This study would provide a scientific basis and technological support for the large-scale demonstration and application of rotational grazing chickens on the artificial pasture in forest.
Dal Bosco, A; Mugnai, C; Mattioli, S; Rosati, A; Ruggeri, S; Ranucci, D; Castellini, C
The aim of this study was to analyze the transfer of bioactive compounds from the pasture to the body and meat of organic free-range chickens and to verify the effect of these compounds on the oxidative processes of the meat. Starting at 21 d of age, 100 male naked-neck birds were divided into two homogeneous groups: an indoor group (0.12 m(2)/bird) and an outdoor group (0.12 m(2)/bird indoor and 10 m(2)/bird of forage paddock). At slaughter (81 d of age), blood samples were collected, and the carcasses were stored for 24 h at 4°C (20 birds/group). The grass samples had higher values of carotenoids, tocopherols, and flavonoids respect to standard feed (based on dry matter comparison). The polyunsaturated fatty acid ( PUFA: ) content was also greater in grass, especially the n-3 series (so named because its first double bond occurs after the third carbon atom counting from the methyl at the end of the molecule). The antioxidant profile of the grass improved the antioxidant status of the crop and gizzard contents in the outdoor chickens. The higher antioxidant intake resulted in a higher plasma concentration of antioxidants in outdoor birds; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ( TBARS: ) and the antioxidant capacity of the plasma were also better in the outdoor than the indoor group. The meat of the outdoor birds had higher levels of antioxidants, mainly due to the higher amount of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Despite the higher antioxidant protection in the drumstick of the outdoor group, the TBARs value was greater, probably due to the kinetic activity of birds, the higher percentage of PUFAs, and the peroxidability index. In conclusion, grazing improved the nutritional value of the meat (PUFA n-3 and the ratio between n-6 and n-3 PUFA) with a minor negative effect on the oxidative stability. Suitable strategies to reduce such negative effects (e.g., reduction of kinetic activity in the last days of rearing) should be studied. © 2016 Poultry Science
Five studies were designed to investigate the potential use grape pomace (GP), grape seeds (GS) and grape skins (SS), the major residues from wine-making industry and a good sources of polyphenols, as a cheaper but functionally equivalent product, with antioxidant activity, that could partially replace vitamin E in broiler chickens diet and be able to improve poultry performance and welfare, besides to warrant high-quality, safe and functional meat products. The studies were carried out at th...
Odwar, Joyce Arua; Kikuvi, Gideon; Kariuki, James Ngumo; Kariuki, Samuel
Chicken is a rich source of meat protein and is increasingly being consumed in urban areas in Kenya. However, under poor hygienic environment, raw chicken meat presents an ideal substrate supporting the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Coliform bacteria indicating the potential presence of other pathogenic bacteria; this may constitute a major source of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study sought to assess the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meat sold in Nairobi, Kenya by determining the E. coli/coliform contamination levels as well as the antimicrobial resistance patterns and pathogenicity of E. coli isolated. We conducted a Cross-sectional study to collect two hundred raw chicken samples that were randomly purchased between the periods of August 2011-February 2012. Enumeration of bacteria was done using 3 M Petri film E. coli/Coliform count plates, isolation and identification of E. coli through standard cultural and biochemical testing, antimicrobial susceptibilities interpreted according to criteria set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2012) while Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to determine presence of virulence genes in isolated E. coli. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Contamination rates were 97% and 78% respectively for Coliform bacteria and E. coli. Seventy six percent of samples fell under the unacceptable microbial count limit (>100 cfu/ml) and significant differences in the E. coli/coliform counts (p chicken retail outlets with samples from supermarkets having the lowest level of contamination compared to the rest of the retail outlets. Seventy five percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested with resistance to tetracycline being the highest at 60.3%. In addition 40.4% E. coli isolates were positive for the ten virulence genes tested. Raw retail chicken meats in Nairobi are not only highly contaminated, but also with potentially
Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.
Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...... ingredients and extruded foods was determined with mink (Neovison vison). The extruded dog foods included a control diet with protein from PM and grain, and two diets where MSC or SPH provided 25% of the dietary CP. Nutrient composition of the protein ingredients varied, dry matter (DM) was 944.0, 358...... differed (p protein ingredients and was 80.9%, 88.2% and 91.3% for PM, MSC and SPH respectively. The ATTD of total AA was lowest (p 0.05) for MSC and SPH. In the extruded diets, the expected higher ATTD of CP and AA from replacement of PM with MSC or SPH...
Sodagari, Hamid Reza; Mashak, Zohreh; Ghadimianazar, Amir
Salmonella is one of the major foodborne pathogens responsible for outbreaks of foodborne illness in humans worldwide. A total of 560 samples of chicken meat and giblets were collected from retail markets for Salmonella identification, serotyping, and antimicrobial resistance testing. Salmonella was detected in 19.8% of samples. Among the five serotypes identified, S. Thompson was the predominant type (48.7%). High antimicrobial resistance rates were observed to nalidixic acid (92.8%), tetracycline (81%), trimethoprim (68.4%), sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim (61.2%), streptomycin (56.7%), and kanamycin (36.9%). Although resistance to chloramphenicol (3.6%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (5.4%), and ampicillin (11.7%) was detected, none of the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, gentamicin, nor imipenem. Restrictions on the irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animals are suggested for the reduction of resistant strains.
Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro
Full Text Available Mortadella-type sausage manufactured using mechanically deboned chicken meat were reformulated replacing MDCM with increasing amounts of MDCM protein hydrolysates (10%, 20%, and 30%, and their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The higher substitutions resulted in sausages more susceptible to lipid oxidation with higher TBARS values during storage; however, these values were lower than the organoleptic perception threshold. The sausages were darker and less red, with lower lightness (L* and redness (a* values than those of the control treatment. They had soft texture, which was evidenced by both the instrumental and sensory analysis. Therefore, the formulation containing 10% of MDCM protein hydrolysates proved to be the most suitable for mortadella-type sausage elaboration.
Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès
Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.
Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Li, Ke; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Bryden, Wayne L; Yao, Bin
Supplementation of broiler chicken diets with probiotics may improve carcass characteristics and meat quality. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, 2D-DIGE-based proteomics was employed to investigate the proteome changes associated with improved carcass traits and meat quality of Arbor Acres broilers (Gallus gallus) fed the probiotic Enterococcus faecium. The probiotic significantly increased meat colour, water holding capacity and pH of pectoral muscle but decreased abdominal fat content. These meat quality changes were related to the altered abundance of 22 proteins in the pectoral muscle following E. faecium feeding. Of these, 17 proteins have central roles in regulating meat quality due to their biological interaction network. Altered cytoskeletal and chaperon protein expression also contribute to improved water holding capacity and colour of meat, which suggests that upregulation of chaperon proteins maintains cell integrity and prevents moisture loss by enhancing folding and recovery of the membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. The down-regulation of β-enolase and pyruvate kinase muscle isozymes suggests roles in increasing the pH of meat by decreasing the production of lactic acid. The validity of the proteomics results was further confirmed by qPCR. This study reveals that improved meat quality of broilers fed probiotics is triggered by proteome alterations (especially the glycolytic proteins), and provides a new insight into the mechanism by which probiotics improve poultry production.
Li, D L; Chen, J L; Wen, J; Zhao, G P; Zheng, M Q; Liu, C
1. Changes resulting from divergent selection after 5 generations for intramuscular fat (IMF) content in breast muscle in a population of purebred Beijing-You chickens were investigated. Female chickens from lines selected-up (UL) and selected-down (DL) for 5 generations and random-bred controls (CL) were studied at 120 d of age. 2. In the UL, IMF in breast muscle (4.65%) was 1.38 times that in the DL (3.36%). The IMF content in leg muscle was also higher in UL compared to DL. 3. There were significant differences in growth, carcase traits and meat quality between the two selected lines. However, ultimate pH (pHu) was lower and lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were higher in breast muscles of UL birds compared to DL birds. Similar trends for pHu and L* value between UL and DL were observed in leg muscle. 4. Significant mRNA expression differences of the heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene between UL and DL were observed in breast muscle, and a negative correlation between expression of mRNA and IMF% in breast and leg muscles pointed to H-FABP as a potential selection candidate gene.
Harissa Silvério El Ghoz Frausto
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw chicken meat. The conventional culture method (IN 62, MAP was used as a reference method. A total of 8,813 chicken carcass samples were analyzed. In the first part of the study, 1,200 samples were analyzed using the BAX® System and the conventional culture method. In the second part, 7,613 samples were analyzed by the BAX® system, and the conventional method was used only for samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the BAX® system. The sensitivity, specificity, relative accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value obtained in the first part of this study were 100%, 92.3%, 96.4%, 53.3% and 100%, respectively. The BAX® system showed no false-negative results and reduced the time to obtain presumptive positive results. It is a suitable method for use in laboratories that perform a large number of food samples analyses daily. However, the conventional method is still required to confirm the presence of Salmonella spp. in samples that test positive using the BAX® system.
Alnoman, Maryam; Udompijitkul, Pathima; Sarker, Mahfuzur R
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming bacterium and a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of chitosan against spore germination, spore outgrowth and vegetative growth of C. perfringens food poisoning (FP) isolates. Chitosan of differing molecular weights inhibited germination of spores of all tested FP isolates in a KCl germinant solution containing 0.1 mg/ml chitosan at pH 4.5. However, higher level (0.25 mg/ml) of chitosan was required to effectively arrest outgrowth of the germinated C. perfringens spores in Tripticase-yeast extract-glucose (TGY) medium. Furthermore, chitosan (1.0 mg/ml) was bacteriostatic against vegetative cells of C. perfringens in TGY medium. Although chitosan showed strong inhibitory activities against C. perfringens in laboratory medium, higher levels (2.0 mg/g) were required to achieve similar inhibition of spores inoculated into chicken meat. In summary, the inhibitory effects of chitosan against C. perfringens FP isolates was concentration dependent, and no major difference was observed when using different molecule weight chitosan as an inhibitor. Our results contribute to a better understanding on the potential application of chitosan in cooked meat products to control C. perfringens-associated disease. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, F; Gao, S S; Zhu, L Q; Qin, S Y; Qiu, H L
The probiotic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CF (Chen Fu) on growth performance, meat quality, and microenvironment in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were investigated and compared with Enterococcus faecium. One-hundred-eighty 7-day-old SPF chickens were randomly assigned into 3 groups with 3 replicate pens of 20 chickens each. Group 1 served as a control that was fed a basal diet without probiotics supplementation. Groups 2 and 3 were fed the basal diet supplemented with L. rhamnosus CF and E. faecium, respectively. On d 12 and 24, BW, ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage (DP), and apparent digestibility of crude protein (AD-CP) were calculated. Meat color, fat content, shear force, water content, and pH value of breast and thigh muscles; ammonia, urea nitrogen, and uric acid content in plasma; pH value, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and E. coli in ceca; and ammonia emission were determined. Compared with group 1, group 2 exhibited higher BW, ADG, AD-CP, DP, cecal Lactobacilli, and muscle fat content (P content, plasma ammonia, pH value, E. coli, and Enterococcus in ceca, and ammonia emission (P content (P meat color, plasma ammonia, E. coli and Enterococcus in ceca, and ammonia emission (d 24) (P meat color, pH value in thigh muscles, fat content in breast muscles, and number of Lactobacillus in ceca (P meat quality, and microenvironment and is a potential probiotic additive in chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Jin, Sihua; Moujahid, El Mostafa El; Duan, Zhongyi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning; Chen, Sirui
Investigations on regulatory genes of feed intake will provide a rational scientific basis to improve future selection indices for more efficient chickens. In the present study, we investigated the association of 13 previously reported SNPs in the chicken adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) subunits PRKAB1, PRKAG2, and PRKAG3 genes with body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in two distinct yellow meat-type strains. Six SNPs with a very low minor allele frequency were removed by genotype quality control and data filtering. The experimental population comprised 796 pedigreed males from two strains with different genetic backgrounds, 335 chickens from N202 and 461 chickens from N301. BW at 49 (BW49) and 70 days of age (BW70) and FI (from 49 to 70 days of age) were determined individually. BWG and FCR were computed based on BW and FI in the interval between 49 to 70 days. The results indicated that PRKAB1 SNPs rs14094358 and rs14094362 were significantly associated with BW70, BWG, and FI in the N202 strain, and rs14094361 and rs14094363 were significantly associated with FI and FCR in the N301 strain (P feed intake, and feed efficiency that may be applied in meat-type chicken breeding programs. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Detection of clonal group A Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, community-dwelling humans, and urinary tract infection (UTI) patients and their virulence in a mouse UTI model.
Jakobsen, Lotte; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels
Escherichia coli clonal group A isolates cause infections in people. We investigated 158 phylogroup D E. coli isolates from animals, meat, and humans. Twenty-five of these isolates were of clonal group A, and 15 isolates were shown to cause infection in a mouse urinary tract infection (UTI) model. We conclude that clonal group A isolates are found in both broiler chickens and broiler chicken meat and may cause UTI in humans.
Tournour, Hernán H; Cunha, Luís M; Magalhães, Luís M; Lima, Rui C; Segundo, Marcela A
The proximate composition, instrumental and perceived appearance of chicken nuggets formulated with varying contents of mechanically deboned chicken meat and varying concentrations of grape pomace extract were evaluated, with the choice of formulations following a central composite design. Significant differences (P formulations with higher acceptance scores. Correspondence analysis of open-ended comments complemented the information obtained from overall acceptance, adding valuable descriptive attributes of nugget samples. Thus, addition of grape pomace extract up to 120 mg/kg and mechanically deboned chicken meat up to 15 g/100 g did not adversely affect the perceived appearance of chicken nuggets. Mechanically deboned chicken meat and grape pomace extract can be successfully used for the elaboration of novel products, for different market segments, with healthy connotations highlighted by antioxidant properties retained by the grape pomace extract.
Full Text Available Currently there is a focus on the development of functional poultry products capable of enrichment by selenium, vitamin E, iodine and fatty acids of the third order. Since there is a lack of data about various selenium sources and its synergistic effect on sensory and other properties of vitamin E enriched poultry, the objective of this research was to examine the effect of addition of selenium in broilers diet on meat quality. The amount of Se in the diet was increased from 0.15 mg.kg-1 feed (control group to 0.5 mg.kg-1 feed. Addition of Se had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on cooking and thawing losses, as well as on the majority of sensory attributes, adhesiveness, cohesiveness of chicken breast samples. Aftertaste (p < 0.05, hardness (p < 0.001 and resilience (p < 0.001 of the texture of the samples increased along with the increased amount of Se in bird diet. Mean values of the sensory attributes of thigh muscles showed no significant differences among the samples in case of intensities of odor and taste attributes; however, firmness and chewiness of the tested samples increased by increasing the amount of Se in the feed (p > 0.05. In addition, Se did not have significant influence on meat cooking or thawing losses. The results of this study showed that 0.15 mg and 0.5 mg of selenium in complex with 40 mg of vitamin E could be added to broiler diet without having negative effect on technological or sensory properties of the broiler meat and acceptability.
Sirri, F; Meluzzi, A
The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of a 24-h cycle sequential feeding program on nitrogen excretion, incidence of foot pad lesions, productive performance, quality traits, and chemical composition of broiler chicken breast meat. In total, 1,320 one-day-old male Cobb 700 chicks were split into 2 groups of 6 replicates each. From 1 to 10 d of age, all of the chickens received the same prestarter diet (ME 3,058 kcal/kg; CP 226 g/kg). The control group (CON) received 1 of 3 diets for 24-h cycles: starter (ME 3,162 kcal/kg; CP 205 g/kg), grower (ME 3,224 kcal/kg; CP 192 g/kg), and finisher diets (ME 3,242 kcal/kg; CP 184 g/kg) from d 11 to 18, 19 to 38, and 39 to 44 of age, respectively. The sequential feeding group (SF) received the same diets as the CON birds for half of the day, and then low-protein and isoenergetic diets for the remaining half of the day. Birds submitted to the SF program showed better utilization of dietary nitrogen compared with the CON birds (45.0 vs. 46.1% of N excreted/N ingested, respectively; P birds had lower nitrogen excretion compared with the CON birds (24.8 vs. 25.9 N g/kg of BW, respectively; P birds exhibited a significantly lower incidence (7 vs. 13%) of foot pad lesions and consumed 70 g of feed/bird more than the CON birds. The SF birds also had a significantly higher feed conversion rate compared with that of the CON birds (1.84 vs. 1.78, respectively). The SF breast meat exhibited a significantly lower ultimate pH, a higher cook loss, and a lower lipid content compared with the values found for the CON group. The SF approach in poultry husbandry had positive repercussions on environmental and animal welfare aspects, but adversely affected feed efficiency, and altered some meat traits (mainly pH and cook loss).
Younis, Gamal A.; Elkenany, Rasha M.; Fouda, Mohamed A.; Mostafa, Noura F.
Aim: This study describes the prevalence of Escherichia coli in frozen chicken meat intended for human consumption with emphasis on their virulence determinants through detection of the virulence genes and recognition of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) encoding genes (bla OXA and bla TEM genes). Materials and Methods: A total of 120 frozen chicken meat samples were investigated for isolation of E. coli. All isolates were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Eight serotypes...
Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the relation between selected nutrients in the breast and thigh muscles after the application of different phytogenic additives in the diet of broiler chickens and between same indicators of meat disregarding additive and parts of carcass, from which muscles originate. We realized an in vivo experiment on the Zámostie Company poultry test station with deep litter breeding system. The experiment included 100 pcs of one-day-old hybrid chickens Cobb 500 divided into 2 groups (n = 50: the 1st experimental group with an application of feed additive from chestnut tree and lemon fruit extracts and the 2nd experimental group with an application of feed additive from citrus fruits extract. We used a cereal and soybean basal diet and we divided the fattening period into four phases: starter (1 - 10 days, grower I (11 - 20 days, grower II (21 - 28 days and finisher (29 - 42 days. We applied a powder form feed mixtures. Nutritive value of feed mixtures was the same in each experimental group during the whole experiment and in accordance with the physiological needs of broiler chickens. We fed the 1st experimental group with a basal diet enriched by feed additive from chestnut tree and lemon fruit extracts (50 g/100 kg. As for the 2nd experimental group, we applied feed additive from citrus fruits extracts through the drinking water (100 mL/100 L. In the 2nd part of our experiment, we compared results obtained from two experimental groups with other four groups of diet. We applied other phytogenic additives to these four groups and we did not take into account the origin of the meat sample. We measured indicators of the chemical composition of protein, fat, water and cholesterol on a sample (50 g of breast and thigh muscle without skin by the method of FT IR by use of the apparatus Nicolet 6700. Detected relations between nutrients of breast and thigh muscles were defined by correlation coefficient of -0.6 ≤ r ≥ +0
Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Mazzoni, M; Meluzzi, A
A trial was conducted to compare muscle traits and meat quality characteristics of the pectoralis muscle in 2 chicken commercial hybrids having standard (SBY) and high breast yield (HBY), respectively. A total of 2,124 one-day-old male chicks, equally divided into 2 experimental groups represented by strains (SBY and HBY), were grown using homogenous conditions and fed the same standard diets until reaching live weight of 4.2 kg at 53 and 55 d for the SBY and HBY groups, respectively. Thirty-six birds per each genotype were randomly selected, and their pectoralis major muscles were used to assess meat quality properties (color attributes, pH, drip loss, cook loss, Allo-Kramer shear values after cooking, moisture, proteins, total lipids, and ashes) as well as histological traits (cross-sectional area, frequency of abnormal fibers, and intramuscular fat infiltration). As expected, HBY genotype had higher breast yield (31.0 vs. 30.0%; P ≤ 0.05). Histological evaluations showed that HBY pectoralis muscles had higher cross-sectional fiber area coupled with a dramatically higher (P ≤ 0.001) incidence of abnormal fibers and more abundant infiltration of intramuscular fat. Moreover, histopathological anomalous features such as central nuclei, proliferation of endomysial and perimysial collagen, inflammatory infiltrate, and necrosis of the fibers were also observed. As for meat quality, SBY hybrid showed lower ultimate pH values (5.97 vs. 6.07; P ≤ 0.01), whereas overall color parameters were not affected by genotype. Breast meat from the HBY genotype also exhibited significantly lower ability to retain liquid during refrigerated storage (drip loss, 2.46 vs. 2.06%; P ≤ 0.05) and cooking (26.2 vs. 21.1%; P ≤ 0.05) as well as higher shear-force values (2.59 vs. 2.11 kg/g; P ≤ 0.001). Finally, with regard to chemical composition, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were detected in protein (22.8 vs. 23.5%) and lipid (1.65 vs. 1.82%) contents, which were
Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat.
FURUKAWA, Seiko; Tsukamoto, Kenji; MAEDA, Minoru
ABSTRACT Gross lesions characterized by swollen livers and spleens accompanied by diffuse white miliary spots, which resembled those of Marek’s disease, were detected in two flocks of local meat-type chickens at a Japanese poultry processing plant in June and August 2010. The microscopic examinations revealed proliferative foci consisting of spindle or polymorphic cells in the interstitium of livers, splenic follicles and the interstitium of kidneys. These cells were positive immunohistochemi...
Full Text Available The present research focused on the effects of propolis extract and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1 × 109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 360 one day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex. The chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 120 pcs chicks per group, namely, control (C and experimental (E1, E2. Each group consisted of 3 replicated pens with 40 broiler chickens per pen. The experiment employed a randomized design, and dietary treatments were as follows: 1. basal diet with no supplementation as control (group C, 2. basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (group E1, 3. basal diet plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. Besides, the groups were kept under the same conditions. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. As regards performance of broilers, all the investigated parameters were improved after addition of the supplements, especially after probiotic supplementation. However, neither propolis extract nor probiotic in diet of broiler chickens had any significant effect (p ≥0.05 on performance. Meat composition was evaluated as proximate composition (dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash, cholesterol content and energy value in the most valuable parts of chicken meat (breast and thigh muscles. The statistically significant results (p ≤0.05 were attained in fat, ash and cholesterol content, as well as energy value in both breast and thigh muscles after the propolis supplementation. To sum up, the present study demonstrated the promising potential of propolis extract and probiotic to enhance the performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition under conditions of the experiment with, however, statistical significance of results in a few
Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö Hakan; Mert, Selim
The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (porganic system contributed to enhanced meat quality. These findings provide a better understanding of the relative roles of genotype and production systems in female broiler characteristics, and might aid producers in designing their facilities to optimize yield and quality while maintaining acceptable animal welfare standards.
David, J M; Pollari, F; Pintar, K D M; Nesbitt, A; Butler, A J; Ravel, A
Campylobacteriosis, the most frequent bacterial enteric disease, shows a clear yet unexplained seasonality. The study purpose was to explore the influence of seasonal fluctuation in the contamination of and in the behaviour exposures to two important sources of Campylobacter on the seasonality of campylobacteriosis. Time series analyses were applied to data collected through an integrated surveillance system in Canada in 2005-2010. Data included sporadic, domestically-acquired cases of Campylobacter jejuni infection, contamination of retail chicken meat and of surface water by C. jejuni, and exposure to each source through barbequing and swimming in natural waters. Seasonal patterns were evident for all variables with a peak in summer for human cases and for both exposures, in fall for chicken meat contamination, and in late fall for water contamination. Time series analyses showed that the observed campylobacteriosis summer peak could only be significantly linked to behaviour exposures rather than sources contamination (swimming rather than water contamination and barbequing rather than chicken meat contamination). The results indicate that the observed summer increase in human cases may be more the result of amplification through more frequent risky exposures rather than the result of an increase of the Campylobacter source contamination.
Niyomdecha, Nattamon; Mungkornkaew, Narissara; Samosornsuk, Worada
Food of animal origins, particularly pork and chicken meat, has long been recognized as major sources of human salmonellosis. There have been recent reports of human salmonellosis outbreaks due to consumption of leafy green vegetables such as lettuce. In this study, 120 (40 pork, 40 chicken meat and 40 lettuce) samples were randomly collected from retail markets in Bangkok and central Thailand during June to August 2015 for Salmonella serotype identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Salmonella was found in 82%, 62% and 20% of pork, chicken meat and lettuce samples, respectively. The top 5 most common Salmonella serotypes were Panama (15%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Rissen, Anatum, and Stanley (11% each), Albany (9%), and Indiana (8%). A high percentage of Salmonella isolated from food of animal origin were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. From antibiogram pattern analysis, the most common serotypes constituted isolates that were multidrug resistant. The study indicates that Salmonella was still present in various kinds of food and that certain serotypes have become predominant, a phenomenon not previously reported in Thailand.
Full Text Available This study describes an effective matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD extraction method for determining norfloxacin (NOR and ciprofloxacin (CIP in chicken meat by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. The optimum conditions for separating NOR and CIP were as follows: 60 cm×75 μm i.d. capillary, 40 mmol L−1 borate buffer solution (pH 8.5, separation voltage at 16 kV, and detection wavelength at 280 nm. Before CZE determination, the chicken meat samples were purified and enriched by using an MSPD extraction step with a preconditioned C18 cartridge and by eluting the compound with 3.0 mL of acetonitrile. A good linear fit curve with the concentration range of 0.10 μg g−1 to 500 μg g−1 for NOR and CIP was obtained, with regression coefficients of 0.9994 and 0.9986, respectively. The limits of detection of NOR and CIP were 0.04 and 0.03 μg g−1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine NOR and CIP in chicken meat.
Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun
In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI‐TOF‐MS and nano‐LC‐MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p pork and the smallest for beef samples. After trypsin digestion, the species differences were less pronounced (p > 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. PMID:26227428
Muir, W I; Groves, P J
From ~35 days of age fast growing meat chickens spend extended periods sitting or lying and less time standing. In a fast-feathering parent line lower early incubation temperatures which delayed chick hatch time, improved bone ash and extended their standing time. This incubation study assessed the consequences of incubation temperatures, hatch time and chick management at hatch/take off on femoral bone ash (BA) in Cobb 500 meat chickens. Embryos were incubated under either Control (between 37.8°C and 38.2°C egg shell temperature (EST)) or a Slow start (from 37.2°C at sett (the start of incubation), reaching 37.8°C EST at day 13 incubation), temperatures. Hatched chicks were identified at 492 h (20.5 days of incubation - classified as early (E)) or, between >492 and ⩽516 h (>20.5 and ⩽21.5 days of incubation - classified as late (L)), from setting. The E hatch chicks were allocated across three post-hatch treatments; treatment 1: E hatch chicks that were sampled E at 492 h from setting; treatment 2: E hatch chicks that were fed for a further 24 h in a floorpen before being sampled L at 516 h from setting; treatment 3: E hatch chicks that spent a further 24 h in the incubator before being sampled L at 516 h from setting. All L hatch chicks formed one treatment group which was sampled L at 516 h (i.e. L hatch chicks sampled L). It is not possible to sample L hatching chicks E hence this treatment is absent from the experimental design. Slow start incubation resulted in a higher total hatch percentage with a greater proportion of chicks hatching L, compared with the Control incubation. The L hatching chicks had significantly higher BA than the E hatching chicks. Of the E hatching chicks, those sampled both E and L had significantly lower BA than E hatching chicks fed for 24 h before L sampling. The E hatch, fed and sampled L chicks had the numerically highest BA, which was not significantly different from the BA of the L hatching chicks sampled L These results
Stadig, Lisanne M; Rodenburg, T Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A M
Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality, composition, and taste of the meat. Because chickens normally do not use free-range areas optimally, it is possible that provision of more suitable shelter will lead to more pronounced differences between chickens raised indoors and outdoors. In this study, an experiment with 2 production rounds of 600 slow-growing broilers each was performed. In each round, 200 chickens were raised indoors (IN), 200 had free-range access to grassland with artificial shelter (AS), and 200 had free-range access to short-rotation coppice with willow (SRC). Free-range use, feed intake, and growth were monitored, and after slaughter (d72) meat quality, composition, and taste were assessed. Free-range use was higher in SRC than in AS chickens (42.8 vs. 35.1%, P < 0.001). IN chickens were heavier at d70 than AS and SRC chickens (2.79 vs. 2.66 and 2.68 kg, P = 0.005). However, feed intake and conversion did not differ. Breast meat of chickens with free-range access was darker (P = 0.021) and yellower (P = 0.001) than that of IN chickens. Ultimate pH was lower (5.73 vs. 5.79; P = 0.006) and drip loss higher (1.29 vs. 1.09%; P = 0.05) in IN versus AS chickens. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in AS than in IN meat (35.84 vs. 34.59%; P = 0.021). The taste panel judged breast meat of SRC chickens to be more tender (P = 0.003) and less fibrous (P = 0.013) compared to that of AS and IN chickens, and juicier compared to the IN chickens (P = 0.017). Overall, free-range access negatively affected slaughter weight, but positively affected meat quality, taste, and composition. Only a few differences between AS and SRC were found, possibly due to limited differences in
Mari Silvia Rodrigues de Oliveira
Full Text Available The use of hydrolyzed protein, derived from animal and vegetable sources, in specific formulations, is an area of growing interest. The aim of this study was to develop different powder hydrolysates with high protein value, from the enzymatic hydrolysis of mechanically deboned meat (MDM, a byproduct of the poultry industry, which can be a low-cost source for the production of these hydrolysates. The raw material used was frozen poultry mechanically deboned meat (MDM purchased from an abattoir in southern Brazil, before use it was thawed under refrigeration and homogenized in a processor by 2 minutes. Three commercial enzymes were used, Papain, Protamex® and Flavourzyme®. The hydrolysis occurred in a thermostatized bath with temperature, time and pH controlled. Proximal composition of the raw material and lyophilized hydrolysates, control analysis such as hydrolysis degree of hydrolysis, protein, total solids, ash and amino acid characterization of the hydrolysates were performed. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey’s averages test. The hydrolyzed obtained from the papain enzyme showed the best behavior, followed by Protamex and Flavourzyme. The hydrolysates from papain enzyme had higher protein content, soluble solids and lower ash content compared to other hydrolysates. The amino acid composition showed that the hydrolyzate from papain has a closer composition to what is recommended by the control organs. It was concluded that the protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken had high protein content characterizing them as a promising raw material in the formulation of special diets.
Piestun, Yogev; Yahav, Shlomo; Halevy, Orna
Thermal manipulation (TM) of 39.5°C applied during mid-embryogenesis (embryonic d 7 to 16) has been proven to promote muscle development and enhance muscle growth and meat production in meat-type chickens. This study aimed to elucidate the cellular basis for this effect. Continuous TM or intermittent TM (for 12 h/d) increased myoblast proliferation manifested by higher (25 to 48%) myoblast number in the pectoral muscles during embryonic development but also during the first week posthatch. Proliferation ability of the pectoral-muscle-derived myoblasts in vitro was significantly higher in the TM treatments until embryonic d 15 (intermittent TM) or 13 (continuous TM) compared to that of controls, suggesting increased myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle. However, the proliferation ability of myoblasts was lower in the TM treatments vs. control during the last days of incubation. This coincided with higher levels of myogenin expression in the muscle, indicating enhanced cell differentiation in the TM muscle. A similar pattern was observed posthatch: Myoblast proliferation was significantly higher in the TM chicks relative to controls during the peak of posthatch cell proliferation until d 6, followed by lower cell number 2 wk posthatch as myoblast number sharply decreases. Higher myogenin expression was observed in the TM chicks on d 6. This resulted in increased muscle growth, manifested by significantly higher relative weight of breast muscle in the embryo and posthatch. It can be concluded that temperature elevation during mid-term embryogenesis promotes myoblast proliferation, thus increasing myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle, resulting in enhanced muscle growth in the embryo and posthatch. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Aline Ferreira Amorim
Full Text Available The purpose of this study the effect of inclusion levels (0, 10, 20 and 30% of cassava bagasse (BM to the diet on the physical and chemical parameters of raw and cooked meat thigh , drumstick and breast of chicken was to evaluate cutting hillbilly kind of lineage Label rouge® slaughtered at 84 days of age . Analyzes were performed in the laboratory of Animal Nutrition , Universidade Federal do Tocantins – UFT, Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , Campus Araguaína . Forty chicken carcasses, which were divided into half-carcases, half-carcases and 10 for analysis of the chemical composition of raw meat and the other 10 half-carcasses for analysis of chemical composition of cooked meat , they are included in these analyzes the crude protein (CP, ether extract ( EE, dry matter (DM and ash (CZ, with base on the percentage of dry matter, in addition to gross energy (GE and cooking losses. Analyzes were also conducted of the physical attributes of meat (color, pH and texture other 20 half-carcasses. The inclusion of BM in the diet of broilers caipira type cut and cooking affected (P <0.05 the chemical characteristics of meat. Observed in thigh meat linear reduction in the deposition of CZ and linear increase in deposition of PB. Drumstick meat in CP content increased up to the level of 17.22% inclusion of BM corresponding to the deposition of 84.21% CP; and lower levels of EE (19.21% was found in the estimated level of 21.33% inclusion of BM. In breast meat was observed deposition of 29.56% with 2.35% DM inclusion of BM deposition and 88.56% to 13.46% of CP inclusion of BM. However the physical characteristics of meat were not influenced by the levels of inclusion of BM. It is recommended, with base on the chemical composition of the meat, to use up the 20% level of inclusion of BM.
Van Middelkoop, J.H.; Van Harn, J.; Van der Hoorn, C.J.M.
Attention is paid to the advantages and disadvantages of manure treatment at a chicken farm with regard to an efficient use of energy in the meat chicken production. The possibility to reduce or to improve the energy consumption, while maintaining the planned reduction of ammonia emission at the stable level, is investigated. By drying the manure, produced by the chickens, quickly, the microbiological processes and therefore the production of ammonia can be prevented. It is concluded that by using floor heating the energy consumption can be reduced, but the ammonia emission not. Keeping meat chickens on a so-called (partially) trampoline floor is not a good alternative for the conventional housing method. Reduction of the ammonia emission causes an increase of the energy consumption. If the ammonia emission of meat chickens on a raised floor is reduced by 90% the electricity consumption will increase 0.18 kWh per chicken, but the use of natural gas will be reduced by 8-10%. By improving the energy efficiency of the drying process (aeration) and determining the optimal climate control for keeping meat chickens on a raised stable litter floor, it appears to be possible to decrease the energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency while maintaining the planned ammonia reduction. 8 figs., 4 tabs., 7 appendices, 11 refs.
Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Gigaud, V; Tauty, S; Meteau, K; Lessire, M; Berri, C
1. The enrichment of raw poultry meat with n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) has been investigated in detail, particularly in high growth rate genotype standard broiler chickens, whereas low growth rate genotype Label Rouge chickens have received less attention. With the increased development of processed poultry products, it is necessary to ensure that the nutritional and sensory quality of meat enriched with n-3 FA is not affected by processing. 2. Two experiments were undertaken for this purpose. In the first experiment, 696 male Ross 708 chickens were reared under standard conditions, and in the second, 750 male JA 657 chickens were reared under Label Rouge conditions. All birds received the same starting and growing diets containing palm and soya oils in each experiment. Birds were distributed into three groups from 21 or 57 d of age for standard and Label Rouge chickens, respectively, and given a control, linseed oil or extruded linseed diet. Diets were also supplemented with vitamin E (100-200 mg/kg). Birds were slaughtered at 56 or 84 d of age for standard and Label Rouge chickens, respectively. A total amount of 60 kg of breast meat from each group was processed into white cured-cooked meat. 3. The dietary treatment had no effect on the growth performance of chickens or meat yield. The use of extruded linseed or linseed oil only decreased the carcass fatness of the standard chickens but had no effect on the carcass fatness of Label Rouge chickens. The nutritional quality of raw and cured-cooked meat was improved (increased concentration of n-3 FA), whereas the technological quality of the meat (pH, juice loss after cold storage, susceptibility to oxidation, colour, processing yield and shear force value) and sensory quality of the processed products were not or slightly affected. 4. Linked to lower breast yield, to lower lipid content in breast meat and to higher slaughter age, Label Rouge chickens seemed to be less efficient for n-3 FA deposition in breast muscles
Full Text Available This study investigated on the effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM hydrolysates on the quality properties of imitation fish paste (IFP during storage. IFP was prepared from Alaska Pollack, spent laying hens surimi and protein hydrolysates which were enzymatically extracted from MDCM. The study was designed as a 3×4 factorial design with three MDCM hydrolysate content groups (0%, 0.4%, and 0.8% and four storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Addition of MDCM hydrolysates increased crude fat content but lowered water content (p<0.05. The breaking force of IFP, an indicator of gel formation, increased in treated groups compared to control (p<0.05. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE activity was inhibited and free radical scavenging activity increased with increasing MDCM hydrolysate content (p<0.05. In conclusion, the addition of MDCM to IFP improves gel characteristics. Additionally, protein hydrolysates from MDCM serve as a potential source of ACE inhibiting peptides.
Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Donato, Guido; Cianciavicchia, Silvia; Alessiani, Alessandra
This study aimed to analyse the diversity of the Campylobacter jejuni population in broilers and to evaluate the major source of contamination in poultry meat. Eight rearing cycles over one year provided samples from three different broiler farms processed at the same slaughterhouse. A total of 707 C. jejuni were isolated from cloacal swabs before slaughter and from the breast skin of carcasses after slaughter and after chilling. All suspected Campylobacter colonies were identified with PCR assays and C. jejuni was genotyped by sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI enzyme. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles were also assayed using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The flocks carried many major C. jejuni clones possibly carrying over the rearing cycles, but cross contamination between farms may happen. Many isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, raising an issue of high public concern. Specific Campylobacter populations could be harboured within each poultry farm, with the ability to contaminate chickens during each new cycle. Thus, although biosecurity measures are applied, with a persistent source of contamination, they cannot be efficient. The role of the environment needs further investigation to better address strategies to control Campylobacter. PMID:26543870
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the diversity of the Campylobacter jejuni population in broilers and to evaluate the major source of contamination in poultry meat. Eight rearing cycles over one year provided samples from three different broiler farms processed at the same slaughterhouse. A total of 707 C. jejuni were isolated from cloacal swabs before slaughter and from the breast skin of carcasses after slaughter and after chilling. All suspected Campylobacter colonies were identified with PCR assays and C. jejuni was genotyped by sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using SmaI enzyme. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles were also assayed using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The flocks carried many major C. jejuni clones possibly carrying over the rearing cycles, but cross contamination between farms may happen. Many isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, raising an issue of high public concern. Specific Campylobacter populations could be harboured within each poultry farm, with the ability to contaminate chickens during each new cycle. Thus, although biosecurity measures are applied, with a persistent source of contamination, they cannot be efficient. The role of the environment needs further investigation to better address strategies to control Campylobacter.
Sarjit, Amreeta; Dykes, Gary A
Little work has been reported on the use of commercial antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens on duck meat. We investigated the effectiveness of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) as antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck meat under simulated commercial water chilling conditions. The results were compared to the same treatments on well-studied chicken meat. A six strain Campylobacter or Salmonella cocktail was inoculated (5 ml) at two dilution levels (10(4) and 10(8) cfu/ml) onto 25 g duck or chicken meat with skin and allowed to attach for 10 min. The meat was exposed to three concentrations of pH adjusted TSP (8, 10 and 12% (w/v), pH 11.5) or SH (40, 50 and 60 ppm, pH 5.5) in 30 ml water under simulated spin chiller conditions (4 °C, agitation) for 10 min. In a parallel experiment the meat was placed in the antimicrobial treatments before inoculation and bacterial cocktails were added to the meat after the antimicrobial solution was removed while all other parameters were maintained. Untreated controls and controls using water were included in all experiments. Bacterial numbers were determined on Campylobacter blood-free selective agar and Mueller Hinton agar or xylose deoxycholate agar and tryptone soya agar using the thin agar layer method for Campylobacter and Salmonella, respectively. All TSP concentrations significantly (pCampylobacter (~1.2-6.4 log cfu/cm(2)) and Salmonella (~0.4-6.6 log cfu/cm(2)) on both duck and chicken meat. On duck meat, numbers of Campylobacter were less than the limit of detection at higher concentrations of TSP and numbers of Salmonella were less than the limit of detection at all concentrations of TSP except one. On chicken meat, numbers of Campylobacter and Salmonella were less than the limit of detection only at the lower inoculum level and higher TSP concentrations. By contrast only some of the concentrations of SH significantly (pCampylobacter and Salmonella (~0.2-1.5 log
Liu, Tianfei; Luo, Chenglong; Wang, Jie; Ma, Jie; Shu, Dingming; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng; Qu, Hao
Feed represents the major cost of chicken production. Selection for improving feed utilization is a feasible way to reduce feed cost and greenhouse gas emissions. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of genomic prediction for feed conversion ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) and to assess the impact of selection for feed efficiency traits FCR and RFI on eviscerating percentage (EP), breast muscle percentage (BMP) and leg muscle percentage (LMP) in meat-type chickens. Genomic prediction was assessed using a 4-fold cross-validation for two validation scenarios. The first scenario was a random family sampling validation (CVF), and the second scenario was a random individual sampling validation (CVR). Variance components were estimated based on the genomic relationship built with single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were predicted using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model. The accuracies of GEBV were evaluated in two ways: the correlation between GEBV and corrected phenotypic value divided by the square root of heritability, i.e., the correlation-based accuracy, and model-based theoretical accuracy. Breeding values were also predicted using a conventional pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model in order to compare accuracies of genomic and conventional predictions. The heritability estimates of FCR and RFI were 0.29 and 0.50, respectively. The heritability estimates of ADG, ADFI, EP, BMP and LMP ranged from 0.34 to 0.53. In the CVF scenario, the correlation-based accuracy and the theoretical accuracy of genomic prediction for FCR were slightly higher than those for RFI. The correlation-based accuracies for FCR, RFI, ADG and ADFI were 0.360, 0.284, 0.574 and 0.520, respectively, and the model-based theoretical accuracies were 0.420, 0.414, 0.401 and 0.382, respectively. In the CVR scenario, the correlation
Rouger, Amélie; Remenant, Benoit; Prévost, Hervé; Zagorec, Monique
Influenced by production and storage processes and by seasonal changes the diversity of meat products microbiota can be very variable. Because microbiotas influence meat quality and safety, characterizing and understanding their dynamics during processing and storage is important for proposing innovative and efficient storage conditions. Challenge tests are usually performed using meat from the same batch, inoculated at high levels with one or few strains. Such experiments do not reflect the true microbial situation, and the global ecosystem is not taken into account. Our purpose was to constitute live stocks of chicken meat microbiotas to create standard and reproducible ecosystems. We searched for the best method to collect contaminating bacterial communities from chicken cuts to store as frozen aliquots. We tested several methods to extract DNA of these stored communities for subsequent PCR amplification. We determined the best moment to collect bacteria in sufficient amounts during the product shelf life. Results showed that the rinsing method associated to the use of Mobio DNA extraction kit was the most reliable method to collect bacteria and obtain DNA for subsequent PCR amplification. Then, 23 different chicken meat microbiotas were collected using this procedure. Microbiota aliquots were stored at -80°C without important loss of viability. Their characterization by cultural methods confirmed the large variability (richness and abundance) of bacterial communities present on chicken cuts. Four of these bacterial communities were used to estimate their ability to regrow on meat matrices. Challenge tests performed on sterile matrices showed that these microbiotas were successfully inoculated and could overgrow the natural microbiota of chicken meat. They can therefore be used for performing reproducible challenge tests mimicking a true meat ecosystem and enabling the possibility to test the influence of various processing or storage conditions on complex meat
Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, G.; Hamaus, N.; Pisani, A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Warren, M.; Villaescusa-Navarro, F.; Zivick, P.; Mao, Q.; Thompson, B. B.
We present VIDE, the Void IDentification and Examination toolkit, an open-source Python/C++ code for finding cosmic voids in galaxy redshift surveys and N -body simulations, characterizing their properties, and providing a platform for more detailed analysis. At its core, VIDE uses a substantially enhanced version of ZOBOV (Neyinck 2008) to calculate a Voronoi tessellation for estimating the density field and performing a watershed transform to construct voids. Additionally, VIDE provides significant functionality for both pre- and post-processing: for example, VIDE can work with volume- or magnitude-limited galaxy samples with arbitrary survey geometries, or dark matter particles or halo catalogs in a variety of common formats. It can also randomly subsample inputs and includes a Halo Occupation Distribution model for constructing mock galaxy populations. VIDE uses the watershed levels to place voids in a hierarchical tree, outputs a summary of void properties in plain ASCII, and provides a Python API to perform many analysis tasks, such as loading and manipulating void catalogs and particle members, filtering, plotting, computing clustering statistics, stacking, comparing catalogs, and fitting density profiles. While centered around ZOBOV, the toolkit is designed to be as modular as possible and accommodate other void finders. VIDE has been in development for several years and has already been used to produce a wealth of results, which we summarize in this work to highlight the capabilities of the toolkit. VIDE is publicly available at
Boschiero, Clarissa; Moreira, Gabriel Costa Monteiro; Gheyas, Almas Ara; Godoy, Thaís Fernanda; Gasparin, Gustavo; Mariani, Pilar Drummond Sampaio Corrêa; Paduan, Marcela; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann
Meat and egg-type chickens have been selected for several generations for different traits. Artificial and natural selection for different phenotypes can change frequency of genetic variants, leaving particular genomic footprints throghtout the genome. Thus, the aims of this study were to sequence 28 chickens from two Brazilian lines (meat and white egg-type) and use this information to characterize genome-wide genetic variations, identify putative regions under selection using Fst method, and find putative pathways under selection. A total of 13.93 million SNPs and 1.36 million INDELs were identified, with more variants detected from the broiler (meat-type) line. Although most were located in non-coding regions, we identified 7255 intolerant non-synonymous SNPs, 512 stopgain/loss SNPs, 1381 frameshift and 1094 non-frameshift INDELs that may alter protein functions. Genes harboring intolerant non-synonymous SNPs affected metabolic pathways related mainly to reproduction and endocrine systems in the white-egg layer line, and lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases in the broiler line. Fst analysis in sliding windows, using SNPs and INDELs separately, identified over 300 putative regions of selection overlapping with more than 250 genes. For the first time in chicken, INDEL variants were considered for selection signature analysis, showing high level of correlation in results between SNP and INDEL data. The putative regions of selection signatures revealed interesting candidate genes and pathways related to important phenotypic traits in chicken, such as lipid metabolism, growth, reproduction, and cardiac development. In this study, Fst method was applied to identify high confidence putative regions under selection, providing novel insights into selection footprints that can help elucidate the functional mechanisms underlying different phenotypic traits relevant to meat and egg-type chicken lines. In addition, we generated a large catalog of line-specific and common
Momtaz, Hassan; Jamshidi, Alireza
The aim of the current study was to determine the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat samples. A total of 422 chicken meat samples were collected from 5 townships of Iran. Specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in a cooler with an ice pack. Samples were cultured, and the positive culture samples were analyzed by PCR assays. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the results, out of 422 samples, 146 (34.59%) were confirmed to be E. coli positive and among E. coli-positive samples, 51 (34.93%) and 31 (21.23%) were from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subgroups, respectively. All of the EHEC-positive samples had all stx1, eaeA, and ehly virulence genes, whereas only 5 (9.80%) of AEEC subgroup had all stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes. As the data revealed, O157 was the most prevalent and O111 was the least prevalent strains in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) population. Among STEC strains, sulI and blaSHV had the highest and lowest incidence rate, respectively. There was a high resistance to tetracycline (76.82%), followed by chloramphenicol (73.17%) and nitrofurantoin (63.41%), but there was low resistance to cephalotine (7.31%) antibiotics in isolated strains. Results shows that the PCR technique has a high performance for detection of serogroups, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes in STEC strains. This study is the first prevalence report of detection of virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from chicken meat samples in Iran. Based on the results, chicken meat is one of the main sources of STEC strains and its virulence factors in Iran, so an accurate meat inspection would reduce disease outbreaks.
Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M; Shannon, Harry S; Raina, Parminder
Growth and inactivation regression equations were developed to describe the effects of temperature on Salmonella concentration on chicken meat for refrigerated temperatures (⩽10°C) and for thermal treatment temperatures (55-70°C). The main objectives were: (i) to compare Salmonella growth/inactivation in chicken meat versus laboratory media; (ii) to create regression equations to estimate Salmonella growth in chicken meat that can be used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) modeling; and (iii) to create regression equations to estimate D-values needed to inactivate Salmonella in chicken meat. A systematic approach was used to identify the articles, critically appraise them, and pool outcomes across studies. Growth represented in density (Log10CFU/g) and D-values (min) as a function of temperature were modeled using hierarchical mixed effects regression models. The current meta-analysis analysis found a significant difference (P⩽0.05) between the two matrices - chicken meat and laboratory media - for both growth at refrigerated temperatures and inactivation by thermal treatment. Growth and inactivation were significantly influenced by temperature after controlling for other variables; however, no consistent pattern in growth was found. Validation of growth and inactivation equations against data not used in their development is needed. Copyright © 2012 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts.
Rivera, J A; Sebranek, J G; Rust, R E
Contributions to water retention capacity (% WRC) and texture changes were determined for pork by-products (lung lobes, kidneys), chicken viscera (head, feet and viscera) and mechanically separated chicken (MSC) as affected by pH and various salts in a high-moisture model system. The % WRC for meat by-products and MSC was increased by increased pH (4.5-6.8). Pork lungs and MSC had the highest % WRC (pmeat by-products. Meat by-product % WRC was not signifcantly (p>0.05) affected by salt (2%), phosphate (0.3%) or NaOH (0.075%). Chicken viscera had the lowest (pmeat by-products and MSC. Strong negative correlations (p<0.05) were obtained for texture with total collagen, soluble collagen and high ionic strength soluble (HIS) proteins. These results should be considered for product quality changes when these by-products are used in formulation of high moisture pet food products.
Du, Y F; Ding, Q L; Li, Y M; Fang, W R
In the modern chicken industry, fast-growing broilers have undergone strong artificial selection for muscle growth, which has led to remarkable phenotypic variations compared with slow-growing chickens. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to myofiber development and composition in chicken Soleus muscle (SOL) has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Qingyuan partridge (QY), a slow-growing Chinese breed possessing high meat quality and Cobb 500 (CB), a commercial fast-growing broiler line. Agilent cDNA microarray analyses were conducted to determine gene expression profiles of soleus muscle sampled at sexual maturity age of QY (112 d) and CB (42 d). The 1318 genes with at least 2-fold differences were identified (P meat quality. Large scale analyses are now required to validate the role of the genes identified and ultimately to find molecular markers that can be used for selection or to optimize rearing practices.
Z. H. Abdurrahman
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus sp. and inulin derived from dahlia tuber powder on antioxidant activity, calcium mass, and protein mass of crossbred kampong chicken meat. A total of 168 birds of 21 days old crossbred kampong chickens were randomly allocated into 6 treatments with four replications per treatment. The present experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design with 2 x 3 factorial scheme. The first factor was levels of dahlia tuber powder, namely 0.8% (A1 and 1.2% (A2, and the second factor was levels of Lactobacillus sp., namely none (B0, 1.2 mL (108 cfu/mL/B1 and 2.4 mL (108 cfu/mL/B2. The parameters measured were antioxidant activity, meat calcium and protein mass. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and followed by Duncan multiple range test (P<0.05 when the treatment indicated significant effect. The supplementation of dahlia tuber powder and Lactobacillus sp. significantly (P<0.05 increased antioxidant activity and protein mass of meat. However, calcium mass of meat was not significantly affected by treatments. In conclusion, feeding dahlia tuber powder at the level of 1.2% combined with Lactobacillus sp. at 1.2 mL (108 cfu/mL, can be categorized as the best combination based on the increase in antioxidant activity and meat protein mass.
Rahman, S M E; Park, Jiyong; Song, Kyung Bin; Al-Harbi, Naif A; Oh, Deog-Hwan
Anticmicrobial effect of slightly acidic low concentration electrolyzed water (SlALcEW) and strong acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW) on fresh chicken breast meat was evaluated in this study. Meat samples each of 10 ± 0.2 g in weight and 2.5 × 2.5 cm² in size were experimentally inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19115) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) and subjected to dipping treatment (22 ± 2 °C for 10 min) with SlALcEW and StAEW. Shelf-life study was conducted for inoculated and noninoculated meat samples treated with SlALcEW and StAEW at storage temperatures of 5, 15, and 25 °C. Dipping treatment with electrolyzed water significantly (P 0.05) between the SlALcEW and StAEW treatments efficacy. Comparing treated samples to untreated controls showed that SlALcEW and StAEW treatments extended the shelf life of chicken meat at different temperatures with marginal changes of sensory quality. Although SlALcEW and StAEW treatments showed similar antimicrobial effects but SlALcEW was more beneficial in practical application for its semineutral pH and low chlorine content. Food safety issues have led to development of new sanitizers to eliminate spoilage and pathogenic organisms in food. This study provides the foundation for further application of slightly acidic low concentration electrolyzed water (SlALcEW) as a sanitizing agent in meat industry. SlALcEW can be produced on site on demand and no chemicals are necessary except NaCl solution. It does not leave any residue in food due to low chlorine concentration and it is safe to handle for its semineutral pH. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Mir, Nasir Akbar; Rafiq, Aasima; Kumar, Faneshwar; Singh, Vijay; Shukla, Vivek
Broiler production at mass level has already been achieved and now emphasis is being laid on increasing meat quality by altering various characteristics of broiler meat. Appearance, texture, juiciness, wateriness, firmness, tenderness, odor and flavor are the most important and perceptible meat features that influence the initial and final quality judgment by consumers before and after purchasing a meat product. The quantifiable properties of meat such as water holding capacity, shear force, drip loss, cook loss, pH, shelf life, collagen content, protein solubility, cohesiveness, and fat binding capacity are indispensable for processors involved in the manufacture of value added meat products. Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. It is well known that dietary fatty acid profiles are reflected in tissue fatty acid. Management of poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features (juiciness, tenderness, flavour) of meat. After slaughter, biochemical changes, causing the conversion of muscle to meat, determine final meat quality. Postmortem carcass temperature has profound effect on rigor mortis and the physicochemical changes observed in PSE muscles are attributed to postmortem glycolysis, temperature, and pH. Primary processing and further processing have become a matter of concern with respect to nutritional quality of broiler meat. Genetic variation among birds could contribute to large differences in the rate of rigor mortis completion and meat quality. Heritability estimates for meat quality traits in broilers are amazingly high (0.35-0.81), making genetic selection a best tool for improvement of broiler meat quality.
Hassanzadeh, Parviz; Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Moradi, Mehran; Hashemi, Mohammad; Aliakbarlu, Javad
The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of low-dose gamma irradiation (2.5 kGy) and chitosan edible coating (2%) containing grape seed extract (GSE) (0.1%) on the microbial, chemical and sensorial quality of chicken breast meat during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. The samples were periodically analyzed for microbiological (aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts), chemical (TBA, pH, aw) and sensorial (odor, appearance, and overall acceptability) characteristics. Results indicated that irradiation and the active coating had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on reduction of bacterial growth with at least a 14-day extension of shelf life. Results represented the protective effect of chitosan coating containing GSE against induced lipid oxidation by irradiation. All chitosan-coated samples showed lower TBA and pH values than other treatments during storage, and no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed due to irradiation in TBA values. Results also indicated that the application of chitosan coating significantly improved the sensorial quality of the samples, and none of the evaluated sensorial attributes was significantly affected by irradiation. Based on the results obtained in this study, the application of low-dose gamma irradiation and chitosan coating containing GSE was effective in preserving the quality of fresh chicken meats and is recommended in meat products.
Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili
The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.
Ana Flávia Quiles Marques Garcia
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OHD3, 1,25(OH2D3, and 1α(OHD3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d and growth phases (22 to 42 d, respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OHD3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05 for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05. All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OHD3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.
Arya, Anita; Mendiratta, S K; Singh, Tarun Pal; Agarwal, Ravikant; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar
Now a day's meat and meat products are not only generating convenience trends; they have been recognized as core of meat industry. Meat spread is a convenience cooked spreadable product prepared with meat and non-meat additives. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of three different levels of honey (10, 15, 20 g), vinegar (2.0, 6.0, 10.0 ml) and tomato powder (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g) on response variables viz. color/appearance, flavor, spreadability, texture, after taste, adhesiveability, overall acceptability, while standardizing the process of development of sweet and sour chicken meat spread box-behnken experimental design was used in which 17 different runs with 5 trials of three similar centre point. A second order polynomial was fitted to all the response variables and surface plots as well as equations were conducted. All the processing variables significantly affected the response variables either linearly or quadratically whereas the "Lack of Fit" was non-significant relative to the pure error. For optimization, target values were set in the form of ranges of all the processing and response variables. While applying multiple regression analysis, a total of 43 workable solutions was found, out of which the product with 14.28% honey, 5.38% vinegar and 1.39% tomato powder was selected. The responses for color/appearance, flavor, spreadability, texture, after taste, adhesiveability, overall acceptability, were predicted at 7.11, 6.72, 7.00, 6.99, 6.61, 6.94 and 6.79 respectively, with a desirability value of 1.
Full Text Available The use of vinegar as a natural preservative to inactivate microbial growth in meat was investigated. Vinegar was prepared from banana peel and coconut water, and the efficacy against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was tested. Chicken meat were treated with vinegar solution (equals to 1% acetic acid, acetic acid solutions (1%, and lactic acid solutions (2%, control (distilled water. Samples were soaked with acid solution treatment for 1 minute (1.125:1 w/v; chicken meat: solution treatment. Treated samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 on the surface of the chicken meat, then left for 20 minutes for absorption of bacteria into the meat. Observation was done at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days at low temperature storage, and at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 hours at room temperature storage. The results showed that banana peel vinegar and coconut water vinegar were effective as natural preservative. In conclusion, the vinegar were potentially inhibited E. coli O157:H7 growth at chicken meat until 12 hours at room temperature storage and 9 days at cold temperatures.
Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna
Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle
Raufu, I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Ameh, J.A.
and local chickens in Maiduguri main markets, chickens from farms, and free-range local chickens. A total of 865 samples were collected from feces, kidney, lungs, cecum, intestine, liver, heart, gizzard, and cloacal swabs from 525 different chickens. Salmonella was isolated from 130 of the samples...... exhibited resistance. This study documents for the first time the isolation of Salmonella Hiduddify in chickens and shows that this serovar is widespread in rural areas in Nigeria. It also documents a high frequency of fluoroquinone resistance in the isolates indicating the presence of selective pressure...
Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J
An experiment was conducted to estimate true ileal phosphorus (P:) digestibility of 3 meat and bone meal samples (MBM-1, MBM-2: , and MBM-3:) for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each sample to contain graded concentrations of P. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 6 replicates (6 birds per replicate) per dietary treatment. A total of 432 Ross 308 broilers were assigned at 21 d of age to the 12 test diets. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P was determined by the indicator method, and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficient. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed diets containing MBM-1 and MBM-2 was unaffected by increasing dietary concentrations of P (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed the MBM-3 diets decreased with increasing P concentrations (linear, P birds fed the MBM-1 and MBM-2 diets, ileal endogenous P losses were estimated to be 0.049 and 0.142 g/kg DM intake (DMI:), respectively. In birds fed the MBM-3 diets, endogenous P loss was estimated to be negative (-0.370 g/kg DMI). True ileal P digestibility of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 was determined to be 0.693, 0.608, and 0.420, respectively. True ileal P digestibility coefficients determined for MBM-1 and MBM-2 were similar (P < 0.05), but were higher (P < 0.05) than that for MBM-3. Total P and true digestible P contents of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, respectively, on an as-fed basis. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Kola, A; Kohler, C; Pfeifer, Y; Schwab, F; Kühn, K; Schulz, K; Balau, V; Breitbach, K; Bast, A; Witte, W; Gastmeier, P; Steinmetz, I
To determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat in Germany. A total of 399 chicken meat samples from nine supermarket chains, four organic food stores and one butcher's shop in two geographically distinct regions (Berlin and Greifswald) were screened for ESBL production using selective agar. Phenotypic ESBL isolates were tested for bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M) and bla(SHV) genes using PCR and DNA sequencing. Antibiotic coresistances were determined and strain typing was performed using PCR-based phylogenetic grouping and XbaI-PFGE. A total of 185 confirmed ESBL isolates were obtained from 175 samples (43.9%) from all tested sources. The majority of isolates were Escherichia coli producing ESBL types SHV-12 (n = 82), CTX-M-1 (n = 77) and TEM-52 (n = 16). No differences could be observed in the prevalence of ESBL producers between organic and conventional samples. 73.0% of the ESBL producers showed coresistance to tetracycline, 35.7% to co-trimoxazole and 7.6% to ciprofloxacin. Strain typing of selected E. coli isolates from Berlin revealed identical macrorestriction patterns for several isolates from samples taken from the same stores. This is the first comprehensive study from Germany showing a high prevalence of TEM-, CTX-M- and SHV-type ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat. The high rate of coresistance to different classes of antibiotics in the ESBL producers might reflect the common veterinary usage of these and related substances. There is an urgent need to further evaluate the role of poultry in the transmission of highly resistant ESBL-producing bacteria in humans.
Baron, Patrick A; Love, David C; Nachman, Keeve E
Pharmaceutical drugs are extensively used in industrial food animal production. We examined whether residues of veterinary antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were detectable in a small market-basket sample of retail chicken (n=39), ground beef (n=3) and milk (n=3) samples. High-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry were used to assess the concentration of 59 PPCPs and their residues in animal products. All samples of ground beef, milk, and 14 chickens were analyzed individually, while an additional 25 chicken samples were pooled and analyzed in groups of five. The majority of PPCPs were not detected in meat and milk samples. Caffeine was detected in two of three milk samples (0.4 ng/mL, 2.0 ng/mL) and in 10 of 19 individual and pooled chicken samples (median: 18.6 ng/g, range: 6.1-28.8 ng/g). Acetaminophen was detected in three of three milk samples (median: 1.5 ng/mL, range: 1.4-2.1 ng/mL). Antibiotics in the tetracycline class were detected in two of three milk samples (median: 1.0 ng/mL, range: 0.1-2.0 ng/mL) and did not exceed regulatory residue tolerances of 300 ng/mL. There are no regulatory residue tolerances for caffeine or acetaminophen in animal products. The acetaminophen detections in milk, however, raise questions about extra-label and unapproved use of pharmaceutical drugs in food animal production, as this drug is not approved for use in lactating dairy cattle or any other type of food animal production. Additional studies are needed to confirm our finding of PPCPs in meat and dairy products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramadan, Hazem; Awad, Amal
Background and Objectives: This study was undertaken to characterize antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genes encoding extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Klebsiella isolated from retail chicken meat in Mansoura, Egypt. Materials and Methods: Three hundred sixty chicken meat samples from 120 eviscerated chicken carcasses (3 cuts each) collected randomly from local retail chicken shops in Mansoura, Egypt during the period from April to June 2015, were assayed for the presence of Klebsiella by conventional bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial sensitivity for 12 antimicrobials using disk diffusion, ESBL phenotypic confirmation and PCR characterization of ESBL-encoding genes (bla TEM , bla CTX-M , bla OXA , bla SHV and bla CMY ) were performed. Results: Klebsiella was identified from 22.2% (80/360) of the samples. Of the 12 antimicrobials tested, multidrug resistance (MDR; resistance to ≥3 of the antimicrobial classes) was observed in 96.25% (77/80) of the Klebsiella isolates. All the isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and aztreonam. ESBL-producers were phenotypically confirmed in 48.75% (39/80) of the isolates. The highest values (0.75 and 0.67) of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) significantly occurred in ESBL-producing isolates. PCR findings showed a significantly higher occurrence of β-lactamase encoding genes in ESBL (94.9%, 37/39) than non-ESBL producing isolates (4.9%, 2/41). The distribution of bla TEM , bla CTX-M and bla OXA among ESBL-producing isolates was 84.6%, 30.8% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Efficient monitoring and tracking of MDR, especially β-lactam resistance, in food sources is essential to predict the potential hazards for human infections. PMID:29213998
Monte, Daniel Farias; Mem, Andressa; Fernandes, Miriam R; Cerdeira, Louise; Esposito, Fernanda; Galvão, Julia A; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Lincopan, Nilton; Landgraf, Mariza
The detection and rapid spread of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carrying the mcr-1 gene has created an urgent need to strengthen surveillance. In this study, eight clonally unrelated colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates carrying mcr-1 and blaCTX-M or blaCMY-2 genes were isolated from commercial chicken meat in Brazil. Most E. coli strains carried IncX4 plasmids, previously identified in human and animal isolates. These results highlight a new reservoir of mcr-1-harboring E. coli strains in South America. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo; Rocha, Claudia Regina Gomes; Roque, Claudio Vitor [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; Pereira, Jose Luiz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias de Alimentos]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ionizing radiation was employed in order to reduce contamination of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) by Staphylococcus aureus and also to evaluate the effect of the ionizing radiation on the staphylococcal enterotoxins. The microbiological analyses were carried out on MDCM refrigerated (+ 2 deg C) for 12 days. Irradiation treatments of MDCM with doses of 3.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy were capable of reducing the contamination by Staphylococcus aureus and reducing the amounts of staphylococcal enterotoxin, which might be present in this raw material. (author)
Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Dang, Huu Anh; Mills, Edward W; Cutter, Catherine N; Roberts, Elisabeth L; DeBroy, Chitrita
The objective of the current study was to determine the incidence of contamination by the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O-groups, responsible for the majority of E. coli infections in human beings, in retail meat from different animal species. Samples from ground beef (n = 51), ground pork (n = 16), ground chicken (n = 16), and game meat (deer, wild boar, bison, and rabbit; n = 55) were collected from retail vendors for the detection of 7 STEC O-groups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157). Meat samples were tested by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the wzx gene of O antigen gene clusters of the 7 STEC O-groups. The positive samples were further tested for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). Out of a total of 83 ground beef, pork, and chicken samples, 17 (20%) carried O121, 9 (10%) carried O45, 8 (9%) carried O157, 3 (3%) carried O103, and 1 (1%) carried O145. None of the samples were positive for O26, O111, or the stx gene. All 3 white-tailed deer samples (100%) were positive for O45, O103, or both, 2 (10%) out of 20 red deer samples exhibited the presence of O103, and all 3 bison samples were contaminated with either O121, O145, or O157. One sample from ground deer, contaminated with E. coli O45, carried the stx1 gene. This preliminary investigation illustrates the importance of microbiological testing of pathogens in meat products, as well as the recognized need for increased surveillance and research on foodborne pathogens.
Mirshekar, Reza; Dastar, Behrouz; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Hassani, Saeed
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding high- and low nutrient density diets, and three different vitamin premix withdrawal regimes on broiler performance and meat quality. Male broiler chicks (480 days old) were reared on the floor in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement for 42 days. Chickens were slaughtered at 42 days of age and meat samples kept at -20 ± 1°C and analysed after 1, 90 and 180 days of storage. Broiler performance was significantly affected by dietary nutrient density. Vitamin premix withdrawal had no significant effect on body weight. The results showed no significant differences between nutrient density and vitamin premix withdrawal on lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). Oxidative stability of thigh muscle lipids during frozen storage was significantly affected by nutrient density, while vitamin premix withdrawal had no significant impact on lipid oxidation. High nutrient density diet led to a significantly (P meat quality while vitamin premix withdrawal during finisher periods had no negative effect on broiler performance and meat quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Perez, T I; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Curtis, J M; Ren, Y; Betti, M
The influence of vitamin E and selenomethionine (SeMet) on lipid oxidation in frozen-raw and cooked omega-3 enriched dark chicken meat was evaluated. Feed was supplemented with 2 levels of vitamin E (250 and 50 IU/kg of feed) and selenium (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg of feed and 0.3 mg of SeMet/kg of feed). An extruded linseed product was used as the alpha-linolenic acid source. Fatty acid (FA) profile, oxysterols, and thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARs) were analyzed in frozen-raw, boiled, pan-fried, and roasted meat. After 6 mo of storage, oxysterols in frozen-raw meat remained stable with either high or low levels of dietary antioxidants. During cooking, high levels of vitamin E reduced oxysterol formation, whereas high levels of SeMet were inconsistent and even increased oxysterols during roasting. TBARs in frozen-raw meat stored for 6 mo were inhibited by high levels of either antioxidant. Conversely, no protective effect during cooking was observed at this time of storage. After 12 mo at -30 degrees C no antioxidant protection was observed.
Hamid Reza Gheisari
The aim of this study was correlation determination between fat putrefaction indices and antioxidative enzymes in chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Longissimus dorsi muscle of three Iranian dromedary one humped camel and three Holstein cattle and breast muscle of three broiler breeder chicken were obtained from the carcasses 3 days postmortem. The samples were ground and stored at 4 °C for 0, 2, or 4 days. Peroxide, TBA, acid and iodine values, catalase and ...
Sibut, V; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Tesseraud, S; Godet, E; Bordeau, T; Cailleau-Audouin, E; Chartrin, P; Duclos, M J; Berri, C
The present study was aimed at evaluating the molecular mechanisms associated with the differences in muscle glycogen content and breast meat quality between 2 experimental lines of chicken divergently selected on abdominal fatness. The glycogen at death (estimated through the glycolytic potential) of the pectoralis major muscle and the quality of the resulting meat were estimated in the 2 lines. The fat chickens exhibited greater glycolytic potential, and in turn lower ultimate pH than the lean chickens. Consequently, the breast meat of fat birds was paler and less colored (i.e., less red and yellow), and exhibited greater drip loss compared with that of lean birds. In relation to these variations, transcription and activation levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were investigated. The main difference observed between lines was a 3-fold greater level of AMPK activation, evaluated through phosphorylation of AMPKalpha-(Thr(172)), in the muscle of lean birds. At the transcriptional level, data indicated concomitant down- and upregulation for the gamma1 and gamma2 AMPK subunit isoforms, respectively, in the muscle of lean chickens. Transcriptional levels of enzymes directly involved in glycogen turnover were also investigated. Data showed greater gene expression for glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, and the gamma subunit of phosphorylase kinase in lean birds. Together, these data indicate that selection on body fatness in chicken alters the muscle glycogen turnover and content and consequently the quality traits of the resulting meat. Alterations of AMPK activity could play a key role in these changes.
Hasman, Henrik; Hammerum, Anette M; Hansen, Frank; Hendriksen, Rene S; Olesen, Bente; Agersø, Yvonne; Zankari, Ea; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Stegger, Marc; Kaas, Rolf S; Cavaco, Lina M; Hansen, Dennis S; Aarestrup, Frank M; Skov, Robert L
The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was detected in an Escherichia coli isolate from a Danish patient with bloodstream infection and in five E. coli isolates from imported chicken meat. One isolate from chicken meat belonged to the epidemic spreading sequence type ST131. In addition to IncI2, an incX4 replicon was found to be linked to mcr-1. This report follows a recent detection of mcr-1 in E. coli from animals, food and humans in China.
Hasman, H.; Hammerum, A. M.; Hansen, F.
The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was detected in an Escherichia coli isolate from a Danish patient with bloodstream infection and in five E. coli isolates from imported chicken meat. One isolate from chicken meat belonged to the epidemic spreading sequence type ST131. In addi....... In addition to IncI2*, an incX4 replicon was found to be linked to mcr-1. This report follows a recent detection of mcr-1 in E. coli from animals, food and humans in China....
Effect of electron beam irradiation and storage at 5 degrees C on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl contents in chicken breast meat infused with antioxidants and selected plant extracts.
Rababah, Taha; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Horax, Ronny; Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Mauromoustakos, Andronikos; Dickson, James; Niebuhr, Steven
This study evaluated the effectiveness of synthetic and natural antioxidants, green tea, commercial grape seed extracts/combinations, and TBHQ, with varying concentrations of lipid oxidation of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken breast meats stored at 5 degrees C for 12 days. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum-infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: green tea, grape seed extracts alone/in combination, and TBHQ. The irradiation dosage was 3.0 kGy. Carbonyl values of raw chicken meat and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw and cooked chicken meat were determined for 0-12 days at 5 degrees C storage. TBARS values for 0-12 days of storage at 5 degrees C ranged from 1.21 to 7.3 and 1.22 to 8.51 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated raw chicken, respectively. TBARS values of cooked chicken ranged from 2.19 to 35.83 and 2.45 to 45.72 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated chicken, respectively. Irradiation increased TBARS values of both controls and plant extracts. The carbonyl content in meat lipid ranged from 1.7 to 2.9 and 1.7 to 4.41 micromol acetophenone/10 g of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken meat, respectively, and meat protein ranged from 1.4 to 2.07 and 1.41 to 2.72 micromol/10 g meat. Infusion of chicken meat with selected plant extracts is an effective method to minimize lipid oxidation and volatiles developments caused by irradiation.
Löschner, Katrin; Navratilova, Jana; Købler, Carsten
A method of analysis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chicken meat was developed. The homogenized chicken meat sample, which was spiked with AgNPs, was subjected to enzymolysis by Proteinase K for 40 min at 37 °C. Transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...... smaller peaks eluting close to the void volume. The recovery of silver contained in the large AgNP peak was around 80 %. Size determination of AgNPs in the meat matrix, based on external size calibration of the AF(4) channel, was hampered by non-ideal (early elution) behavior of the AgNPs. Single particle...... of the AgNPs took place during the sample preparation stage. The digestate was injected into the asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF(4)) -ICP-MS system, which enabled fractionation of nanoparticles from the remaining meat matrix, and resulted in one large peak in the fractograms as well as two...
Amini, M; Hosseini Doust, SR. (PhD); Mohabati Mobarez, A. (PhD)
Background and Objective: Staphylococcus aureus have been isolated frequently from the infection of blood, skin and soft tissue, and is one of the causative agents of food-borne illnesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of vanA in raw meat samples in Tehran, Iran. Material and Methods: Totally, 119 samples of chicken and turkey raw meat were cultured for Staphylococcus aureus. The Resistance to vancomycin was determined and Van A Gene detected by PCR method. Resul...
Dutil, Lucie; Irwin, Rebecca; Finley, Rita; Ng, Lai King; Avery, Brent; Boerlin, Patrick; Bourgault, Anne Marie; Cole, Linda; Daignault, Danielle; Desruisseau, Andrea; Demczuk, Walter; Hoang, Linda; Horsman, Greg B; Ismail, Johanne; Jamieson, Frances; Maki, Anne; Pacagnella, Ana; Pillai, Dylan R
...) between ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from retail chicken and incidence of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella serovar Heidelberg infections in humans across Canada...
Mourão, J L; Pinheiro, V M; Prates, J A M; Bessa, R J B; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Ponte, P I P
Some feedstuffs containing significant levels of fiber may be a good source of bioactive compounds that may contribute to improving broiler meat quality. However, high fiber level can have a negative impact on broiler performance. A study was undertaken to investigate the impact of incorporating citrus pulp (5 or 10%) or dehydrated pasture (5 or 10%) on the performance, carcass yield, and characteristics of broiler chickens. A diet containing neither citrus pulp nor dehydrated pasture was used as control. The results on growth performances showed that daily weight gain was reduced by 26% in birds of the 10% citrus pulp treatment (Pcitrus pulp, which resulted in significantly higher feed conversion rates with the 10% level. Under the same incorporation rate, dehydrated pasture had effects less evident on the performances of broiler chicken. In addition, diets containing citrus pulp, displaying higher percentages of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides, increased small intestine relative length, and reduced carcass yield. Inclusion of 10% dehydrated pasture in diets resulted in improved breast skin yellowness (Pcitrus pulp and dehydrated pasture, leading to increased ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Together, the results suggest that incorporation of moderate levels of dehydrated pastures in poultry diets has a minor impact on broiler performance and can contribute significantly to improve breast skin yellowness and fatty acid composition of meat.
Shaheen, Arfat Yousaf; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Rabbani, Masood; Aslam, Asim; Bibi, Tasra; Liaqat, Fakhra; Muhammad, Javed; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima
Increasing incidence rate of multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to extensive uses of antibiotics is a serious challenge to disease treatment. Contaminated retail chicken meat is one of the major sources of spread of multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli. Current study has been conducted to study the prevalence of MDR E. coli in retail chicken meat samples from Lahore city of Pakistan and it was found that 73.86% of E. coli isolates have MDR pattern. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of six herbs against MDR E. coli phenotypes has revealed that clove and cinnamon have maximum zones of inhibition as compared to other herbal extracts. Mint and coriander gave the intermediate results while garlic and kalonji showed the least antibacterial activity against the MDR E. coli phenotypes using the agar well diffusion technique. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for clove, mint, cinnamon, coriander, kalonji and garlic extracts were 1.15, 1.38, 0.5, 1.99, 2.41, 8.60 mg/mL respectively using the broth micro dilution method. The results obtained in present study were revealed that crude ethanol extracts of selected herbs have had significant antibacterial activity. Hence they can be used as promising alternatives of antimicrobials against MDR E. coli species and can be used for cooked food preservation.
Ibarra, Juan G.; Tao, Yang; Xin, Hongwei
A noninvasive method for the estimation of internal temperature in chicken meat immediately following cooking is proposed. The external temperature from IR images was correlated with measured internal temperature through a multilayer neural network. To provide inputs for the network, time series experiments were conducted to obtain simultaneous observations of internal and external temperatures immediately after cooking during the cooling process. An IR camera working at the spectral band of 3.4 to 5.0 micrometers registered external temperature distributions without the interference of close-to-oven environment, while conventional thermocouples registered internal temperatures. For an internal temperature at a given time, simultaneous and lagged external temperature observations were used as the input of the neural network. Based on practical and statistical considerations, a criterion is established to reduce the nodes in the neural network input. The combined method was able to estimate internal temperature for times between 0 and 540 s within a standard error of +/- 1.01 degree(s)C, and within an error of +/- 1.07 degree(s)C for short times after cooking (3 min), with two thermograms at times t and t+30s. The method has great potential for monitoring of doneness of chicken meat in conveyor belt type cooking and can be used as a platform for similar studies in other food products.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT A high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV method was validated for the study of bioactive amines in chicken meat. A gradient elution system with an ultraviolet detector was used after extraction with trichloroacetic acid and pre-column derivatization with dansyl chloride. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, and spermine standards were used for the evaluation of the following performance parameters: selectivity, linearity, precision, recovery, limits of detection, limits of quantification and ruggedness. The results indicated excellent selectivity, separation of all amines, a coefficient of determination greater than 0.99 and recovery from 92.25 to 102.25% at the concentration of 47.2mg.kg-1, with a limit of detection at 0.3mg.kg-1 and a limit of quantification at 0.9mg.kg-1 for all amines, with the exception of histamine, which exhibited the limit of quantification, of 1mg.kg-1. In conclusion, the performance parameters demonstrated adequacy of the method for the detection and quantification of bioactive amines in chicken meat.
Yulistiani, R.; Praseptiangga, D.; Supyani; Sudibya; Raharjo, D.; Shirakawa, T.
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae is an important indicator of the emergence of resistant bacterial strains in the community. This study investigated the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from chicken meat sold at traditional markets in Surabaya Indonesia. In all, 203 isolates (43 Salmonella spp., 53 Escherichia coli, 16 Shigella spp., 22 Citrobacter spp., 13 Klebsiella spp, 24 Proteus spp., 15 Yersinia spp., 7 Enterobacter spp., 6 Serratia spp., 3 Edwardsiella spp. were resistant to tetracycline (69.95 %), nalidixid acid (54.19 %), sulfamethoxazole/sulfamethizole (42.36 %), chloramphenicol (12.81%), cefoxitin (6.40 %), gentamicin (5.91 %). Tetracycline was the antimicrobial that showed the highest frequency of resistance among Salmonella, E. coli, Citrobacter, Proteus and Erdwardsiella isolates, and nalidixid acid was second frequency of resistance. Overall, 124 (61.08 %) out of 203 isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance to at least two unrelated antimicrobial agents. The high rate of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from chicken meat may have major implications for human and animal health with adverse economic implications.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary L-arginine on performance, meat production and its chemical composition, carcass fat deposition, intestine morphology and blood parameters of Ross broiler chickens during 46 days. In this experiment, 192 day old commercial female Ross broiler chicks were used with 4 dietary treatments and 4 replications in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included 100, 153, 168 and 183 percentages of digestible arginine, based on the Ross catalogue recommendation. On 46th day of experiment, three chickens per replication were selected randomly, blood samples were collected from each, and thereafter they were slaughtered in order to measure carcass traits, intestine morphology and meat chemical composition. The results showed that dietary arginine treatments caused a significant increase on body weight, carcass efficiency, muscle yield, protein and fat content of muscle, heart weight, and growth of small intestine, while decreased abdominal fat weight. Arginine supplementation increased plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, but reduced plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, and urea. According to the results of this study, consumption level of 168% digestible arginine, based on the Ross catalogue recommendation, had the best results on growth improvement and carcass traits, while consumption level of 183% digestible arginine had the greatest fat carcass reduction.
Dadgar, S; Lee, E S; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L; Shand, P J
1. A study was designed to characterise dark, firm, dry (DFD) breast meat resulting from cold exposure of broilers and compare its properties with normal breast meat from cold-stressed and control birds. 2. A total of 140 broilers were selected from 5- and 6-week-old birds exposed to cold temperatures ranging from -18 to -4°C, or a control temperature of +20°C for 3 h in an environmental chamber. Half of these birds were slaughtered immediately following the cold exposure and the other half were given 2 h of lairage. 3. Breast meat samples were categorised based on ultimate pH (pH(u)) and colour L* (lightness) values into normal (5·7 ≤ pH(u)≤ 6·1; 46 ≤ L* ≤ 53) breast meat from control (control-normal) or cold-stressed (cold-normal) birds, and DFD (pH(u) > 6·1; L* meat, which only occurred in cold-stressed birds (cold-DFD). 4. Residual glycogen was not different between cold-DFD and control-normal breast meat. Lactate concentration was lower in cold-DFD compared with control-normal breast meat. Lactate concentration almost tripled for all the samples by 30 h post-mortem, which resulted in a drop in pH of normal meat, but did not have any effect on pH of DFD breast meat. Glycolytic potential at both 5 min and 30 h post-mortem was lower in DFD breast meat compared with the normal breast meat from both cold-stressed and control birds. 5. Cold-DFD breast meat was significantly darker, with higher pH(u), lower cook loss, higher water-binding capacity and processing cook yield than cold-normal and control-normal breast meat, which were not different from each other.
A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...
Ashraf Mohamed Abd El-Malek
Full Text Available The present research was conducted to check the presence of Listeria spp. in some meat and chicken products purchased from retail supermarkets in Assiut (Egypt. A total of 100 samples including 25 samples each of minced frozen beef, luncheon, frozen chicken legs and frozen chicken breast fillets were collected over a 7-month period between January and July 2009 and analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. In addition, 28 stool cultures examined for Listeria spp. from hospitalized children resident in Assiut Pediatric University Hospital with diarrhea or fever. Out of the total 100 meat samples examined, Listeria spp. were detected in 8 (32% of minced frozen beef, 8 (32% of luncheon, 13 (52% of frozen chicken leg and 14 (56% of frozen chicken fillet samples analyzed, respectively. Regarding the examined 28 stool cultures from hospitalized children with underlying disease in Assiut Univ. hospital, 2 (7.14% were found positive for Listeria spp. For identification of L. monocytogenes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, two primers were selected to detect 217-pb fragment ofthe prfA (transcriptional activator of the virulence factor gene for L. monocytogenes. 13 selected Listeria isolates displayed beta-haemolysis on sheep blood agar and positive CAMP test were further identified using PCR. PCR results showed that L. monocytogenes were confirmed in one of minced imported frozen meat examined, two of luncheon samples and two of frozen chicken legs with the total incidence of 5 isolates (5% from the total 100 examined food samples. This suggests the presence of a significant public health hazard linked to the consumption of these meat and chicken products sold in Assiut city contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The public health significance of these pathogens as well as recommended sanitary measures was discussed. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 353-359
Melero, Beatriz; Diez, Ana M; Rajkovic, Andreja; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi
Numerous investigations have provided evidence that chicken products are a source of Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. Different strategies applied in final products are needed to prevent consumers' contamination. In this work, the combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and protective culture to control the growth of freeze stressed and non-stressed L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni on fresh chicken meat burger was studied. Meat burgers were inoculated with L. monocytogenes, C. jejuni and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides PCK 18, as protective strain against L. monocytogenes. Prior to the addition of the protective culture, half of the L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni - inoculated meat was frozen at -18°C for 48 h to subject cells to stress. Following the addition of the protective culture, meat burgers were packaged in air or MAP (50% CO(2)/50% O(2)) and stored under refrigeration conditions. L. monocytogenes counts were not reduced by the freezing temperature applied; however, the addition of Lc. pseudomesenteroides PCK 18 reduced its counts for 0.90 log cfu/g when chicken meat burgers were packaged under MAP. Furthermore, freezing stress was an effective strategy to reduce C. jejuni counts but only in combination with a high-O(2) MAP, it was completely eliminated. Chicken meat burgers' shelf-life under aerobic packaging conditions was reduced by the effect of freeze-thawing, while the use of MAP extended the product's shelf-life till 21days. Therefore, the combination of freezing, protective culture and MAP could extend the shelf-life and enhance the food safety of this kind of chicken products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lytou, Anastasia E; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z
Pomegranate juice is a product with enhanced functional properties that could be used as an alternative to traditional marination ingredients and effectively retard microbial growth along with providing an improved sensory result. In this study, two pomegranate based marinades were prepared for the marination of chicken breast fillets and the marinated samples were aerobically stored at 4 and 10°C for 9days. Raw, non-marinated chicken samples were used as control. Levels of total viable counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined together with sensory assessment to evaluate the evolution of spoilage. The profile of organic acids and volatile compounds was also analyzed during storage. The shelf life of marinated samples was significantly extended compared to control samples at both storage temperatures (e.g., up to 5 and 6days for the pomegranate/lemon marinated samples stored at 4 and 10°C, respectively) as evaluated by both microbiological and sensory analyses. The profile of the organic acids and the volatilome of marinated and control samples were remarkably differentiated according to storage time, microbial load and sensory score. The findings of this study suggest that pomegranate juice could be used as a novel ingredient in marinades to improve the sensory attributes, while prolonging the shelf life of chicken meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Omana, Dileep A; Plastow, Graham; Betti, Mirko
The effect of various ingredients such as sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and β-glucan (BG) on the biochemical properties of chicken breast proteins during temperature assisted high pressure processing was studied. Total protein solubility revealed that 600MPa pressure and 40(o)C are critical for the denaturation of proteins in STPP samples. Increase in reactive sulfhydryl groups with pressure indicate the exposure of buried sulfhydryl groups. Hydrophobicity and sulfhydryl contents revealed that hydrophobic interaction and disulphide bond formation are responsible for gel formation. The study revealed that 40(o)C and 400/600MPa pressure is optimum for high pressure processing of chicken breast meat. Addition of β-glucan with reduced NaCl and in the absence of sodium tripolyphosphate could produce gels with similar properties to those with 2.5% NaCl addition. Hence it is proposed that β-glucan can be used to reduce NaCl content of chicken products produced by temperature assisted high pressure processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Yanfa; Liu, Ranran; Lu, Xiqing; Hu, Yaodong; Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Wang, Hongrong; Wen, Jie
The associations between polymorphisms of five genes, calpain 1 (CAPN1), follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHB), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), and retinol binding protein 7 (RBP7), and live weight, carcass composition, and meat-quality traits were estimated from two meat-type chickens lines (n=311). Except for the variants of the FSHR gene, 11 SNPs of the other four genes and two diplotypes of PPARG were associated with one or more traits excluding shear factor (SF). SNP C31566680T of the CAPN1 gene was significantly associated with live weight (LW) carcass traits. The SNP A4580859C of FSHB gene was significantly associated with breast muscle weight (BrW) and LW. One of the PPARG SNPs, C5070948T, was associated with intramuscular fat content in breast (IMFbr). Diplotype P1 of the PPARG gene was significantly associated with LW and all carcass traits. P3 were significantly associated with abdominal fat weight (AbFW). SNPs in RBP7 were only associated with BrW. These results indicate that the four genes were associated with these traits and have promise as genetic markers for future marker-assisted selection. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online.
Almasi, A; Andrassyne, B G; Milisits, G; Kustosne, P O; Suto, Z
1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of production system on the meat quality of slow- and medium-growing chickens. A total of 1075 1-d-old male chicks were equally divided into 6 experimental groups, represented by three strains (SG: TETRA-H, MG1: TETRA HB Color, MG2: Shaver Farm) and were reared in a poultry house in floor pens (12 males/m(2)). 2. On d 49, 150 healthy birds (50/genotype) were placed in a free-range family farm while the rest of the birds remained indoors. All birds were fed ad libitum and consumed the same diet. On d 70, 20 birds of each experimental group were slaughtered and muscle samples were taken from the left breast and thigh muscles. 3. Thigh muscle of SG males kept on free range was darker (L* = 75.12 vs. 78.33) with lower frying loss (45.9% vs. 55.9%) compared with the indoor group. Similar results were obtained from the MG1 group. Free-range MG2 males had lighter thigh meat (L* = 50.7 vs. 57.8) and lower frying loss compared to the indoor group. 4. In general, the indoor treatment had a lower impact on breast meat than the outdoor system. Regardless of the rearing system, genotypic differences were more pronounced in thigh than in breast muscle.
Full Text Available Animals represent potential reservoirs for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Twenty domestically produced chicken meat samples were collected from 19 retail outlets in Ireland, inoculated into Bolton broth and cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCDA and Preston agars. Selected representative coliforms included 16 E.coli and 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All E.coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, 15 isolates harbored a blaCTX-M group-1 gene, and none belonged to the E.coli 025b:H4-ST131 clonal group. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis identified 13 distinct pulsed field profiles and comparison with more than 300 human clinical isolates of ESBL producing E. coli did not reveal any similarities. ESBL producing E. coli were detected on retail meats in the Irish market place. Although no similarity was apparent between poultry and human isolates this does not preclude a role for ESBL-producing E.coli in meat in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.
Collins, K E; Kiepper, B H; Ritz, C W; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L
A flock of the Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB), a 1955 meat-type chicken control strain, was raised alongside a flock of 2012 Cobb 500 fast feathering high-yielding broilers to determine selection changes over the past 57 yr...
Mathematical models that predict behavior of human bacterial pathogens in food are valuable tools for assessing and managing this risk to public health. A study was undertaken to develop a model for predicting behavior of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in chicken meat during cold storage and to determine how...
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) caused high mortality rate associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, which resulted in major economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. To assess the status of ALV-J infection in meat-type chickens in south China, molecular epidemiology of A...
Full Text Available Incidence of 9 virulence-associated genes and genetic diversity was determined in 79 A. butzleri and 6 A. cryaerophilus isolates from pork, beef, and chicken meat. All A. butzleri isolates harboured the tlyA gene, and most of them carried ciaB, mviN, pldA, cadF, and cj1349 genes. ciaB was found to occur with higher frequency in poultry if compared with pork (p=0.0007, while irgA was more frequent in poultry than in beef (p=0.007. All 6 A. cryaerophilus isolates harboured the ciaB gene, while mviN and tlyA were detected in 3 out of these isolates. Only one isolate carried the cadF gene. All beef-derived A. cryaerophilus isolates carried ciaB, mviN, and tlyA genes. A. cryaerophilus isolates from chicken meat harboured ciaB gene only. The pork-derived isolate harboured ciaB and cadF genes. Seventy-four genotypes were distinguished within 79 A. butzleri isolates. Nineteen from 21 isolates derived from beef and pork were found to be closely related to A. butzleri from chicken meat. Each of the 6 A. cryaerophilus isolates was found to have unique genotype. We demonstrated that closely related genotypes can spread within pork, beef, and chicken meat populations of A. butzleri but not A. cryaerophilus.
Stadig, Lisanne M.; Rodenburg, Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.
Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality,
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male chicks (5 bird per pen) were randomly subjected to four treatments...
Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Tafur, Mc Allister; Gonzales, Sebastian; Hume, Michael; Alali, Walid; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, M P
A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city per department) were collected via a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the presence of Salmonella by conventional culture methods. Salmonella strains were isolated from 27 % of the carcasses sampled. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine potential risk factors for Salmonella contamination associated with the chicken production system (conventional versus free-range), storage condition (chilled versus frozen), retail store type (supermarket, independent, and wet market), poultry company (integrated company versus nonintegrated company), and socioeconomic stratum. Chickens from a nonintegrated poultry company were associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) greater risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 2.0) than were chickens from an integrated company. Chilled chickens had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 4.3) than did frozen chicken carcasses.
Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J M; Becerril-Pérez, C M; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Narciso-Gaytán, C
The antioxidant effect of oregano essential oil and vitamin E was evaluated in cooked chicken breast meat. In total, 480 broilers were randomly assigned to 6 treatments and 4 replications. Broilers were raised with a corn-soybean meal diet including either crude soybean oil or acidulated soybean oil soapstock, each supplemented with vitamin E at 10 or 100 mg or oregano essential oil at 100 mg/kg of feed. At 42 d, broilers were slaughtered and their breast meat was prepared into strips (1.5 × 10 cm) or patties (150 g). Fatty acid composition of the muscle was determined. For lipid oxidation stability, both meat strips and patties were cooked to an internal temperature of 74°C and malonaldehyde contents were assessed during 0, 3, 6, and 9 d of storage at 4°C. Each storage day had 4 replications per treatment. The meat lipid oxidative stability was estimated by content of malonaldehyde values. Results showed that feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion were not affected by the dietary oils or antioxidants, except for the mortality in acidulated soybean oil soapstock with the 10-mg vitamin E treatment. The fatty acid composition of the meat was similar between the 2 diets given the same antioxidant supplement. The oxidation stability of meat lipids in both types of meats showed a significant (P vitamin E treatment was the highest, followed by oregano essential oil, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment at 9 d of storage, whereas the value of oregano essential oil in the acidulated soybean oil soapstock diet was the highest, followed by the 10-mg vitamin E, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment during the 9 d of storage. In conclusion, the dietary oils and antioxidants used can be included in broiler diets without negative effects on their productivity. The antioxidant effect of vitamin E was higher with a higher supplementation level, regardless of the oil treatment, whereas the antioxidant effect of oregano essential oil was better in crude soybean
Watanabe, Genya; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Masahiro; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu
Taste is a crucial factor of meat quality, and amino acids are important taste-active components in meat. Here, the effects of dietary lysine (Lys) content on taste-active components in meat, especially free glutamate (Glu), were investigated. Twenty-eight-day-old broilers (Gallus gallus) were fed diets with graded Lys content of 90% or 100% of the recommended Lys requirement, (according to the National Research Council, ) for 10 days. Free amino acid content in meat and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by a reduction of dietary Lys. Compared with the Lys 100% group (control), free Glu concentrations of meat were increased by 35.7% in the Lys 90% group (P tastes. Sensory scores of taste intensity, umami and kokumi tastes were significantly higher in the Lys 90% group. These results suggest that a reduction of dietary lysine increased free glutamate content in meat and improved its taste. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Hamid Reza Gheisari
Full Text Available The aim of this study was correlation determination between fat putrefaction indices and antioxidative enzymes in chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Longissimus dorsi muscle of three Iranian dromedary one humped camel and three Holstein cattle and breast muscle of three broiler breeder chicken were obtained from the carcasses 3 days postmortem. The samples were ground and stored at 4 °C for 0, 2, or 4 days. Peroxide, TBA, acid and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities of the muscles were performed in each storage time. Catalase and GSH-Px activities were much higher in camel than in chicken and cattle and higher in cattle than in chicken. TBA value was lower in chicken than in camel. Camel had higher acid value than cattle. Chicken showed the highest and camel had the lowest iodine values. Catalase and GSH-Px activities and iodine values were quite stable during refrigerated storage. Acid values increased significantly over storage days in cattle. During the 4-day storage period, TBA and peroxide values increased. GSH-Px activity showed negative correlation with acid and TBA values in chicken and cattle. Acid value (for chicken and cattle and peroxide value (for 3 animal species showed positive correlation with TBA content. Iodine value had positive correlation with catalase activity in cattle and negative correlation with peroxide and TBA values in camel. In conclusion, our results indicate that peroxide and TBA values can be used as lipid quality indices in chicken, cattle and camel meat during 4 day storage in refrigerator. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 153-157
Oscar, T P
Mathematical models that predict the behavior of human bacterial pathogens in food are valuable tools for assessing and managing this risk to public health. A study was undertaken to develop a model for predicting the behavior of Salmonella enterica serotype 8,20:-:z6 in chicken meat during cold storage and to determine how well the model would predict the behavior of other serotypes of Salmonella stored under the same conditions. To develop the model, ground chicken thigh meat (0.75 cm(3)) was inoculated with 1.7 log Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 and then stored for 0 to 8 -8 to 16°C. An automated miniaturized most-probable-number (MPN) method was developed and used for the enumeration of Salmonella. Commercial software (Excel and the add-in program NeuralTools) was used to develop a multilayer feedforward neural network model with one hidden layer of two nodes. The performance of the model was evaluated using the acceptable prediction zone (APZ) method. The number of Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stayed the same (P > 0.05) during 8 days of storage at -8 to 8°C but increased (P Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -4, 4, 12, or 16°C under the same experimental conditions. A pAPZ of ≥0.7 indicates that a model provides predictions with acceptable bias and accuracy. Thus, the results indicated that the model provided valid predictions of the survival and growth of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -8 to 16°C and that the model was validated for extrapolation to four other serotypes of Salmonella.
Osman, Kamelia; Badr, Jihan; Al-Maary, Khalid S.; Moussa, Ihab M. I.; Hessain, Ashgan M.; Girah, Zeinab M. S. Amin; Abo-shama, Usama H.; Orabi, Ahmed; Saad, Aalaa
The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals) has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) and methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCNS) isolated from the retail trade of ready-to-eat raw chicken meat samples collected during 1 year and sold across the Great Cairo area. The 50 Staphylococcus isolated from retail raw chicken meat were analyzed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile on 12 antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, methicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and vancomycin) and their endorsement of the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes. The isolation results revealed 50 isolates, CPS (14) and CNS (36), representing ten species (S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. epidermedius, S. lugdunensis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominus, S. schleiferi, S. cohnii, S. intermedius, and S. lentus). Twenty seven isolates were methicillin-resistant. Out of the characterized 50 staphylococcal isolates, three were MRSA but only 2/3 carried the mecA gene. The ARG that bestows resistance to quinolones, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B [MLS(B)] in MRSA and MR-CNS were perceived. According to the available literature, the present investigation was a unique endeavor into the identification of the quinolone
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The effect of caraway (CEO and anise (AEO essential oils as well as vacuum packaging (VP in extending of the shelf life of fresh chicken breast meat stored at 4 °C was investigated. CEO and AEO were used at concentrations 0.2% v/w with and without VP. Microbiological properties of chicken breast meat were monitored over a 16 day period. The microbiological parameters as the anaerobic plate count (AC, Enterobacteraceae, lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. counts were detected. The anaerobic plate counts ranged from 2.77 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 5.45 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 3.20 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 4.75 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Enterobacteriaceae counts ranged from 0.00 to 4.25 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of Pseudomonas spp. ranged from 0.00 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 2.65 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Statistically significant differences (P≤0.001 were found among tested group in all tested microorganisms. Among the antimicrobial combination treatments were examined in the study, the as application of vacuum packaging, EDTA, and essential oils were the most effective against the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Enterobactericeae and to a less extent on anaerobic plate count. The results of this present study suggest the possibility of using the essential oil of caraway and anise as natural food preservatives and potential source of antimicrobial ingredients for chicken breast meat.
Kamelia Mahmoud Osman
Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS and methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCNS isolated from the retail trade of ready-to-eat raw chicken meat samples collected during one year and sold across the Great Cairo area. The 50 Staphylococcus isolated from retail raw chicken meat were analyzed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile on 12 antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, methicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and vancomycin and their endorsement of the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes. The isolation results revealed 50 isolates, CPS (14 and CNS (36, representing ten species (S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. epidermedius, S. lugdunensis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominus, S. schleiferi, S. cohnii, S. intermedius and S. lentus. Twenty seven isolates were methicillin-resistant. Out of the characterized 50 staphylococcal isolates, three were MRSA but only 2/3 carried the mecA gene. The ARG that bestows resistance to quinolones, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLS(B in MRSA and MR-CNS were perceived. According to the available literature, the present investigation was a unique endeavor into the identification of the quinolone
Osman, Kamelia; Badr, Jihan; Al-Maary, Khalid S; Moussa, Ihab M I; Hessain, Ashgan M; Girah, Zeinab M S Amin; Abo-Shama, Usama H; Orabi, Ahmed; Saad, Aalaa
The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals) has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) and methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCNS) isolated from the retail trade of ready-to-eat raw chicken meat samples collected during 1 year and sold across the Great Cairo area. The 50 Staphylococcus isolated from retail raw chicken meat were analyzed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile on 12 antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, methicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and vancomycin) and their endorsement of the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes. The isolation results revealed 50 isolates, CPS (14) and CNS (36), representing ten species (S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. epidermedius, S. lugdunensis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominus, S. schleiferi, S. cohnii, S. intermedius, and S. lentus). Twenty seven isolates were methicillin-resistant. Out of the characterized 50 staphylococcal isolates, three were MRSA but only 2/3 carried the mecA gene. The ARG that bestows resistance to quinolones, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B [MLS(B)] in MRSA and MR-CNS were perceived. According to the available literature, the present investigation was a unique endeavor into the identification of the quinolone
Wongwiwat, P.; Yanpakdee, S.; S. Wattanachant
The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt) were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1) and marinated only ingredients (control 2) were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were ...
Mir, Nasir Akbar; Tyagi, Praveen K; Biswas, A K; Tyagi, Pramod K; Mandal, A B; Sheikh, Sajad A; Deo, Chandra; Sharma, Divya; Verma, A K
A total of 240 broiler chicken of same hatch with uniform weight were used in a biological experiment with completely randomized design to investigate the effects of incorporating organic chromium (Cr) in flaxseed meal based diet on the fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and functional properties of broiler chicken meat. Five diets were formulated as per the recommendations of BIS (Nutrient requirements for poultry 13: 9863, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1992) in which flaxseed meal was used to replace 10% of soyabean in basal diet and four levels of Cr (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg diet) as Cr-picolinate were used. The results revealed that flaxseed feeding significantly increased the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, including MUFA, PUFA, ω-3, ω-6 fatty acids and ω-3:ω-6 and PUFA:SFA ratios, whereas, significant decline was seen in saturated fatty acids and no effect of Cr was observed on the fatty acid profile of broiler chicken. Flaxseed feeding significantly reduced the cholesterol and fat percentage of meat, whereas, significant progressive reduction was observed with increasing Cr levels. The combination of 10% flaxseed with 1.0 mg Cr/kg diet increased the final pH of broiler meat. The addition of flaxseed significantly reduced water holding capacity, extract release volume and antioxidant potential of broiler meat, whereas, increasing Cr supplementation progressively increased them. Flaxseed feeding significantly increased the drip loss and lipid peroxidation of broiler meat, whereas, Cr supplementation decreased them. It was concluded that inclusion of 10% flaxseed and 1.5 mg Cr/kg diet results in desirable fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and functional properties of broiler chicken meat.
1. The effects of α-lipoic acid administration on sexual differences in growth performance, heat exposure-induced metabolic response and lipid peroxidation of raw meat in broiler chickens were studied. 2. Two-week-old male and female broiler chicks were divided into two groups each, as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Half the birds were fed on a diet supplemented with α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) and half on a control diet. All groups were reared to 6 weeks of age at 25°C and, thereafter, exposed to 33°C for 8 h per day for 3 d. 3. Under thermo-neutral conditions, α-lipoic acid decreased feed consumption and body weight gain of male chickens. However, the feed conversion rate and tissue mass of breast muscle and abdominal fat were unchanged. 4. In plasma metabolites, α-lipoic acid increased the molar ratio of non-esterified fatty acids to free glycerol, regardless of sex and heat exposure. A decrease in β-hydroxybutyrate was observed in the α-lipoic acid-fed male chickens. In the heat-exposed chickens, α-lipoic acid lowered the molar ratio of plasma lactate to pyruvate in relation to the enhanced concentrations of plasma pyruvate. However, no sexual difference was observed. 5. The value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in breast meat of heat-stressed chickens that was refrigerated for 3 or 7 d was higher in males than in females. An antioxidative effect of α-lipoic acid was observed in the meat of male chickens. 6. The present study suggests that the α-lipoic acid-inducing fatty acid metabolism and antioxidative effect persisted during the heat stress, even though a sexual difference in the responsiveness was seen in broiler chickens.
Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of the addition bee pollen extract in combination of with probiotic and propolis extract in combination with probiotic in diet of chicken broilers Ross 308 on oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles during 7 days storage by chilling was investigated. In the experiment were included 120 pieces of one day-old chicks, which were divided into 3 groups (control, E1 and E2. Feed mixtures and drinking water were given to chickens by ad libitum system until the age of 42 days. Bee pollen extract in amount of 400 mg.kg-1 added to feed mixtures plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation (Lactobacillus fermentum added to drinking water (E1, propolis extract in amount of 400 mg.kg-1 added to feed mixtures plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation (Lactobacillus fermentum added to drinking water (E2. During whole period of chilled storage (7 days were higher values of MDA determined in control group (C compared with experimental groups (E1 and E2. The higher average MDA values determined in breast muscle was in samples of control group (0.128 mg.kg-1 compared with experimental groups E1 (P0.05 and E2 (P≤0.05 (0.127 and 0.119 mg.kg-1, respectively after 7-day of chilled storage. The higher average MDA values (P0.05 were also determined in thigh muscles in control group (0.141 mg.kg-1 compared with experimental groups E1 (0.139 mg.kg-1 and E2 (0.128 mg.kg-1 after 7-day of chilled storage. Higher amount of MDA in thigh muscle compared to breast muscle is due to by higher amount of fat occurred in thigh muscle.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG and low (LG growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15 and ultimate pH (pHu, breast color-redness (BCo-R and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral
Nadaf, Javad; Gilbert, Hélène; Pitel, Frédérique; Berri, Cécile M; Feve, Katia; Beaumont, Catherine; Duclos, Michel J; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Simon, Jean; Aggrey, Samuel E; Cogburn, Larry A; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth
Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG x LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle biochemistry and ultimately meat
Francesch, A; Cartañà, M
1. Effect of a diet with 5% grape seed inclusion, substituting for maize compared to a standard diet, was studied in the Penedes chicken. 2. A total of 128 chickens were used, half from each sex. Individual weights and feed intake were controlled weekly from the first d to 5th week and fortnightly until the 15th week. On the 16th week, chemical analyses of meat from 16 thighs from each diet and sex were carried out, as well as a sensory analysis of meat from 24 thighs. Differences between diet and sex were analysed using live body weight, feed intake, feed conversion rate (FCR), chemical composition and sensory attributes of the meat. 3. At the end of the experiment, no significant differences were observed on live body weight, feed intake and FCR due to diet. 4. Meat showed no differences due to diet in the percentages of protein, lipid and ash. 5. Meat from the grape seed diet showed a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids due to linoleic acid. It also showed a more nutty smell, a more metallic flavour and more stringiness. There was, also, less of a pork crackling odour and flavour, a less sweet flavour and less of a broiler meat flavour.
Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products.
Bovo, Federica; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal
Food service and retail sectors offer consumers a variety of mixed ingredient salads that contain fresh-cut vegetables and other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, cereals, dairy products, cooked seafood, cooked meat, cured meats, or dairy products obtained from external suppliers. Little is known about the behavior of enteric bacterial pathogens in mixed ingredient salads. A model system was developed to examine the fate of Salmonella enterica (inoculum consisting of S. enterica serovars Agona, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Brandenberg, and Kentucky) on the surface of romaine lettuce tissues incubated alone and in direct contact with Cheddar cheese or cooked chicken. S. enterica survived but did not grow on lettuce tissues incubated alone or in contact with Cheddar cheese for 6 days at either 6 or 14°C. In contrast, populations increased from 2.01 ± 0.22 to 9.26 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) when lettuce washed in water was incubated in contact with cooked chicken at 14°C. Populations on lettuce leaves were reduced to 1.28 ± 0.14 CFU/cm(2) by washing with a chlorine solution (70 ppm of free chlorine) but increased to 8.45 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) after 6 days at 14°C. Experimentation with a commercial product in which one third of the fresh-cut romaine lettuce was replaced with inoculated lettuce revealed that S. enterica populations increased by 4 log CFU/g during storage for 3 days at 14°C. These findings indicate that rapid growth of bacterial enteric pathogens may occur in mixed ingredient salads; therefore, strict temperature control during the manufacture, distribution, handling, and storage of these products is critical.
Ghodousi, Arash; Bonura, Celestino; Di Carlo, Paola; van Leeuwen, Willem B; Mammina, Caterina
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131), typically fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQ-R) and/or extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, has emerged globally. Among clinical isolates, ST131, primarily its H30-R and H30-Rx subclones, accounts for most antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and is the dominant E. coli strain worldwide. We assessed its prevalence and characteristics among raw chicken meat samples on sale in Palermo, Italy. A collection of 237 fluoroquinolone resistant and ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli isolates, which had been isolated from processed retail chicken meat in the period May 2013-April 2015, was analyzed. Established polymerase chain reaction methods were used to define ST131 and its H30 subclones, ESBL, AmpC, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was performed to assess the relatedness among ST131 isolates. Out of the 237 E. coli isolates, 12 isolates belonged to the phylogenetic group B2. Based on the molecular definition of ExPEC, all isolates were attributed with the status of ExPEC. SNP-PCR results confirmed that nine isolates were ST131. SNP-PCR for H30-R and H30-Rx subclones showed that six and three ExPEC ST131 were positive for H30-R and H30-Rx, respectively. The results of AFLP showed that, except for four isolates grouped into two clusters which proved to be indistinguishable, the isolates under study were genetically heterogeneous. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of H30-R and H30-Rx subclones in animal food samples. Our findings appear to support the role of food chain in their transmission to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N
This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P juice were not different (P ≥ 0.05; 6.9 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) from those of the control, whereas for samples treated with the remaining marinades, pathogen counts were 0.7 (soy sauce) to 2.0 (lemon juice) log CFU/g lower (P monocytogenes counts by 1.9 to 4.1 (45 s) and >2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
Sandeep Kumar Gupta
Full Text Available The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (in descending order: cabbage, papaya and chicken. A probable mode of action of extracts was investigated by analyzing the changes they cause in bacterial cell wall and leakage of nucleic acid from bacterial cells. Both acetone and ethyl acetate extracts at their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations resulted in leakage of cell constituents to an extent of 40 to 80 and 60 to 95 %, respectively, compared to the control, and finally leading to disintegration of cell walls. These findings indicate the potential use of ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of Indian borage leaves in food preservation.
Marta del Puerto
Full Text Available This investigation evaluated, in broiler chickens Pectoralis and Gastrocnemius muscles, the effect of the dietary supplementation with sodium selenite (0.3 ppm versus selenomethionine (0.3 ppm, on the fatty acids composition, lipids indices, and enzymes indexes for desaturase, elongase, and thioesterase. The selenium reduced, in both muscles, the content of atherogenic fatty acids, C14:0 and C16:0, while it increased the C18:1 level. On the other hand, selenium increased, in both muscles, the content of C18:3n3 and EPA, but not DPA and DHA. No selenium effect was detected for PUFA/SFA, n-6, n-3, n-6/n-3, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. As for the enzyme indexes, a selenium effect is only detected for thioesterase. Taken together, the results highlight the potential effect of dietary selenium, mainly selenomethionine, in the modulation of the composition of fatty acids in chicken meat, in particular, reducing the content of atherogenic fatty acids and increasing the health promoting n-3 PUFA.
Bai, Kaiwen; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian
This study aimed to investigate the supplemental effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis fmbJ (BS fmbJ) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 240 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 4 treatments and raised for 6 wk. Each treatment had 6 replicate pens with ten birds per replicate. Birds in the control group (CON) were fed diets without BS fmbJ and antibiotics. The BS groups were fed the basal diets with BS fmbJ at 2 × 1010 cfu/kg (BS-1 group), BS fmbJ at 3 × 1010 cfu/kg (BS-2 group), BS fmbJ at 4 × 1010 cfu/kg (BS-3 group) without antibiotics for 42 d. In the study, dietary supplementation with BS fmbJ significantly improved (P weight was increased (P loss, cooking loss, shear force, L*24 h, a*24 h, b*45 min, and b*24 h values were influenced (P < 0.05) by BS fmbJ provided in the diet. Based on these results, Bacillus subtilis fmbJ could be acted as a beneficial feed additive with antioxidant capacity in broiler diets. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Eideh, Ala'a M F; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M
This experimental work aimed to examine the survivability of Campylobacter jejuni in cooked chicken breast under several conditions: storage for 1, 3, and 7 d at refrigerated temperatures (4 °C) and for 20 d at frozen temperatures (-18 °C). In addition, storage at ambient temperature (26 to 28 °C) was involved. Chicken samples were inoculated with a mixed culture of C. jejuni strains (ATCC: 29428 and 33219) of known concentrations (50 and 500 CFU/g). Bacterial cells were recovered and enumerated using standard procedure (Preston method). Bacteria were not detected in the majority of samples stored at ambient temperature. Refrigeration reduced survivals in 95, 90, and 77.5% for samples inoculated with 500 CFU/g and kept for 1, 3, and 7 d, respectively. The maximum reduction reached 1 log(10) cycle for all refrigeration durations. It was observed that bacteria died in 17.5% of samples kept for 7 d at 4 °C. However, survivors in samples inoculated with 50 CFU/g were not detected in 50, 65, and 55% of samples kept for 1, 3, and 7 d, respectively. Freezing rendered survivors not detectable in 70% of samples inoculated with 50 CFU/g, while survived viable counts were reduced in 92.5% of samples inoculated with 500 CFU/g. These findings suggested that C. jejuni could be killed or just sublethally injured with or without reduction in viable counts under the investigated storage temperatures, which may indicate the ability of this bacterium to survive in chicken meat stored under refrigerated and frozen conditions.
Effect of sodium alginate coating incorporated with nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and rosemary essential oils on microbial quality of chicken meat and fate of Listeria monocytogenes during refrigeration.
Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tabaraei, Alijan; Hashemi, Mohammad; Behnampour, Nasser
The present study was conducted to preserve the microbial quality of chicken meat fillets during storage time by using sodium alginate active coating solutions incorporated with different natural antimicrobials including nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and rosemary essential oils (EOs) which were added individually and in combination. The samples were stored in refrigeration condition for 15days and were analyzed for total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, lactic acid bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp. count, psychrotrophic count, and yeast and mold count, as well as fate of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes at 3-day intervals. Results indicated that values of tested microbial indicators in all samples increased during storage. Antimicrobial agents, when used in combination, had stronger effect in preserving the microbial quality of chicken meat samples rather than their individual use and the strongest effect was observed in samples coated with alginate solution containing both cinnamon and rosemary EOs (CEO+REO). However, all treatments significantly inhibited microbial growth when compared to the control (P<0.05). Therefore, based on the results of this study, application of alginate coating solutions containing nisin, cinnamon, and rosemary EOs as natural preservatives is recommended in meat products especially in chicken meats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Kazuki; Ishida, Aiko; Ashihara, Akane; Katsumata, Masaya
We investigated the effects of a low crude protein (CP) diet and a low CP diet supplemented with synthetic essential amino acids (EAA) on the meat quality of broiler chickens. Twenty-one-day-old chickens were assigned to one of three diets: control, low CP (LCP), or low CP supplemented with EAA (ELCP). The chickens received these diets for 10 days. The shear force value (SFV) and free glutamate content of the Pectoralis major muscle were measured as indicators of the meat toughness and taste. The collagen and crude fat content of the muscle and the cross-sectional area of myofibers were measured to evaluate the effects of the LCP and ELCP diets on meat toughness. The SFV of the ELCP group was 47% lower than that of the control group (Pcontent were not affected by the dietary treatment. The cross-sectional area was lower in the LCP and ELCP groups (Pcontent of muscle was not affected by the dietary treatment. Thus, a low CP diet supplemented with EAA is an effective means of producing tender meat. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Zhao, J P; Zhao, G P; Jiang, R R; Zheng, M Q; Chen, J L; Liu, R R; Wen, J
This paper, the second from a comprehensive study, describes the effects of varying growth rate by feeding at different planes of nutrition with a constant ME:CP ratio on muscle characteristics and meat quality in 2 distinct broiler breeds of male chickens (Arbor Acres, a commercial line; and Beijing-You, a Chinese nonimproved line). Experimental diets, differing on average by 2% CP, were formulated with high-, medium-, or low-nutrient densities for 3 growing phases. Male hatchlings (216 of each breed) were randomly assigned to 6 pens of 12 birds in each treatment. Altered histological characteristics of muscle fibers, early postmortem muscle metabolism, and meat quality were investigated in the pectoralis major and biceps femoris. At their market age, Arbor Acres broilers had significantly higher concentrations of plasma protein and lipid metabolites, ratios of white to red and intermediate fibers, pH, L* and b* values, and lower concentrations of plasma glucose metabolites, muscle-fiber diameter, muscle contents of energy stores, a* value, drip loss, and shear force than the values found for the Beijing-You chickens (P muscle fibers, decreased glycogen reserve, and reduced the rate and extent of acidification in the Arbor Acres chickens, while accelerating transformation of red and intermediate-to-white fibers, enhancing energy stores, and hastening the decrease in pH postmortem in the Beijing-You chickens (P meat quality variables (e.g., shear force, drip loss, and color) were consistent with the histological and biochemical changes caused by the feeding strategy. Together, dietary nutrient density can influence meat quality as a result of altered histological and initial energy and metabolic characteristics of the muscle. Many of the responses to diet are breed and tissue dependent in broiler chickens.
Jakobsen, Lotte; Spangholm, Daniel J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of ExPEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n=86), broiler chickens (n=138), fresh Danish (n=177) and imported pork (n=10), and pigs (n=145) in the study. All isolates were investigated for the presence of eight ExPEC related genes (kpsM II, papA, papC, iutA, sfaS, focG, afa, hlyD) using PCR. To investigate any similarities between isolates from the different origins, we performed a cluster analysis including antimicrobial resistance data previously published. We detected seven of the eight ExPEC related genes in isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs. Our findings suggest that broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs could be the source of strains with these ExPEC related virulence genes in community-dwelling humans and UTI patients. Especially detection of ExPEC related virulence genes in isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and D is very concerning and may have a significant medical impact. The cluster analysis of virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles showed strong similarities between UTI patient, community-dwelling human isolates, meat, and
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the effect of vitamin premix reduction or withdrawal in finisher diet (29 to 42 days of age on the performance and meat quality of chicks fed a wheat/barley based diet and reared on floor pens. A total of 504 male broiler chicks (Ross® 308 were allocated to seven treatment groups, with four replicates per treatment and 18 birds per replicate. All data were analyzed according to a completely randomized design. Results showed that the reduction or withdrawal of the vitamin premix from diets in different weeks of finisher period did not affect chicken performance (p>0.05. There were no significant differences in TBARS values of thigh samples of birds slaughtered at 35 days of age. However, the TBARS value of the treatment without vitamin premix was significantly higher than in the other treatments (p < 0.05 when birds were slaughtered at 42 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible withdrawal all premix vitamin of the diet. However, it may be possible to reduce vitamin supplements in finisher broiler diets without any negative effects on performance or meat quality during freezing.
Suganthi, Ramasamy; Shanmuga Priya, Thangavel; Saranya, Asokan; Kaleeswaran, Thangaraj
Fifteen flavobacterium strains were isolated from raw chicken meat, raw goat meat and poultry soil in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Most of the isolates developed yellow pigmented colonies with mucoid-spreading edges on food flavobacterium medium. The flavobacteria were Gram-negative rods and failed to produce indole and were non-fermentative. Moreover, they produced a rich array of enzymes such as amylase, lipase, catalase, urease, gelatinase, DNase, and oxidase. Phylogenetic analyses of the strain SKS05-GRD based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the bacterium as Myroides odoratimimus (nucleotide sequence accession number JQ178355). Antimicrobial susceptibility test for M. odoratimimus SKS05-GRD and other strains were assessed by disc diffusion method. M. odoratimimus SKS05-GRD showed wide resistance to the antibiotics such as amikacin, ampicillin, cefadroxil, cefoperazone, ceftazidine, ceftriaxone, netillin and gentamicin. M. odoratimimus was subjected to plasmid isolation and plasmid curing to seek the relationship between plasmid and antibiotic resistance. Plasmid curing was done by using ethidium bromide and was found to be effective at 300 and 500 μg/ml. Assessment of antibiotic sensitivity of M. odoratimimus SKS05-GRD showed sensitivity to amikacin, gentamicin and kanamycin confirming that resistance to these three antibiotics is plasmid mediated and other antibiotic resistance are chromosomal mediated.
N. D. Dono
Full Text Available Sixty male broiler chickens was used to investigate the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM with soy-milk waste (SMW substitution using growth performance, protein-energy efficiency ratio, and physical meat quality as response criteria. The birds were given control diet (SMW-0, or a control diets with 5% (SMW-1, 10% (SMW-2, and 15% (SMW-3 soy-milk waste substitutions. Each treatment was replicate 3 times, with 5 birds per replication. The obtained data were subjected to Oneway arrangement of ANOVA, and continued subsequently with Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test. Results showed that substituting SBM with SMW did not influence protein and energy consumption, as well as feed consumption and energy efficiency ratio. However, dietary substitution with 10% SMW improved (P<0.05 protein efficiency ratio, body weight gain, and slaughter weight, resulting in lower (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio. The meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness values did not influence by 5-15% SMW substitution.
Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.
Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706
Iborra-Bernad, C; García-Segovia, P; Martínez-Monzó, J
In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied. Three different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking (boiling water at 100 °C), cook-vide (at 80 and 90 °C) and sous-vide (at 80 °C and 90 °C). Similar firmness was obtained in potato applying the same cooking time using traditional cooking (100 °C), and cook-vide and sous-vide at 90 °C, while in green beans and carrots the application of the sous-vide (90 °C) required longer cooking times than cook-vide (90 °C) and traditional cooking (100 °C). Losses in anthocyanins (for purple-flesh potatoes) and ascorbic acid (for green beans) were higher applying traditional cooking. β-Carotene extraction increased in carrots with traditional cooking and cook-vide (P starch in potatoes cells cooked in contact with water, such as traditional cooking and cook-vide. Traditional cooking was the most aggressive treatment in green beans because the secondary walls were reduced compared with sous-vide and cook-vide. Sous-vide preserved organelles in the carrot cells, which could explain the lower extraction of β-carotene compared with cook-vide and traditional cooking. Sous-vide cooking of purple-flesh potato is recommended to maintain its high anthocyanin content. Traditional boiling could be recommended for carrots because increase β-carotenes availability. For green beans, cook-vide, and sous-vide provided products with higher ascorbic acid content. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea, and turmeric against Campylob...
Denis Fabrício Marchi
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesia foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL + e não-sensível (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade
Full Text Available This study compared the effects of wheat- and sorghum-based diets on broiler chickens. The growth performance and caecal microbial community of chickens were measured and correlations between productivity and specific gut microbes were observed. Cobb broilers 15 days of age were individually caged and two dietary treatments were used, one with a wheat-based diet (n = 48 and another one with a sorghum-based diet (n = 48. Growth performance measurements were taken over a 10 day period and samples for microbiota analysis were taken at the end of that period. Caecal microbiota was characterised by sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA gene amplicons. Overall, the results indicated that a sorghum-based diet produced higher apparent metabolisable energy (AME and body-weight gain (BWG values in chickens, compared to a wheat-based diet. Nevertheless, sorghum-fed birds had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR values than wheat-fed birds, possibly because of some anti-nutritional factors in sorghum. Further analyses showed that caecal microbial community was significantly associated with AME values, but microbiota composition differed between dietary treatments. A number of bacteria were individually correlated with growth performance measurements. Numerous OTUs assigned to strains of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lachnospiraceae, which were prevalent in sorghum-fed chickens, were correlated with high AME and BWG values, respectively. Additionally, a number of OTUs assigned to Clostridiales that were prevalent in wheat-fed chickens were correlated with low FCR values. Overall, these results suggest that between-diet variations in growth performance were partly associated with changes in the caecal microbiota.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the antioxidant effects of barbatimão (BAR or pacari (PAC on chicken meat oxidative stability and quality, seven dietary treatments containing in three different BAR and PAC concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm plus a negative control (CONT were fed to 350 broilers from 1 to 41 days of age. Ten birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect breast and thigh meat to evaluate pH, color (L*, a*, b*, cooking weight loss (CWL, and shear force (SF 24 hours postmortem, and TBARS levels in precooked meatballs stored chilled for 8days. The dietary supplementation with BAR and PAC extracts did not affect pH and color, but reduced (p<0.05 SF in breast meat compared with CONT suggesting improved tenderness. PAC200 increased (p<0.05 L* and protected (p<0.05 yellow pigments (b* values of thigh meat from degradation compared with the CONT diet. At the end of the chilled storage period, BAR600 and PAC600 significantly reduced (p<0.06 MDA concentrations in breast meatballs compared to the CONT. The dietary supplementation of BAR and PAC improved (p<0.03 oxidative stability of thigh meatballs, except for BAR200. In conclusion, the dietary addition of BAR and PAC extracts may improve meat quality and prevent lipid oxidation in white and dark precooked and chilled chicken meatballs.
Rymer, C.; Hartnell, G. F.; Givens, D. I.
Supplementing broiler diets with conventional vegetable oils has little effect on the long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) content of the meat. The present study investigated the effect on fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of chicken meat when broilers were fed oil extracted from soyabeans (SDASOY) that had been genetically engineered to produce C18 : 4n-3 (stearidonic acid (SDA), 240 mg/g oil). Three diets were fed to 120 birds (eight replicate pens of five birds) from 15 d to ...
Apr 9, 2013 ... Vegetarian protein sources include beans, lentils, soya, soya products, seeds, nuts and whole grains. Although red meat is the richest and most easily absorbed source of iron,29 a number of plant foods can make a significant contribution. To increase iron intake levels in a vegetarian diet, it is necessary to ...
This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...
Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Cohen Stuart, J.; Voets, G.M.; Munckhof, Van den M.P.; Essen-Zandbergen, Van A.; Platteel, T.; Fluit, A.C.; Sande-Bruinsma, Van de N.; Scharinga, J.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Mevius, D.J.
Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain
Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Cohen Stuart, J.; Voets, G.M.; Munckhof, M.P. van den; Essen-Zandbergen, A. van; Platteel, T.; Fluit, A.C.; Sande-Bruinsma, N. van de; Scharinga, J.; Bonten, M.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Sturm, P.D.
Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain
Leverstein-van Hall, M. A.; Dierikx, C. M.; Stuart, J. Cohen; Voets, G. M.; van den Munckhof, M. P.; van Essen-Zandbergen, A.; Platteel, T.; Fluit, A. C.; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N.; Scharinga, J.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Mevius, D. J.
Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain
the meat and the rate of intramuscular glycolysis. (Bendall, 1979, cited by Thielke et al., 2005). The down trend in pH decline is explained by the fact that energy metabolism postmortem proceeds anaerobically (mainly gylcolysis) producing lactic acid as the end product which is responsible for pH decline PM. The decline.
Mangen MJJ; Havelaar AH; Nauta MJ; Koeijer AA de; Wit GA de; LEI; Animal Sciences Group; PZO; MGB
The aim of this study was the estimation of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of various interventions to control Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat. The relative risk, the intervention costs, the disease burden (expressed in Disability Adjusted Live Years (DALYs)) and the
CB de Lima
Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to evaluate the addition of the oil resins ofsucupira (Pterodon emarginatus Vog. and copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii to broiler diets on chicken meat composition, quality, and lipid peroxidation. 350 one-d-old broiler chicks were submitted to seven treatments, consisting of the diets supplemented with copaiba (COP or sucupira (SUC resin oils at three different concentrations (500, 900, and 1300 ppm plus a negative control diet (CONT. At 37 days of age, 10 birds per treatment were selected according to the average weight of the experimental unit and slaughtered to collect breast and thigh meat, which was stored at 4°C for 24 hours to evaluate pH, color (L*, a*, b*, cooking weight loss (CWL, and shear force (SF. Raw meat was vacuum packed and stored frozen until lipid peroxidation analysis. Meat samples were pooled to prepare pre-cooked meatballs (30 ± 0.5g, stored under refrigeration (eight days, and analyzed every two days for TBARS concentration. Results were analyzed using the PROC GLM and MIXED procedures (SAS statistical software. Plant oils increased (p<0.05 breast meat humidity (HU and crude protein (CP levels and reduced (p<0.05 total lipid (TLC and ash (AS levels when compared with the CONT treatment. Plant oils increased (p<0.05 thigh meat HU when compared with the CONT. High COP dietary levels reduced (p<0.05 breast meat CWL, and increased (p<0.05 thigh meat L* values when compared to CONT, except for SUC500 and SUC900. The dietary inclusion of plant oil resins showed a pro-oxidant effect (p<0.01 on breast meat when compared with the CONT. Low SUC dietary supplementation levels significantly reduced (p<0.01 the concentration of secondary oxidation products in thigh meat.
Rymer, C; Hartnell, G F; Givens, D I
Supplementing broiler diets with conventional vegetable oils has little effect on the long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) content of the meat. The present study investigated the effect on fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of chicken meat when broilers were fed oil extracted from soyabeans (SDASOY) that had been genetically engineered to produce C18 : 4n-3 (stearidonic acid (SDA), 240 mg/g oil). Three diets were fed to 120 birds (eight replicate pens of five birds) from 15 d to slaughter (41-50 d). Diets were identical apart from the oil added to them (45 and 50 g/kg as fed in the grower and finisher phases, respectively), which was either SDASOY, near-isogenic soya (CON) or fish oil (FISH). The LC n-3 PUFA content of the meat increased in the order CON, SDASOY and FISH. In breast meat with skin, the SDA concentration was 522, 13 and 37 (sem 14·4) mg/100 g meat for SDASOY, CON and FISH, respectively. Equivalent values for C20 : 5n-3 (EPA) were 53, 13 and 140 (sem 8·4); for C22 : 5n-3 (docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)) 65, 15 and 101 (sem 3·5); for C22 : 6n-3 (DHA) 19, 9 and 181 (sem 4·4). Leg meat (with skin) values for SDA were 861, 23 and 68 (sem 30·1); for EPA 87, 9 and 258 (sem 7·5); for DPA 95, 20 and 165 (sem 5·0); for DHA 29, 10 and 278 (sem 8·4). Aroma, taste and aftertaste of freshly cooked breast meat were not affected. Fishy aromas, tastes and aftertastes were associated with LC n-3 PUFA content of the meat, being most noticeable in the FISH leg meat (both freshly cooked and reheated) and in the reheated SDASOY leg meat.
Lee, Jeeyoung; Karnuah, Arthur B; Rekaya, Romdhane; Anthony, Nicholas B; Aggrey, Samuel E
Feed efficiency phenotypes defined by genotypes or gene markers are unknown. To date, there are only limited studies on global gene expression profiling on feed efficiency. The objective of this study was to identify genes and pathways associated with residual feed intake (RFI) through transcriptional profiling of duodenum at two different ages in a chicken population divergently selected for low (LRFI) or high (HRFI) RFI. The global gene expression differences in LRFI and HRFI were assessed by the Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Chicken Genome Array and RT-PCR using duodenal tissue on days 35 and 42. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis program was used to identify canonical and gene network pathways associated with RFI. A global view of gene expression differences between LRFI and HRFI suggest that RFI can be explained by differences in cell division, growth, proliferation and apoptosis, protein synthesis, lipid metabolism, and molecular transport of cellular molecules. Chickens selected for improved RFI achieve efficiency by reducing feed intake with a nominal or no change in weight gain by either up-regulating CD36, PPARα, HMGCS2, GCG or down-regulating PCSK2, CALB1, SAT1, and SGK1 genes within the lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, molecular transport, cell death, and protein synthesis molecular and cellular functions. Chickens selected for reduced RFI via reduced feed intake with no change in weight gain achieve feed efficiency for growth by the up-regulation of genes that reduce appetite with increased cellular oxidative stress, prolonged cell cycle, DNA damage, and apoptosis in addition to increased oxidation of dietary fat and efficient fatty acids transported from the intestines.
Full Text Available Following the 2006 EU ban of antibiotic-based growth promoters, the use of alternative products, such as prebiotics, became a necessity. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of prebiotic products (Actigen şi Biotronic Top3 on meat quality in broiler chickens. The research has been conducted on a number of 75 Ross-308 hybrid broilers, assigned in three groups (25 individuals/group, over a period of 42 days. Group 1(E was fed with the base diet supplemented with the Actigen prebiotic in a proportion of 0.08% in the first growth phase (days 1-14, 0.04% in the second phase (days 14-35 and 0.02% in the third phase (days 35-42. Group 2(E received the base feed supplemented with the Biotronic Top3 prebiotic (0.1% throughout the whole growth period. At the end of the study period, five broilers from every group have been sacrificed to determine meat quality and meat chemical composition. The usage of prebiotics led to an increase of the carcass weight gain of 16.29% in group 1(E receiving Actigen and 13.49% in group 2(E, fed with Biotronic Top3, compared to the control group. The percentage of superior quality meat (quality I and II in the carcass was higher by 4.4% in group 2(E Biotronic Top3 and by 1.67% in group 1(E Actigen compared to the control group. Following the administration of Actigen and Biotronic Top3 prebiotics, in groups 1(E and 2(E the meat quality was improved in groups 1(E and 2(E, due to an increase in the protein content and a reduction of the fat content. These results confirm that prebiotics administered in the feeds for broiler chickens have favourable effects on the meat production and meat quality.
The effect of dietary supplementation with the natural carotenoids curcumin and lutein on pigmentation, oxidative stability and quality of meat from broiler chickens affected by a coccidiosis challenge.
Rajput, N; Ali, S; Naeem, M; Khan, M A; Wang, T
1. An experiment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants curcumin (CRM) and lutein (LTN) on the quality of meat from coccidiosis-infected broilers. A total of 200 one-day-old Arbor Acre chicks were randomly assigned to a treatment group with 5 replicates. The treatments included a basal diet without carotenoid supplementation (control), with 300 mg/kg CRM, with 300 mg/kg LTN or with a combination (C + L) of 150 mg/kg CRM and 150 mg/kg LTN. All chickens were challenged with Eimeria maxima at 21 d old. 2. The results revealed that the coccidiosis reduced redness of meat, while supplementation with carotenoids improved the fresh meat's redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) and contributed to colour stability maintenance after storage (1 month at -18°C and 3 d at 4°C). 3. Coccidiosis did not produce lipid and protein oxidation in fresh meat, but after storage for one month, the malondialdehyde levels and carbonyl contents were lower in the CRM and C + L birds and the sulfhydryl contents were higher in C + L birds. 4. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis banding pattern showed equivalent myosin chain fragmentations in all treatment groups, whereas lower intensity actin bands were observed in the control group (CONT). Moreover, myofibril protein denaturation (differential scanning calorimetry) profiles showed a reduction in the CONT myosin and actin peaks. Coccidiosis reduced the meat's water holding capacity in non-supplemented chicken meat and was improved by natural carotenoid. 5. These results emphasise that coccidiosis did not decrease the eating quality of fresh meat, that natural carotenoids are efficient antioxidants and that CRM (300 mg/kg) fed individually or combined with LTN was the most effective supplemented antioxidant compound.
Schwaiger, Karin; Huther, Sabine; Hölzel, Christina; Kämpf, Peter; Bauer, Johann
The purpose of this study was to investigate chicken and pork meat sampled at the slaughterhouse and at retail for differences in the presence of antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria. For this aim, Escherichia coli (n=677), Enterobacter spp. (n=167), Citrobacter spp. (n=83), Serratia spp. (n=116), Klebsiella spp. (n=125), and Salmonella spp. (n=89) were isolated from 500 chicken and 500 pork samples purchased at the slaughterhouse and at retail (in the same amounts) in Germany. Salmonella were present in 17% of the chicken, and in 0.4% of the pork meat samples. There was a clear shift in the spectrum of coliforms from slaughterhouse to retail: Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Klebsiella were the most frequently detected coliforms (other than E. coli) from slaughterhouse samples, whereas the prevalence of Serratia spp. was up to eight times higher in retail samples. The prevalence of E. coli was higher in slaughterhouse samples, whereas the prevalence of other coliforms and Salmonella spp. was higher in retail samples. E. coli strains were often resistant to penicillins, streptomycin, spectinomycin, doxycycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Resistance rates of the other coliforms were generally low. Resistant and multi-resistant isolates were significantly more common in chicken meat. Compared to samples from the slaughterhouse, the prevalence of resistant bacteria tended to be higher in retail samples, probably due to good conditions for resistant bacteria on the matrix meat and/or due to secondary contamination with resistant strains. Therefore, stringent hygiene measures should be observed to reduce the risk of transmission of resistant bacteria from food to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Younis, Gamal A; Elkenany, Rasha M; Fouda, Mohamed A; Mostafa, Noura F
This study describes the prevalence of Escherichia coli in frozen chicken meat intended for human consumption with emphasis on their virulence determinants through detection of the virulence genes and recognition of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) encoding genes (blaOXA and blaTEM genes). A total of 120 frozen chicken meat samples were investigated for isolation of E. coli. All isolates were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Eight serotypes isolated from samples were analyzed for the presence of various virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and eae A genes) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Moreover, the strains were evaluated for the ESBL encoding genes (blaTEM and blaOXA). Overall, 11.66% (14/120) chicken meat samples carried E. coli according to cultural and biochemical properties. The most predominant serotypes were O78 and O128: H2 (21.5%, each), followed by O121: H7 and O44: H18. Molecular method detected that 2 strains (25%) harbored stx1, 3 strains (37.5%) stx2, and 3 strains (37.5%) both stx1 and stx2, while 1 (12.5%) strain carried eae A gene. Particularly, only O26 serotype had all tested virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and eae A). The results revealed that all examined 8 serotypes were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The ESBL encoding genes (blaTEM and blaOXA) of STEC were detected in 4 (50%) isolates by multiplex PCR. The overall incidence of blaTEM and blaOXA genes was 3 (37.5%) and 2 (25%) isolates. The present study indicates the prevalence of virulent and ESBL-producing E. coli in frozen chicken meat intended for hospitalized human consumption due to poor hygienic measures and irregular use of antibiotics. Therefore, the basic instructions regarding good hygienic measures should be adapted to limit public health hazard.
Monte, Daniel F; Fernandes, Miriam R; Cerdeira, Louise; de Souza, Tiago A; Mem, Andressa; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Landgraf, Mariza; Lincopan, Nilton
We present here the draft genome sequences of two colistin-resistant mcr-1-carrying Escherichia coli strains belonging to sequence type 74 (ST74) and ST1850, isolated from commercial chicken meat in Brazil. Assembly of this draft genome resulted in 5,022,083 and 4,950,681 bp, respectively, revealing the presence of the IncX4 plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene responsible for resistance to colistin. Copyright © 2017 Monte et al.
Full Text Available Oxytetracycline (OTC is one of the tetracycline (TCs broad-spectrum antibiotics widely used inthe chicken industry. However, improper use of OTC with excessive doses potentially leads to residueformation in animal products that can be harmful to consumers in the form of allergic reaction orresistance. This study aimed to detect OTC residues in broiler chicken meat, marketed in traditionalmarkets and supermarkets in Depok, Bekasi, Bandung, Cilegon, Surakarta and Yogyakarta using indirectcompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA method. The analyses of 67 broiler meatsamples showed only 1 (1.5% sample was positive for the OTC residue at 86.1 ng/g which meant belowthe maximum residue limits of permissible OTC (100 ng/g. Nevertheless, a stricter regulation for theuse of OTC in the poultry industry and the monitoring of its residue in chicken products prior tomarketing is still necessary to avoid the adverse effects of the residue present in animal products.
H M Abdallah
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and to characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamases- and/or carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat in Zagazig, Egypt.One hundred and six Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from retail chicken meat samples purchased in Zagazig, Egypt in 2013. Species identification was done by MALDI-TOF MS. Screening for ESBL-E was performed by inoculation of isolates recovered from meat samples onto the EbSA (Cepheid Benelux, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands selective screening agar. ESBL production was confirmed by combination disc diffusion test with clavulanic acid (Rosco, Taastrup, Denmark. Carbapenemases production was confirmed with double disk synergy tests. Resistance genes were characterized by PCR with specific primers for TEM, SHV, and CTX-M and carbapenemases (KPC, NDM, OXA-48, IMP and VIM. PCR products of CTX-M genes were purified and sequenced. Phylogenetic grouping of E. coli was performed by a PCR-based method.Of these 106 isolates 69 (65.09% were ESBL producers. Twelve (11.32% of these isolates were also phenotypically class B carbapenemases producer. TEM genes were detected in 61 (57.55% isolates. 49 (46.23% isolates harbored CTX-M genes, and 25 (23.58% carried genes of the SHV family. All CPE belonged to the NDM group. The predominant CTX-M sequence type was CTX-M-15 (89.80%. The majority (80% of the ESBL-EC belonged to low virulence phylogroups A and B1.This is the first study from Egypt reporting high rates of ESBLs and carbapenemases (65.09% and 11.32%, respectively in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat. These results raise serious concerns about public health and food safety as retail meat could serve as a reservoir for these resistant bacteria which could be transferred to humans through the food chain.
Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Pathak, Vikas; Fayaz, Hina
Storage quality of chicken seekh kababs extended with different legumes at optimum level viz. 15% cowpea, 15% green gram and 10% black bean were assessed in terms of physico-chemical, proximate, microbiological and sensory properties under aerobic packaging conditions at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C). The chicken seekh kababs were prepared from spent hens meat by low power microwave method and extended with optimum level of different legume (hydrated 1:1 w/w) pastes replacing lean meat in the formulation. The chicken seekh kababs formulated without any extender served as control and were compared with extended chicken seekh kababs. The kababs were aerobically packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches and were analyzed at a regular interval of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1°C. The results indicated a significant (p content of the kababs whereas the fat and ash content increased significantly (p Protein percentage showed a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase and almost all the sensory attributes showed a declining trend with advancement of storage. Total plate count and psychrophillic count also increased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. The products were acceptable throughout the storage period.
Praveen Kumar Praveen
Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.
Choi, I H; Park, W Y; Kim, Y J
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chickens. Three hundred 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 5 diet treatments (0, 1, 3, and 5% garlic powder and 3% garlic powder + 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol/kg) with 3 replications of 20 birds for 35 d. There were no significant differences in broiler performance among the treatments. Moisture and crude ash contents of chicken thigh muscle were not different among all treatments, but dietary garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol supplementation resulted in significantly higher CP and lower crude fat contents in comparison with control (P garlic powder and applying garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in broiler blood (P garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. However, no significant differences in water-holding capacity or shear force values were observed among the treatments. For broiler thigh muscle color, L* (lightness) values were decreased (P garlic powder levels and the combination of garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. In terms of fatty acid composition in thigh muscle, unlike saturated fatty acid and total saturated fatty acid, dietary garlic powder or garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol supplementation increased unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, and total unsaturated fatty acid:total saturated fatty acid ratios. These results suggest that 5% garlic powder or 3% garlic powder plus 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol antioxidant properties were effective for enhancing lipid and color stability.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of time of broiler chicken transportation and lairage prior to slaughtering on the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat and Death On Arrival (DOA under non-commercial conditions in the Brazilian summer. Male birds (n=250 from a commercial line were subjected to different periods of journey (30, 90, and 180 min and lairage (0, 90, and 180 min before slaughtering. The occurrence of PSE was higher in broilers subjected to shorter journeys and lairage periods, whereas DOA was more pronounced upon longer periods of transport and lairage. The DOA occurrence percentage was much higher in comparison to commercially available figures, confirming that broiler chickens are very sensitive to both transport and lairage maneuvers.O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de transporte e período de descanso antes do abate dos frangos na ocorrência das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative: Pálido, Amolecido e Exsudativo e DOA (Dead On Arrival: Morte Na Chegada nas condições não comerciais durante o verão brasileiro. Frangos machos (n=250 de uma linhagem comercial foram submetidos a diferentes periodos de jornada (30, 90 e 180 min e descanso (0, 90 e 180 min antes do abate. A ocorrência do PSE foi maior em frangos submetidos tanto em tempos para as viagens curtas como para o de descanso enquanto que DOA foi mais pronunciada em condições de jornadas longas e maior periodo de descanso. A porcentagem da ocorrência do DOA foi maior ao se comparar com os resultados obtidas por empresas comerciais confirmando que os frangos são sensiveis às condições das viagens e de descanso a que são submetidos.
Mellata, M; Johnson, J R; Curtiss, R
The zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli from chicken-source food products is important to define for public health purposes. Previously, genotypic and phenotypic screening of E. coli isolates from commercial chicken meat and shell eggs identified some E. coli strains that by molecular criteria resembled human-source extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Here, to clarify the zoonotic risk of such chicken-source E. coli, we compared selected E. coli isolates from chicken meat and eggs, stratified by molecularly defined ExPEC status, to human-source ExPEC and to laboratory E. coli for virulence in rodent models of sepsis, meningitis and UTI, and evaluated whether specific bacterial characteristics predict experimental virulence. Multiple chicken-source E. coli resembled human-source ExPEC in their ability to cause one or multiple different ExPEC-associated infections. Swimming ability corresponded with urovirulence, K1 capsule corresponded with ability to cause neonatal meningitis, and biofilm formation in urine corresponded with ability to cause sepsis. In contrast, molecularly defined ExPEC status and individual genotypic traits were uncorrelated with ability to cause sepsis, and neither complement sensitivity nor growth in human urine corresponded with virulence in any infection model. These findings establish that chicken-derived food products contain E. coli strains that, in rodent models of multiple human-associated ExPEC infections, are able to cause disease comparably to human-source E. coli clinical isolates, which suggests that they may pose a significant food safety threat. Further study is needed to define the level of risk they pose to human health, which if appreciable would justify efforts to monitor for and reduce or eliminate them. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Cortez-Vega, William Renzo; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Bagatini, Daniela Cardozo; Prentice, Carlos
Functional and nutritional soluble proteins can be recovered from surimi (and surimi-like material) processing wastewater, reducing environmental problems and the cost of an irresponsible waste disposal. Recovered proteins may be added back at a low percentage to surimi products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of soluble recovered proteins (RP), obtained from mechanically separated chicken meat surimi-like material (MSCM-SLM) processing wastewater by acidic pH-shifting, on the composition and texture of RP-MSCM-SLM, with RP contents of 0, 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) in the mixture. For that, proximate composition and gel properties were evaluated. The fat content of the MSCM-SLM was significantly reduced to 11.98% and protein increased to 83.64% (dry basis) after three washing cycles. The addition of 30% RP in the MSCM-SLM significantly augmented the protein content to 93.45% and reduced fat content from to 2.78%. On the other hand, the addition of RP was responsible for a drastic decrease in texture parameters, reaching 252.36 g, 185.23 g.cm, and 6.97 N for breaking force, gel strength and cutting strength, respectively, when 30% of RP was included in the MSCM-SLM. It was concluded that the obtained intermediary product (RP-MSCM-SLM) is a good option to applications in processed meat products where high texture parameters are dispensable, e.g., emulsified inlaid frankfurter-type sausages, but high protein content and low fat content desired.
Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A
Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of the addition of propolis extract in a feed mixture for chicken broilers Hubbard JV on oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles during refrigerated storage was investigated. In the experiment were included 90 pieces of one day-old chicks, which were divided into 3 groups (control, E1 and E2. Chickens were fed by ad libitum system until the age of 42 days. These feed mixtures were made without antibiotics preparation and coccidiostats. Propolis extract in an amount of 150 mg.kg-1 (E1 and 450 mg.kg-1 (E2 was added into feed mixtures for experimental groups. During whole period of refrigerated storage were higher values of MDA determined in control group compare to experimental groups. The higher average MDA value determined in breast muscels of broiler chicken hybrid combination Hubbard JV was in samples of control group (0.157 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups E1 (0.140 mg.kg-1 and E2 (0.130 mg.kg-1 after 6-month of refrigerated storage. Significantly higher values of MDA were determined in control group compare to second experimental group from fourth month to the end of storage. The significantly lower value of MDA was determinated in first experimental group compare to control only at 6 month of storage. Trend of thigh muscle oxidation stability of chicken hybrid combination Hubbard JV was during 6 months of refrigerated storage similar than in breast muscle. The higher average MDA value determined in thigh muscels was in samples of control group (0.170 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups E1 (0.150 mg.kg-1 and E2 (0.139 mg.kg-1 after 6-month of refrigerated storage. Significantly higher values of MDA were determined in control group compare to second experimental group from fourth month to the end of storage. Higher amount of MDA in thigh muscle compare to breast muscle is due to by higher amount of fat occurred in thigh muscle. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE
Simultaneous characterisation of silver nanoparticles and determination of dissolved silver in chicken meat subjected to in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
Ramos, K; Ramos, L; Gómez-Gómez, M M
In this study, a chicken meat containing AgNPs (candidate reference material Nanolyse 14) has been used as a model matrix to study the fate and behaviour of AgNPs upon oral ingestion following an in vitro model that included saliva, gastric and intestinal digestions. The behaviour of a 40nm AgNPs standard solution during the three digestion steps was also evaluated. Sample preparation conditions were optimised to prevent AgNPs oxidation and/or aggregation and to ensure the representativeness of the reported results. Total silver released from the test sample and the evaluated AgNP standard was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The presence of both AgNPs and dissolved silver in the extracts was confirmed by single particle (SP)-ICPMS analysis. AgNPs were sized and the particle number concentration determined in the three digestion juices. Experimental results demonstrated differentiated behaviours for AgNP from the standard solution and the meat sample highlighting the relevance of using physiological conditions for accurate risk assessment. In the most realistic scenario assayed (i.e., spiked chicken meat analysis), only 13% of the AgNPs present in the reference material would reach the intestine wall. Meanwhile, other bioaccessible dissolved forms of silver would account for as much as 44% of the silver initially spiked to the meat paste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian
With the wide acceptance of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA as important nutrients playing a role in the amelioration of certain diseases, efforts to understand factors affecting intakes of these fatty acids along with potential strategies to increase them are vital. Widespread aversion to oil-rich fish, the richest natural source of EPA and DHA, highlights both the highly suboptimal current intakes in males and females across all age-groups and the critical need for an alternative supply of EPA and DHA. Poultry meat is a popular and versatile food eaten in large quantities relative to other meats and is open to increased LC n-3 PUFA content through manipulation of the chicken's diet to modify fatty acid deposition and therefore lipid composition of the edible tissues. It is therefore seen as a favourable prototype food for increasing human dietary supply of LC n-3 PUFA. Enrichment of chicken breast and leg tissue is well established using fish oil or fishmeal, but concerns about sustainability have led to recent consideration of algal biomass as an alternative source of LC n-3 PUFA. Further advances have also been made in the quality of the resulting meat, including achieving acceptable flavour and storage properties as well as understanding the impact of cooking on the retention of fatty acids. Based on these considerations it may be concluded that EPA- and DHA-enriched poultry meat has a very positive potential future in the food chain.
Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.
Effects of chromium-enriched bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality.
Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yayuan; Wu, Yijing
Both chromium (Cr) and probiotic bacillus own the virtues of regulating animal metabolism and meat quality. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplemental Cr and bacillus in the form of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 (CEBS) on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality. Six hundred of 1-day-old Chinese Huainan Partridge chickens were divided into four groups randomly: Control, inorganic Cr, Bacillus subtilis, and CEBS. The feed duration was 56 days. After 28 days of treatment, broiler feed CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control broiler, and after 56 days, chickens given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control broiler or those given inorganic Cr. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control, whereas plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly. The concentration of Cr in blood and breast muscle increased after CEBS and inorganic Cr supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella decreased significantly compared to the control. Feed adding CEBS increased the lightness, redness, and yellowness of breast meat, improved the water-holding capacity, decreased the shear force and cooking loss. In all, CEBS supplementation promoted body growth, improved plasma lipid parameters, increased tissue Cr concentrations, altered cecal bacterial composition and improved breast meat quality.
Kawamura, Kumiko; Goto, Kensuke; Nakane, Kunihiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika
Contamination of retail meat with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been reported, but only limited data have been documented in Japan. One hundred fifty-three retail foods including chicken meat, beef, pork, and vegetables were purchased from 29 supermarkets between January and October in 2010. ESBL producers were recovered from each food sample using McConkey agar plate supplemented with 1 mg/L of cefotaxime. ESBL type was identified by DNA sequencing analysis after polymerase chain reaction amplification. Antibiogram, O serotype, plasmid replicon type, pulsotype, and multilocus sequence type were also determined. Fifty-two epidemiologically unrelated Escherichia coli isolates producing ESBL were recovered from 35 (22.9%) of 153 samples, all of which were chicken meat. ESBL types were mainly CTX-M-2 group followed by CTX-M-1 group and CTX-M-8 group. The numbers of bacterial isolates (8 of 21, 38.1%) harboring bla(CTX-M-8) recovered from imported meat samples were significantly larger than those of domestic ones (one of 31, 3.2%) (pE. coli belonging to the O25b:H4-ST131 clone were recovered from domestic (n=1) and imported meat samples (n=3), respectively. These four isolates were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, although the E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 clone producing CTX-M-15, which is predominant in human isolates, is usually resistant to fluoroquinolones. By contrast, five CTX-M-15-producing E. coli strains were recovered only from domestic meat samples, and their serotypes were O8 or OUT instead of predominant serotype O25b. Our results showed that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from retail chicken meat samples in Japan are generally divergent in both genetic and serological aspects. Further comparative analyses of bla(CTX-M)-mediating genetic elements would be continued in the next step to characterize the ESBL producers from retail foods in Japan.
Kenesei, Gy; Jónás, G.; Salamon, B.; Dalmadi, I.
In this work, slices of Longissimus dorsi of pork was used as raw material to establish the effects of the sous-vide technology and the high hydrostatic pressure treatments (and their combinations) on meat. The state of the proteins in meat has a very important effect on several quality parameters of the product, such as weight loss, water holding capacity, organoleptic properties. Therefore it is important to follow and analyse the denaturation of the protein content during food processing. The samples were cooked sous-vide (60 °C, 5-480 minutes) or pressurized (100-600 MPa, 5 minutes, room temperature). Also two steps treatments were studied combining both technologies, applying high hydrostatic pressure treatment (300 or 600 MPa, 5 minutes, room temperature) after or previous to sous-vide cooking (60 °C, 30 minutes). The changes in the condition of meat proteins were followed by a differential scanning calorimeter. The DSC curves were analysed using the unit’s own software where denaturation heat was determined. Thermograms show through the change of the sample’s protein state the dissimilar effect of the treatments. Using the Polar Qualification System -previously proved to be effective with NIR measurements- the spectral information was reduced to a two dimensional polar co-ordinate system where each DSC curve is represented by a “quality point”. As a new experiment the applied PQS data reduction method compared to the traditional thermal analysis data processing gave us less information on the differences of our samples although the results are promising as we were able to detect the same trends and characteristics.
Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p0.05.
Kim, C H; Kim, G-B; Chang, M B; Bae, G S; Paik, I K; Kil, D Y
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus-fermented Artemisia princeps (LFA) on growth performance, meat lipid peroxidation, and intestinal microflora in Hy-line Brown male chickens. A total of six hundred twenty-four 1-d-old Hy-Line Brown male chicks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicated pens consisting of 52 chicks. The control diet was formulated to be adequate in energy and nutrients. Two additional diets were prepared by adding 2.5 or 5.0 g/kg of LFA to the control diet. The experimental diets were fed on an ad libitum basis to the birds during 7 wk. Body weight gain and feed intake were recorded at 2 and 7 wk. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds from each treatment were killed by cervical dislocation and the samples for ileal content, breast, and thigh meat were collected for the determination of meat lipid peroxidation and microbial population. Results indicated that increasing inclusion level of LFA in diets improved BW gain (linear and quadratic, P birds during 0 to 7 wk. Feeding the diets containing increasing amounts of LFA to birds reduced (quadratic, P meat during 15 d of storage. The concentrations of Lactobacillus spp. in the ileal content of birds increased (linear and quadratic, P meat lipid stability, and intestinal health of birds.
Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.
Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; da Silva Borges, Ângela; Pereira, Ana Lúcia Fernandes; Abreu, Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of mango extracts on lipid stability and the coloring of broiler chicken breast meat during frozen storage. The treatments consisted of broiler chicken diet without antioxidants (control) and diets containing antioxidants: 200 ppm of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 200 ppm of mango peel extract (MPE), 400 ppm of MPE, 200 ppm of mango seed extract (MSE), and 400 ppm of MSE. The broiler breasts were stored for 90 days and analysis of lipid oxidation and color was performed every 30 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased during storage and at 90 days, but the 400 ppm MSE treatment yielded lower values, indicating greater antioxidant activity. During storage, the lightness values decreased and the redness increased. Additions of 200 ppm BHT and 400 ppm MPE increased yellowness at 60 days of storage. Thus, mango peel and seed extracts added to broiler chicken diets reduce lipid oxidation and maintain color in breast meat during frozen storage, with mango seed extract at 400 ppm being the most effective. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Cortez-Vega, William Renzo; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Prentice, Carlos
Mechanically separated chicken meat has become a common ingredient of comminuted sausage products, as 'frankfurters', mainly due to its low price. The present work aimed to develop a frankfurter from mechanically separated chicken meat surimi-like material, and evaluated the chemical, rheological, microbiological and sensorial properties of this product. The response surface methodology was utilized to investigate the effects of the soybean protein, potato starch and pig lard on the texture of the obtained frankfurters. For this purpose, five levels of each factor were evaluated: soybean protein varied from 0% to 6%, potato starch from 0% to 10% and pig lard from 2% to 12%. The regression analysis of the model showed that the soybean protein exerted a linear positive effect and a quadratic negative effect in the compression force of the product (p effects (p meat surimi-like material frankfurter presented 72.2% of acceptability and 59.3% of the examiners found the color of the product slightly lighter than the ideal. Finally, the frankfurter-type sausages, without pork fat, produced and characterized here have presented promising characteristics for commercial applications.
Gheisari, Hamid Reza; Motamedi, Hossien
The effects of NaCl and KCl at varying ionic strengths on catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and lipid oxidation in ground Longissimus dorsi (LD) of cattle and camel and breast muscle of chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. NaCl and KCl significantly increased 2-thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values. TBARS and peroxide values increased and GSH-Px activity decreased during 4 day storage in the 4 degrees C, but catalase activity was stable. Salt type had no consistent effect on GSH-Px and catalase activities. Chicken samples had lower enzyme activities and TBARS content than cattle and camel. Their peroxide values were lower than camel samples. Camel meat showed higher catalase activity and TBARS content than cattle meat. Results indicated that negative correlation between lipid oxidation and GSH-Px activity and the accelerated lipid oxidation in salted meat may be partly related to a decrease in GSH-Px activity. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available High-powered means of slaughter chickens production cause on certain individuals abnormal biochemical development of postmortal changes in their muscles. It consequently lead to interferences of sensory quality of the chicken meat. So called myopathies of the chicken breast meat occur in the low extent. It is typical variation in dark colouring of breast muscle. Veterinary supervision confiscates chickens embodying myopathy by reason of sensorical unacceptable dark muscle colour. Deepness of colour is evaluated by adspection of veterinary supervisors. It is tendency leading to find out objective parameters for evaluating this sensual chicken meat colour variation. Incidence of the chickens with myopathy has been evaluating for 3 years in big poultry slaughter, therewithal high-quality chickens and chickens with perspicuous myopathy have been taking out of slaughter-line. Electric conductivity values and pH values were measuring during 60 till 330 minutes post mortem in breast muscles. Aproximately 9 millions chicken was annually slaughtered and 13 thousands of them was confiscated out of the slaughter line by reason of myopathy. It amounts to 0.14 per cent of annually count of processed chickens. Myopatical chickens had significantly higher muscle pH values as compared with healthy ones. Healthy chicken muscles decreased on ultimative pH values aproximately past 3 hours post mortem. It means pH 6.03, and after 300 minutes decreased to pH 5.82. However, myopatical chickens values varied from pH 6.46 to pH 6.30. Concurrently measured values of electric conductivity significantly corellated with pH values. Whereto, it's predication of similarity chicken myopathies and dark, firm, dry (DFD pork or turkey meat. Beyond unacceptable dark meat colour have disadvantage in poor post mortem acidifying of the meat and in consequence of microbial proteolyse. Significantly correlation between pH and electric conductivity values foreshadows on identification
Apostolou, I; Papadopoulou, C; Levidiotou, S; Ioannides, K
Small portions of fresh chicken breasts weighting 20 g each and fresh whole chickens, weighting on average 1310 g each, were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (10(5)-10(6) cfu/g) and cooked, using two different domestic microwave ovens at full power. The chicken portions were heated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 s and the whole chickens for 22 min. Following exposures, viable counts and temperature measurements were performed. Although the chicken breast portions looked well-cooked after 30 s of MW heating at a mean end-point surface temperature of 69.8 degrees C, a mean concentration of 83 cfu/g E. coli O157:H7 cells was recovered. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 cells occurred only after 35 s of MW exposure at 73.7 degrees C. When whole chickens were thoroughly cooked by MW heating, the final subsurface temperatures, measured in the thighs and wings, ranged from 60.2 degrees C to 92 degrees C and viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 were recovered from all samples of whole chicken. The results indicate that short time exposures of chicken portions to microwave heating do not eliminate E. coli O157:H7.
Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Rivoal, Katell; Houard, Emmanuelle; Rose, Valérie; Quesne, Ségolène; Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Rouxel, Sandra; Kempf, Isabelle; Guillier, Laurent; Gauchard, Françoise; Chemaly, Marianne
Campylobacter was detected in 76% of broiler meat products collected in retail outlets during a monitoring plan carried out in France throughout 2009. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (64.7% of products being contaminated). The 175 C. jejuni isolates collected were characterized. MLST typing results confirmed substantial genetic diversity as the 175 C. jejuni isolates generated 76 sequence types (STs). The ST-21, ST-45 and ST-464 complexes predominated accounting for 43% of all isolates. A class-specific PCR to screen the sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) locus classes A, B and C showed that 50.3% of the C. jejuni isolates harbored sialylated LOS. The antimicrobial resistance profiles established using a subset of 97 isolates showed that resistance to tetracycline was the most common (53.6%), followed with ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (32.9%, and 32.0% respectively). All the tested isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Clear associations were demonstrated between certain clonal complexes and LOS locus classes and between certain clonal complexes and antimicrobial resistance. This work paints a representative picture of C. jejuni isolated from poultry products circulating in France, providing data on STs, LOS locus classes and antibiotic resistance profiles in isolates recovered from products directly available to the consumer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fabiane de Cássia Pontes Ramos
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physical and physico-chemical quality parameters of sous vide preparation of pen-reared tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. To prepare the tambaqui sous vide, 200 g of fillet, 50 g of basil sauce (1:4 fish fillet:sauce ratio and 10 mL of 5% sodium lactate were used. The product was then vacuum-packaged, pasteurized at 65 ºC for 12.5 min and refrigerated. The presence of Salmonella spp., sulfite-reducing Clostridium and Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in the samples analyzed. The coliform count at 45 ºC and coagulase-positive staphylococci were below the limit (103 permitted by the law in vigor. Water retention capacity and chloride content analyses revealed that the tambaqui fillet differed significantly (P<0.05 from the sous vide because of the addition of basil sauce. The total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS content of the fillet and sous vide were below the limits established by the law, indicating good quality. The lightness (L* and yellow color (b* of the fillet and the sous vide did not differ significantly (P>0.05, but the red color (a* decreased in the sous vide, which is related to the addition of basil sauce. The chroma (C* and hue angle (ho differed significantly (P<0.05, and the fillet samples were lighter in color, whereas the sous vide was characterized by yellow color. The n-6/n-3 ratios found for the fillet and the sous vide are within the recommended values, which is important for human metabolism. The fillet and sous vide also had high calcium, zinc, magnesium and potassium concentrations. It is concluded that tambaqui sous vide is a good source of nutrients, rich in fatty acids and minerals essential for human health.
Alonso-Hernando, Alicia; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos
The antimicrobial effectiveness of five chemical decontaminants (12 % trisodium phosphate [TSP], 1,200 ppm acidified sodium chlorite [ASC], 2 % citric acid [CA], 220 ppm of peroxyacids [PA], or 50 ppm of chlorine dioxide [CD]) against psychrotrophic populations on skinned chicken legs was assessed throughout 120 h of storage under various temperature abuse scenarios. Three different simulated cold chain disruptions were used: T1 (12 h at 1 ± 1 °C, 6 h at 15 ± 1 °C, and 102 h at 4 ± 1 °C), T2 (18 h at 1 ± 1 °C, 6 h at 15 ± 1 °C, and 96 h at 10 ± 1 °C), or T3 (18 h at 4 ± 1 °C, 6 h at 20 ± 1 °C, and 96 h at 7 ± 1 °C). Microbiological analyses were carried out at 0, 24, 72, and 120 h of storage. Substantial microbial reductions, with respect to control (untreated) samples, were obtained in legs treated with TSP, ASC, and CA, with average values ranging from 1.54 ± 1.52 to 2.02 ± 2.19 log CFU/cm(2). TSP was the most effective compound under mild abuse temperature conditions (T1), with mean reductions of 2.01 ± 1.67 log CFU/cm(2), whereas ASC, followed by CA, proved to be particularly useful under moderate abuse conditions (T3; average reductions of 2.99 ± 2.27 and 1.98 ± 1.65 log CFU/cm(2), respectively). Treatment with PA or CD resulted in minimal microbial reductions.
Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L
Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Angela Cleusa de Fátima Banzatto de Carvalho
Full Text Available Alimentos de origem animal representam papel fundamental na epidemiologia das salmoneloses humanas. Apesar dos avanços tecnológicos, a carne de frango ainda é passível de contaminação bacteriana, especialmente por microrganismos do gênero Salmonella, que podem encontrar-se albergados no trato intestinal ou em outra parte do corpo das aves. O presente trabalho objetivou pesquisar a ocorrência de Salmonella em carne de frango e derivados procedentes da região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas, através do método convencional de cultivo, 45 amostras de carcaças, 60 de carne mecanicamente separada (CMS, 25 de lingüiça de frango, 20 de peito, e 15 de coxa e sobre-coxa. Salmonella spp. foi encontrada em 13,3% (6/45 das carcaças, 25% (15/60 das amostras de CMS, 16% (4/25 das lingüiças, 30% (6/20 dos peitos e 13,3% (2/15 das coxas e sobre-coxas analisadas. Do total de 165 amostras analisadas, 33 (20% apresentaram contaminação por Salmonella estando, portanto, impróprias para o consumo conforme legislação brasileira.Food of animal origin represents an important role in the epidemiology of human salmonellosis. In spite of the technological improvement, the chicken meat is subjected to bacterial contamination, mainly by microorganisms of the genus Salmonella that can be found in the intestinal tract or elsewhere on the chicken body. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in chicken meat and cuts from the Northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil. By conventional cultivation microbiological methods, 45 samples of carcasses, 60 samples of mechanically deboned meat (MDM, 25 samples of chicken sausages, 20 samples of chest, and 15 samples of chicken leg and thigh. Salmonella was found in 13.3% (6/45 of the carcass, 25% (15/60 of the MDM, 16% (4/25 of the sausages, 30% (6/20 of the chests and 13.3% (2/15 of the tight analysed. The results showed that 33 (20% out of 165 samples were
Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P meat color, shear force, and muscle pH (P > 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. © Poultry Science Association Inc.
Gamal A. Younis
Full Text Available Aim: This study describes the prevalence of Escherichia coli in frozen chicken meat intended for human consumption with emphasis on their virulence determinants through detection of the virulence genes and recognition of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL encoding genes (blaOXA and blaTEM genes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 frozen chicken meat samples were investigated for isolation of E. coli. All isolates were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Eight serotypes isolated from samples were analyzed for the presence of various virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and eae A genes using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Moreover, the strains were evaluated for the ESBL encoding genes (blaTEM and blaOXA. Results: Overall, 11.66% (14/120 chicken meat samples carried E. coli according to cultural and biochemical properties. The most predominant serotypes were O78 and O128: H2 (21.5%, each, followed by O121: H7 and O44: H18. Molecular method detected that 2 strains (25% harbored stx1, 3 strains (37.5% stx2, and 3 strains (37.5% both stx1 and stx2, while 1 (12.5% strain carried eae A gene. Particularly, only O26 serotype had all tested virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and eae A. The results revealed that all examined 8 serotypes were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. The ESBL encoding genes (blaTEM and blaOXA of STEC were detected in 4 (50% isolates by multiplex PCR. The overall incidence of blaTEM and blaOXA genes was 3 (37.5% and 2 (25% isolates. Conclusion: The present study indicates the prevalence of virulent and ESBL-producing E. coli in frozen chicken meat intended for hospitalized human consumption due to poor hygienic measures and irregular use of antibiotics. Therefore, the basic instructions regarding good hygienic measures should be adapted to limit public health hazard.
Qualidade da carne de marreco pequim branco (Anas Platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L. 1758 comparado a frango de corte Meat quality in white peking mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L. 1758 compared to broiler chicken
Peter Bitencourt Faria
Full Text Available O total de 20 carcaças resfriadas (10 Marrecos Pequim Branco e 10 de frangos de corte foi submetido às análises de composição centesimal, colesterol, cor (sistema CIE L*a*b*, perda de peso por cozimento (PPC e força de cisalhamento (FC. A carne de marreco apresenta (PTwenty refrigerated carcasses (10 Peking mallard and 10 broiler chicken were submitted to analyses of chemical composition, cholesterol, colour (CIE L*a*b* system, weight loss by cooking (PPC and shear force (FC. Mallard meat had lower (P<0.05 humidity in both leg and breast (71.77 and 74.53%, respectively when compared with chicken meat (74.73 and 76.07%, respectively. When different cuts were compared, the breast had a higher (P<0.05 humidity and protein content than the leg in both species. Mallard leg and breast had lower (P<0.05 lightness (37.59 and 35.75, respectively and higher red content (18.48 and 20.67, respectively, than the lightness (40.98 and 45.18, respectively and red content (10.02 and 5.52, respectively observed in chicken. The FC was higher (P<0.05 in mallard breast (4.90 kgf than in chicken breast (2.63 kgf. Meat from White Peking mallard is darker and with a stronger red pigment than meat from broiler chicken. Even though it is less tender than meat from broiler chicken, mallard meat still has an acceptable tenderness.
Ahmed, S T; Mun, H-S; Islam, M M; Yang, C-J
1. Corni fructus is the fruit of Cornus officinalis, a dogwood species. This study was conducted to prepare fermented corni fructus preparation (FCFP) and fermented kelp (FK) from corni fructus and by-products of Laminaria japonica fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. 2. The effects of dietary FCFP and FK as replacer of oxytetracycline (OTC) on growth performance, meat composition, meat oxidative stability, and emissions of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from broiler chicken droppings were investigated. 3. A total of 140 d-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments including control, OTC (0.05 g/kg), FCFP (5 g/kg), and FK (5 g/kg). 4. Overall, inclusion of FCFP resulted in lower weight gain and feed intake during the overall experimental period. Broilers fed FCFP diets tended to have lower crude fat and higher crude ash content in the carcasses. 5. In the fresh state, the malondialdehyde (MDA) value of broiler meat was lower in the FK supplemented group. At one week, meat from broilers fed antibiotic and FK diets had lower MDA values, whereas at 2 weeks broiler meat from all dietary treatment groups had lower MDA values than the control. 6. Dietary supplementation with FK significantly reduced faecal NH3 emissions throughout the experimental period, whereas dietary OTC and FCFP supplementation increased NH3 emissions at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no significant effects of dietary treatments on H2S emissions throughout the experimental period, except during week one, when FCFP supplementation reduced the emission. 7. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 5 g/kg FK improved the oxidative stability of broiler meat and reduce faecal NH3 emissions without affecting growth performance.
José Saturnino Mora-Flores
Full Text Available Consumption of any kind of meat is important for the proper functioning and development of the human organism. The Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico (MAVM is the main meat marketing and consumption center in the country. The objective of this work was to characterize the consumers of the three main types of meat (beef, chicken, and pork in the MAVM in order to know the products demanded, associated to variables such as income level, consumption, product value-added services, among others. The methodology used was the CHAID algorithm (Chi-squares Automatic Interaction Detection, and association tests through the X2 distribution, economic and social quantitative segmentation variables. The information was obtained through a semi-structured survey applied to 440 individuals. Data analysis was done on contingency tables with relative frequencies. The results showed that low and medium level consumers, with low and middle incomes, mainly demand popular cuts; they buy them in local supermarkets, open markets, and neighborhood butcheries. Mostly consumed is unrefrigerated meat with few value-added services.
Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Grela, Eugeniusz R; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Klebaniuk, Renata
The study aimed to determine the effect of Fe-glycinate chelate (Fe-Gly) on the chemical composition and sensory value of thigh meat in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Two experimental factors were introduced: (1) organic or inorganic Fe, and (2) Fe level at 40, 20 or 10 mg/kg of feed. No negative effect of using 40, 20 or 10 mg Fe-glycine chelate was recorded on the chemical composition (crude protein, fat, ash, total cholesterol, Cu, Zn, Ca and total fatty acids: SFA, MUFA, PUFA and UFA, and the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid ratio) and on the sensory properties of raw, cooked and grilled thigh meat. However, an increase in Fe content in the meat of birds receiving 40 and 20 mg of Fe-Gly was found, which had no significant effect on the sensory attributes of meat. Based on the study results it can be concluded that Fe-Gly can be used in broiler feed instead of Fe sulphate.
Pourquoi l'Univers plutôt que le vide ? Le temps et l'espace existent-ils en l'absence de l'Univers ? Que reste-t-il quand tout est enlevé ? Pourquoi quelque chose plutôt que rien ? Depuis des siècles, ces interrogations mobilisent philosophes et physiciens. Mais aujourd'hui, le vide n'est pas le rien. Il serait même l'acteur central de l'histoire de la matière et de l'Univers, le partenaire privilégié de la physique. Vide et matière ne sont plus deux manifestations séparées de la nature, mais deux aspects d'une même réalité. Le vide est l'état de base dont la matière émerge, sans couper son cordon ombilical Le vide comme Univers du rien cède la place au vide comme Univers du tout. Que le vide puisse être conçu par les physiciens comme réservoir potentiel d'univers, voici qui ne devrait laisser personne indifférent. Ce livre ouvre un débat et nous convie à une réflexion surprenante.
Alnahhas, N; Berri, C; Boulay, M; Baéza, E; Jégo, Y; Baumard, Y; Chabault, M; Le Bihan-Duval, E
Genetic parameters for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle (PM-pHu) and sartorius muscle (SART-pHu); color parameters L*, a*, b*; logarithm of drip loss (LogDL) of pectoralis major (PM) muscle; breast meat yield (BMY); thigh and drumstick yield (TY); abdominal fat percentage (AFP); and BW at 6 wk (BW6) were estimated in 2 lines of broiler chickens divergently selected for PM-pHu. Effects of selection on all the previous traits and on glycolytic potential, pectoralis major muscle pH at 15 min postmortem, curing-cooking yield (CCY), cooking loss (CL), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of the PM muscle were also analyzed after 5 generations. Strong genetic determinism of PM-pHu was observed, with estimated h(2) of 0.57 ± 0.02. There was a significant positive genetic correlation (rg) between PM-pHu and SART-pHu (0.54 ± 0.04), indicating that selection had a general rather than a specific effect on energy storage in skeletal muscles. The h(2) estimates of L*, a*, and b* parameters were 0.58 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 0.48 ± 0.02, respectively. Heritability estimates for TY, BMY, and AFP were 0.39 ± 0.04, 0.52 ± 0.01, and 0.71 ± 0.02, respectively. Our results indicated different genetic control of LogDL and L* of the meat between the 2 lines; these traits had a strong rg with PM-pHu in the line selected for low ultimate pH (pHu) value (pHu-; -0.80 and -0.71, respectively), which was not observed in the line selected for high pHu value (pHu+; -0.04 and -0.29, respectively). A significant positive rg (0.21 ± 0.04) was observed between PM-pHu and BMY but not between PM-pHu and BW6, AFP, or TY. Significant phenotypic differences were observed after 5 generations of selection between the 2 lines. The mean differences (P meat in the pHu+ line exhibited lower L* (-5 units; P meat of the pHu+ line was also characterized by greater CCY (+6.1 units; P meat and reducing the incidence of meat quality defects without affecting chicken growth performance.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Sauropus androgynus (katuk leavesextract (SAE and lemuru fish oil (LO on fat deposition and fatty acid composition of meat in broilerchickens. One hundred and fifty six broiler chickens were distributed to 13 treatment groups with 3cages in each treatment group as replicate. Completely randomized design was used in this study. Thethirteen groups were subsequent of broiler chickens that were fed diet containing commercial feedsupplement as a control (P1, 10 g/kg SAE and 1% LO (P2; 10 g/kg SAE and 1% LO plus 60 mgvitamin E (P3, 10 g/kg SAE and 2% LO (P4, 10 g/kg SAE and 2% LO plus 60 mg vitamin E (P5, 10g/kg SAE and 3% LO (P6, 10 g/kg SAE and 3% LO plus 60 mg vitamin E (P7, 18 g/kg SAE and 1%LO (P8, 18 g/kg SAE and 1% LO plus 60 mg vitamin E (P9, 18 g/kg SAE and 2% LO (P10, were18 g/kg SAE and 2% LO plus 60 mg vitamin E (P11, 18 g/kg SAE and 3% LO (P12, and 18 g/kg SAEand 3% LO plus 60 mg vitamin E (P13. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and if it weresignificant, it were then determined by Duncan's Multiple Range test. The present results showed thatsupplementation of SAE and LO significantly affected (P<0.05 fat deposition in abdomen and leg, butit had no effect on neck fat deposition and Fatty Liver Score. Supplementation of SAE and LO hadsignificantly reduced (P<0.05 cholesterol content and thiobarbituric acid (TBA in leg meat, but itsignificantly increased (P<0.05 vitamin A and vitamin E and it had no effect on fat in leg meat.Supplementation of SAE and LO proved to change fatty acid composition in leg meat. The treatmenthighly significant increased ecosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA (P<0.01,arachidonic acid and stearic acid (P<0.05, but it significantly reduced linolenic acid (P<0.05. Inconclusion, the supplementation of SAE and LO reduced fat deposition in abdomen and leg, the contentof cholesterol in meat, and it enriched EPA and DHA of meat.
Saleem, Rabia; Ejaz, Hasan; Zafar, Aizza; Younas, Sonia; Rathore, Ahsan Waheed
The present study aimed to determine the frequency and antimicrobial profile of ESBL-producing isolates of E. coli in different environments. This cross-sectional study was conducted at The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore from July to December 2015. The faecal specimens from healthy individuals, patients, sewage sludge, cattle, chickens and raw meat (n = 122) were processed for microbiological analysis using MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime. The identification of organisms was confirmed by API 10S and antimicrobial resistance profile was recorded by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. On the basis of screening, 77 (63.0%) specimens were found to be positive for ESBL production. The confirmation of 74 (60.0%) ESBL producing E. coli was done using double disc synergy test (DDST). The frequency of ESBL producing E. coli was found to be 17 (57.0%) in healthy individuals, 15 (53.0%) in patients, 10 (66.0%) in cattle faeces, 5 (71.0%) in sewage sludge, 14 (70.0%) in raw meat and 13 (59.0%) in chicken faeces. All of these isolates were resistant to cephalosporins and some of these were resistant to fluoroquinolones and meropenem. None of the isolates showed resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and amikacin. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli was recorded in all the environments, suggesting a global expansion of these enzymes.
Zbigniew A. Kruk
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w of soy sauce (SS, 10% (w/w of olive oil (OO, and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w (SO were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.
Biswas, A K; Tandon, S; Beura, C K
The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VPreduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days on performance,immuno-competence,and characteristicsof leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed oncorn-soybeanmeal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocatedtofivetreatment groups(0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP, withninereplicates per treatmentgroup. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheepredblood cells (SRBC. The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin(PHA and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCBat 34 and 42 days of ages.At 33, 38 and 43days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughteredand boneparameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactivesubstances (TBARS on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at-80 ̊C. The resultsshowed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisherperiod did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones.Results of TBARS showed thatlipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP wassignificantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally,the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisherbroilers’ diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.
Kruk, Zbigniew A; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun
This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.
Konieczka, P; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A J; Czauderna, M; Smulikowska, S
Consumption of chicken meat enriched with bioactive compounds such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAn-3), vitamin E (vE) and selenium (Se) can help prevent many diseases and can be used to deliver those substances to humans. This might be of importance as chicken meat consumption is increasing worldwide. The effects of enriching chicken meat with PUFAn-3, vE and Se through dietary interventions were studied in rats. Four groups of Ross 308 female broilers from day 22 to day 35 of age were fed control diet (L) that contained lard and 80 mg vE and 0.3 mg Se/kg, or diets that contained rape seeds and fish oil with the same level of Se and vE as in the control diet, the same level of Se as in the control and 150 mg vE/kg, or 150 mg of vE and 0.7 mg Se/kg. Broiler carcasses were boiled, deboned, lyophilized and pooled by group. Boiled edible components of chicken carcass (BECC) were included (240 g/kg) in the diets fed to four groups of ten 10-week-old Wistar male rats for 8 weeks. Inclusion of BECCs modulated dietary fatty acid profile in the rat diets. Feeding these diets did not influence parameters related to growth or relative weights of internal organs in the rats. Feeding BECCs with lower PUFAn-6/n-3 decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in the rat brain and liver, and increased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in the brain lipids. Liver cholesterol level was similar among the experimental groups, whereas the concentration of vE in the liver of rats fed BECC with increased vE levels was higher than that in the rats fed BECC with the basal vE level. Haematological and biochemical parameters in blood were within the normal range for rats, but a few rats showed a tendency towards increased levels because of the higher vE and Se level. The health-promoting effect of feeding rats PUFAn-3 enriched BECC was more pronounced when an increased dietary level of vE was used, but the increased level of Se did not provide the rats with additional benefits. Thus, the
Ghodousi, Arash; Bonura, Celestino; Di Noto, Anna Maria; Mammina, Caterina
Globally, antimicrobial drug-resistant Escherichia coli is among the most common etiological agents of invasive disease in humans. In Europe, increasing proportions of infections due to third-generation cephalosporins and/or fluoroquinolone-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains are reported. E. coli from poultry are those more closely linked to human E. coli, but lack of reliable data makes it difficult to assess the attributable risk of different food sources. In the present study, our objective was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile, phylogenetic background, and virulence factors of E. coli isolates from broiler chicken meat sold at retail in Palermo, Italy. Isolation of multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli was performed during April-December 2013 on a total of 163 chicken meat samples. Susceptibility to a panel of nine antimicrobial agents was determined. PCR assays were carried out to detect extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, phylogenetic group, and ExPEC-associated traits. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR was done to detect E. coli sequence type (ST)131. One hundred thirty-four isolates from 109 meat samples were MDR. B1 was the most prevalent phylogenetic group (47.8%), followed by groups D (25.4%), A (22.3%), and B2 (4.5%). ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases were detected by PCR in 132 (98.5%) and 15 (11.2%) isolates. PMQR determinants were detected in 122 (91%) isolates. Twenty-two MDR isolates met the molecular definition of ExPEC. SNP-PCR results confirmed that four B2 isolates were ST131. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus sequence-PCR analysis showed a large heterogeneity with 55 unique profiles and 31 clusters including 2-4 isolates. An alarmingly high prevalence of MDR E. coli from broiler chicken meat is evident in our geographic area. The ongoing use of antimicrobial drugs in livestock should be
Restani, Patrizia; Ballabio, Cinzia; Tripodi, Salvatore; Fiocchi, Alessandro
This review summarizes the scientific evidence on meat allergy, an unusual disorder, whose prevalence in some European countries (such as Italy) may be increasing. Data reported in this review underline some interesting points: in meats rarely consumed, such as kangaroo, whale and seal, the main allergens are only partially correlated to those detected in beef or other usually consumed meats; cross-reactivity and cross-contamination are critical aspects, which should be seriously considered by allergologists. Meat allergy is normally outgrown during the first years of life, so that it is rare in adults. Beef among mammals and chicken among birds are most frequently involved. The major allergens are serum albumins and immunoglobulins, but there are a few reports of allergies to muscle proteins (actin, myosin and tropomyosin). As meat allergenicity can be reduced by various treatments (heat, homogenization and freeze-drying), the consumption of meat derivatives by children allergic to meat proteins is often permitted. Cross-reactivity has been described between different meats, between meat and milk or eggs and between meat and animal dander. There are some reports of cross-contamination associated with the inadequate cleaning of industrial or butchers' equipment. All these aspects may have serious implications for clinical practice.
Muhlisin, Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki
The effects of gaseous ozone exposure on the bacterial counts and oxidative properties were evaluated in duck and chicken breast fillets, which were stored under a continuous flux of gaseous ozone (10×10(-6) kg O3/m(3)/h) at 4±1℃ for 4 d. The ozone generator was set to on for 15 min and off for 105 min, and this cyclic timer was set during storage. Ozone effectively reduced the growth of coliform, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in both chicken and duck breast. However, lipid oxidation occurred faster in duck breast than chicken breast with higher degree of discoloration, TBARS value, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activity decline rates. It is concluded that ozone effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in both chicken and duck breast with less effects on oxidative deterioration in chicken breast.
Larissa Alvarenga Batista Botelho
Full Text Available The dissemination of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes may pose a substantial public health risk. In the present work, the occurrences ofblaCTX-M and plasmid-mediated ampCand qnrgenes were investigated in Escherichia colifrom 16 chicken carcasses produced by four commercial brands in Brazil. Of the brands tested, three were exporters, including one of organic chicken. Our study assessed 136 E. coli isolates that were grouped into 77 distinct biotypes defined by their origin, resistance profiling, the presence of β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polimerase chain reaction typing. TheblaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-2 andblaCTX-M-8 genes were detected in one, 17 and eight different biotypes, respectively (45 isolates. Twenty-one biotypes (46 isolates harboured blaCMY-2.Additionally, blaCMY-2 was identified in isolates that also carried either blaCTX-M-2 orblaCTX-M-8. The qnrB and/orqnrS genes occurred in isolates carrying each of the four types of β-lactamase determinants detected and also in oxyimino-cephalosporin-susceptible strains. Plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and AmpC determinants were identified in carcasses from the four brands tested. Notably, this is the first description ofblaCTX-M-15 genes in meat or food-producing animals from South America. The blaCTX-M-8, blaCTX-M-15 andblaCMY-2 genes were transferable in conjugation experiments. The findings of the present study indicate that plasmid-mediated ESBL and AmpC-encoding genes are widely distributed in Brazilian chicken meat.
Botelho, Larissa Alvarenga Batista; Kraychete, Gabriela Bergiante; Costa e Silva, Jacqueline Lapa; Regis, Douglas Viller Vieira; Picão, Renata Cristina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Bonelli, Raquel Regina
The dissemination of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes may pose a substantial public health risk. In the present work, the occurrences of blaCTX-M and plasmid-mediated ampC and qnr genes were investigated in Escherichia coli from 16 chicken carcasses produced by four commercial brands in Brazil. Of the brands tested, three were exporters, including one of organic chicken. Our study assessed 136 E. coli isolates that were grouped into 77 distinct biotypes defined by their origin, resistance profiling, the presence of β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polimerase chain reaction typing. The blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-2 and blaCTX-M-8 genes were detected in one, 17 and eight different biotypes, respectively (45 isolates). Twenty-one biotypes (46 isolates) harboured blaCMY-2. Additionally, blaCMY-2 was identified in isolates that also carried either blaCTX-M-2 or blaCTX-M-8. The qnrB and/or qnrS genes occurred in isolates carrying each of the four types of β-lactamase determinants detected and also in oxyimino-cephalosporin-susceptible strains. Plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC determinants were identified in carcasses from the four brands tested. Notably, this is the first description of blaCTX-M-15 genes in meat or food-producing animals from South America. The blaCTX-M-8, blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-2 genes were transferable in conjugation experiments. The findings of the present study indicate that plasmid-mediated ESBL and AmpC-encoding genes are widely distributed in Brazilian chicken meat.
Karlsson, H.A.; Horsted, K.; Dufek, A.
Significant effects of Genotype and Age on several of the technological meat quality attributes measured were found. In general, the meat from fast growing birds (JA) was darker, more tender, had a higher water-binding but a higher cooking loss. Birds with a higher age at slaughter was more red, less tender and had a higher cooking loss. Regarding the protein concentration of the feed, no significant effects could be found on meat quality attributes, however a high protein concentration in th...
Abeyesinghe, S M; McKeegan, D E F; McLeman, M A; Lowe, J C; Demmers, T G M; White, R P; Kranen, R W; van Bemmel, H; Lankhaar, J A C; Wathes, C M
1. The effects of controlled atmosphere stunning on the behaviour, physiology and carcase and meat quality of broiler chickens were studied experimentally in a pilot scale plant. 2. Gas mixtures tested were: single phase anoxic mixture (90% Ar in air, posture occurred soonest with hypercapnic anoxia with the earliest and most twitching and wing flapping in individuals and earliest leg paddling. Biphasic birds were most alert, exhibited most respiratory disruption and mandibulation, and had the latest loss of posture and fewest, but longest bouts of wing flapping and least leg paddling and twitching. 4. Significant and sudden bradycardia and arrhythmia were evident with all gas mixtures and were not related solely to anoxia or hypercapnia. Birds stunned by Ar anoxia showed a slightly more gradual decline from baseline rates, compared with hypercapnic mixtures. 5. Few differences were found between gas mixes in terms of carcase and meat quality. Initial bleeding rate was slowest in biphasic-stunned birds, but total blood loss was not affected. Acceleration of post-mortem metabolism in anoxic-stunned birds was not sufficient to allow de-boning within 5 h without the risk of tough meat. 6. On welfare grounds and taking into account other laboratory and field studies, a biphasic method (using consecutive phases of anaesthesia and euthanasia) of controlled atmosphere stunning of broilers is potentially more humane than anoxic or hypercapnic anoxic methods using argon or nitrogen.
Sandra Sirangelo Maggio
Full Text Available Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics". Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics".
Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C
The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat.
Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: A poultry welfare and economic perspective1
Menconi, A.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Urbano, T.; Matté, F.; Layton, S.; Kallapura, G.; Latorre, J.; Morales, B. E.; Prado, O.; Vicente, J. L.; Barton, J.; Filho, R. L. Andreatti; Lovato, M.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.
The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P meat quality attributes. PMID:24570468
Saiyudthong, S; Phusri, K; Buates, S
A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari was developed and validated to assess the occurrence of these bacteria in fresh chicken meat and by-products in Bangkok, Thailand, by using a new combination of four previously published PCR primers for C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and a universal 16S rDNA gene as an internal control. The specificity was determined by using 13 strains of other bacteria. With pure culture DNA, the detection limit was 0.017 ng/PCR for C. jejuni and C. coli and was 0.016 ng/PCR for C. lari. It can detect 10 CFU of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in 2 g of chicken meat within a 16-h enrichment time. Our multiplex PCR assay was applied for identification of Campylobacter spp. in 122 supermarket samples and 108 fresh market samples. Of the 230 samples evaluated by multiplex PCR, 54.0, 3.3, and 10.7% of supermarket samples were positive for C. jejuni, C. coli, and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, and 56.5 and 33.3% of fresh market samples were positive for C. jejuni and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. No sample was positive for C. lari. Fresh market samples had significantly higher C. jejuni and C. coli contamination than those from supermarkets (relative risk: 1.3; P = 0.0001). Compared with the culture method (a gold standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of multiplex PCR were 97.7, 86.8, 96.1, 92.0, and 95.2%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between results from two methods (P = 0.55). Therefore, the established multiplex PCR was not only rapid and easy to perform but had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, even in samples containing mixed contamination. Our study indicated that fresh chicken meat and by-products from fresh markets were significantly less hygienic than those
Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Dong; Lai, Jing; Qing, Xiaodan; Li, Guangyao; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo
Meat is considered as a major source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which is essential for humans, therefore its lipid level and fatty acid composition have drawn great attention. As no clinical sign can be found in chicks subclinically infected by Clostridium perfringens (CP), the meat may be purchased and eaten. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) can control the CP-caused impact on growth, lipid levels, fatty acid composition and other flavor or nutritional quality in the meat. 480 one-day-old chicks were divided into four groups and fed with basal diet (control and CP group). Supplemented with 1 × 10 5 (L-LJ) and 1 × 10 6 (H-LJ) colony-forming unit (cfu), CP diet was fed for 42 days. From day 19 to 22, birds of CP and LJ groups were administered with CP twice per day and the control was administered with liver broth. LJ-treated chickens were free from negative influences on growth performance and significant decrease of abdominal fat deposit., LJ inhibited CP-caused shearing force and drip loss increase and pH 40 min and 24 h decrease after sacrifice. In addition, LJ exhibited a positive effect on muscle lipid peroxidation by significantly increasing SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activity and decreasing MDA level. Besides, LJ attenuated the decrease of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and triglyceride contents caused by CP infection. However, levels of total protein and most of amino acids were not changed. CP infection decreased C18:3n-3 (α-LA), C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3(EPA), C22:4n-6, C22:5n-3, C22:6n-3(DHA), total PUFA, n-3 PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio and increased C14:0, total SFA and n-6:n-3 ratio. LJ was found to protect the muscle from these changes. Meanwhile, the 28-day gut permeability level was higher in CP group. These findings suggest that CP may affect the growth performance of chicks and negatively influence lipid content and fatty acid composition in chicken meat. Meanwhile, LJ treatment
Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Nadaf, Javad; Berri, Cécile; Pitel, Frédérique; Graulet, Benoît; Godet, Estelle; Leroux, Sophie Y.; Demeure, Olivier; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Duby, Cécile; Cogburn, Larry A.; Beaumont, Catherine M.; Duclos, Michel J.
Classical quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and gene expression QTL (eQTL) were combined to identify the causal gene (or QTG) underlying a highly significant QTL controlling the variation of breast meat color in a F2 cross between divergent high-growth (HG) and low-growth (LG) chicken lines. Within this meat quality QTL, BCMO1 (Accession number GenBank: AJ271386), encoding the β-carotene 15, 15′-monooxygenase, a key enzyme in the conversion of β-carotene into colorless retinal, was a good functional candidate. Analysis of the abundance of BCMO1 mRNA in breast muscle of the HG x LG F2 population allowed for the identification of a strong cis eQTL. Moreover, reevaluation of the color QTL taking BCMO1 mRNA levels as a covariate indicated that BCMO1 mRNA levels entirely explained the variations in meat color. Two fully-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located within the proximal promoter of BCMO1 gene were identified. Haplotype substitution resulted in a marked difference in BCMO1 promoter activity in vitro. The association study in the F2 population revealed a three-fold difference in BCMO1 expression leading to a difference of 1 standard deviation in yellow color between the homozygous birds at this haplotype. This difference in meat yellow color was fully consistent with the difference in carotenoid content (i.e. lutein and zeaxanthin) evidenced between the two alternative haplotypes. A significant association between the haplotype, the level of BCMO1 expression and the yellow color of the meat was also recovered in an unrelated commercial broiler population. The mutation could be of economic importance for poultry production by making possible a gene-assisted selection for color, a determining aspect of meat quality. Moreover, this natural genetic diversity constitutes a new model for the study of β-carotene metabolism which may act upon diverse biological processes as precursor of the vitamin A. PMID:21750696
Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Nadaf, Javad; Berri, Cécile; Pitel, Frédérique; Graulet, Benoît; Godet, Estelle; Leroux, Sophie Y; Demeure, Olivier; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Duby, Cécile; Cogburn, Larry A; Beaumont, Catherine M; Duclos, Michel J
Classical quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and gene expression QTL (eQTL) were combined to identify the causal gene (or QTG) underlying a highly significant QTL controlling the variation of breast meat color in a F2 cross between divergent high-growth (HG) and low-growth (LG) chicken lines. Within this meat quality QTL, BCMO1 (Accession number GenBank: AJ271386), encoding the β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, a key enzyme in the conversion of β-carotene into colorless retinal, was a good functional candidate. Analysis of the abundance of BCMO1 mRNA in breast muscle of the HG x LG F2 population allowed for the identification of a strong cis eQTL. Moreover, reevaluation of the color QTL taking BCMO1 mRNA levels as a covariate indicated that BCMO1 mRNA levels entirely explained the variations in meat color. Two fully-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located within the proximal promoter of BCMO1 gene were identified. Haplotype substitution resulted in a marked difference in BCMO1 promoter activity in vitro. The association study in the F2 population revealed a three-fold difference in BCMO1 expression leading to a difference of 1 standard deviation in yellow color between the homozygous birds at this haplotype. This difference in meat yellow color was fully consistent with the difference in carotenoid content (i.e. lutein and zeaxanthin) evidenced between the two alternative haplotypes. A significant association between the haplotype, the level of BCMO1 expression and the yellow color of the meat was also recovered in an unrelated commercial broiler population. The mutation could be of economic importance for poultry production by making possible a gene-assisted selection for color, a determining aspect of meat quality. Moreover, this natural genetic diversity constitutes a new model for the study of β-carotene metabolism which may act upon diverse biological processes as precursor of the vitamin A.
Berg, E. S.; Wester, A. L.; Ahrenfeldt, Johanne
In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat was contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli......) were selected from the NORM-VET strain collections. All strains carried an IncK plasmid with a blaCMY-2 gene. Clinical E. coli isolates (n=284) with AmpC-mediated resistance were collected at Norwegian microbiology laboratories from 2010 to 2014. PCR screening showed that 29 of the clinical isolates...... harboured both IncK and blaCMY-2. All IncK/blaCMY-2 positive isolates were analysed by WGS-based bioinformatics tools. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2.5 Mbp of shared genome sequences showed close relationship with less than 15 SNP differences between five clinical isolates from...
Lee, Nakia; Sharma, Vijendra; Brown, Nettie; Mohan, Anand
Whole chicken breast was injected with potassium bicarbonate (PB), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and potassium lactate (K-lactate) and salt, alone or in combination at different concentration levels. The objectives were to 1) investigate the effects of different concentration of PB, SB, and PL on instrumental color, water-holding capacity (WHC), objective tenderness, expressible moisture, and moisture content and 2) evaluate whether sodium-containing ingredients can be replaced with potassium as a potential strategy to reduce total sodium content in the finished product. Results showed that chicken breast tissue marinated with SB and PB had greater moisture retention, display characteristics, and cooked product qualities than chicken breast tissue injected with water and the nonmarinated control. The L* values (lightness) did not change over the period of retail display and were not different compared to the control (P>0.05). The chicken breast enhanced with SB, PB, and K-lactate retained better retail display color than the controls (marinated with water and nonmarinated). Increasing the potassium bicarbonate concentration from 0.5 to 1.5% significantly improved the water-holding capacity (82.17 to 92.61%; Pmeat quality than SB. This study suggests that chicken breast tissue can be marinated with KB as a healthier alternative to phosphate or SB. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Chouliara, E; Karatapanis, A; Savvaidis, I N; Kontominas, M G
The combined effect of oregano essential oil (0.1% and 1% w/w) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (30% CO2/70% N2 and 70% CO2/30% N2) on shelf-life extension of fresh chicken meat stored at 4 degrees C was investigated. The parameters that were monitored were: microbiological (TVC, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Enterobacteriaceae), physico-chemical (pH, TBA, color) and sensory (odor and taste) attributes. Microbial populations were reduced by 1-5 log cfu/g for a given sampling day, with the more pronounced effect being achieved by the combination of MAP and oregano essential oil. TBA values for all treatments remained lower than 1 mg malondialdehyde (MDA) kg(-1) throughout the 25-day storage period. pH values varied between 6.4 (day 0) and 5.9 (day 25). The values of the color parameters L*, a* and b* were not considerably affected by oregano oil or by MAP. Finally, sensory analysis showed that oregano oil at a concentration of 1% imparted a very strong taste to the product for which reason these lots of samples were not scored. On the basis of sensory evaluation a shelf-life extension of breast chicken meat by ca. 3-4 days for samples containing 0.1% oregano oil, 2-3 days for samples under MAP and 5-6 days for samples under MAP containing 0.1% of oregano oil was attained. Thus oregano oil and MAP exhibited an additive preservation effect.
Berg, E S; Wester, A L; Ahrenfeldt, J; Mo, S S; Slettemeås, J S; Steinbakk, M; Samuelsen, Ø; Grude, N; Simonsen, G S; Løhr, I H; Jørgensen, S B; Tofteland, S; Lund, O; Dahle, U R; Sunde, M
In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat were contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to compare selected cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans and poultry to determine their genetic relatedness based on whole genome sequencing (WGS). Escherichia coli representing three prevalent cephalosporin-resistant multi-locus sequence types (STs) isolated from poultry (n=17) were selected from the NORM-VET strain collections. All strains carried an IncK plasmid with a bla CMY-2 gene. Clinical E. coli isolates (n=284) with AmpC-mediated resistance were collected at Norwegian microbiology laboratories from 2010 to 2014. PCR screening showed that 29 of the clinical isolates harboured both IncK and bla CMY-2 . All IncK/bla CMY-2 -positive isolates were analysed with WGS-based bioinformatics tools. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2.5 Mbp of shared genome sequences showed close relationship, with fewer than 15 SNP differences between five clinical isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the ST38 isolates from poultry. Furthermore, all of the 29 clinical isolates harboured IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid variants highly similar to the IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid present in the poultry isolates. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that clonal transfer of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from chicken meat to humans may occur, and may cause difficult-to-treat infections. Furthermore, these E. coli can be a source of AmpC-resistance plasmids for opportunistic pathogens in the human microbiota. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tong, H B; Cai, J; Lu, J; Wang, Q; Shao, D; Zou, J M
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of outdoor access days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 864 twenty one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens, with similar body weight (536±36g), were selected and raised in indoor floor pens that measured 1.42×1.42 m (2 m2, 18 birds/m2) in conventional poultry research houses (36 birds per pen). Two hundred and sixteen birds were allowed outdoor access treatments at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age, respectively (access to outdoor for 35, 28, 21, and 14 days, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 6 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (216 birds per treatment). In the outdoor access treatment, the birds had an outdoor free-range paddock that measured 3×8 m (24 m2, 1.5 birds/m2). The body weight of birds at 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (Pmeat color increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P=0.032, P=0.013, respectively). The spleen: the body weight ratio showed a decreasing and then increasing quadratic response to increasing outdoor access days (P=0.047). The litter moisture content at 42 and 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (Pmeat color, while decreasing foot yield. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.