WorldWideScience

Sample records for vidalia mattress casting

  1. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid yellow...

  2. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish shipping...

  3. Comparative study of a foam mattress and a water mattress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, H.W.; Groenier, K.H.; Schuling, J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine the effectiveness of high-quality foam replacement mattresses in the treatment of pressure ulcers, one such mattress (TheraRest) was compared with a water mattress (Secutex). One hundred and twenty nursing home patients with pressure ulcers were randomised into two groups and

  4. Dielectric properties for prediction of moisture content in Vidalia onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave Sensing provides a means for nondestructively determining the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. In this study, dielectric properties of Vidalia onions were analyzed for moisture dependence at 13.36 GHz and 23°C for moisture content betwee...

  5. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia... disadvantages to producers, handlers, and consumers in determining whether continued operation of the order... to and approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and have been assigned OMB No. 0581-0178...

  6. 75 FR 72944 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Mattresses, Mattress Pads, and/or Mattress...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... requires manufacturers to test specimens of each of their mattress prototypes (designs) before mattresses... product safety rule under [the CPSA] or similar rule, regulation, standard, or ban under any other Act... assessment bodies for testing pursuant to 16 CFR parts 1632, ``Standard for the Flammability of Mattresses...

  7. 16 CFR 1632.4 - Mattress test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cigarettes shall be burned on the tape edge. (ii) Light and place one cigarette at a time on the mattress..., the number of cigarettes which may be lighted and placed on the mattress at one time is left to the... FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF MATTRESSES AND MATTRESS PADS (FF 4-72, AMENDED) The Standard § 1632.4 Mattress...

  8. 75 FR 67047 - Standard for the Flammability of Mattresses and Mattress Pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Standard requires that the ignition source for testing mattresses ``shall be cigarettes without filter tips... mattress pads, Records, Textiles, Warranties. For the reasons given above, the Commission proposes to amend...

  9. Relationship Between Consumer Acceptability and Pungency-Related Flavor Compounds of Vidalia Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Yeon; Jackson, Daniel; Adhikari, Koushik; Riner, Cliff; Sanchez-Brambila, Gabriela

    2017-10-01

    A consumer study was conducted to evaluate preferences in Vidalia onions, and define consumer acceptability thresholds for commonly analyzed flavor compounds associated with pungency. Two varieties of Vidalia onions (Plethora and Sapelo Sweet) were grown at 3 fertilizer application rates (37.5 and 0; 134.5 and 59.4; and 190 and 118.8 kg/ha of nitrogen and sulfur, respectively), creating 6 treatments with various flavor attributes to use in the study. Bulb soluble solids, sugars, pyruvic acid, lachrymatory factor (LF; propanethial S-oxide), and methyl thiosulfinate (MT) content were determined and compared to sensory responses for overall liking, intensity of the sharp/pungent/burning sensation (SPB), and intent to buy provided by 142 consumers. Onion pyruvate, LF, MT, and sugar content increased as fertilization rate increased, regardless of onion variety. Consumer responses showed participants preferred onions with low SPB, which correlated positively to lower pyruvate, LF and MT concentrations, but showed no relationship to total sugars in the onion bulb. Regression analyses revealed that the majority of consumers (≥55%) found the flavor of Vidalia onions acceptable when the concentrations of LF, pyruvic acid, and MT within the bulbs were below 2.21, 4.83, and 0.43 nmol/mL, respectively. These values will support future studies aimed at identifying the optimal cultivation practices for production of sweet Vidalia onions, and can serve as an industry benchmark for quality control, thus ensuring the flavor of Vidalia onions will be acceptable to the majority of consumers. This study identified the relationship between consumer preferences and commonly analyzed flavor compounds in Vidalia onions, and established thresholds for these compounds at concentrations which the majority of consumers will find desirable. These relationships and thresholds will support future research investigating how cultural practices impact onion quality, and can be used to assist

  10. Evaluation of Techniques to Eliminate Erosion from Under River Revetment Mattresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Mattress 16 9 Photomicrographs Showing (a) Woven and (b) Nonwoven Geotextile Fibers 20 10 Cross-Sectional View of the Launch Edge of the Sinking Plant...strength was 2 B.J. Littlejohn, Use of Plastic Filter Cloth in Revetment Construction: Potamology Research Project iI, Report No. 21.5 (Potamology...construction. Proper placement of the cords was an additional consideration during casting. The fabric was a geotextile with the trade name Poly- Filter X

  11. Pelargonic acid for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivation using a tine weeder is a proven means to manage weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. If the initial cultivation is delayed, emerged weeds are not controlled by the tine weeder. In these cases, herbicides derived from natural products could be used to control the emerged we...

  12. Weed control using ammonium nonanoate and cultivation in organic Vidalia sweet onion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium nonanoate is registered for weed control in certified organic crop production and may be useful to control cool-season weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion. Cultivation with a tine weeder has been identified as a cost-effective means of weed control, but delays in cultivation cause some w...

  13. Interactions among cultivation, weeds, and a bio-fungicide in organic Vidalia sweet onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed management in organic Vidalia® sweet onion (Allium cepa) is largely dependent on multiple cultivations with a tine weeder. Earlier research suggested cultivation with a tine weeder did not predispose onion bulbs to infection during storage. Trials were conducted from 2012 through 2014 near Ly...

  14. Assessment of factors affecting fire performance of mattresses: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazaré, Shonali; Davis, Rick D; Butler, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of U.S. residential fire statistics shows that although the total number of fires and deaths due to mattress fires has dropped as a result of several regulatory approaches, the mattress/bedding fires...

  15. 16 CFR 1632.31 - Mattresses/mattress pads-labeling, recordkeeping, guaranties and “one of a kind” exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for the useful life of the mattress or mattress pad. The label must be at least 40 square inches (250... the Standard. (3) Photograph (color or black and white) of the bare surface of each mattress or... (color or black and white) of the bare surface of each mattress or mattress pad tested in accordance with...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6190 - Mattress cover for medical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6190 Mattress cover for medical purposes. (a) Identification. A mattress cover for medical purposes is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to protect a mattress. It may be...

  17. 76 FR 59014 - Standard for the Flammability of Mattresses and Mattress Pads; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... mattresses ``shall be cigarettes without filter tips made from natural tobacco, 85 2 mm long with a tobacco... trade associations: the International Sleep Products Association (``ISPA'') and the National Textile...

  18. Flame retardant cotton barrier nonwovens for mattresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to regulation CPSC 16 CFR 1633, every new residential mattress sold in the United States since July 2007 must resist ignition by open flame. An environmentally benign “green”, inexpensive way to meet this regulation is to use a low-cost flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric. In this study, a...

  19. Esprit HR mattress cover in pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoulowa, J

    Modern mattresses provide soft dense foam, which permits the redistribution of pressure on the patient over a wider area - away from bony prominences where pressure ulcers usually occur. The material used in producing multistretch covers for the new mattresses had a tendency to delaminate as a result of a combination of heat, moisture and inappropriate cleansing techniques causing the water barriers to fall. In partnership with York Health NHS Trust and the material manufacturer, STM Healthcare produced a mattress cover (Esprit HR) which was able to withstand higher pressure from heat and moisture and greatly extended the life expectancy of the Esprit HR mattress.

  20. 21 CFR 880.5560 - Temperature regulated water mattress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temperature regulated water mattress. 880.5560... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5560 Temperature regulated water mattress. (a) Identification. A temperature... heating and water circulating components, and an optional cooling component. The temperature control may...

  1. 16 CFR 1632.5 - Mattress pad test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in § 1632.5(b)(2). (i) Such laundering is not required of mattress pads which are intended for one... regulations established by the Consumer Product Safety Commission in § 1632.31(b). (iii) Exception. One time... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mattress pad test procedure. 1632.5 Section...

  2. Effect of sprayer output volume and adjuvants on efficacy of clove oil for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely cultivation with a tine weeder is the primary tool for successful weed control in organic Vidalia® sweet onion, but conditions frequently arise that delay the initial cultivation. Weeds that emerge during the delay are not effectively controlled by cultivation and herbicides derived from nat...

  3. Casting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  4. 16 CFR Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Figs. 14, 15 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633—Label for...

  5. Horizontal running mattress suture modified with intermittent simple loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Anna H; Shiman, Michael I; Strozier, Narissa; Zaiac, Martin N

    2013-01-01

    Using the combination of a horizontal running mattress suture with intermittent loops achieves both good eversion with the horizontal running mattress plus the ease of removal of the simple loops. This combination technique also avoids the characteristic railroad track marks that result from prolonged non-absorbable suture retention. The unique feature of our technique is the incorporation of one simple running suture after every two runs of the horizontal running mattress suture. To demonstrate its utility, we used the suturing technique on several patients and analyzed the cosmetic outcome with post-operative photographs in comparison to other suturing techniques. In summary, the combination of running horizontal mattress suture with simple intermittent loops demonstrates functional and cosmetic benefits that can be readily taught, comprehended, and employed, leading to desirable aesthetic results and wound edge eversion.

  6. Production of Single Contracting Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes: Matrigel Mattress Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadar, Adrian G; Feaster, Tromondae K; Durbin, Matthew D; Hong, Charles C

    2017-08-14

    This unit describes the published Matrigel mattress method. Briefly, we describe the preparation of the mattress, replating of the human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) on the Matrigel mattress, and hiPSC-CM mattress maintenance. Adherence to this protocol will yield individual, robustly shortening hiPSC-CMs, which can be used for downstream applications. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  7. Transfoam Visco: evaluation of a viscoelastic foam mattress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldon, Pauline

    It is both a massive financial commitment and a huge financial decision to standardize mattresses in a large trust. It should only be undertaken after evaluation of the evidence of efficacy supplied by relevant companies, together with independent research and reports by healthcare professionals. In addition, evaluation of the equipment should be made by back care advisers, from a user-safety viewpoint and physiotherapists, occupational therapists concerning rehabilitation. Ward-based nurses and patients need to assess equipment for comfort, ease of repositioning individual, and ability to relieve pressure. This article outlines the process by which a static mattress was evaluated for ease of movement, pressure relief and comfort by patients and healthcare professionals. The possible longevity of the mattress was considered as secondary relevance; however, cost-effectiveness and quality of product are essential in today's acute healthcare setting.

  8. Triangular mattress suture in abdominal diastasis to prevent epigastric bulging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L M; Castilho, H T; Hochberg, J; Ardenghy, M; Toledo, S R; Cruz, R G; Tardelli, H

    2001-02-01

    In the classic abdominoplasty, the treatment of large diastasis recti with simple or vertical mattress sutures may result in a nonaesthetic bulge. The surgeon may produce a craniocaudal bulge deformity by treating the flaccidity in the horizontal plane only, although it occurs in all directions. The authors describe the triangular mattress suture for the treatment of large diastasis recti, and demonstrate the mechanism involved in producing an epigastric bulge. Also presented is their clinical experience with 56 patients, with a 3-year follow-up, using this new plication method. The triangular mattress suture is a simple, quick, and effective way to correct abdominal diastasis and to avoid the epigastric bulge deformity with no added morbidity.

  9. Urinary casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts Images ... Clinical Nephrology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 4. Gerber GS, Brendler CB. Evaluation ...

  10. Influence of mattress characteristics on house dust mite allergen concentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, L. van den; Vries, M.P. de; Knapen, L. van; Jansen, M.; Goossens, M.; Muris, J.W.M.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to a high level of house dust mite allergens (HDMAs) is considered as a risk factor for HDM sensitization and development of asthma in genetically disposed people. Mattresses are one of the most important sources of HDMA in people's living environment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this

  11. Mapping Emplaced Articulated Concrete Mattress Using Geoelectrical and Electromagnetic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    geoelectrical model is shown in Figure 25. To investigate the sensitivity of the numerical forward modeling methods to the electrical representation of... Geoelectrical and Electromagnetic Techniques by Keith J. Sjostrom, Dwain K. Butler, Robert F. Ballard Approved For Public Release; Distribution Is...documents. @ PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER Technical Report GL-98-17 August 1998 Mapping Emplaced Articulated Concrete Mattress Using Geoelectrical and

  12. Effects of absorbent incontinence pads on pressure management mattresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Mandy; Bain, Duncan; Cottenden, Alan

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a study to determine the effects of absorbent pads on the pressure-relieving properties of 'standard' and pressure management mattresses. Pressure ulcers and incontinence often co-exist. There is a strong association between poor mobility and continence problems and patients using pressure management products are therefore also likely to be using absorbent pads. An instrumented articulated anthropometric phantom with simulated soft body 'tissues' in the gluteal and sacral areas was used as the 'subject'. The phantom was raised and lowered on to three mattresses (standard foam, visco-elastic foam and surface-cut foam) in three states: naked, wearing a dry pad (Tena Super, SCA Hygiene AB) and wearing a wet pad. The pressure mapping device Xsensor was used to record the distribution of pressure over the sacral and ischial areas of the phantom. Peak pressure was used as the primary outcome variable and 10 repeats were made on each mattress under each condition. There were substantial and significant differences for all three mattresses in recorded peak pressures between the naked buttocks and the buttocks wearing a dry pad. There were no significant differences between measurements made using the dry vs. wet pad. Peak pressures frequently occurred over areas of pad folds. Additional testing showed that pads that were 'smoothed' by hand had significantly lower peak pressures than 'unsmoothed' pads. Absorbent pads have a substantial adverse effect on the pressure redistribution properties of mattresses. Pad folds appear to contribute to this effect, which can be ameliorated slightly by smoothing. Absorbent pad manufacturers should consider engineering pads that minimize disruption to pressure management. Further examination of continence and pressure management products is necessary to establish optimum combinations for nursing care.

  13. Understanding the key factors required for hybrid mattresses: analysis of a focus group (the Somlent Serene Hybrid Mattress)

    OpenAIRE

    Parfitt, Grace; Ousey, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the results of one area of a tripartite study; laboratory testing; focus group and clinical case series investigating the use and effectiveness of the Somlent Serene Hybrid Mattress. The prevention and management of pressure ulcers (PUs) has long been a key indicator of quality of care and a major focus for health care providers, as the ageing population continues to grow there is an increased risk of skin damage to this vulnerable patient group (Fletcher et al...

  14. House dust mites and their allergens in Danish mattresses -- results from a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during...

  15. Castings Airworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    coulec ci de meitre en cause i continuation de lutilisation d’un facteur de fonderie . a-i sssiiin fiiiale at Servi I e fiirum pour lcs tettants des...PAR LA REGLEMENTATION FRANCAISE POUR LES PIECES DE FONDERIE UTILISEES DANS LES AVIONS MILITAIRES par M.Robert 2 CASTING AIRWORTHINESS: JOINT EIROPEAN...FROM THEORY TO PRACTICAL APPLICATION by R.Genoux 5 EVALUATION OF TITANIUM CASTINGS FOR AEROSPACE COMPONENTS by G.Arsento 6 LE FACTEUR DE FONDERIE EN

  16. Hair casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  17. Filtration stability of living brush mattresses at navigable waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokopp, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    According to the guidelines of the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute in Germany, waterway construction buildings, which include soil bioengineering structures, must be stable against soil displacements. Therefore, willow brush mattresses were tested for their filtration stability in a specially developed process which is based on the testing of geotextiles and armourstones used for navigable waterway constructions. In March 2016 willow brush mattresses made of white (Salix alba L.) or basket willows (Salix viminalis L.) were planted in 16 sample boxes, each with a cross-section area of 30x30 cm. For the tests on filtration stability, the upper 20 cm of the box were separated and placed upside down into a device in which the sample box could be flowed through from below. When a water column of 50 cm above the sample was reached, the water outlet was opened so the water flowed through the sample in the opposite direction, thus simulating drawdown. By the measurements of the pressure sensors above and below the sample, the coefficient of permeability k of the rooted soil during drawdown could be calculated. After this hydropeaking cycle, the soil material that was rinsed out through the willow branches was collected, weighed after drying until weight constancy, and compared with the dry mass of the retained soil material to calculate the share of the total mass. These filtration stability tests were carried out directly after planting the sample boxes, as well as one, three and six months afterwards, each test series with four reruns per willow species. Over time, the increasing root penetration resulted in a significant reduction in the permeability and in more retained soil material.

  18. Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Doekes, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070079803; Zock, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/095184309; Bakolis, I.; Norbäck, D.; Sunyer, J.; Villani, S.; Verlato, G.; Täubel, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxin exposures have manifold effects on human health. The geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in Europe have not yet been extensively described. To investigate the geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin concentrations in mattress dust in

  19. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  20. A Study to Investigate the Sleeping Comfort of Mattress using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Yoshio

    Sleep is an essential physiological activity for human beings and many studies have so far investigated sleeping comfort of mattresses. The appropriate measurement of stress distribution within the human body would provide valuable information to us. For the appropriate measurement to estimate stress distribution within the human body, numerical analysis is considered one of the most desirable techniques, and Finite Element Method (FEM), which is widely accepted as a useful numerical technique, was utilized in this study. Since human body dimensions have individual differences, however, it is presumed that the way of the internal stress distribution also changes due to the differences and that the mattress preference varies among different body forms. Thus, we developed three human FEM models reproducing the body forms of three types of male subjects, and investigated the sleeping comfort of mattress based on the relationship between FEM analysis findings and sensory testing results. In comparison with the results of both FEM analysis and sensory testing in the neck region, we found, the sensory testing results corresponded to the FEM analysis findings, and it was possible to estimate subjects' preferences of mattress and comfort in the neck region using the FEM analysis. In this study, we believe, the FEM analysis managed to quantify the subjects' preferences for mattress and to prove itself that it is the valuable tools to examine the sleeping comfort of mattress.

  1. Evaluation of Sleeping Comfort of Bed Mattresses using Physiological and Psychological Response Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Masataka; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    The purpose of this study is to create a method of evaluating the quality of sleep based on the elastic properties of bed mattresses through measurement of physiological and psychological responses while sleeping. We gathered Profile of Mood States (POMS) results before and after sleep, and investigated changes in subjects' moods according to sleep. A total of 4 bed mattresses with different degrees of elasticity were prepared. They were all pocket coil mattresses. We conducted polysomnography (PSG) testing on subjects with a bioamplifier while they slept in each bed mattress, so that sleeping depth indicating the quality of sleep could be estimated. PSG is a comprehensive recording of the biophysiological changes that occur during sleep. As a result, the sleep depth of bed mattress with a high degree of elasticity increased in the PSG evaluation. Because the hip sinks in deeply from the waist, it is not easy to turn over on mattresses with a low degree of elasticity. We have therefore considered that the sleep depth of the subjects became shallow as a result. We have concluded that it is possible to estimate the quality of sleep through analysis of PSG and POMS results.

  2. CASTING FURNACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, R.H.; Winters, C.E.

    1961-01-01

    A device is described for casting uranium which comprises a crucible, a rotatable table holding a plurality of molds, and a shell around both the crucible and the table. The bottom of the crucible has an eccentrically arranged pouring hole aligned with one of the molds at a time. The shell can be connected with a vacuum.

  3. [Hermetic sealing of the cataract incision with intracorneal mattress sutures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, B N; Voronin, G V

    1998-01-01

    Main factors of hermetic closure of an operative wound in cataract extraction with intracapsular implantation of intraocular lens are discussed. A new method for closure of operation wound in this operation is proposed. Opposition intracorneal mattress sutures are made over the incision plane. Their principal feature is that the thread is not thrown over the external edge of corneal incision, as in traditional non-opposition sutures, and during pulling and suture the thread does not deform the external surface of the cornea in the central zone and hence, causes no postoperative corneal astigmatism. A method combining opposition and interrupted non-opposition sutures is proposed, and various combinations of these sutures are compared. Forty-five patients (45 eyes) were operated on using the proposed technique. Opposition sutures made in accordance with the methods proposed by the authors do not cause high postoperative corneal astigmatism, or it approximates the normal values of corneal astigmatism. A special marker is proposed for preliminary marking of sites for nonperforating incisions on the cornea and the site of cataract incision.

  4. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  5. Casting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  6. The effects of a resistive warming mattress during caesarean section: a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakladar, A; Dixon, M J; Crook, D; Harper, C M

    2014-11-01

    The adverse effects of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in the surgical population are well established. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a resistive warming mattress would reduce the incidence of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in patients undergoing elective caesarean section. A total of 116 pregnant women booked for elective caesarean section were randomised to either intraoperative warming with a mattress or control. The primary outcome was the incidence of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia, defined as a temperature warmed group was significantly lower than in the control group (5.2% vs. 19.0%, P=0.043); mean temperatures differed between the two groups, 36.5 °C and 36.3 °C, respectively (P=0.046). There was also a significantly lower mean (± SD) haemoglobin change in the mattress-warmed group at -1.1±0.9 g/dL versus -1.6±0.9 g/dL in the control group (P=0.007). There was no difference in shivering (P=0.798). A resistive warming mattress reduced the incidence of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia and attenuated the fall in haemoglobin. The use of resistive mattress warming should be considered during caesarean section. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CASTING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  8. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007 ...

  9. A study of the behaviour of and the forces in a bed protecting mattress : The falling apron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijling, J.K.; Ravenstijn, P.

    2001-01-01

    In many cases the bottom around a structure that is exposed to current has to be protected by a mattress. The purpose of the mattress is to protect the soil besides the structure from erosion and scour, thus preserving the strength of the foundation of the structure. Examples are the bottom

  10. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

  11. Isocyanate emissions from pyrolysis of mattresses containing polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, María A; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the emissions of powerful asthmatic agents called isocyanates from small-scale pyrolysis experiments of two common foams employed in mattress production such as flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) and viscoelastic memory foam (VMF). A nitrogen atmosphere and five different temperatures, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 850 °C, were selected to carry out the experiments in order to evaluate the worst possible conditions for thermal degradation. A similar trend for both materials was found. At lower temperatures, diisocyanates were the most important products whereas at 850 °C monoisocyanates, and mainly isocyanic acid released mainly from the thermal cracking of diisocyanates evolved directly from the polymer chains. The total yields of isocyanates were in the range of 1.43-11.95 mg/m3 for FPUF at 300-850 °C and 0.05-6.13 mg/m3 for VMF, 300-850 °C. This difference could be a consequence of the lower amount of isocyanates employed in the VMF production which was confirmed by the nitrogen content of the foams, 5.95% FPUF vs. 3.34% in VMF. Additionally, a qualitative search for so far unknown isocyanates was performed in samples from the pyrolysis of FPUF at 300, 400 and 850 °C. It was confirmed that six different aminoisocyanates at 300 °C were evolved, whereas at 400 and 850 °C only five of them were detected. The general trend observed was a decrease of the aminoisocyanate levels with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  13. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  14. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  15. Performance assessment of a ventilated mattress for pollution control of the bed microenvironment in healthcare facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kokora, Monika

    2015-01-01

    changes per hour (ACH) proved to be more effective in reducing exposure to body contaminants compared to mixing ventilation alone at 3 ACH and 6 ACH. The findings also show that the lying position and the size of the local exhaust of the VM affect the efficiency of the mattress to exhaust bioeffluents....

  16. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  17. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  18. A randomized trial of exothermic mattresses for preterm newborns in polyethylene bags.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa K

    2013-07-01

    Hypothermia on admission to the NICU is associated with increased mortality in preterm infants. Many newborns are hypothermic on admission despite using polyethylene bags (PBs). Using exothermic mattresses (EMs) in addition to PBs may reduce hypothermia but increase hyperthermia. We wished to determine whether placing preterm newborns in PBs on EMs in the DR results in more infants with rectal temperature outside the range 36.5 to 37.5°C on NICU admission.

  19. The effect of human-mattress interface's temperature on perceived thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, R; Naddeo, A; Vink, P

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, methods that allow for an objective evaluation of perceived comfort, in terms of postural, physiological, cognitive and environmental comfort, have received a great deal of attention from researchers. This paper focuses on one of the factors that influences physiological comfort perception: the temperature difference between users and the objects with which they interact. The first aim is to create a measuring system that does not affect the perceived comfort during the temperatures' acquisition. The main aim is to evaluate how the temperature at the human-mattress interface can affect the level of perceived comfort. A foam mattress has been used for testing in order to take into account the entire back part of the human body. The temperature at the interface was registered by fourteen 100 Ohm Platinum RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) placed on the mattress under the trunk, the shoulders, the buttocks, the legs, the thighs, the arms and the forearms of the test subject. 29 subjects participated in a comfort test in a humidity controlled environment. The test protocol involved: dress-code, anthropometric-based positioning on mattress, environment temperature measuring and an acclimatization time before the test. At the end of each test, each of the test subject's thermal sensations and the level of comfort perception were evaluated using the ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) scale. The data analyses concerned, in the first instance, correlations between the temperature at the interface and comfort levels of the different parts of the body. Then the same analyses were performed independently of the body parts being considered. The results demonstrated that there was no strong correlation among the studied variables and that the total increase of temperature at interface is associated with a reduction in comfort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypothermia Prevention During Surgery: Comparison Between Thermal Mattress And Thermal Blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Marques Moysés

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the efficiency of the thermal blanket and thermal mattress in the prevention of hypothermia during surgery. Thirty-eight randomized patients were divided into two groups (G1 – thermal blanket and G2 - thermal mattress. The variables studied were: length of surgery, length of stay in the post-anesthetic care unit, period without using the device after thermal induction, transport time from the operating room to post-anesthetic care unit, intraoperative fluid infusion, surgery size, anesthetic technique, age, body mass index, esophageal, axillary and operating room temperature. In G2, length of surgery and starch infusion longer was higher (both p=0.03, but no hypothermia occurred. During the surgical anesthetic procedure, the axillary temperature was higher at 120 minutes (p=0.04, and esophageal temperature was higher at 120 (p=0.002 and 180 minutes (p=0.03 and at the end of the procedure (p=0.002. The thermal mattress was more effective in preventing hypothermia during surgery.

  1. An Enhanced Sensing Application Based on a Flexible Projected Capacitive-Sensing Mattress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effective sensor system for mattresses that can classify the sleeping posture of an individual and prevent pressure ulcers. This system applies projected capacitive sensing to the field of health care. The charge time (CT method was used to sensitively and accurately measure the capacitance of the projected electrodes. The required characteristics of the projected capacitor were identified to develop large-area applications for sensory mattresses. The area of the electrodes, the use of shielding, and the increased length of the transmission line were calibrated to more accurately measure the capacitance of the electrodes in large-size applications. To offer the users comfort in the prone position, a flexible substrate was selected and covered with 16 × 20 electrodes. Compared with the static charge sensitive bed (SCSB, our proposed system-flexible projected capacitive-sensing mattress (FPCSM comes with more electrodes to increase the resolution of posture identification. As for the body pressure system (BPS, the FPCSM has advantages such as lower cost, higher aging-resistance capability, and the ability to sense the capacitance of the covered regions without physical contact. The proposed guard ring design effectively absorbs the noise and interrupts leakage paths. The projected capacitive electrode is suitable for proximity-sensing applications and succeeds at quickly recognizing the sleeping pattern of the user.

  2. An Enhanced Sensing Application Based on a Flexible Projected Capacitive-Sensing Mattress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ying; Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a cost-effective sensor system for mattresses that can classify the sleeping posture of an individual and prevent pressure ulcers. This system applies projected capacitive sensing to the field of health care. The charge time (CT) method was used to sensitively and accurately measure the capacitance of the projected electrodes. The required characteristics of the projected capacitor were identified to develop large-area applications for sensory mattresses. The area of the electrodes, the use of shielding, and the increased length of the transmission line were calibrated to more accurately measure the capacitance of the electrodes in large-size applications. To offer the users comfort in the prone position, a flexible substrate was selected and covered with 16 × 20 electrodes. Compared with the static charge sensitive bed (SCSB), our proposed system-flexible projected capacitive-sensing mattress (FPCSM) comes with more electrodes to increase the resolution of posture identification. As for the body pressure system (BPS), the FPCSM has advantages such as lower cost, higher aging-resistance capability, and the ability to sense the capacitance of the covered regions without physical contact. The proposed guard ring design effectively absorbs the noise and interrupts leakage paths. The projected capacitive electrode is suitable for proximity-sensing applications and succeeds at quickly recognizing the sleeping pattern of the user. PMID:24747734

  3. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    equiaxed transition ..... solute in a cast product, important ones being: size of casting, rate of solidification, mode of heat extraction ..... the segregated region. A principal breakthrough in quantitative evaluation of segregation distribution has come.

  4. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  5. Glovebox Advanced Casting System Casting Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Casting optimization in the GACS included three broad areas; casting of U-10Zr pins, incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier, and development of a permanent crucible coating. U-10Zr casting was improved over last year’s results by modifying the crucible design to minimize contact with the colder mold. Through these modifications casting of a three pin batch was successful. Incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier also was optimized through furnace chamber pressure changes during the casting cycle to reduce gas pressures in the mold cavities which led to three full length pins being cast which incorporated FCCI barriers of three different thicknesses. Permanent crucible coatings were tested against a base case; 1500°C for 10 minutes in a U-20Pu-10Zr molten alloy. None of the candidate coating materials showed evidence of failure upon initial visual examination. In all areas of work a large amount of characterization will be needed to fully determine the effects of the optimization activities. The characterization activities and future work will occur next year.

  6. Effect of Casting Material on the Cast Pressure After Sequential Cast Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aaron; Shaw, K Aaron; Boomsma, Shawn E; Cameron, Craig D

    2017-01-01

    Circumferential casting is a vital component of nonoperative fracture management. These casts are commonly valved to release pressure and decrease the risk of complications from swelling. However, little information exists regarding the effect of different casting supplies on the pressure within the cast. Seventy-five long-arm casts were performed on human volunteers, divided between 5 experimental groups with 15 casts in each groups. Testing groups consisted of 2 groups with a plaster short-arm cast overwrapped with fiberglass to a long arm with either cotton or synthetic cast padding. The 3 remaining groups included fiberglass long-arm casts with cotton, synthetic, or waterproof cast padding. A pediatric blood pressure cuff bladder was placed within the cast and inflated to 100 mm Hg. After inflation, the cast was sequentially released with pressure reading preformed after each stage. Order of release consisted of cast bivalve, cast padding release, and cotton stockinet release. After release, the cast was overwrapped with a loose elastic bandage. Difference in pressure readings were compared based upon the cast material. Pressures within the cast were found to decrease with sequential release of cast. The cast type had no effect of change in pressure. Post hoc testing demonstrated that the type of cast padding significantly affected the cast pressures with waterproof padding demonstrating the highest pressure readings at all time-points in the study, followed by synthetic padding. Cotton padding had the lowest pressure readings at all time-points. Type of cast padding significantly influences the amount of pressure within a long-arm cast, even after bivalving the cast and cutting the cast padding. Cotton cast padding allows for the greatest change in pressure. Cotton padding demonstrates the greatest change in pressure within a long-arm cast after undergoing bivalve. Synthetic and waterproof cast padding should not be used in the setting of an acute fracture to

  7. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Arthroscopic percutaneous inverted mattress suture fixation of isolated greater tuberosity fracture of humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Suk-Hwan; Song, Han-Eui; Choi, Seung-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of treatment in patients with isolated greater tuberosity (GT) fractures of humerus using arthroscopic percutaneous inverted mattress suture fixation technique. We attempted to use the arthroscopic percutaneous inverted mattress suture fixation technique in 17 consecutive cases with isolated displaced GT fractures. Fourteen patients were successfully treated without switching to other methods and were available for follow-up at a mean of 22 months (range: 17-38 months) after surgery. For assessment of clinical outcomes, we evaluated the range of motion and the visual analog scale (VAS) score, the shoulder index of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and the Korean Shoulder Scale (KSS). At the final follow-up, the VAS improved to 1.0 points (range: 0-3), the mean ASES score improved to 86.9 points (range: 78.3-100) and the KSS improved to 88.6 points (range: 82-100) postoperatively. Mean union time was 10 weeks. Mean forward flexion was 167.8° (range: 140-180°), mean external rotation in neutral position was 36° (range: 20-70°), and mean internal rotation was at the 12th thoracic level (range: T6-L3) at final follow-up. Three cases were switched to open surgery after attempted arthroscopic technique due to large fragment or osteoporosis. In select cases, the arthroscopic percutaneous inverted mattress suture fixation of GT fracture is a simple and reproducible technique with encouraging early results.

  9. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  10. Casting in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast constructio...

  11. Caste and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Dayabati

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the institution of caste and its operation in a micro-level village setting of West Bengal, an Indian state, where state politics at grass roots level is vibrant with functioning local self-government and entrenched political parties. This ethnographic study reveals that caste...

  12. Mattress and pillow for prone positioning for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidarian-Moniri, Armin; Nilsson, Michael; Attia, John; Ejnell, Hasse

    2015-03-01

    The new mattress and pillow for prone positioning (MPP) is efficient in reducing the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) in most patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), with satisfactory compliance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the prone body and head sleep position on severity of disease in patients with OSA after 4 weeks of adaptation to a mattress and pillow facilitating prone positioning. Fourteen patients with mild to severe OSA, 11 men and 3 women with a mean AHI of 26 (min, 6; max, 53) and mean ODI of 21 (min, 6; max, 51) were evaluated. Two polysomnographic (PSG) studies were performed. The first PSG study was without any treatment and the second was after 4 weeks of adaptation to the MPP for prone positioning of the body and the head. Mean AHI and ODI decreased from 26 and 21 to 8 and 7, respectively (p 4 h per night during the 4-week study.

  13. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  14. A quantitative analysis of microcirculation in sore-prone pressure areas on conventional and pressure relief hospital mattresses using laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Held, Manuel; Bender, Dominik; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Constantinescu, Mihai Adrian; Jaminet, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are associated with severe impairment for the patients and high economic load. With this study we wanted to gain more insight to the skin perfusion dynamics due to external loading. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of different types of pressure relief mattresses. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Perfusion dynamics of the sacral and the heel area were assessed using the O2C-device, which combines a laser light, to determine blood flow, and white light to determine the relative amount of hemoglobin. Three mattresses were evaluated compared to a hard surface: a standard hospital foam mattress bed, a visco-elastic foam mattress, and an air-fluidized bed. In the heel area, only the air-fluidized bed was able to maintain the blood circulation (mean blood flow of 13.6 ± 6 versus 3.9 ± 3 AU and mean relative amount of hemoglobin of 44.0 ± 14 versus 32.7 ± 12 AU.) In the sacral area, all used mattresses revealed an improvement of blood circulation compared to the hard surface. The results of this study form a more precise pattern of perfusion changes due to external loading on various pressure relief mattresses. This knowledge may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers and may be an influencing factor in pressure relief mattress selection. Copyright © 2014 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Finite element modeling for predicting the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wookjin; Won, Byeong Hee; Cho, Seong Wook

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we generated finite element (FE) models to predict the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position. Twenty-year-old males were used for three-dimensional scanning to produce the FE human models, which was composed of skin and muscle tissue. A linear elastic isotropic material model was used for the skin, and the Mooney-Rivlin model was used for the muscle tissue because it can effectively represent the nonlinear behavior of muscle. The contact pressure between the human model and the mattress was predicted by numerical simulation. The human models were validated by comparing the body pressure distribution obtained from the same human subject when he was lying on two different mattress types. The experimental results showed that the slope of the lower part of the mattress caused a decrease in the contact pressure at the heels, and the effect of bone structure was most pronounced in the scapula. After inserting a simple structure to function as the scapula, the contact pressure predicted by the FE human models was consistent with the experimental body pressure distribution for all body parts. These results suggest that the models proposed in this paper will be useful to researchers and designers of products related to the prevention of pressure ulcers.

  16. Mattress encasings and mite allergen levels in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Oldenwening, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B

    Background Reduction of allergen exposure from birth may reduce sensitization and subsequent allergic disease. Objective To measure the influence of mite allergen-impermeable mattress encasings and cotton placebo encasings on the amount of dust and mite allergen in beds. Methods A total of 810

  17. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  18. Casting in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarlo, M; Malone, K; Darmelio, J; Rettig, A

    1994-03-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the "least hard" of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction.

  19. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  20. Symptomatic stent cast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  1. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  2. Adhesion Casting In Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion casting in low gravity proposed as technique for making new and improved materials. Advantages of low-gravity adhesion casting, in comparison with adhesion casting in normal Earth gravity, comes from better control over, and greater uniformity of, thicknesses of liquid films that form on and adhere to solid surfaces during casting.

  3. HFIR Fuel Casting Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gibbs, Paul Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solis, Eunice Martinez [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Process exploration for fuel production for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) using cast LEU-10wt.%Mo as an initial processing step has just begun. This project represents the first trials concerned with casting design and quality. The studies carried out over the course of this year and information contained in this report address the initial mold development to be used as a starting point for future operations. In broad terms, the final billet design is that of a solid rolling blank with an irregular octagonal cross section. The work covered here is a comprehensive view of the initial attempts to produce a sound casting. This report covers the efforts to simulate, predict, cast, inspect, and revise the initial mold design.

  4. Cool Cast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you can get a special waterproof sleeve to cover it. Depending on where your cast or splint is on your body, you may find it easier to take a sponge bath. This means that instead of getting all ...

  5. Method of casting aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poco, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  6. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  7. Graphitized Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, G. I.; Makarenko, K. V.

    2014-05-01

    An analytical review of data on general-purpose grayed cast iron with different forms of graphite (lamellar, vermicular, globular, flaked) is presented. Grades of cast iron, their compositions, special features of structure of the graphite, and properties of gray, high-strength and malleable irons are described. The data on the kinds of iron considered are compared with those stipulated in international and some national standards.

  8. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in mattress dust of farm children in Bavaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korthals, Melanie; Ege, Markus; Lick, Sonja; von Mutius, Erika; Bauer, Johann

    2008-07-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the farm environment impacts allergy protection mechanisms in children. These associations are not well understood, but it is thought that contact to microorganisms may mediate this effect. For example, heat-inactivated Listeria (L.) monocytogenes have been successfully used as an adjuvant in mouse immunotherapy to modulate airway hyperreactivity and inflammation. In investigating the link between farming lifestyle and prevention of childhood allergy, we examined the prevalence of Listeria spp. in dust specimens from the environment of rural children. A total of 26 farms located in Bavaria (South Germany) were examined. Dust samples taken from mattresses (n=63), cow-sheds (n=30) and swine-sheds (n=10) were qualitatively screened for the presence of viable Listeria spp. according to the ISO 11290-1 method and additionally by L. monocytogenes specific iap-based real-time PCR. Isolates were further characterized by biochemical techniques, serology and multiplex PCR. Nineteen of 26 farms tested positive for Listeria spp. and seven were tested negative. The dominant species found by culturing methods were L. innocua (n=12) and L. monocytogenes (n=8). Viable Listeria spp. were detected in 8% of the mattress dust samples, whereas real-time PCR revealed 60% L. monocytogenes positive specimens. Regarding animal sheds, 28% of dust samples showed viable Listeria spp., while using real-time PCR found that 28% of specimens were L. monocytogenes positive. All strains of L. monocytogenes except one (4ab) belonged to the serotype 1/2a. Our data demonstrate that a substantial number of farm children's beds contain L. monocytogenes. The importance of this result regarding the health of children must be evaluated by epidemiological investigations on both the risk of listeriosis and the effects on protection against allergies.

  9. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  10. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  11. Emission of phthalates and phthalate alternatives from vinyl flooring and crib mattress covers: the influence of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yirui; Xu, Ying

    2014-12-16

    Emissions of phthalates and phthalate alternatives from vinyl flooring and crib mattress covers were measured in a specially designed chamber. The gas-phase concentrations versus time were measured at four different temperatures, that is, 25, 36, 45, and 55 °C. The key parameter that controls the emissions (y0, gas-phase concentration in equilibrium with the material phase) was determined, and the emissions were found to increase significantly with increasing temperature. Both the material-phase concentration (C0) and the chemical vapor pressure (Vp) were found to have great influence on the value of y0. The measured ratios of C0 to y0 were exponentially proportional to the reciprocal of temperature, in agreement with the van't Hoff equation. A emission model was validated at different temperatures, with excellent agreement between model calculations and chamber observations. In residential homes, an increase in the temperature from 25 to 35 °C can elevate the gas-phase concentration of phthalates by more than a factor of 10, but the total airborne concentration may not increase that much for less volatile compounds. In infant sleep microenvironments, an increase in the temperature of mattress can cause a significant increase in emission of phthalates from the mattress cover and make the concentration in the infant's breathing zone about four times higher than that in the bulk room air, resulting in potentially high exposure.

  12. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  13. "Souvenir" casting silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, R S; Salman, H; Bar-Ziv, J

    1994-10-01

    A case of silicosis in a 47-year-old worker who was employed for many years in a small souvenir casting shop is described. This work site demonstrates many unfavorable characteristics of small industries, such as lack of awareness of the need for safety measures, exposure control, protection of workers, and lack of compliance with environmental and medical-legal standards.

  14. Casting and Splinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-21

    70° ~ Does injured extremity maintain good color , temp, and cap refill ~ Were thermal injuries avoided by ensuring water was not hot and cast was...immediate assistance if: )- Numbness (pins and needles) of fingers > Excessive swelling of fmgers > Blueness or whiteness of fingers > Severe pain

  15. Effect of pressure applied during casting on temperatures beneath casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deignan, Brian J; Iaquinto, Joseph M; Eskildsen, Scott M; Woodcock, Cassandra A; Owen, John R; Wayne, Jennifer S; Kuester, Victoria G

    2011-01-01

    Burns and pressure sores are common injuries during cast application. Various factors such as water temperature, padding, and cast material layers may play a role in these injuries; however, the effect of cast molding on temperatures and pressures has not been investigated. This raises the following questions, does the application of molding during cast application: (1) alter skin level temperatures in a variety of cast materials? and (2) risk inducing either thermal injury or pressure necrosis? An upper extremity model was created to measure pressure and temperature underneath casting materials. Cast padding, water bath temperature, and cast thickness were standardized. A 3-point mold was simulated using 3 casting materials-Fiberglass only, Plaster Only splint, and Plaster splint overwrapped with Fiberglass-while pressure and temperature were recorded. : Pressure application led to a statistically significant (PFiberglass combination reached an average peak temperature of 47.9°C, which was maintained for up to 6 minutes. Neither Fiberglass nor Plaster Only reached peak temperatures of this magnitude (average of 42.7 and 43.6°C, respectively). Peak (369 mm Hg) and highest residual (21 mm Hg) pressures were below harmful levels. Pressure application during casting is a risk factor for burn injuries. Care should be taken when molding a plaster splint overwrapped in fiberglass by waiting until the plaster has fully cooled. Combined with other known risk factors, the pressure from molding a cast could increase the likelihood of causing cutaneous burns.

  16. The casting of western sculpture during the XIXth century: sand casting versus lost wax casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, T.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss research into bronze casting techniques as practiced during the XIXth and early XXth century. Both natural sand casting (fonte au sable naturel) and lost wax casting (fonte à la cire perdue) were employed during this period and sometimes rivalled for commissions. Before the

  17. Design of a Novel Flexible Capacitive Sensing Mattress for Monitoring Sleeping Respiratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an algorithm to extract respiration signals using a flexible projected capacitive sensing mattress (FPCSM designed for personal health assessment is proposed. Unlike the interfaces of conventional measurement systems for poly-somnography (PSG and other alternative contemporary systems, the proposed FPCSM uses projected capacitive sensing capability that is not worn or attached to the body. The FPCSM is composed of a multi-electrode sensor array that can not only observe gestures and motion behaviors, but also enables the FPCSM to function as a respiration monitor during sleep using the proposed approach. To improve long-term monitoring when body movement is possible, the FPCSM enables the selection of data from the sensing array, and the FPCSM methodology selects the electrodes with the optimal signals after the application of a channel reduction algorithm that counts the reversals in the capacitive sensing signals as a quality indicator. The simple algorithm is implemented in the time domain. The FPCSM system is used in experimental tests and is simultaneously compared with a commercial PSG system for verification. Multiple synchronous measurements are performed from different locations of body contact, and parallel data sets are collected. The experimental comparison yields a correlation coefficient of 0.88 between FPCSM and PSG, demonstrating the feasibility of the system design.

  18. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven

  19. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  20. Monel Metal Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1935-07-17

    foot is adequate. A refractory , open sand should be used. Melting and Casting: The alloys are successfully produced from electro-nickel and copper...desirable if the charge is not chiefly Monel Metal scrap. About 0.1% magnesium should be ;ell stirred into the melt in the ladle before pouring. The addition...such as is used for the more refractory valve trim alloys. Carboloy tools probably can be used to advantage for the high silicon Monel Metal alloys

  1. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  2. Analysis of Defects in Castings Cast by Rheocasting Method SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryksi Stunova B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses specific defects of castings produced by semi-solid casting process, especially rheocasting method SEED, which uses mechanical swirling for reaching proper structure in semisolid state with high content of solid fraction. Heat treated alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 was applied for producing an Engine Bracket casting part. For observing structure, metallographic observation by light and SEM microscopy was used. To analyse the process, software ProCAST was used to simulate the movements in shot chamber and filling of the mold.

  3. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  4. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  5. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  6. Fiber-Reinforced Slip Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, J. C.; Drennan, D. N.; Keeser, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    Addition of silica fibers greatly reduces shrinkage and cracking during casting of ceramics. Fiber-reinforced slip-cast silica ceramics are also tougher and have lower dielectric loss. Silica fibers are hyperpure material containing only 1 part per million total metal-ion impurities. Hyperpure fibers ensure high reflectance and allow casting to be fired at temperature greater than 2,200 degrees F without loss of strength from devitrification.

  7. Mycelial Mattress from a Sporangia Formation-Delayed Mutant of Rhizopus stolonifer as Wound Healing-Enhancing Biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Mei-Yin; Chen, Ling-Chun; Chen, Ying-Chen; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Tsai, Ya-Chi; Ho, Hsiu-O; Su, Ching-Hua; Liu, Der-Zen

    2015-01-01

    A mycelial mattress of Rhizopus stolonifer obtained from a liquid static culture was utilized for wound dressing and biomedical use. Following screening of mutants induced by UV radiation, F6, exhibiting delayed sporangium formation was selected because its sporangium maturation exhibited a 5-day delay without significant loss of mycelial weight compared to the wild type. The sporangium-free mycelial mattress from the sporangiospore culture of F6 was treated with 1N sodium hydroxide NaOH at 85°C for 2 h to produce a sponge-like membrane named Rhizochitin. The trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysate of Rhizochitin contained 36% N-acetylglucosamine and 53% hexose respectively detected by the Elson-Morgen and phenol-sulfuric acid methods. Results indicated the wound area in rats covered with Rhizochitin was 40% less than that of the uncovered group. Rhizochitin decreased the expression of PDGF in the proliferation stage, increased the expression of TGF-β in the inflammation and proliferation stages, and increased the expression of VEGF in the inflammation and proliferation stages. Rhizochitin inhibited secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 on days 1, 7, 9, and 12 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 on days 3, 7, 9, and 12. It was concluded that Rhizochitin has beneficial properties of biocompatible, biodegradable, and wound healing. PMID:26275241

  8. theory of batchwise centrifugal casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten; Nijmeijer, Arian; Verweij, H.

    1998-01-01

    In batchwise centrifugal casting a cylindrical mold is filled with suspension and rotated rapidly around its axis. This results in the movement of the particulate phase toward the cylinder wall and the formation of a tubular cast. Theory is presented for particle transport in the suspension phase

  9. Cast and splint immobilization: complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halanski, Matthew; Noonan, Kenneth J

    2008-01-01

    During the past three decades, internal fixation has become increasingly popular for fracture management and limb reconstruction. As a result, during their training, orthopaedic surgeons receive less formal instruction in the art of extremity immobilization and cast application and removal. Casting is not without risks and complications (eg, stiffness, pressure sores, compartment syndrome); the risk of morbidity is higher when casts are applied by less experienced practitioners. Certain materials and methods of ideal cast and splint application are recommended to prevent morbidity in the patient who is at high risk for complications with casting and splinting. Those at high risk include the obtunded or comatose multitrauma patient, the patient under anesthesia, the very young patient, the developmentally delayed patient, and the patient with spasticity.

  10. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  11. Pressure ulcers prevention efficacy of an alternating pressure air mattress in elderly patients: E²MAO a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, P; Touflet, M; Pradere, C; Portalier, F; Michel, J-M; Charru, P; Passadori, Y; Fevrier, R; Hallet-Lezy, A-M; Beauchêne, F; Scherrer, B

    2017-06-02

    Our aim was to compare Axtair One, an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM), with a viscoelastic foam mattress (VFM) in elderly patients at moderate to high risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). A randomised, controlled, superiority, parallel-group, open-label, multicentre study, was conducted, between February 2012 and March 2015, in nine French, medium- and long-term stay facilities. Eligible patients were aged 70 and over, had no PUs on enrolment, were bedridden for at least 15 hours per day, had reduced mobility, an absent or minimal positioning capability, a Braden score 12 and a Karnofsky score <40%. The primary endpoint was the appearance of PUs over a 30-day monitoring period. The primary objective was to demonstrate a 50% reduction in instantaneous risk of PUs in the APAM versus the VFM group. Secondary objectives were to determine if preventive care was less frequent in the APAM group, the instantaneous relative risk of PUs (hazard ratio) was constant over time and the comfort experienced was higher in the APAM group and to verify the uniformity of the preventive benefit of an APAM, regardless of the level of exposure to major risk factors for PUs. We randomised 76 patients (39 in the APAM group and 37 in the VFM group). The groups were comparable on enrolment and throughout the study. The cumulative risk of PUs was estimated at 6.46% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64; 23.66] in the APAM group and at 38.91% [95% CI: 24.66; 57.59] in the VFM group, p=0.001 (log-rank test). The adjusted hazard ratio according to the Cox model with four prognostic factors for the appearance of PUs was 7.57 [95% CI: 1.67; 34.38, p=0.009]. Preventive care proved to be equivalent in both groups. The only risk factor significantly associated with an increased risk of PUs was the type of mattress (VFM). The comfort and tolerance perceived by the patients were both high and similar in the two groups. The constancy over time of the preventive benefit of an APAM could not

  12. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained should this project resume at a later date.

  13. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  14. Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

  15. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 23.621 Section 23.621... Casting factors. (a) General. The factors, tests, and inspections specified in paragraphs (b) through (d... structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and...

  16. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an

  17. Some Theoretical Considerations on Caste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Subedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caste as a system of social stratification was an encompassing system in the past. There was reciprocal system of exchange goods and services. With time, occupation and mode of generation of livelihood of various caste groups changed, and the traditional form of jajmani system fizzled out. This paper provides an account of changing perspectives of caste relations in social science writing and political discourse. The discourse of caste has been shifted from ritual hierarchy and social discrimination to an instrument to mobilize people for economic and political gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10437 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 51-86

  18. The CAST Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Autiero, D.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Chesi, E.; Davenport, M.; Delattre, M.; Di Lella, L.; Formenti, F.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Lakic, B.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Musa, L.; Ortiz, A.; Placci, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

  19. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    unit 23 7 Rear view of casting unit 23 8 Induction coil with crucible in place 24 9 Refractory components of casting system 24 10 Multiple...used in small, bottom-pour ladles . The stirring required by the Rheocasting proce- dures is to be accomplished by the paddle assembly shown in Figure...bonded carbide coating with refractory oxide layer on the final sur- face. (c) Diffusion bonded carbide coating ’ith diffusion bonded oxide layer m

  20. AGARD handbook on advanced casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietrach, Dietmar

    1991-03-01

    The need to improve aircraft performance and, simultaneously, to reduce costs has led to a re-examination of the use of casting processes in aircraft manufacture. The Structures and Materials Panel of AGARD has provided practical information about design, mechanical values, applications, quality assurance and damage tolerance. By providing the data in this form it is hoped that the designer will be encouraged to exploit the many recent advances in casting to optimum effect.

  1. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kopyciński

    2009-01-01

    It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  2. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  3. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Uchida

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the die is prolonged and the productivity is enhanced, as well. Vacuum die-casting process is of great signifi cance in improving the die castings quality and making up the shortcomings of super-high-speed shot casting.

  4. Cast Aluminum Structures Technology (CAST) Phase VI. Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Composition PERCENT, PERCENT, ELEMENTS MINIMUM MAXIMUM COPPER -- 0.20 SILICON 6.5 7.5 IRON -- 0.10 MANGANESE -- 0.10 ZINC -- 0.10 MAGNESIUM 0.55 0.65...effects on fluidity of pouring temperature, silica sand grain size (AFS 53, 70, and 140), sand type (silica, chromite , and zircon), and mold coating...to 1.5 inches and included both copper and aluminum chills. Parts were cast with A357 at 1425 and 1450OF and inspected for 33 casting defects. Test

  5. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Uchida

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the di...

  6. Magnesium-lithium casting alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

  7. CAST Physics Proposal to SPSC

    CERN Document Server

    CAST, Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The CAST experiment has the potential to search for solar axions (dark matter particle candidates) or other particles with similar coupling. E.g., paraphtons (Hidden Sector), chameleons (dark energy), while considering the possibility whether CAST could be transformed to an antenna for relic axions with rest mass up to 0.1 to 1meV. While axion searches suggest detectors with lower background, paraphoton and chameleon searches require detectors with sub-keV threshold energy and the use of transparent windows in front of the Micromegas detectors, which cover 3 out of the 4 CAST magnet exits. Ongoing theoretical estimates and experimental investigations will define the priorities of the suggested 4 physics items of this proposal for the period 2012-2014.

  8. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  9. CAST results and Axion review

    CERN Document Server

    Geralis, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), together with a brief review on prospects on Axion searches with a variety of experimental techniques. CAST has explored masses up to 0.64 eV setting the most stringent limit on the axion-photon coupling, apart for the micro-eV region where ADMX is the most competitive experiment. CAST is aiming at surpassing the 1eV WMAP upper limit and possibly revisiting the operation in vacuum with extra sensitive X-ray detectors, while ADMX, using improved extra sensitive SQUID amplifiers will explore the micro-eV mass range.

  10. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  11. Electromagnetic segregation of cast parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langejurgen, M.; Nacke, B.

    2007-06-01

    The Electromagnetic Induced Segregation (EIS) of cast parts is an innovative technology for diecasting aluminium alloys. Using numerical simulation, an inductor system has been developed to produce a primary silicon concentration gradient during casting. The report shows the advantages of numerical simulation in research and development. A suitable inductor has been designed and its electromagnetic field optimized for the EIS. The numerical model is 2D for geometries with cylindrical symmetry and 3D for non-symmetric products. The inductor system is implemented in a pilot installation. With the metallurgical results, the interaction between the electromagnetic field and the location of primary silicon is investigated. Figs 7, Refs 1.

  12. WEAR-RESISTANCE OF CHROMIC CAST IRONS OF EUTECTIC COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Baranovskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Casting of wear-resistant chrome cast irons in combined molds and iron chills is studied. Application of these ways of casting results in blending of carbides and increasing of hardness of castings.

  13. CAST-IRONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of physical-mechanical characteristics of cast iron slugs, received by semicontinuos way of casting, at temperatures from 850 up to 1100^ С are given. 

  14. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  15. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  16. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 25.621 Section 25.621... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.621 Casting factors. (a... meet approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to any structural castings...

  17. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 27.621 Section 27.621... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.621 Casting factors. (a) General... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except...

  18. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 29.621 Section 29.621... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.621 Casting factors. (a... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except...

  19. Inoculation Effects of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solidification sequence of graphite eutectic cells of A and D types, as well as globular and cementite eutectics. The morphology of eutectic cells in cast iron, the equations for their growth and the distances between the graphite precipitations in A and D eutectic types were analyzed. It is observed a critical eutectic growth rate at which one type of eutectic transformed into another. A mathematical formula was derived that combined the maximum degree of undercooling, the cooling rate of cast iron, eutectic cell count and the eutectic growth rate. One type of eutectic structure turned smoothly into the other at a particular transition rate, transformation temperature and transformational eutectic cell count. Inoculation of cast iron increased the number of eutectic cells with flake graphite and the graphite nodule count in ductile iron, while reducing the undercooling. An increase in intensity of inoculation caused a smooth transition from a cementite eutectic structure to a mixture of cementite and D type eutectic structure, then to a mixture of D and A types of eutectics up to the presence of only the A type of eutectic structure. Moreover, the mechanism of inoculation of cast iron was studied.

  20. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  1. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…

  2. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

    2000-11-30

    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  3. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.

    2014-01-01

    of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led...

  4. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  5. The influence of time and distance traveled by bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, on permethrin uptake from treated mattress liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, Stephen A; Hymel, Sabrina N

    2017-01-01

    Residual insecticides interrupt the dispersal of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius, L.), but one of the issues encountered with residual applications is understanding the uptake of active residues by the insect. This study determined permethrin uptake by bed bugs walking on the ActiveGuard® Mattress Liner product, via a combination of video recording in arenas and gas chromatography analyses. The best model for estimating permethrin uptake utilized a covariance model (r2  = 0.469) with two factors: time of exposure (F1,55 = 2.44, P permethrin uptake was 15.1 (95% CI: 10.3-22.1) ng insect-1 within 1 min exposure, 21.0 (15.0, 31.0) ng insect-1 within 10 min and ≈ 42 (29.8, 60.6) ng insect-1 within ≥50 min exposure. Correcting for percentage recovery, these values would be increased by a factor of 1.21. This permethrin-treated fabric provides a surface from which bed bugs begin rapidly to absorb permethrin on contact and within the first 1 cm of travel. Variability in uptake was likely a result of grooming and thigmotaxis, and future work should use quantitative methods to study behaviors and formulations that increase exposure to the toxicant. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. New Casting Method for Improving Billet Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, John P.; Wagstaff, Frank E.; Shaw, Howard

    Extrusion billet cast by the direct chill (DC) casting process frequently has inconsistent quality. This can adversely affect extrudability of the billet, for example, by causing a poor as-extruded surface. A recent development, the Wagstaff AIR-SLIP™ casting mold, incorporating several proprietary features, overcomes the problem of inconsistent quality and produces billet to exceptional metallurgical standards. Samples of 6xxx alloy aluminum billet cast by the AIR-SLIP™ process have had 0.005" peripheral segregation and an extremely smooth as-cast surface.

  7. Effectiveness of a multi-layer foam dressing in preventing sacral pressure ulcers for the early acute care of patients with a traumatic spinal cord injury: comparison with the use of a gel mattress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Denis, Andréane; Thompson, Cynthia; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury are at risk of sacral pressure ulcers due to, among other reasons, prolonged immobilisation. The effectiveness of a multi-layer foam dressing installed pre-operatively in reducing sacral pressure ulcer occurrence in spinal cord injured patients was compared to that of using a gel mattress, and stratified analyses were performed on patients with complete tetraplegia and paraplegia. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from 315 patients admitted in a level-I trauma centre following a spinal cord injury between April 2010 and March 2016. Upon arrival to the emergency room and until surgery, patients were transferred on a foam stretcher pad with a viscoelastic polymer gel mattress (before 1 October 2014) or received a multi-layer foam dressing applied to their sacral-coccygeal area (after 1 October 2014). The occurrence of sacral pressure ulcer during acute hospitalisation was similar irrespective of whether patients received the dressing or the gel mattress. It was found that 82% of patients with complete tetraplegia receiving the preventive dressing developed sacral ulcers as compared to only 36% of patients using the gel mattress. Although multi-layer dressings were suggested to improve skin protection and decrease pressure ulcer occurrence in critically ill patients, such preventive dressings are not superior to gel mattresses in spinal cord injured patients and should be used with precaution, especially in complete tetraplegia. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  9. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  10. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K. [National Institute of Rock Mechanics, KGF (India)

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  11. Search for chameleons with CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Arik, M.; Aune, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (βm) and to photons (βΥ) via the Primako eect. By reducing the X-ray detection...... energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of βΥ≤1011...

  12. Search for chameleons with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassopoulos, V; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Desch, K; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Hailey, C; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hofmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakobsen, A; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Krčmar, M; Krieger, C; Krüger, A; Lakić, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovarov, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Solanki, S K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K; Brax, P; Lavrentyev, I; Upadhye, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  13. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter; Hutto, William R.; Philips, Albert R.

    1989-09-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  14. Search for chameleons with CAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anastassopoulos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a search for (solar chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST. This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (βm and to photons (βγ via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of βγ≲1011 for 1<βm<106.

  15. Effect of cast steel production metallurgy on the emergence of casting defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čamek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents metallurgical possibilities of high alloy cast steel production in open induction medium frequency furnaces and an electric arc furnace in a gravity die casting foundry. The observation was focused on the emergence of gas defects in steel castings. The content of gases achieved during the metallurgical processes was evaluated for every unit of the production equipment and the casting ladle before casting into disposable sand moulds. The sand mould area was considered to be constant. The aim was to evaluate the current metallurgical possibilities of affecting the content of gases in high alloy cast steel in the current technical conditions of the foundry.

  16. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in prehospital emergency care – an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aléx

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods: A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30 was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30 no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS, subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results: Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001 but decreased in the control group (p=0.014. A significant higher proportion (57% of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001. At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions: The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress.

  17. The evaluation of working casts prepared from digital impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y C; Park, Y S; Kim, H K; Hong, Y S; Ahn, J S; Ryu, J J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility of working casts of a digital impression system by comparing them with the original, virtual, and rapid prototyping casts. A total of 54 cast sets in clinically stable occlusion were used. They were scanned by an iTero intraoral scanner and converted into STL format virtual casts. Rapid prototyping casts and polyurethane casts were fabricated from the iTero milling system based on the virtual casts. Several horizontal and vertical measurements were performed from the four types of casts, that is, original stone casts, virtual casts, rapid prototyping casts, and polyurethane casts of iTero. Measurement error, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and differences among the casts were calculated and compared. Casts from iTero milling machines exhibited greater dimensional differences and lower ICC values than did other casts. In addition, many of the measurements of the iTero working casts showed statistically significant differences in comparison to the three other types of casts. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the virtual and original casts. Virtual casts made by the iTero intraoral scanner exhibited excellent reproducibility. However, the casts from the iTero milling machine showed greater dimensional differences and lower reproducibility compared to other types of casts.

  18. Biomechanical effects of a 2 suture-pass medial inter-implant mattress on transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair and considerations for a "technical efficiency ratio".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maxwell C; Peterson, Alexander; Patton, John; McGarry, Michelle H; Park, Chong J; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-03-01

    Rotator cuff repair involving fewer tendon suture passes without compromising biomechanical performance would represent a technical advancement. An inter-implant "medial pulley-mattress" transosseous-equivalent (MP-TOE) repair requiring fewer tendon suture-passes was hypothesized to provide equivalent biomechanical characteristics compared to the control. In 6 human cadaveric shoulders, a transosseous-equivalent (TOE) repair (control) was performed utilizing 2 separate medial mattresses resulting in 4 tendon-bridging sutures. In 6 matched-pairs, 2 single-loaded anchors were used to create a medial inter-implant mattress construct (all sutures shuttled in 1 tendon pass per anchor)-after knot-tying, the same tendon-bridging pattern as the control was created. A materials testing machine cyclically loaded each repair from 10-180 N for 30 cycles; each repair subsequently underwent failure testing. Gap and strain were measured with a video digitizing system. A "technical efficiency ratio" (TER) was defined as: (#knots + #suture passes + #suture limbs)/#fixation points. Cyclic and failure testing demonstrated no significant differences between constructs. Gap formation at cycle 30 was 5.3 ± 0.8 mm (TOE) and 5.0 ± 0.3 mm (MP-TOE) (P = .62). Cycle 30 anterior strain values were -16.0 ± 7.3% (TOE) and -15.8 ± 6.6% (MP-TOE) (P = .99). Yield loads were 208.7 ± 2.7 N (TOE) and 204.0 ± 1.3 N (MP-TOE) (P = .17). Mode of failure demonstrated less tendon cut-out with the MP-TOE repair. The MP-TOE repair has a TER of 2.0 vs 2.5 for the control. The MP-TOE repair requiring fewer tendon suture passes, yet creating an additional inter-implant mattress configuration, is biomechanically equivalent to the original TOE technique, and may limit failure with improved medial load-sharing capacity. A TER may help quantify technical ease and help standardize comparisons between repair techniques. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights

  19. Method for casting thin metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  20. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  1. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  2. [The surface roughness analysis of the titanium casting founding by a new titanium casting investment material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-ye; Wu, Xia-yi; Lin, Xue-feng

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the surface roughness property of the titanium castings cast in a new investment for titanium casting. Six wax patterns (20 mm × 20 mm × 0.5 mm) were invested using two investments: three in a new titanium investment material and three in the control material (Rematitan Plus). Six titanium specimens were obtained by conventional casting. After casting, surface roughness of the specimens were evaluated with a surface profilometer. The surface roughness of the specimens cast in new titanium investment material was (1.72 ± 0.08) µm, which was much smaller than that from Rematitan Plus [(1.91 ± 0.15) µm, P cast using these two investment materials are both smooth enough to fulfill the demand of the titanium precision-casting for prosthodontic clinical use.

  3. Accuracy of Casting Single Crowns in Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    variable affecting fit of cast dental restorations continued to be the focus of research. Taylor (1931) was the first to report on cristobalite ...Hollenback (1943) recommended a "hybrid investing and casting technique". He employed setting, hygroscopic, and thermal expansion with cristobalite investment...minor beta phase. Oxygen diffusion for pure Ti extended Imm into the casting for both the facecoating materials. Waterstrat and Giuseppetti (1985

  4. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast

  5. Thermal gradient analysis of solidifying casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchoń

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available For description of casting solidification and crystallization process the thermal derivative analysis (TDA is commonly used. Besides the process kinetics considered in TDA method to describe the solidification process, the thermal gradient analysis can be also used for this purpose [1, 2]. In conducted studies analysis of thermal gradient distribution inside the solidifying wedge casting was shown which enabled determination of heat flow intensity on casting section.

  6. Preferential dissolution behaviour in Ni–Cr dental cast alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ni–Cr–Mo dental alloy was fabricated by three different casting methods, viz. centrifugal casting, high frequency induction casting and vacuum pressure casting. The dependence of cast microstructure on the electrochemical corrosion behaviour was investigated using potentiodynamic cyclic and potentiostatic polarization ...

  7. Accuracy of stereolithography additive casts used in a digital workflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Imam, Hiba; Gram, Mia; Benetti, Ana R

    2017-01-01

    additive (SLA) casts from 2 manufacturers: 9 Dreve SLA casts and 9 Scanbiz SLA casts. All casts were then scanned 9 times with an extraoral scanner to produce the reference data set. Trueness was evaluated by superimposing the data sets obtained by scanning the casts with the reference data set. Precision...

  8. Mechanism and application of a newly developed pressure casting process: horizontal squeeze casting

    OpenAIRE

    Li Peijie; Huang Xiusong; He Liangju

    2014-01-01

    Compared to traditional high-pressure die casting (HPDC), horizontal squeeze casting (HSC) is a more promising way to fabricate high-integrity castings, owing to a reduced number of gas and shrinkage porosities produced in the casting. In this paper, the differences between HSC and HPDC are assessed, through which it is shown that the cavity filling velocity and the size of the gating system to be the most notable differences. Equipment development and related applications are also reviewed. ...

  9. Cast Iron And Mineral Cast Applied For Machine Tool Bed - Dynamic Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępczak N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron and mineral cast are the materials most often used in the machine structural elements design (bodies, housings, machine tools beds etc.. The materials significantly differ in physical and mechanical properties. The ability to suppress vibration is one of the most important factors determining the dynamic properties of the machine and has a significant impact on the machining capabilities of a machine tool. Recent research and development trends show that there is a clear tendency to move away from the traditional iron casting to the mineral casting, due to better dynamic properties of the latter. However mineral cast as a structural material for the whole machine tools bed turns out to be insufficient due to its poor mechanical strength properties. The best solution should benefit from the advantages of the cast iron and mineral cast materials while minimizing their drawbacks. The paper presents numerical modal analysis of two lathe beds: the first one made of gray cast iron and the second one made of hybrid connection of cast iron and mineral cast. The analysis was conducted in order to determine the dynamic properties of two bodies of similar shapes made in the traditional (cast iron and innovative hybrid (cast iron and mineral cast technology. In addition, an analysis of the static structure rigidity of the two beds was performed. During the simulation studies it was found a significant increase in dynamic stiffness and static rigidity of the machine tool body made of hybrid connection of cast iron and mineral cast. The results of numerical simulations have confirmed the desirability of using hybrid construction because the dynamic properties of such a body are more advantageous in comparison with the conventional body made of cast iron.

  10. Technological Aspects of Low-Alloyed Cast Steel Massive Casting Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnara J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors have undertaken the attempt of explaining the causes of cracks net occurrence on a massive 3-ton cast steel casting with complex geometry. Material used for casting manufacturing was the low-alloyed cast steel with increased wear resistance modified with vanadium and titanium. The studies included the primary and secondary crystallization analysis with use of TDA and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of non-metallic inclusions.

  11. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  12. Pressure generation beneath a new thermoplastic cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, L R; Pedowitz, R A; Byrne, T P; Gershuni, D H

    1996-01-01

    A new cast immobilizer that is heat-shrunk to conform to an injured extremity was examined. The purpose of these studies was to compare pressures beneath the thermoplastic cast with those beneath fiberglass casts on a laboratory model and on the forearms of human volunteers. Pressures measured beneath fiberglass casts on metal cylinders averaged 36 mm Hg. Thermoplastic casts on the smaller cylinder that allowed 42% shrinkage produced a mean pressure of 25 mm Hg; those placed on the larger cylinder that allowed 17% shrinkage produced a mean pressure of 39 mm Hg. Pressures measured on the forearms of healthy volunteers averaged 22 mm Hg beneath fiberglass casts and 31 mm Hg beneath the thermoplastic casts. These pressures were considerably less than pressures that have been shown to occlude the microcirculation of the skin. Acute compartment syndromes result from swelling within a limited space and remain a serious concern clinically when swelling is anticipated under any type of constraining cast. The results of these studies indicate that the new cast should not produce a greater risk of circulatory compromise to the limb than previously used fiberglass materials.

  13. Spray casting project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  14. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  15. Squeeze-casting of magnesium alloys; Pressgiessen (Squeeze-Casting) von Magnesium-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainer, K.U. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik; Boehm, E.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanical properties of squeeze castings are superior to other castings. Usually the properties are isotropic due to the homogenity of the microstructure. For these reasons squeeze castings are wellsuited for safety parts. It is possible to use conventional casting alloys, with limited improvements compared to other casting techniques, as well as conventional wrought or newly developed alloys, which are usually not castable, for squeeze-casting. The production of composite materials by infiltration of porous preforms of fibres or particles is possible. The properties of a casting can be locally improved using this technique. Squeeze-casting needs more machinery than sand- or diecasting. Compared to high pressure diecasting, the machinery is compareable, but the effort depends on the geometrie of the cast part. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Squeeze-Cast-Verfahren hergestellte Leichtmetallbauteile zeichnen sich durch verbesserte mechanische Eigenschaften gegenueber durch andere Giessverfahren hergestellte Bauteile aus. Insbesondere die Ermuedungsfestigkeit wird durch den homogenen, isotropen, nahezu fehlerfreien Gefuegeaufbau verbessert. Aus diesen Gruenden sind Squeeze-Cast-Teile besonders fuer Sicherheitsanwendungen geeignet. Es koennen sowohl konventionelle Gusslegierungen, mit begrenzten Verbesserungen gegenueber anderen Giessverfahren, als auch klassische Knet- sowie neu entwickelte Legierungen vergossen werden, welche mit Hilfe anderer Giessverfahren nur eingeschraenkt verarbeitbar sind. Die Herstellung von Verbundwerkstoffen durch Infiltration poroeser Faser- oder Partikelformkoerper, sogenannter Preforms, ist moeglich. Hierdurch koennen die Eigenschaften eines Bauteils lokal erheblich verbessert werden. Das Squeeze-Cast-Verfahren benoetigt gegenueber Sand- und Kokillenguss einen groesseren maschinellen Aufwand. Im Vergleich zum Druckguss ist der Aufwand etwa gleich, jedoch von der Geometrie des Gussstueckes abhaengig. (orig.)

  16. Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S. [Inst. of Crystal Growth Berlin (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

  17. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    1976 g DTIC 8 AELECTEI% UJ %AUG2 31985|| —J mjfr %M ^ B rra M B5 8 23 151 l-TT-WFtf.^ viH »<.wil»t«^lvi»wmrgT1i^^V\\’.-’\\’.^VA’ ,T...Slurry Producer . . 13 4. Laboratory Casting Machine 15 IV. STRUCTURE, SEGREGATION, HOMOGENIZATION HEAT TREATMENT , AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF...RHEOCAST ALLOYS 18 1. Effect of Process Variables on Structure 18 2. Segregation, Homogenization Heat Treatment and Mechanical Properties 22 V

  18. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to

  19. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one’s profession became ‘hereditary,’ resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one’s caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violation and how an individual’s status is mentally represented. High caste norms are associated with moral values while the lower caste norms are associated with immorality. We predicted a ‘black sheep effect,’ that is, when high caste individuals’ group identity (caste norm violation condition) is threatened their salient high caste identity would increase, thereby resulting in devaluing the status of their fellow in-group member if the latter is perceived as perpetrator. We presented participants with a social conflict situation of a victim and a perpetrator that is ‘Caste norm consistent’ (Lower caste individual as a perpetrator and higher caste individual as a victim) and vice versa ‘Caste norm inconsistent’ condition (higher caste individual as perpetrator and lower caste individual as a victim). Then, participants had to choose from nine pictorial depictions representing the protagonists in the story on a vertical line, with varying degrees of status distance. Results showed evidence for the black sheep effect and, furthermore, revealed that no other identity (religious, national, and regional) resulted in devaluing the status of fellow in-group member. These results help us understand the ‘black sheep’ effect in the context of moral norms and status representation and are discussed in the framework of the Indian society. PMID:28408896

  20. Energy use in selected metal casting facilities - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppich, Robert E. [Eppich Technologies, Syracuse, IN (United States)

    2004-05-01

    This report represents an energy benchmark for various metal casting processes. It describes process flows and energy use by fuel type and processes for selected casting operations. It also provides recommendations for improving energy efficiency in casting.

  1. Thin section casting program. Volume 2: Horizontal TSC (Thin-Section Casting) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In horizontal thin-section casting (HTSC), 1-inch-thick steel sections are produced at speeds up to 600 ipm or about 60 tons per hour per foot of width (tphf). Liquid steel is fed from the ladle, and flows through a specially designed tundish, then flows through a refractory feeding tube and nozzle, with approximately the same external dimensions as the cast section, into a near-horizontal rectangular mold whose all four sides are traveling in the same direction and speed as the steel casting. This report is the second of a six volume set on thin section casting. This volume covers the research on horizontal thin section casting (TSC).

  2. Technological parameters of die casting and quality of casting from EN AC46500 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Gašpár

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Die casting represents the highest technological level of metal mold casting. This technology enables production of almost all final products without necessity of further processing. The important aspect of efficiency and production is a proper casting parameters setting. In the submitted paper following die casting parameters are analyzed: plunger pressing speed and pressure. The studied parameters most significantly affect a qualitative of castings from EN AC46500 alloy and they influence the most a gained porosity level as well as basic mechanical properties represented by permanent deformations.

  3. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  4. Detection of Cast Shadows in Surveillance Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren G.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarne Dissing; Stage, Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    Cast shadows from moving objects reduce the general ability of robust classification and tracking of these objects, in outdoor surveillance applications. A method for segmentation of cast shadows is proposed, combining statistical features with a new similarity feature, derived from a physics...

  5. Geometric aspects of the casting process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahn, H.-K.

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing is the process of converting raw materials into useful products. Among the most important manufacturing processes, casting is a commonly used manufacturing process for plastic and metal objects. The industrial casting process consists of two stages. First, liquid is filled into a

  6. Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Thorborg, Jesper; Lipinski, Marek

    Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes comprises a thorough presentation of the basic phenomena that need to be addressed in numerical simulation of casting processes. The main philosophy of the book is to present the topics in view of their physical meaning, whenever possible...

  7. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Allison, Carrie; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a parental questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions. In this validation study, the CAST was distributed to 1925 children aged 5-11 in mainstream Cambridgeshire schools. A sample of participants received a full diagnostic assessment, conducted blind to screen status. The sensitivity of…

  8. Cast Care: Do's and Don'ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20, 2015. Boyd AS, et al. Principles of casting and splinting. American Family Physician. 2009;79:16. McDowell M, et al. A comparison of various contemporary methods to prevent a wet cast. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 2014;96:e99. Beutler ...

  9. MODIFYING OF CAST IRON WITH ULTRADISPERSE ADDITIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Rudnitsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition, structure, methods of receipt of ultradisperse materials (UDM and the prospect of their application in engineering procedures of foundry production are considered. Positive influence of UDM when entering in fusion on structure and properties of the gray cast iron intended for production of castings of motor group is established. 

  10. Model castings with composite surface layer - application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in foundingprocess a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase inhardness and aberasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generallyapplied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. In range of studies was made cast steel test castings withcomposite surface layer, which usability for industrial applications was estimated by criterion of hardness and aberasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral and quality of joint cast steel – (Fe-Cr-C. Based on conducted studies a thesis, that composite surface layer arise from liquid state, was formulated. Moreover, possible is control of composite layer thickness and its hardness by suitable selection of parameters i.e. thickness of insert, pouring temperature and solidification modulus of casting. Possibility of technology application of composite surface layer in manufacture of cast steel slide bush for combined cutter loader is presented.

  11. Engineering design of centrifugal casting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnowo, Roni; Gunara, Sophiadi

    2017-06-01

    Centrifugal casting is a metal casting process in which metal liquid is poured into a rotating mold at a specific temperature. Given round will generate a centrifugal force that will affect the outcome of the casting. Casting method is suitable in the manufacture of the casting cylinder to obtain better results. This research was performed to design a prototype machine by using the concept of centrifugal casting. The design method was a step-by-step systematic approach in the process of thinking to achieve the desired goal of realizing the idea and build bridges between idea and the product. Design process was commenced by the conceptual design phase and followed by the embodiment design stage and detailed design stage. With an engineering design process based on the method developed by G. E. Dieter, draft prototype of centrifugal casting machine with dimension of 550×450×400 mm, ¼ HP motor power, pulley and belt mechanism, diameter of 120-150mm, simultaneously with the characteristics of simple casting product, easy manufacture and maintenance, and relatively inexpensive, was generated.

  12. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  13. The quality of the joint between alloy steel and unalloyed cast steel in bimetallic layered castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.

  14. Optimization of casting conditions for heat and abrasion resistant large grey iron castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Lee

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation technology was applied for optimizing the casting design and conditions in large cast iron castings for marine engine. By the simulation of mold filling and solidification sequences the problems of the previous casting conditions were analyzed and marked improvements for large cylinder liner parts were derived from these results. Especially the amount and positions of chills were optimized to increase the mechanical properties and to minimize the shrinkage and microporosity in the castings. Ultrasonic testing, penetration testing and mechanical property testing were carried out for the parts with the modified casting conditions. It showed that no defects in the castings were found and the productivity could be distinctly increased.The mechanical properties satisfied also the specification demanded.

  15. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  16. Reinforcing cast iron with composite insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulska A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a proprietary method of making composite cast iron (eutectic locally reinforced with ceramics. The research included making casts with a ceramic layer, its percentage of the surface was 30%. The research included abrasive wear resistance according to ASTM G 65-00. As a result of the research it has been found that the infiltration of the molten metal into the ceramic preform mainly affects the correct production of the cast with local reinforcement. The research results also have proven that the application of a lattice ceramic insert placed in the mould is the most appropriate option, due to the even distribution of the particles in the cast and obtaining a sound cast.

  17. COMPLEX MODIFICATION OF GRAY CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the complex modifier by chemical – active and surface-active additives of gray cast iron on the size of chill and on the width of molted iron zone was researched. The width of a chill zone and molted iron zones were measured at chank ends of various diameter cores. The cores were casted on a massive steel plate and also in standard chill tests. It was established that additional adding of surface-active bismuth in structure of various graphitizing modifiers promoted to reduce the width a chill zone and molted iron zones. It was established that the complex modifiers consisting of chemical – active and surfaceactive components are effective in fight with chill in cast iron castings and can be recommended for application in foundry shops of the entities of a machine-building profile for production of high-quality castings

  18. The role of water in slip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

  19. Numerical modelling of stresses and deformations in casting processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1997-01-01

    Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method......Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method...

  20. NEW METHOD OF IMPROVING THE MACHINABILITY OF CAST STEEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possibility of increasing cast steel machinability by introducing sodium sulfur compounds into the ladle containing melted steel immediately before casting the metal into an ingot is investigated.

  1. Development of steel plate - cast iron hybrid casting process for recycling of low level radioactive metal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Hirabayashi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Akimoto, J.; Takahashi, K.; Shindo, H.; Sakurai, D. [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Almansour, A.; Okane, T.; Umeda, T. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For the purposes of recycling low-level radioactive waste arising from dismantling of nuclear reactors, applicability of steel plate - cast iron hybrid casting process has been investigated as a measure for producing a waste container using radioactive metal waste. This investigation consists of casting tests and analyses on the solidification and distortion of castings. This paper describes the concept of the casting process, casting test results, and understandings obtained from the analyses. (orig.)

  2. Latest advances and developments in aluminum shape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in the automotive and aerospace industries, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. The mechanical properties of aluminum castings strongly depend upon their microstructure constituents and particularly cast defect population and distribution. To produce quality castings with quantifiable properties, the key is to control multi-scale defects and microstructure in the casting. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME approach is also discussed. The most effective way to optimize the processes and achieve the desirable mechanical properties is through the development and exploitation of robust and accurate multi-scale computational models.

  3. Fibreglass Total Contact Casting, Removable Cast Walkers, and Irremovable Cast Walkers to Treat Diabetic Neuropathic Foot Ulcers: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vania; Tu, Hong Anh; Wells, David; Weir, Mark; Holubowich, Corinne; Walter, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers are a risk factor for lower leg amputation. Many experts recommend offloading with fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers as a way to treat these ulcers. Methods We completed a health technology assessment, which included an evaluation of clinical benefits and harms, value for money, and patient preferences for offloading devices. We performed a systematic literature search on August 17, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials that compared fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers with other treatments (offloading or non-offloading) in patients with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers, and we conducted a 5-year budget impact analysis. Finally, we interviewed people with diabetes who had lived experience with foot ulcers, asking them about the different offloading devices and the factors that influenced their treatment choices. Results We identified 13 randomized controlled trials. The evidence suggests that total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers are beneficial in the treatment of neuropathic, noninfected foot ulcers in patients with diabetes but without severe peripheral arterial disease. Compared to removable cast walkers, ulcer healing was improved with total contact casting (moderate quality evidence; risk difference 0.17 [95% confidence interval 0.00–0.33]) and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.21 [95% confidence interval 0.01–0.40]). We found no difference in ulcer healing between total contact casting and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.02 [95% confidence interval −0.11–0.14]). The economic analysis showed that total contact casting and irremovable

  4. Fibreglass Total Contact Casting, Removable Cast Walkers, and Irremovable Cast Walkers to Treat Diabetic Neuropathic Foot Ulcers: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers are a risk factor for lower leg amputation. Many experts recommend offloading with fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers as a way to treat these ulcers. We completed a health technology assessment, which included an evaluation of clinical benefits and harms, value for money, and patient preferences for offloading devices. We performed a systematic literature search on August 17, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials that compared fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers with other treatments (offloading or non-offloading) in patients with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of fibreglass total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers, and we conducted a 5-year budget impact analysis. Finally, we interviewed people with diabetes who had lived experience with foot ulcers, asking them about the different offloading devices and the factors that influenced their treatment choices. We identified 13 randomized controlled trials. The evidence suggests that total contact casting, removable cast walkers, and irremovable cast walkers are beneficial in the treatment of neuropathic, noninfected foot ulcers in patients with diabetes but without severe peripheral arterial disease. Compared to removable cast walkers, ulcer healing was improved with total contact casting (moderate quality evidence; risk difference 0.17 [95% confidence interval 0.00-0.33]) and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.21 [95% confidence interval 0.01-0.40]). We found no difference in ulcer healing between total contact casting and irremovable cast walkers (low quality evidence; risk difference 0.02 [95% confidence interval -0.11-0.14]). The economic analysis showed that total contact casting and irremovable cast walkers were less expensive and

  5. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  6. Cracks in high-manganese cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reasons which account for the formation of in service cracks in castings made from Hadfield steel were discussed. To explain the source of existence of the nuclei of brittle fractures, the properties of cast steel were examined within the range of solidification temperatures, remembering that feeding of this material is specially difficult, causing microporosity in hot spots. This creates conditions promoting the formation of microcracks which tend to propagate during service conditions involving high dynamic stresses, and explains why the cracks are mainly characterized by a brittle nature. The reason for crack formation in service are micro-porosities formed during casting solidification.

  7. Methods for Casting Subterranean Ant Nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2010-01-01

    The study of subterranean ant nests has been impeded by the difficulty of rendering their structures in visible form. Here, several different casting materials are shown to make perfect casts of the underground nests of ants. Each material (dental plaster, paraffin wax, aluminum, zinc) has advantages and limitations, which are discussed. Some of the materials allow the recovery of the ants entombed in the casts, allowing a census of the ants to be connected with features of their nest architecture. The necessary equipment and procedures are described in the hope that more researchers will study this very important aspect of ant natural history. PMID:20673073

  8. Sonic testing in assessment of casting quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Białobrzeski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study has been designing and putting in operation of a stand for sonic testing equipped with modern and readily available numerical devices and with the author’s own computer program, which enables recording and analysis of acoustic fields and of the frequency of free vibrations in selected castings made from Fe and Al alloys, and specifically also from magnesium alloys, and mastering the technique of making such tests along with their practical application in assessment of the quality of castings made from magnesium alloys and investment castings made from carbon steel.

  9. Improved Slip Casting Of Ceramic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.; Vasquez, Peter; Hicks, Lana P.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique of investment slip casting developed for making precise ceramic wind-tunnel models. Needed in wind-tunnel experiments to verify predictions of aerothermodynamical computer codes. Ceramic materials used because of their low heat conductivities and ability to survive high temperatures. Present improved slip-casting technique enables casting of highly detailed models from aqueous or nonaqueous solutions. Wet shell molds peeled off models to ensure precise and undamaged details. Used at NASA Langley Research Center to form superconducting ceramic components from nonaqueous slip solutions. Technique has many more applications when ceramic materials developed further for such high-strength/ temperature components as engine parts.

  10. Direct Cast U-6Nb – 2017 Progress on Cylindrical Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikin, Jr., Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This report describes work to further develop a sound technical basis and best practices for mold design and process parameters for the Direct Casting of U-6wt%Nb components. One major challenge to the production of U-6Nb components is the propensity for niobium segregation during casting and solidification. This is especially true for cylindrical castings where the vertical side walls allow flotation of Nb resulting in severe inverse macrosegregation. In this work, a small (120 mm diameter by 180 mm tall) and large cylinder (250 mm diameter by 310 mm tall) are examined with a focus on reducing, or eliminating, niobium segregation. It is demonstrated that counter gravity casting (top-to-bottom solidification) can be used to minimize segregation in the small cylinder. Attempts to counter gravity cast the large cylinder were unsuccessful, in large part due to size limitations of the current furnace. A path forward for casting of the large cylinders is discussed.

  11. The effects of different casting techniques on the hardness, energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of casting technique on the impact strength, energy absorbance and hardness of sand cast Pb-Sb-Cu alloys was studied following casting of the alloys using three techniques. Cooling of the alloys after casting was carried out in water, air and furnace in order to vary the micro-structure of the alloys produced.

  12. Gating Systems for Sizeable Castings from Al Alloys Cast into Ceramic Moulds

    OpenAIRE

    Stachovec I.; Horáček M.; Zemčík L.; Kolda V.; Horenský J.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to casting to conventional non-reusable “sand” moulds, for which calculating technique for an optimum design of the gating system is comparatively well-developed, a trial-and-error method is applied mostly for casting to ceramic shell moulds made by the investment casting technology. A technologist selects from gating systems of several types (that are standardized by the foundry mostly) on the basis of experience. However, this approach is not sustainable with ever growing demand...

  13. The change of temperature gradient in solidification of hypereutectic chromium cast iron casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the analysis of temperature gradient of solidification in section of hypereutectic chromium cast iron model casting was introduced. On this example was presented the method (DTGA – derivative and thermal gradient analysis, which was worked out in Department of Foundry Silesian University of Technology enabling the record of indispensable data to execution of analysis the temperature gradient and its derivative after time on section of model casting. It multichanneled apparatus to registration of data was used Crystaldigraph - PC.

  14. Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software FLOW-3D Cast ®

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sirviö; M. Woś

    2009-01-01

    ConiferRob - A patternless casting technique, originally conceived at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and furtherdeveloped at its spin-off company, Simtech Systems, offers up to 40% savings in product development costs, and up to two months shorterdevelopment times compared to conventional techniques. Savings of this order can be very valuable on today's highly competitivemarkets. Casting simulation is commonly used for designing of casting systems. However, most of the software are ...

  15. Therapeutic hypothermia can be induced and maintained using either commercial water bottles or a "phase changing material" mattress in a newborn piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, S; Iwata, O; Olson, L; Kapetanakis, A; Kato, T; Evans, S; Araki, Y; Kakuma, T; Matsuishi, T; Setterwall, F; Lagercrantz, H; Robertson, N J

    2009-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia, a safe and effective treatment for neonatal encephalopathy in an intensive care setting, is not available in low-resource settings. Aims/ To assess two low-tech, low-cost cooling devices for use in low-resource settings: (i) commercially available water bottles filled with tepid water (25 degrees C); (ii) a mattress made of phase changing material (PCM) with a melting point of 32 degrees C (PCM works as a heat buffer at this temperature). Eleven anaesthetised newborn piglets were studied following transient hypoxia-ischaemia. The cooling device was applied 2-26 h after hypoxia-ischaemia with a target rectal temperature (T(rectal)) of 33-34 degrees C. T(rectal) undershoot was adjusted using cotton blankets; the cooling device was renewed when T(rectal) rose above 35 degrees C. T(rectal) data during cooling were dichotomised (within or without target) to assess: (a) the total period within the target T(rectal) range; (b) the stability and fluctuation of T(rectal) during cooling. Therapeutic hypothermia was achieved with both water bottles (n = 5) and the PCM mattress (n = 6). The mean (SD) time to reach target T(rectal) was 1.8 (0.5) h with water bottles and 1.9 (0.3) h with PCM. PCM cooling led to a longer period within the target T(rectal) range (pWater bottle cooling required device renewal (in four out of five piglets). Simple, low-tech cooling devices can induce and maintain therapeutic hypothermia effectively in a porcine model of neonatal encephalopathy, although frequent fine tuning by adjusting the number of blankets insulating the piglet was required to maintain a stable temperature. PCM may induce more stable cooling compared with water bottles.

  16. Antero-posterior (AP) pelvis x-ray imaging on a trolley: Impact of trolley design, mattress design and radiographer practice on image quality and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugwell, J R; England, A; Hogg, P

    2017-08-01

    Physical and technical differences exist between imaging on an x-ray tabletop and imaging on a trolley. This study evaluates how trolley imaging impacts image quality and radiation dose for an antero-posterior (AP) pelvis projection whilst subsequently exploring means of optimising this imaging examination. An anthropomorphic pelvis phantom was imaged on a commercially available trolley under various conditions. Variables explored included two mattresses, two image receptor holder positions, three source to image distances (SIDs) and four mAs values. Image quality was evaluated using relative visual grading analysis with the reference image acquired on the x-ray tabletop. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was calculated. Effective dose was established using Monte Carlo simulation. Optimisation scores were derived as a figure of merit by dividing effective dose with visual image quality scores. Visual image quality reduced significantly (p images acquired on the trolley using identical acquisition parameters to the reference image. The trolley image with the highest optimisation score was acquired using 130 cm SID, 20 mAs, the standard mattress and platform not elevated. A difference of 12.8 mm was found between the image with the lowest and highest magnification factor (18%). The acquisition parameters used for AP pelvis on the x-ray tabletop are not transferable to trolley imaging and should be modified accordingly to compensate for the differences that exist. Exposure charts should be developed for trolley imaging to ensure optimal image quality at lowest possible dose. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Results of Arthroscopic Repair of Isolated Longitudinal Tear of Medial Meniscus by Vertical Cruciate Double Mattress Sutures with Outside-in Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyied Hamid Barzgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Meniscal tears are one of the most common injuries treated by arthroscopic techniques. Arthroscopic meniscal repair is an accepted way of treatment for meniscal tears. Different arthroscopic techniques for meniscal repair are: inside-out, outside-in and all inside. In the first 2 techniques, meniscus is repaired by sutures and in the later by suture or by commercial ready implants . The goal of current study is assessing clinical results of arthroscopic repair of longitudinal meniscal tears with vertical cruciate double mattress sutures by outside-in technique after 9 months.   Methods: In this case series study, in 13 patients having criteria for engaging the study with longitudinal isolated meniscus tear, arthroscopic meniscal repair was done with vertical cruciate double mattress sutures by outside-in technique and patients were followed for 9 months.   Results: Of 13 patients, there were 12 males (92.3% and one female (7.7% aged 15-38 (average 28.3 years. In follow up period, there was one case (7.7% of irritation by subcutaneous knot. There was not any failure of repair. Average Lysholm score increased from 55.23 to 91.23 after 9 months of follow up, which was statistically significant (p<0.001. At the end of follow up period, there was not any medial joint line tenderness of knee, giving way or significant effusion or pain.   Conclusion: This study shows that this technique has a good short term outcome with no failure and low complications but it is necessary to do more long term studies to prove it.

  18. Examination and Elimination of Defects in Cone Casting Made of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of existing cooperation with the Foundry of Cast Iron ZM “WSK Rzeszów” Ltd. there was carried out research work of microstructure and mechanical properties in the walls of a cone casting made of ductile cast iron. The particular attention was being put to the search of the potential brittle phases which have deleterious effect on ductility and dynamic properties of highly strained use of the casting prone to the potential risk of cracks during the highly strained use.

  19. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  20. ToxCast/ToxRefDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ToxCast is used as a cost-effective approach for efficiently prioritizing the toxicity testing of thousands of chemicals. It uses data from state-of-the-art high...

  1. Bonding of Aluminum Alloys in Compound Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian; Ye, Bing; Zuo, Lijie; Wang, Qudong; Wang, Qigui; Jiang, Haiyan; Ding, Wenjiang

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the coating materials, coating thickness, and casting process on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of the overcast A6061 bars with aluminum A356 and A6061 alloys was studied by OM, SEM/EDS, and mechanical testing. Results indicate that Ni coating has better thermal stability than Cu coating that heavily reacts with liquid Al alloy and forms a reaction zone around 130-150 μm during gravity casting. In the gravity casting, coarse and cracked Al3Ni phase distributes along the interfacial region and degrades the mechanical properties of the overcast joints. In squeeze casting, however, fine and dispersed Ni-rich strengthening phases form uniformly in the interfacial zone and improve the metallurgical bonding of the joints. The heat transition and application of pressure during solidification are two key factors in determining the integrity and mechanical properties of the overcast joints.

  2. Solidification control in continuous casting of steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    /lubrication at solid–liquid interface, high temperature properties of the solidifying shell etc. is necessary to control the continuous casting process. The present paper elaborates upon the knowledge developed in the areas of initial shell ...

  3. Solidification control in continuous casting of steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lubrication at solid-liquid interface, high temperature properties of the solidifying shell etc. is necessary to control the continuous casting process. The present paper elaborates upon the knowledge developed in the areas of initial shell formation, mode ...

  4. Advanced lost foam from casting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C. E.; Littleton, H. E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B. A.; Sheldon, D. S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects Task 4: Pattern Gating Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas in the period of October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers.

  5. Microbiological Study of Cast Posts before Cementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallejo-Labrada, Maricela; Ojeda-Garces, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

      This study identifies the most common microorganisms present in type III gold cast posts related to pulpal disease and evaluates the sterilization/disinfection method before cementation in the root canal...

  6. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, R.L. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  7. Panchromatic Sequentially Cast Ternary Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Masoud; Ye, Long; Zhang, Qianqian; Yan, Liang; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Awartani, Omar; You, Wei; Gadisa, Abay; Ade, Harald

    2017-01-01

    A sequential-casting ternary method is developed to create stratified bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, in which the two BHJ layers are spin cast sequentially without the need of adopting a middle electrode and orthogonal solvents. This method is found to be particularly useful for polymers that form a mechanically alloyed morphology due to the high degree of miscibility in the blend. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Research of linear contraction during continuous aluminum casting

    OpenAIRE

    Таран, Юрій Павлович

    2013-01-01

    Research works of plenty of scientists are dedicated to issues of continuous metals casting and rolling. Nevertheless there are no scientific papers, dealing with research of impact of continuous aluminum crystallization on the length of the casted billet and its velocity after casting.The speed process of continuous aluminum casting is characterized by an uneven heat exchange lengthwise the billet which is crystallized in the mould of the casting wheel in the temperatures range. It results i...

  9. Vermicular graphite cast iron current state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, VSR; Seshan, S; Seshan, K.

    1985-01-01

    Vermicular graphite cast iron is a new addition to the family of cast irons. Various methods for producing vermicular graphite cast iron are briefly discussed in this paper. The mechanical and physical properties of cast irons with vermicular graphite have been found to be intermediate between those of gray and ductile irons. Other properties such as casting characteristics, scaling resistance, damping capacity and machinability have been compared with those of gray and ductile irons. Probabl...

  10. Numerical modelling of the tilt casting processes of titanium alumindes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research has investigated the modelling and optimisation of the tilt casting process of Titanium Aluminides (TiAl). This study is carried out in parallel with the experimental research undertaken in IRC at the University of Birmingham. They propose to use tilt casting inside a vacuum chamber and attempt to combine this tilt casting process with Induction Skull Melting (ISM). A totally novel process is developing for investment casting, which is suitable for casting gamma TiAl.\\ud \\ud As ...

  11. Last cast for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first major contract signed for the LHC is drawing to a close. Belgian firm Cockerill Sambre (a member of the Arcelor Group) has just completed production of 50,000 tonnes of steel sheets for the accelerator's superconducting magnet yokes, in what has proved to be an exemplary partnership with CERN. Philippe Lebrun, Head of the AT Department, Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader, and Lucio Rossi, Head of the AT-MAS Group, in front of the last batch of steel for the LHC at Cockerill Sambre. It was a bright red-letter day at the end of May, when Belgian firm Cockerill Sambre of the Arcelor Group marked the completion of one of the largest contracts for the LHC machine by casting the last batch of steel sheets for the LHC superconducting magnet yokes in the presence of LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans, AT Department Head Philippe Lebrun, Magnets and Superconductors (AT-MAS) Group Leader Lucio Rossi and Head of the AT-MAS Group's components centre Francesco Bertinelli. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the acc...

  12. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J.G.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.

    2015-11-16

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  13. Latest results of cast and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Vafeiadis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is currently the most sensitive axion helioscope designed to search for axions and axion-like particles produced in the Sun. CAST completed successfully the second part of CAST phase II where the magnet bores were lled with 3He gas at variable pressure scanning axion masses up to 1.2 eV In the absence of signal it has set the best experimental limit on the axion-photon coupling constant over a broad range of axion masses. In 2013 CAST has improved its sensitivity to solar axions with rest mass below 0.02 eV by upgrading the Micromegas detectors and it will continue in 2014 with the implementation of a second X-ray optic and a new type detector (InGRID). In addition, CAST has extended its sensitivity into the sub-keV energy range using a silicon detector (SDD), to search for solar chameleons. Thus, CAST also became sensitive to dark energy particles. A new generation axion helioscope (IAXO) aims to improve the current axion-photon coupling by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude. This wi...

  14. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology] [comp.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  15. Mechanical properties of homogenized twin-roll cast and conventionally cast AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Zimina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of mechanical properties of magnesium alloys nowadays is very important, because of the variety of industrial applications. For this goal, the number of casting techniques and further treatments were developed. Among the continuous casting techniques, which allow producing long strips of the alloys, is twin-roll casting. Using this process one can get the magnesium alloy with finest microstructure and higher specific strength. In this paper the comparison of tensile properties of conventionally cast and twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium alloys was made. Tensile tests were carried out with constant strain rate 10-3 s-1 at temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 °C. Both materials were tested in as-cast state and after homogenization treatment at 450 °C for 10 hours. The investigation showed that there are no significant changes in ductility of AZ31 conventionally cast alloy even after heat treatment, while the ductility of twin-roll cast alloy increases.

  16. FORMATION OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROMIUM CAST IRON CASTING INTO THE CHILL MOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal processes of formation of castings from wearproof chromic cast irons for replaceable details of centrifugal mills and crushers is carried out. Influence of protective and dividing coverings on intensity of heating of the chill mold is investigated.

  17. Stereological parameters of carbides on section of casting made from modified chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of stereological parameters of carbides on the section of the model castingmade from modified (the mixture FeNb+FeV+RE wear resistance chromium cast iron was introduced in the article. The jump change of some stereological parameters of carbides in certain distance from the surface of the casting was observed.

  18. RESOURCES-ECONOMY TECHNOLOGY OF CASTINGS PRODUCTION OF NICKEL-CONTAINING CAST-IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological process of the cast-iron IChH28H2 alloying by means of insertion into burden composition of briquettes of dead nickel-chromic catalysts is developed. This technology allows to carry out recycling of expensive metals such as nickel, and in that way to decrease the cost price of castings

  19. Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

  20. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2005-09-01

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to

  1. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  2. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅳ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  3. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macků M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to the production of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out what dimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mould production, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the production of the final casting itself. Five measurements of determined dimensions were made during the production, which were processed and evaluated mathematically. A determination of shrinkage and a proposal of measures to maintain the dimensional stability of the final casting so as to meet requirements specified by a customer were the results.

  4. Analysis of the structure of castings made from chromium white cast iron resistant to abrasive wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide and disintegrated steel scrap introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structure of castings. The said operation increases the number of crystallization nuclei for dendrites of the primary austenite. In this case, the iron particles act as substrates for the nucleation of primary austenite due to a similar crystallographic lattice. The more numerous are the dendrites of primary austenite and the structure more refined and the mechanical properties higher. Castings after B4C inoculation revealed a different structure of fine grained fracture. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  5. Gating Systems for Sizeable Castings from Al Alloys Cast into Ceramic Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stachovec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to casting to conventional non-reusable “sand” moulds, for which calculating technique for an optimum design of the gating system is comparatively well-developed, a trial-and-error method is applied mostly for casting to ceramic shell moulds made by the investment casting technology. A technologist selects from gating systems of several types (that are standardized by the foundry mostly on the basis of experience. However, this approach is not sustainable with ever growing demands on quality of castings and also the economy of their fabrication as well as with new types of complex sizeable castings introduced to the production gradually (by new customers from the aircraft industry above all any more. The simulation software may be used as a possible tool for making the process of optimising gating systems more effective.

  6. Mechanism and application of a newly developed pressure casting process: horizontal squeeze casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peijie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional high-pressure die casting (HPDC, horizontal squeeze casting (HSC is a more promising way to fabricate high-integrity castings, owing to a reduced number of gas and shrinkage porosities produced in the casting. In this paper, the differences between HSC and HPDC are assessed, through which it is shown that the cavity filling velocity and the size of the gating system to be the most notable differences. Equipment development and related applications are also reviewed. Furthermore, numerical simulation is used to analyze the three fundamental characteristics of HSC: slow cavity filling, squeeze feeding and slow sleeve filling. From this, a selection principle is given based on the three related critical casting parameters: cavity filling velocity, gate size and sleeve filling velocity. Finally, two specific applications of HSC are introduced, and the future direction of HSC development is discussed.

  7. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macků

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to theproduction of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out whatdimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mouldproduction, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the production of the final casting itself.Five measurements of determined dimensions were made during the production, which were processed and evaluated mathematically.A determination of shrinkage and a proposal of measures to maintain the dimensional stability of the final casting so as to meetrequirements specified by a customer were the results.

  8. Evaluation of porosity in Al alloy die castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Říhová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of an Al-alloy die casting depend significantly on its structural properties. Porosity in Al-alloy castings is one of the most frequent causes of waste castings. Gas pores are responsible for impaired mechanical-technological properties of cast materials. On the basis of a complex evaluation of experiments conducted on AlSi9Cu3 alloy samples taken from the upper engine block which was die- cast with and without local squeeze casting it can be said that castings manufactured without squeeze casting exhibit maximum porosity in the longitudinal section. The area without local squeeze casting exhibits a certain reduction in mechanical properties and porosity increased to as much as 5%. However, this still meets the norms set by SKODA AUTO a.s.

  9. Casting: Pearls and pitfalls learned while caring for children's fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Shawn; McDowell, Mitchell; Schlechter, John

    2016-09-18

    Casting is a routine procedure used for fracture care in the pediatric population. The purpose of this review is to provide pearls and pitfalls that our institution has learned from previous literature. When applying the cast, we recommend using cotton padding for the liner and fiberglass or plaster depending on how much swelling is expected. A well-molded cast must be applied in order to prevent further fracture displacement. Cast valving is a valuable technique that allows a decrease in pressure which prevents discomfort and complications like compartment syndrome. Preventing thermal injuries, skin complications, and a wet cast are other important considerations when caring for casts. Appropriate use of a cast saw, avoiding pressure spots, and properly covering the cast are ways to respectively prevent those complications. Lastly, patient education remains one of the most valuable tools in ensuring proper cast maintenance.

  10. CASTing light on dark matter particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN's CAST collaboration recently released first results from its search for solar axions, a candidate dark matter particle. Though they haven't found any axions yet, they have done much to narrow the hunt. The CAST experiment. Physicists think the universe is permeated with dark matter, particles that don't emit or absorb radiation and so are invisible to traditional telescopes. So far no one has found direct signs of dark matter. A different breed of telescope, however, may be able to see such particles. CERN's Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), currently the world's only working axion helioscope, is a superconducting test magnet from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that has been refurbished and outfitted with X-ray detectors, plus a focusing mirror system for X-rays that was recovered from the German space program. CAST stares into the sun in search of particles called axions, one of the leading candidates for dark matter. On 9 November, the CAST collaboration released the results of their first experimen...

  11. Improvement of Artistic Cast Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technology and organization of the artistic cast production. On the basis of the actual cast production system, the manufacturing process was shown, in particular sand–piece moulding, which is a very important process and a time-consuming part of the entire manufacture of the casts. The current state of the production process as well as the organization of the work and production technology were analysed with the use of methods and techniques of production improvement, the Lean Manufacturing concept and computer systems. The results of the analysis and studies were shown with use of schemes and graphs of the layout of the production resources, a flow chart of the production process, value stream mapping, and a costs table for the production and modernization of the moulding stage. The work has shown that there are possibilities to improve the artistic cast production system. This improvement leads to increased productivity, lower production costs of artistic casts and increased competitiveness of the foundry.

  12. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Cebrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J.N.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Struder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  13. Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

  14. Land-based turbine casting initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A. [Howmet Corp., Whitehall, MI (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program has set goals which include a large-scale utility turbine efficiency that exceeds 60 percent (LHV) on natural gas and an industrial turbine system heat rate improvement of 15 percent. To meet these goals, technological advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land based gas turbines. These technological advances include: directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. Equiaxed and directionally solidified castings are employed in current land based power generation equipment. These castings do not possess the ability to meet the efficiency targets as outlined above. The production use of premium single crystal components with complex internal cooling schemes in the latest generation of alloys is necessary to meet the ATS goals. However, at present, the use of single crystal components with complex internal cooling schemes is restricted to industrial sized or aeroderivative engines, and prototype utility sized components.

  15. Controlled Precipitation Gaseous Cavities in Aluminium Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roučka J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At thermal junctions of aluminium alloy castings and at points where risering proves to be difficult there appear internal or external shrinkages, which are both functionally and aesthetically inadmissible. Applying the Probat Fluss Mikro 100 agent, which is based on nano-oxides of aluminium, results in the appearance of a large amount of fine microscopic pores, which compensate for the shrinking of metal. Experimental tests with gravity die casting of AlSi8Cu3 and AlSi10Mg alloys have confirmed that the effect of the agent can be of advantage in foundry practice, leading to the production of castings without local concentrations of defects and without the appearance of shrinkages and macroscopic gas pores. Also, beneficial effect on the mechanical properties of the metal has been observed.

  16. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  17. Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance. Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

  18. Discussion on Usability of the Niyama Criterion for Porosity Predicting in Cast Iron Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to previous publications of the author, focused on criteria of casting feeding, including the thermal criterion proposed by Niyama. On the basis of this criterion, present in the post-processing of practically all the simulation codes, danger of casting compactness (in the sense of soundness in form of a microporosity, caused by the shrinkage phenomena, is predicted. The vast majority of publications in this field concerns shrinkage and feeding phenomena in the cast steel castings – these are the alloys, in which parallel expansion phenomenon does not occur as in the cast irons (graphite crystallization. The paper, basing on the simulation-experimental studies, presents problems of usability of a classic, definition-based approach to the Niyama criterion for the cast iron castings, especially of greater massiveness, for prediction of presence of zones of dispersed porosity, with relation to predictions of the shrinkage type defects. The graphite expansion and its influence on shrinkage compensation during solidification of eutectic is also discussed.

  19. [Study concerning the influence of the casting parameters of dental alloys on the cast prosthetic rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viţalariu, Anca Mihaela; Tatarciuc, Monica Silvia

    2008-01-01

    The integration of a cast rehabilitation into the oral environment and its clinical longevity are mainly determined by the accuracy reproduction of the technological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural defects induced by the modification of the technological conditions of casting the conventional and titanium alloys. We used 35 cast prosthetic rehabilitation, divided into 7 groups. For each group we modified one parameter: the width of the wax pattern, the design and topography of the casting channels, the absence of the cleanliness of the wax pattern, the preparation of the investment material, the thermal system for the mold preparation and reduced quantity of metal used for casting. For the 7-th group, represented by titanium cast rehabilitation, we modified the design and dimensions of the casting channels. The changes in the technological conditions induced porosity, incomplete frameworks or plus on the prosthetic appliances. The fundamental theoretical knowledge of the clinician and dental technician and the strictly application of the technologies assure the premises of the satisfaction of the patient.

  20. Diffusion of C and Cr During Creation of Surface Layer on Cast Steel Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnar J.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In paper a method of improvement in utility properties of unalloyed cast steel casting in result of diffusion of C and Cr in process of creation of surface layer is presented. The aim of paper was determination of diffusion range of basic elements of alloyed surface layer. Moreover a quantitative analysis of carbides phase strengthens alloyed surface layer of casting was carried out. The results of studies shown that important factors of surface layer creation are maximal temperature Tmax on granular insert – cast steel boundary dependent of pouring temperature, granularity Zw of Fe-Cr-C alloy insert and thickness of casting wall gśo. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that with increase of thickness of casting wall increases range of diffusion in solid state in Fe-Cr-C grains and in liquid state. Moreover the range of Tmax = 13001500oC favours creation of the proper alloyed surface layers on cast steel.

  1. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  2. Quality control of cast brake discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The largest industrial application so far have the gray cast irons which are characterized by low tensile and bending strength, while at the same time they have good ultimate comprehensive strength. Additionally, the fatigue strength of gray cast irons is comparatively low and they are only to some extend sensitive for the surface waters effects. Cast iron is the material, which is comparatively easy to be processed, and for this reason – it is not expensive. Brake discs are exploited in particularly hard conditions. They must be resistant both against the thermal fatigue and abrasion wearing (at dry friction as well as against seizing, corrosion and mechanical load [1-3]. The gray cast iron, better than other materials, fulfills all the requirements necessary for making the material for the casts resistant against such tough conditions. This work reflects the researches aiming to define the quality of cast brake discs (ventilated and non-ventilated ones upon a period of their exploitation in real conditions. The following researches were performed: evaluations of the disc surface condition, measurement of disc thickness, examination of run – out flank and metallographic analysis. In order to more detailed recognition of mechanisms and reasons of brake discs wearing in real conditions, one should conduct additional examinations: computer analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition analysis, etc., as well as study of the technology of their production in foundries, where they are manufactured [4]. By obtaining the full set of the mentioned above data one can draw final conclusions and remove causes of possible defects.

  3. Casting of microstructured shark skin surfaces and possible applications on aluminum casting parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Ivanov

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the project Functional Surfaces via Micro- and Nanoscaled Structures?which is part of the Cluster of Excellence 揑ntegrative Production Technology?established and financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG, an investment casting process to produce 3-dimensional functional surfaces down to a structural size of 1 μm on near-net-shape-casting parts has been developed. The common way to realize functional microstructures on metallic surfaces is to use laser ablation, electro discharge machining or micro milling. The handicap of these processes is their limited productivity. The approach of this project to raise the efficiency is to use the investment casting process to replicate microstructured surfaces by moulding from a laser-microstructured grand master pattern. The main research objective deals with the investigation of the single process steps of the investment casting process with regard to the moulding accuracy. Actual results concerning making of the wax pattern, suitability of ceramic mould and core materials for casting of an AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy as well as the knock-out behavior of the shells are presented. By using of the example of an intake manifold of a gasoline race car engine, a technical shark skin surface has been realized to reduce the drag of the intake air. The intake manifold consists of an air-restrictor with a defined inner diameter which is microstructured with technical shark skin riblets. For this reason the inner diameter cannot be drilled after casting and demands a very high accuracy of the casting part. A technology for the fabrication and demoulding of accurate microstructured castings are shown. Shrinkage factors of different moulding steps of the macroscopic casting part as well as the microscopic riblet structure have been examined as well.

  4. Optimization of the investment casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martinez-Hernandez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping is an important technique for manufacturing. This work refers to the manufacture of hollow patterns made of polymeric materials by rapid prototyping technologies for its use in the preparation of ceramic molds in the investment casting process. This work is focused on the development of a process for manufacturing patterns different from those that currently exist due to its hollow interior design, allowing its direct use in the fabrication of ceramic molds; avoiding cracking and fracture during the investment casting process, which is an important process for the foundry industry.

  5. Fatigue behaviour of synthetic nodular cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the influence of charge composition on microstructure, fatigue properties and failure micromechanisms of nodular cast irons. The additive of metallurgical silicon carbide (SiC in analysed specimens increases the content of ferrite in the matrix, decreases the size of graphite and increases the average count of graphitic nodules per unit of area. Consequently, the mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved. The best fatigue properties (fatigue strength were reached in the melt which was created by 60 % of steel scrap and 40 % of pig iron in the basic charge with SiC additive.

  6. Repair welding of cast iron coated electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Górka, J.; Dojka, R.; Czupryński, A.

    2017-08-01

    Welding cast iron is a complex production procedure. Repair welding was used to repair damaged or poorly made castings. This is due to a tendency to cracking of the material during welding as well as after it. Welding cast iron can be carried out on hot or on cold. Hot welding requires high heat material and the use of welding material in the form of cast iron. In the case of cold welding, it is possible to use different materials. Mostly used filler metals are nickel and copper based. The work shows the course of research concerning repairmen of ductile iron with arc welding method. For the reparation process four types of ESAB company coated electrodes dedicated for cast iron were used with diameter 3.2 and 4 mm: ES 18-8-6B (4mm), EB 150 (4mm), OK NiCl, EŻM. In the cast iron examined during the testing grooves were made using plasma methods, in order to simulate the removed casting flaws. Then the welding process with coated electrodes was executed. The process utilized low welding current row of 100A, so there would only be a small amount of heat delivered to the heat affected zone (HAZ). Short stitches were made, after welding it was hammered, in order to remove stresses. After the repair welding the part of studies commenced which purpose was finding surface defects using visual testing (VT) and penetration testing (PT). In the second part, a series of macro and microscopic studies were executed witch the purpose of disclosuring the structure. Then the hardness tests for welds cross sections were performed. An important aspect of welding cast iron is the colour of the padding weld after welding, more precisely the difference between the base material and padding weld, the use of different materials extra gives the extra ability to select the best variant. The research of four types of coated electrode was executed, based on the demands the best option in terms of aesthetic, strength and hardness.

  7. Casting defects analysis by the Pareto method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Borowiecki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of receive results formed of diagram Pareto Lorenz. On the basis of receive graph it affirmed, that for 70% general number casting defects answered 3 defects (9 contribution – 100% defects. For 70% general number defects of influence it has three type of causes: sand holes, porosity and slaginclusions. Thedefects show that it is necessary to take up construction gatingsystem. The remaining 8 causes have been concerned only 25%, with general number of casting defects. Analysis of receive results permit to determine of direction of correct actions in order to eliminate or to limit the most defects.

  8. Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Thorborg, Jesper; Lipinski, Marek

    Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes comprises a thorough presentation of the basic phenomena that need to be addressed in numerical simulation of casting processes. The main philosophy of the book is to present the topics in view of their physical meaning, whenever possible......) presents the most important aspects of solidification theory related to modelling. Part III (Chapter 5) describes the fluid flow phenomena and in part IV (Chapter 6) the stress-strain analysis is addressed. For all parts, both numerical formulations as well as some important analytical solutions...

  9. Estudio comparativo de microsutura vascular en ratas: punto simple y punto de colchonero horizontal Comparative study about vascular microsurgery on rats: classic interrupted suture versus horizontal mattress suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Casado Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La Microcirugía es la técnica empleada para la realización de la microanastomosis vascular. El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar dos tipos de técnicas de microsutura: los puntos simples clásicos, de empleo habitual en la microcirugía vascular, y los puntos de colchonero horizontales, no evaluados habitualmente para este tipo de cirugía. Fueron intervenidas 20 ratas albinas de la cepa Wistar (peso medio de 250 - 300 gr. bajo anestesia general; realizamos sección transversal en la arteria femoral, procediendo a su reparación microquirúrgica inmediata. Se establecieron 2 grupos de animales: en el grupo A (n=10, la microsutura se hizo mediante 6 puntos sueltos simples, y en el grupo B (n=10, empleando 3 puntos de colchonero horizontal. Comprobamos la patencia en el desclampado inmediato y tras una hora del desclampado (para ambas técnicas fue positiva en el 100% de los casos, y la hemorragia en ambos tiempos (se registró un único caso de sangrado en el postoperatorio inmediato en el grupo B, que requirió la revisión de la microsutura. El tiempo medio de ejecución de la sutura en el grupo B, 15 minutos aproximadamente, fue más corto que en el grupo A, 21 minutos aproximadamente, diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Microsurgery is the procedure of choice for vascular microanastamoses. The objective of this study was to compare two types of suture techniques: classic interrupted suture anastomoses, commonly used for vascular anastamoses in microsurgery, and another technique using horizontal mattress sutures, rarely evaluated in this type of surgery. Twenty albino Wistar rats were operated (average weight: 250 - 300 gr. under general anaesthesia. A transverse section of the femoral artery was performed and immediately followed by an anastamoses. The animals were placed into two groups of ten. The classic 6 interrupted suture anastomoses technique was performed in group A (n = 10 and another technique using 3

  10. VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL CASTING OF A HYPEREUTECTIC SILUMIN WITH COOLING OF THE MOLD AND CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that cooling of casting molds by water with water flow of 0,42 m3/h and internal surfaces of castings with thickness of a wall 12–14 mm with water quantity 2,5×10–4–5×10–4 m3 allows to receive procurements with completely modified microstructure without use of modifiers. External layers of the produced castings consist of the eutectic silumin with compact crystals of silicon, and internal layers – of hypereutectic silumin with crystals of high-disperse primary and compact eutectic silicon.

  11. Structure Distribution in Precise Cast Iron Moulded on Meltable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrbek B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Topic of this work is to compare metalurgy of cast irons poured into sand moulds and into shell molds at IEG Jihlava company and from it following differencies in structures of thin- and thick-walled castings. This work is dealing with investigation and experimental measurement on surfaces and sections suitable thin- and thick-walled investment castings at IEG Jihlava. Cast irons with flake graphite (grey cast iron and cast irons with spheroidal graphite (ductile cast iron. Both mechanical and physical properties are determined using calculations from as measured values of wall thicknesses L and Lu, Vickers hardness and remanent magnetism. Measurement results are discussed, findings are formulated and methods for castings metallurgical quality improvement are recommended finally.

  12. Development of vacuum continuous casting technology for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.S.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, D. B.; Kim, J. D.; Jang, S. J.; Ahn, H. S.; Shin, Y. J

    2001-02-01

    The spent fuel disposal process of new dry storage concept has been developed in KAERI, in which the uranium metal abstracted by Li-reduction of spent fuel will be formed to long rods and then the rods will be arranged uniformly in canister. The objective of this study is to review the feasibility of applying the continuous casting method to cast a long rod with modifying the vacuum high-frequency induction furnace to vacuum continuous casting system, which was normally used to cast the uranium. The results are as follows. With the nozzle size of 3mm and the withdrawal speed of 3.5 mm/sec, the length of 160mm, diameter of 30 mm continuous casting uranium bar was successfully cast. This result shows there might be a possibility of continuous casting of uranium and helps the design and fabrication of new continuous casting equipment.

  13. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5

  14. Microabrasion of cast metal margins--a warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Michael A; Verrett, Ronald G; Phoenix, Rodney D

    2007-01-01

    Plastic test patterns were milled to simulate casting margins and were cast in a variety of dental alloys. The cast specimens were exposed to horizontal and vertical streams of low-pressure microabrasion with 50 microm aluminum oxide particles. Post-exposure measurements show all specimens were affected by microabrasion. Dentists and laboratory technicians who use microabrasion must be aware of the potential damage to casting margins.

  15. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Patil

    2016-01-01

    The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khair...

  16. THE WEAR RESISTANCE INCREASE OF CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Ilyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the tests on the wear resistance of chromium cast irons of different compositions obtained in sand forms. It has been shown that increase of the wear resistance and mechanical properties of the cast iron is possible to obtain using the casting in metal molds. A further increase in wear resistance of parts produced in metal molds is possible by changing the technological parameters of casting and alloying by titanium.

  17. Awareness Programs and Change in Taste-based Caste Prejudice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta

    2015-01-01

    in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste...

  18. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet the...

  19. 29 CFR 452.131 - Casting of ballots; delegate elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casting of ballots; delegate elections. 452.131 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.131 Casting of ballots; delegate elections. The manner in which the votes of the representatives are cast in the convention is not...

  20. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  1. A 2-dimensional finite element simulation of cooling in castings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we present a 2 dimensional finite element simulation of the cooling process in castings. A one way coupling +technique was used to predict the behavior of thermal strains and stresses from the temperature history of casting. The temperature distribution across the casting at different times, the cooling pattern of ...

  2. Genetic study of scheduled caste populations of Tamil Nadu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 87; Issue 2. Genetic study of scheduled caste populations of Tamil Nadu. M. Vijaya S. Kanthimathi A. Ramesh. Research Note Volume 87 Issue 2 ... Keywords. caste system; genetic affinity; scheduled castes; socio-economic groups; Tamil Nadu; principal component analysis.

  3. Effects of calpastain (CAST) polymorphisms on carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastain (CAST) activity plays a major role in muscle growth and proteolytic changes post-mortem and the CAST gene has been considered as a candidate gene for carcass and pork quality characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of two polymorphisms namely CAST_HinfI (allele A and B) and ...

  4. Structure and mechanical properties of vermicular cast iron in cylinder head casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guzik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of grain density and ferrite content in microstructure of vermicular graphite iron cast in bars of different section diameters and cylinder head casting. The experimental results regarding the section effect demonstrate that the nodule count, grain density and ferrite content are all function of the cast bar diameter in this particular case ranging from 0.6 to 8.0 cm and microstructure and mechanical properties in the cylinder head. The nodule count (or grain density has been reported to increase, while ferrite content was decreasing with decreasing casting diameter. The density number of the grains Nv has been related (by regression analysis to the undercooling degree

  5. Effects of Casting Conditions on End Product Defects in Direct Chill Casted Hot Rolling Ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Arda; Yüksel, Çağlar; Erzi, Eraz; Dispinar, Derya

    Direct chill casting is a reliable casting process for almost any wrought aluminum alloy for subsequent deformation via hot rolling to supply vital industries such as aerospace, automotive, construction, packaging and maritime. While some defects occur during casting, like hot tearing, some others like surface defect causing blisters, appear after hot rolling process or annealing after final cold rolling steps. It was found that some of these defects are caused by melt impurities formed from entrained folded aluminum oxides or bifilms. A study in a hot rolling casting facility was carried out with different melt cleaning practices, launder and molten metal transferring designs. Bifilm index and reduced pressure test were used for determining melt cleanliness measurement. It was found that porous plug gas diffusons for degassing are more effective than lance type degassers and a design towards less turbulent molten metal flow from furnace to mould cavity are necessary for reducing defects caused by bifilms.

  6. Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software FLOW-3D Cast ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sirviö

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ConiferRob - A patternless casting technique, originally conceived at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and furtherdeveloped at its spin-off company, Simtech Systems, offers up to 40% savings in product development costs, and up to two months shorterdevelopment times compared to conventional techniques. Savings of this order can be very valuable on today's highly competitivemarkets. Casting simulation is commonly used for designing of casting systems. However, most of the software are today old fashioned and predicting just shrinkage porosity. Flow Science, VTT and Simtech have developed new software called FLOW-3D Cast ® , whichcan simulate surface defects, air entrainment, filters, core gas problems and even a cavitation.

  7. Carburizer Effect on Cast Iron Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janerka, Krzysztof; Kondracki, Marcin; Jezierski, Jan; Szajnar, Jan; Stawarz, Marcin

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the effect of carburizing materials on cast iron solidification and crystallization. The studies consisted of cast iron preparation from steel scrap and different carburizers. For a comparison, pig iron was exclusively used in a solid charge. Crystallization analysis revealed the influence of the carburizer material on the crystallization curves as well as differences in the solidification paths of cast iron prepared with the use of different charge materials. The carburizers' influence on undercooling during the eutectic crystallization process was analyzed. The lowest undercooling rate was recorded for the melt with pig iron, then for synthetic graphite, natural graphite, anthracite, and petroleum coke (the highest undercooling rate). So a hypothesis was formulated that eutectic cells are created most effectively with the presence of carbon from pig iron (the highest nucleation potential), and then for the graphite materials (crystallographic similarity with the carbon precipitation in the cast iron). The most difficult eutectic crystallization is for anthracite and petroleum coke (higher undercooling is necessary). This knowledge can be crucial when the foundry plant is going to change the solid charge composition replacing the pig iron by steel scrap and the recarburization process.

  8. Gelcasting Alumina Cores for Investment Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M A; Klug, F J

    2001-01-01

    General Electric currently uses silica investment casting cores for making superalloy turbine blades. The silica core technology does not provide the degree of dimensional control needed for advanced turbine system manufacture. The sum of the various process variables in silica core manufacturing produces cores that have more variability than is allowed for in advanced, power-generation gas turbine airfoils.

  9. Esthetic Rehabilitation with a Cast Partial Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraksha Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Removable partial denture is a treatment option where fixed prosthesis is not indicated. Due to its esthetic problems in the anterior region various modifications have been designed for its fabrication. This article describes an esthetic alternative using a round rest distal depression clasp for maxillary anterior teeth abutment while restoring the missing teeth with a cast partial denture.

  10. Palatal Surface Area of Maxillary Plaster Casts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    -dimensional measurements of selected linear distances, curve lengths, and (surface) areas were carried out on maxillary plaster casts from individuals with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate. The relationship between two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements was investigated using linear regression...... ratio may be converted to a three-dimensional measurement by use of a multiplication factor of 0.75....

  11. Fermilab joins in global live Web cast

    CERN Document Server

    Polansek, Tom

    2005-01-01

    From 2 to 3:30 p.m., Lederman, who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1988, will host his own wacky, science-centered talk show at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory as part of a lvie, 12-hour, international Web cast celebrating Albert Einstein and the world Year of Physics (2/3 page)

  12. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not waterproof, so keeping them dry for the whole time the cast is in place is very important. It ... Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  13. Status and perspectives of the CAST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lakic, B; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Brauninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Ezer, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gomez, H; Gruber, E; Guthorl, T; Hartmann, R; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovcic, K; Karuza, M; Konigsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzon, G; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Rashba, T; Riege, H; Rodriguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomas, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is currently the most sensitive axion helioscope designed to search for axions produced by the Primakoff process in the solar core. CAST is using a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) test magnet where axions could be converted into X-rays with energies up to 10 keV. During the phase I, the experiment operated with vacuum inside the magnet bores and covered axion masses up to 0.02 eV. In the phase II, the magnet bores were filled with a buffer gas (first (4)He and later (3)He) at various densities in order to extend the sensitivity to higher axion masses (up to f .18 eV). The phase II data taking was completed in 2011. So far, no evidence of axion signal has been found and CAST set the most restrictive experimental limit on the axion-photon coupling constant over a broad range of axion masses. The latest CAST results with (3)He data in the mass range 0.39 eV < ma < 0.64 eV will be presented.

  14. Deliberate deformation of concrete after casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Janssen, B.; Schipper, H.R.; Vollers, K.J.; Walraven, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of intentional deformation of a flexible formwork after casting of the concrete and the influence of the characteristics of concrete in the fresh state on the quality of a concrete element. This deformation is intended to bring the concrete element in its desired

  15. Genetics studies involving Swiss needle cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Johnson; F. Temel; K. Jayawickrama

    2002-01-01

    Three studies were analyzed this year that examined genetic aspects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) tolerance . Families sampled across the Siuslaw National forest showed differences in foliage health traits, but very little of the variation could be explained by environmental or climatic conditions at the parent tree location. Five test sites of the Nehalem series of...

  16. Internal Casting Stresses and Dimensional Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Thorborg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    It is common knowledge that cast iron components may be affected by the presence of residual stresses. This often represents a serious threat, because residual stresses almost invariably cause a significant degradation of the most important material properties, such as reduced fracture toughness,...

  17. Modal Vibration Analysis of Large Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudolph J.; Margasahayam, Ravi N.

    2009-01-01

    The art of experimental modal vibration analysis (MVA) has been extended to apply to large castings. This extension was made to enable the use of experimental MVA as a relatively inexpensive, simple means of assessing the internal structural integrity of tread shoes of crawler transporters used to move spacecraft to the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center. Each tread shoe is made from cast iron and weighs about a ton (has a mass .907 kg). The present extended version of experimental MVA could also be applied to other large castings. It could be especially useful to manufacturers as a means of rapidly discriminating against large castings that contain unacceptably large concentrations of internal defects. The use of experimental MVA to assess structural integrity is not new. What are new here are those aspects of the extension of experimental MVA that pertain to the application of MVA to objects so massive that it may not be practical or cost effective to mount them in special test fixtures that impose special test boundary conditions to test them in place under normal conditions of use.

  18. Costs Analysis of Iron Casts Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of costs analysis of iron casts manufacturing using automated foundry lines. Particular attention was paid to departmental costs, conversion costs and costs of in-plant transport. After the Pareto analysis had been carried out, it was possible to set the model area of the process and focus on improving activities related to finishing of a chosen group of casts. In order to eliminate losses, the activities realised in this domain were divided into activities with added value, activities with partially added value and activities without added value. To streamline the production flow, it was proposed to change the location of workstations related to grinding, control and machining of casts. Within the process of constant improvement of manufacturing processes, the aspect of work ergonomics at a workstation was taken into account. As a result of the undertaken actions, some activities without added value were eliminated, efficiency was increased and prime costs of manufacturing casts with regard to finishing treatment were lowered.

  19. The Micromegas detector of the CAST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P.; Aune, S.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Delagnes, E.; de Oliveira, R.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer Ribas, E.; Franz, J.; Geralis, T.; Gros, M.; Giomataris, Y.; Irastorza, I.G.; Kousouris, K.; Morales, J.; Papaevangelou, T.; Ruz, J.; Zachariadou, K.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    A low background Micromegas detector has been operating in the CAST experiment at CERN for the search of solar axions during the first phase of the experiment (2002-2004). The detector, made out of low radioactivity materials, operated efficiently and achieved a very low level of background rejection (5 x 10^-5 counts/keV/cm^2/s) without shielding.

  20. CAST reaches milestone but keeps on searching

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Courier (september 2011 issue)

    2011-01-01

    After eight years of searching for the emission of a dark matter candidate particle, the axion, from the Sun, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has fulfilled its original physics programme.   Members of the CAST collaboration in July, together with dipole-based helioscope. CAST, the world’s most sensitive axion helioscope, points a recycled prototype LHC dipole magnet at the Sun at dawn and dusk, looking for the conversion of axions to X-rays. It incorporates four state-of-the-art X-ray detectors: three Micromegas detectors and a pn-CCD imaging camera attached to a focusing X-ray telescope that was recovered from the German space programme (see CERN Courier April 2010).  Over the years, CAST has operated with the magnet bores - the location of the axion conversion - in different conditions: first in vacuum, covering axion masses up to 20 meV/c2, and then with a buffer gas (4He and later 3He) at various densities, finally reaching the goal of 1.17 eV/c2 on 22 ...

  1. Casting the Spirit: A Handmade Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenberg, Mona

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how an art therapist working in a hospital palliative care unit has incorporated a ritual of hand casting to help bring closure to dying patients and family members who are grieving as death approaches. The finished hand sculptures depict the hands of the patients and, sometimes, of their loved ones. They are faithful and…

  2. Earthworm Cast Biomass Under Three Managed Ecosystems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine earthworm cast biomass under three managed ecosystems, Gmelina, Cashew and Banana plantations at Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and its impact on the soil physicochemical parameters. Seven, five and four plots of 3 m2 each were sampled in Gmelina, Cashew and ...

  3. Cast erosion from the cleaning of debris after the use of a cast trimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Paul A; Beatty, Mark W

    2017-02-01

    Whether using tap water to rinse off debris will make a clinical difference to the surface detail of a gypsum cast is unknown. In addition, how best to remove debris from the cast is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of cleaning a gypsum cast after trimming and the effect of short-term exposure to tap water on the surface quality of the cast. A die fitting American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association specification 25 (International Standards Organization specification 6873) for dental gypsum products was embedded in a Dentoform with the machined lines positioned at the same level as the occlusal surface of the posterior teeth. A flat plate was used to ensure that the plane of occlusion for the die was at the same position as the posterior teeth. Forty polyvinyl siloxane impressions of the Dentoform were made and poured with vacuum-mixed improved Type IV dental stone. Each cast was inspected for the accurate reproduction of the lines. The base of the 2-stage pour was trimmed with a cast trimmer with water, and surface debris was removed by rinsing by hand under tap water for 10 seconds, by brushing the cast with a soft toothbrush for 10 seconds, or by resoaking the cast and using a soft camel hair brush in slurry water for 10 seconds. The amount of debris was evaluated on a scale of 1 to 4, and the quality of the 20-μm line was evaluated on a scale of 1 to 4 under ×15 magnification. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ranks test was used to identify significant differences among the different cleaning methods (α=.05). Results of the Kruskal-Wallis and Kruskal-Wallis Z-value tests demonstrated that all cleaning methods produced cleaner casts than were observed for uncleansed controls (Pcleaning methods (.065≤P≤.901). The ability to see the quality of a 20-μm line (P=.974) was not statistically different among the groups. Rinsing the cast under flowing tap water and brushing, or

  4. The influence of solidification speed during heating on allotropic transformations of chromium cast iron casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Przybył

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The unique stand to founding dilatometric samples ("on ready” which solidify with different cooling speeds was presented. The dilatometric investigations, X-ray, metallographic they disclosed the occurrence in matrix of chromium cast iron of considerable quantity of austenite in dependence from concentration of chromium (18% and 23% and the speed of solidification. Castings these despite large part of austenite mark with high hardness in raw state.

  5. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion

    2016-07-01

    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  6. Aluminium Foam and Magnesium Compound Casting Produced by High-Pressure Die Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iban Vicario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are two of the main focal points in vehicle design, promoting the reduction in the weight of vehicles by using lighter materials. The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of different aluminium foams and injection parameters in order to obtain compound castings with a compromise between the obtained properties and weight by high-pressure die cast (HPDC using aluminium foams as cores into a magnesium cast part. To evaluate the influence of the different aluminium foams and injection parameters on the final casting products quality, the type and density of the aluminium foam, metal temperature, plunger speed, and multiplication pressure have been varied within a range of suitable values. The obtained compound HPDC castings have been studied by performing visual and RX inspections, obtaining sound composite castings with aluminium foam cores. The presence of an external continuous layer on the foam surface and the correct placement of the foam to support injection conditions permit obtaining good quality parts. A HPDC processed magnesium-aluminium foam composite has been developed for a bicycle application obtaining a suitable combination of mechanical properties and, especially, a reduced weight in the demonstration part.

  7. The influence of modification and squeeze casting on properties of AlSi11 alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zyska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of structural examinations and tests of mechanical properties of AlSi11 alloy, either gravity or squeeze cast, have beenpresented. The investigations have been carried out for both the non-modified silumin and the alloy modified with AlSr10 strontiummaster alloy. The measurements have been carried out for the cast plates of dimensions 200×100×25 mm. It has been found out that themodification combined with squeeze casting provides an advantageous set of strength and plastic properties (RBmB ≈ 270 MPa, AB5B ≈ 16%.The metallographic examination has revealed a significant refinement of both the primary α-phase dendrites and the silicon eutectics,however being dependent on the method of modification and casting. It has been found that the refinement of the primary crystals resultsfrom the influence of external pressure exerted on the solidifying casting, while the refinement observed for silicon eutectics is an effect of combined influence of modification and squeeze casting.

  8. Characterization of Bimetallic Castings with an Austenitic Working Surface Layer and an Unalloyed Cast Steel Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents the technology of bimetallic castings based on the founding method of layer coating directly in the cast process of the so-called method of mold cavity preparation. The prepared castings consist of two fundamental parts, i.e., the base and the working surface layer. The base part of the bimetallic casting is typical foundry material, i.e., unalloyed cast steel, whereas the working layer is a plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The quality of the joint between the base part and the working layer was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing and structure examinations containing metallographic macro- and microscopic studies with the use of a light microscope (LOM) with microhardness measurements and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with microanalysis of the chemical composition (energy dispersive spectroscopy—EDS). On the basis of the obtained results it was confirmed that the decisive phenomena needed to create a permanent joint between the two components of the bimetallic casting are carbon and heat transport in the direction from the high-carbon and hot base material which was poured into the mold in the form of liquid metal to the low-carbon and cold material of the working layer which was placed in the mold cavity in the form of a monolithic insert.

  9. Temperature and microstructure characteristics of silumin casting AlSi9 made with investment casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the research result of the temperature distribution and the microstructure in certain parts of the field-glass body frame casting made from silumin AlSi9 using the investment casting method in the ceramic mould. It was proved that the highest temperature of the silumin appears in the sprue in which the silumin is in the liquid-solid state, though the process of silumin crystallization in the casting is finished. It was stated that in certain elements of the casting the side opposite to the runner crystallizes and cools fastest. The differences in the rate of crystalline growth and cooling of certain casting elements cause differ- ent microstructure in them which can also influence the mechanic properties.It is necessary to state that the temperature of the initial heating of the ceramic mold equal to 60oC guarantees obtaining of the castings without defects and of little porosity. Incomplete modification of the silumin with strontium causes silica precipitation to appear close to the spherical ones.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Die Castings Produced Utilizing Process Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajkiel A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are one of the lightest of all the structural materials. Because of their excellent physical and mechanical properties the alloys have been used more and more often in various branches of industry. They are cast mainly (over 90% on cold and hot chamber die casting machines. One of the byproducts of casting processes is process scrap which amounts to about 40 to 60% of the total weight of a casting. The process scrap incorporates all the elements of gating systems and fault castings. Proper management of the process scrap is one of the necessities in term of economic and environmental aspects.

  11. Summary of thermal properties for casting alloys and mold materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlke, R. D.; Jeyarajan, A.; Wada, H.

    1982-12-01

    A review of thermal properties of casting alloys and mold materials was conducted for the purpose of stimulating activity in computer aided design for castings. A summary of thermal data; thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, and heats of fusion was prepared for metals and casting alloys, and for primary molding materials. This summary represents an initial step in the development of data bases for support of computer aided design systems for castings. Additional information is required, in particular for thermal properties of commercial casting alloy systems.

  12. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence

  13. Novel technologies for the lost foam casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian

    2017-10-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) is a green precision casting process categorized as a near net forming technology. Yet, despite its popularity, it still suffers from some technological problems, such as poor filling ability of the castings, coarse and non-dense microstructure, low mechanical properties for the Al and Mg LFC processes, and defective carburization for the low carbon steel LFC process. These drawbacks restrict the development and widespread application of the LFC process. To solve these problems, the present study developed several novel LFC technologies, namely, LFC technologies under vacuum and low pressure, vibration solidification, and pressure solidification conditions; expendable shell casting technology; and preparation technology of bimetallic castings based on the LFC process. The results showed that the LFC under vacuum and low pressure evidently improved the filling ability and solved the oxidization problem of the alloys, which is suitable for producing complex and thinwall castings. The vibration and pressure solidifications increased the compactness of the castings and refined the microstructure, significantly improving the mechanical properties of the castings. The expendable shell casting technology could solve the pore, carburization, and inclusion defects of the traditional LFC method, obtaining castings with acceptable surface quality. Moreover, the Al/Mg and Al/Al bimetallic castings with acceptable metallurgical bonding were successfully fabricated using the LFC process. These proposed novel LFC technologies can solve the current technological issues and promote the technological progress of the LFC process.

  14. Novel technologies for the lost foam casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian

    2018-03-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) is a green precision casting process categorized as a near net forming technology. Yet, despite its popularity, it still suffers from some technological problems, such as poor filling ability of the castings, coarse and non-dense microstructure, low mechanical properties for the Al and Mg LFC processes, and defective carburization for the low carbon steel LFC process. These drawbacks restrict the development and widespread application of the LFC process. To solve these problems, the present study developed several novel LFC technologies, namely, LFC technologies under vacuum and low pressure, vibration solidification, and pressure solidification conditions; expendable shell casting technology; and preparation technology of bimetallic castings based on the LFC process. The results showed that the LFC under vacuum and low pressure evidently improved the filling ability and solved the oxidization problem of the alloys, which is suitable for producing complex and thinwall castings. The vibration and pressure solidifications increased the compactness of the castings and refined the microstructure, significantly improving the mechanical properties of the castings. The expendable shell casting technology could solve the pore, carburization, and inclusion defects of the traditional LFC method, obtaining castings with acceptable surface quality. Moreover, the Al/Mg and Al/Al bimetallic castings with acceptable metallurgical bonding were successfully fabricated using the LFC process. These proposed novel LFC technologies can solve the current technological issues and promote the technological progress of the LFC process.

  15. Opportunities and challenges of Chinese die-casting market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caifei SONG

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The present status and prospectives of Chinese die-casting market were commented. In 2003, the total output of die castings in the whole country was 708 000 tons, in which the output of Al-alloy, Zn-alloy, Mg-alloy, Cu-alloy die casitngs were 474 600 tons, 222 000 tons, 5 800 tons, 5 600 tons, respectively, each accounted for 67%, 31.35%, 0.85%, 0.8% of the total. The annual sale volume of die-casting machines was approximately 1 800. And the gross output value of dies approached RMB 38 billion, in which die-casting dies accounted for about 10%. In the die-casting industry of the entire country, the foreign capital enterprises, public-run enterprises, township and village enterprises, private enterprises accounted for over 80% of the total die-casting enterprises. Super huge die-casting enterprises are forming.

  16. Stereological Analysis of Carbides in Hypoeutectic Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gromczyk M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on stereological parameters of carbides in modified hypoeutectic chromium cast iron were shown in the paper. The effect of distance the casting heat centre of casting to the carbide phase morphology was examined. The samples for metallographic examination were taken from various locations of the model casting prepared in a special tester. This model casting was designed to simulate the solidification of heavy castings. Using the proposed methodology the relation of the distance from the model mould and the size, perimeter, length, width and the shape factor of carbides was examined. During the analysis, the values of stereological parameters of carbides changed on various sections of the model casting.

  17. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic castings...... in the thin plates (≤4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature before the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) was 15 to 20ºC lower for the eutectic than for the hypereutectic castings. This is due to nucleation of graphite...... nodules which begins at a lower temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings. The recalescence ∆Trec was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  18. Die Casting Part Distortion: Prediction and Attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr, R. Allen Miller

    2002-02-12

    The goal of this research was to predict the part deformation and residual stresses after ejection from the die and cooling to room temperature. A finite element model was built to achieve this goal and several modeling techniques were investigated throughout this research. Die-casting is a very complex process and the researchers are faced with a large number of hard to solve physical problems when modeling the process. Several assumptions are made in our simulation model. The first significant assumption is the instantaneous cavity filling. This means that the cavity filling stage is not considered in our model. Considering the cavity filling stage increases the modeling complexity as a result of different flow patterns. expected in the shot sleeve, gate, runner and different cavity features. The flow of gas from the cavity through the vents is another problem that is ignored in our model as a result of this assumption. Our second assumption is that the cast metal has uniform temperature distribution inside the cavity, at the starting point of simulation. This temperature is assumed to be over liquidus limit, i.e. the solid fraction is 0.0% of the cast metal. The third assumption is due to ABAQUS (commercial software used in this research) limitations. ABAQUS cannot deal with multi-phase models; therefore we use solid elements to define the casting instead of multi-phase (liquid/solid) elements. Liquid elements can carry the hydrostatic pressure from the shot sleeve and apply it on the cavity surfaces, while the solid elements do not have this capability. To compensate for this assumption we add the cavity pressure as a boundary condition and apply it on the cavity surface separately from the part. Another issue with this assumption is that, liquid casting can follow the cavity shape when it distorts. With the use of solid elements to represent the casting during its liquid state, it loses this capability to follow the cavity. Several techniques were tested to

  19. Noise Reduction to Reduce Patient Anxiety During Cast Removal: Can We Decrease Patient Anxiety With Cast Removal by Wearing Noise Reduction Headphones During Cast Saw Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Susan T; Harris, Marie S; Lierhaus, Anneliese M; Miller, Patricia E; DiFazio, Rachel L

    Noise reduction headphones decrease the sound during cast removal. Their effectiveness in decreasing anxiety has not been studied. Compare pediatric patients' anxiety levels during cast removal with and without utilization of noise reduction headphones combined with use of a personal electronic device. Quality improvement project. Patients randomly assigned to noise reduction headphone group or standard care group during cast removal. Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability Scale and heart rate were evaluated prior to, during, and after cast removal. Data were compared across groups. Fifty patients were included; 25 per group. No difference detected between the 2 groups in Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability Scale score prior to (p = .05) or after cast removal (p = .30). During cast removal, the headphone group had lower FLACC Scale scores (p = .03). Baseline heart rate was lower in the headphone group prior to (p = .02) and after (p = .005) cast removal with no difference during cast removal (p = .24). Utilizing noise reduction headphones and a personal electronic device during the cast removal process decreases patient anxiety.

  20. Numerical and Experimental Study on Residual Stress in Gray Cast Iron Stress Lattice Shape Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Yuichi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Okane, Toshimitsu; Fukuda, Yoya; Yoshida, Makoto

    2013-07-01

    The prediction of residual stress in a stress lattice shape casting (stress lattice) has been conducted and discussed by some researchers via the Finite Element Method (FEM). However, most of the previous studies used the first-order tetrahedral element, which has poor analysis accuracy in problems including bending. The use of the first-order tetrahedral element makes the verification of these studies uncertain because the bending deformation essentially occurs in the stress lattice casting. This study first shows that the thermal stress analysis for the stress lattice should use the element that can represent the bending deformation in principle for bending of the thin parts. Second, the simulated residual stress was compared with the measured value. The thermal stress analysis successfully predicted the residual stress of the stress lattice casting with and 11 pct difference. In addition to the prediction of the residual stress, it is important from the viewpoint of the productivity of castings to reveal the effect of the shake-out temperature on the residual stress. However, in the previous studies, conclusions concerning the effect of the shake-out temperature on the residual stress were not consistent ( i.e., the one study said the higher shake-out temperature decreased the residual stress, and another study said a higher shake-out temperature increased the residual stress). Therefore, the current study first discusses the reason for the inconsistent conclusions in the previous studies. Second, stress lattice castings were cast and shaken out at various shake-out temperatures. Then, the current study validated the effect of the shake-out temperature on the residual stress. Consequently, the experimental results supported the conclusion of Kasch and Mikelonis that the shake-out at higher temperature contributed to the increase of the residual stress in the casting.

  1. Determining the Temperature Variation of the on the Wall of the Casting Mould during the casting of the Hadfield Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper approaches the analysis of the metal temperature variation during the filling and solidification of steel in the casting mould. Furthermore we made determinations upon the heat transfer through the wall of the casting mould. The casting temperature, the casting speed and the heat transfer through the walls of the mould have a remarkable impact upon the shrinkage process for the prevention of casting defects (heat cavities and cracks. These cavities are also development cores for the heat cracks and the concentration of strains, which reduce the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the cast parts. The shrinkage cavities represent one of the main defects of the cast product, and their reduction should be made up to the limits of technical possibilities.

  2. Modelling of Tape Casting for Ceramic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud

    of functional ceramics research. Advances in ceramic forming have enabled low cost shaping techniques such as tape casting and extrusion to be used in some of the most challenging technologies. These advances allow the design of complex components adapted to desired specific properties and applications. However...... of ceramic processing are generally focused on the control of the microstructure while the importance of shaping is often underestimated. Improved performance requires the design and shaping of both controlled architectures and microstructures. Novel functionally graded ceramic materials may be formed...... process of functionally graded ceramic materials for fuel cell applications as well as magnetic refrigeration. Models to simulate the shaping of monolayer/multilayer and graded materials by tape casting are developed. The emphasis is on analyzing the entry flow of multiple slurries from the reservoir...

  3. Solar axion search with the CAST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, S.

    2008-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside the magnet pipe of an LHC dipole. The analysis of the data recorded during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnet pipes has resulted in the most restrictive experimental limit on the coupling constant of axions to photons. In the second phase, CAST is operating with a buffer gas inside the magnet pipes in order to extent the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. We will present the first results on the $^4{He}$ data taking as well as the system upgrades that have been operated in the last year in order to adapt the experiment for the $^3{He}$ data taking. Expected sensitivities on the coupling constant of axions to photons will be given for the recent $^3{He}$ run just started in March 2008.

  4. Chameleon Search in CAST Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2200384; Cetin, Serkant

    Chameleons are hypothetical particles that are proposed as a scalar field to account for the accelerated expansion of the universe, the so-called `dark energy problem'. They are proposed to be produced in the high magnetic field regions inside the Sun and they propagate through or reflect from a medium with the interaction strength depending on the ambient density. The models which characterize the interaction of the chameleons provide two interaction channels: direct coupling to matter dependent on the density and coupling to electromagnetic field by Primakoff effect. CAST Experiment probes the coupling of chameleons with matter with opto-mechanical KWISP detector which is based on Fabry-Perot and Michelson interferometers. In this thesis, starting with an overview of the experimental search efforts of the CAST experiment, theoretical background of the dark energy and the chameleon mechanism will be provided. Then, the detection mechanism based on KWISP detector will be discussed and the versions of the dete...

  5. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Phillips, Nathaniel Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  6. Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Die Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Jan Ivar; Gjestland, Haavard; Oosterkamp, Ljiljana Djapic; Albright, Darryl L.

    Friction stir welding (FSW), being a solid-state process, is an attractive method for joining magnesium die castings. In this study, FSW of AZ91D and AM50A plates was performed both on the individual alloys and to join them together. The welds were sound and free from defects, except for small surface cracks in AM50A; a fine microstructure characterized the weld zones. The tensile properties of specimens transverse to the weld zone were measured, as were the corrosion properties. The tensile properties were somewhat lower than the base metal, with the largest percentage decrease found in the elongation of AM50A, perhaps due to the surface cracking. The corrosion resistance of the weld zone was relatively poor, most likely due to iron contamination from wearing of the tool. Further optimization of the FSW tool design and process parameters must take place to improve the reliability of FSW for magnesium die castings.

  7. Sharatchandra’s Caste and Gender Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasingha Sil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sharatchandra Chattopadhyay’s attitude to the prevalent caste system and social ethos, especially concerning sex, love, and marriage and chastity of married as well as widowed women, shows a marked ambivalence. On one hand, his work demonstrates his progressive and liberal ideas emanating from Western contact and impact on late colonial India, and on Bengal in particular. On the other hand, and by the same token, his attitude to love, marriage, and sex shows marked affinity with the Victorian morality emanating from the society of colonial India’s metropolitan masters. The upshot of this historical and social context is that Sharatchandra was basically a caste conscious Hindu Brahmin and a firm believer in the patriarchal ethos of his contemporary society, his reputation as a compassionate (daradī or maramī writer exposing the ills of his society notwithstanding.

  8. Squeeze Casting of Steel Weapon Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    is not washed into the casting when the molten metal is poured into the die or mold. As can be expected, the mold coatings have refractory ...melted in an alumina liner which is fixed inside the coil using refractory plaster. The alumina liner is a closed bottom tube approximately 9 in. long...of molten metal from the furnace to the die. In fact, if this transfer can be achieved without any manual handling by means of a transfer ladle

  9. Freeze Casting for Assembling Bioinspired Structural Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qunfeng; Huang, Chuanjin; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2017-12-01

    Nature is very successful in designing strong and tough, lightweight materials. Examples include seashells, bone, teeth, fish scales, wood, bamboo, silk, and many others. A distinctive feature of all these materials is that their properties are far superior to those of their constituent phases. Many of these natural materials are lamellar or layered in nature. With its "brick and mortar" structure, nacre is an example of a layered material that exhibits extraordinary physical properties. Finding inspiration in living organisms to create bioinspired materials is the subject of intensive research. Several processing techniques have been proposed to design materials mimicking natural materials, such as layer-by-layer deposition, self-assembly, electrophoretic deposition, hydrogel casting, doctor blading, and many others. Freeze casting, also known as ice-templating, is a technique that has received considerable attention in recent years to produce bioinspired bulk materials. Here, recent advances in the freeze-casting technique are reviewed for fabricating lamellar scaffolds by assembling different dimensional building blocks, including nanoparticles, polymer chains, nanofibers, and nanosheets. These lamellar scaffolds are often infiltrated by a second phase, typically a soft polymer matrix, a hard ceramic matrix, or a metal matrix. The unique architecture of the resultant bioinspired structural materials displays excellent mechanical properties. The challenges of the current research in using the freeze-casting technique to create materials large enough to be useful are also discussed, and the technique's promise for fabricating high-performance nacre-inspired structural materials in the future is reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Modelling the Cast Component Weight in Hot Chamber Die Casting using Combined Taguchi and Buckingham's π Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder

    2017-03-01

    Hot chamber (HC) die casting process is one of the most widely used commercial processes for the casting of low temperature metals and alloys. This process gives near-net shape product with high dimensional accuracy. However in actual field environment the best settings of input parameters is often conflicting as the shape and size of the casting changes and one have to trade off among various output parameters like hardness, dimensional accuracy, casting defects, microstructure etc. So for online inspection of the cast components properties (without affecting the production line) the weight measurement has been established as one of the cost effective method (as the difference in weight of sound and unsound casting reflects the possible casting defects) in field environment. In the present work at first stage the effect of three input process parameters (namely: pressure at 2nd phase in HC die casting; metal pouring temperature and die opening time) has been studied for optimizing the cast component weight `W' as output parameter in form of macro model based upon Taguchi L9 OA. After this Buckingham's π approach has been applied on Taguchi based macro model for the development of micro model. This study highlights the Taguchi-Buckingham based combined approach as a case study (for conversion of macro model into micro model) by identification of optimum levels of input parameters (based on Taguchi approach) and development of mathematical model (based on Buckingham's π approach). Finally developed mathematical model can be used for predicting W in HC die casting process with more flexibility. The results of study highlights second degree polynomial equation for predicting cast component weight in HC die casting and suggest that pressure at 2nd stage is one of the most contributing factors for controlling the casting defect/weight of casting.

  11. Modelling the Cast Component Weight in Hot Chamber Die Casting using Combined Taguchi and Buckingham's π Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder

    2018-02-01

    Hot chamber (HC) die casting process is one of the most widely used commercial processes for the casting of low temperature metals and alloys. This process gives near-net shape product with high dimensional accuracy. However in actual field environment the best settings of input parameters is often conflicting as the shape and size of the casting changes and one have to trade off among various output parameters like hardness, dimensional accuracy, casting defects, microstructure etc. So for online inspection of the cast components properties (without affecting the production line) the weight measurement has been established as one of the cost effective method (as the difference in weight of sound and unsound casting reflects the possible casting defects) in field environment. In the present work at first stage the effect of three input process parameters (namely: pressure at 2nd phase in HC die casting; metal pouring temperature and die opening time) has been studied for optimizing the cast component weight `W' as output parameter in form of macro model based upon Taguchi L9 OA. After this Buckingham's π approach has been applied on Taguchi based macro model for the development of micro model. This study highlights the Taguchi-Buckingham based combined approach as a case study (for conversion of macro model into micro model) by identification of optimum levels of input parameters (based on Taguchi approach) and development of mathematical model (based on Buckingham's π approach). Finally developed mathematical model can be used for predicting W in HC die casting process with more flexibility. The results of study highlights second degree polynomial equation for predicting cast component weight in HC die casting and suggest that pressure at 2nd stage is one of the most contributing factors for controlling the casting defect/weight of casting.

  12. Twin Roll Casting of Aluminium: The Occurrence of Structure Inhomogeneities and Defects in as Cast Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, H.; Nes, K.

    Continuous strip casting provides an attractive shortcut from the liquid metal to final gauge sheet. Twin roll casters are by far the most widespread machines in commercial operation, mainly due to their flexibility and relatively low investment costs. Strip produced by these casters is presently appreciated as a well suited alternative to conventional material for a number of applications, and in some instances improved properties are obtained (1). Twin roll casters have been in commercial operation for nearly three decades, however, the literature on the subject is rather incomplete. Most of the available information has been published by the machine producers, hence attention is mainly paid to the positive aspects of the methods. However, some interesting papers have recently been published. A general description of casting and annealing structures is given by Nes and Slevolden (2), while Jin et. al. (3) consider the formation of centreline segregates during casting. Althoff (1) summarizes some aspects of mechanical properties, and a couple of papers desribe new alloys which are especially suitable for strip casting (4,5). A contribution to the understanding of the influence of casting parameters on the solidification zone is presented by Iricibar and Jin (6).

  13. EBR-II fuel slug casting experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, C. W.; Batte`, G. L.; Tracy, D. B.; Griffiths, V.

    1987-07-01

    The following paper presents a chronology of EBR-II fuel slug casting experience. Starting with the early vendor campaigns, the paper explains how production of EBR-II fuel, as well as fuel for off-site reactors, has evolved. The production facilities (i.e., EFL, Room 20, FMF, etc.) and casting techniques are discussed in detail. The paper also presents how the original casting operations have improved and the problems encountered as the techniques were developed. Extensive descriptions and data are given on the major experimental programs currently ongoing at EBR-II. Major programs include the IFR lead subassemblies, large diameter slugs, IFR metal fuel RBCB, and the FFTF subassembly program. Concluding the paper is a brief description of future development projects being considered and a summation of how EBR-II Fuels and Materials has been able to overcome various administration obstacles (i.e., improved security and safeguards measures) to continue to meet the increasing demands of fuel production while maintaining an aggressive and active research and development program in fuel slug production.

  14. Successful magnet quench test for CAST.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice Maximilien

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) consists of a prototype LHC dipole magnet with photon detectors at each end. It searches for very weakly interacting neutral particles called axions, which should originate in the core of the Sun. The telescope, located at Point 8, can move vertically within its wheeled platform, which travels horizontally along tracks in the floor. In this way, the telescope can view the Sun at sunrise through one end and at sunset through the other end. It has been cooled down to below 1.8 K and reached ~95% of its final magnetic field of 9 tesla before a quench was induced to test the whole cryogenic system under such conditions. The cryogenic system responded as expected to the magnet quench and CAST is now ready to start its three-year search for solar axions. Photos 01 & 02 : Members of the LHC cryogenics team pose in front of the axion telescope on the day of the first quench test, together with some of the CAST collaboration.

  15. The CAST experiment: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer Ribas, Esther

    2009-01-01

    The status of the solar axion search with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) will be discussed. Results from the first part of CAST phase II where the magnet bores were filled with \\hefour gas at variable pressure in order to scan \\ma up to 0.4 eV will be presented. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun, we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of $\\gag \\lesssim 2.17 \\times10^{-10}$GeV$^{-1}$ at 95% CL for \\ma$<0.4$ eV, the exact result depending on the pressure setting. Our search for axions with masses up to about 1.2 eV using \\hethree as a buffer gas is, since last year, in progress in the second part of CAST phase II. Expectations for sensibilities will be given. Near future perspectives as well as more long term options for a new helioscope experiment will be evoked.

  16. Biomechanical assessment of gait in below-knee walking casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R; Schuren, J; Wardlaw, D; Diamandopoulos, Z; Anderson, R

    1999-08-01

    The introduction of modern synthetic casting bandages for splinting of fractures and soft tissue injuries has allowed the development of new casting techniques. Casts can be constructed with a greater degree of function so that controlled motion and stabilisation can be provided within the same cast. This study has shown that a very efficient gait can be achieved with modern synthetic bandages, if they are correctly applied. The authors have compared the gait of volunteer subjects fitted respectively with below-knee walking casts constructed from a rigid glass fibre bandage and a flexible glass fibre bandage which is reinforced. These casts were wrapped so that minimal amounts of bandage were used whilst appropriate strength and stiffness was provided. The temporal and spatial factors of cast gait were not statistically different from normal gait. The cast gait was found to be slightly more asymmetrical (dominant versus non-dominant leg) when a cast was worn and there was also a greater Physiological Cost Index (PCI). The flexible bandage has some advantages compared with the rigid bandage as normal footwear can be worn, the casts are more comfortable and they could be removed with shears, obviating the need for a power saw.

  17. Hot mold casting process of ancient East India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Mandal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ancient casting process for production of brass or bronze utensils and icons were made in hot molds using clay molded investment casting or piece mold process, as presumed by archaeologists. Piece mold process is still traditionally practiced in many parts of Eastern India and Bangladesh along with investment casting process. Incidentally, Bengal artisans are more accustomed to piece mold process unlike tribal artisans who practiced investment casting process. This piece mold casting process has been reconstructed to get the idea of metal characteristics in order to investigate ancient casting process of Bengal and Bangladesh. The characterization of ancient archaeo-metal products come to a type of cast Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb type quaternary alloy produced by a slow freezing process. Though these alloys physically differ from the traditional cast alloy of binary Cu-Zn type brass, the physical characteristics are similar to the binary cast alloy character. This investigation throws light on the similarity of the production processes by which ancient artisans probably produced cast metal products.

  18. Infant Perception of Incongruent Shapes in Cast Shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A cast shadow occurs when an object blocks the light from an illumination and projects a dark region onto a surface. Previous studies have reported that adults are slower to identify an object when the object has an incongruent cast shadow than when it has a congruent cast shadow (Castiello, 2001. Here, we used the familiarization-novelty preference procedure to examine whether 5- to 8-month-old infants could detect the relationship between object shapes and cast shadows. In Experiment 1, we examined the infants' ability to detect incongruency between objects and cast shadows. Results showed that 7- to 8-month olds could detect incongruence between the object shapes and the cast shadows, whereas 5- to 6-month olds did not. Yet, our control experiment showed that infants could not detect this incongruence from stimuli in which a white outline had been added to the original cast shadow to decrease the possibility of it being perceived as a cast shadow (Experiment 2. The results of these experiments demonstrate that 7- to 8-month olds responded to the congruence of cast shadows and to consistent contrast polarity between the cast shadow and its background.

  19. All-inside meniscal repair devices compared with their matched inside-out vertical mattress suture repair: introducing 10,000 and 100,000 loading cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Claudio; Müller, Sebastian; Buckland, Daniel M; Schwenk, Tanja; Zimmermann, Simon; de Wild, Michael; Valderrabano, Victor

    2014-09-01

    All-inside arthroscopic meniscal repairs are favored by most clinicians because of their lower complication rate and decreased morbidity compared with inside-out techniques. Until now, only 1000 cycles have been used for biomechanical testing. All-inside meniscal repairs will show inferior biomechanical response to cyclic loading (up to 100,000 cycles) and load-to-failure testing compared with inside-out suture controls. Controlled laboratory study. Bucket-handle tears in 72 porcine menisci were repaired using the Omnispan and Fast-Fix 360 (all-inside devices) and Orthocord 2-0 and Ultrabraid 2-0 sutures (matched controls). Initial displacement, displacement after cyclic loading (100, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000, and 100,000 cycles) between 5 and 20 N, ultimate load to failure, and mode of failure were recorded, as well as stiffness. Initial displacement and displacement after cyclic loading were not different between the groups. The Omnispan repair demonstrated the highest load-to-failure force (mean ± SD, 151.3 ± 21.5 N) and was significantly stronger than all the other constructs (Orthocord 2-0, 105.5 ± 20.4 N; Ultrabraid 2-0, 93.4 ± 22.5 N; Fast-Fix 360, 76.6 ± 14.2 N) (P inside-out mattress repair was significantly stronger than the Fast-Fix 360 repair (P = .003). The Omnispan (30.8 ± 3.5 N/mm) showed significantly higher stiffness compared with the Ultrabraid 2-0 (22.9 ± 6.9 N/mm, P inside meniscal devices show comparable biomechanical properties compared with inside-out suture repair in cyclic loading, even after 100,000 cycles. Eight to 10 weeks of rehabilitation might not pose a problem for all repairs in this worst-case scenario. © 2014 The Author(s).

  20. Thin wall ductile iron casting as a substitute for aluminum alloy casting in automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górny

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper it is presented thin wall ductile iron casting (TWDI as a substitute of aluminium alloy casting. Upper control arm made of ductile iron with wall thickness ranging from 2 – 3.7 mm was produced by inmold process. Structure, mechanical properties and computer simulations were investigated. Structural analysis of TWDI shows pearlitic-ferritic matrix free from chills and porosity. Mechanical testing disclose superior ultimate tensile strength (Rm, yield strength (Rp0,2 and slightly lower elongation (E of TWDI in comparison with forged control arm made of aluminium alloy (6061-T6. Moreover results of computer simulation of static loading for tested control arms are presented. Analysis show that the light-weight ductile iron casting can be loaded to similar working conditions as the forged Al alloy without any potential failures.

  1. The Effect of Ductile Cast Iron Matrix on Zinc Coating During Hot Dip Galvanising of Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth kinetics of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting made from ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-3 was investigated. To produce homogenous metal matrix in test samples, the normalising and ferritising annealing was carried out. Studies showeda heterogeneous structure of cast iron with varying content of the phases formed. This was followed by hot dip galvanising treatment at450°C to capture the growth kinetics of the zinc coating (the time of the treatment ranged from 60 to 600 seconds. Nonlinear estimation of the determined growth kinetics of the alloyed layer of a zinc coating was made and an equation of the zinc coating growth was derived.Based on the results of the investigations it was concluded that thickness of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting with a 100% pearlitic matrix makes 55% of the thickness of coating formed on the surface in 100% ferritic.

  2. The Effect of Ductile Cast Iron Matrix on Zinc Coating During Hot Dip Galvanising of Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth kinetics of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting made from ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-3 was investigated. To produce homogenous metal matrix in test samples, the normalising and ferritising annealing was carried out. Studies showed a heterogeneous structure of cast iron with varying content of the phases formed. This was followed by hot dip galvanising treatment at 450°C to capture the growth kinetics of the zinc coating (the time of the treatment ranged from 60 to 600 seconds. Nonlinear estimation of the determined growth kinetics of the alloyed layer of a zinc coating was made and an equation of the zinc coating growth was derived. Based on the results of the investigations it was concluded that thickness of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting with a 100% pearlitic matrix makes 55% of the thickness of coating formed on the surface in 100% ferritic.

  3. Abrasion Resistance of as-Cast High-Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokusová Marcela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High chromium cast irons are widely used as abrasion resistant materials. Their properties and wear resistance depend on carbides and on the nature of the matrix supporting these carbides. The paper presents test results of irons which contain (in wt.% 18-22 Cr and 2-5 C, and is alloyed by 1.7 Mo + 5 Ni + 2 Mn to improve the toughness. Tests showed as-cast irons with mostly austenitic matrix achieved hardness 36-53 HRC but their relative abrasion-resistance was higher than the tool steel STN 19436 heat treated on hardness 60 HRC.

  4. Steel castings Ultrasonic examination, Part 2: Steel castings for highly stressed components

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    This European Standard specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic examination of steel castings (with ferritic structure) for highly stressed components and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse echo technique. This European Standard applies to the ultrasonic examination of steel castings which have usually received a grain refining heat treatment and which have wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm. For greater wall thicknesses, special agreements apply with respect to test procedure and recording levels. This European Standard does not apply to austenitic steels and joint welds.

  5. Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques Possibilities for Centrifugal Cast Copper Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konar R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with ultrasonic testing possibilities of the copper alloy centrifugal casts. It focused on the problems that arise when testing of castings is made of non-ferrous materials. Most common types of casting defects is dedicated in theoretical introduction of article. Ultrasonic testing technique by conventional ultrasound system is described in the theoretical part too. Practical ultrasonic testing of centrifugal copper alloy cast - brass is in experimental part. The experimental sample was part of centrifugally cast brass ring with dimensions of Ø1200x34 mm. The influence of microstructure on ultrasonic attenuation and limitations in testing due to attenuation is describes in experimental part. Conventional direct single element contact ultrasound probe with frequencies of 5 MHz, 3.5 MHz and 2 MHz were used for all experimental measurements. The results of experimental part of article are recommendations for selecting equipment and accessories for casting testing made of non-ferrous metals.

  6. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2014-04-29

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  7. Properties shaping and repair of selected types of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of twofold use of TIG - Tungsten Inert Gas also known as GTA - Gas Tungsten Arc. First is surfacing by welding on cold and hot-cold to repair chromium cast iron with chromium content about 15%. Second is remelting with electric arc of selected gray (with pearlitic matrix and ductile (with ferritic-pearlitic matrix cast iron. Repair of cast iron elements was realized in order to cut out a casting defects. Defects decrease a usability of castings for constructional application and increase a manufacturing costs. Application of surface heat treatment guarantees mechanical properties i.e. hardness and wear resistance improvement. The result of investigations show possibility of castings repair by put on defects a good quality padding welds, which have comparable properties with base material. Use of electric arc surface heat treatment resulted in increase of hardness and wear resistance, which was measured on the basis of ASTM G 65 - 00 standard.

  8. Modeling of TiAl Alloy Grating by Investment Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The investment casting of TiAl alloys has become the most promising cost-effective technique for manufacturing TiAl components. This study aimed to investigate a series of problems associated with the investment casting of TiAl alloys. The mold filling and solidification of this casting model were numerically simulated using ProCAST. Shrinkage porosity was quantitatively predicted by a built-in feeding criterion. The results obtained from the numerical simulations were compared with experiments, which were carried out on Vacuum Skull Furnace using an investment block mold. The investment casting of TiAl grating was conducted for verifying the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method. The tensile test results indicated that, at room temperature, the tensile strength and elongation were approximately 675 MPa and 1.7%, respectively. The microstructure and mechanical property of the investment cast TiAl alloy were discussed.

  9. Pressing Speed, Specific Pressure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in the process of aluminum alloy die castings production, which is nowadays deeply implemented into the rapidly growing automobile, shipping and aircraft industries, is aimed at increasing the useful qualitative properties of the die casting in order to obtain its high mechanical properties at acceptable economic cost. Problem of technological factors of high pressure die casting has been a subject of worldwide research (EU, US, Japan, etc.. The final performance properties of die castings are subjected to a large number of technological factors. The main technological factors of high pressure die casting are as follows: plunger pressing speed, specific (increase pressure, mold temperature as well as alloy temperature. The contribution discusses the impact of the plunger pressing speed and specific (increase pressure on the mechanical properties of the casting aluminum alloy.

  10. Obtaining of High Cr Content Cast Iron Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, C.; Bejinariu, C.; Carcea, I.; Cimpoesu, N.; Chicet, D. L.; Savin, C.

    2017-06-01

    We have obtained, through the classic casting process, 3 highly chromium-based experimental alloys proposed for replacing the FC 250 classical cast iron in braking applications. Casting was carried out in an induction furnace and cast into moulds made of KALHARTZ 8500 resin casting mixture and HARTER hardener at SC RanCon SRL Iasi. It is known that the microstructure of the cast iron is a combination of martensite with a small amount of residual austenite after the heat treatment of the ingot. In the case of high-alloy chromium alloys, the performance of the material is due to the presence of M7C3 carbides distributed in the iron matrix Resistance to machining and deformation is based on alloy composition and microstructure, while abrasion resistance will depend on properties and wear conditions.

  11. [Slip casting of stainless steel powder (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, S; Ota, M; Kondo, S

    1976-01-01

    Slip casting of stainless steel powder (AISI type 316 L) was investigated as means of forming medical and dental porous restorations. This research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the particle size and aging of casting slip and firing conditions. Bulk density was used as a measure of the degree of sintering. Water contents of casting bodies decreased with the particle size and its casting rates, bulk densities and bending strengths increased. Aging of slip decreased casting rates, water contents and bending strengths of the casts. The bulk densities of the sintered stainless steel increased with sintering time and temperature. The porosities of the materials decreased with the particle size and the elevating temperature. The bending strengths of the materials increased sharply with the decreasing particle size. The optical micrographs did not always show the uniform elimination of pores in the sintered. Aging of slip increased a little the bulk densities of the materials and decreased the porosity and the bending strength.

  12. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians.... § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis provided for in §§ 217.4... superintendent in writing of the number of votes cast for and against the proposed or alternative solutions. If...

  13. Caste Discrimination, Land Reforms and Land Market Performance in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Jeetendra P.; Holden, Stein T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of caste discrimination and past land reforms on the land rental market performance, land productivity and land use intensity in Nepal. The most severely discriminated group in the caste system is the Dalits, the so-called “untouchables”. Dalits faced religious, occupational and even, territorial discrimination. The study uses data from western Nepal. The low-caste households remain poorer than other households, have significantly smaller land endowments, ...

  14. Effect of different casting methods on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M S; Lee, J T C; Luk, K D K; Chan, L C K

    2003-08-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Although orthotic treatment for moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been well recognized, there are few studies documenting the effectiveness of different casting methods in the fabrication of thoracolumbo-sacral orthoses (TLSO). The current study was a retrospective clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of two commonly used casting methods namely, the frame casting method and the supine with traction casting method in the treatment of AIS. Eighty (80) female patients with AIS were recruited and they were all treated by TLSOs. The frame casting method was used in 37 patients while the remaining 43 patients were under the supine with traction casting method. The responses of spinal deformities under the two different casting methods were analyzed for the period from pre-brace to 2 years after bracing. The studied parameters included the AP Cobb's angle, the apical vertebral rotation and the trunk listing (cervico-sacral lateral offset). The results of the current study showed that the orthoses manufactured from the two casting methods could provide an effective control of AIS (change of Cobb's angle within (+/- 5 degrees). For the frame casting, the Cobb's angles at pre-brace and 2 years after off-brace were 36.0 degrees and 33.8 degrees respectively while for the supine with traction casting, the corresponding Cobb's angles were 32.7 degrees and 34.0 degrees. The frame casting method could give a better control of the apical vertebral rotation at the early stage of treatment (pre-brace = 18.2 degrees and the 4th month = 13.8 degrees while the supine with traction casting method was more effective in the long-term control of the trunk listing (pre-brace = 10mm and 2 years after off-brace = 3.3mm).

  15. Effect of Melting Techniques on Ductile Iron castings Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bockus, S.; Dobrovolskis, A.

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of the charge, melting conditions, nodularizing and inoculation on the ductile iron castings properties. Results showed that the temperature and holding time of the melt in an induction furnace and the intensity of spheroidizing effect on the carbon and residual magnesium contents in the ductile iron castings. The same grade of ductile iron may be obtained using different chemical compositions. The castings of ductile iron will be ferritic as-...

  16. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  17. Numerical Simulation of the Upward Continuous Casting of Magnesium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Landaberea, Aitor; Pedrós, Pablo; Anglada, Eva; Garmendia, Iñaki

    2005-01-01

    The continuous casting of magnesium alloys in vertical upward direction is a novel technology which can be employed for the production of semi-finished materials circumventing the main disadvantages of using conventional casting processes since the risks of burning and explosion are practically eliminated. The present investigation deals with the simulation of the upward continuous casting of round billets of magnesium alloys. The equations for the flow field with heat transfer are numericall...

  18. Analysis of the upward direct chill casting of magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Landaberea, Aitor; Pedrós, Pablo; Anglada, Eva; Garmendia, Iñaki

    2006-01-01

    The upward direct chill casting, where the continuous casting is operated vertically against the gravity, is a novel technology which has been applied to the production of high quality magnesium alloys circumventing the main disadvantages of using conventional continuous casting processes since the risks of burning and explosion are practically eliminated. This represents a key aspect to increase the industrial application of magnesium wrought products. In order to help on the understanding o...

  19. A Direct Refractory Die Technique for Cast Gold Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C T; Diefenderfer, K E

    Fabricating accurate cast gold restorations can be challenging for both clinicians and laboratory technicians. Removing the wax pattern from the master die often distorts the pattern, which, in turn, compromises the overall fit and marginal adaptation of the casting. This article demonstrates a laboratory technique in which the final restoration is cast directly on the refractory die without removing the wax pattern. Thus, distortion of the wax pattern is avoided, enabling the production of superbly fitting gold castings for both intracoronal and extracoronal restorations.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Die Castings Produced Utilizing Process Scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Fajkiel A.; Dudek P.; Reguła T.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are one of the lightest of all the structural materials. Because of their excellent physical and mechanical properties the alloys have been used more and more often in various branches of industry. They are cast mainly (over 90%) on cold and hot chamber die casting machines. One of the byproducts of casting processes is process scrap which amounts to about 40 to 60% of the total weight of a casting. The process scrap incorporates all the elements of gating systems and fault c...

  1. Casting materials and their application in research and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenssgen, Kati; Makanya, Andrew N; Djonov, Valentin

    2014-04-01

    From a biological point of view, casting refers to filling of anatomical and/or pathological spaces with extraneous material that reproduces a three-dimensional replica of the space. Casting may be accompanied by additional procedures such as corrosion, in which the soft tissue is digested out, leaving a clean cast, or the material may be mixed with radiopaque substances to allow x-ray photography or micro computed topography (µCT) scanning. Alternatively, clearing of the surrounding soft tissue increases transparency and allows visualization of the casted cavities. Combination of casting with tissue fixation allows anatomical dissection and didactic surgical procedures on the tissue. Casting materials fall into three categories namely, aqueous substances (India ink, Prussian blue ink), pliable materials (gelatins, latex, and silicone rubber), or hard materials (methyl methacrylates, polyurethanes, polyesters, and epoxy resins). Casting has proved invaluable in both teaching and research and many phenomenal biological processes have been discovered through casting. The choice of a particular material depends inter alia on the targeted use and the intended subsequent investigative procedures, such as dissection, microscopy, or µCT. The casting material needs to be pliable where anatomical and surgical manipulations are intended, and capillary-passable for ultrastructural investigations.

  2. Advanced precision expendable pattern casting technology. 1994 Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Casting technology is described. The following areas are reported on: precision pattern production; pattern coating; sand fill and compaction; pattern gating; mechanical properties; and technology transfer efforts.

  3. Effect of Melting Techniques on Ductile Iron castings Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the effects of the charge, melting conditions, nodularizing and inoculation on the ductile iron castings properties. Results showed that the temperature and holding time of the melt in an induction furnace and the intensity of spheroidizing effect on the carbon and residual magnesium contents in the ductile iron castings. The same grade of ductile iron may be obtained using different chemical compositions. The castings of ductile iron will be ferritic as-cast only when large amount of pig iron in the charge and in addition some-steps inoculating treatment are used.

  4. Manufacturing of thin walled near net shape iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per Leif

    2003-01-01

    The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed to be substitu.......000.000 cars produced world wide each year consumes enormous amounts of cast parts ! The aim of the project is to develop the green sand molding method on DISAMATIC to be able to deal with the new demands for thin walled near net shape castings in iron.......The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed...... to be substituting iron casings with aluminum castings. Substituting iron castings with aluminum castings is not as easy as first believed, and hence the substitution is very slow. This combined with the lack of fully exploiting the potential in iron castings, makes research in iron castings interesting. The 60...

  5. Reengineering of Permanent Mould Casting with Lean Manufacturing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available At the work were introduced main areas of production system project of casts produced in permanent moulds, that constitutes reengineering of conventional production system according to Lean Manufacturing (LM methods. New resolution of cooling of dies with water mist was shown to casting of car wheels made from aluminium alloys in low pressure casting process. It was implemented as a part of goal-oriented project in R.H. Alurad Sp.z o.o. in Gorzyce. Its using intensifies solidification and self-cooling of casts shortening the time of casting cycle by the 30%. It was described reorganizing casting stations into multi-machines cells production and the process of their fast tool’s exchange with applying the SMED method. A project of the system was described controlling the production of the foundry with the computer aided light Kanban system. A visualization of the process was shown the production of casts with use the value stream mapping method. They proved that applying casting new method in the technology and LM methods allowed to eliminate down-times, to reduce the level of stocks, to increase the productivity and the flow of the castings production.

  6. Numerical study of porosity in titanium dental castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M; Sahm, P R; Augthun, M; Spiekermann, H; Schädlich-Stubenrauch, J

    1999-09-01

    A commercial software package, MAGMASOFT (MAGMA Giessereitechnologie GmbH, Aachen, Germany), was used to study shrinkage and gas porosity in titanium dental castings. A geometrical model for two simplified tooth crowns connected by a connector bar was created. Both mold filling and solidification of this casting model were numerically simulated. Shrinkage porosity was quantitatively predicted by means of a built-in feeding criterion. The risk of gas pore formation was investigated using the numerical filling and solidification results. The results of the numerical simulations were compared with experiments, which were carried out on a centrifugal casting machine with an investment block mold. The block mold was made of SiO2 based slurry with a 1 mm thick Zr2 face coat to reduce metal-mold reactions. Both melting and casting were carried out under protective argon (40 kPa). The finished castings were sectioned and the shrinkage porosity determined. The experimentally determined shrinkage porosity coincided with the predicted numerical simulation results. No apparent gas porosity was found in these model castings. Several running and gating systems for the above model casting were numerically simulated. An optimized running and gating system design was then experimentally cast, which resulted in porosity-free castings. Copyright 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  7. Digital management technology and its application to investment casting enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yuan Ji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Industry 4.0, more and more investment casting enterprises are implementing production manufacturing systems, especially in the last two years. This paper summarizes three new common requirements of the digital management aspect in precision casting enterprises, and puts forward three corresponding techniques. They are: the production process tracking card technology based on the main-sub card mode; the workshop site production process processing technology based on the barcode; and the equipment data integration technology. Then, this paper discusses in detail the principle, application and effect of these technologies; to provide the reference for enterprises to move towards digital casting and intelligent casting.

  8. Tribological Properties of Al-SiC Metal Matrix Composites: A Comparison Between Sand Cast and Squeeze Cast Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Sahoo, P.; Sutradhar, G.

    2014-10-01

    Tribological behaviour of Al-SiC metal matrix composites prepared using two different fabrication techniques, viz. sand cast and squeeze cast techniques are studied in a multi- tribotester (TR-25, DUCOM, India) under dry sliding conditions and ambient atmosphere for varying volume fraction of reinforcement, applied load and sliding speed. Friction increases with increase in applied load and sliding speed and volume fraction of reinforcement. Wear test results show increased wear rates at higher load and speed, while increase in SiC volume fraction yields decrease in wear rate. Corrosion study conducted in 3.5 % NaCl solution shows that squeeze cast composites have better corrosion resistance than sand cast composites. Vickers's microhardness test shows improved hardness properties for squeeze cast composites compared to sand cast ones. The microstructure study of wear tracks reveals domination of abrasive wear with minor traces of adhesive wear.

  9. Material Properties of Various Cast Aluminum Alloys Made Using a Heated Mold Continuous Casting Technique with and without Ultrasonic Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop high-quality cast aluminum alloys using a new casting technology. For this purpose, commercial Al alloys were created by heated mold continuous casting (HMC with ultrasonic vibration (UV. With the HMC process, the grain size and the crystal orientation of the Al alloys were controlled, i.e., fine grains with a uniformly organized lattice formation. In addition, an attempt was made to modify the microstructural formation by cavitation. These microstructural characteristics made excellent mechanical properties. Using UV in the continuous casting process, more fine and spherical grains were slightly disordered, which was detected using electron backscattered diffraction. The mechanical properties of the UV HMC Al alloys were slightly higher than those for the related cast Al alloys without UV. Moreover, the severe vibration caused higher mechanical properties. The lattice and dislocation characteristics of the cast samples made with and without UV processes were analyzed systematically using electron backscattered diffraction.

  10. Centerline Depletion in Direct-Chill Cast Aluminum Alloys: The Avalanche Effect and Its Consequence for Turbulent Jet Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Samuel R.; Allanore, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    Avalanche dynamics of sedimenting grains in direct-chill casting of aluminum ingots is investigated as a primary driving force for centerline segregation. An analytical model predicting the importance of avalanche events as a function of casting parameters is proposed and validated with prior art results. New experimental results investigating the transient and steady-state centerline segregation of DC casting with a turbulent jet are reported.

  11. Evaluation of the Inertness of Investment Casting Molds Using Both Sessile Drop and Centrifugal Casting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu; Yuan, Chen; Green, Nick; Withey, Paul

    2013-02-01

    The investment casting process is an economic production method for engineering components in TiAl-based alloys and offers the benefits of a near net-shaped component with a good surface finish. An investigation was undertaken to develop three new face coat systems based on yttria, but with better sintering properties. These face coat systems were mainly based on an yttria-alumina-zirconia system (Y2O3-0.5 wt pct Al2O3-0.5 wt pct ZrO2), an yttria-fluoride system (Y2O3-0.15 wt pct YF3), and an yttria-boride system (Y2O3-0.15 wt pct B2O3). After sintering, the chemical inertness of the face coat was first tested and analyzed using a sessile drop test through the metal wetting behavioral change for each face coat surface. Then, the interactions between the shell and metal were studied by centrifugal investment casting TiAl bars. Although the sintering aids in yttria can decrease the chemical inertness of the face coat, the thickness of the interaction layer in the casting was less than 10 μm; therefore, these face coats still can be possible face coat materials for investment casting TiAl alloys.

  12. REDUCTION OF POWER CONSUMPTION AT ELECTRIC ARC INDUCTION CASTING OF CAST IRON AND STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Rovin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of efficiency and technological peculiarities of the ways of the electric power costs reduction at melting of cast iron and steel in electroarc and induction furnaces is presented. The most perspective for embedding in operating houses for conditions of RB is heating of burden due to natural gas in self-sufficient plants directly in loading bucket (baskets.

  13. High temperature corrosion of cast irons and cast steels in dry air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholence, F.; Norell, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Engineering Metals

    2001-07-01

    The oxidation in dry air of four cast alloys intended for exhaust gas systems has been examined. Particular interest was directed to how the oxide growth was related to the microstructures. The examined alloys were two cast ductile irons, a SiMo alloy (Fe3,86Si0,6Mo3C) and a Ni-Resist alloy (Fe32Ni5,3Si2,1C), and two cast stainless steels, one ferritic (Fe18Cr2,1Mn0,32C) and one austenitic (Fe20Cr9Ni0,47C). Coupons were oxidised for 50 h at temperatures between 650 C and 1050 C. The samples were characterised by using XRD, SEM/EDX and AES. As expected, the overall oxide thickness increased with temperature and partial spallation occurred at the highest temperatures for all alloys. Porous Fe oxide nodules nucleate at the graphite nodules on the ductile irons. These Fe-oxide nodules formed above a continuous layer of Fe-Si-oxide for the SiMo and mixed Fe-Ni-Si oxides for the Ni-Resist. The total oxide thickness is about (60 {mu}m). Thick oxides at the interdendritic regions in the cast steels were attributed to non-Cr-carbides. Segregation of Cr directed the formation of iron oxide nodules to the centre of the dendrites in the austenitic alloy. (orig.)

  14. Nonaqueous slip casting of high temperature ceramic superconductors using an investment casting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Matthew W. (Inventor); Taylor, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wise, Stephanie A. (Inventor); Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Buck, Gregory M. (Inventor); Hicks, Lana P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for slip casting ceramic articles that does not employ parting agents and affords the casting of complete, detailed, precision articles that do not possess parting lines is presented. This process is especially useful for high temperature superconductors and water-sensitive ceramics. A wax pattern for a shell mold is provided, and an aqueous mixture of a calcium sulfate-bonded investment material is applied as a coating to the wax pattern. The coated wax pattern is then dried, followed by curing to vaporize the wax pattern and leave a shell mold of the calcium sulfate-bonded investment material. The shell mold is cooled to room temperature, and a ceramic slip, created by dispersing a ceramic powder in an organic liquid, is poured therein. After a ceramic shell of desired thickness or a solid article has set up in the shell mold, excess ceramic slip is poured out. The shell mold is misted with water and peeled away from the ceramic article, after which the ceramic is fired to provide a complete, detailed, precision, high temperature superconductive ceramic article without parting lines. The casting technique may take place in the presence of a magnetic field to orient the ceramic powders during the casting process.

  15. Materials on dies for pressure die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution the stress of die materials of thermal fatigue is defi ned and material life is derived theoretically and compared with the measured values. The important properties of the die materials as thermal conductivity, coeffi cient of thermal expansivity, modulus of elasticity and mechanical properties are described. Binding to it single die materials as carbon steels and chrome-tungsten steels are analyzed. As the perspective die material for pressure die casting of ferrous metals appears molybdenum with regard to advantageous properties.

  16. CAST begins its search for solar axions.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) consists of a prototype LHC dipole magnet with photon detectors at each end. It has started searching for very weakly interacting neutral particles called axions, which should originate in the core of the Sun. Photos 01 02: The telescope, located at Point 8, can move vertically within its wheeled yellow platform, which travels horizontally along tracks in the floor. In this way, the telescope can view the Sun at sunrise through one end (left) and at sunset through the other. Photos 03 04: Sunrise photon detectors at one end of the telescope.

  17. Internal adaptation of cast titanium crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicknan Soares da Rocha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As the adaptation of titanium crowns obtained by Rematitan Plus investment, specific for titanium, is not recognized to be suitable, this study evaluated the effect of the concentration of the specific liquid and the temperature of the mold of investments on the internal misfit of crowns cast on commercially pure titanium. Individual dies of epoxy resin were obtained, representing teeth prepared for full-crown restoration with a 6-degree axial surface convergence angle and shoulder (1.0 mm. For the waxing of each crown, a ring-shaped stainless steel matrix (8.0mm internal diameter; 7.5 mm height was adapted above the individual dies of epoxy resin. The Rematian Plus investment was mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions using two different concentrations of the specific liquid: 100%, 75%. Casting was performed in a Discovery Plasma Ar-arc vacuum-pressure casting machine with molds at temperatures of 430ºC, 515ºC and 600ºC. The crowns were cleaned individually in a solution (1% HF + 13% HNO3 for 10 min using a ultrasonic cleaner, with no internal adaptations, and luted with zinc phosphate cement under a 5 kg static load. The crown and die assemblies were embedded in resin and sectioned longitudinally. The area occupied by cement was observed using stereoscopic lens (10X and measured by the Leica Qwin image analysis system (mm². The data for each experimental condition (n=8 were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test (á=0.05. The results showed that liquid dilution and the increase in mold temperature did not significantly influence the levels of internal fit of the cast titanium crowns. The lowest means (±SD of internal misfit were obtained for the 430ºC/100%: (7.25 mm² ±1.59 and 600ºC/100% (8.8 mm² ±2.25 groups, which presented statistically similar levels of internal misfit.

  18. Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Cast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    2012-03-31

    This Final Technical Report describes progress made on the sub-projects awarded in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42457: Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST). The final reports for each sub-project are attached in the appendix. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: a) Solid-solid separation b) Solid-liquid separation c) Chemical/Biological Extraction d) Modeling and Control, and e) Environmental Control.

  19. Sharing casting technological data on web site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hailan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on database and asp.net technologies, a web platform of scientific data in the casting technology fi eld has been developed. This paper presents the relevant data system structure, the approaches to the data collection, the applying methods and policy in data sharing, and depicts the collected and shared data recently fi nished. Statistics showed that there are about 20,000 visitors in China every day visiting the related data through the web, proving that many engineers or other relevant persons are interested in the data.

  20. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as σ and χ can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (σ + χ) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, σ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and χ by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by

  1. Effect of Selected Parameters of Pressure Die Casting on Quality of AlSi9Cu3 Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pałyga Ł.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results on the effects of die-casting process on the strength parameters of castings of the aluminium AlSi9Cu3 alloy belonging to the group of EN AB-46000, made on renovated high pressure die-casting machine. Specimens for quality testing were taken from the places of the casting most loaded during the service. The aim of a research was to prove how the new die-casting process control capabilities influence on the tensile strength of the cast material defined as a value of the breaking force of the specimens. It has been found that it is possible to specify a set of recommended settings valves of second (II and third (III phase, which are responsible for filling the metal mould on die-casting pressure machine. From the point of view of the finished cast element, it was noticed that exceeding the prescribed values of valve settings does not bring further benefits and even causes unnecessary overload and reduce the durability of the mold. Moreover, it was noticed that reduction of the predetermined setting of the second phase (II valve leads to the formation of casting defects again.

  2. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    2014-07-01

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94-1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  3. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  4. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  5. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology - Phase V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanliang Sun; Harry E. Littleton; Charles E. Bates

    2004-04-29

    Previous research, conducted under DOE Contracts DE-FC07-89ID12869, DE-FC07-93ID12230 and DE-FC07-95ID113358 made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional developments were needed to improve the process and make it more functional in industrial environments. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--Computational Model for the Process and Data Base to Support the Model; Task 2--Casting Dimensional Accuracy; Task 3--Pattern Production; Task 4--Improved Pattern Materials; Task 5--Coating Control; Task 6--In-Plant Case Studies; Task 7--Energy and the Environmental Data; and Task 8--Technology Transfer. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2004. The results obtained in each task and subtask are summarized in this Executive Summary and details are provided in subsequent sections of the report.

  6. Aluminum Alloy and Article Cast Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A cast article from an aluminum alloy, which has improved mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, has the following composition in weight percent: Silicon 14 - 25.0, Copper 5.5 - 8.0, Iron 0.05 - 1.2, Magnesium 0.5 - 1.5, Nickel 0.05 - 0.9, Manganese 0.05 - 1.0, Titanium 0.05 - 1.2, Zirconium 0.05 - 1.2, Vanadium 0.05 - 1.2, Zinc 0.05 - 0.9, Phosphorus 0.001 - 0.1, and the balance is Aluminum, wherein the silicon-to-magnesium ratio is 10 - 25, and the copper-to-magnesium ratio is 4 - 15. The aluminum alloy contains a simultaneous dispersion of three types of Al3X compound particles (X=Ti, V, Zr) having a LI2, crystal structure, and their lattice parameters are coherent to the aluminum matrix lattice. A process for producing this cast article is also disclosed, as well as a metal matrix composite, which includes the aluminum alloy serving as a matrix and containing up to about 60% by volume of a secondary filler material.

  7. Casting routes for porous metals production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lichy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen growing interest in professional public about applications of porous metallic materials. Porous metals represent a new type of materials with low densities, large specific surface, and novel physical and mechanical properties, characterized by low density and large specific surface. They are very suitable for specific applications due to good combination of physical and mechanical properties such as high specific strength and high energy absorption capability. Since the discovery of metal foams have been developed many methods and techniques of production in liquid, solid and gas phases. Condition for the use of metal foams - advanced materials with unique usability features, are inexpensive ways to manage their production. Mastering of production of metallic foams with defined structure and properties using gravity casting into sand or metallic foundry moulds will contribute to an expansion of the assortment produced in foundries by completely new type of material, which has unique service properties thanks to its structure, and which fulfils the current demanding ecological requirements. The aim of research conducted at the department of metallurgy and foundry of VSB-Technical University Ostrava is to verify the possibilities of production of metallic foams by conventional foundry processes, to study the process conditions and physical and mechanical properties of metal foam produced. Two procedures are used to create porous metal structures: Infiltration of liquid metal into the mold cavity filled with precursors or preforms and two stage investment casting.

  8. Variability of study cast assessment among orthodontists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pair, J W; Luke, L; White, S; Atchinson, K; Englehart, R; Brennan, R

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the accuracy and reliability with standardized definitions among 30 orthodontists in assessing different aspects of malocclusion from the study casts of 10 patients. Previous studies have indicated a lack of consistency among orthodontists in describing malocclusions. The diagnostic subcategories measured in this study included maxillary and mandibular crowding, overbite, overjet, and a modified molar, premolar, and canine Angle classification. Intraclass correlations indicated that the reliability of all parameters was good (intraclass correlation > 0.80), with overbite being the most reliable (0.98) and maxillary crowding and canine classification somewhat less reliable (0.89 and 0.87, respectively). Among Angle classifications, molar classification was the highest (0.95), followed by premolar (0.92) and canine (0.87). This study also measured the accuracy of the orthodontists' measurements compared with established true values (validity). T tests indicated that mandibular arch crowding and overbite were not statistically different from the true values. Overjet and molar classification were assessed very close to the true values. Although premolar and canine classifications were statistically different from the true values, they were within a one-eighth cusp of the true value (a clinically insignificant difference). The orthodontists consistently overestimated the amount of maxillary arch crowding or spacing. The results suggest that high reliability and reasonable accuracy can be expected for assessing study casts when using standardized definitions for the diagnostic subcategories.

  9. The Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) instrument: construct validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, A.L. de; Leal, S.C.; Chaves, S.B.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) is a newly developed epidemiological instrument. The aim of this study was to investigate its construct validity. Four calibrated examiners, using CAST codes 0-6, visually examined 109 surfaces of extracted and exfoliated teeth. These teeth were

  10. Casting Porosity-Free Grain Refined Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwam, David [Case Western Reserve University

    2013-08-12

    The objective of this project was to identify the root causes for micro-porosity in magnesium alloy castings and recommend remedies that can be implemented in production. The findings confirm the key role played by utilizing optimal gating and risering practices in minimizing porosity in magnesium castings. 

  11. Genetic study of scheduled caste populations of Tamil Nadu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study aims to describe the genetic structure of the scheduled caste populations in Tamil Nadu state, ... phisms) in DNA samples from five Tamil Nadu caste groups using phylogenetic and principal component analysis ... 1997), a mitochondrial DNA insert in the human nuclear genome (Zischler et al. 1995), and ...

  12. design, construction and performance evaluation of multiple casting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    there is a significant improvement in tensile strength and wear resistance. Logistic performance evaluation of squeeze casting technique has been used to analyze simulation of squeeze casting equipment [4]. It was identified that the utilization rate of feeding robot, take-out robot and spray device decreases with increase of ...

  13. Cast net design characteristics, catch composition and selectivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cast net design characteristics, construction, operational techniques and selectivity in Lagos lagoon, Nigeria was examined between September and December 2005. Netting materials for cast net construction in Lagos lagoon were monofilament nylon, poly-ethylene (PE) and polyester (PES). The conventional ratio 1:2 of ...

  14. Calpastatin (CAST) gene polymorphism in Kajli, Lohi and Thalli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... Calpastatin-encoding gene (CAST) is located on the fifth chromosome of sheep and it plays an important role in the development of muscles and in meat tenderness. The present study was conducted to investigate a calpastatin (CAST) gene polymorphism in Pakistani Thalli, Lohi and Kajli sheep breed.

  15. Examination of Ife Bronze Casting Culture and Its Decline in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ile-Ife, the Yoruba ancient city is known for its vibrant cultural environment. This city of ancient civilization and one of the home for bronze casting in the Western region of Nigeria have made significant contributions to the world of culture through its great artistic traditions in terracotta, bead making, bronze and brass casting ...

  16. Solidification and microstructure of thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin

    2006-01-01

    In the recent years there has been an increasing interest in light constructions in order to save weight in e.g. cars. Ductile cast iron has good mechanical properties but it is necessary to re­duce the wall thicknesses of the castings in order to reduce the weight. Reducing the wall thicknesses...

  17. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  18. A mechanical signal biases caste development in a social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath Suryanarayanan; John C. Hermanson; Robert L. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the proximate mechanisms of caste development in eusocial taxa can reveal how social species evolved from solitary ancestors. In Polistes wasps, the current paradigm holds that differential amounts of nutrition during the larval stage cause the divergence of worker and gyne (potential queen) castes. But nutrition level alone cannot explain how the first...

  19. Effect of blow-holes on reliability of cast component

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cast component; blow-holes; reliability; univariate response surface approximation; failure probability. 1. Introduction. Metal casting process begins by creating a mold, which is the 'reverse' shape of the part that is needed. The mold is made from a refractory material like sand. The metal is heated in an oven until it melts, ...

  20. The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna G.; Allison, Carrie; Scott, Fiona J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) (formally known as the Childhood Asperger Screening Test) identifies autism spectrum conditions by measuring social and communication skills. The present study explored the sex distribution of scores. The CAST was distributed to 11,635 children aged 4-9 years in Cambridgeshire primary schools (UK). 3,370…

  1. The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (Cast): Test--Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jo; Allison, Carrie; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions in research. Good test accuracy was demonstrated in studies with primary school aged children in mainstream schools. The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the CAST. Parents of…

  2. Evaluation of solid–liquid interface profile during continuous casting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 24; Issue 4. Evaluation of solid–liquid interface profile during continuous casting by a spline based formalism. S K Das. Metals and Alloys Volume ... Keywords. Continuous casting; solidification; solid–liquid interface; front tracking algorithm; phase change; heat transfer.

  3. The history and present of art casting in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derui Tan

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available History of art casting in China has been over 5000 years. In the past few thousand years, numerous forming and decorating skills of art castings has been created, and left behind precious treasures in the world metal arts and crafts. In individual historical period and at different terrain, a unique artistic style formed, which flashed brilliant light in world artistic treasury.

  4. Laser surface treatment of grey cast iron for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Tang, P.N.; de Boer, M.C.; de Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The surface of pearlitic grey cast iron was treated using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser beam with the final aim to improve its surface properties, mainly for automotive applications. Two kinds of laser surface treatments were experimentally applied. In the laser surface hardening approach the surface of cast

  5. ToxCast HTS Assay Development and Retrofitting: Strategies ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation to EC JRC partners on new ToxCast HTS assay methods and strategies to address current limitations to HTS methods Slide presentation to EC JRC partners on new ToxCast HTS assay methods and strategies to address current limitations to HTS methods.

  6. Design And Construction Of A Die Casting Mould Suitable For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design And Construction Of A Die Casting Mould Suitable For Production Of Various Sizes Of Key Blanks. ... Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... A suitable die casting method is used taking into account such limitations as the sizes of the keys, their serviceability, rate of production, as they affect the method of ...

  7. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    of graphite nodules which begins at a lover temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings The recalescence (Trec) was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  8. Comparative Microbial Analysis of Earthworm Casts Collected From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative assessment of the physicochemical parameters and microbial profile of three types of earthworm casts (Pellet, Mass and Turret) were determined. The total viable count (TVC), coliform counts, yeast and mould counts were determined using standard procedures. The pH ranged from 7.8 for Mass cast to 8.6 for ...

  9. Growth response of Amaranthus caudatus to earthworm casts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of earth worm cast on the physiomorphological differences of Amaranthus caudatus was studied in the green house of the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan for seven weeks in 1998. Earthworm casts were collected from soils cultivated with maize, cassava and oil palm fields and secondary forest.

  10. Preferential dissolution behaviour in Ni–Cr dental cast alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Ni–Cr–Mo; dental cast alloy; microstructure; corrosion; cyclic polarization. 1. Introduction. Co and Ni based alloys are widely used in dental skeletal structures and orthopedic implants such as screws, pins and plates (Wataha 2000). The advantages of these alloys include low cost of casting, matching thermal expansion.

  11. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 1: Introduction (Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  12. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  13. Development of Cloud Based Casting Defects Categorization System (CDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sata Amit V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Defects affect the properties and behavior of the casting during its service life. Since the defects can occur due to different reasons, they must be correctly identified and categorized, to enable applying the appropriate remedial measures. several different approaches for categorizing casting defects have been proposed in technical literature. They mainly rely on physical description, location, and formation of defects. There is a need for a systematic approach for classifying investment casting defects, considering appropriate attributes such as their size, location, identification stage, inspection method, consistency, appearance of defects. A systematic approach for categorization of investment casting defects considering multiple attributes: detection stage, size, shape, appearance, location, consistency and severity of occurrence. Information about the relevant attributes of major defects encountered in investment casting process has been collected from an industrial foundry. This has been implemented in a cloud-based system to make the system freely and widely accessible.

  14. Casting metal microstructures from a flexible and reusable mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Andrew H.; King, William P.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes casting-based microfabrication of metal microstructures and nanostructures. The metal was cast into flexible silicone molds which were themselves cast from microfabricated silicon templates. Microcasting is demonstrated in two metal alloys of melting temperature 70 °C or 138 °C. Many structures were successfully cast into the metal with excellent replication fidelity, including ridges with periodicity 400 nm and holes or pillars with diameter in the range 10-100 µm and aspect ratio up to 2:1. The flexibility of the silicone mold permits casting of curved surfaces, which we demonstrate by fabricating a cylindrical metal roller of diameter 8 mm covered with microstructures. The metal microstructures can be in turn used as a reusable molding tool.

  15. Numerical simulation and optimization of casting process for complex pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueqin; Dong, Anping; Wang, Donghong; Lu, Yanling; Zhu, Guoliang

    2017-09-01

    The complex shape of the casting pump body has large complicated structure and uniform wall thickness, which easy give rise to casting defects. The numerical simulation software ProCAST is used to simulate the initial top gating process, after analysis of the material and structure characteristics of the high-pressure pump. The filling process was overall smooth, not there the water shortage phenomenon. But the circular shrinkage defects appear at the bottom of casting during solidification process. Then, the casting parameters were optimized and adding cold iron in the bottom. The shrinkage weight was reduced from 0.00167g to 0.0005g. The porosity volume was reduced from 1.39cm3 to 0.41cm3. The optimization scheme is simulated and actual experimented. The defect has been significantly improved.

  16. Thermodynamic stability of austenitic Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The performed research was aimed at determining thermodynamic stability of structures of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron castings. Examined were 35 alloys. The castings were tempered at 900 °C for 2 hours. Two cooling speeds were used: furnace-cooling and water-cooling. In the alloys with the nickel equivalent value less than 20,0 %, partial transition of austenite to martensite took place. The austenite decomposition ratio and the related growth of hardness was higher for smaller nickel equivalent value and was clearly larger in annealed castings than in hardened ones. Obtaining thermodynamically stable structure of castings requires larger than 20,0 % value of the nickel equivalent.

  17. Research on Accuracy of Automatic System for Casting Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the required quality of castings is an important part of the production process. The quality control should be carried out in a fast and accurate way. These requirements can be met by the use of an optical measuring system installed on the arm of an industrial robot. In the article a methodology for assessing the quality of robotic measurement system to control certain feature of the casting, based on the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility is presented. It was shown that industrial robots equipped with optical measuring systems have the accuracy allowing their use in the process of dimensional control of castings manufactured by lost-wax process, permanent-mould casting, and pressure die-casting.

  18. Nail changes in casted and braced clubfoot: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anil; Kumar, Anubrat; Khanna, Deepshikha; Shaharyar, Abbas; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed at finding whether there are any nail changes specific to treatment in clubfoot. Sixty new, 26 undergoing serial corrective casting, and 247 clubfoot patients using foot abduction braces were prospectively studied. The casted and braced group formed the basis of the study to observe nail changes, if any. The new patients and opposite normal foot (in unilateral casted cases) were taken as controls. Acute paronychia, ingrown toe nail, onychoshizia, onychorrhexis, nail plate concavity, latent onychomadesis, and distal onycholysis were observed in feet undergoing corrective casting and bracing. Micronychia, malalignment and thinning of nail plate were the observed congenital nail anomalies. Nail changes in clubfeet are not infrequent. Certain nail changes might be etiologically linked to casting and bracing. Some of nail changes might require urgent medical care. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated Modeling of Process, Structures and Performance in Cast Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr

    This thesis deals with numerical simulations of gravity sand casting processes for the production of large steel parts. The entire manufacturing process is numerically modeled and evaluated, taking into consideration mould filling, solidification, solid state cooling and the subsequent stress build...... up. The thermal analysis is then combined with evolutionary multi-objective optimization techniques in a search for the optimal thermal aspects and conditions for producing sound and competitive castings. The goals of the optimization procedure are related to the casting and rigging design...... and to defects occurrence. In other words, it is desired to eliminate all of the potential casting defects and at the same time to maximize the casting yield. The numerical optimization algorithm then takes these objectives and searches for a set of the investigated process, design or material parameters e...

  20. Casting of Hearth Plates from High-chromium Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drotlew A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the development of manufacturing technologies to cast hearth plates operating in chamber furnaces for heat treatment. Castings made from the heat-resistant G-X40CrNiSi27-4 steel were poured in hand-made green sand molds. The following operations were performed: computer simulation to predict the distribution of internal defects in castings produced by the above mentioned technology with risers bare and coated with exothermic and insulating sleeves, analysis of each variant of the technology, and manufacture of experimental castings. As a result of the conducted studies and analysis it was found that the use of risers with exothermic sleeves does not affect to a significant degree the quality of the produced castings of hearth plates, but it significantly improves the metal yield.

  1. Relationship Between Casting Distortion, Mold Filling, and Interfacial Heat Transfer in Sand Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Parker; K. A. Woodbury; T. S. Piwonka; Y. Owusu

    1999-09-30

    This project sought to determine the relationship between casting dimensions and interfacial heat transfer in aluminum alloy sand castings. The program had four parts; measurement of interfacial heat transfer coefficients in resin bonded and green sand molds, the measurement of gap formation in these molds, the analysis of castings made in varying gatings, orientations and thicknesses, and the measurement of residual stresses in castings in the as-cast and gate removed condition. New values for interfacial heat transfer coefficients were measured, a novel method for gap formation was developed, and the variation of casting dimensions with casting method, gating, and casting orientation in the mold was documented.

  2. The Influence of Casting Conditions on the Microstructure of As-Cast U-10Mo Alloys: Characterization of the Casting Process Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-12-13

    Sections of eight plate castings of uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) were sent from Y-12 to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for microstructural characterization. This report summarizes the results from this study.

  3. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings. Equipment and procedure for real time X-Ray radiography of molten aluminum flow into permanent molds have been developed. Other studies have been conducted using water flow and behavior of liquid aluminum in sand mold using real time photography. This investigation utilizes graphite molds transparent to X-Rays making it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented grating systems. These have included systems that are choked at the base of a rounded vertical sprue and vertical gating systems with a variety of different ingates into the bottom of a mold cavity. These systems have also been changed to include gating systems with vertical and horizontal gate configurations. Several conclusions can be derived from this study. A sprue-well, as designed in these experiments, does not eliminate the vena contracta. Because of the swirling at the sprue-base, the circulating metal begins to push the entering metal stream toward the open runner mitigating the intended effect of the sprue-well. Improved designs of

  4. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  5. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  6. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  7. Under Pressure: The Utility of Spacers in Univalved Fiberglass Casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Kevin; Schlechter, John A; Doan, Joshua D; Farnsworth, Christine L; Edmonds, Eric W

    2017-02-24

    Univalving fiberglass casts after fracture manipulation or extremity surgery reduces the risk of developing compartment syndrome (CS). Previous experiments have demonstrated that univalving decreases intracompartmental pressures (ICPs), but increases the risk for loss of fracture reduction due to altering the mechanical properties of the cast. The purpose of this study was to correlate cast valve width within a univalved cast model to decreasing ICP. Saline bags (1 L) were covered with stockinette, Webril, and fiberglass tape then connected to an arterial pressure line monitor. Resting pressure was recorded. A water column was added to simulate 2 groups (n=5 each) of clinical CS: low pressure CS (LPCS range, 28 to 31 mm Hg) and high pressure CS (HPCS, range, 64 to 68 mm Hg). After the designated pressure was reached, the fiberglass was cut (stockinette and Webril remained intact). Cast spacers were inserted into each univalve and secured with varying widths: position #1 (3 mm wide), #2 (6 mm), #3 (9 mm), and #4 (12 mm). Pressure was recorded after cutting the fiberglass and following each spacer placement. In LPCS and HPCS groups, after univalve and placement of spacer position #1, pressure dropped by a mean of 52% and 58%, respectively. Spacer #2, decreased the pressure by a mean of 78% and 80%, respectively. Both spacer sizes significantly decreased the underlying pressure in both groups. Spacer #3 and #4 progressively reduced pressure within the cast, but not statistically significantly more than the previous spacer widths. This experimental model replicates the iatrogenic elevation in interstitial compartment pressure due to rigid cast application, not necessarily a self-sustained true CS. Increasing the univalved cast spread by ≥9 mm of the initial cast diameter will reduce pressure to a pre-CS level; however, a spread of only 6 mm can effectively reduce the pressure to fiberglass casts has been previously demonstrated, we present evidence highlighting the

  8. Comparative study of two commercially pure titanium casting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Faria, Adriana Claudia Lapria; Orsi, Iara Augusta; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de; Macedo, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2010-01-01

    The interest in using titanium to fabricate removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks has increased, but there are few studies evaluating the effects of casting methods on clasp behavior. This study compared the occurrence of porosities and the retentive force of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) removable partial denture circumferential clasps cast by induction/centrifugation and plasma/vacuum-pressure. 72 frameworks were cast from CP Ti (n=36) and Co-Cr alloy (n=36; control group). For each material, 18 frameworks were casted by electromagnetic induction and injected by centrifugation, whereas the other 18 were casted by plasma and injected by vacuum-pressure. For each casting method, three subgroups (n=6) were formed: 0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.75 mm undercuts. The specimens were radiographed and subjected to an insertion/removal test simulating 5 years of framework use. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's to compare materials and cast methods (α=0.05). Three of 18 specimens of the induction/centrifugation group and 9 of 18 specimens of plasma/vacuum-pressure cast presented porosities, but only 1 and 7 specimens, respectively, were rejected for simulation test. For Co-Cr alloy, no defects were found. Comparing the casting methods, statistically significant differences (pcasted. Although both casting methods produced satisfactory CP Ti RPD frameworks, the occurrence of porosities was greater in the plasma/vacuum-pressure than in the induction/centrifugation method, the latter resulting in higher clasp rigidity, generating higher retention force values.

  9. Studies on the Castability of Pure Titanium (Part 3) Influence of casting pressure and sprue diameter on the titanium castability

    OpenAIRE

    YONEDA, TAKANORI; KUROIWA, AKIHIRO; IGARASHI, YOSHIMASA; OHNO, TAKAFUMI; SEKIGUCHI, YUUJI; Inoue, Yoshihisa; MIGO, SHINYA

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed the external defects of castings with mesh grid patterns with 3 different kinds of phosphate bonded casting molds with 2 parameters (sprue diameter and casting pressure). Castability with pure titanium was affected by the parameters of sprue diameter, and casting pressure with different casting molds. The sprue condition was the most affective casting condition in the all directional pressure type casting machine. In 2 types of casting molds, one was strongly affected by the casti...

  10. Comparison of residual stresses in sand- and chill casting of ductile cast iron wind turbine main shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Frandsen, J. O.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    In this work, simulations of pouring, solidification and cooling, and residual stress evolution of sand and chill cast wind turbine main shafts is performed. The models are made in the commercial software MAGMAsoft. As expected, the cooling rate of the sand casting is shown to be much lower than...

  11. Quality criteria for pure titanium casting, laboratory soldering, intraoral welding, and a device to aid in making uncontaminated castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, A R; Borelli, P

    1991-10-01

    Procedures for casting, laboratory soldering, and intraoral welding of titanium for dental restorations are described and illustrated. Pure titanium and titanium 6A1-4Va alloy castings may be used for virtually any prosthodontic rehabilitation as well as for implants, with the proper equipment and technique.

  12. The Effect of a Thin-Wall Casting Mould Cavity Filling Conditions on the Casting Surface Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trytek A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of metallographic examination of faults occurring in the course of founding thin-walled cast-iron castings in furan resin sand molds. A non-conformance of the scab type was Observed on surface of the casting as well as sand buckles and cold shots. Studied the chemical composition by means of a scanning electron microscope in a region of casting defects: microanalysis point and microanalysis surface. Around the observed defects discloses high concentration of oxides of iron, manganese and silicon. A computer simulation of the casting process has been carried out with the objective to establish the cause of occurrence of cold shots on casting surface. The simulation was carried out with the use of NovaFlow & Solid program. We analyzed the flowing metal in the mold cavity. The main reason for the occurrence of casting defects on the surface of the casting was gating system, which caused turbulent flow of metal with a distinctive splash stream of liquid alloy.

  13. Development of low-temperature high-strength integral steel castings for offshore construction by casting process engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sang-Sub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In casting steels for offshore construction, manufacturing integral casted structures to prevent fatigue cracks in the stress raisers is superior to using welded structures. Here, mold design and casting analysis were conducted for integral casting steel. The laminar flow of molten metal was analyzed and distributions of hot spots and porosities were studied. A prototype was subsequently produced, and air vents were designed to improve the surface defects caused by the release of gas. A radiographic test revealed no internal defects inside the casted steel. Evaluating the chemical and mechanical properties of specimens sampled from the product revealed that target values were quantitatively satisfied. To assess weldability in consideration of repair welding, the product was machined with grooves and welded, after which the mechanical properties of hardness as well as tensile, impact, and bending strengths were evaluated. No substantive differences were found in the mechanical properties before and after welding.

  14. Thickness control and interface quality as functions of slurry formulation and casting speed in side-by-side tape casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Jabbari, Mirmasoud; Kaiser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of co-casting called side-by-side tape casting was developed aiming to form thin functionally graded films with varying properties within a single plane. The standard organic-based recipe was optimized to co-cast slurries into thick graded tapes. Performed numerical simulations...... identified the stable flow beneath the blade with a shear rate profile independent of slurry viscosity as long as the slurry load in the casting tank was low. Thickness and interface shape could be well predicted if the rheological behaviour of slurries is known and the processing parameters are well......-controlled. A well-defined steep interface was obtained by co-casting slurries with similar viscosities above 4000mPas at a speed of 40cm/min. The elastic properties of green tapes were proven to be defined by the binder concentration in the recipe formulation. The interfaces in graded tapes were shown to withstand...

  15. Friction wear cast iron casting surface hardened by concentrated source of heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Orlowicz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study surface fusion by the GTAW (in argon atmosphere surfacing process on plate of cast iron with electric arc advance speedsfrom 200 to 800 mm/min and current range I=300A were performed. The geometry, microstructure, hardness, friction wear intensity weremeasured. A stepwise regression method was used to develop relationships between the electric arc advance speed, parameters of fusion geometry, microhardness and friction wear intensity.

  16. Casting inorganic structures with DNA molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Boulais, Etienne; Hakobyan, Yera; Wang, Wei Li; Guan, Amy; Bathe, Mark; Yin, Peng

    2014-11-07

    We report a general strategy for designing and synthesizing inorganic nanostructures with arbitrarily prescribed three-dimensional shapes. Computationally designed DNA strands self-assemble into a stiff "nanomold" that contains a user-specified three-dimensional cavity and encloses a nucleating gold "seed." Under mild conditions, this seed grows into a larger cast structure that fills and thus replicates the cavity. We synthesized a variety of nanoparticles with 3-nanometer resolution: three distinct silver cuboids with three independently tunable dimensions, silver and gold nanoparticles with diverse cross sections, and composite structures with homo- and heterogeneous components. The designer equilateral silver triangular and spherical nanoparticles exhibited plasmonic properties consistent with electromagnetism-based simulations. Our framework is generalizable to more complex geometries and diverse inorganic materials, offering a range of applications in biosensing, photonics, and nanoelectronics. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY (CAST) PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Hull, Christopher

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations.

  18. MotionCast for mobile wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xinbing

    2013-01-01

    MotionCast for Mobile Wireless Networks provides an overview on the research for mobile ad-hoc networks regarding capacity and connectivity. Wireless ad-hoc networks are useful when there is a lack of infrastructure for communication. The proposed notion “MotionCast” is for the capacity analysis of multicast in MANET. A new kind of connectivity (k;m)-connectivity, is also defined, and its critical transmission range for i.i.d. (independently and identically distributed) and random walk mobility models are derived respectively. This book also investigates the related issues of connectivity in mobile and static circumstances. In addition, it provides a survey of the capacity scaling research, which gives a good summary of this field.

  19. Restoring Functional Areas of Continuously Casted Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinová, Janette; Balog, Peter; Viňáš, Ján

    2012-12-01

    the paper proposes the fourth restoration of a roller in continuous casting production lines which can enhance production efficiency and lowers costs. The roller was forged from the material 24CrMoV55 - DIN 17240. The roller has been restored three times and is chosen for further restoration. The roller was restored by submerged arc welding (SAW) where the first layer was made from UP-5-200-CZ wire and the covering layers made from UP-5-45-CZ wire. Quality of the weld deposits were evaluated by measuring the hardness, mixing the weld with basic material and by setting the basic mechanical properties in the critical under-weld deposit area. Structures of the weld deposits were evaluated by light microscopy and their chemical composition was determined by EDX analysis. Based on experiments it can be concluded that rollers can be restored for the fourth time, but the limiting factor is the extent of damage.

  20. Acoustic energy transmission in cast iron pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziroglou, Michail E.; Boyle, David E.; Wright, Steven W.; Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose acoustic power transfer as a method for the remote powering of pipeline sensor nodes. A theoretical framework of acoustic power propagation in the ceramic transducers and the metal structures is drawn, based on the Mason equivalent circuit. The effect of mounting on the electrical response of piezoelectric transducers is studied experimentally. Using two identical transducer structures, power transmission of 0.33 mW through a 1 m long, 118 mm diameter cast iron pipe, with 8 mm wall thickness is demonstrated, at 1 V received voltage amplitude. A near-linear relationship between input and output voltage is observed. These results show that it is possible to deliver significant power to sensor nodes through acoustic waves in solid structures. The proposed method may enable the implementation of acoustic - powered wireless sensor nodes for structural and operation monitoring of pipeline infrastructure.

  1. FInal Report - Investment Casting Shell Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Richards

    2003-12-01

    This project made a significant contribution to the understanding of the investment casting shell cracking problem. The effects of wax properties on the occurrence of shell cracking were demonstrated and can be measured. The properties measured include coefficient of thermal expansion, heating rate and crystallinity of the structure. The important features of production molds and materials properties have been indicated by case study analysis and fractography of low strength test bars. It was found that stress risers in shell cavity design were important and that typical critical flaws were either oversize particles or large pores just behind the prime coat. It was also found that the true effect of fugitive polymer fibers was not permeability increase, but rather a toughening mechanism due to crack deflection.

  2. The Abrasive Wear Resistance of Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of cast iron to abrasive wear depends on the metal abrasive hardness ratio. For example, hardness of the structural constituents of the cast iron metal matrix is lower than the hardness of ordinary silica sand. Also cementite, the basic component of unalloyed white cast iron, has hardness lower than the hardness of silica. Some resistance to the abrasive effect of the aforementioned silica sand can provide the chromium white cast iron containing in its structure a large amount of (Cr, Fe7C3 carbides characterised by hardness higher than the hardness of the silica sand in question. In the present study, it has been anticipated that the white cast iron structure will be changed by changing the type of metal matrix and the type of carbides present in this matrix, which will greatly expand the application area of castings under the harsh operating conditions of abrasive wear. Moreover, the study compares the results of abrasive wear resistance tests performed on the examined types of cast iron. Tests of abrasive wear resistance were carried out on a Miller machine. Samples of standard dimensions were exposed to abrasion in a double to-and-fro movement, sliding against the bottom of a trough filled with an aqueous abrasive mixture containing SiC + distilled water. The obtained results of changes in the sample weight were approximated with a power curve and shown further in the study.

  3. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dziuba

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of core by liquid metal at estability technological parameters.. Below the assumptions and results of the initial simulated calculations are presented. The total number of the nodes in the casting was 1920 and of the connectors was 5280 what gave filling of 100% for the nodes and 99,56% for the connectors in the results of the simulation. Together it resulted as 99,78 % of filling the volume of the casting. The nodes and connectors were filled up to the 30 level of the casting in the simulation. The all connectors were filled up to the 25 level of the casting in the simulation. Starting from the 25 level individual connectors at the side surface of the casting weren’t filled up. The connectors weren’t supplied by multi-level getting system. The differences of filling the levels are little (maximally 5 per cent.

  4. Investigation of Shrinkage Defect in Castings by Quantitative Ishikawa Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokkalingam B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal casting process involves processes such as pattern making, moulding and melting etc. Casting defects occur due to combination of various processes even though efforts are taken to control them. The first step in the defect analysis is to identify the major casting defect among the many casting defects. Then the analysis is to be made to find the root cause of the particular defect. Moreover, it is especially difficult to identify the root causes of the defect. Therefore, a systematic method is required to identify the root cause of the defect among possible causes, consequently specific remedial measures have to be implemented to control them. This paper presents a systematic procedure to identify the root cause of shrinkage defect in an automobile body casting (SG 500/7 and control it by the application of Pareto chart and Ishikawa diagram. with quantitative Weightage. It was found that the root causes were larger volume section in the cope, insufficient feeding of riser and insufficient poured metal in the riser. The necessary remedial measures were taken and castings were reproduced. The shrinkage defect in the castings was completely eliminated.

  5. The use of porcine corrosion casts for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlova, Lada; Liska, Vaclav; Mirka, Hynek; Tonar, Zbynek; Haviar, Stanislav; Svoboda, Milos; Benes, Jan; Palek, Richard; Emingr, Michal; Rosendorf, Jachym; Mik, Patrik; Leupen, Sarah; Lametschwandtner, Alois

    2017-09-01

    In teaching and learning human anatomy, anatomical autopsy and prosected specimens have always been indispensable. However, alternative methods must often be used to demonstrate particularly delicate structures. Corrosion casting of porcine organs with Biodur E20® Plus is valuable for teaching and learning both gross anatomy and, uniquely, the micromorphology of cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, and urogenital systems. Assessments of casts with a stereomicroscope and/or scanning electron microscope as well as highlighting cast structures using color coding help students to better understand how the structures that they have observed as two-dimensional images actually exist in three dimensions, and students found using the casts to be highly effective in their learning. Reconstructions of cast hollow structures from (micro-)computed tomography scans and videos facilitate detailed analyses of branching patterns and spatial arrangements in cast structures, aid in the understanding of clinically relevant structures and provide innovative visual aids. The casting protocol and teaching manual we offer can be adjusted to different technical capabilities and might also be found useful for veterinary or other biological science classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  7. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  8. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    Efforts during Phase III focused mainly on the shell-alloy systems. A high melting point alloy, 17-4PH stainless steel, was considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. Shell molds made of fused-silica and alumino-silicates were considered. A literature review was conducted on thermophysical and thermomechanical properties alumino-silicates. Material property data, which were not available from material suppliers, was obtained. For all the properties of 17-4PH stainless steel, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. Thus, some material properties were evaluated using ProCAST, based on CompuTherm database. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data was made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted only over several temperature ranges. No experimental data for plastic modulus were found. Thus, several assumptions were made and ProCAST recommendations were followed in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution on heating and cooling. Numerical simulations were performed using ProCAST for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts in fused silica molds using the thermal expansion obtained on heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The shell mold was considered to be a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were

  9. Characterization of the interface between cast-to Co-Cr implant cylinders and cast Co-Cr alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkomur, Ahmet; Ucar, Yurdanur; Ekren, Orhun; Arai Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami; Teixeira, Eduardo Rolim

    2016-05-01

    The affordable Co-Cr cast alloy should provide an ideal interface with prefabricated cast-to cylinders from the same alloy family. The alloy microstructures should be maintained up to the interface, and porosities and reaction regions should be absent, and sufficient bond strength between alloys should be provided. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the metallurgical interfacial compatibility between Co-Cr dental casting alloys and a prefabricated Co-Cr dental implant cast-to-cylinder. A Co-Cr alloy was cast to Co-Cr implant cylinders. Specimens were cross-sectioned longitudinally and divided into as-cast and heat-treated groups. The microstructures of specimens were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The elemental composition of as-received prefabricated implant cylinders and diffusion characteristics of cast interfacial regions were determined by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Vickers hardness values were defined across the interface on cast specimens and for the as-received implant cylinders. ANOVA and Tukey honest significant differences tests were used for the statistical evaluation of hardness values. No significant reaction regions or porosity were present in the interface. Microstructural aspect and interdiffusion indicated a metal-metal bond between the Co-Cr implant cylinder and cast alloy. Mean hardness values demonstrated a significant rise across the interface (373.5 ±12.8; 363.8 ±12.6, respectively) from the wrought cylinder (338.6 ±10.5; 329 ±9.7, respectively) to the cast alloy (399.8 ±7.4; 392.3 ±10.3, respectively) for the as-cast and heat-treated conditions, respectively. Co-Cr casting alloy cast on to prefabricated Co-Cr implant cylinders provided interfaces which appear to fulfill the requirements of the established criteria. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconstruction of 25 and 50 % subscapularis tears: a single anchor with a double-mattress suture is sufficient for the reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbach, Olaf; Trennheuser, Christian; Kieb, Matthias; Efe, Turgay; Kohn, Dieter; Anagnostakos, Konstantinos

    2016-12-01

    Evaluation of the biomechanical performance of repairs of 25 % (Fox/Romeo II) and 50 % (Fox/Romeo III) full-thickness subscapularis tears using a single-suture anchor. Six pairs of human cadaver specimens were used for the testing. Artificial subscapularis tears were created in order to simulate a 25 % (6) and a 50 % (6) full-thickness tear. The reconstructions were made with a double-loaded suture anchor (5.5-mm Bio-Corkscrew with two No. 2 Fiberwire) creating a double-mattress suture repair. Reconstructions were cyclically loaded from 10 to 60 N. The load was increased stepwise up to 100 and 180 N. Cyclic displacement (means + standard dev.) as well as load-to-failure was determined, and mode of failure was recorded. In the reconstructed shoulders at 60 N, a mean cyclic displacement of 3.2 ± 0.7 mm was found in the 25 % tear, 2.6 ± 0.6 mm in the 50 % tear. At 100 N, 5.1 ± 1.2 mm was seen in the 25 % tear and 4.3 ± 0.3 mm in the 50 % tear. At highest load of 180 N, 7.6 ± 2.2 mm was recorded in the 25 % tear, 6.5 ± 0.8 mm was found in the 50 % tear. Ultimate failure load was 486 ± 167 N in the 25 % tear and 455 ± 213 N in the 50 % tear. Statistically significant differences between the tested repairs were seen neither in cyclic displacement nor in ultimate failure loads (p > 0.05). Mode of failure revealed bone fractures and anchor pull-out as major cause in the 25 % group, whereas failure of the suture-tendon interface was the major cause of failure in the 50 % group. Subscapularis repair using a single double-loaded suture anchor revealed similar biomechanical performance in 25 % compared to 50 % full-thickness subscapularis tears. With increased tear size, however, an optimized suture-tendon interface seems to become more relevant in order to decrease failure rate of the repair. A single double-loaded suture anchor provides sufficient biomechanical strength even in Fox/Romeo grade III tears of the

  11. Marginal Gap of Milled versus Cast Gold Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell; Verrett, Ronald; Haney, Stephan; Mansueto, Michael; Challa, Suman

    2017-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated and compared the vertical marginal gap of cast and milled full coverage gold copings using two margin designs (chamfer and chamfer bevel) before and after fitting adjustments. Ten impressions were made of two metal master dies (one chamfer margin, one chamfer-bevel margin) and poured twice in Type IV stone. The 20 subsequent casts with 40 dies were split into four groups (n = 10); cast gold bevel, cast gold chamfer, milled gold bevel, and milled gold chamfer groups. The cast specimens received approximately 40 μm die relief no closer than 1 mm from the finish line. Cast copings were hand waxed, cast in a high noble gold alloy, chemically divested, and the sprues were removed. For milled gold copings, casts were scanned and copings designed using 3shape D900 scanner and software. Parameters were set to approximate analog fabrication (cement gap = 0.01 mm; extra cement gap = 0.04 mm, drill radius = 0.65 mm). Copings were milled from the same high noble alloy. All copings were seated on their respective master die in a custom scanning jig and measured using a measuring microscope at 90× (60 measurements per specimen, 15 per surface). Following initial measurements, all copings were adjusted on stone dies. The number of adjustment cycles was recorded and post-adjustment measurements were made using the same method. Data were analyzed using independent and paired t-tests. Milled gold copings with a beveled margin (11.7 ± 20.4 μm) had a significantly (p cast gold copings with a beveled margin (43.6 ± 46.8 μm) after adjustment. Cast gold copings with a chamfer margin (22.7 ± 24.7 μm) had a significantly (p gold copings with a chamfer margin (27.9 ± 31.6 μm) following adjustments. Adjustments significantly decreased marginal gap for both cast groups (p gold restorations milled with the tested parameters provide a vertical marginal gap that is an acceptable alternative to traditional gold crown casting techniques. © 2016 by the

  12. Microstructure Control of High-alloyed White Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalec M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies of high-alloyed white cast iron modified with lanthanum, titanium, and aluminium-strontium. The samples were taken from four melts of high-vanadium cast iron with constant carbon and vanadium content and near-eutectic microstructure into which the tested inoculants were introduced in an amount of 1 wt% respective of the charge weight. The study included a metallographic examinations, mechanical testing, as well as hardness and impact resistance measurements taken on the obtained alloys. Studies have shown that different additives affect both the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-vanadium cast iron.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of synthetic nodular cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaško

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with comparing of microstructure, mechanical properties and micromechanisms of failure of synthetic nodular cast irons with graded amount of steel scrap in a charge. Chemical composition of individual meltages was regulated alternatively by ferrosilicon (FeSi and carburizer or metallurgical silicon carbide (SiC. The paper shows that SiC additive positively influences the microstructure, mechanical properties and micromechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron, especially in the meltages with higher ratio of steel scrap in the charge. Moreover, production of synthetic nodular cast irons with SiC additive is economically advantageous.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL VARIABLES ON IRON CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kumar*, Dr Lokendra Pal Singh and Romiyo Mclin Jojowar

    2017-01-01

    Cast iron is an alloy of iron containing more than 2% carbon as an alloying element. It has almost no ductility and must be formed by casting. Ductile iron structure is developed from the melt of cast iron. The presence of silicon in higher amount promotes the graphitization, inhibiting carbon to form carbides with carbide forming elements present. The carbon forms into spheres when Ce & Mg are added to the melt of iron with very low sulphur content. Due to this special microstructure contain...

  15. The Properties of Ammonium Dinitramine (ADN): Part 2: Melt Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahma, A.; Edvinsson, H.; Östmark, H.

    2010-04-01

    A melt casting technique for ammonium dinitramine (ADN) and ADN/aluminum was developed. ADN proved relatively easy to cast, when 1% of magnesium oxide was used as a stabilizer and crystallization kernels. Densities of ADN/MgO 99/1 were 92 to 97% of theoretical mean density (TMD) and those of ADN/Al/MgO 64/35/1 were between 95 and 99% of TMD. Sedimentation of Al in the melt was prevented and the particle wetting was ensured by selecting a suitable particle size for Al. No gelling agents or other additives were used. The casting process and factors influencing it are discussed.

  16. Influence of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of cast steels

    OpenAIRE

    G. Golański

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results of research on the influence of tempering temperature on structure and mechanical properties of bainite hardened cast steel: G21CrMoV4 – 6 (L21HMF) and G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF). Investigated cast steels were taken out from internal frames of steam turbines serviced for long time at elevated temperatures. Tempering of the investigated cast steel was carried out within the temperature range of 690 ÷ 730 C (G21CrMoV4 – 6) and 700 ÷ 740 C (G17CrMoV5 – 10). After temperin...

  17. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Die-casting Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strontium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloys 380 and 413 are researched. All samples are prepared through high pressure die-casting, and the effect of the sample’s thickness is also compared. The results indicate that the Sr addition can refine the metallographic microstructure of two alloys in different degrees, mainly to eutectic Si phase. The mechanical properties of the two alloys are improved slightly through Sr modification to the thin wall castings. The enhancement of mechanical properties is evident to the thick wall castings.

  18. Opportunities and challenges of Chinese die-casting market

    OpenAIRE

    Caifei SONG

    2004-01-01

    The present status and prospectives of Chinese die-casting market were commented. In 2003, the total output of die castings in the whole country was 708 000 tons, in which the output of Al-alloy, Zn-alloy, Mg-alloy, Cu-alloy die casitngs were 474 600 tons, 222 000 tons, 5 800 tons, 5 600 tons, respectively, each accounted for 67%, 31.35%, 0.85%, 0.8% of the total. The annual sale volume of die-casting machines was approximately 1 800. And the gross output value of dies approached RMB 38 billi...

  19. Thermal fatigue cracking of die-casting dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thermal fatigue cracking of die-casting dies

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die-casting dies are exposed to high thermal and mechanical loads. Thermal fatigue cracking of dies due to thermal cycling may importantly shorten the life-time of the die. Cracks degrade the surface quality of dies and consequently the surface of castings. In this study, thermal fatigue cracking of dies was analyzed during the process of die casting aluminium alloys. During the process cracks were observed and measured and their location and size were determined. Thermal and mechanical loads cause high local stresses and consequently surface cracks. First cracks occur as early as after 2000 cycles and propagate progressively with cycles.

  20. X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, S. C.

    2014-03-01

    CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment probing hypothetical particles: the axions, created in the solar core. Inside the transverse magnetic field of the CAST magnet, axions can be converted into x-rays, and be detected by four x-ray detectors at CAST. The expected x-ray signal in CAST is in 1-10 keV range, intensity depending strongly on the coupling constant of axion-photon conversion gaγ, which is expected to be low. This requires CAST to have detectors with very low background levels. The CAST Experiment makes use of three Micromesh Gaseous Structure (micromegas) detectors, which are gaseous detectors, derived from ideas of Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC). CAST Micromegas detectors show perfect stability, good spatial and energy resolution. The intense study on Micromegas has enabled CAST to understand the nature of its background level, and improve it by a factor of 102 over ten years. New detector design, new readout system, better cosmic veto and addition of x-ray telescope will further improve the background in the next data taking of the experiment. The Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) of CAST is a pn-CCD detector with 200 × 64 pixels. The CAST CCD is coupled to an X-ray telescope, focusing all the parallel x-rays into a 9 mm diameter spot. The CCD will be replaced by the InGrid detector, a special manufactured micromegas detector. It is able to detect single electrons, and the low energy capabilities will open new frontiers on search of axions and other exotic particles. Another option is the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), which is being tested in 2013, and has an energy threshold as low as 250 eV. The CAST experiment is the pioneering helioscope that excludes an important part of axion mass-coupling constant parameter space, and expects to exclude more in the following years. To succeed CAST, a new experiment, the International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is being designed and optimised, comprising the construction of a magnet specially built

  1. CovertCast: Using Live Streaming to Evade Internet Censorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPherson Richard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We design, implement, and evaluate CovertCast, a censorship circumvention system that broadcasts the content of popular websites in real-time, encrypted video streams on common live-streaming services such as YouTube. CovertCast does not require any modifications to the streaming service and employs the same protocols, servers, and streaming software as any other user of the service. Therefore, CovertCast cannot be distinguished from other live streams by IP address filtering or protocol fingerprinting, raising the bar for censors.

  2. Family (oikos Evangelism for reaching forward caste Hindus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DW Fowlkes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article acknowledges the need for Church Planting Movements among the unreached peoples of India. Of particular concern to this study is the application of Church Planting Movement strategy to forward caste Hindus of India. It is shown that evangelizing households (family or �oikos� evangelism is a New Testament strategy and the most appropriate strategy for reaching forward caste Hindus. It is concluded that Christian disciples remaining within Hindu culture and familial systems hold the potential for the most indigenous approach to evangelizing forward caste Hindus.

  3. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  4. Environmental perspectives on using cast seaweed for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    a mixed substrate biogas plant. Continuously fed reactor experiments showed that the intended mix of substrate including cast seaweed could be used as raw material for a biogas plant in thermophilic operation. The environmental analysis suggests existence of several positive benefits of utilizing cast......Solrød Municipality, Denmark is working towards building a biogas plant utilizing locally available organic wastes including cast seaweed, which is collected each year, since the local inhabitants see this material as a nuisance. A preliminary study suggested favorable conditions for contstructing...... seaweed in Solrød, among which are: Production of renewable energy, greenhouse gas reduction, nutrient recycling and odor reduction....

  5. Carbides in Nodular Cast Iron with Cr and Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In these paper results of elements microsegregation in carbidic nodular cast iron have been presented. A cooling rate in the centre of the cross-section and on the surface of casting and change of moulding sand temperature during casting crystallization and its self-cooling have been investigated. TDA curves have been registered. The linear distribution of elements concentration in an eutectic grain, primary and secondary carbides have been made. It was found, that there are two kinds of carbides: Cr and Mo enriched. A probable composition of primary and secondary carbides have been presented.

  6. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

    2002-07-30

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important

  7. Modelling of Filling, Microstructure Formation, Local Mechanical Properties and Stress – Strain Development in High-Pressure Die Cast Aluminium Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Today, the industrial demands are to reduce product development time as well as costs of producing prototypes. In this context, virtual prototyping by numerical simulation offers an efficient way of lowering costs and shorten lead time. Castings are produced by a manufacturing method which.......e. whether the casting is based on cast iron- or aluminium-alloys. The distribution of local properties in a casting might vary substantially which makes it complex to optimize the casting with good accuracy. Often, mechanical simulations of the load situation are based on the assumption that the cast...

  8. 75 FR 70900 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ..., Canada, and the PRC and the CVD order on castings from Brazil. U.S. Customs and Border Protection will... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... certain iron construction castings (``castings'') from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China...

  9. 40 CFR 420.60 - Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous casting subcategory. 420.60 Section 420.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.60 Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory. The... owned treatment works resulting from the continous casting of molten steel into intermediate or semi...

  10. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section 464.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  11. 40 CFR 464.30 - Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ferrous casting subcategory. 464.30 Section 464.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ferrous Casting Subcategory § 464.30 Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory. The...

  12. 40 CFR 464.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum casting subcategory. 464.10 Section 464.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory. The...

  13. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... casting subcategory. 464.40 Section 464.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The provisions of this...

  14. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the service...

  15. Temperature measurement during solidification of thin wall ductile cast iron. Part 1: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Temperature measurement using thermocouples (TC’s) influence solidification of the casting, especially in thin wall castings. The problems regarding acquisition of detailed cooling curves from thin walled castings is discussed. Experiments were conducted where custom made TC’s were used to acquir...... of castings with different plate thicknesses....

  16. PRODUCTION OF MASSIVE PROFILE SLUGS AND WEAR-RESISTANT CASTINGS FOR DETAILS OF IMPORTANT ASSIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Saikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of production of massive wearresisting castings and profile slugs for the details of important assignment are studied. It is offered to use economdoped antifriction cast irons and the ways of casting with intensive heat-exchange for creation of such castings.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF THE COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGY OF THE ABRASION-RESISTANT CAST-IRONS MELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Garost

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhе methods of the service durability increase of wear resistant cast irons are analyzed. There are developed the compositions of economically-alloyed cast irons with low content of nickel and other deficient elements, being exploited both in cast and in thermotreated state. The composition of antifriction gray cast iron with increased exploitation characteristics is offered.

  18. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonka, T.S. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    This report details results of a 30-month program to develop methods of making clean ferrous castings, i.e., castings free of inclusions and surface defects. The program was divided into 3 tasks: techniques for producing clean steel castings, electromagnetic removal of inclusions from ferrous melts, and study of causes of metal penetration in sand molds in cast iron.

  19. An Energy Savings Model for the Heat Treatment of Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Rong; R. Sisson; J. Morral; H. Brody

    2006-12-31

    An integrated system of software, databases, and design rules have been developed, verified, and to be marketed to enable quantitative prediction and optimization of the heat treatment of aluminum castings to increase quality, increase productivity, reduce heat treatment cycle times and reduce energy consumption. The software predicts the thermal cycle in critical locations of individual components in a furnace, the evolution of microstructure, and the attainment of properties in heat treatable aluminum alloy castings. The model takes into account the prior casting process and the specific composition of the component. The heat treatment simulation modules can be used in conjunction with software packages for simulation of the casting process. The system is built upon a quantitative understanding of the kinetics of microstructure evolution in complex multicomponent alloys, on a quantitative understanding of the interdependence of microstructure and properties, on validated kinetic and thermodynamic databases, and validated quantitative models.

  20. Castings Dimensions Influence on the Alloyed Layer Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnar J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of simulation of alloy layer formation process on the model casting. The first aim of this study was to determine the influence of the location of the heat center on alloy layer’s thickness with the use of computer simulation. The second aim of this study was to predict the thickness of the layer. For changes of technological parameters, the distribution of temperature in the model casting and temperature changes in the characteristic points of the casting were found for established changes of technological parameters. Numerical calculations were performed using programs NovaFlow&Solid. The process of obtaining the alloy layer with good quality and proper thickness depends on: pouring temperature, time of premould hold at the temperature above 1300°C. The obtained results of simulation were loaded to authorial program Preforma 1.1 in order to determine the predicted thickness of the alloy casting.

  1. New trends in cold-chamber die casting machine design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Larger and larger proportions of aluminium castings, especially those produced by the die casting process, can be observed during recent years in the automotive industry, house-hold articles and others. In case of the automotive industry, apart from the traditional elements produced by the die pressure method such as engine blocks or crank shaft bedplates, aluminium is displacing steel from structural parts of cars (‘body in white’. The current state and development directions of the structural solutions of cold-chamber die castings are analysed in this paper. These solutions drive the prospective development of these machines and die casting technology. The focus is mainly on essential functional systems such as: hydraulic drives of closing and locking units, as well as pressing in die machines of known companies present on the European market.

  2. Search for low Energy solar Axions with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Cantatore, Giovanni; Aune, S.; Autiero, D.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Beltran, B.; Borghi, S.; Boydag, F.S.; Brauninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Dogan, O.B.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Galan, J.; Gazis, E.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hikmet, I.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kang, D.; Karageorgopoulou, T.; Karuza, M.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kousouris, K.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lasseur, C.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lozza, V.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Miller, D.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Ortiz, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.; Placci, A.; Raiteri, G.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Semertzidis, Y.; Serpico, P.; Solanki, S.K.; Soufli, R.; Stewart, L.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.

    2008-01-01

    We have started the development of a detector system, sensitive to single photons in the eV energy range, to be suitably coupled to one of the CAST magnet ports. This system should open to CAST a window on possible detection of low energy Axion Like Particles emitted by the sun. Preliminary tests have involved a cooled photomultiplier tube coupled to the CAST magnet via a Galileian telescope and a switched 40 m long optical fiber. This system has reached the limit background level of the detector alone in ideal conditions, and two solar tracking runs have been performed with it at CAST. Such a measurement has never been done before with an axion helioscope. We will present results from these runs and briefly discuss future detector developments.

  3. Analysis of nucleation modelling in ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tutum, Cem Celal; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation of nodular graphite at inclusions in ductile iron during eutectic solidification has been investigated. The experimental part of this work deals with casting of ductile iron samples with two different inoculants in four different thicknesses. Chemical analysis...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF DIE-CASTING MOLDING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kuzmich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main details of foundry equipment are developed. Analysis of the process of filling and hardening of casting “Transducer case” is carried out on the basis of methods of mathematic modeling of foundry processes.

  5. Casting Simulation of an Austrian Bronze Age Sword Hilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola, Annalisa; Mödlinger, Marianne; Piccardo, Paolo; Montesano, Lorenzo

    2015-07-01

    Bronze Age swords with a metal hilt can be considered the peak of Bronze Age casting technologies. To reconstruct the casting techniques used more than 3000 years ago, a metal hilted sword of the Schalenknauf type from Lower Austria was studied with the aid of macroscopic analyses and simulation of mold filling and casting solidification. A three-dimensional model of the hilt was created based on optical scanner measurements performed on a hilt recently discovered during archaeological excavations. Three different configurations of the gating system were considered, two on the pommel disk and one on the knob, and the effect of its location on the formation of casting defects was investigated. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used to detect internal defects, such as gas and shrinkage porosity, which were then compared with those calculated by simulation. The best match between actual and predicted hilt quality demonstrated the location of the gating system, which turned out to be on the pommel disk.

  6. Advanced lost foam casting technology. 1995 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Littleton, H.E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B.A.; Sheldon, D.S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production; Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency; Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects; Task 4: Pattern Gating; and Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers. This report summarizes the work done in the past two years and the conclusions drawn from the work.

  7. INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF MODIFIERS FOR GRAY CAST-IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that for the purpose of increase of modifying efficiency of the melt from gray cast iron it is possible to use mechanically alloyed aluminum powder with superdispersed particles of aluminum and graphite oxide.

  8. Developing of chromium cast steel on sleeves of heavy machines

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kilarski; A. Studnicki; J. Suchoń

    2010-01-01

    The results of investigations of hardness, impact resistance, abrasive and corrosive wear of selected chromium cast steel with destination on sleeves of heavy machines were introduced in the article. First results of exploational investigations talked over on the end.

  9. EFFICIENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROALLOYED AND MODIFIED WHITE CAST IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Jamshinskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influencing of chrome and manganese in the wide range of their concentrations on wear proof of white cast-irons for making of the poured details working in the conditions of intensive abrasive and hydroabrasive wear is studied. It is set that at optimum correlation of these elements cast-irons have high hardness, wearproof and satisfactory casting properties, allowing to make the poured details of different mass, geometry and overall sizes. Influence of processes of микролегирования and modification is explored on operating properties of the recommended Cr-Mn cast-iron 290Х19Г4 and expedience of the use of these processes is set at production of the wearproof foundings taking into account concrete external environments.

  10. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  11. Inverse thermal analysis method to study solidification in cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dioszegi, Atilla; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Solidification modelling of cast metals is widely used to predict final properties in cast components. Accurate models necessitate good knowledge of the solidification behaviour. The present study includes a re-examination of the Fourier thermal analysis method. This involves an inverse numerical...... solution of a 1-dimensional heat transfer problem connected to solidification of cast alloys. In the analysis, the relation between the thermal state and the fraction solid of the metal is evaluated by a numerical method. This method contains an iteration algorithm controlled by an under relaxation term...... was developed in order to investigate the thermal behaviour of the solidifying metal. Three cylindrically shaped cast samples surrounded by different cooling materials were introduced in the same mould allowing a common metallurgical background for samples solidifying at different cooling rates. The proposed...

  12. A Casting Yield Optimization Case Study: Forging Ram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    of this approach, recently adopted in foundry industry world wide and based on fully automated computer optimization, were demonstrated. First, analyses of filling and solidification of the original casting design were conducted in the standard simulation environment to determine potential flaws and inadequacies......This work summarizes the findings of multi-objective optimization of a gravity sand-cast steel part for which an increase of the casting yield via riser optimization was considered. This was accomplished by coupling a casting simulation software package with an optimization module. The benefits....... Based on the initial assessment, the gating system was redesigned and the chills rearranged to improve the solidification pattern. After these two cases were evaluated, the adequate optimization targets and constraints were defined. One multi-objective optimization case with conflicting objectives...

  13. Development Program for Natural Aging Aluminum Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Geoffrey K. Sigworth

    2004-05-14

    A number of 7xx aluminum casting alloys are based on the ternary Al-Zn-Mg system. These alloys age naturally to high strength at room temperature. A high temperature solution and aging treatment is not required. Consequently, these alloys have the potential to deliver properties nearly equivalent to conventional A356-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) castings, with a significant cost saving. An energy savings is also possible. In spite of these advantages, the 7xx casting alloys are seldom used, primarily because of their reputation for poor castibility. This paper describes the results obtained in a DOE-funded research study of these alloys, which is part of the DOE-OIT ''Cast Metals Industries of the Future'' Program. Suggestions for possible commercial use are also given.

  14. Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kaizen method of housing casting designing was presented in the paper. Algorithm making possibility of identification of tools limiting efficienty of tooling process was formulated. The system of tool management consisting of various was shown.

  15. CovertCast: Using Live Streaming to Evade Internet Censorship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard McPherson; Amir Houmansadr; Vitaly Shmatikov

    2016-01-01

    We design, implement, and evaluate CovertCast, a censorship circumvention system that broadcasts the content of popular websites in real-time, encrypted video streams on common live-streaming services such as YouTube...

  16. AXIAL CHEMICAL HETEROGENEITY OF CONTINUOUSLY CASTED STEEL INGOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. A. Samojlovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of theoretical description of the process of the axial chemical heterogeneity formation in continuously cast slug taking into account heat, diffusion and hydrodynamic phenomenon in two-phase zone of hardening steel are given.

  17. Possibilities of obtaining and controlling high-quality pressure castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the type of furnace charging melting, refining and modification silumins 226 and 231 on the porosity and microstructure of castings. It was shown that in order to reduce or eliminate the porosity of the castings is necessary to the refining ECOSAL-AL113 of liquid silumin both in the melting furnace, and in the ladle and an additional nitrogen, in the heat furnace modified and refining with nitrogen. To control the effects of refining and modifying the TDA method was used. It was found that based on crystal- lization curve can be qualitatively assess the gas porosity of the castings. In order to control and quality control silumins author developed a computer program using the method of TDA, which sets out: Rm, A5, HB and casting porosity P and the concentration of hydrogen in them. The program also informs the technological procedures to be performed for liquid silumin improper preparation.

  18. [Study on the compatibility of slip casting aluminous ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Q B; Xue, M; You, L; Du, C S; Chao, Y L

    1997-03-01

    One of the key factors for a good slip casting aluminous ceramic crown is good compatibility between its core material and the veneering porcelain.The chemical and thermal compatibility of two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems(In-Ceram and GI-I) were investigated by means of SEM and EDAX,thermal shock tests were also performed to evaluate the crazing resistance.The results showed: the crazing resistance of In-Ceram was 158 degrees centigrade,and that of GI-I was degrees centigrade;there existed tightly bonded interfaces between the slip casting aluminous ceramic cores and the veneering porcelains in both of the two systems,where ion transferences were found.The results also suggested good compatibility of the two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems.

  19. Comparative study of two commercially pure titanium casting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cristina Silveira Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The interest in using titanium to fabricate removable partial denture (RPD frameworks has increased, but there are few studies evaluating the effects of casting methods on clasp behavior. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the occurrence of porosities and the retentive force of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr removable partial denture circumferential clasps cast by induction/centrifugation and plasma/vacuum-pressure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 72 frameworks were cast from CP Ti (n=36 and Co-Cr alloy (n=36; control group. For each material, 18 frameworks were casted by electromagnetic induction and injected by centrifugation, whereas the other 18 were casted by plasma and injected by vacuum-pressure. For each casting method, three subgroups (n=6 were formed: 0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.75 mm undercuts. The specimens were radiographed and subjected to an insertion/removal test simulating 5 years of framework use. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's to compare materials and cast methods (α=0.05. RESULTS: Three of 18 specimens of the induction/centrifugation group and 9 of 18 specimens of plasma/vacuum-pressure cast presented porosities, but only 1 and 7 specimens, respectively, were rejected for simulation test. For Co-Cr alloy, no defects were found. Comparing the casting methods, statistically significant differences (p<0.05 were observed only for the Co-Cr alloy with 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm undercuts. Significant differences were found for the 0.25 mm and 0.75 mm undercuts dependent on the material used. For the 0.50 mm undercut, significant differences were found when the materials were induction casted. CONCLUSION: Although both casting methods produced satisfactory CP Ti RPD frameworks, the occurrence of porosities was greater in the plasma/vacuum-pressure than in the induction/centrifugation method, the latter resulting in higher clasp rigidity, generating higher retention force values.

  20. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Cannell (EMTEC); Adrian S. Sabau (ORNL)

    2005-09-30

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscoelastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in